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Sample records for expressing murine cd40

  1. Identification and functional validation of PNAs that inhibit murine CD40 expression by redirection of splicing.

    PubMed

    Siwkowski, Andrew M; Malik, Leila; Esau, Christine C; Maier, Martin A; Wancewicz, Edward V; Albertshofer, Klaus; Monia, Brett P; Bennett, C Frank; Eldrup, Anne B

    2004-01-01

    Cognate recognition between the CD40 receptor and its ligand, CD154, is thought to play a central role in the initiation and propagation of immune responses. We describe the specific down regulation of cell surface associated CD40 protein expression by use of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) antisense inhibitor, ISIS 208529, that is designed to bind to the 3' end of the exon 6 splice junction within the primary CD40 transcript. Binding of ISIS 208529 was found to alter constitutive splicing, leading to the accumulation of a transcript lacking exon 6. The resulting protein product lacks the transmembrane domain. ISIS 208529-mediated CD40 protein depletion was found to be sequence specific and dose dependent, and was dependent on the length of the PNA oligomer. CD40-dependent induction of IL-12 in primary murine macrophages was attenuated in cells treated with ISIS 208529. Oligolysine conjugation to the PNA inhibitor produced an inhibitor, ISIS 278647, which maintained its specificity and displayed efficacy in BCL1 cells and in primary murine macrophages in the absence of delivery agents. These results demonstrate that PNA oligomers can be effective inhibitors of CD40 expression and hence may be useful as novel immuno-modulatory agents.

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces the expression of CD40 in murine cardiomyocytes favoring CD40 ligation-dependent production of cardiopathogenic IL-6.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Mariela Alejandra Moreno; Casasco, Agustina; González, Mariela; Postan, Miriam; Corral, Ricardo Santiago; Petray, Patricia Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    The inflammatory response in the myocardium is an important aspect of the pathogenesis of Chagas' heart disease raised by Trypanosoma cruzi. CD40, a transmembrane type I receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, is expressed in a broad spectrum of cell types and is crucial in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Activation of CD40 through ligation to CD40L (CD154) induces multiple effects, including the secretion of proinflammatory molecules. In the present study, we examined the ability of T. cruzi to trigger the expression of CD40 in cardiac myocytes in vitro and in a murine model of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Our results indicate, for the first time, that T. cruzi is able to induce the expression of CD40 in HL-1 murine cardiomyocytes. Moreover, ligation of CD40 receptor upregulated interleukin-6 (IL-6), associated with inflammation. Furthermore, the induction of this costimulatory molecule was demonstrated in vivo in myocardium of mice infected with T. cruzi. This suggests that CD40-bearing cardiac muscle cells could interact with CD40L-expressing lymphocytes infiltrating the heart, thus contributing to inflammatory injury in chagasic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Separate cis-trans Pathways Post-transcriptionally Regulate Murine CD154 (CD40 Ligand) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, B. JoNell; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Collins, Jane; Bloch, Donald; Bergeron, Alan; Henry, Brian; Terry, Benjamin M.; Zan, Moe; Mouland, Andrew J.; Rigby, William F. C.

    2008-01-01

    We report a role for CA repeats in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) in regulating CD154 expression. Human CD154 is encoded by an unstable mRNA; this instability is conferred in cis by a portion of its 3′-UTR that includes a polypyrimidine-rich region and CA dinucleotide repeat. We demonstrate similar instability activity with the murine CD154 3′-UTR. This instability element mapped solely to a conserved 100-base CU-rich region alone, which we call a CU-rich response element. Surprisingly, the CA dinucleotide-rich region also regulated reporter expression but at the level of translation. This activity was associated with poly(A) tail shortening and regulated by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L levels. We conclude that the CD154 3′-UTR contains dual cis-acting elements, one of which defines a novel function for exonic CA dinucleotide repeats. These findings suggest a mechanism for the association of 3′-UTR CA-rich response element polymorphisms with CD154 overexpression and the subsequent risk of autoimmune disease. PMID:18640985

  4. Glucocorticoids upregulate CD40 ligand expression and induce CD40L-dependent immunoglobulin isotype switching

    PubMed Central

    Jabara, Haifa H.; Brodeur, Scott R.; Geha, Raif S.

    2001-01-01

    IL-4 and CD40 ligation are essential for IgE synthesis by B cells. We have shown previously that hydrocortisone (HC) induces IgE synthesis in IL-4–stimulated human B cells. In this study we demonstrate that HC fails to induce IgE synthesis in B cells from CD40 ligand–deficient (CD40L-deficient) patients. Disruption of CD40L-CD40 interactions by soluble CD40-Ig fusion protein or anti-CD40L mAb blocked the capacity of HC to induce IgE synthesis in normal B cells. HC upregulated CD40L mRNA expression in PBMCs and surface expression of CD40L in PBMCs as well as in purified populations of T and B cells. Upregulation of CD40L mRNA in PBMCs occurred 3 hours after stimulation with HC and was inhibited by actinomycin D. Upregulation of CD40L mRNA and induction of IgE synthesis by HC were inhibited by the steroid hormone receptor antagonist RU-486. These results indicate that ligand-mediated activation of the glucocorticoid receptor upregulates CD40L expression in human lymphocytes. PMID:11160161

  5. Anti-CD40 ligand monoclonal antibody delays the progression of murine autoimmune cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Yang, G-X; Iwakoshi, N; Knechtle, S J; Kawata, K; Tsuneyama, K; Leung, P; Coppel, R L; Ansari, A A; Joh, T; Bowlus, C; Gershwin, M E

    2013-12-01

    While there have been significant advances in our understanding of the autoimmune responses and the molecular nature of the target autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), unfortunately these data have yet to be translated into new therapeutic agents. We have taken advantage of a unique murine model of autoimmune cholangitis in which mice expressing a dominant negative form of transforming growth factor β receptor II (dnTGFβRII), under the control of the CD4 promoter, develop an intense autoimmune cholangitis associated with serological features similar to human PBC. CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a major receptor-ligand pair that provides key signals between cells of the adaptive immune system, prompting us to determine the therapeutic potential of treating autoimmune cholangitis with anti-CD40L antibody (anti-CD40L; MR-1). Four-week-old dnTGFβRII mice were injected intraperitoneally with either anti-CD40L or control immunoglobulin (Ig)G at days 0, 2, 4 and 7 and then weekly until 12 or 24 weeks of age and monitored for the progress of serological and histological features of PBC, including rigorous definition of liver cellular infiltrates and cytokine production. Administration of anti-CD40L reduced liver inflammation significantly to 12 weeks of age. In addition, anti-CD40L initially lowered the levels of anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA), but these reductions were not sustained. These data indicate that anti-CD40L delays autoimmune cholangitis, but the effect wanes over time. Further dissection of the mechanisms involved, and defining the events that lead to the reduction in therapeutic effectiveness will be critical to determining whether such efforts can be applied to PBC.

  6. CD40L expression in plasma of volunteers following LPS administration: A comparison between assay of CD40L on platelet microvesicles and soluble CD40L.

    PubMed

    Mobarrez, Fariborz; Sjövik, Carolina; Soop, Anne; Hållström, Lars; Frostell, Claes; Pisetsky, David S; Wallén, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a transmembrane protein that is mainly expressed on activated T cells and platelets. This protein, however, may also be shed from cells and circulate in the blood in a soluble form. "Soluble CD40L" has attracted interest as a biomarker as it can interact with CD40 and elicit cellular responses involved in the pathophysiology of various thrombotic and inflammatory conditions. As platelets can release microvesicles following activation, we investigated the expression of CD40L on circulating microvesicles as well as CD40L in plasma, in an experimental model of inflammation in healthy volunteers (i.e., intravenous lipopolysaccharide administration). We studied CD40L quantified as CD40L-positive platelet microvesicles by flow cytometry, and as CD40L in plasma ("soluble CD40L") by an ELISA. Results of these studies showed that levels of CD40L exposed on platelet microvesicles were significantly increased after lipopolysaccharide administration. ELISA measurements of CD40L in plasma ("soluble CD40L") did not show any significant increase in plasma levels over time. Separation of soluble and vesicle-bound CD40L by high-speed centrifugation indicated that the ELISA can also detect CD40L on microvesicles, as a trend toward increased concentrations were observed in the pellet of high-speed centrifuged samples (i.e., in samples in which microvesicles are enriched). Together, these findings suggest that platelet microvesicles are a source of CD40L in the circulation and that CD40L exposure on platelet microvesicles increases following experimentally induced inflammation. Our data also suggest that determining levels of CD40L on microvesicles in plasma samples may provide a more sensitive detection of changes in CD40L expression than measurement of "soluble CD40L" in plasma with an ELISA. In addition, information regarding the cellular source of CD40L can be obtained with a flow cytometry-based microvesicle assay in a way not possible with an ordinary

  7. Clinical disease upregulates expression of CD40 and CD40 ligand on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CD40 and CD40L interactions have costimulatory effects that are part of a complex series of events in host cellular and humoral immune responses and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in expression of CD40 and CD40L on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolat...

  8. CD40 expressed on thymic epithelial cells provides costimulation for proliferation but not for apoptosis of human thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, G; Martinez Cáceres, E; Voordouw, A; Noteboom, E; Graf, D; Kroczek, R A; Spits, H

    1996-05-15

    Human thymic epithelial cells express CD40, so we examined the possible role of CD40 in activation of thymocytes. We observed that both CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ thymocytes proliferate after stimulation by anti-CD3 mAb in the presence of cultured thymic epithelial cells. Costimulation of CD4+ thymocytes by thymic epithelial cells is partly inhibited by an anti-CD40 mAb, but this mAb has no effect on costimulation of CD8+ thymocytes. The selective costimulatory ability of CD40 for CD4+ thymocytes was confirmed in experiments in which thymocytes were stimulated with anti-CD3 in the presence of murine P815 cells transfected with CD40 cDNA. The level of costimulation induced by P815-CD40 was comparable with that induced by P815 cells expressing CD80 (B7.1). Treatment of thymocytes with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin and the phorbol ester PMA or with anti-CD3 mAb resulted in up-regulation of the CD40 ligand, suggesting that this molecule is involved in CD40-mediated costimulation of human thymocytes. Costimulation of thymocytes by CD80 strongly increased anti-CD3-induced death of fetal thymocytes. In contrast, costimulation by CD40 did not increase anti-CD3-mediated apoptosis of these thymocytes. To confirm that CD40 does not affect anti-CD3-induced cell death, we established a variant of the Jurkat T leukemic cell line that constitutively expresses CD40L and analyzed the sensitivity of this cell line for activation-induced apoptosis. In contrast to CD80, CD40 failed to increase anti-CD3-mediated apoptosis in CD40L+ Jurkat cells, whereas both CD40 and CD80 strongly increased IL-2 production induced by anti-CD3. These findings suggest that costimulation by CD40 is involved in clonal expansion of CD4+ thymocytes but not in activation-induced cell death.

  9. Aging murine B cells have decreased class switch induced by anti-CD40 or BAFF

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Daniela; Riley, Richard L.; Blomberg, Bonnie B.

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that in vitro stimulated splenic B cells from senescent mice are deficient in production of multiple class switch isotypes, class switch recombination (CSR), induction of the E2A-encoded transcription factor E47, and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) which is necessary for CSR and somatic hypermutation. Both anti-CD40 as well as BAFF have been shown to be able to induce CSR. We have investigated the ability of BAFF/IL-4, as compared to anti-CD40/IL-4, to induce CSR to γ1 in splenic B cells from young and old mice. We found that anti-CD40/IL-4 is a better CSR stimulus than BAFF/IL-4 in young B cells, as measured by RT-PCR of post-switch transcripts and flow cytometry. CSR is reduced in old B cells and this is independent of the stimulus. AID and γ1PSTs are significantly reduced in old B cells stimulated with anti-CD40/IL-4, but only slightly reduced with BAFF/IL-4. BAFF receptor mRNA expression (BAFF-R, TACI, BCMA) is not affected by aging. The age-related decrease in CSR induced by anti-CD40/IL-4 is primarily associated with a decrease in E47, whereas the less affected response to BAFF/IL-4 is associated with decreases in both E47 and NF-kB. Therefore, NF-kB is not involved in the decreased response of old B cells to anti-CD40/IL-4. These differences in B cell responses to CD40/IL-4 and BAFF/IL-4 may help to explain the maintenance of TI vs TD responses in senescent mice. PMID:17067770

  10. Overexpression of Cd40 Ligand in Murine Epidermis Results in Chronic Skin Inflammation and Systemic Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Annette; Loser, Karin; Varga, Georg; Metze, Dieter; Luger, Thomas A.; Schwarz, Thomas; Grabbe, Stephan; Beissert, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    CD40CD40 ligand (L) interactions play a pivotal role in immune-mediated inflammatory responses via the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). To investigate the effects of continuous activation of resident tissue APCs, in this case the Langerhans cells (LCs) of the skin, CD40L expression was targeted to the basal keratinocytes of the epidermis of mice using the keratin-14 promoter. Approximately 80% of the transgenic (Tg) mice spontaneously developed dermatitis on the ears, face, tail, and/or paws. Compared with littermates, Tgs had a >90% decrease in epidermal LCs yet increased numbers within the dermis suggestive of enhanced emigration of CD40-activated LCs. Tgs also displayed massive regional lymphadenopathy with increased numbers of dendritic cells and B cells. Moreover, a decrease in IgM and an increase in IgG1/IgG2a/IgG2b/IgE serum concentrations was detectable. Screening for autoantibodies revealed the presence of antinuclear antibodies and anti-dsDNA antibodies implicative of systemic autoimmunity. Accordingly, renal Ig deposits, proteinuria, and lung fibrosis were observed. Adoptive transfer of T cells from Tgs to nonTg recipients evoked the development of skin lesions similar to those found in the Tgs. Dermatitis also developed in B cell–deficient CD40L Tg mice. These findings suggest that in situ activation of LCs by CD40L in the skin not only leads to chronic inflammatory dermatitis but also to systemic mixed-connective-tissue-like autoimmune disorders, possibly by breaking immune tolerance against the skin. PMID:11535630

  11. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF{kappa}B in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weidong | Alexis, Neil E. |; Chen Xian |; Bromberg, Philip A. |; Peden, David B. ||

    2008-04-15

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF{kappa}B were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NF{kappa}B activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NF{kappa}B activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NF{kappa}B.

  12. Critical role of microglial CD40 in the maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity in a murine model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ling; Palmer, Christopher D.; Malon, Jennifer T.; De Leo, Joyce A.

    2010-01-01

    We recently demonstrated a contributing role of spinal cord infiltrating CD4+ T lymphocytes in the maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity in a rodent model of neuropathic pain, spinal nerve L5 transection (L5Tx). It has been demonstrated that microglia play a role in the etiology of pain states. We hypothesized that infiltrating CD4+ T lymphocytes communicate with microglia via a CD40-CD154 interaction. Here, we investigated the role of CD40 in the development of mechanical hypersensitivity post-L5Tx. CD40 KO mice displayed significantly decreased mechanical sensitivity compared with WT mice starting from day 5 post-L5Tx. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we further identified a pro-nociceptive role of CNS microglial CD40 rather than the peripheral leukocytic CD40. Flow cytometric analysis determined a significant increase of CD40+ microglia in the ipsilateral side of lumbar spinal cord post-L5Tx. Further, spinal cord proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α) profiling demonstrated an induction of IL-6 in both WT and CD40 KO mice post-L5Tx prior to the increase of microglial CD40 expression, indicating a CD40-independent induction of IL-6 following L5Tx. These data establish a novel role of microglial CD40 in the maintenance of nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity, a behavioral sign of neuropathic pain. PMID:19750482

  13. CD40/CD40L expression correlates with the survival of patients with glioblastomas and an augmentation in CD40 signaling enhances the efficacy of vaccinations against glioma models.

    PubMed

    Chonan, Masashi; Saito, Ryuta; Shoji, Takuhiro; Shibahara, Ichiyo; Kanamori, Masayuki; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Watanabe, Mika; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Ishii, Naoto; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-11-01

    The prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor; therefore, effective therapeutic strategies need to be developed. CD40 is a costimulatory molecule whose agonistic antibody has been shown to activate antitumor effects. Recently, CD40 has been extensively targeted for immunotherapeutic purposes. Expressions of CD40/CD40L mRNAs were examined in 86 cases of World Health Organization grade IV GBM and 36 cases of grade III gliomas and correlated with outcomes. CD40 signaling was employed to augment the efficacy of immunotherapy against gliomas. The efficacy of FGK45, an agonistic antibody for CD40, was examined by adding it to a tumor lysate-based subcutaneous vaccination against a GL261 glioma model and an NSCL61 glioma-initiating cell-like cell tumor model. We demonstrated for the first time using quantitative PCR that grade III gliomas express higher levels of CD40/CD40L than does grade IV GBM. The higher expression of CD40/CD40L was associated with good prognoses in patients with GBM. Addition of FGK45 to the subcutaneous tumor cell lysate-based vaccination significantly prolonged survival in both tumor models. However, the efficacy was modest in NSCL61-model mice. Therefore, we established combination immunotherapeutic strategies using FGK45 and OX86, an agonistic antibody for OX40. Combination immunotherapy significantly prolonged survival with synergistic effects. Apoptosis increased and proliferation decreased in tumors treated with combination immunotherapy. The high expression of CD40/CD40L can be used as a biomarker for better prognoses in patients with gliomas. Immunotherapy using FGK45 significantly prolonged survival and represents a potential therapeutic strategy for gliomas including glioma-initiating cells. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Expression of B7 (CD80) and CD40 antigens and the CD40 ligand in Hodgkin's disease is independent of latent Epstein—Barr virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Murray, P G; Oates, J; Reynolds, G M; Crocker, J; Young, L S

    1995-01-01

    Aim—To examine the expression of CD40 and B7 (CD80) antigens and the CD40 ligand in Hodgkin's disease. Methods—Antigen and ligand expression was studied in 17 cases of Hodgkin's disease using immunohistochemistry. The study included 11 cases of Hodgkin's disease in which latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection could be demonstrated within tumour cells by in situ hybridisation for the EBV encoded early RNAs (EBERs). Results—In all cases, irrespective of EBV status, Reed-Sternberg cells and their variants (HRS cells) showed strong expression of both B7 and CD40 antigens. CD40 ligand expression was not shown in HRS cells but was confined to a subset of small lymphocytes some of which were seen to be in intimate contact with HRS cells. Paraffin wax sections from a further 60 cases of Hodgkin's disease were examined for CD40 and EBER expression alone. The CD40 antigen was identified in HRS cells in all of these cases irrespective of EBER expression. Conclusions—As CD40 and B7 expression are features of professional antigen presenting cells, these results provide further evidence that HRS cells may have antigen presenting properties and that this may contribute to the characteristic recruitment and activation of non-malignant lymphocytes which is a feature of Hodgkin's disease. The ability of HRS cells to activate Th cells may in turn contribute to their own survival through the induction of the gp39/CD40 pathway. Images PMID:16695980

  15. Differential modulation by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9)-THC) of CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression in activated mouse splenic CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Crawford, Robert B; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2012-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids has been widely demonstrated in experimental animal models and in humans. CD40-CD40-ligand (L) interactions are among the most crucial initiators of inflammation. This study investigated the effects of ∆(9)-THC on CD40L expression in mouse splenic T cells after activation with various stimuli. Time course studies demonstrated that peak surface expression of CD40L by CD4(+) T cells after anti-CD3/CD28 or phorbol ester plus calcium ionophore (PMA/Io) occurred 8 h post activation. Peak CD40L mRNA levels were observed at 2 h post PMA/Io treatment and at 4 h post anti-CD3/CD28 treatment. Pretreatment with ∆(9)-THC significantly impaired the upregulation of CD40L induced by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level. By contrast, ∆(9)-THC did not affect PMA/Io-induced surface CD40L expression on CD4(+) T cells. Additionally, ∆(9)-THC also attenuated anti-CD3/CD28-induced CD40L expression on CD4(+) T cells derived from CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice. We investigated whether the mechanism by which ∆(9)-THC suppressed CD40L expression involved putative cannabinoid activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Although activation of GR resulted in suppression of CD40L induction by anti-CD3/CD28, no interaction between ∆(9)-THC and GR was observed by a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells. Collectively, these results suggest that ∆(9)-THC targets proximal T cell receptor-associated signaling in a cannabinoid receptor- and glucocorticoid receptor-independent manner. These findings identify suppression of CD40L expression as a novel part of the mechanism by which ∆(9)-THC exerts anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Through Constitutive CD40L Expression

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kevin J; Seinstra, Beatrijs A; Nikhamin, Yan; Yeh, Raymond; Usachenko, Yelena; van Leeuwen, Dayenne G; Purdon, Terence; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with genetically modified T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a promising therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, CAR-modified T cells (CAR T cells) have mostly failed in patients with solid tumors or low-grade B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bulky lymph node involvement. Herein, we enhance the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells through the constitutive expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). T cells genetically modified to constitutively express CD40L (CD40L-modified T cells) demonstrated increased proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory TH1 cytokines. Further, CD40L-modified T cells augmented the immunogenicity of CD40+ tumor cells by the upregulated surface expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), adhesion molecules (CD54, CD58, and CD70), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules (Class I and HLA-DR), and the Fas-death receptor (CD95). Additionally, CD40L-modified T cells induced maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Finally, tumor-targeted CD19-specific CAR/CD40L T cells exhibited increased cytotoxicity against CD40+ tumors and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenotransplant model of CD19+ systemic lymphoma. This preclinical data supports the clinical application of CAR T cells additionally modified to constitutively express CD40L with anticipated enhanced antitumor efficacy. PMID:25582824

  17. A CD40 Kozak sequence polymorphism and susceptibility to antibody-mediated autoimmune conditions: the role of CD40 tissue-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, E M; Huber, A K; Akeno, N; Sivak, M; Li, C W; Concepcion, E; Ho, K; Tomer, Y

    2007-04-01

    Previously, we and others have demonstrated the association of a C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), in the Kozak sequence of CD40, with Graves' disease (GD). Here, using an expanded data set of patients, we confirm the association of the CD40 SNP with GD (n=210, P=0.002, odds ratio (OR)=1.8). Subset analysis of patients with persistently elevated thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and/or thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies (Abs), (TPO/Tg Abs), after treatment (n=126), revealed a significantly stronger association of the SNP with disease (P=5.2 x 10(-5), OR=2.5) than in GD patients who were thyroid antibody-negative. However, the CD40 SNP was not associated with TPO/Tg Abs in healthy individuals. Next, we tested the CD40 SNP for association with Myasthenia Gravis (MG), which, like GD is an antibody-mediated autoimmune condition. Analysis of 81 MG patients found no association of the SNP with disease. Functional studies revealed significant expression of CD40 mRNA and protein in the thyroid (target tissue in GD) but not in skeletal muscle (target tissue in MG). Combined, our genetic and tissue expression data suggest that the CD40 Kozak SNP is specific for thyroid antibody production involved in the etiology of GD. Increased thyroidal expression of CD40 driven by the SNP may contribute to this disease specificity.

  18. The role of CD40 expression in dendritic cells in cancer biology; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gui Han; Askari, Alan; Malietzis, George; Bernardo, David; Clark, Susan K; Knight, Stella C; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2014-01-01

    CD40 is a co-stimulatory molecule belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily and is essential in activation of dendritic cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells capable of initiating cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response against cancer cells. However, there are few studies on the characterization of DCs in cancer, specifically their expression of CD40, despite its implication in cancer immunotherapy. We reviewed available data on the expression of CD40 on DCs in various cancers, and its implications for cancer immunotherapy. A systematic review on CD40 expression on DCs in cancer was performed with reference to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Studies that satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria were 21 out of 927. Variations in type and status of the cancers, source of DCs and methodology for detecting CD40 expression amongst the studies resulted in contrasting results. DCs generally expressed low CD40 in tumor infiltrating DCs (tiDCs), in DCs derived by in vitro culture from blood monocytes using cytokine stimulation (MoDCs) and in DCs exposed in vitro to tumor cells lines; the studies suggested that CD40 expression in DCs is impaired in cancer particularly in metastatic disease. However, DCs identified in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) expressed higher numbers of CD40 positive cells in some cancer patients, which could be due to tumor-derived factors leading to partially-stimulated DCs. The results provide evidence that some cancer patients may show partial systemic DC activation and expression of increased CD40 in response to the presence of tumor but that such activity may become abortive in the presence of factors produced by the tumor. This review has thus identified key papers on CD40 expression on DCs in various cancers and discusses the limitations and contrasting results of these studies in relation to variations in methodology. The results highlight the need

  19. Cooperation of multiple signaling pathways in CD40-regulated gene expression in B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dadgostar, Hajir; Zarnegar, Brian; Hoffmann, Alexander; Qin, Xiao-Feng; Truong, Uyen; Rao, Govinda; Baltimore, David; Cheng, Genhong

    2002-01-01

    CD40/CD40L interaction is essential for multiple biological events in T dependent humoral immune responses, including B cell survival and proliferation, germinal center and memory B cell formation, and antibody isotype switching and affinity maturation. By using high-density microarrays, we examined gene expression in primary mouse B lymphocytes after multiple time points of CD40L stimulation. In addition to genes involved in cell survival and growth, which are also induced by other mitogens such as lipopolysaccharide, CD40L specifically activated genes involved in germinal center formation and T cell costimulatory molecules that facilitate T dependent humoral immunity. Next, by examining the roles of individual CD40-activated signal transduction pathways, we dissected the overall CD40-mediated response into genes independently regulated by the individual pathways or collectively by all pathways. We also found that gene down-regulation is a significant part of the overall response and that the p38 pathway plays an important role in this process, whereas the NF-κB pathway is important for the up-regulation of primary response genes. Our finding of overlapping independent control of gene expression modules by different pathways suggests, in principle, that distinct biological behaviors that depend on distinct gene expression subsets can be manipulated by targeting specific signaling pathways. PMID:11830667

  20. Irradiation up-regulates CD80 expression through induction of tumour necrosis factor-α and CD40 ligand expression on B lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Fumio; Nakano, Hideki; Seo, Akira; Okada, Yayoi; Torihata, Hideko; Tanaka, Yuriko; Uchida, Tetsuya; Miyake, Hidekazu; Kakiuchi, Terutaka

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we reported that 100 Gy X-ray irradiation followed by 24 hr incubation up-regulates CD80 expression in murine B lymphoma cells, A20-2J. In the present study, we analysed the underlying mechanisms of such up-regulation using A20-HL cells derived from A20-2J cells. Irradiation of A20-HL cells with 100 Gy enhanced CD80 expression. Incubation of untreated A20-HL cells with those 100 Gy irradiated induced up-regulation of CD80 expression. Irradiation of A20-HL cells also up-regulated the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and CD40 ligand (CD40L), and the amount of immunoprecipitable TNF-α and CD40L in cell lysates. The addition of anti-TNF-α or anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the incubation of irradiated A20-HL cells partially inhibited up-regulation of CD80 expression, and the addition of both antibodies together almost completely inhibited the up-regulation, suggesting that irradiation up-regulated the CD80 expression through the induction of TNF-α and CD40L expression. Irradiation also increased the accumulation of CD80, TNF-α and CD40L mRNA. n-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), a nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor, markedly decreased irradiation-induced accumulation of CD80 mRNA and CD80 expression. FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, and nifedipine, a calcium channel inhibitor, inhibited not only the expression of TNF-α and CD40L, but also the up-regulation of CD80 on irradiated A20-HL cells. These results strongly suggested that irradiation induced TNF-α and CD40L expression, which then up-regulated CD80 mRNA and CD80 expression through activation of NF-κB transcription factor in A20-HL cells. PMID:12100723

  1. A novel CD40LG deletion causes the hyper-IgM syndrome with normal CD40L expression in a 6-month-old child.

    PubMed

    López-Herrera, Gabriela; Maravillas-Montero, José Luis; Vargas-Hernández, Alexander; Berrón-Ruíz, Laura; Ramírez-Sánchez, Emmanuel; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco Antonio; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco Javier; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo

    2015-05-01

    The X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is the most common form of HIGM. Patients are clinically diagnosed on the basis of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, accompanied with low levels of IgG and IgA, normal to elevated levels of IgM, and the presence of peripheral B cells. Here, we have reported a novel deletion of four nucleotides in CD40LG exon 3, c.375_378delCAAA, which led to a frameshift mutation with a premature stop codon, p.Asn101*126. The deletion resulted in a truncated protein, in which majority of the extracellular domain was lost. However, detection of surface CD40L was still possible as the intracellular, transmembrane, and part of the extracellular domains were not affected. This indicated that this mutation did not affect protein stability and that immunodetection of CD40L expression is not enough for the diagnosis of XHIGM. Our study strongly suggests that genetic diagnosis for XHIGM should always be performed when clinical data support this diagnosis and CD40L protein is present.

  2. INVOLVEMENT OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 AND MAPK PATHWAYS IN LPS-INDUCED CD40 EXPRESSION IN MONOCYTIC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CD40 is a co-stimulatory surface molecule actively expressed on mature dendritic cells (DC). Recent studies suggest that endotoxin (LPS) inhalation induces DC maturation in the airways of healthy volunteers. To characterize the effect of LPS on CD40 expression and underlying mech...

  3. INVOLVEMENT OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 AND MAPK PATHWAYS IN LPS-INDUCED CD40 EXPRESSION IN MONOCYTIC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CD40 is a co-stimulatory surface molecule actively expressed on mature dendritic cells (DC). Recent studies suggest that endotoxin (LPS) inhalation induces DC maturation in the airways of healthy volunteers. To characterize the effect of LPS on CD40 expression and underlying mech...

  4. Nanovesicle-targeted Kv1.3 knockdown in memory T cells suppresses CD40L expression and memory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chimote, Ameet A; Hajdu, Peter; Kottyan, Leah C; Harley, John B; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Ca(2+) signaling controls activation and effector functions of T lymphocytes. Ca(2+) levels also regulate NFAT activation and CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression in T cells. CD40L in activated memory T cells binds to its cognate receptor, CD40, on other cell types resulting in the production of antibodies and pro-inflammatory mediators. The CD40L/CD40 interaction is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders and CD40L is widely recognized as a therapeutic target. Ca(2+) signaling in T cells is regulated by Kv1.3 channels. We have developed lipid nanoparticles that deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs (Kv1.3-NPs) selectively to CD45RO(+) memory T cells and reduce the activation-induced Ca(2+) influx. Herein we report that Kv1.3-NPs reduced NFAT activation and CD40L expression exclusively in CD45RO(+) T cells. Furthermore, Kv1.3-NPs suppressed cytokine release and induced a phenotype switch of T cells from predominantly memory to naïve. These findings indicate that Kv1.3-NPs operate as targeted immune suppressive agents with promising therapeutic potentials.

  5. Involvement of the cytoplasmic cysteine-238 of CD40 in its up-regulation of CD23 expression and its enhancement of TLR4-triggered responses.

    PubMed

    Nadiri, Amal; Jundi, Malek; El Akoum, Souhad; Hassan, Ghada S; Yacoub, Daniel; Mourad, Walid

    2015-11-01

    CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, plays a key role in both adaptive and innate immunity. Engagement of CD40 with its natural trimeric ligand or with cross-linked antibodies results in disulfide-linked CD40 (dl-CD40) homodimer formation, a process mediated by the cysteine-238 residues of the cytoplasmic tail of CD40. The present study was designed to elucidate the biological relevance of cysteine-238-mediated dl-CD40 homodimers to the expression of CD23 on B cells and to investigate its possible involvement in the innate response. Our results indicate that cysteine-238-mediated dl-CD40 homodimerization is required for CD40-induced activation of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling and the subsequent CD23 expression, as inhibition of dl-CD40 homodimer formation through a point mutation-approach specifically impairs these responses. Interestingly, cysteine-238-mediated dl-CD40 homodimers are also shown to play a crucial role in Toll-like receptor 4-induced CD23 expression, further validating the importance of this system in bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. This process also necessitates the activation of the PI3-kinase/Akt cascade. Thus, our results highlight new roles for CD40 and cysteine-238-mediated CD40 homodimers in cell biology and identify a potential new target for therapeutic strategies against CD40-associated chronic inflammatory diseases.

  6. Ribavirin increases mitogen- and antigen-induced expression of CD40L on CD4+ T cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bergamini, A; Cepparulo, M; Bolacchi, F; Araco, A; Tisone, G; Ombres, D; Rocchi, G; Angelico, M

    2002-01-01

    Here, CD40L expression and cytokine production have been analysed in peripheral blood cells from orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) recipients treated with ribavirin for recurrent chronic hepatitis C. The study included 18 OLT recipients treated with ribavirin, eight control OLT recipients and 10 healthy controls. FACS analysis showed that baseline expression of CD40L was not different between ribavirin-treated patients and controls. In contrast, after stimulation with both HCV core antigen and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin (IO), the expression of CD40L on CD4 lymphocytes was significantly higher in the ribavirin group compared with controls. In the ribavirin group, the increased expression of CD40L significantly correlated with reduction of HCV RNA levels with respect to pretreatment values. Finally, ribavirin treatment was not associated with modification of PMA-IO-induced cytokine production by T lymphocytes and interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis-α (TNF)-α production by CD40L-stimulated monocytes. In conclusion, these data indicate that ribavirin upmodulates CD40L expression on CD4 T cells, a property which may account in part for its ability to enhance the antiviral activity of interferon-α in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. PMID:12390318

  7. Synergistic effect of thrombin and CD40 ligand on endothelial matrix metalloproteinase-10 expression and microparticle generation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Roncal, Carmen; Calvayrac, Olivier; Rodríguez, Cristina; Varo, Nerea; Purroy, Ana; Lorente, Leonardo; Rodríguez, José A; Doeuvre, Loïc; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Angles-Cano, Eduardo; Páramo, José A; Martínez-González, José; Orbe, Josune

    2012-06-01

    Thrombin induces CD40 ligand (CD40L) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) under inflammatory/prothrombotic conditions. Thrombin and CD40L could modulate endothelial MMP-10 expression in vitro and in vivo. Human endothelial cells were stimulated with thrombin (0.1-10 U/mL), CD40L (0.25-1 μg/mL), or their combination (thrombin/CD40L) to assess MMP-10 expression and microparticle generation. Thrombin/CD40L elicited higher MMP-10 mRNA (5-fold; P<0.001) and protein levels (4.5-fold; P<0.001) than either stimulus alone. This effect was mimicked by a protease-activated receptor-1 agonist and antagonized by hirudin, a-protease-activated receptor-1, α-CD40L, and α-CD40 antibodies. The synergistic effect was dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 pathways. Thrombin also upregulated the expression of CD40 in endothelial cell surface increasing its availability, thereby favoring its synergistic effects with CD40L. In mice, thrombin/CD40L further increased the aortic MMP-10 expression. Septic patients with systemic inflammation and enhanced thrombin generation (n=60) exhibited increased MMP-10 and soluble CD40L levels associated with adverse clinical outcome. Endothelial and systemic activation by thrombin/CD40L and lipopolysaccharide also increased microparticles harboring MMP-10 and CD40L. Thrombin/CD40L elicited a strong synergistic effect on endothelial MMP-10 expression and microparticles containing MMP-10 in vitro and in vivo, which may represent a new link between inflammation/thrombosis with prognostic implications.

  8. Interaction with damaged vessel wall in vivo in humans induces platelets to express CD40L resulting in endothelial activation with no effect of aspirin intake.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Silvia; Falcinelli, Emanuela; Bury, Loredana; Guglielmini, Giuseppe; Rossi, Roberta; Momi, Stefania; Gresele, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    Activated platelets express CD40L on their plasma membrane and release the soluble fragment sCD40L. The interaction between platelet surface CD40L and endothelial cell CD40 leads to the activation of endothelium contributing to atherothrombosis. Few studies have directly demonstrated an increased expression of platelet CD40L in conditions of in vivo platelet activation in humans, and no data are available on its relevance for endothelial activation. We aimed to assess whether platelets activated in vivo at a localized site of vascular injury in humans express CD40L and release sCD40L, whether the level of platelet CD40L expression attained in vivo is sufficient to induce endothelial activation, and whether platelet CD40L expression is inhibited by aspirin intake. We used the skin-bleeding-time test as a model to study the interaction between platelets and a damaged vessel wall by measuring CD40L in the blood emerging from a skin wound in vivo in healthy volunteers. In some experiments, shed blood was analyzed before and 1 h after the intake of 500 mg of aspirin. Platelets from the bleeding-time blood express CD40L and release soluble sCD40L, in a time-dependent way. In vivo platelet CD40L expression was mild but sufficient to induce VCAM-1 expression and IL-8 secretion in coincubation experiments with cultured human endothelial cells. Moreover, platelets recovered from the bleeding-time blood activated endothelial cells; an anti-CD40L antibody blocked this effect. On the contrary, the amount of sCD40L released by activated platelets at a localized site of vascular injury did not reach the concentrations required to induce endothelial cell activation. Soluble monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a marker of endothelium activation, was increased in shed blood and correlated with platelet CD40L expression. Aspirin intake did not inhibit CD40L expression by platelets in vivo. We concluded that CD40L expressed by platelets in vivo in humans upon contact with a damaged

  9. A GM-CSF and CD40L bystander vaccine is effective in a murine breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hatem; Mediavilla-Varela, Melanie; Antonia, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in using cancer vaccines to treat breast cancer patients in the adjuvant setting to prevent recurrence in high risk situations or in combination with other immunomodulators in the advanced setting. Current peptide vaccines are limited by immunologic compatibility issues, and engineered autologous cellular vaccines are difficult to produce on a large scale. Using standardized bystander cell lines modified to secrete immune stimulating adjuvant substances can greatly enhance the ability to produce immunogenic cellular vaccines using unmodified autologous cells or allogeneic medical grade tumor cell lines as targets. We investigated the efficacy of a cellular vaccine using B78H1 bystander cell lines engineered to secrete granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and CD40 ligand (BCG) in a murine model of breast cancer. Methods Five-week-old female BALB/c mice were injected orthotopically in the mammary fat pad with 4T1 tumor cells. Treatment consisted of irradiated 4T1 ± BCG cells given subcutaneously every 4 days and was repeated three times per mouse when tumors became palpable. Tumors were measured two to three times per week for 25 days. The vaccine’s activity was confirmed in a second experiment using Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in C57BL/6 mice to exclude a model specific effect. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunospots (ELISPOTS) were performed on splenic lymphocytes incubated with 4T1 lysates along with immunohistochemistry for CD3 on tumor sections. Results Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in the 4T1-BCG and LLC-BCG treatment groups when compared to 4T1 and LLC treatment groups. There were higher levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ secreting T-cells on ELISPOT for BCG treated groups, and a trend for higher numbers of tumor infiltrating CD3+ lymphocytes. Some tumors in the 4T1-BCG demonstrated organized lymphoid structures within the tumor microenvironment as well. Conclusion

  10. RelB nuclear translocation regulates B cell MHC molecule, CD40 expression, and antigen-presenting cell function

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Brendan J.; MacDonald, Kelli P. A.; Pettit, Allison R.; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2000-01-01

    Mice with targeted RelB mutations demonstrated an essential role for RelB in immune responses and in myeloid dendritic cell differentiation. Human studies suggested a more global transcriptional role in antigen presentation. Burkitt lymphoma cell lines were used as a model to examine the role of RelB in antigen presentation. After transient transfection of BJAB with RelB, strong nuclear expression of RelB-p50 heterodimers was associated with increased APC function and expression of CD40 and MHC class I. Antisense RelB in DG75 reduced antigen-presenting capacity and CD40-mediated up-regulation of MHC molecules. The data indicate that RelB transcriptional activity directly affects antigen presentation and CD40 synthesis. Stimulation of RelB transcriptional activity may provide a positive feedback loop for facilitating productive APC/T cell interactions. PMID:11027342

  11. The MS Risk Allele of CD40 Is Associated with Reduced Cell-Membrane Bound Expression in Antigen Presenting Cells: Implications for Gene Function.

    PubMed

    Field, Judith; Shahijanian, Fernando; Schibeci, Stephen; Johnson, Laura; Gresle, Melissa; Laverick, Louise; Parnell, Grant; Stewart, Graeme; McKay, Fiona; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Butzkueven, Helmut; Booth, David

    2015-01-01

    Human genetic and animal studies have implicated the costimulatory molecule CD40 in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the cell specific gene and protein expression variation controlled by the CD40 genetic variant(s) associated with MS, i.e. the T-allele at rs1883832. Previously we had shown that the risk allele is expressed at a lower level in whole blood, especially in people with MS. Here, we have defined the immune cell subsets responsible for genotype and disease effects on CD40 expression at the mRNA and protein level. In cell subsets in which CD40 is most highly expressed, B lymphocytes and dendritic cells, the MS-associated risk variant is associated with reduced CD40 cell-surface protein expression. In monocytes and dendritic cells, the risk allele additionally reduces the ratio of expression of full-length versus truncated CD40 mRNA, the latter encoding secreted CD40. We additionally show that MS patients, regardless of genotype, express significantly lower levels of CD40 cell-surface protein compared to unaffected controls in B lymphocytes. Thus, both genotype-dependent and independent down-regulation of cell-surface CD40 is a feature of MS. Lower expression of a co-stimulator of T cell activation, CD40, is therefore associated with increased MS risk despite the same CD40 variant being associated with reduced risk of other inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Our results highlight the complexity and likely individuality of autoimmune pathogenesis, and could be consistent with antiviral and/or immunoregulatory functions of CD40 playing an important role in protection from MS.

  12. CD40 promotes MHC class II expression on adipose tissue macrophages and regulates adipose tissue CD4+ T cells with obesity.

    PubMed

    Morris, David L; Oatmen, Kelsie E; Mergian, Taleen A; Cho, Kae Won; DelProposto, Jennifer L; Singer, Kanakadurga; Evans-Molina, Carmella; O'Rourke, Robert W; Lumeng, Carey N

    2016-06-01

    Obesity activates both innate and adaptive immune responses in adipose tissue, but the mechanisms critical for regulating these responses remain unknown. CD40/CD40L signaling provides bidirectional costimulatory signals between antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T cells, and CD40L expression is increased in obese humans. Therefore, we examined the contribution of CD40 to the progression of obesity-induced inflammation in mice. CD40 was highly expressed on adipose tissue macrophages in mice, and CD40/CD40L signaling promoted the expression of antigen-presenting cell markers in adipose tissue macrophages. When fed a high fat diet, Cd40-deficient mice had reduced accumulation of conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconv: CD3(+)CD4(+)Foxp3(-)) in visceral fat compared with wild-type mice. By contrast, the number of regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Treg: CD3(+)CD4(+)Foxp3(+)) in lean and obese fat was similar between wild-type and knockout mice. Adipose tissue macrophage content and inflammatory gene expression in fat did not differ between obese wild-type and knockout mice; however, major histocompatibility complex class II and CD86 expression on adipose tissue macrophages was reduced in visceral fat from knockout mice. Similar results were observed in chimeric mice with hematopoietic Cd40-deficiency. Nonetheless, neither whole body nor hematopoietic disruption of CD40 ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice. In human adipose tissue, CD40 expression was positively correlated with CD80 and CD86 expression in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. These findings indicate that CD40 signaling in adipose tissue macrophages regulates major histocompatibility complex class II and CD86 expression to control the expansion of CD4(+) T cells; however, this is largely dispensable for the development of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. The MS Risk Allele of CD40 Is Associated with Reduced Cell-Membrane Bound Expression in Antigen Presenting Cells: Implications for Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Field, Judith; Shahijanian, Fernando; Schibeci, Stephen; Johnson, Laura; Gresle, Melissa; Laverick, Louise; Parnell, Grant; Stewart, Graeme; McKay, Fiona; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Butzkueven, Helmut; Booth, David

    2015-01-01

    Human genetic and animal studies have implicated the costimulatory molecule CD40 in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the cell specific gene and protein expression variation controlled by the CD40 genetic variant(s) associated with MS, i.e. the T-allele at rs1883832. Previously we had shown that the risk allele is expressed at a lower level in whole blood, especially in people with MS. Here, we have defined the immune cell subsets responsible for genotype and disease effects on CD40 expression at the mRNA and protein level. In cell subsets in which CD40 is most highly expressed, B lymphocytes and dendritic cells, the MS-associated risk variant is associated with reduced CD40 cell-surface protein expression. In monocytes and dendritic cells, the risk allele additionally reduces the ratio of expression of full-length versus truncated CD40 mRNA, the latter encoding secreted CD40. We additionally show that MS patients, regardless of genotype, express significantly lower levels of CD40 cell-surface protein compared to unaffected controls in B lymphocytes. Thus, both genotype-dependent and independent down-regulation of cell-surface CD40 is a feature of MS. Lower expression of a co-stimulator of T cell activation, CD40, is therefore associated with increased MS risk despite the same CD40 variant being associated with reduced risk of other inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Our results highlight the complexity and likely individuality of autoimmune pathogenesis, and could be consistent with antiviral and/or immunoregulatory functions of CD40 playing an important role in protection from MS. PMID:26068105

  14. PU.1 Expression in T Follicular Helper Cells Limits CD40L-Dependent Germinal Center B Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Awe, Olufolakemi; Hufford, Matthew M; Wu, Hao; Pham, Duy; Chang, Hua-Chen; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Dent, Alexander L; Kaplan, Mark H

    2015-10-15

    PU.1 is an ETS family transcription factor that is important for the development of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages. Previous work demonstrated a critical role for PU.1 in promoting Th9 development and in limiting Th2 cytokine production. Whether PU.1 has functions in other Th lineages is not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of ectopic expression of PU.1 in CD4(+) T cells and observed decreased expression of genes involved with the function of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, including Il21 and Tnfsf5 (encoding CD40L). T cells from conditional mutant mice that lack expression of PU.1 in T cells (Sfpi1(lck-/-)) demonstrated increased production of CD40L and IL-21 in vitro. Following adjuvant-dependent or adjuvant-independent immunization, we observed that Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice had increased numbers of Tfh cells, increased germinal center B cells (GCB cells), and increased Ab production in vivo. This correlated with increased expression of IL-21 and CD40L in Tfh cells from Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice compared with control mice. Finally, although blockade of IL-21 did not affect GCB cells in Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice, anti-CD40L treatment of immunized Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice decreased GCB cell numbers and Ag-specific Ig concentrations. Together, these data indicate an inhibitory role for PU.1 in the function of Tfh cells, germinal centers, and Tfh-dependent humoral immunity.

  15. Expression of CD40 ligand on CD4+ T-cells and platelets correlated to the coronary artery lesion and disease progress in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Lu; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Chieh-An; Lin, Mei-Wei; Lee, Chia-Jung; Huang, Li-Tung; Yang, Kuender D

    2003-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome in children. CD40 ligand (CD40L) has been implicated in certain types of vasculitis. We proposed that CD40L expression might be correlated with coronary artery lesions in KD. Blood samples were collected from 43 patients with KD before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment and 3 days afterward. Forty-three age-matched febrile children with various diseases were studied in parallel as controls. CD40L expression on T-cells and platelets were detected by flow cytometry, and soluble CD40L (sCD40L) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that CD40L expression on CD4(+) T-cells was significantly higher in patients with KD than in the febrile control (FC) group (28.69 +/- 1.17% vs 4.37 +/- 0.36%). CD40L expression decreased significantly 3 days after IVIG administration (28.69 +/- 1.17% vs 13.53 +/- 0.55%). CD40L expression on platelets from patients with KD was also significantly higher than in the FC group (8.20 +/- 0.41% vs 1.26 +/- 0.12%) and decreased after IVIG therapy. sCD40L levels were also significantly higher in KD patients with those of FC (9.69 +/- 0.45 ng/mL vs 2.25 +/- 0.19 ng/mL) but were not affected by IVIG treatment 3 days afterward (9.69 +/- 0.45 ng/mL vs 9.03 +/- 0.32 ng/mL). More interesting, we found that in KD patients, CD40L expression on CD4(+) T-cells and platelets but not on CD8(+) T-cells or sCD40L was correlated with the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. CD40L might play a role in the immunopathogenesis of KD. IVIG therapy might downregulate CD40L expression, resulting in decrease of CD40L-mediated vascular damage in KD. This implicates that modulation of CD40L expression may benefit to treat KD vasculitis.

  16. Introduction of a CD40L genomic fragment via a human artificial chromosome vector permits cell-type-specific gene expression and induces immunoglobulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Li, Yanze C; Nishikawa, Mitsuo; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Inoue, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy using cDNA driven by an exogenous promoter is not suited for genetic disorders that require intrinsic expression of a transgene, such as hyperimmunoglobulin (Ig)M syndrome (HIGM), which is caused by mutations in the CD40L gene. The human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector has the potential to solve this problem, because it can be used to transfer large genomic fragments containing their own regulatory elements. In this study, we examined whether introduction of a genomic fragment of CD40L via the HAC vector permits intrinsic expression of the transgene and has an effect on immunoglobulin secretion. We constructed an HAC vector carrying the mouse CD40L genomic fragment (mCD40L-HAC) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and transferred the mCD40L-HAC vector into a human CD4-positive active T-cell line (Jurkat) and a human myeloid cell line (U937) via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT). The mCD40L-HAC vector permits mCD40L expression in human active T cells but not in human myeloid cells. The mCD40L-HAC also functions to stimulate mouse B cells derived from CD40L(-/-) mice, inducing secretion of IgG. This study may be an initial step toward the therapeutic application of HAC vectors for intrinsic expression of genes, a potential new direction for genome-based gene therapy.

  17. Adenovirus co-expressing CD40 ligand and interleukin (IL)-2 contributes to maturation of dendritic cells and production of IL-12

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhi; Gao, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Lou, Jin-Xing; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xiao-Dong; He, Xue-Peng; Chen, Hui-Ren

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to construct a chimeric adenovirus (Ad)5/F35 co-expressing human CD4O ligand (CD4OL) and interleukin (IL)-2 (Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2). The infection efficiency to human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs), expression of genes, phenotype changes and IL-12 production of Mo-DC by Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2 were investigated. CD40L and IL-2 from total RNA extracted from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and used to construct Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2. The infection efficiency, expression of CD40L, and phenotype changes of Mo-DC infected with Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2 were analyzed using flow cytometry. The quantities of IL-2 and IL-12 in the supernatants of Mo-DC following infection of Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CD40L and IL-2 genes were successfully cloned and the Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2 was constructed. Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2 efficiently infected Mo-DCs with an infection efficiency of >75%, and the infected Mo-DCs expressed CD40L and secreted IL-2. The expression levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)80, CD86, CD40, and human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related on Mo-DC were moderate; however, CD83 was low prior to infection of Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2. Those molecules, particularly CD83, were markedly upregulated 24 h after the infection. Increasing quantities of IL-12 in the supernatants were detected subsequent to infection at different time points in a time-dependent manner. Thus, Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2 efficiently infected human Mo-DCs and its products, CD40L and IL-2, were subsequently expressed. In addition, infection with Ad5/F35 CD40L-IL-2 stimulated the maturation of Mo-DC and high levels of IL-12 production. PMID:27882218

  18. Constitutive CD40L expression on B cells prematurely terminates germinal center response and leads to augmented plasma cell production in T cell areas.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Anna; Long, Eugene; Stapler, Dale; Cascalho, Marilia; Tsubata, Takeshi; Koni, Pandelakis A; Shimoda, Michiko

    2010-07-01

    CD40/CD40L engagement is essential to T cell-dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the precise role of CD40 signaling through cognate T-B interaction in the generation of germinal center and memory B cells is still incompletely understood. To address this issue, a B cell-specific CD40L transgene (CD40LBTg) was introduced into mice with B cell-restricted MHC class II deficiency. Using this mouse model, we show that constitutive CD40L expression on B cells alone could not induce germinal center differentiation of MHC class II-deficient B cells after immunization with T cell-dependent Ag. Thus, some other MHC class II-dependent T cell-derived signals are essential for the generation of germinal center B cells in response to T cell-dependent Ag. In fact, CD40LBTg mice generated a complex Ag-specific IgG1 response, which was greatly enhanced in early, but reduced in late, primary response compared with control mice. We also found that the frequency of Ag-specific germinal center B cells in CD40LBTg mice was abruptly reduced 1 wk after immunization. As a result, the numbers of Ag-specific IgG1 long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells were reduced. By histology, large numbers of Ag-specific plasma cells were found in T cell areas adjacent to Ag-specific germinal centers of CD40LBTg mice, temporarily during the second week of primary response. These results indicate that CD40L expression on B cells prematurely terminated their ongoing germinal center response and produced plasma cells. Our results support the notion that CD40 signaling is an active termination signal for germinal center reaction.

  19. TNF-α promotes IFN-γ-induced CD40 expression and antigen process in Myb-transformed hematological cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenyi; Chen, Jiezhong; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and interleukin-4 are critical cytokines in regulating the immune responses against infections and tumours. In this study, we investigated the effects of three cytokines on CD40 expression in Myb-transformed hematological cells and their regulatory roles in promoting these cells into dendritic cells. We observed that both interleukin-4 and interferon-γ increased CD40 expression in these hematological cells in a dose-dependent manner, although the concentration required for interleukin-4 was significantly higher than that for interferon-γ. We found that tumour necrosis factor-α promoted CD40 expression induced by interferon-γ, but not by interleukin-4. Our data showed that tumour necrosis factor-α plus interferon-γ-treated Myb-transformed hematological cells had the greatest ability to take up and process the model antigen DQ-Ovalbumin. Tumour necrosis factor-α also increased the ability of interferon-γ to produce the mixed lymphocyte reaction to allogenic T cells. Furthermore, only cotreatment with tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ induced Myb-transformed hematological cells to express interleukin-6. These results suggest that tumour necrosis factor-α plays a key regulatory role in the development of dendritic cells from hematological progenitor cells induced by interferon-γ.

  20. Killing of normal melanocytes, combined with heat shock protein 70 and CD40L expression, cures large established melanomas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Kottke, Timothy; Daniels, Gregory A; Diaz, Rosa Maria; Thompson, Jill; Pulido, Jose; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard G

    2006-09-15

    Previously, we showed that nine intradermal injections of a plasmid in which the HSVtk suicide gene is expressed from a melanocyte-specific promoter (Tyr-HSVtk), combined with a plasmid expressing heat shock protein 70 (CMV-hsp70), along with systemic ganciclovir, kills normal melanocytes and raises a CD8+ T cell response that is potent enough to eradicate small, 3-day established B16 tumors. We show in this study that, in that regimen, hsp70 acts as a potent immune adjuvant through TLR-4 signaling and local induction of TNF-alpha. hsp70 is required for migration of APC resident in the skin to the draining lymph nodes to present Ags, derived from the killing of normal melanocytes, to naive T cells. The addition of a plasmid expressing CD40L increased therapeutic efficacy, such that only six plasmid injections were now required to cure large, 9-day established tumors. Generation of potent immunological memory against rechallenge in cured mice accompanied these therapeutic gains, as did induction of aggressive autoimmune symptoms. Expression of CD40L, along with hsp70, increased both the frequency and activity of T cells activated against melanocyte-derived Ags. In this way, addition of CD40L to the hsp70-induced inflammatory killing of melanocytes can be used to cure large established tumors and to confer immunological memory against tumor cells, although a concomitant increase in autoimmune sequelae also is produced.

  1. The 3'-UTR (CA)n microsatellite on CD40LG gene as a possible genetic marker for rheumatoid arthritis in Mexican population: impact on CD40LG mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Román-Fernández, I V; Sánchez-Zuno, G A; Padilla-Gutiérrez, J R; Cerpa-Cruz, S; Hernández-Bello, J; Valle, Y; Ramírez-Dueñas, M G; Carrillo, C; Muñoz-Valle, J F

    2017-09-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of the CD40LG 3'-UTR (CA)n microsatellite with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and CD40LG mRNA levels in females from western Mexico. A case-control study with 219 RA patients and 175 control subjects (CS) was conducted. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), X (2) test was used to compare genotype and allele frequencies, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the association between RA and the microsatellite. CD40LG mRNA expression was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. For comparisons between groups, Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney U tests for non-parametric data and ANOVA test for parametric data were performed. Among the 13 different alleles identified, CA25 was the most represented (45.4% RA and 46.3% CS). Stratification according to CA repeats as CA25 showed a tendency towards a higher frequency of >CA25 alleles in RA patients (29%) compared to CS (23.4%). There was no association between any genotype and the clinical parameters of RA patients. According to the 2(-∆∆Cq) method, CD40LG mRNA expression in RA patients was 4.5-fold higher compared to CS; this difference was significant when assessed by the 2(-∆Cq) method (p = 0.028). Compared to carriers of the CA25/CA25 genotype, CS carrying the CD40LG mRNA expression (9.97-fold), unlike RA patients, where expression was 2.55-fold higher for >CA25/>CA25 carriers. The 3'-UTR CD40LG (CA)n microsatellite is not a genetic marker for RA in western Mexican population; however, results suggest that it plays a role in the CD40LG mRNA expression.

  2. Targeted gene editing restores regulated CD40L function in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Nicholas; Hagin, David; Sommer, Karen; Song, Yumei; Khan, Iram; Clough, Courtnee; Ochs, Hans D; Rawlings, David J; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Torgerson, Troy R

    2016-05-26

    Loss of CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression or function results in X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig)M syndrome (X-HIGM), characterized by recurrent infections due to impaired immunoglobulin class-switching and somatic hypermutation. Previous attempts using retroviral gene transfer to correct murine CD40L expression restored immune function; however, treated mice developed lymphoproliferative disease, likely due to viral-promoter-dependent constitutive CD40L expression. These observations highlight the importance of preserving endogenous gene regulation in order to safely correct this disorder. Here, we report efficient, on-target, homology-directed repair (HDR) editing of the CD40LG locus in primary human T cells using a combination of a transcription activator-like effector nuclease-induced double-strand break and a donor template delivered by recombinant adeno-associated virus. HDR-mediated insertion of a coding sequence (green fluorescent protein or CD40L) upstream of the translation start site within exon 1 allowed transgene expression to be regulated by endogenous CD40LG promoter/enhancer elements. Additionally, inclusion of the CD40LG 3'-untranslated region in the transgene preserved posttranscriptional regulation. Expression kinetics of the transgene paralleled that of endogenous CD40L in unedited T cells, both at rest and in response to T-cell stimulation. The use of this method to edit X-HIGM patient T cells restored normal expression of CD40L and CD40-murine IgG Fc fusion protein (CD40-muIg) binding, and rescued IgG class switching of naive B cells in vitro. These results demonstrate the feasibility of engineered nuclease-directed gene repair to restore endogenously regulated CD40L, and the potential for its use in T-cell therapy for X-HIGM syndrome.

  3. Interleukin 21 Controls mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in CD40-Activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Cecco, Loris; Capaia, Matteo; Zupo, Simona; Cutrona, Giovanna; Matis, Serena; Brizzolara, Antonella; Orengo, Anna Maria; Croce, Michela; Marchesi, Edoardo; Ferrarini, Manlio; Canevari, Silvana; Ferrini, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes), whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process. PMID:26305332

  4. Interleukin 21 Controls mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in CD40-Activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    De Cecco, Loris; Capaia, Matteo; Zupo, Simona; Cutrona, Giovanna; Matis, Serena; Brizzolara, Antonella; Orengo, Anna Maria; Croce, Michela; Marchesi, Edoardo; Ferrarini, Manlio; Canevari, Silvana; Ferrini, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes), whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process.

  5. Human CD40L-expressing type 3 innate lymphoid cells induce IL-10-producing immature transitional regulatory B cells.

    PubMed

    Komlósi, Zsolt István; Kovács, Nóra; van de Veen, Willem; Kirsch, Anna; Fahrner, Heinz Benedikt; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Rebane, Ana; Stanic, Barbara; Palomares, Oscar; Rückert, Beate; Menz, Günter; Akdis, Mübeccel; Losonczy, György; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2017-09-19

    Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are involved in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis; however, their role in immunoregulation has been unknown. Immature transitional regulatory B (itBreg) cells are innate-like B cells with immunosuppressive properties, and the in vivo mechanisms by which they are induced have not been fully clarified. We aimed to investigate the ILC3-B cell interaction that probably takes place in human tonsils. ILC3s were isolated from peripheral blood and palatine tonsils, expanded and cocultured with naïve B cells. Tonsillar ILC3s and Breg cells were visualized with immunofluorescence histology. The frequencies of ILC3s were measured in tonsil tissue of allergic and non-allergic patients; and in peripheral blood of allergic asthmatics and healthy controls. A mutually beneficial relationship was revealed between ILC3s and B cells: ILC3s induced IL-15 production in B cells via BAFF-receptor, while IL-15, a potent growth factor for ILC3s, induced the expression of CD40L on circulating and tonsillar ILC3s. IL-15-activated CD40L(+)ILC3s helped B cell survival, proliferation and the differentiation of IL-10-secreting, functional itBreg cells in a CD40L- and BAFF-receptor-dependent manner. ILC3s and Breg cells were in close connection with each other in palatine tonsils. The frequency of ILC3s was reduced in tonsil tissue of allergic patients and in peripheral blood of allergic asthmatics. Human CD40L(+)ILC3s provide innate B cell help, and are involved in an innate immunoregulatory mechanism by the induction of itBreg cell differentiation, which takes place in palatine tonsils in vivo. This mechanism may contribute to the maintenance of the immune tolerance and become insufficient in allergic diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical Trials Using Adenovector-transduced AP1903-inducible MyD88/CD40-expressing Autologous PSMA-specific Prostate Cancer Vaccine BPX-201

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovector-transduced ap1903-inducible myd88/cd40-expressing autologous psma-specific prostate cancer vaccine bpx-201.

  7. Cloning and high level expression of the biologically active extracellular domain of Macaca mulatta CD40 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengyun; Wan, Lin; Yang, Hao; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    The CD40-mediated immune response contributes to a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. CD40 antagonists have potential as novel therapies for immune disorders. However, the CD40 pathway has not been well characterized in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta, which is a valuable animal model for human immune disease. An 834 bp transcript was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkey using specific primers designed according to the predicted sequence of M. mulatta CD40 (mmCD40) in GenBank. Sequence analysis demonstrated that mmCD40 is highly homologous to human CD40 (hCD40), with an amino acid sequence identity of 94%. Genes encoding the extracellular domain of mmCD40 and the Fc fragment of the hIgG1 were inserted into a pPIC9K plasmid to produce mmCD40Ig by Pichia pastoris. Approximately 15-20 mg of the mmCD40Ig protein with ∼90% purity could be recovered from 1 L of culture. The purified mmCD40Ig protein can form dimers and can specifically bind CD40L-positive cells. Additionally, the mmCD40Ig protein can bind hCD40L protein in phosphate buffered saline and form a stable combination in a size-exclusion chromatography assay using a Superdex 200 column. Moreover, mmCD40Ig is as efficient as M. mulatta CTLA4Ig (mmCTLA4Ig) to suppress Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, mmCD40Ig only showed mild immunosuppressive activity in a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system. These results suggest that mmCD40Ig secreted by P. pastoris was productive and functional, and it could be used as a tool for pathogenesis and therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases in a M. mulatta model.

  8. Increased CD40 Expression Enhances Early STING-Mediated Type I Interferon Response and Host Survival in a Rodent Malaria Model

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiangyu; Wu, Jian; Lin, Meng; Sun, Wenxiang; He, Xiao; Gowda, Channe; Bolland, Silvia; Long, Carole A.; Wang, Rongfu; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Both type I interferon (IFN-I) and CD40 play a significant role in various infectious diseases, including malaria and autoimmune disorders. CD40 is mostly known to function in adaptive immunity, but previous observations of elevated CD40 levels early after malaria infection of mice led us to investigate its roles in innate IFN-I responses and disease control. Using a Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis N67 and C57BL/6 mouse model, we showed that infected CD40-/- mice had reduced STING and serum IFN-β levels day-2 post infection, higher day-4 parasitemia, and earlier deaths. CD40 could greatly enhance STING-stimulated luciferase signals driven by the IFN-β promoter in vitro, which was mediated by increased STING protein levels. The ability of CD40 to influence STING expression was confirmed in CD40-/- mice after malaria infection. Substitutions at CD40 TRAF binding domains significantly decreased the IFN-β signals and STING protein level, which was likely mediated by changes in STING ubiquitination and degradation. Increased levels of CD40, STING, and ISRE driven luciferase signal in RAW Lucia were observed after phagocytosis of N67-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), stimulation with parasite DNA/RNA, or with selected TLR ligands [LPS, poly(I:C), and Pam3CSK4]. The results suggest stimulation of CD40 expression by parasite materials through TLR signaling pathways, which was further confirmed in bone marrow derived dendritic cells/macrophages (BMDCs/BMDMs) and splenic DCs from CD40-/-, TLR3-/- TLR4-/-, TRIF-/-, and MyD88-/- mice after iRBC stimulation or parasite infection. Our data connect several signaling pathways consisting of phagocytosis of iRBCs, recognition of parasite DNA/RNA (possibly GPI) by TLRs, elevated levels of CD40 and STING proteins, increased IFN-I production, and longer host survival time. This study reveals previously unrecognized CD40 function in innate IFN-I responses and protective pathways in infections with malaria strains that induce a strong

  9. CD40-activated B cells express full lymph node homing triad and induce T-cell chemotaxis: potential as cellular adjuvants.

    PubMed

    von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Popov, Alexey; Klein-Gonzalez, Nela; Fiore, Francesca; Debey, Svenja; Draube, Andreas; Maecker, Britta; Menezes, Isaura; Nadler, Lee M; Schultze, Joachim L

    2006-04-01

    CD40-activated B cells (CD40-B cells) have previously been introduced as an alternative source of antigen-presenting cells for immunotherapy. CD40-B cells can prime naive and expand memory T cells, and they can be generated in large numbers from very small amounts of peripheral blood derived from healthy individuals or cancer patients alike. Administration of CD40-B cells as a cellular adjuvant would require these cells to migrate toward secondary lymphoid organs and attract T cells in situ, processes guided by specific chemokines and chemokine receptors. Here, we demonstrate that primary, human CD40-B cells express a pattern of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors necessary for homing to secondary lymphoid organs and have the capacity to migrate to cognate ligands. Furthermore, we show that CD40-B cells express important T-cell attractants and induce strong T-cell chemotaxis. These findings further support the use of CD40-B cells as cellular adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy.

  10. The expression and concentration of CD40 ligand in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Hanan A G; Abousamra, Nashwa K; Goda, Hossam; El-Shouky, Reda; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia has been associated with increased platelet activation detected before disease onset. Inappropriate activation of platelets may be involved in pathogenesis in preeclampsia by promoting coagulation and thrombosis and also as a mediator of inflammation. The exaggerated platelet activation and inflammation leading to endothelial damage in preeclampsia can be explained by the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) system. Expression of CD40L on platelets was determined by whole-blood flow cytometry, and serum levels of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 11 women with mild preeclampsia, 11 women with severe preeclampsia, and six women with hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome compared with 13 normotensive pregnant women as a control group. The platelet surface expression of CD40L was significantly higher in women with mild and severe preeclampsia and HELLP compared with normal pregnancy group (P = 0.001; P ≤ 0.001; P = 0.003, respectively), with no significant difference being found between women with mild preeclampsia compared with HELLP and severe preeclampsia compared with HELLP (P = 0.2; P = 0.8, respectively). The serum concentration of sCD40L was significantly higher in women with mild and severe preeclampsia and HELLP compared with the normal pregnancy group (P = 0.001; P ≤ 0.001; P = 0.022, respectively), with no significant difference being found between women with mild compared with severe preeclampsia or HELLP and severe preeclampsia compared with HELLP (P = 0.7; P = 0.6; P = 0.6, respectively). In conclusion, the higher expression and concentration of CD40L in women with preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome compared with normal pregnant women may indicate an exaggerated activation of platelets and endothelial cells in the disorder.

  11. Dendritic and tumor cell fusions transduced with adenovirus encoding CD40L eradicate B-cell lymphoma and induce a Th17-type response.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, E; Moga, E; Barquinero, J; Sierra, J; Briones, J

    2010-04-01

    Fusion of dendritic cells and tumor cells (FCs) constitutes a promising tool for generating an antitumor response because of their capacity to present tumor antigens and provide appropriate costimulatory signals. CD40-CD40L interaction has an important role in the maturation and survival of dendritic cells and provides critical help for T-cell priming. In this study, we sought to improve the effectiveness of FC vaccines in a murine model of B-cell lymphoma by engineering FCs to express CD40L by means of an adenovirus encoding CD40L (Adv-CD40L). Before transduction with Adv-CD40L, no CD40L expression was detected in FCs, DCs or tumor cells. The surface expression of CD40L in FC transduced with Adv-CD40L (FC-CD40L) ranged between 50 and 60%. FC-CD40L showed an enhanced expression of CD80, CD86, CD54 and MHC class II molecules and elicited a strong in vitro immune response in a syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. Furthermore, FC-CD40L showed enhanced migration to secondary lymphoid organs. Splenocytes from mice treated with FC-CD40L had a dramatic increase in the production of IL-17, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, compared with controls. Treatment with the FC-CD40L vaccine induced regression of established tumors and increased survival. Our data demonstrate that FC transduced with Adv-CD40L enhances the antitumor effect of FC vaccines in a murine lymphoma model and this is associated with an increased Th17-type immune response.

  12. NF-κB Is Involved in Regulation of CD40 Ligand Expression on Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Activated Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Samperio, Patricia; Ayala, Hilda; Vázquez, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between CD40L (CD154) on activated T cells and its receptor CD40 on antigen-presenting cells has been reported to be important in the resolution of infection by mycobacteria. However, the mechanism(s) by which Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) up-regulates membrane expression of CD40L molecules is poorly understood. This study was done to investigate the role of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in the regulation of CD40L expression in human CD4+ T cells stimulated with BCG. Specific pharmacologic inhibition of the NF-κB pathway revealed that this signaling cascade was required in the regulation of CD40L expression on the surface of BCG-activated CD4+ T cells. These results were further supported by the fact that treatment of BCG-activated CD4+ T cells with these pharmacological inhibitors significantly down-regulated CD40L mRNA. In this study, inhibitor κBα (IκBα) and IκBβ protein production was not affected by the chemical protease inhibitors and, more importantly, BCG led to the rapid but transient induction of NF-κB activity. Our results also indicated that CD40L expression on BCG-activated CD4+ T cells resulted from transcriptional up-regulation of the CD40L gene by a mechanism which is independent of de novo protein synthesis. Interestingly, BCG-induced activation of NF-κB and the increased CD40L cell surface expression were blocked by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors 1-[5-isoquinolinesulfonyl]-2-methylpiperazine and salicylate, both of which block phosphorylation of IκB. Moreover, rottlerin a Ca2+-independent PKC isoform inhibitor, significantly down-regulated CD40L mRNA in BCG-activated CD4+ T cells. These data strongly suggest that CD40L expression by BCG-activated CD4+ T cells is regulated via the PKC pathway and by NF-κB DNA binding activity. PMID:12738634

  13. Leishmania amazonensis impairs DC function by inhibiting CD40 expression via A2B adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Amanda B; Serafim, Tiago D; Marques-da-Silva, Eduardo A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R; Afonso, Luís C C

    2012-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in the modulation of immune responses and several studies have evaluated the interactions between Leishmania parasites and DCs. While extracellular ATP exhibits proinflammatory properties, adenosine is an important anti-inflammatory mediator. Here we investigated the effects of Leishmania infection on DC responses and the participation of purinergic signalling in this process. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from C57BL/6J mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis or Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes showed decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD86 expression and increased ectonucleotidase expression as compared with uninfected cells. In addition, L. amazonensis-infected DCs, which had lower CD40 expression, exhibited a decreased ability to induce T-cell proliferation. The presence of MRS1754, a highly selective A(2B) adenosine receptor antagonist at the time of infection increased MHC class II, CD86 and CD40 expression in L. amazonensis-infected DCs and restored the ability of the infected DCs to induce T-cell proliferation. Similar results were obtained through the inhibition of extracellular ATP hydrolysis using suramin. In conclusion, we propose that A(2B) receptor activation may be used by L. amazonensis to inhibit DC function and evade the immune response. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Impaired NFAT and NFκB activation are involved in suppression of CD40 ligand expression by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in human CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2013-11-15

    We have previously reported that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, suppresses CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by activated mouse CD4(+) T cells. CD40L is involved in pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Δ(9)-THC-mediated suppression of CD40L expression using peripheral blood human T cells. Pretreatment with Δ(9)-THC attenuated CD40L expression in human CD4(+) T cells activated by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level, as determined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Δ(9)-THC suppressed the DNA-binding activity of both NFAT and NFκB to their respective response elements within the CD40L promoter. An assessment of the effect of Δ(9)-THC on proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling induced by anti-CD3/CD28 showed significant impairment in the rise of intracellular calcium, but no significant effect on the phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β. Collectively, these findings identify perturbation of the calcium-NFAT and NFκB signaling cascade as a key mechanistic event by which Δ(9)-THC suppresses human T cell function.

  15. The CD40/CD40 ligand interactions exert pleiotropic effects on bone marrow granulopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Mavroudi, Irene; Papadaki, Vassiliki; Pyrovolaki, Katerina; Katonis, Pavlos; Eliopoulos, Aristides G; Papadaki, Helen A

    2011-05-01

    CD40 is a member of the TNFR family and upon interaction with its cognate ligand (CD40L), induces diverse biologic responses related to cell survival/growth. As altered CD40/CD40L interactions have been associated with neutropenia, we investigated the role of CD40/CD40L on human granulopoiesis using immunomagnetically sorted CD34(+), CD34(-)/CD33(+), and CD34(-)/CD33(-)/CD15(+) BM cells, which represent sequential stages of the granulocytic development, the KG-1 cells that constantly express CD34 and CD33, and LTBMCs that mimic the BM microenvironment. CD40 and CD40L were minimally expressed on CD34(+), CD34(-)/CD33(+), and CD34(-)/CD33(-)/CD15(+) cells, but CD40 was substantially induced in the presence of TNF-α. Cross-linking of CD40 in the above cell populations resulted in induction of apoptosis that was enhanced further in the presence of FasL. CD40 activation in primary as wells as in KG-1 cells resulted in Fas up-regulation, providing a mechanism for the CD40-mediated apoptosis. Addition of CD40L in clonogenic assays resulted in a significant decrease in the colony-forming capacity of BMMCs from patients with chronic neutropenia, presumably expressing high levels of CD40 in the progenitor cells, and this effect was reversed upon CD40 blockade. CD40 was constitutively expressed on LTBMC stromal cells and upon activation, resulted in an increase in G-CSF and GM-CSF production. These data show that CD40/CD40L interactions may promote granulopoiesis under steady-state conditions by inducing the stromal release of granulopoiesis-supporting cytokines, whereas under inflammatory conditions, they may affect the granulocytic progenitor/precursor cell survival by accelerating the Fas-mediated apoptosis.

  16. MiR-21 Regulates TNF-α-Induced CD40 Expression via the SIRT1-NF-κB Pathway in Renal Inner Medullary Collecting Duct Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qinqin; Geng, Yuanwen; Zhao, Meng; Lin, Shuaishuai; Zhu, Qing; Tian, Zhenjun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is involved in the inflammatory response in relation to renal disease. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) exerts renoprotective properties by counteracting inflammation. The activation of CD40 triggers inflammation that participates in renal inflammation and injury. The relationship between miR-21, SIRT1 and CD40, however, remains elusive. Immunohistochemistry, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were applied to assess the morphological, functional and molecular mechanisms in primary cultured renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. TNF-α induced miR-21, CD40 and acetylated-NF-κBp65 (Ac-p65) expressions and reduced SIRT1 expression in IMCD cells. miR-21 mimics increased SIRT1 expression and attenuated Ac-p65 and CD40 expressions in TNF-α-induced IMCD cells, and the corresponding changes were observed with a miR-21 inhibitor. SIRT1 overexpression or activation by SRT1720 diminished TNF-α-induced CD40 and Ac-p65 expressions, which was reversed by SIRT1 siRNA or the inhibitors Ex527 and sirtinol and augmented by pretreatment with NF-κB siRNA. Further study found that the inhibitory effect of miR-21 on Ac-p65 and CD40 expressions was impeded by pretreatment with SIRT1 siRNA. The present study indicates that miR-21 inhibits TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in IMCD cells via the SIRT1-NF-κB signalling pathway, which provides new insight in understanding the anti-inflammatory effect of miR-21. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. CD40/CD40L contributes to hypercholesterolemia-induced microvascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Karen Y.; Calahan, LeShanna; Hamric, Candiss M.; Russell, Janice M.; Granger, D. Neil

    2009-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with phenotypic changes in endothelial cell function that lead to a proinflammatory and prothrombogenic state in different segments of the microvasculature. CD40 ligand (CD40L) and its receptor CD40 are ubiquitously expressed and mediate inflammatory responses and platelet activation. The objective of this study was to determine whether CD40/CD40L, in particular T-cell CD40L, contributes to microvascular dysfunction induced by hypercholesterolemia. Intravital microscopy was used to quantify blood cell adhesion in cremasteric postcapillary venules, endothelium-dependent vasodilation responses in arterioles, and microvascular oxidative stress in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6, CD40-deficient (−/−), CD40L−/−, or severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice placed on a normal (ND) or high-cholesterol (HC) diet for 2 wk. WT-HC mice exhibited an exaggerated leukocyte and platelet recruitment in venules and impaired vasodilation responses in arterioles compared with ND counterparts. A deficiency of CD40, CD40L, or lymphocytes attenuated these responses to HC. The HC phenotype was rescued in CD40L−/− and SCID mice by a transfer of WT T cells. Bone marrow chimeras revealed roles for both vascular- and blood cell-derived CD40 and CD40L in the HC-induced vascular responses. Hypercholesterolemia induced an oxidative stress in both arterioles and venules of WT mice, which was abrogated by either CD40 or CD40L deficiency. The transfer of WT T cells into CD40L−/− mice restored the oxidative stress. These results implicate CD40/CD40L interactions between circulating cells and the vascular wall in both the arteriolar and venular dysfunction elicited by hypercholesterolemia and identify T-cell-associated CD40L as a key mediator of these responses. PMID:19112095

  18. The protective effect of fenofibrate against TNF-α-induced CD40 expression through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of NF-κB in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weirong; Bai, Ling; Qiao, Hu; Lu, Yanxiang; Yang, Lina; Zhang, Jiye; Lin, Rong; Ren, Feng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Ji, Meixi

    2014-02-01

    Fenofibrate, as a lipid-lowering drug in clinic, participates in the regulation of inflammatory response. Recently, increasing studies have indicated that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has potential anti-inflammatory effect in endothelial cells. However, whether the regulatory effect of fenofibrate on inflammation response is mediated by SIRT1 remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fenofibrate on the expressions of SIRT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine CD40 in endothelial cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that fenofibrate upregulated SIRT1 expression and inhibited CD40 expression in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells, but these effects were reversed by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) antagonist GW6471. Furthermore, SIRT1 inhibitors sirtinol/nicotinamide (NAM) or SIRT1 knockdown could attenuate the effect of fenofibrate on CD40 expression in endothelial cells. Importantly, NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) augmented the effect of fenofibrate on CD40 expression. Further study found that fenofibrate decreased the expression of acetylated-NF-κB p65 (Ac-NF-κB p65) in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells, which was abolished by SIRT1 knockdown. These results indicate that fenofibrate has protective effect against TNF-α-induced CD40 expression through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB.

  19. SIRT1 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced CD40 expression in renal medullary collecting duct cells by suppressing the TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qin-Qin; Geng, Yuan-Wen; Jiang, Zhong-Wei; Tian, Zhen-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, exerts a protective effect against inflammatory kidney injury by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines production. The co-stimulatory molecule, CD40, is expressed in a variety of inflammatory diseases in the kidney. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of SIRT1 on CD40 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to disclose the underlying mechanisms in renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. mRNA and protein expressions were identified by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. Subcellular localization of SIRT1 and CD40 were respectively detected by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) was carried out for mechanism study. LPS reduced SIRT1 expression and up-regulated the expression of CD40, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phospho-NF-κBp65 (p-NF-κBp65) in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Moreover, SIRT1 overexpression or activation by SRT1720 diminished the expression of CD40, TLR4 and p-NF-κBp65, which was reversed by SIRT1 siRNA or inhibitors Ex527 and sirtinol in LPS-stimulated IMCD cells. In addition, knockdown of TLR4 decreased the expression of CD40 and p-NF-κBp65 in IMCD cells exposed to LPS. Knockdown of NF-κBp65 or NF-κBp65 inhibition by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduced LPS-induced CD40 expression in IMCD cells. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of SIRT1 on the expression of CD40 and p-NF-κBp65 was augmented by pre-treating with TLR4 siRNA. Our data indicate that SIRT1 inhibits LPS-induced CD40 expression in IMCD cells by suppressing the TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway, which might provide novel insight into understanding the protective effect of SIRT1 in kidney. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. TWEAK inhibits TRAF2-mediated CD40 signaling by destabilization of CD40 signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Steffen; Lang, Isabell; Rosenthal, Alevtina; Schäfer, Viktoria; Weisenberger, Daniela; Carmona Arana, José Antonio; Trebing, Johannes; Siegmund, Daniela; Neumann, Manfred; Wajant, Harald

    2013-09-01

    We found recently that TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and fibroblast growth factor-inducible-14 (Fn14) by virtue of their strong capability to reduce the freely available cytoplasmic pool of TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2 and cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (cIAPs) antagonize the functions of these molecules in TNFR1 signaling, resulting in sensitization for apoptosis and inhibition of classical NF-κB signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that priming of cells with TWEAK also interferes with activation of the classical NF-κB pathway by CD40. Likewise, there was strong inhibition of CD40 ligand (CD40L)-induced activation of MAPKs in TWEAK-primed cells. FACS analysis and CD40L binding studies revealed unchanged CD40 expression and normal CD40L-CD40 interaction in TWEAK-primed cells. CD40L immunoprecipitates, however, showed severely reduced amounts of CD40 and CD40-associated proteins, indicating impaired formation or reduced stability of CD40L-CD40 signaling complexes. The previously described inhibitory effect of TWEAK on TNFR1 signaling has been traced back to reduced activity of the TNFR1-associated TRAF2-cIAP1/2 ubiquitinase complex and did not affect the stability of the immunoprecipitable TNFR1 receptor complex. Thus, the inhibitory effect of TWEAK on CD40 signaling must be based at least partly on other mechanisms. In line with this, signaling by the CD40-related TRAF2-interacting receptor TNFR2 was also attenuated but still immunoprecipitable in TWEAK-primed cells. Collectively, we show that Fn14 activation by soluble TWEAK impairs CD40L-CD40 signaling complex formation and inhibits CD40 signaling and thus identify the Fn14-TWEAK system as a potential novel regulator of CD40-related cellular functions.

  1. Canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes express various inflammatory markers, including interleukin-8 and CD40, which are affected by certain antibiotics.

    PubMed

    White, Amelia G; Wolsic, Cassandra L; Campbell, Karen L; Lavergne, Sidonie N

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial skin infections are common in dogs and humans. Keratinocytes have phenotypic features of nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells and express various cytokines. However, little is known about the effects of antibiotics on inflammatory markers in canine keratinocytes. To investigate inflammatory markers in canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEKs) and to determine the effects of selected antibiotics on these markers. The CPEKs were exposed for 2-24 h to three concentrations of amoxicillin, cefalexin, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole (or its nitroso metabolite), amikacin or enrofloxacin. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunocytochemistry were used to detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II. CD40 and CXCR1 [interleukin (IL)-8 receptor] were detected using ELISA. Secreted cytokines/chemokines were quantified using a multiplex kit. No MHC II protein was detected. CD40 protein was found at 24 h, with levels being significantly increased by enrofloxacin. The CPEKs secreted no detectable monocyte chemotactic protein-1; undetectable to low (picogram per millilitre range) concentrations of IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-15, tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; and high (nanogram per millilitre range) concentrations of IL-8. Levels of IL-8 increased over 24 h following cell proliferation. They were significantly increased by enrofloxacin after 8 h, and by cefalexin, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, its nitroso metabolite and enrofloxacin after 24 h. The CPEKs expressed CXCR1. Canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes express various inflammatory proteins, with expression profiles being affected by certain antibiotics. This supports previous work showing keratinocytes to be mediators of inflammation and demonstrates the potential pro-inflammatory effects of certain antibiotics in the skin. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Defective expression of the CD40 ligand in X chromosome-linked immunoglobulin deficiency with normal or elevated IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Fuleihan, R; Ramesh, N; Loh, R; Jabara, H; Rosen, R S; Chatila, T; Fu, S M; Stamenkovic, I; Geha, R S

    1993-01-01

    B lymphocytes from patients with X chromosome-linked immunoglobulin deficiency with normal or elevated serum IgM are unable to switch from the synthesis of IgM/IgD to that of other immunoglobulin isotypes. Isotype switch recombination was evaluated in three affected males by examining interleukin 4-driven IgE synthesis. T-cell-dependent IgE synthesis was completely absent in the B lymphocytes of the patients. In contrast, CD40 mAb plus interleukin 4 induced the patients' B cells to synthesize IgE and to undergo deletional switch recombination. Because interaction between CD40 and its ligand on activated T cells is critical for T-cell-driven isotype switching, we examined CD40 ligand expression. In contrast to normal T cells, lymphocytes from the patients expressed no detectable CD40 ligand on their surface after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin, although the mRNA of the ligand was expressed normally. These results suggest that defective expression of the CD40 ligand underlies the failure of isotype switching in this disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7681587

  3. PPARα agonist fenofibrate attenuates TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weirong; Lin, Qinqin; Lin, Rong; Zhang, Jiye; Ren, Feng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Ji, Meixi; Li, Yanxiang

    2013-06-10

    The ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) participates in the regulation of cellular inflammation. More recent studies indicated that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes. However, whether the role of PPARα in inflammation is mediated by SIRT1 remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of PPARα agonist fenofibrate on the expressions of SIRT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine CD40 and underlying mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that fenofibrate inhibited CD40 expression and up-regulated SIRT1 expression in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated adipocytes, and these effects of fenofibrate were reversed by PPARα antagonist GW6471. Moreover, SIRT1 inhibitors sirtinol/nicotinamide (NAM) or knockdown of SIRT1 could attenuate the effect of fenofibrate on TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in adipocytes. Importantly, NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) augmented the effect of fenofibrate on CD40 expression in adipocytes. Further study found that fenofibrate decreased the expression of acetylated-NF-κB p65 (Ac-NF-κB p65) in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes, and the effect of fenofibrate was abolished by SIRT1 inhibition. In addition, fenofibrate up-regulated SIRT1 expression through AMPK in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that PPARα agonist fenofibrate inhibits TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway. -- Highlights: • Fenofibrate up-regulates SIRT1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression through SIRT1 in adipocytes. • The effects of fenofibrate on CD40 and SIRT1 expressions are dependent on PPARα. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression via SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of NF-κB. • Fenofibrate increases SIRT1 expression through PPARα and AMPK in adipocytes.

  4. Upregulation of CD72 expression on CD19(+) CD27(+) memory B cells by CD40L in primary immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Mingen; Hao, Yating; Li, Yang; Lyu, Cuicui; Liu, Wenjie; Li, Huiyuan; Xue, Feng; Liu, Xiaofan; Yang, Renchi

    2017-07-01

    CD72 is a co-receptor of B cells and regulates B cell activation. Although aberrant expression of CD72 has been reported in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), it is uncertain whether this aberrant expression is restricted to specific B cell subsets. Furthermore, the mechanisms that regulate CD72 expression are unknown. In this study, we found higher frequency of CD19(+) B cells, CD19(+) CD27(+) memory B cells and lower frequency of CD19(+) CD27(-) naive B cells in active ITP patients compared with controls and patients in remission. CD72 expression on CD19(+) CD27(+) cells was upregulated in active ITP patients and correlated with platelet count and anti-platelet autoantibodies. In vitro, CD40L could specifically induce CD72 upregulation on CD19(+) CD27(+) B cells. In combination with CD40L, interleukin (IL) 10 and BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) further enhanced CD72 expression on CD19(+) CD27(+) B cells, whereas IL21 reduced CD72 upregulation. CD72mRNA expression after CD40L stimulation was increased in ITP patients and controls. Significant increase of CD40L on CD4(+) T cells was correlated with CD72 expression on CD19(+) CD27(+) B cells in ITP patients. In conclusion, upregulation of CD72 expression on CD27(+) memory B cells might take part in the pathogenesis of ITP. Elevated CD40L on CD4(+) cells combined with cytokines might contribute to the upregulation of CD72 expression on CD27(+) memory B cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. PPARα agonist fenofibrate attenuates TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weirong; Lin, Qinqin; Lin, Rong; Zhang, Jiye; Ren, Feng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Ji, Meixi; Li, Yanxiang

    2013-06-10

    The ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) participates in the regulation of cellular inflammation. More recent studies indicated that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes. However, whether the role of PPARα in inflammation is mediated by SIRT1 remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of PPARα agonist fenofibrate on the expressions of SIRT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine CD40 and underlying mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that fenofibrate inhibited CD40 expression and up-regulated SIRT1 expression in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated adipocytes, and these effects of fenofibrate were reversed by PPARα antagonist GW6471. Moreover, SIRT1 inhibitors sirtinol/nicotinamide (NAM) or knockdown of SIRT1 could attenuate the effect of fenofibrate on TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in adipocytes. Importantly, NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) augmented the effect of fenofibrate on CD40 expression in adipocytes. Further study found that fenofibrate decreased the expression of acetylated-NF-κB p65 (Ac-NF-κB p65) in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes, and the effect of fenofibrate was abolished by SIRT1 inhibition. In addition, fenofibrate up-regulated SIRT1 expression through AMPK in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that PPARα agonist fenofibrate inhibits TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human epidermal Langerhans cells differ from monocyte-derived Langerhans cells in CD80 expression and in secretion of IL-12 after CD40 cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Peiser, Matthias; Wanner, Reinhard; Kolde, Gerhard

    2004-09-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) represent an immature population of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). As a result of their unique Birbeck granules (BGs), langerin expression, and heterogeneous maturation process, they differ from other immature DCs. Monocyte-derived LCs (MoLCs) mimic epidermal LCs. MoLCs with characteristic BGs are generated by culturing blood-derived monocytes with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-4, and transforming growth factor-beta1. Here, we compare maturation-induced antigen expression and cytokine release of LCs with MoLCs. To achieve comparable cell populations, LCs and MoLCs were isolated by CD1c cell sorting, resulting in high purity. In unstimulated cells, CD40 was expressed at equal levels. After stimulation with CD40 ligand (CD40L), LCs and MoLCs acquired CD83 and increased CD86. High CD80 expression was exclusively detected in CD1c-sorted MoLCs. Human leukocyte antigen-DR and CD54 expression was found in all cell populations, however, at different intensities. CD40 triggering increased the potency of LCs and MoLCs to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation. Activated MoLCs released IL-12p70 and simultaneously, anti-inflammatory IL-10. The application of the Toll-like receptor ligands peptidoglycan, flagellin, and in particular, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the corelease of these cytokines. LCs secreted IL-10 at a comparable level with MoLCs but failed to produce high amounts of IL-12p70 after application of danger signals. These data indicate that MoLCs as well as LCs display no maturation arrest concerning CD83 and CD86 expression. In difference to MoLCs, LCs resisted activation by CD40L and LPS in terms of IL-12 production. This shows that natural and generated LCs share similar features but differ in relevant functions.

  7. Retinoic acid promotes mouse splenic B cell surface IgG expression and maturation stimulated by CD40 and IL-4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuyan; Ross, A Catharine

    2008-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) increases antibody production in vivo but its role in B-cell activation is unclear. In a model of purified mouse splenic B cells stimulated by CD40 coreceptor (as a surrogate of T cell co-stimulation), IL-4, a principal Th-2 cytokine, and ligation of the B-cell antigen receptor, CD40 engagement or IL-4 alone induced B-cell activation indicated by increased Igγ1 germline transcripts, cell proliferation, and surface (s)IgG1 expression, while triple stimulation with the combination of anti-CD40/IL-4/anti-μ synergized to heighten B-cell activation. Although RA was growth inhibitory for anti-CD40-activated B cells, RA increased the proportion of B cells that had more differentiated phenotypes, such as expression of higher level of activation-induced deaminase, Blimp-1, CD138/syndecan-1 and sIgG1. Overall, RA can promote B-cell maturation at the population level by increasing the number of sIgG1 and CD138 expressing cells, which may be related to the potentiation of humoral immunity in vivo. PMID:18082674

  8. Modulation of neuronal differentiation by CD40 isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Huayu; Obregon, Demian; Lou, Deyan; Ehrhart, Jared; Fernandez, Frank; Silver, Archie; Tan Jun

    2008-05-02

    Neuron differentiation is a complex process involving various cell-cell interactions, and multiple signaling pathways. We showed previously that CD40 is expressed and functional on mouse and human neurons. In neurons, ligation of CD40 protects against serum withdrawal-induced injury and plays a role in survival and differentiation. CD40 deficient mice display neuron dysfunction, aberrant neuron morphologic changes, and associated gross brain abnormalities. Previous studies by Tone and colleagues suggested that five isoforms of CD40 exist with two predominant isoforms expressed in humans: signal-transducible CD40 type I and a C-terminal truncated, non-signal-transducible CD40 type II. We hypothesized that differential expression of CD40 isoform type I and type II in neurons may modulate neuron differentiation. Results show that adult wild-type, and CD40{sup -/-} deficient mice predominantly express CD40 type I and II isoforms. Whereas adult wild-type mice express mostly CD40 type I in cerebral tissues at relatively high levels, in age and gender-matched CD40{sup -/-} mice CD40 type I expression was almost completely absent; suggesting a predominance of the non-signal-transducible CD40 type II isoform. Younger, 1 day old wild-type mice displayed less CD40 type I, and more CD40 type II, as well as, greater expression of soluble CD40 (CD40L/CD40 signal inhibitor), compared with 1 month old mice. Neuron-like N2a cells express CD40 type I and type II isoforms while in an undifferentiated state, however once induced to differentiate, CD40 type I predominates. Further, differentiated N2a cells treated with CD40 ligand express high levels of neuron specific nuclear protein (NeuN); an effect reduced by anti-CD40 type I siRNA, but not by control (non-targeting) siRNA. Altogether these data suggest that CD40 isoforms may act in a temporal fashion to modulate neuron differentiation during brain development. Thus, modulation of neuronal CD40 isoforms and CD40 signaling may

  9. CD40 Ligand enhances immunogenicity of vector-based vaccines in immunocompetent and CD4+ T cell deficient individuals

    PubMed Central

    Auten, Matthew W.; Huang, Weitao; Dai, Guixiang; Ramsay, Alistair J.

    2012-01-01

    Impairment of host immunity, particularly CD4+ T cell deficiency, presents significant complications for vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. CD40 ligand (CD40L or CD154), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF), is an important co-stimulatory molecule and, through interactions with its cognate receptor CD40, plays a pivotal role in the generation of host immune responses. Exploitation of CD40L and its receptor CD40 could provide a means to enhance and potentially restore protective immune responses in CD4+ T cell deficiency. To investigate the potential adjuvanticity of CD40L, we constructed recombinant plasmid DNA and adenoviral (Ad) vaccine vectors expressing murine CD40L and the mycobacterial protein antigen 85B (Ag85B). Co-immunization of mice with CD40L and Ag85B by intranasal or intramuscular prime-boosting led to route-dependent enhancement of the magnitude of vaccine-induced circulating and lung mucosal CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in both normal (CD4-replete) and CD4+ T cell deficient animals, including polyfunctional T cell responses. The presence of CD40L alone was insufficient to enhance or restore CD4+ T cell responses in CD4-ablated animals; however, in partially-depleted animals, co-immunization with Ag85B and CD40L was capable of eliciting enhanced T cell responses, similar to those observed in normal animals, when compared to those given vaccine antigen alone. In summary, these findings show that CD40L has the capacity to enhance the magnitude of vaccine-induced polyfunctional T cell responses in CD4+ T cell deficient mice, and warrants further study as an adjuvant for immunization against opportunistic pathogens in individuals with CD4+ T cell deficiency. PMID:22349523

  10. A20 overexpression inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation, TRAF6 and CD40 expression in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xun-Liang; Pei, De-An; Yan, Ju-Zhen; Xu, Gang; Wu, Ping

    2014-04-17

    Zinc finger protein A20 is a key negative regulator of inflammation. However, whether A20 may affect inflammation during peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of A20 overexpression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMCs). Isolated and cultured RPMCs in vitro. Plasmid pGEM-T easy-A20 was transfected into RPMCs by Lipofectamine™2000. The protein expression of A20, phospho-IκBα, IκBα, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 6 and CD40 were analyzed by Western blot. The mRNA expression of TRAF6, CD40, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by real time-PCR. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in cells culture supernatant were determined by ELISA. Our results revealed that RPMCs overexpression of A20 lead to significant decrease of LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB DNA binding activity (all p<0.01). In addition, A20 also attenuated the expression of TRAF6, CD40, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in cells culture supernatant (all p<0.05). However, A20 only partly inhibited CD40 expression. Our study indicated that A20 overexpression may depress the inflammatory response induced by LPS in cultured RPMCs through negatively regulated the relevant function of adaptors in LPS signaling pathway.

  11. Agreement of skin test with IL-4 production and CD40L expression by T cells upon immunotherapy of subjects with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Urra, José M; Cabrera, Carmen M; Alfaya, Teresa; Feo-Brito, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifications in several markers of tolerance induction in subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy undergoing immunotherapy. The studies were performed at baseline time and after six month of VIT. Intradermal skin tests, basophil activation tests, specific IgE levels; and the T-cell markers (IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells; and expression of the surface activation markers CD40L and CTLA-4) were assayed. At six month of immunotherapy all parameters studied had significant alterations. All decreased, except the IFN-γ producing cells. In addition, modifications in intradermal skin test showed a significant correlation with both, CD40L expression on CD4 T lymphocytes (p=0.043) and IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (p=0.012). Neither basophil activation test nor serum levels of sIgE demonstrated any correlation with the immunological parameters studied nor among them. These results suggest that both IL-4 production and CD40L expression could be two good indicators of the beneficial effects of venom immunotherapy which translate into skin tests.

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Vpu Induces the Expression of CD40 in Endothelial Cells and Regulates HIV-Induced Adhesion of B-Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Winnie W.; Ruhl, Rebecca; Lewis, Paul; Bentley, Matthew; Nelson, Jay A.; Moses, Ashlee V.

    2004-01-01

    AIDS-related B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). AIDS-NHL is clinically and histologically heterogeneous, but common features include an aggressive clinical course and frequent extranodal presentation. HIV-1 infection of nonimmune cells that interact with malignant B cells at extranodal sites may influence both the development and the clinical presentation of disease. Our previous studies have shown that coculture of B-lymphoma (BL) cells with HIV-1-infected endothelial cells (EC) leads to contact activation of EC and firm BL-cell adhesion. The key event promoting EC-BL-cell adhesion was HIV-1 upregulation of endothelial CD40, which allowed induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in a CD40-dependent manner. The present study was designed to identify the HIV-1 protein(s) that influence EC-BL-cell adhesion. When HIV-1 proteins were individually expressed in EC by using recombinant adenoviruses, cultured BL cells adhered exclusively to Vpu-transduced EC. As with HIV-infected EC, adhesive properties were linked to the capacity of Vpu to upregulate CD40, which in turn allowed efficient expression of VCAM-1. When EC were infected with an HIV-1 pseudotype lacking the Vpu gene, CD40 upregulation and BL-cell adhesive properties were lost, indicating an essential role for Vpu in EC-BL-cell interactions. Thus, these data reveal a novel function for HIV-1 Vpu and further suggest a role for Vpu in the development of AIDS-NHL at EC-rich extranodal sites. PMID:15078922

  13. Analysis of the association between CD40 and CD40 ligand polymorphisms and systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40LG) genes in the susceptibility and phenotype expression of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods In total, 2,670 SSc patients and 3,245 healthy individuals from four European populations (Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, and Italy) were included in the study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CD40 (rs1883832, rs4810485, rs1535045) and CD40LG (rs3092952, rs3092920) were genotyped by using a predesigned TaqMan allele-discrimination assay technology. Meta-analysis was assessed to determine whether an association exists between the genetic variants and SSc or its main clinical subtypes. Results No evidence of association between CD40 and CD40LG genes variants and susceptibility to SSc was observed. Similarly, no significant statistical differences were observed when SSc patients were stratified by the clinical subtypes, the serologic features, and pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusions Our results do not suggest an important role of CD40 and CD40LG gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to or clinical expression of SSc. PMID:22731751

  14. The CD40/CD40 Ligand Interaction Is Required for Resistance to Toxoplasmic Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Gaby; Walker, William; Villegas, Eric N.; Craig, Linden; Cai, Guifang; Alexander, James; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    Since the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is involved in the regulation of macrophage production of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and T-cell production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), effector cell functions associated with resistance to Toxoplasma gondii, the role of CD40L in immunity to this parasite was assessed. Infection of C57BL/6 mice with T. gondii results in an upregulation of CD40 expression on accessory cell populations at local sites of infection as well as in lymphoid tissues. Splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice infected with T. gondii for 5 days produced high levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ when stimulated with toxoplasma lysate antigen, and blocking CD40L did not significantly alter the production of IFN-γ or IL-12 by these cells. Similar results were observed with splenocytes and mononuclear cells isolated from the brains of chronically infected mice. Interestingly, although CD40L−/− mice infected with T. gondii produced less IL-12 than wild-type mice, they produced comparable levels of IFN-γ but succumbed to toxoplasmic encephalitis 4 to 5 weeks after infection. The inability of CD40L−/− mice to control parasite replication in the brain correlated with the ability of soluble CD40L, in combination with IFN-γ, to activate macrophages in vitro to control replication of T. gondii. Together, these results identify an important role for the CD40/CD40L interaction in resistance to T. gondii. However, this interaction may be more important in the control of parasite replication in the brain rather than the generation of protective T-cell responses during toxoplasmosis. PMID:10678943

  15. The interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) plays an important role in regulating monocyte-derived CD40 expression during anti-porcine cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z-G; Wang, Z; Zhu, L-M; Fang, Y-S; Yu, L-Z; Xu, H

    2012-05-01

    Long-term xenograft survival is limited by delayed xenograft rejection, and monocytes are thought to play an important role in this process. Although typically considered a T cell surface marker, interleukin 2 the receptor chain CD25 is also functional on monocytes. We hypothesized that CD25 expression on monocytes functions to augment monocyte activation in xeno-specific cellular responses. Xenogeneic mixed lymphocyte-endothelial cell reactions were used to study the role of CD25 in facilitating xenogeneic cell-mediated immune responses an in vitro. We also tested the effect of the anti-CD25 antibody daclizumab on monocyte-mediated T cell activation during xeno-specific cellular responses. Co-culture with porcine endothelial cells (PEC) elicited a pronounced proliferative response by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that was accompanied by upregulation of CD25 and CD40 on CD14(+) monocytes. CD4(+) cells proliferated in response to PEC-conditioned monocytes, while blockade of CD25 with daclizumab reduced CD4(+) cell proliferation in the presence of PEC-conditioned monocytes. In addition, daclizumab inhibited proliferation of PBMC in responses to PEC. Analysis of monocytes from PBMC-PEC cocultures by flow cytometry indicated that daclizumab inhibited CD40 upregulation on PEC-activated monocytes. These data demonstrate that CD25 blockade prevents xenogeneic cellular responses by directly blocking CD25 expression on both activated T cells and monocytes. CD25 blockade on T cells or monocytes may indirectly affect upregulation of CD40 on xenoreactive monocytes. Our data strengthen the rationale for incorporating CD25 directed therapy in discordant xenotransplantation.

  16. The CD40-CD40L system in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu, Burak; Lip, Gregory Y H; Snezhitskiy, Viktor; Shantsila, Eduard

    2011-08-01

    The CD40-CD40L system is a pathway which is associated with both prothrombotic and proinflammatory effects. CD40 and its ligand were first discovered on the surface of activated T cells, but its presence on B cells, antigen-presenting cells, mast cells, and finally platelets, is evident. The soluble form of CD40L (sCD40L) is derived mainly from activated platelets and contributes to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. Indeed, sCD40L has autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine activities, and it enhances platelet activation, aggregation, and platelet-leucocyte conjugation that may lead to atherothrombosis. It has even been suggested that sCD40L may play a pathogenic role in triggering acute coronary syndromes. Conversely, blockade of this pathway with anti-CD40L antibodies may prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Concentrations of sCD40L also predict risk of future cardiovascular disease in healthy women and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, there are controversial and uncertain points over the application of this biomarker to clinical cardiology. In this review, we provide an overview of potential implications of CD40-CD40L signalling and sCD40L as a biomarker in patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases.

  17. Impaired NFAT and NFκB activation are involved in suppression of CD40 ligand expression by Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol in human CD4{sup +} T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Kaplan, Barbara L.F.; Kaminski, Norbert E.

    2013-11-15

    We have previously reported that Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, suppresses CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by activated mouse CD4{sup +} T cells. CD40L is involved in pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Δ{sup 9}-THC-mediated suppression of CD40L expression using peripheral blood human T cells. Pretreatment with Δ{sup 9}-THC attenuated CD40L expression in human CD4{sup +} T cells activated by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level, as determined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Δ{sup 9}-THC suppressed the DNA-binding activity of both NFAT and NFκB to their respective response elements within the CD40L promoter. An assessment of the effect of Δ{sup 9}-THC on proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling induced by anti-CD3/CD28 showed significant impairment in the rise of intracellular calcium, but no significant effect on the phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β. Collectively, these findings identify perturbation of the calcium-NFAT and NFκB signaling cascade as a key mechanistic event by which Δ{sup 9}-THC suppresses human T cell function. - Highlights: • Δ{sup 9}-THC attenuated CD40L expression in activated human CD4+ T cells. • Δ{sup 9}-THC suppressed DNA-binding activity of NFAT and NFκB. • Δ{sup 9}-THC impaired elevation of intracellular Ca2+. • Δ{sup 9}-THC did not affect phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β.

  18. Giving blood: a new role for CD40 in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Stephan; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2006-10-30

    CD40 was initially identified as a receptor expressed by B cells that is crucial for inducing an effective adaptive immune response. CD40 was subsequently shown to be expressed by endothelial cells and to promote angiogenesis. New data now show that in tumor-prone transgenic mice, CD40-mediated neovascularization is essential for early stage tumorigenicity. This suggests, at least in this mouse model, that CD40 has an important role in the angiogenic process that is coupled to carcinogenesis, a finding that could lead to novel therapeutic opportunities.

  19. IL-12-mediated STAT4 signaling and TCR signal strength cooperate in the induction of CD40L in human and mouse CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Stark, Regina; Hartung, Anett; Zehn, Dietmar; Frentsch, Marco; Thiel, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    CD40L is one of the key molecules bridging the activation of specific T cells and the maturation of professional and nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells including B cells. CD4(+) T cells have been regarded as the major T-cell subset that expresses CD40L upon cognate activation; however, we demonstrate here that a putative CD8(+) helper T-cell subset expressing CD40L is induced in human and murine CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in mice immunized with antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. IL-12 and STAT4-mediated signaling was the major instructive cytokine signal boosting the ability of CD8(+) T cells to express CD40L both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, TCR signaling strength modulated CD40L expression in CD8(+) T cells after primary differentiation in vitro as well as in vivo. The induction of CD40L in CD8(+) T cells regulated by IL-12 and TCR signaling may enable CD8(+) T cells to respond autonomously of CD4(+) T cells. Thus, we propose that under proinflammatory conditions, a self-sustaining positive feedback loop could facilitate the efficient priming of T cells stimulated by high affinity peptide displaying APCs.

  20. CD40 ligand immunotherapy in cancer: an efficient approach.

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, N; Kageyama, S; Eto, Y; Urashima, M

    2001-01-01

    Cancer cells do not elicit a clinically sufficient anti-tumor immune response that results in tumor rejection. Recently, many investigators have been trying to enhance anti-tumor immunity and encouraging results have been reported. This review will discuss current anti-cancer immunotherapy; interleukin-2 therapy, tumor vaccine secreting Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, dendritic cells fused with tumor cells, and CD40 ligand immunotherapy. Moreover, we introduce our two kinds of CD40 ligand immuno-genetherapy; (1) oral CD40 ligand gene therapy against lymphoma using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (published in BLOOD 2000), (2) cancer vaccine transfected with CD40 ligand ex vivo for neuroblastoma (unpublished). Both approaches resulted in a high degree of protection against the tumor progression and they are simple and safe in the murine system.

  1. A Salmonella typhi OmpC fusion protein expressing the CD154 Trp140–Ser149 amino acid strand binds CD40 and activates a lymphoma B-cell line

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Mario I; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Luría-Perez, Rosendo; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney; Isibasi, Armado; González-Bonilla, Cesar R

    2003-01-01

    CD154 is a type II glycoprotein member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family, which is expressed mainly on the surface of activated T lymphocytes. The interaction with its receptor CD40, plays a central role in the control of several functions of the immune system. Structural models based on the homology of CD154 with TNF and lymphotoxin indicate that binding to CD40 involves three regions surrounding amino acids K143, R203 and Q220, and that strands W140–S149 and S198–A210 are critical for such interactions. Also, it has been reported that two recombinant CD154 fragments, including amino acid residues Y45–L261 or E108–L261 are biologically active, whereas other polypeptides, including S149–L261, are not. Therefore, we decided to construct a fusion protein inserting the W140-S149 amino acid strand (WAEKGYYTMS) in an external loop of the outer membrane protein C (OmpC) from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and assess its ability to bind CD40 and activate B cells. The sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the chimeric OmpC–gp39 protein conserved its ability to form trimers. Binding to CD40 was established by three variants of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a direct binding assay by coating plates with a recombinant CD40–Fc protein and through two competition assays between OmpC–gp39 and recombinant CD154 or soluble CD40–Fc. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that OmpC–gp39 increased the expression levels of major histocompatibility complex II, CD23, and CD80, in Raji human B-cell lymphoma similarly to an antibody against CD40. These results further support that the CD154/CD40 interaction is similar to the TNF/TNF receptor. This is the first report of a bacterial fusion protein containing a small amino acid strand form a ligand that is able to activate its cognate receptor. PMID:14511234

  2. AdCD40L gene therapy counteracts T regulatory cells and cures aggressive tumors in an orthotopic bladder cancer model.

    PubMed

    Loskog, Angelica S I; Fransson, Moa E; Totterman, Thomas T H

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this study was to develop an immunostimulating gene therapy for the treatment of orthotopic bladder carcinoma by transferring the gene for CD40L into the tumor site. CD40L stimulation of dendritic cells induces interleukin-12 expression that drives Th1 type of immune responses with activation of cytotoxic T cells. The gene for murine CD40L was transferred into bladders of tumor-bearing mice using an adenoviral vector construct. To facilitate viral uptake, the bladders were pretreated with Clorpactin. Survival of mice as well as transgene expression and immunologic effect, such as resistance to tumor challenge and presence of T regulatory cells, were monitored. On viral vector instillation, CD40L expression could be detected by reverse transcription-PCR. As a sign of transgene function, interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression was significantly increased. AdCD40L gene therapy cured 60% of mice with preestablished tumors. The cured mice were completely resistant to subcutaneous challenge with MB49 tumor cells, whereas the growth of a syngeneic irrelevant tumor was unaltered. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of the T regulatory cell transcription factor Foxp3 was evaluated both in tumor biopsies and lymph nodes. There were no differences within the tumors of the different treatment groups. However, Foxp3 mRNA levels were down-regulated in the lymph nodes of AdCD40L-treated mice. Correspondingly, T cells from AdCD40L-treated mice were not able to inhibit proliferation of naive T cells as opposed to T cells from control-treated, tumor-bearing mice. AdCD40L gene therapy evokes Th1 cytokine responses and counteracts T regulatory cell development and/or function.

  3. Platelet CD40L mediates thrombotic and inflammatory processes in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lievens, Dirk; Zernecke, Alma; Seijkens, Tom; Soehnlein, Oliver; Beckers, Linda; Munnix, Imke C. A.; Wijnands, Erwin; Goossens, Pieter; van Kruchten, Roger; Thevissen, Larissa; Boon, Louis; Flavell, Richard A.; Noelle, Randolph J.; Gerdes, Norbert; Biessen, Erik A.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Weber, Christian

    2010-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L), identified as a costimulatory molecule expressed on T cells, is also expressed and functional on platelets. We investigated the thrombotic and inflammatory contributions of platelet CD40L in atherosclerosis. Although CD40L-deficient (Cd40l−/−) platelets exhibited impaired platelet aggregation and thrombus stability, the effects of platelet CD40L on inflammatory processes in atherosclerosis were more remarkable. Repeated injections of activated Cd40l−/− platelets into Apoe−/− mice strongly decreased both platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and decreased plasma CCL2 levels compared with wild-type platelets. Moreover, Cd40l−/− platelets failed to form proinflammatory platelet-leukocyte aggregates. Expression of CD40L on platelets was required for platelet-induced atherosclerosis as injection of Cd40l−/− platelets in contrast to Cd40l+/+ platelets did not promote lesion formation. Remarkably, injection of Cd40l+/+, but not Cd40l−/−, platelets transiently decreased the amount of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in blood and spleen. Depletion of Tregs in mice injected with activated Cd40l−/− platelets abrogated the athero-protective effect, indicating that CD40L on platelets mediates the reduction of Tregs leading to accelerated atherosclerosis. We conclude that platelet CD40L plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, not only by affecting platelet-platelet interactions but especially by activating leukocytes, thereby increasing platelet-leukocyte and leukocyte-endothelium interactions. PMID:20705757

  4. CD40 Generation 2.5 Antisense Oligonucleotide Treatment Attenuates Doxorubicin-induced Nephropathy and Kidney Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Aaron J; Yeh, Steve T; Hung, Gene; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Mullick, Adam E

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical data suggest CD40 activation contributes to renal inflammation and injury. We sought to test whether upregulation of CD40 in the kidney is a causative factor of renal pathology and if reduction of renal CD40 expression, using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting CD40, would be beneficial in mouse models of glomerular injury and unilateral ureter obstruction. Administration of a Generation 2.5 CD40 ASO reduced CD40 mRNA and protein levels 75–90% in the kidney. CD40 ASO treatment mitigated functional, transcriptional, and pathological endpoints of doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. Experiments using an activating CD40 antibody revealed CD40 is primed in kidneys following doxorubicin injury or unilateral ureter obstruction and CD40 ASO treatment blunted CD40-dependent renal inflammation. Suborgan fractionation and imaging studies demonstrated CD40 in glomeruli before and after doxorubicin administration that becomes highly enriched within interstitial and glomerular foci following CD40 activation. Such foci were also sites of ASO distribution and activity and may be predominately comprised from myeloid cells as bone marrow CD40 deficiency sharply attenuated CD40 antibody responses. These studies suggest an important role of interstitial renal and/or glomerular CD40 to augment kidney injury and inflammation and demonstrate that ASO treatment could be an effective therapy in such disorders. PMID:26623936

  5. Platelet CD40L at the interface of adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Elzey, Bennett D.; Ratliff, Timothy L.; Sowa, Jennifer M.; Crist, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Initiated by the finding that platelets express functional CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), many new roles for platelets have been discovered in unanticipated areas, including the immune response. When current literature is considered as a whole, the picture that is emerging begins to show that platelets are able to significantly affect, for better or worse, the overall health and condition of the mammalian host. Animal models have made significant contributions to our expanding knowledge of platelet function, much of which is anticipated to be clinically relevant. While still mostly circumstantial, the evidence supports a critical role for CD40L in many normal and disease processes. PMID:21075431

  6. CD40: a mediator of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Datta, Dipak; Geehan, Christopher; Briscoe, David M; Pal, Soumitro

    2005-09-01

    Infiltration of immune cells into the renal interstitium is characteristic of chronic inflammatory kidney diseases. CD4+ T cells and platelets express CD40 ligand (CD40L) and are reported to mediate proinflammatory events in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC) via interaction with CD40. In other cell types, CD40 signals can also induce protective genes. Here, human RPTEC were treated with sCD40L to ligate CD40, and a significant increase in the generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species was found; however, CD40-activated cells did not undergo apoptosis. This suggests that CD40 signals may simultaneously induce antiapoptotic genes for cytoprotection of RPTEC. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressed in RPTEC serves as a protective gene, but it is not known whether it is regulated by CD40. Next, RPTEC were transiently transfected with a full-length HO-1 promoter-luciferase construct and were treated with sCD40L. CD40 ligation was found to significantly increase HO-1 promoter activity. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay, it was confirmed that CD40 signaling induced the transcriptional activation of HO-1 through the binding of NF-kappaB to its promoter. By Western blot analysis, a marked increase in HO-1 protein expression following CD40 ligation was also found. These observations are of clinical significance because it was found that CD40 and HO-1 are induced in expression in vivo in inflamed rejecting kidney biopsies and co-expressed in renal tubules. Therefore, ligation of CD40 in RPTEC promotes both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes. Regulating the balance between these two events may be of importance in the prevention of tubular injury associated with renal disease.

  7. Increased CD40+ fibrocytes in patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Brian J; Atkins, Stephen; Ginter, Anna; Elner, Victor M; Nelson, Christine C; Douglas, Raymond S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phenotypic and functional characteristics of peripheral and tissue-infiltrating stem cells, called fibrocytes in patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI). Methods Seven patients with IOI were studied. In the three patients requiring orbital biopsy, fibrocytes were identified in orbital tissue from patients with IOI compared to healthy controls using immunohistochemistry. Fibrocytes from the peripheral blood of all seven patients and controls were quantified and phenotyped by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence for expression of CD34, alpha smooth muscle actin, CD40 and Collagen 1. Quantitation of CD40-mediated IL-6 production was measured using ELISA. Results Orbital biopsy specimens from patients with IOI demonstrate tissue infiltration by fibrocytes (n=3). Fibrocytes are present in the peripheral blood of IOI patients (n= 7) but are scarce in healthy donors (n=19). Fibrocytes from IOI patients express substantial levels of CD40 and ligation of CD40 increases IL-6 expression. Conclusions Fibrocytes are present in the peripheral blood and orbital tissues of patients with IOI and constitutively express CD40 and express IL-6 in response to ligation. This site-specific predilection of CD34+ fibrocytes to sites of orbital inflammation and fibrosis may suggest a role in IOI. Moreover CD40-mediated activation cytokine production may contribute to the proinflammatory and profibrotic features of IOI and may provide a mechanism for future targeted therapy. PMID:25098443

  8. Differential peptide binding to CD40 evokes counteractive responses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Srijit; Alonso-Sarduy, Livan; Alonso, Livan; Roduit, Charles; Bandyopadhyay, Syamdas; Singh, Shailza; Saha, Shipra; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Roy, Somenath; Dietler, Giovanni; Kasas, Sandor; Das, Pradeep; Krishnasastry, M V; Saha, Bhaskar

    2012-05-01

    The antigen-presenting cell–expressed CD40 is implied in the regulation of counteractive immune responses such as induction of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)–12 and IL-10, respectively. The mechanism of this duality in CD40 function remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether such duality depends on ligand binding. Based on CD40 binding, we identifed two dodecameric peptides, peptide-7 and peptide-19, from the phage peptide library. Peptide-7 induces IL-10 and increases Leishmania donovani infection in macrophages, whereas peptide-19 induces IL-12 and reduces L. donovani infection. CD40-peptide interaction analyses by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy suggest that the functional differences are not associated with the studied interaction parameters. The molecular dynamic simulation of the CD40-peptides interaction suggests that these two peptides bind to two different places on CD40. Thus, we suggest for the first time that differential binding of the ligands imparts functional duality to CD40.

  9. The role of CD40 and CD40L in bone mineral density and in osteoporosis risk: A genetic and functional study.

    PubMed

    Panach, Layla; Pineda, Begoña; Mifsut, Damián; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio; García-Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-02-01

    Compelling data are revealing that the CD40/CD40L system is involved in bone metabolism. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that polymorphisms in both genes are associated with bone phenotypes. The aim of this study is to further characterize this association and to identify the causal functional mechanism. We conducted an association study of BMD with 15 SNPs in CD40/CD40L genes in a population of 779 women. In addition, we assessed the functionality of this association through the study of the allele-dependent expression of CD40 and CD40L in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and in human osteoblasts (OBs) obtained from bone explants by qPCR and by sequencing. When an allelic imbalance (AI) was detected, studies on allele-dependent in vitro transcription rate and on CpG methylation in the gene promoter were also performed. Our results confirm the genetic association between SNP rs116535 (T>C) of CD40L gene with LS-BMD. Regarding CD40 gene, two SNPs showed nominal P-values<0.05 for FN- and LS-BMD (Z-scores), although the association was not significant after correcting for multiple testing. Homozygous TT women for SNP rs1883832 (C>T) of CD40 gene showed a trend to have lower levels of OPG (Q-value=0.059), especially when women of BMD-quartile ends were selected (P<0.05). Regarding functionality, we detected an AI for rs1883832 with the C allele the most expressed in OBs and in PBLs. Since the rs116535 of CD40L gene did not show AI, it was not further analyzed. Finally, we described a differential methylation of CpGs in the CD40 promoter among women of high in comparison to low BMD. Our results suggest that the CD40/CD40L system plays a role in regulating BMD. Effectively, our data suggest that a decreased production of OPG could be the cause of the lower BMD observed in TT women for rs1883832 of the CD40 gene and that the degree of methylation of CpGs in the CD40 promoter could contribute to the acquisition of BMD. One possibility that deserves further

  10. AdCD40L--crossing the valley of death?

    PubMed

    Ullenhag, Gustav; Loskog, Angelica S I

    2012-08-01

    CD40-mediated cancer therapy has been under development since it became clear that CD40 plays a profound role in the stimulation of adaptive immune responses. Further, CD40 signaling on tumor cells may lead to growth arrest or even apoptosis that improves therapy outcome. The therapeutic window is appealing since the immune system is selective and normal cells do not apoptose upon CD40 signaling. AdCD40L is an adenoviral-based immunostimulatory gene therapy under evaluation for its efficacy to treat cancer. Because of its nature, the adenoviral backbone will stimulate TLRs while CD40L potentiates the shifts toward Th1 type of immunity. AdCD40L has shown efficacy in various murine models, and safety studies have been performed on dog patients and in human clinical trials. AdCD40L has been used for both ex vivo gene modification of tumor cell vaccines as well as for direct intratumoral injections. Lately, an oncolytic vector has been used to further increase the eradication of solid tumors that as a consequence further boosts the release of tumor antigens and creates danger signaling in the tumor micro milieu. This review discusses the currently unfolding mechanisms of action of AdCD40L gene therapy and its possibilities to reach clinical care.

  11. Mechanisms of Nifedipine-Downregulated CD40L/sCD40L Signaling in Collagen Stimulated Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2015-01-01

    The platelet-derived soluble CD40L (sCD40L) release plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Nifedipine, a dihydropyridine-based L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has been reported to have an anti-atherosclerotic effect beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether nifedipine affects sCD40L release from collagen-stimulated human platelets and to determine the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/-γ (PPAR-β/-γ). We found that treatment with nifedipine significantly inhibited the platelet surface CD40L expression and sCD40L release in response to collagen, while the inhibition was markedly reversed by blocking PPAR-β/-γ activity with specific antagonist such as GSK0660 and GW9662. Meanwhile, nifedipine also enhanced nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP formation in a PPAR-β/-γ-dependent manner. When the NO/cyclic GMP pathway was suppressed, nifedipine-mediated inhibition of sCD40L release was abolished significantly. Collagen-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and HSP27, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression/activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were significantly inhibited by nifedipine, whereas these alterations were all attenuated by co-treatment with PPAR-β/-γ antagonists. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPAR-β/-γ-dependent pathways contribute to nifedipine-mediated downregulation of CD40L/sCD40L signaling in activated platelets through regulation of NO/ p38MAPK/ERK1/2/HSP27/MMP-2 signalings and provide a novel mechanism regarding the anti-atherosclerotic effect of nifedipine. PMID:25970603

  12. Mechanisms of Nifedipine-Downregulated CD40L/sCD40L Signaling in Collagen Stimulated Human Platelets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Shih, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Lin; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2015-01-01

    The platelet-derived soluble CD40L (sCD40L) release plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Nifedipine, a dihydropyridine-based L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has been reported to have an anti-atherosclerotic effect beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether nifedipine affects sCD40L release from collagen-stimulated human platelets and to determine the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/-γ (PPAR-β/-γ). We found that treatment with nifedipine significantly inhibited the platelet surface CD40L expression and sCD40L release in response to collagen, while the inhibition was markedly reversed by blocking PPAR-β/-γ activity with specific antagonist such as GSK0660 and GW9662. Meanwhile, nifedipine also enhanced nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP formation in a PPAR-β/-γ-dependent manner. When the NO/cyclic GMP pathway was suppressed, nifedipine-mediated inhibition of sCD40L release was abolished significantly. Collagen-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and HSP27, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression/activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were significantly inhibited by nifedipine, whereas these alterations were all attenuated by co-treatment with PPAR-β/-γ antagonists. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPAR-β/-γ-dependent pathways contribute to nifedipine-mediated downregulation of CD40L/sCD40L signaling in activated platelets through regulation of NO/ p38MAPK/ERK1/2/HSP27/MMP-2 signalings and provide a novel mechanism regarding the anti-atherosclerotic effect of nifedipine.

  13. Type II Toxoplasma gondii induction of CD40 on infected macrophages enhances interleukin-12 responses.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Pedro; Sudarshana, Dattanand M; Gov, Lanny; Harker, Katherine S; Lam, Tonika; Casali, Paolo; Boyle, Jon P; Lodoen, Melissa B

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can cause severe neurological disease in infected humans. CD40 is a receptor on macrophages that plays a critical role in controlling T. gondii infection. We examined the regulation of CD40 on the surface of T. gondii-infected bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMdMs). T. gondii induced CD40 expression both at the transcript level and on the cell surface, and interestingly, the effect was parasite strain specific: CD40 levels were dramatically increased in type II T. gondii-infected BMdMs compared to type I- or type III-infected cells. Type II induction of CD40 was specific to cells harboring intracellular parasites and detectable as early as 6 h postinfection (hpi) at the transcript level. CD40 protein expression peaked at 18 hpi. Using forward genetics with progeny from a type II × type III cross, we found that CD40 induction mapped to a region of chromosome X that included the gene encoding the dense granule protein 15 (GRA15). Using type I parasites stably expressing the type II allele of GRA15 (GRA15II), we found that type I GRA15II parasites induced the expression of CD40 on infected cells in an NF-κB-dependent manner. In addition, stable expression of hemagglutinin-tagged GRA15II in THP-1 cells resulted in CD40 upregulation in the absence of infection. Since CD40 signaling contributes to interleukin-12 (IL-12) production, we examined IL-12 from infected macrophages and found that CD40L engagement of CD40 amplified the IL-12 response in type II-infected cells. These data indicate that GRA15II induction of CD40 promotes parasite immunity through the production of IL-12. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development.

    PubMed

    Landin, Maria A Dos Santos Silva; Shabestari, Maziar; Babaie, Eshrat; Reseland, Janne E; Osmundsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn), amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx), and enamelin (Enam) during early (pre-secretory) tooth development. The expression of these genes has predominantly been studied at post-secretory stages. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays were used to study gene expression during development of the murine first molar tooth germ at 24 h intervals, starting at the 11th embryonic day (E11.5), and up to the 7th day after birth (P7). The profile search function of Spotfire software was used to select genes with similar expression profile as the enamel genes (Ambn, Amelx, and Enam). Microarray results where validated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), and translated proteins identified by Western-blotting. In situ localization of the Ambn, Amelx, and Enam mRNAs were monitored from E12.5 to E17.5 using deoxyoligonucleotide probes. Bioinformatics analysis was used to associate biological functions with differentially expressed (DE; p ≤ 0.05) genes. Microarray results showed a total of 4362 genes including Ambn, Amelx, and Enam to be significant DE throughout the time-course. The expression of the three enamel genes was low at pre-natal stages (E11.5-P0) increasing after birth (P1-P7). Profile search lead to isolation of 87 genes with significantly similar expression to the three enamel proteins. These mRNAs were expressed in dental epithelium and epithelium derived cells. Although expression of Ambn, Amelx, and Enam were lower during early tooth development compared to secretory stages enamel proteins were detectable by Western-blotting. Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around 35 genes were associated with 15 transcription factors.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development

    PubMed Central

    Landin, Maria A. dos Santos Silva; Shabestari, Maziar; Babaie, Eshrat; Reseland, Janne E.; Osmundsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn), amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx), and enamelin (Enam) during early (pre-secretory) tooth development. The expression of these genes has predominantly been studied at post-secretory stages. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays were used to study gene expression during development of the murine first molar tooth germ at 24 h intervals, starting at the 11th embryonic day (E11.5), and up to the 7th day after birth (P7). The profile search function of Spotfire software was used to select genes with similar expression profile as the enamel genes (Ambn, Amelx, and Enam). Microarray results where validated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), and translated proteins identified by Western-blotting. In situ localization of the Ambn, Amelx, and Enam mRNAs were monitored from E12.5 to E17.5 using deoxyoligonucleotide probes. Bioinformatics analysis was used to associate biological functions with differentially expressed (DE; p ≤ 0.05) genes. Microarray results showed a total of 4362 genes including Ambn, Amelx, and Enam to be significant DE throughout the time-course. The expression of the three enamel genes was low at pre-natal stages (E11.5–P0) increasing after birth (P1–P7). Profile search lead to isolation of 87 genes with significantly similar expression to the three enamel proteins. These mRNAs were expressed in dental epithelium and epithelium derived cells. Although expression of Ambn, Amelx, and Enam were lower during early tooth development compared to secretory stages enamel proteins were detectable by Western-blotting. Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around 35 genes were associated with 15 transcription factors. PMID:22866057

  16. Silencing of CD40 in vivo reduces progression of experimental atherogenesis through an NF-κB/miR-125b axis and reveals new potential mediators in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hueso, Miguel; De Ramon, Laura; Navarro, Estanislao; Ripoll, Elia; Cruzado, Josep M; Grinyo, Josep M; Torras, Joan

    2016-12-01

    CD40/CD40L signaling exerts a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators in vascular inflammation and plaque formation. In this work, we investigated mRNA/miRNA expression during progression of atherosclerotic lesions through CD40 silencing. We silenced CD40 with a specific siRNA in ApoE(-/-) mice and compared expression of mRNA/miRNA in ascending aorta with scrambled treated mice. siRNA-CD40 treated mice significantly reduced the extension and severity of atherosclerotic lesions, as well as the number of F4/80(+), galectin-3(+) macrophages and NF-κB(+) cells in the intima. Genome-wide mRNA/miRNA profiling allowed the identification of transcripts, which were significantly upregulated during atherosclerosis; among them, miR-125b and miR-30a, Xpr1, a regulator of macrophage differentiation, Taf3, a core transcription factor and the NF-κB activator Ikkβ, whereas, the NF-κB inhibitor Ikbα was downregulated during disease progression. All those changes were reversed upon CD40 silencing. Interestingly, TAF3, XPR1 and miR-125b were also overexpressed in human atherosclerotic plaques. Murine Taf3 and Xpr1 were detected in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), and Taf3 also in intimal foam cells. Finally, expression of miR-125b was regulated by the CD40-NF-κB signaling axis in RAW264.7 macrophages. CD40 silencing with a specific siRNA ameliorates progression of experimental atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice, and evidences a role for NF-κB, Taf3, Xpr1, and miR-125b in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Liposome-mediated human CD40 gene transfection and human umbilical vein endothelial ECV-304 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-rong; Lin, Rong; Yang, Yu-cong; Gan, Wei-jie; Liu, Jun-tian; Lü, She-min

    2005-12-01

    To construct an eukaryotic expression vector containing human CD40 gene for its efficient, continuous and stable expression in human umbilical vein endothelial ECV-304 cells. The recombinant plasmid pUCD40 was digested with endonucleases to obtain human CD40 gene fragment, which was cloned into pCDNA3.1 vector to construct recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pCDNA3.1(+)/CD40. The recombinant vector was identified by enzyme digestion before introduced into ECV-304 cells via liposome, with the positive cell clones selected with G418. The stable transfection and expression of CD40 in ECV-304 cells were identified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry, respectively. Enzyme digestion analysis showed that target gene had been cloned into the recombinant vector. The transfected ECV-304 cells successfully expressed human CD40 as determined by RT-PCR and Western-blotting, and 95% of the cells were CD40-positive as shown by flow cytometry. The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pCDNA3.1(+)/CD40 has been successfully constructed, which is capable of stable transfection and expression of CD40 in ECV-304 cells to facilitate further investigation of the roles of CD40 molecule in antiatherosclerotic drug development.

  18. Are polymorphisms of the immunoregulatory factor CD40LG implicated in acute transfusion reactions?

    PubMed Central

    Aloui, Chaker; Sut, Caroline; Prigent, Antoine; Fagan, Jocelyne; Cognasse, Fabrice; Granados-Herbepin, Viviana; Touraine, Renaud; Pozzetto, Bruno; Aouni, Mahjoub; Fendri, Chedlia; Hassine, Mohsen; Chakroun, Tahar; Jemni-Yacoub, Saloua; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The CD40 ligand (CD40L/CD154), a member of TNF superfamily, is notably expressed on activated CD4+ T-cells and stimulated platelets. CD40L is linked to a variety of pathologies and to acute transfusion reactions (ATR). Mutations in this gene (CD40LG) lead to X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Some CD40LG polymorphisms are associated with variable protein expression. The rationale behind this study is that CD40L protein has been observed to be involved in ATR. We wondered whether genetic polymorphisms are implicated. We investigated genetic diversity in the CD40LG using DHPLC and capillary electrophoresis for screening and genotyping (n = 485 French and Tunisian blood donors). We identified significant difference in the CD40LG linkage pattern between the two populations. Variant minor alleles were significantly over-represented in Tunisian donors (P<0.0001 to 0.0270). We found higher heterogeneity in the Tunisian, including three novel low frequency variants. As there was not a particular pattern of CD40LG in single apheresis donors whose platelet components induced an ATR, we discuss how this information may be useful for future disease association studies on CD40LG. PMID:25430087

  19. CD40 controls CXCR5-induced recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells to gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yixin; Shen, Jin; Zhang, Guangbo; Chen, Xiaojuan; Wu, JiaMing; Chen, Weichang

    2015-11-17

    To explore the mechanisms of MDSC trafficking and accumulation during tumor progression. In this study, we report significant CD40 upregulation in tumor-infiltrating MDSC when compared with splenic MDSC. Microarray analyses comparing CD40(high) and CD40l(ow) MDSC revealed 1872 differentially expressed genes, including CD83, CXCR5, BTLA, CXCL9, TLR1, FLT3, NOD2 and CXCL10. In vivo experiments comparing wild-type (WT) and CD40 knockout (KO) mice demonstrated that CD40 critically regulates CXCR5 expression. Consistently, the transwell analysis confirmed the essential role of CXCR5-CXCL13 crosstalk in the migration of CD40+ MDSC toward gastric cancer. Furthermore, more MDSC accumulated in the gastric cancers of WT mice when compared with KO mice, and the WT tumors mostly contained CD40+ cells. Functionally, tumors grew faster in WT than KO mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CD40 expression upregulates the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and promotes MDSC migration toward and accumulation within cancer. Therefore, this study provides preliminary evidence that CD40 may stimulate tumor growth by enabling immune evasion via MDSC recruitment and inhibition of T cell expansion.

  20. SHP-1 plays a crucial role in CD40 signaling reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tabish Hasan; Srivastava, Neetu; Srivastava, Ankita; Sareen, Archana; Mathur, Ram K; Chande, Ajit G; Musti, Krishnasastry V; Roy, Somenath; Mukhopadhyaya, Robin; Saha, Bhaskar

    2014-10-01

    CD40 plays dual immunoregulatory roles in Leishmania major infection and tumor regression. The functional duality emerges from CD40-induced reciprocal p38MAPK and ERK-1/2 phosphorylations. Because phosphotyrosine-based signaling in hematopoietic cells is regulated by the phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, which is not implied in CD40 signaling, we examined whether SHP-1 played any roles in CD40-induced reciprocal signaling and anti-leishmanial function. We observed that a weaker CD40 stimulation increased SHP-1 activation. ERK-1/2 inhibition or p38MAPK overexpression inhibited CD40-induced SHP-1 activation. An ultra-low-dose, CD40-induced p38MAPK phosphorylation was enhanced by SHP-1 inhibition but reduced by SHP-1 overexpression. A reverse profile was observed with ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. SHP-1 inhibition reduced syk phosphorylation but increased lyn phosphorylation; syk inhibition reduced but lyn inhibition enhanced CD40-induced SHP-1 phosphorylation. Corroborating these findings, in L. major-infected macrophages, CD40-induced SHP-1 phosphorylation increased and SHP-1 inhibition enhanced CD40-induced p38MAPK activation and inducible NO synthase expression. IL-10 enhanced SHP-1 phosphorylation and CD40-induced ERK-1/2 phosphorylation but reduced the CD40-induced p38MAPK phosphorylation, whereas anti-IL-10 Ab exhibited reverse effects on these CD40-induced functions, identifying IL-10 as a crucial element in the SHP-1-MAPK feedback system. Lentivirally overexpressed SHP-1 rendered resistant C57BL/6 mice susceptible to the infection. Lentivirally expressed SHP-1 short hairpin RNA enhanced the CD40-induced L. major parasite killing in susceptible BALB/c mice. Thus, we establish an SHP-1-centered feedback system wherein SHP-1 modulates CD40-induced p38MAPK activation threshold and reciprocal ERK-1/2 activation, establishing itself as a critical regulator of CD40 signaling reciprocity and mechanistically re-emphasizing its role as a potential target against the

  1. Elevated serum soluble CD40 ligand in cancer patients may play an immunosuppressive role.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianping; Jochems, Caroline; Talaie, Tara; Anderson, Austin; Jales, Alessandra; Tsang, Kwong Y; Madan, Ravi A; Gulley, James L; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2012-10-11

    Tumor cells can induce certain cytokines and soluble receptors that have a suppressive effect on the immune system. In this study, we showed that an extracellular portion of a membrane-bound ligand of CD40 (soluble CD40 ligand; sCD40L) was significantly elevated in the serum of cancer patients compared with healthy donors. In addition, PBMCs from cancer patients had a relatively larger population of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), defined as CD33(+)HLA-DR(-) cells, and these cells expressed higher levels of CD40. T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production decreased when stimulated T cells were cocultured with an increased amount of autologous MDSCs. The addition of recombinant monomeric sCD40L enriched MDSCs and had an additive inhibitory effect on T-cell proliferation. PBMCs cultured in vitro with sCD40L also showed an expansion of regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+)), as well as induction of cytokines, such as IL-10 and IL-6. Moreover, sCD40L-induced enrichment of programmed death-1-expressing T cells was greater in cancer patients than in healthy donors. Preexisting sCD40L also inhibited IL-12 production from monocytes on activation. These data suggest that the higher levels of sCD40L seen in cancer patients may have an immunosuppressive effect.

  2. Regulatory T Cells and Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment Undergo Fas-Dependent Cell Death during IL-2/αCD40 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jonathan M.; Subleski, Jeff J.; Back, Tim; Chen, Xin; Watkins, Stephanie K.; Yagita, Hideo; Sayers, Thomas J.; Murphy, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Fas ligand expression in certain tumors has been proposed to contribute to immunosuppression and poor prognosis. However, immunotherapeutic approaches may elicit the Fas-mediated elimination of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) within tumors that represent major obstacles for cancer immunotherapy. Previously, we showed that IL-2 and agonistic CD40 Ab (αCD40) elicited synergistic antitumor responses coincident with the efficient removal of Tregs and MDSCs. We demonstrate in this study in two murine tumor models that Treg and MDSC loss within the tumor microenvironment after IL-2/αCD40 occurs through a Fas-dependent cell death pathway. Among tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, and immature myeloid cells expressed Fas ligand after treatment. Fas was expressed by tumor-associated Tregs and immature myeloid cells, including MDSCs. Tregs and MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment expressed active caspases after IL-2/αCD40 therapy and, in contrast with effector T cells, Tregs significantly downregulated Bcl-2 expression. In contrast, Tregs and MDSCs proliferated and expanded in the spleen after treatment. Adoptive transfer of Fas-deficient Tregs or MDSCs into wild-type, Treg-, or MDSC-depleted hosts resulted in the persistence of Tregs or MDSCs and the loss of antitumor efficacy in response to IL-2/αCD40. These results demonstrate the importance of Fas-mediated Treg/MDSC removal for successful antitumor immunotherapy. Our results suggest that immunotherapeutic strategies that include exploiting Treg and MDSC susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis hold promise for treatment of cancer. PMID:24808361

  3. CD40 regulates the processing of NF-κB2 p100 to p52

    PubMed Central

    Coope, H.J.; Atkinson, P.G.P.; Huhse, B.; Belich, M.; Janzen, J.; Holman, M.J.; Klaus, G.G.B.; Johnston, L.H.; Ley, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    The nf-kb2 gene encodes the cytoplasmic NF-κB inhibitory protein p100 from which the active p52 NF-κB subunit is derived by proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Ligands which stimulate p100 processing to p52 have not been defined. Here, ligation of CD40 on transfected 293 cells is shown to trigger p52 production by stimulating p100 ubiquitylation and subsequent proteasome-mediated proteolysis. CD40-mediated p52 accumulation is dependent on de novo protein synthesis and triggers p52 translocation into the nucleus to generate active NF-κB dimers. Endogenous CD40 ligation on primary murine splenic B cells also stimulates p100 processing, which results in the delayed nuclear translocation of p52–RelB dimers. In both 293 cells and primary splenic B cells, the ability of CD40 to trigger p100 processing requires functional NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK). In contrast, NIK activity is not required for CD40 to stimulate the degradation of IκBα in either cell type. The regulation of p100 processing by CD40 is likely to be important for the transcriptional regulation of CD40 target genes in adaptive immune responses. PMID:12374738

  4. IL-33 promotes MHC class II expression in murine mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomonobu; Egusa, Chizu; Maeda, Tatsuo; Numata, Takafumi; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2015-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs), recognized as tissue-resident cells of hematopoietic origin, are involved in cellular and pathological manifestations of allergic disorders including atopic dermatitis. IL-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, activates Th2-type immune responses, and promotes the degranulation and maturation of MCs. However, it is uncertain whether IL-33 treatment induces mature mast cells to acquire the characteristics of the monocyte-dendritic cell lineage.We investigated the effect of IL-33 on the MHC class II expression and function of murine mast cells. IL-33-treated mature murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were analyzed by FACS, real-time PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, and Western blotting. The morphology and degranulation activity of BMMCs and T-cell activation by BMMCs were also examined. BMMCs treated with IL-33 for 10 days induced cell surface expression of the MHC class II protein, whereas the expression of FcεRI and c-kit was not affected by IL-33. The expression of CIITA, driven from pIII and pIV, was up-regulated in IL-33-treated BMMCs. The amount of PU.1 mRNA and protein significantly increased in IL-33-treated BMMCs. The ChIP assay showed PU.1 binding to CIITA pIII, and enhanced histone acetylation due to IL-33 treatment. Syngeneic T cells were activated by co-culture with IL-33-treated BMMCs, although the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules, CD40, CD80, CD86, and PDL-1, was not detected. Mast cells express MHC class II after prolonged exposure to IL-33, probably due to enhanced recruitment of PU.1 to CIITA pIII, resulting in transactivation of CIITA and MHC class II. IL-33 is an important cytokine in allergic disorders. Mast cells have the ability to express MHC class II after prolonged exposure to IL-33 in a murine model. IL-33 holds a key to understanding the etiology of atopic dermatitis.

  5. Increased plasma soluble CD40 ligand concentration in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-chin; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui; Lin, Long-Yau; Tee, Yi-Torng; Liao, Wen-Chun; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The role of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains unclear. We sought to determine whether sCD40L was an efficient serum marker as with WBC and CRP in PID patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the plasma levels of sCD40L before and after routine protocol treatments in sixty-four PID patients and seventy healthy controls. The level of plasma sCD40L (pg/ml) was significantly elevated in PID patients (1632.83±270.91) compared to that in normal controls (700.33±58.77; p=0.001) and decreased significantly as compared to that in the same patients (928.77±177.25; p=0.0001) after they received treatment. The concentration of sCD40L was significantly correlated with the level of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood (r=0.202, p=0.01, n=134). When the cutoff level of plasma sCD40L levels was determined to be 1612.26pg/ml based on ROC, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve of plasma sCD40L level for predicting PID were 0.26, 0.97, and 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.68), respectively, while the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with their 95% CI of plasma sCD40L for PID risk was 7.09 (95% CI=1.14-43.87, p=0.03). The expression of plasma sCD40L was increased in patients with PID and detection of plasma sCD40L could be useful for the diagnosis of PID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soluble CD40 Ligand in Aspirin-Treated Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Gremmel, Thomas; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is mainly generated by cleavage of CD40L from the surface of activated platelets, and therefore considered a platelet activation marker. Although the predictive value of sCD40L for ischemic events has been demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), studies on the association of sCD40L with cardiovascular outcomes in lower risk populations yielded heterogeneous results. We therefore sought to investigate factors influencing sCD40L levels, and the predictive value of sCD40L for long-term ischemic events in unselected, aspirin-treated patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. sCD40L was determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 682 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Two-year follow-up data were obtained from 562 patients. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel was associated with significantly lower levels of sCD40L and lower platelet surface expressions of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa compared to aspirin monotherapy (all p≤0.01). Hypertension was linked to lower plasma concentrations of sCD40L, whereas female sex, increasing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hematocrit were associated with higher sCD40L concentrations (all p<0.05). sCD40L levels were similar in patients without and with the primary endpoint in the overall study population (p = 0.4). Likewise, sCD40L levels did not differ significantly between patients without and with the secondary endpoints (both p≥0.4). Similar results were obtained when only patients with angiographically-proven coronary artery disease (n = 459), stent implantation (n = 205) or ACS (n = 125) were analyzed. The adjustment for differences in patient characteristics by multivariate regression analyses did not change the results. ROC curve analyses did not reveal cut-off values for sCD40L for the prediction of the primary or secondary endpoints. In conclusion, plasma sCD40L levels are

  7. Thymic medullary epithelium and thymocyte self tolerance require cooperation between CD28-CD80/86 and CD40-CD40L costimulatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joy A.; Zhang, Jingjing; Jeon, Hyein; Nitta, Takeshi; Ohigashi, Izumi; Klug, David; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Choudhury, Baishakhi; Sharrow, Susan O.; Granger, Larry; Adams, Anthony; Eckhaus, Michael A.; Jenkinson, S. Rhiannon; Richie, Ellen R.; Gress, Ronald E.; Takahama, Yousuke; Hodes, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    A critical process during thymic development of the T cell repertoire is the induction of self-tolerance. Tolerance in developing T cells is highly dependent on medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) and mTEC development in turn requires signals from mature single positive (SP) thymocytes, a bidirectional relationship termed thymus crosstalk. We show that CD28-CD80/86 and CD40-CD40L costimulatory interactions, which mediate negative selection and self-tolerance, upregulate expression of LTα, LTβ and RANK in the thymus and are necessary for medullary development. Combined absence of CD28-CD80/86 and CD40-CD40L results in profound deficiency in mTEC development comparable to that observed in the absence of SP thymocytes. This requirement for costimulatory signaling is maintained even in a TCR transgenic model of high affinity TCR-ligand interactions. CD4 thymocytes maturing in the altered thymic epithelial environment of CD40/CD80/86 KO mice are highly autoreactive in vitro and are lethal in congenic adoptive transfer in vivo, demonstrating a critical role for these costimulatory pathways in self-tolerance as well as thymic epithelial development. These findings demonstrate that cooperativity between CD28-CD80/86 and CD40-CD40L pathways is required for normal medullary epithelium and for maintenance of self-tolerance in thymocyte development. PMID:24337745

  8. Soluble CD40 ligand accumulates in stored blood components, primes neutrophils through CD40, and is a potential cofactor in the development of transfusion-related acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Samina Yasmin; Kelher, Marguerite R.; Heal, Joanna M.; Blumberg, Neil; Boshkov, Lynn K.; Phipps, Richard; Gettings, Kelly F.; McLaughlin, Nathan J.; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a form of posttransfusion acute pulmonary insufficiency that has been linked to the infusion of biologic response modifiers (BRMs), including antileukocyte antibodies and lipids. Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is a platelet-derived proinflammatory mediator that accumulates during platelet storage. We hypothesized that human polymorpho-nuclear leukocytes (PMNs) express CD40, CD40 ligation rapidly primes PMNs, and sCD40L induces PMN-mediated cytotoxicity of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Levels of sCD40L were measured in blood components and in platelet concentrates (PCs) implicated in TRALI or control PCs that did not elicit a transfusion reaction. All blood components contained higher levels of sCD40L than fresh plasma, with apheresis PCs evidencing the highest concentration of sCD40L followed by PCs from whole blood, whole blood, and packed red blood cells (PRBCs). PCs implicated in TRALI reactions contained significantly higher sCD40L levels than control PCs. PMNs express functional CD40 on the plasma membrane, and recombinant sCD40L (10 ng/mL-1 μg/mL) rapidly (5 minutes) primed the PMN oxidase. Soluble CD40L promoted PMN-mediated cytotoxicity of HMVECs as the second event in a 2-event in vitro model of TRALI. We concluded that sCD40L, which accumulates during blood component storage, has the capacity to activate adherent PMNs, causing endothelial damage and possibly TRALI in predisposed patients. PMID:16772606

  9. CD40 stimulation leads to effective therapy of CD40− tumors through induction of strong systemic cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunity

    PubMed Central

    van Mierlo, Geertje J. D.; den Boer, Annemieke Th.; Medema, Jan Paul; van der Voort, Ellen I. H.; Fransen, Marieke F.; Offringa, Rienk; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Toes, Rene E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Adequate spontaneous activation of tumor-specific T lymphocytes in tumor-bearing hosts is rare, despite the expression of tumor antigens that are potentially highly immunogenic. For example, failure of the immune system to raise competent responses against established tumors expressing the human adenovirus E1A-antigen allows this tumor to grow in immunocompetent mice. We show that systemic in vivo administration of agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies into tumor-bearing mice results in tumor eradication mediated by CD8+ T cells. Treatment resulted in a strong expansion and systemic accumulation of E1A-specific CTL and depended on CD40 expression on host cells, as the tumor was CD40−, and therapy failed in CD40-deficient mice. Local intratumoral administration of anti-CD40 mAb is equally effective in licensing strong, systemic CTL immunity, resulting in the clearance of distant tumor nodules. Our data indicate that the immune response after cancer–host interactions can be directed toward competence, leading to the cure of established tumors merely by delivery of a CD40-dependent “license to kill” signal. PMID:11929985

  10. Laccase Expression in Murine Pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rivera, Javier; Tucker, Stephanie C.; Feldmesser, Marta; Williamson, Peter R.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans laccase expression during murine infection was investigated in lung tissue by immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy. Laccase was detected in the fungal cell cytoplasm, cell wall, and capsule in vivo. The amount of laccase found in different sites varied as a function of the time of infection. PMID:15845520

  11. Nasal mast cells in perennial allergic rhinitics exhibit increased expression of the Fc epsilonRI, CD40L, IL-4, and IL-13, and can induce IgE synthesis in B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pawankar, R; Okuda, M; Yssel, H; Okumura, K; Ra, C

    1997-01-01

    Cross-linking of allergen specific IgE bound to the high affinity IgE receptor (FC epsilonRI) on the surface of mast cells with multivalent allergens results in the release of both pre-formed and newly generated mediators, and in the manifestation of allergic symptoms. The expression of Fc epsilonRI, and the synthesis of IgE are therefore critical for the development of allergic diseases. In this study, we report that nasal mast cells (NMC) from patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) expressed significantly greater levels of the Fc epsilonRI, CD40L, IL-4, and IL-13 as compared to NMC from patients with chronic infective rhinitis (CIR). The level of Fc epsilonRI expression in NMC of PAR patients strongly correlated with the levels of serum total (r = 0.8, P < 0.003) and specific IgE (r = 0.89, P < 0.0004) antibodies. In addition, stimulation of NMC with IL-4, upregulated the Fc epsilonRIalpha chain expression both at the protein and mRNA levels, as detected by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, NMC from PAR, but not CIR, patients induced IgE synthesis by purified B cells in the presence of Der fII (mite antigen). These results suggest novel and critical roles for mast cells in promoting the allergic reaction through the increased expression of Fc epsilonRI and by enhancing and amplifying the IgE production, within the local microenvironment. PMID:9119992

  12. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL(-1) and 0.6-0.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces.

  13. Stimulation of CD40 in human bladder carcinoma cells inhibits anti-Fas/APO-1 (CD95)-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, E; Jönsson, G; Björck, P; Paulie, S

    1998-09-11

    CD40 and the CD95 (Fas/APO-1 antigen) are both members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. Whereas CD40 mediates a strong growth stimulatory signal in B cells, engagement of the CD95 receptor leads to growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis. As it has been reported that CD40 activation may rescue B cells from undergoing apoptosis, we were interested to see whether it had a similar effect in other cells expressing the CD40 receptor. We used epithelial tumor cells from the urinary bladder, a cell type that frequently expresses CD40 but for which no clear function of the molecule has been assigned. We found that the ligation of CD95 with the antibody anti-APO-1 induced apoptosis in most of the cell lines tested. Stimulation of CD40 with antibodies or a soluble construct of the CD40 ligand was shown to protect cells from apoptosis, as demonstrated by their ability to suppress the growth inhibition exerted by the anti-APO-1 antibody. Our results show that CD40 stimulation make cells less vulnerable to apoptosis induced via CD95 and suggest that CD40 expression on epithelial tumors may be associated with cell survival.

  14. Elevated serum soluble CD40 ligand in cancer patients may play an immunosuppressive role

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianping; Jochems, Caroline; Talaie, Tara; Anderson, Austin; Jales, Alessandra; Tsang, Kwong Y.; Madan, Ravi A.; Gulley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cells can induce certain cytokines and soluble receptors that have a suppressive effect on the immune system. In this study, we showed that an extracellular portion of a membrane-bound ligand of CD40 (soluble CD40 ligand; sCD40L) was significantly elevated in the serum of cancer patients compared with healthy donors. In addition, PBMCs from cancer patients had a relatively larger population of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), defined as CD33+HLA-DR− cells, and these cells expressed higher levels of CD40. T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production decreased when stimulated T cells were cocultured with an increased amount of autologous MDSCs. The addition of recombinant monomeric sCD40L enriched MDSCs and had an additive inhibitory effect on T-cell proliferation. PBMCs cultured in vitro with sCD40L also showed an expansion of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25highFoxp3+), as well as induction of cytokines, such as IL-10 and IL-6. Moreover, sCD40L-induced enrichment of programmed death-1–expressing T cells was greater in cancer patients than in healthy donors. Preexisting sCD40L also inhibited IL-12 production from monocytes on activation. These data suggest that the higher levels of sCD40L seen in cancer patients may have an immunosuppressive effect. These studies were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00060528, NCT00019695, NCT00179309, NCT00514072, NCT00081848, and NCT00436956. PMID:22932804

  15. Expression and modulation of IL-1 alpha in murine keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ansel, J.C.; Luger, T.A.; Lowry, D.; Perry, P.; Roop, D.R.; Mountz, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    Murine and human keratinocytes produce an IL-1-like factor that appears to be similar if not identical to monocyte-derived IL-1. IL-1 may be an important mediator in cutaneous inflammatory responses, however, little is currently known concerning factors that may modulate IL-1 expression in keratinocytes. To address this issue we examined the effect of LPS, UV, and the cell differentiation state on murine keratinocyte IL-1 mRNA expression. Our results indicated that as with the murine P388D1 monocyte cell line, PAM 212 keratinocytes constitutively express abundant amounts of IL-1 alpha mRNA. On exposure to LPS (100 micrograms/ml) for 8 h there was more than 10 times the increase in PAM 212 IL-1 alpha mRNA which was accompanied by a sixfold increase in supernatant IL-1 activity. Similarly UV irradiation had a significant effect on keratinocyte IL-1 alpha expression. High dose UV (300 mJ/cm2) inhibited PAM 212 IL-1 alpha expression at 4, 8, 24, 48 h post-UV whereas a lower dose of UV (100 mJ/cm2) inhibited UV at 4 and 8 h post-UV, but induced IL-1 expression at 24 and 48 h post-UV. The expression of IL-1 alpha varied with the differentiation state of the keratinocytes. Freshly removed newborn murine keratinocytes were found to constitutively express IL-1 alpha mRNA. Keratinocytes grown in low (Ca2+) tissue culture media (0.05 mM) for 6 days, functionally and phenotypically become undifferentiated and express increased quantities of IL-1 alpha mRNA, whereas cells grown in high (Ca2+) media (1.2 mM) for 6 days become terminally differentiated and IL-1 expression ceased. Keratinocytes cultured for 3 days in low (Ca2+) conditions expressed an intermediate level of IL-1 alpha. In contrast, little or no IL-1 beta mRNA was detected in either the PAM 212 cells or newborn murine keratinocytes.

  16. Production of canine soluble CD40 ligand to induce maturation of monocyte derived dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wijewardana, Viskam; Sugiura, Kikuya; Yahata, Mana; Akazawa, Takashi; Wijesekera, Daluthgamage Patsy H; Imamoto, Shigeki; Hatoya, Shingo; Inoue, Norimitsu; Inaba, Toshio

    2013-11-15

    CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed by activated T cells is shown to induce maturation of immature dendritic cells (DCs) and this maturation is a vital part in DC based tumor immunotherapy. We constructed an expression vector by cloning the extracellular domain of canine CD40L fused to the signal sequence of canine IL-12p40. When PBMCs were incubated with canine granulocyte-macrophage (GM) -CSF and IL-4, expression of CD86 was significantly elevated, but the majority of cells displayed the morphology of immature DCs. Following addition of the expressed canine soluble CD40L (csCD40L) to the DC-inducing culture, the cell morphology shifted to that of mature DCs, and expression of CD80, CD86, MHC class II and CD1a was significantly enhanced. This morphological change and enhancement of expression was observed even when the csCD40L was present only in the second half period of the culture. Furthermore, the csCD40L caused a significant increase in IL-12 production from DCs. These results show that the csCD40L significantly promotes the maturation and activation of canine monocyte derived DCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Autocrine stimulation of IL-10 is critical to the enrichment of IL-10-producing CD40(hi)CD5(+) regulatory B cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Jun Ho; Han, Hee Dong; Kim, A-Ram; Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, Min Bum; Park, Yeong Min; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Young Mi; You, Ji Chang; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2015-01-01

    IL-10-producing B (Breg) cells regulate various immune responses. However, their phenotype remains unclear. CD40 expression was significantly increased in B cells by LPS, and the Breg cells were also enriched in CD40(hi)CD5(+) B cells. Furthermore, CD40 expression on Breg cells was increased by IL-10, CD40 ligand, and B cell-activating factor, suggesting that CD40(hi) is a common phenotype of Breg cells. LPS-induced CD40 expression was largely suppressed by an anti-IL-10 receptor antibody and in IL-10(-/-)CD5(+)CD19(+) B cells. The autocrine effect of IL-10 on the CD40 expression was largely suppressed by an inhibitor of JAK/STAT3. In vivo, the LPS treatment increased the population of CD40(hi)CD5(+) Breg cells in mice. However, the population of CD40(hi)CD5(+) B cells was minimal in IL-10(-/-) mice by LPS. Altogether, our findings show that Breg cells are largely enriched in CD40(hi)CD5(+) B cells and the autocrine effect of IL-10 is critical to the formation of CD40(hi)CD5(+) Breg cells.

  18. Inhibitors of XIAP sensitize CD40-activated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to CD95-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kater, Arnon P.; Dicker, Frank; Mangiola, Massimo; Welsh, Kate; Houghten, Richard; Ostresh, John; Nefzi, Adel; Reed, John C.; Pinilla, Clemencia; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with adenovirus CD154 (Ad-CD154, CD40 ligand [CD40L]) gene therapy experienced rapid reductions in leukemia cell counts and lymph node size associated with the induced expression of Fas (CD95). However, CLL cells initially resist CD95-mediated apoptosis within the first 3 days after CD40 ligation in vitro. Thereafter, they become sensitive, which is associated with the CD40-induced expression of the proapoptotic protein B-cell leukemia 2 homology 3 (BH3) interacting domain death agonist (Bid). We hypothesized that the initial resistance to CD95-mediated apoptosis may be due to the high-level expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) by CLL cells. Consistent with this, CLL cells from patients 1 day after treatment with autologous Ad-CD154-transduced CLL cells became sensitive to CD95-mediated apoptosis following treatment with a novel XIAP inhibitor, 1540-14. Similarly, 1540-14 specifically enhanced CD95-mediated apoptosis of CLL cells following CD40 ligation in vitro. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that treatment with 1540-14 allowed CD40-stimulated CLL cells to experience high-level activation of caspases-8 and -3 and cleavage of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase following CD95 ligation. This study demonstrates that distal apoptosis regulators contribute to the initial resistance of CD40-activated CLL cells to CD95-mediated apoptosis and suggests that XIAP inhibitors might enhance the effectiveness of immune-based treatment strategies that target CD40, such as CD154 gene therapy. (Blood. 2005;106:1742-1748) PMID:15914559

  19. CD40 ligand, Bcl-2 and apoptosis in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ola A; Omran, Alaa A; Elnaggar, Amina M; Fathy, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a haematopoetic neoplasm caused primarily by defects in apoptosis mechanisms and complicated by progressive marrow failure, immunosupression and increased resistance to chemotherapy. The CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction has been shown to significantly increase antigen presentation in normal and malignant B-cells and it is a powerful regulator of cell survival. Bcl-2 expression is common in CLL and is associated with decreased overall survival. Our objective was to asses CD40 ligand (CD154) and Bcl-2 expressions and their correlation with clinical and laboratory features in CLL patients. This study was conducted on 40 subjects, including 10 healthy volunteers as the control group and 30 patients presented with de novo chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), all of them were subjected to thorough history taking, full clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigations and flowcytometric assessment of CD40L and Bcl-2 on lymphocytes. There was a highly significant increase in TLC, absolute lymphocytic count, serum LDH, B2-microglobulin and Bcl-2 expression (P<0.001); there was a significant increase in CD40L expression (P<0.05); whereas there was a highly significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration and platelets count between the study group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference as regard direct Coombs' test between both groups. There was no significant relation between CD154 expression and clinical findings, Rai staging system and other laboratory parameters. CD40L expression is increased with staging of Modified Rai staging system but not reaching the significant level. There was no significant correlation between CD154 expression and some of clinical and laboratory parameters, whereas there was only significantly negative correlation between Bcl-2 expression and both haemoglobin concentration and platelets count (P<0.001). Combination of Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs

  20. Disruption of antigen-induced inflammatory responses in CD40 ligand knockout mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lei, X F; Ohkawara, Y; Stämpfli, M R; Mastruzzo, C; Marr, R A; Snider, D; Xing, Z; Jordana, M

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of the interaction between CD40 and its ligand (CD40L) to antigen-induced airways inflammatory responses. To this end, we used a model involving ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization followed by OVA aerosol challenge in CD40L knockout (KO) mice. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 were detected in the serum of the sensitized control, but not in CD40L-KO mice. After antigen challenge, sensitized control mice developed airway inflammation that was primarily eosinophilic. This inflammatory response was dramatically reduced in CD40L-KO mice. In contrast, similar numbers of eosinophils were observed in both the bone marrow and the peripheral blood in the sensitized controls and mutant strains after antigen challenge. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these findings, we examined levels of the cytokines IL-5, IL-4, and TNFalpha in both bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum. Similar levels of IL-5 were detected in BAL and serum of control and CD40L-KO mice; however, negligible levels of IL-4 in BAL and serum and of TNFalpha in BAL were detected in CD40L-KO mice when compared with control mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that endothelial cell expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in OVA-sensitized and -challenged CD40L-KO mice was, as detected by immunohistochemistry, markedly decreased compared with that observed in similarly treated control mice. In addition, we locally overexpressed IL-4 and TNFalpha by using an adenoviral (Ad)-mediated gene transfer approach. Intranasal administration of either Ad/TNFalpha or Ad/IL-4 into OVA-sensitized and -challenged CD40L-KO mice did not reconstitute airway eosinophilia. However, concurrent administration of Ad/TNFalpha and Ad/IL-4 upregulated endothelial expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and resulted in full reconstitution of the inflammatory response in the airways. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of the CD40-CD40L costimulatory

  1. Global hormone profiling of murine placenta reveals Secretin expression

    PubMed Central

    Knox, K.; Leuenberger, D.; Penn, A.A.; Baker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To elucidate and categorize the murine placental hormones expressed across gestation, including the expression of hormones with previously undescribed roles. Study design Expression levels of all genes with known or predicted hormone activity expressed in two separate tissues, the placenta and maternal decidua, were assessed across a timecourse spanning the full lifetime of the placenta. Novel expression patterns were confirmed by in situ hybridization and protein level measurements. Results A combination of temporal and spatial information defines five groups that can accurately predict the patterns of uncharacterized hormones. Our analysis identified Secretin, a novel placental hormone that is expressed specifically by the trophoblast at levels many times greater than in any other tissue. Conclusions The characteristics of Secretin fit the paradigm of known placental hormones and suggest that it may play an important role during pregnancy. PMID:21944867

  2. Rhipicephalus microplus salivary gland molecules induce differential CD86 expression in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tick parasitism is a major impediment for cattle production in many parts of the world. The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is an obligate hematophagous parasite of domestic and wild animals that serves as vector of infectious agents lethal to cattle. Tick saliva contains molecules evolved to modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses which facilitates blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Tick feeding promotes CD4 T cell polarization to a Th2 profile usually accompanied by down-regulation of Th1 cytokines through as yet undefined mechanisms. Co-stimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells are central to development of T cell responses including Th1 and Th2 responses. Tick induced changes to antigen presenting cell signal transduction pathways are largely unknown. Here we document the ability of R. microplus salivary gland extracts (SGE) to effect differential CD86 expression. Results We examined changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression in murine RAW 264.7 cells in response to R. microplus SGE exposure in the presence of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand, LPS. After 24 hrs, CD86, but not CD80, was preferentially up-regulated on mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells when treated with SGE and then LPS, but not SGE alone. CD80 and CD40 expression was increased with LPS, but the addition of SGE did not alter expression. Higher concentrations of SGE were less effective at increasing CD86 RNA expression. The addition of mitogen or extracellular kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059, significantly reduced the ability for SGE to induce CD86 expression, indicating activation of MEK is necessary for SGE induced up-regulation. Conclusions Molecules in SGE of R. microplus have a concentration-dependent effect on differential up-regulation of CD86 in a macrophage cell line activated by the TLR4 ligand, LPS. This CD86 up-regulation is at least partially dependent on the ERK1/2 pathway and may serve to promote Th2 polarization

  3. Effective genetic vaccination with a widely shared endogenous retroviral tumor antigen requires CD40 stimulation during tumor rejection phase.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Cingarlini, Sara; Apolloni, Elisa; Serafini, Paolo; Marigo, Ilaria; De Santo, Carmela; Macino, Beatrice; Marin, Oriano; Zanovello, Paola

    2003-12-15

    Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) products are recognized by T lymphocytes in mice and humans. As these Ags are preferentially expressed by neoplastic tissues, they might represent an ideal target for active immunization by genetic vaccination. However, i.m. inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding mouse gp70 or p15E, two products of the env gene of an endogenous murine leukemia virus, elicited a weak Ag-specific T lymphocyte response and resulted in partial protection from challenge with mouse tumors possessing these Ags. Depletion experiments showed that CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T lymphocytes were crucial for the antitumor activity of the vaccines. Systemic administration of agonistic anti-CD40 mAb increased the therapeutic potential of genetic vaccination, but only when given during the tumor rejection phase and not at the time of immunization. This effect correlated with a dramatic increase in the number of ERV-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Adjuvant activity of CD40 agonists thus seems to be relevant to enhance the CD8(+) T cell-dependent response in tumor-bearing hosts, suggesting that sustaining tumor-specific T lymphocyte survival in subjects undergoing vaccination might be a key event in the successful vaccination with weak tumor Ags.

  4. miRNA-145 inhibits VSMC proliferation by targeting CD40

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xin; Li, Dai; Chen, Min; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Bikui; Wu, Tian; Guo, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated functions of miR-145 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotypes and vascular diseases. In this study, we aim to determine whether CD40 is involved in miR-145 mediated switch of VSMC phenotypes. In cultured VSMCs, the effects of miR-145 and CD40 on TNF-α, TGF-β, and Homocysteine (Hcy) induced cell proliferation were evaluated by over-expression of miR-145 or by siRNA-mediated knockdown of CD40. We also used ultrasound imaging to explore the effect of miR-145 on carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) in atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) patients. The results showed 50 ng/mL TNF-α, 5 ng/mL TGF-β, and 500 μmol/L Hcy significantly increased the expression of CD40, both at mRNA and protein levels, and also induced the proliferation of VSMCs. We found that over-expression of miR-145 significantly inhibited the expression of CD40 and the differentiation of VSMCs, and over-expression of miR-145 decreased IL-6 levels in VSMC supernatants. In ACI patients, the lower expression of miR-145 was associated with thicker CIMT and higher levels of plasma IL-6. Our results suggest that the miR-145/CD40 pathway is involved in regulating VSMC phenotypes in TNF-α, TGF-β, and Hcy induced VSMCs proliferation model. Targeting miR-145/CD40 might be a useful strategy for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:27731400

  5. Construction and immunological characterization of CD40L or GM-CSF incorporated Hantaan virus like particle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Truax, Agnieszka D.; Ma, Ruixue; Liu, Ziyu; Lei, Yingfeng; Zhang, Liang; Ye, Wei; Zhang, Fanglin; Xu, Zhikai; Shang, Lei; Liu, Rongrong; Wang, Fang; Wu, Xingan

    2016-01-01

    Infection of Hantaan virus (HTNV) usually causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). China has the worst epidemic incidence of HFRS as well as high fatality. Inactivated whole virus has been used for HFRS vaccination, however there are still problems such as safety concerns. CD40 ligand (CD40L) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are well-known immune stimulating molecules that can enhance antigen presenting, lymphocytes activation and maturation, incorporation of CD40L and GM-CSF to the surface of virus like particles (VLPs) can greatly improve the vaccination effect. We constructed eukaryotic vectors expressing HTNV M segment and S segment, as well as vectors expressing HTNV M segment with CD40L or GM-CSF, our results showed successful production of CD40L or GM-CSF incorporated HTNV VLPs. In vitro stimulation with CD40L or GM-CSF anchored HTNV VLP showed enhanced activation of macrophages and DCs. CD40L/GM-CSF incorporated VLP can induce higher level of HTNV specific antibody and neutralizing antibody in mice. Immunized mice splenocytes showed higher ability of secreting IFN-γ and IL-2, as well as enhancing CTL activity. These results suggest CD40L/GM-CSF incorporated VLP can serve as prospective vaccine candidate. PMID:27542281

  6. CD40 Negatively Regulates ATP-TLR4-Activated Inflammasome in Microglia.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Sagar; Patel, Divyesh; Agrawal-Rajput, Reena

    2017-03-01

    During acute brain injury and/or sterile inflammation, release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) activates pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Microglial toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 activated by DAMPs potentiates neuroinflammation through inflammasome-induced IL-1β and pathogenic Th17 polarization which critically influences brain injury. TLR4 activation accompanies increased CD40, a cognate costimulatory molecule, involved in microglia-mediated immune responses in the brain. During brain injury, excessive release of extracellular ATP (DAMPs) is involved in promoting the damage. However, the regulatory role of CD40 in microglia during ATP-TLR4-mediated inflammasome activation has never been explored. We report that CD40, in the absence of ATP, synergizes TLR4-induced proinflammatory cytokines but not IL-1β, suggesting that the response is independent of inflammasome. The presence of ATP during TLR4 activation leads to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and caspase-1-mediated IL-1β secretion which was inhibited during CD40 activation, accompanied with inhibition of ERK1/2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Experiments using selective inhibitors prove indispensability of ERK 1/2 and ROS for inflammasome activation. The ATP-TLR4-primed macrophages polarize the immune response toward pathogenic Th17 cells, whereas CD40 activation mediates Th1 response. Exogenous supplementation of IFN-γ (a Th1 cytokine and CD40 inducer) results in decreased IL-1β, suggesting possible feedback loop mechanism of inflammasome inhibition, whereby IFN-γ-mediated increase in CD40 expression and activation suppress neurotoxic inflammasome activation required for Th17 response. Collectively, the findings indicate that CD40 is a novel negative regulator of ATP-TLR4-mediated inflammasome activation in microglia, thus providing a checkpoint to regulate excessive inflammasome activation and Th17 response during DAMP-mediated brain injury.

  7. Expression of fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) in murine tooth development.

    PubMed

    Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Otsuka-Tanaka, Yoko; Basson, M Albert; Moon, Anne M; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2011-05-01

    Fgf signalling is known to play critical roles in tooth development. Twenty-two Fgf ligands have been identified in mammals, but expression of only 10 in molars and three in the incisor loop stem cell region have been documented in murine tooth development. Our understanding of Fgf signalling in tooth development thus remains incomplete and we therefore carried out comparative in situ hybridisation analysis of unexamined Fgf ligands (eight in molars and 15 in cervical loops of incisors; Fgf11-Fgf14 were excluded from this analysis because they are not secreted and do not activate Fgf receptors) during tooth development. To identify where Fgf signalling is activated, we also examined the expression of Etv4 and Etv5, considered to be transcriptional targets of the Fgf signalling pathway. In molar tooth development, the expression of Fgf15 and Fgf20 was restricted to the primary enamel knots, whereas Etv4 and Etv5 were expressed in cells surrounding the primary enamel knots. Fgf20 expression was observed in the secondary enamel knots, whereas Fgf15 showed localised expression in the adjacent mesenchyme. Fgf16, Etv4 and Etv5 were strongly expressed in the ameloblasts of molars. In the incisor cervical loop stem cell region, Fgf17, Fgf18, Etv4 and Etv5 showed a restricted expression pattern. These molecules thus show dynamic temporo-spatial expression in murine tooth development. We also analysed teeth in Fgf15(-/-) and Fgf15(-/-) ;Fgf8(+/-) mutant mice. Neither mutant showed significant abnormalities in tooth development, indicating likely functional redundancy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Expression of fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) in murine tooth development

    PubMed Central

    Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Otsuka-Tanaka, Yoko; Albert Basson, M; Moon, Anne M; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Fgf signalling is known to play critical roles in tooth development. Twenty-two Fgf ligands have been identified in mammals, but expression of only 10 in molars and three in the incisor loop stem cell region have been documented in murine tooth development. Our understanding of Fgf signalling in tooth development thus remains incomplete and we therefore carried out comparative in situ hybridisation analysis of unexamined Fgf ligands (eight in molars and 15 in cervical loops of incisors; Fgf11–Fgf14 were excluded from this analysis because they are not secreted and do not activate Fgf receptors) during tooth development. To identify where Fgf signalling is activated, we also examined the expression of Etv4 and Etv5, considered to be transcriptional targets of the Fgf signalling pathway. In molar tooth development, the expression of Fgf15 and Fgf20 was restricted to the primary enamel knots, whereas Etv4 and Etv5 were expressed in cells surrounding the primary enamel knots. Fgf20 expression was observed in the secondary enamel knots, whereas Fgf15 showed localised expression in the adjacent mesenchyme. Fgf16, Etv4 and Etv5 were strongly expressed in the ameloblasts of molars. In the incisor cervical loop stem cell region, Fgf17, Fgf18, Etv4 and Etv5 showed a restricted expression pattern. These molecules thus show dynamic temporo-spatial expression in murine tooth development. We also analysed teeth in Fgf15−/− and Fgf15−/−;Fgf8+/− mutant mice. Neither mutant showed significant abnormalities in tooth development, indicating likely functional redundancy. PMID:21332717

  9. T Cell Cancer Therapy Requires CD40-CD40L Activation of Tumor Necrosis Factor and Inducible Nitric-Oxide-Synthase-Producing Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Marigo, Ilaria; Zilio, Serena; Desantis, Giacomo; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Agnellini, Andrielly H R; Ugel, Stefano; Sasso, Maria Stella; Qualls, Joseph E; Kratochvill, Franz; Zanovello, Paola; Molon, Barbara; Ries, Carola H; Runza, Valeria; Hoves, Sabine; Bilocq, Amélie M; Bindea, Gabriela; Mazza, Emilia M C; Bicciato, Silvio; Galon, Jérôme; Murray, Peter J; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2016-09-12

    Effective cancer immunotherapy requires overcoming immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. We found that local nitric oxide (NO) production by tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells is important for adoptively transferred CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells to destroy tumors. These myeloid cells are phenotypically similar to inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2)- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-producing dendritic cells (DC), or Tip-DCs. Depletion of immunosuppressive, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R)-dependent arginase 1(+) myeloid cells enhanced NO-dependent tumor killing. Tumor elimination via NOS2 required the CD40-CD40L pathway. We also uncovered a strong correlation between survival of colorectal cancer patients and NOS2, CD40, and TNF expression in their tumors. Our results identify a network of pro-tumor factors that can be targeted to boost cancer immunotherapies.

  10. Cloning and expression analysis of the murine lymphotoxin beta gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pokholok, D K; Maroulakou, I G; Kuprash, D V; Alimzhanov, M B; Kozlov, S V; Novobrantseva, T I; Turetskaya, R L; Green, J E; Nedospasov, S A

    1995-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble lymphotoxin (LT) (also called LT-alpha or TNF-beta) are cytokines with similar biological activities that are encoded by related and closely linked genes. TNF-alpha, a mediator of the inflammatory response, exists in soluble and transmembrane forms. LT-alpha can be secreted or retained at the cell surface by binding to a 33-kDa transmembrane subunit, LT-beta. The recently cloned human LT-beta gene encodes another TNF family member and is linked to the TNF/LT locus within the major histocompatibility complex locus. The cell surface LT is a heterotrimer consisting of LT-alpha and LT-beta, whose physiological function is not yet clearly defined. We now report the sequence analysis of the genomic region and cDNA of murine LT-beta gene, which is closely associated with the TNF-alpha and LT-alpha genes within the murine major histocompatibility complex locus. Unlike the TNF-alpha, LT-alpha, and human LT-beta genes, which contain four exons, the murine LT-beta contains three exons and encodes a 244-amino acid polypeptide with a 66-amino acid insert that is absent from the human homologue. In situ hybridization demonstrates constitutive expression of LT-beta in lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues. LT-beta transcription is maximal in the thymic medulla and in splenic white pulp. LT-beta mRNA is also detected in the skin and in specific regions of the brain. The LT-beta promoter region contains putative Ets-binding sites, suggesting that the expression of LT-beta may be regulated in part by Ets transcription factors whose pattern of lymphoid expression overlaps that of LT-beta. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7846035

  11. Interruption of classic CD40L-CD40 signalling but not of the novel CD40L-Mac-1 interaction limits arterial neointima formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Willecke, F; Tiwari, S; Rupprecht, B; Wolf, D; Hergeth, S; Hoppe, N; Dufner, B; Schulte, L; Anto Michel, N; Bukosza, N; Marchini, T; Jäckel, M; Stachon, P; Hilgendorf, I; Zeschky, K; Schleicher, R; Langer, H F; von Zur Muhlen, C; Bode, C; Peter, K; Zirlik, A

    2014-08-01

    The co-stimulatory immune molecule CD40L figures prominently in a variety of inflammatory conditions including arterial disease. Recently, we made the surprising finding that CD40L mediates atherogenesis independently of its classic receptor CD40 via a novel interaction with the leukocyte integrin Mac-1. Here, we hypothesised that selective blockade of the CD40L-Mac-1 interaction may also retard restenosis. We induced neointima formation in C57/BL6 mice by ligation of the left carotid artery. Mice were randomised to daily intraperitoneal injections of either cM7, a small peptide selectively inhibiting the CD40L-Mac-1 interaction, scM7, a scrambled control peptide, or saline for 28 days. Interestingly, cM7-treated mice developed neointima of similar size compared with mice receiving the control peptide or saline as assessed by computer-assisted analysis of histological cross sections. These data demonstrate that the CD40L-Mac-1 interaction is not required for the development of restenosis. In contrast, CD40-deficient mice subjected to carotid ligation in parallel, developed significantly reduced neointimal lesions compared with respective wild-type controls (2872 ± 843 µm² vs 35469 ± 11870 µm²). Flow cytometry in CD40-deficient mice revealed reduced formation of platelet-granulocyte and platelet-inflammatory monocyte- aggregates. In vitro, supernatants of CD40-deficient platelet-leukocyte aggregates attenuated proliferation and increased apoptosis of smooth muscle cells. Unlike in the setting of atherosclerosis, CD40L mediates neointima formation via its classic receptor CD40 rather than via its recently described novel interaction with Mac-1. Therefore, selective targeting of CD40L-Mac-1 binding does not appear to be a favorable strategy to fight restenosis.

  12. The antileukemia activity of a human anti-CD40 antagonist antibody, HCD122, on human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Klabunde, Sha; Lin, Karen; Georgakis, Georgios V.; Cherukuri, Anu; Holash, Jocelyn; Goldbeck, Cheryl; Xu, Xiaomei; Kadel, Edward E.; Lee, Sang Hoon; Aukerman, Sharon Lea; Jallal, Bahija; Aziz, Natasha; Weng, Wen-Kai; Wierda, William; O'Brien, Susan; Younes, Anas

    2008-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the surface expression of CD20, CD5 antigens, as well as the receptor CD40. Activation of CD40 by its ligand (CD40L) induces proliferation and rescues the cells from spontaneous and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. CD40 activation also induces secretion of cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-8, and GM-CSF, which are involved in tumor cell survival, migration, and interaction with cells in the tumor microenvironment. Here we demonstrate that in primary B-CLL tumor cells, the novel antagonist anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, HCD122, inhibits CD40L-induced activation of signaling pathways, proliferation and survival, and secretion of cytokines. Furthermore, HCD122 is also a potent mediator of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), lysing B-CLL cells more efficiently than rituximab in vitro, despite a significantly higher number of cell surface CD20 binding sites compared with CD40. Unlike rituximab, however, HCD122 (formerly CHIR-12.12) does not internalize upon binding to the cells. Our data suggest that HCD122 may inhibit B-CLL growth by blocking CD40 signaling and by ADCC-mediated cell lysis. PMID:18497318

  13. The antileukemia activity of a human anti-CD40 antagonist antibody, HCD122, on human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Luqman, Mohammad; Klabunde, Sha; Lin, Karen; Georgakis, Georgios V; Cherukuri, Anu; Holash, Jocelyn; Goldbeck, Cheryl; Xu, Xiaomei; Kadel, Edward E; Lee, Sang Hoon; Aukerman, Sharon Lea; Jallal, Bahija; Aziz, Natasha; Weng, Wen-Kai; Wierda, William; O'Brien, Susan; Younes, Anas

    2008-08-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the surface expression of CD20, CD5 antigens, as well as the receptor CD40. Activation of CD40 by its ligand (CD40L) induces proliferation and rescues the cells from spontaneous and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. CD40 activation also induces secretion of cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IL-8, and GM-CSF, which are involved in tumor cell survival, migration, and interaction with cells in the tumor microenvironment. Here we demonstrate that in primary B-CLL tumor cells, the novel antagonist anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, HCD122, inhibits CD40L-induced activation of signaling pathways, proliferation and survival, and secretion of cytokines. Furthermore, HCD122 is also a potent mediator of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), lysing B-CLL cells more efficiently than rituximab in vitro, despite a significantly higher number of cell surface CD20 binding sites compared with CD40. Unlike rituximab, however, HCD122 (formerly CHIR-12.12) does not internalize upon binding to the cells. Our data suggest that HCD122 may inhibit B-CLL growth by blocking CD40 signaling and by ADCC-mediated cell lysis.

  14. Expression of human adenosine deaminase in murine hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Belmont, J W; MacGregor, G R; Wager-Smith, K; Fletcher, F A; Moore, K A; Hawkins, D; Villalon, D; Chang, S M; Caskey, C T

    1988-01-01

    Multiple replication-defective retrovirus vectors were tested for their ability to transfer and express human adenosine deaminase in vitro and in vivo in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model. High-titer virus production was obtained from vectors by using both a retrovirus long terminal repeat promoter and internal transcriptional units with human c-fos and herpes virus thymidine kinase promoters. After infection of primary murine bone marrow with one of these vectors, human adenosine deaminase was detected in 60 to 85% of spleen colony-forming units and in the blood of 14 of 14 syngeneic marrow transplant recipients. This system offers the opportunity to assess methods for increasing efficiency of gene transfer, for regulation of expression of foreign genes in hematopoietic progenitors, and for long-term measurement of the stability of expression in these cells. Images PMID:3072474

  15. Stromal endothelial cells establish a bidirectional crosstalk with chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through the TNF-related factors BAFF, APRIL and CD40L

    PubMed Central

    Cols, Montserrat; Barra, Carolina M.; He, Bing; Puga, Irene; Xu, Weifeng; Chiu, April; Tam, Wayne; Knowles, Daniel M.; Dillon, Stacey R.; Leonard, John P.; Furman, Richard R.; Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal B cell disorder of unknown origin. Accessory signals from the microenvironment are critical for the survival, expansion and progression of malignant B cells. We found that the CLL stroma included microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) expressing BAFF and APRIL, two TNF family members related to the T cell-associated B cell-stimulating molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L). Constitutive release of soluble BAFF and APRIL increased upon engagement of CD40 on MVECs by CD40L aberrantly expressed on CLL cells. In addition to enhancing MVEC expression of the CD40 receptor, leukemic CD40L induced cleavases that elicited intracellular processing of pro-BAFF and pro-APRIL proteins in MVECs. The resulting soluble BAFF and APRIL proteins delivered survival, proliferation, Ig gene-remodeling and differentiation signals by activating CLL cells through TACI, BAFF-R and BCMA receptors. BAFF and APRIL further amplified CLL cell survival by up-regulating the expression of leukemic CD40L. Inhibition of TACI, BCMA and BAFF-R expression on CLL cells, abrogation of CD40 expression in MVECs, or suppression of BAFF and APRIL cleavases in MVECs reduced the survival and diversification of malignant B cells. These data indicate that BAFF, APRIL and CD40L form a CLL-enhancing bidirectional signaling network linking neoplastic B cells with the microvascular stroma. PMID:22593611

  16. CD40L-Tri, a novel formulation of recombinant human CD40L that effectively activates B cells.

    PubMed

    Naito, Masayasu; Hainz, Ursula; Burkhardt, Ute E; Fu, Buyin; Ahove, Deborah; Stevenson, Kristen E; Rajasagi, Mohini; Zhu, Baogong; Alonso, Anselmo; Witten, Elizabeth; Matsuoka, Ken-Ichi; Neuberg, Donna; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S; Wu, Catherine J; Freeman, Gordon J

    2013-02-01

    CD40L has a well-established role in enhancing the immunostimulatory capacity of normal and malignant B cells, but a formulation suitable for clinical use has not been widely available. Like other TNF family members, in vivo and in vitro activity of CD40L requires a homotrimeric configuration, and growing evidence suggests that bioactivity depends on higher-order clustering of CD40. We generated a novel formulation of human recombinant CD40L (CD40L-Tri) in which the CD40L extracellular domain and a trimerization motif are connected by a long flexible peptide linker. We demonstrate that CD40L-Tri significantly expands normal CD19+ B cells by over 20- to 30-fold over 14 days and induces B cells to become highly immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Consistent with these results, CD40L-Tri-activated B cells could effectively stimulate antigen-specific T responses (against the influenza M1 peptide) from normal volunteers. In addition, CD40L-Tri could induce malignant B cells to become effective APCs, such that tumor-directed immune responses could be probed. Together, our studies demonstrate the potent immune-stimulatory effects of CD40L-Tri on B cells that enable their expansion of antigen-specific human T cells. The potent bioactivity of CD40L-Tri is related to its ability to self-multimerize, which may be facilitated by its long peptide linker.

  17. Oxygen-regulated gene expression in murine cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Kind, Karen L; Tam, Kimberley K Y; Banwell, Kelly M; Gauld, Ashley D; Russell, Darryl L; Macpherson, Anne M; Brown, Hannah M; Frank, Laura A; Peet, Daniel J; Thompson, Jeremy G

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is an important component of the environment of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC), both in vivo within the ovarian follicle and during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM). Cumulus cells have a key role in supporting oocyte development, and cumulus cell function and gene expression are known to be altered when the environment of the COC is perturbed. Oxygen-regulated gene expression is mediated through the actions of the transcription factors, the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In the present study, the effect of oxygen on cumulus cell gene expression was examined following in vitro maturation of the murine COC at 2%, 5% or 20% oxygen. Increased expression of HIF-responsive genes, including glucose transporter-1, lactate dehydrogenase A and BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3, was observed in cumulus cells matured at 2% or 5%, compared with 20% oxygen. Stabilisation of HIF1α protein in cumulus cells exposed to low oxygen was confirmed by western blot and HIF-mediated transcriptional activity was demonstrated using a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of a promoter containing hypoxia response elements. These results indicate that oxygen concentration influences cumulus cell gene expression and support a role for HIF1α in mediating the cumulus cell response to varying oxygen.

  18. A Graves' disease-associated Kozak sequence single-nucleotide polymorphism enhances the efficiency of CD40 gene translation: a case for translational pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Eric M; Concepcion, Erlinda; Oashi, Taiji; Tomer, Yaron

    2005-06-01

    We analyzed the mechanism by which a Graves' disease-associated C/T polymorphism in the Kozak sequence of CD40 affects CD40 expression. CD40 expression levels on B cells in individuals with CT and TT genotypes were decreased by 13.3 and 39.4%, respectively, compared with the levels in CC genotypes (P = 0.012). Similarly, Rat-2 fibroblasts transfected with T-allele cDNA expressed 32.2% less CD40 compared with their C-allele-transfected counterparts (P = 0.004). Additionally, an in vitro transcription/translation system showed that the T-allele makes 15.5% less CD40 than the C-allele (P < 0.001), demonstrating that the effect of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on CD40 expression is at the level of translation. However, the SNP did not affect transcription, because the mRNA levels of CD40, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR, were independent of genotype. Therefore, our results may suggest that the C allele of the CD40 Kozak SNP, which is associated with Graves' disease, could predispose to disease by increasing the efficiency of translation of CD40 mRNA.

  19. Haemopedia: An Expression Atlas of Murine Hematopoietic Cells.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Carolyn A; Choi, Jarny; Baldwin, Tracey M; Bolden, Jessica E; Fairfax, Kirsten A; Robinson, Aaron J; Biben, Christine; Morgan, Clare; Ramsay, Kerry; Ng, Ashley P; Kauppi, Maria; Kruse, Elizabeth A; Sargeant, Tobias J; Seidenman, Nick; D'Amico, Angela; D'Ombrain, Marthe C; Lucas, Erin C; Koernig, Sandra; Baz Morelli, Adriana; Wilson, Michael J; Dower, Steven K; Williams, Brenda; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Hu, Yifang; Nilsson, Susan K; Wu, Li; Smyth, Gordon K; Alexander, Warren S; Hilton, Douglas J

    2016-09-13

    Hematopoiesis is a multistage process involving the differentiation of stem and progenitor cells into distinct mature cell lineages. Here we present Haemopedia, an atlas of murine gene-expression data containing 54 hematopoietic cell types, covering all the mature lineages in hematopoiesis. We include rare cell populations such as eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and megakaryocytes, and a broad collection of progenitor and stem cells. We show that lineage branching and maturation during hematopoiesis can be reconstructed using the expression patterns of small sets of genes. We also have identified genes with enriched expression in each of the mature blood cell lineages, many of which show conserved lineage-enriched expression in human hematopoiesis. We have created an online web portal called Haemosphere to make analyses of Haemopedia and other blood cell transcriptional datasets easier. This resource provides simple tools to interrogate gene-expression-based relationships between hematopoietic cell types and genes of interest. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytical workflow profiling gene expression in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Scott E.; González-Peña, Dianelys; Lawson, Marcus A.; McCusker, Robert H.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; O’Connor, Jason C.; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of all genes in a biological sample is a capability of RNA-Seq technology. Analysis of the entire transcriptome benefits from summarization of genes at the functional level. As a cellular response of interest not previously explored with RNA-Seq, peritoneal macrophages from mice under two conditions (control and immunologically challenged) were analyzed for gene expression differences. Quantification of individual transcripts modeled RNA-Seq read distribution and uncertainty (using a Beta Negative Binomial distribution), then tested for differential transcript expression (False Discovery Rate-adjusted p-value < 0.05). Enrichment of functional categories utilized the list of differentially expressed genes. A total of 2079 differentially expressed transcripts representing 1884 genes were detected. Enrichment of 92 categories from Gene Ontology Biological Processes and Molecular Functions, and KEGG pathways were grouped into 6 clusters. Clusters included defense and inflammatory response (Enrichment Score = 11.24) and ribosomal activity (Enrichment Score = 17.89). Our work provides a context to the fine detail of individual gene expression differences in murine peritoneal macrophages during immunological challenge with high throughput RNA-Seq. PMID:25708305

  1. Dynamics of notch expression during murine prostate development and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Shou, J; Ross, S; Koeppen, H; de Sauvage, F J; Gao, W Q

    2001-10-01

    Notch signaling has been widely demonstrated to be responsible for cell fate determination during normal development and implicated in human T-cell leukemia and mouse mammary carcinomas. Here we show that Notch signaling may be involved in prostatic development and cancer cell growth. In situ hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that Notch1 was expressed in prostate epithelial cells during normal development and in prostate cancer cells. Characterization of Notch1-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice, in which the expression of reporter green fluorescent protein is under the control of the Notch1 promoter, indicated that Notch1-expressing cells were associated with the basal epithelial cell population in the prostate. Examination of the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate showed that expression of Notch1 was elevated in malignant prostatic epithelial cells of primary and metastatic tumors. Expression of Notch ligands, however, was low or undetectable in cultured prostate cancer cells or in malignant prostatic epithelial cells in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate. Furthermore, overexpression of a constitutively active form of Notch1 inhibited the proliferation of various prostate cancer cells, including DU145, LNCaP, and PC3 cells. Taken together, our data indicate for the first time that Notch signaling may play a role in murine prostatic development and tumorigenesis.

  2. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Deng, Alicia C; Spin, Joshua M; Stevenson, David K; Dalman, Ronald L; Tsao, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease.

  3. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J.; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B.; Deng, Alicia C.; Spin, Joshua M.; Stevenson, David K.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Tsao, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease. PMID:26894432

  4. [CCL21-CD40L fusion gene induce augmented antitumor activity in colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting; Zhou, Hong-Li; Ba, Yi

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the anti-tumor activity of CCL21-exCD40L eukaryotic expression vector. CCL21-exCD40L fusion gene were constructed by overlap PCR connecting CCL21 and exCD40L through a flexible linker (Gly3Ser)4, and then was cloned into expression vector pcDNA3.1(+). pcDNA3.1(+)/CCL21 and pcDNA3.1(+)/exCD were constructed as negative control. Wsestern blot was used to identify the fusion protein. CHO cells was transfected with pcDNA3.1(+)/CCL21-exCD, pcDNA3.1(+)/CCL21 and pcDNA3.1(+), respectively. The chemotatic function of the expressed product was detected by Transwell method and its anti-tumor activity was tested with vivo transfection. Gene sequencing and restrictive digestion proved the successful construction of pcDNA3.1(+)/CCL21-exCD40L,and its expression was conformed by western blot. The transfectant supernantes of pcDNA3.1(+)/CCL21-exCD40 group had a significant chmotactic function to DCs, of which the cell numbers passing through the film was 14.95 times of blank control every high power microscope visual field. After tumor orthotoic injection of plasmid carrying fusion gene in Balb/c mouse, the tumor mass reduced remarkablely, and all the mouse in fusion gene group survived after 4 weeks. CCL21-exCD40L fusion protein had a remarkable function to DCs and it can inhibit tumor growth and prolong the mouse survival time, which is more effective than all control group.

  5. [Effect of CD40 knock out on cytotoxic effector function in CD8(+) T cell of mice with cigarette smoke-induced emphysema].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Deng, T T; Kuang, L J; Qiu, S L; Liang, Y; Zhong, X N; He, Z Y; Zhang, J Q; Bai, J; Li, M H

    2016-05-31

    To explore the effect of CD40 knock out on the cytotoxic function of CD8(+) T cell of mice with cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. A total of 40 male C57 mice were divided into four groups according to the random number table, including CD40(+ /+) control group, CD40(+ /+) smoke-exposure group, CD40(-/-)control group, CD40(-/-)smoke-exposure group. The smoke-exposure groups were exposed to cigarette smoke for 24 weeks to establish emphysema model. Morphological changes were evaluated by linear intercepts. The percentages of CD8, perforin, granzyme B positive cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expressions of perforin, granzyme B, interleukin (IL) -27 were measured by fluorescent real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The IL-27 cytokine level was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean linear intercepts in CD40(+ /+) smoke-exposure group was significantly higher than CD40(+ /+) control group, CD40(-/-)control group, and CD40(-/-)smoke-exposure group [(37.2±3.6) vs (24.0±3.4), (22.5±2.4), (29.9±1.7) μm] (all P<0.05). CD40(-/-)smoke-exposure group was higher than CD40(+ /+) control group, CD40(-/-)control group (all P<0.05). The percentages of CD8 positive, perforin positive and granzyme B positive cells in CD40(+ /+) smoke-exposure group [(16.3±2.3)%, (11.4±2.1)%, (10.7±1.9)%] were significantly higher than CD40(+ /+) control group [(8.3±1.6)%, (5.1±1.2)%, (4.6±1.0)%], CD40(-/-)control group [ (6.4±1.5)%, (4.3±1.0)%, (4.2±1.0)%] and CD40(-/-)smoke-exposure group [(8.6±1.7)%, (5.6±1.3)%, (5.5±1.3)%] (all P<0.05). RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expressions of perforin, granzyme B and IL-27 in CD40(+ /+) smoke-exposure group [(20.3±7.3), (18.3±12.3), (2.2±0.7)] were significantly higher than CD40(+ /+) control group [(9.4±4.8), (10.6±3.8), (1.3±0.6)], CD40(-/-)control group [ (8.1±3.1), (7.7±3.5), (1.1±0.5)] and CD40(-/-)smoke-exposure group [(12.9±6.2), (10.4±4.6), (1.5±0

  6. Murine Asb-17 expression during mouse testis development and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kye-Seong; Kim, Myung-Sun; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2004-05-01

    In this study we isolated a murine mAsb-17 from mouse testis by RT-PCR using primers designed based on the sequences from the GenBank database. The sequence analysis showed that mAsb-17 encodes a 295 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa containing two ankyrin repeats and one SOCS box. The amino acid sequence of mASB-17 showed 87.5%, 98.3% and 92.9% identity with that of human, rat and dog, respectively. Interestingly, northern blot analysis showed that mAsb-17 was expressed only in the testis. The expression analysis by RT-PCR for mAsb-17 in mouse indicates that mAsb-17 is expressed from the fourth week after birth to adult, with the highest expression in round spermatids. Both northern blot and RT-PCR analyses suggest that mASB-17 may play essential roles in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  7. Enhanced activation of human dendritic cells by inducible CD40 and Toll-like receptor-4 ligation.

    PubMed

    Lapteva, Natalia; Seethammagari, Mamatha R; Hanks, Brent A; Jiang, Jianghong; Levitt, Jonathan M; Slawin, Kevin M; Spencer, David M

    2007-11-01

    Despite the potency of dendritic cells (DC) as antigen-presenting cells for priming adaptive immunity, DC-based cancer vaccines have been largely insufficient to effectively reduce tumor burden or prevent tumor progression in most patients. To enhance DC-based vaccines, we used the combination of a synthetic ligand-inducible CD40 receptor (iCD40) along with Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) ligation in human monocyte-derived DCs. The iCD40 receptor permits targeted, reversible activation of CD40 in vivo, potentially bypassing the essential role of CD4(+) T cells for activation of DCs. As a rigorous preclinical study of this approach, we evaluated key parameters of DC activation and function. Whereas neither iCD40 nor TLR-4 signaling alone led to high levels of interleukin (IL)-12p70 and IL-6, using iCD40 in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or monophosphoryl lipid A led to strongly synergistic production of both. Furthermore, this approach led to high expression of DC maturation markers, epitope-specific CTL and T helper 1 responses, as well as DC migration in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, use of iCD40-modified and LPS-stimulated DCs led to targeted expansion of autologous T cells against tumor-associated antigens, including prostate-specific membrane antigen, and elimination of preestablished tumors, supporting this technology as a potent strategy for DC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. METHODS The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. RESULTS Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P < 0.05) recovered the expression of adiponectin. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were increased in the serum of mice with DSS colitis but decreased after melatonin injection. CONCLUSION This study suggested that melatonin modulated adiponectin expression in colonic tissue and melatonin and adiponectin synergistically potentiated anti-inflammatory effects on colitis with sleep deprivation. PMID:27672276

  9. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-09-07

    To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P < 0.05) recovered the expression of adiponectin. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were increased in the serum of mice with DSS colitis but decreased after melatonin injection. This study suggested that melatonin modulated adiponectin expression in colonic tissue and melatonin and adiponectin synergistically potentiated anti-inflammatory effects on colitis with sleep deprivation.

  10. Expression of phospholipase C isozymes by murine B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hempel, W M; DeFranco, A L

    1991-06-01

    Cross-linking of membrane (m) Ig, the B cell receptor for Ag, activates protein tyrosine phosphorylation and hydrolysis of phosphotidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. The latter signal transduction pathway is an important mediator of antigen receptor engagement. The initial event in this pathway is the activation of phospholipase C (PLC). The identity of the isozyme of PLC used in B cells and the mechanism by which it becomes activated are currently unknown. The cDNA encoding five different isozymes have been cloned. As a first step in identifying the isozyme of PLC that is coupled to mIgM, murine cDNA fragments for the five cloned PLC isozymes were generated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned, and used to screen a panel of B cell lines representing different stages of development for PLC mRNA expression. All the B cell lines tested expressed high levels of PLC alpha and PLC gamma 2 mRNA, whereas PLC beta and PLC delta mRNA expression were undetectable by both Northern blot and PCR analysis. PLC gamma 1 had a more complicated pattern of mRNA expression. PLC gamma 1 mRNA expression was lower than that observed for PLC alpha or PLC gamma 2 mRNA and varied widely among different cell lines. The pattern of PLC gamma 1 mRNA expression did not correlate with the developmental stage of the cell lines. The pattern of PLC gamma 1 protein expression in the panel of B cell lines correlated with the pattern of PLC gamma 1 mRNA expression. PLC gamma 1 expression was very low in several B cell lines, despite the fact that these cell lines show mIgM-stimulatable PLC activity. The variable and in some cases very low expression of PLC gamma 1 suggests that it may not be the form of PLC that is activated by mIgM. In contrast, PLC alpha and PLC gamma 2 were abundantly expressed in all B cell lines tested. This observation is consistent with the possibility that PLC alpha or PLC gamma 2 is activated by mIgM.

  11. Direct T Cell Activation via CD40 Ligand Generates High Avidity CD8+ T Cells Capable of Breaking Immunological Tolerance for the Control of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Song, Liwen; Trieu, Janson; Lee, Sung Yong; He, Liangmei; Tsai, Ya-Chea; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2014-01-01

    CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40L) are costimulatory molecules that play a pivotal role in the proinflammatory immune response. Primarily expressed by activated CD4+ T cells, CD40L binds to CD40 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby inducing APC activation. APCs, in turn, prime cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here, two tumor-associated antigen (TAA) animal models, p53-based and GP100-based, were utilized to examine the ability of CD40-CD40L to improve antigen-specific CTL-mediated antitumor immune responses. Although p53 and GP100 are self-antigens that generate low affinity antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, studies have shown that their functional avidity can be improved with CD40L-expressing APCs. Therefore, in the current study, we immunized mice with a DNA construct encoding a TAA in conjunction with another construct encoding CD40L via intramuscular injection followed by electroporation. We observed a significant increase in the antigen-specific CTL-mediated immune responses as well as the potent antitumor effects in both models. Antibody depletion experiments demonstrated that CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in eliciting antitumor effects in vaccinated mice. Furthermore, we showed that in vitro stimulation with irradiated tumor cells expressing both TAA and CD40L improved the functional avidity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Thus, our data show that vaccination with TAA/CD40L DNA can induce potent antitumor effects against TAA-expressing tumors through the generation of better functioning antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Our study serves as an important foundation for future clinical translation. PMID:24664420

  12. Manipulation of pulmonary prostacyclin synthase expression prevents murine lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Keith, Robert L; Miller, York E; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Moore, Mark D; Gesell, Tracy L; Gao, Bifeng; Malkinson, Alvin M; Golpon, Heiko A; Nemenoff, Raphael A; Geraci, Mark W

    2002-02-01

    Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity decreases eicosanoid production and prevents lung cancer in animal models. Prostaglandin (PG) I(2) (PGI(2), prostacyclin) is a PGH(2) metabolite with anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antimetastatic properties. The instability of PGI(2) has limited its evaluation in animal models of cancer. We hypothesized that pulmonary overexpression of prostacyclin synthase may prevent the development of murine lung tumors. Transgenic mice with selective pulmonary prostacyclin synthase overexpression were exposed to two distinct carcinogenesis protocols: an initiation/promotion model and a simple carcinogen model. The transgenic mice exhibited significantly reduced lung tumor multiplicity (tumor number) in proportion to transgene expression, a dose-response effect. Moreover, the highest expressing mice demonstrated reduced tumor incidence. To investigate the mechanism for protection, we evaluated PG levels and inflammatory responses. At the time of sacrifice following one carcinogenesis model, the transgenics exhibited only an increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), not a decrease in PGE(2). Thus, elevated PGI(2) levels and not decreased PGE(2) levels appear to be necessary for the chemopreventive effects. When exposed to a single dose of butylated hydroxytoluene, transgenic mice exhibited a survival advantage; however, reduction in alveolar inflammatory response was not observed. These studies demonstrate that manipulation of PG metabolism downstream from COX produces even more profound lung cancer reduction than COX inhibition alone and could be the basis for new approaches to understanding the pathogenesis and prevention of lung cancer.

  13. BMP and BMP receptor expression during murine organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Danesh, Shahab M; Villasenor, Alethia; Chong, Diana; Soukup, Carrie; Cleaver, Ondine

    2009-06-01

    Cell-cell communication is critical for regulating embryonic organ growth and differentiation. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) family of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) molecules represents one class of such cell-cell signaling molecules that regulate the morphogenesis of several organs. Due to high redundancy between the myriad BMP ligands and receptors in certain tissues, it has been challenging to address the role of BMP signaling using targeting of single Bmp genes in mouse models. Here, we present a detailed study of the developmental expression profiles of three BMP ligands (Bmp2, Bmp4, Bmp7) and three BMP receptors (Bmpr1a, Bmpr1b, and BmprII), as well as their molecular antagonist (noggin), in the early embryo during the initial steps of murine organogenesis. In particular, we focus on the expression of Bmp family members in the first organs and tissues that take shape during embryogenesis, such as the heart, vascular system, lungs, liver, stomach, nervous system, somites and limbs. Using in situ hybridization, we identify domains where ligand(s) and receptor(s) are either singly or co-expressed in specific tissues. In addition, we identify a previously unnoticed asymmetric expression of Bmp4 in the gut mesogastrium, which initiates just prior to gut turning and the establishment of organ asymmetry in the gastrointestinal tract. Our studies will aid in the future design and/or interpretation of targeted deletion of individual Bmp or Bmpr genes, since this study identifies organs and tissues where redundant BMP signaling pathways are likely to occur.

  14. BMP and BMP receptor expression during murine organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Danesh, Shahab M.; Villasenor, Alethia; Chong, Diana; Soukup, Carrie; Cleaver, Ondine

    2009-01-01

    Cell-cell communication is critical for regulating embryonic organ growth and differentiation. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) family of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) molecules represents one class of such cell-cell signaling molecules that regulate the morphogenesis of several organs. Due to high redundancy between the myriad BMP ligands and receptors in certain tissues, it has been challenging to address the role of BMP signaling using targeting of single Bmp genes in mouse models. Here, we present a detailed study of the developmental expression profiles of three BMP ligands (Bmp2, Bmp4, Bmp7) and three BMP receptors (Bmpr1a, Bmpr1b, and BmprII), as well as their molecular antagonist (noggin), in the early embryo during the initial steps of murine organogenesis. In particular, we focus on the expression of Bmp family members in the first organs and tissues that take shape during embryogenesis, such as the heart, vascular system, lungs, liver, stomach, nervous system, somites and limbs. Using in situ hybridization, we identify domains where ligand(s) and receptor(s) are either singly or co-expressed in specific tissues. In addition, we identify a previously unnoticed asymmetric expression of Bmp4 in the gut mesogastrium, which initiates just prior to gut turning and the establishment of organ asymmetry in the gastrointestinal tract. Our studies will aid in the future design and/or interpretation of targeted deletion of individual Bmp or Bmpr genes, since this study identifies organs and tissues where redundant BMP signaling pathways are likely to occur. PMID:19393343

  15. CD40 ligand exhibits a direct antiviral effect on Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 infection via a PI3K-dependent, autophagy-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vlahava, Virginia-Maria; Eliopoulos, Aristides G; Sourvinos, George

    2015-06-01

    The interaction between CD40 and its ligand, CD40L/CD154, is crucial for the efficient initiation and regulation of immune responses against viruses. Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus capable of manipulating host responses and exploiting host proteins to establish productive infection. Herein we have examined the impact of CD40L-mediated CD40 activation on HSV-1 replication in U2OS cells stably expressing the CD40 receptor. Treatment of these cells with CD40L significantly reduced the HSV-1 progeny virus compared to non-treated cells. The activation of CD40 signaling did not affect the binding of HSV-1 virions on the cell surface but rather delayed the translocation of VP16 to the nucleus, affecting all stages of viral life cycle. Using pharmacological inhibitors and RNAi we show that inhibition of PI3 kinase but not autophagy reverses the effects of CD40L on HSV-1 replication. Collectively, these data demonstrate that CD40 activation exerts a direct inhibitory effect on HSV-1, initiating from the very early stages of the infection by exploiting PI3 kinase-dependent but autophagy-independent mechanisms.

  16. Organization of the human CD40L gene: Implications for molecular defects in X chromosome-linked hyper-IgM syndrome and prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, A.; Macchi, P.P.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A.; Lucchini, F.; Patrosso, C.M.; Vezzoni, P.; Notarangelo, L.D.; Giliani, S.; Mantuano, E.

    1994-03-15

    Recently, CD40L has been identified as the gene responsible for X chromosome-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM1). CD40L on activated T cells from HIGM1 patients fails to bind B-cell CD40 molecules, and subsequent analysis of CD40L transcripts by reverse transcription PCR demonstrated coding region mutations in these patients. This approach, however, is of limited use for prenatal diagnosis of HIGM1 in the early-gestation fetus. In this report, the authors have defined the genomic structure of the CD40L gene, which is composed of five exons and four intervening introns. With this information, the authors have defined at the genomic level the CD40L coding region. These different deletions arose from three distinct mechanisms, including (i) a splice donor mutation with exon skipping, (ii) a splice acceptor mutation with utilization of a cryptic splice site, and (iii) a deletion/insertion event with the creation of a new splice acceptor site. In addition, they have performed prenatal evaluation of an 11-week-old fetus at risk for HIGM1. CD40L genomic clones provide a starting point for further studies of the genetic elements that control CD40L expression. Knowledge of the CD40L gene structure will prove useful for the identification of additional mutations in HIGM1 and for performing genetic counseling about this disease. 54 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Human Genetics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Guides a High-Throughput Drug Screen of the CD40 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Diogo, Dorothée; Wu, Di; Spoonamore, Jim; Dancik, Vlado; Franke, Lude; Kurreeman, Fina; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Duclos, Grant; Hartland, Cathy; Zhou, Xuezhong; Li, Kejie; Liu, Jun; De Jager, Philip L.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Gupta, Namrata; Clemons, Paul A.; Stahl, Eli; Tolliday, Nicola; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant in RA discovered by a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) and to perform a high-throughput drug screen for modulators of CD40 signaling based on human genetic findings. First, we fine-map the CD40 risk locus in 7,222 seropositive RA patients and 15,870 controls, together with deep sequencing of CD40 coding exons in 500 RA cases and 650 controls, to identify a single SNP that explains the entire signal of association (rs4810485, P = 1.4×10−9). Second, we demonstrate that subjects homozygous for the RA risk allele have ∼33% more CD40 on the surface of primary human CD19+ B lymphocytes than subjects homozygous for the non-risk allele (P = 10−9), a finding corroborated by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 1,469 healthy control individuals. Third, we use retroviral shRNA infection to perturb the amount of CD40 on the surface of a human B lymphocyte cell line (BL2) and observe a direct correlation between amount of CD40 protein and phosphorylation of RelA (p65), a subunit of the NF-κB transcription factor. Finally, we develop a high-throughput NF-κB luciferase reporter assay in BL2 cells activated with trimerized CD40 ligand (tCD40L) and conduct an HTS of 1,982 chemical compounds and FDA–approved drugs. After a series of counter-screens and testing in primary human CD19+ B cells, we identify 2 novel chemical inhibitors not previously implicated in inflammation or CD40-mediated NF-κB signaling. Our study demonstrates proof-of-concept that human genetics can be used to guide the development of phenotype-based, high-throughput small-molecule screens to identify potential novel therapies in

  18. HIV-1 induction of CD40 on endothelial cells promotes the outgrowth of AIDS-associated B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Moses, A V; Williams, S E; Strussenberg, J G; Heneveld, M L; Ruhl, R A; Bakke, A C; Bagby, G C; Nelson, J A

    1997-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection is associated with the development of aggressive extranodal B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Using microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC)-enriched bone marrow stromal cultures, HIV infection of stromal MVECs from lymphoma patients induced the outgrowth of malignant B cells. MVECs were the only HIV-infected cells in the stroma, and purified brain MVECs also induced a phenotype supportive of neoplastic B-cell attachment and proliferation. HIV infection of MVECs stimulated surface expression of CD40 and allowed preferential induction of the vascular cell adhesion molecule VCAM-1 after CD40 triggering. B-lymphoma cells expressed the CD40 ligand (CD40L), and blocking of CD40-CD40L interactions between HIV-infected MVECs and B-lymphoma cells inhibited B-cell attachment and proliferation. These observations suggest that HIV promotes B-lymphoma cell growth through facilitating attachment of lymphoma cells to HIV-infected MVECs and represent a novel mechanism through which viruses may induce malignancies.

  19. Molecular analysis of fiber type-specific expression of murine myostatin promoter.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Mônica Senna; Thomas, Mark; Forbes, Davanea; Watson, Trevor; Kambadur, Ravi; Sharma, Mridula

    2004-10-01

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and absence of the functional myostatin protein leads to the heavy muscle phenotype in both mouse and cattle. Although the role of myostatin in controlling muscle mass is established, little is known of the mechanisms regulating the expression of the myostatin gene. In this study, we have characterized the murine myostatin promoter in vivo. Various constructs of the murine myostatin promoter were injected into the quadriceps muscle of mice, and the reporter luciferase activity was analyzed. The results indicate that of the seven E-boxes present in the 2.5-kb fragment of the murine myostatin promoter, the E5 E-box plays an important role in the regulation of promoter activity in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro studies demonstrated that MyoD preferentially binds and upregulates the murine myostatin promoter activity. We also analyzed the activity of the bovine and murine promoters in murine skeletal muscle and showed that, despite displaying comparable levels of activity in murine myoblast cultures, bovine myostatin promoter activity is much weaker than murine myostatin promoter in mice. Finally, we demonstrate that in vivo, the 2.5-kb region of the murine myostatin promoter is sufficient to drive the activity of the reporter gene in a fiber type-specific manner.

  20. Characterisation of the TNF superfamily members CD40L and BAFF in the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula).

    PubMed

    Li, Ronggai; Redmond, Anthony K; Wang, Tiehui; Bird, Steve; Dooley, Helen; Secombes, Chris J

    2015-11-01

    The tumour necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members CD40L and BAFF play critical roles in mammalian B cell survival, proliferation and maturation, however little is known about these key cytokines in the oldest jawed vertebrates, the cartilaginous fishes. Here we report the cloning of CD40L and BAFF orthologues (designated ScCD40L and ScBAFF) in the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). As predicted both proteins are type II membrane-bound proteins with a TNF homology domain in their extracellular region and both are highly expressed in shark immune tissues. ScCD40L transcript levels correlate with those of TCRα and transcription of both genes is modulated in peripheral blood leukocytes following in vitro stimulation. Although a putative CD40L orthologue was identified in the elephant shark genome the work herein is the first molecular characterisation and transcriptional analysis of CD40L in a cartilaginous fish. ScBAFF was also cloned and its transcription characterised in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies observed between spiny dogfish BAFF and bamboo shark BAFF in previously published studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CD40 activation induces NREM sleep and modulates genes associated with sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gast, Heidemarie; Müller, Andreas; Lopez, Martin; Meier, Daniel; Huber, Reto; Dechent, Frieder; Prinz, Marco; Emmenegger, Yann; Franken, Paul; Birchler, Thomas; Fontana, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    The T-cell derived cytokine CD40 ligand is overexpressed in patients with autoimmune diseases. Through activation of its receptor, CD40 ligand leads to a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNFR1) dependent impairment of locomotor activity in mice. Here we report that this effect is explained through a promotion of sleep, which was specific to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep while REM sleep was suppressed. The increase in NREM sleep was accompanied by a decrease in EEG delta power during NREM sleep and by a decrease in the expression of transcripts in the cerebral cortex known to be associated with homeostatic sleep drive, such as Homer1a, Early growth response 2, Neuronal pentraxin 2, and Fos-like antigen 2. The effect of CD40 activation was mimicked by peripheral TNF injection and prevented by the TNF blocker etanercept. Our study indicates that sleep-wake dysregulation in autoimmune diseases may result from CD40 induced TNF:TNFR1 mediated alterations of molecular pathways, which regulate sleep-wake behavior.

  2. Vaccination with a Fusion Protein That Introduces HIV-1 Gag Antigen into a Multitrimer CD40L Construct Results in Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Responses and Protection from Viral Challenge by Vaccinia-Gag

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Termini, James M.; Raffa, Francesca N.; Williams, Cindi-Ann; Kornbluth, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) is a membrane protein that is important for the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and DC-induced CD8+ T cell responses. To be active, CD40L must cluster CD40 receptors on responding cells. To produce a soluble form of CD40L that clusters CD40 receptors necessitates the use of a multitrimer construct. With this in mind, a tripartite fusion protein was made from surfactant protein D (SPD), HIV-1 Gag as a test antigen, and CD40L, where SPD serves as a scaffold for the multitrimer protein complex. This SPD-Gag-CD40L protein activated CD40-bearing cells and bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro. Compared to a plasmid for Gag antigen alone (pGag), DNA vaccination of mice with pSPD-Gag-CD40L induced an increased number of Gag-specific CD8+ T cells with increased avidity for major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted Gag peptide and improved vaccine-induced protection from challenge by vaccinia-Gag virus. The importance of the multitrimeric nature of the complex was shown using a plasmid lacking the N terminus of SPD that produced a single trimer fusion protein. This plasmid, pTrimer-Gag-CD40L, was only weakly active on CD40-bearing cells and did not elicit strong CD8+ T cell responses or improve protection from vaccinia-Gag challenge. An adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vaccine incorporating SPD-Gag-CD40L was much stronger than Ad5 expressing Gag alone (Ad5-Gag) and induced complete protection (i.e., sterilizing immunity) from vaccinia-Gag challenge. Overall, these results show the potential of a new vaccine design in which antigen is introduced into a construct that expresses a multitrimer soluble form of CD40L, leading to strongly protective CD8+ T cell responses. PMID:24227853

  3. Murine somatic cell nuclear transfer using reprogrammed donor cells expressing male germ cell-specific genes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hoin; Park, Jong Im; Roh, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    In vivo-matured mouse oocytes were enucleated, and a single murine embryonic fibroblast (control or reprogrammed by introducing extracts from murine testis tissue, which showed expression of male germ cell-specific genes) was injected into the cytoplasm of the oocytes. The rate of blastocyst development and expression levels of Oct-4, Eomes and Cdx-2 were not significantly different in both experimental groups. However, the expression levels of Nanog, Sox9 and Glut-1 were significantly increased when reprogrammed cells were used as donor nuclei. Increased expression of Nanog can be supportive of complete reprogramming of somatic cell nuclear transfer murine embryos. The present study suggested that donor cells expressing male germ cell-specific genes can be reconstructed and can develop into embryos with normal high expression of developmentally essential genes.

  4. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kevin P.; Kiernan, Elizabeth A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS. PMID:26883795

  5. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kevin P; Kiernan, Elizabeth A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Williams, Justin C; Watters, Jyoti J

    2016-02-17

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS.

  6. Differential regulation of human and murine P-selectin expression and function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenghui; Miner, Jonathan J.; Yago, Tadayuki; Yao, Longbiao; Lupu, Florea; Xia, Lijun

    2010-01-01

    Leukocytes roll on P-selectin after its mobilization from secretory granules to the surfaces of platelets and endothelial cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-1β, and lipopolysaccharide increase synthesis of P-selectin in murine but not in human endothelial cells. To explore the physiological significance of this difference in gene regulation, we made transgenic mice bearing the human Selp gene and crossed them with mice lacking murine P-selectin (Selp−/−). The transgenic mice constitutively expressed human P-selectin in platelets, endothelial cells, and macrophages. P-selectin mediated comparable neutrophil migration into the inflamed peritoneum of transgenic and wild-type (WT) mice. Leukocytes rolled similarly on human or murine P-selectin on activated murine platelets and in venules of the cremaster muscle subjected to trauma. However, TNF increased murine P-selectin in venules, slowing rolling and increasing adhesion, whereas it decreased human P-selectin, accelerating rolling and decreasing adhesion. Both P- and E-selectin mediated basal rolling in the skin of WT mice, but E-selectin dominated rolling in transgenic mice. During contact hypersensitivity, murine P-selectin messenger (m) RNA was up-regulated and P-selectin was essential for leukocyte recruitment. However, human P-selectin mRNA was down-regulated and P-selectin contributed much less to leukocyte recruitment. These findings reveal functionally significant differences in basal and inducible expression of human and murine P-selectin in vivo. PMID:21149548

  7. Characterization of a Broadly Reactive Anti-CD40 Agonistic Monoclonal Antibody for Potential Use as an Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Waghela, Suryakant D.; Lokhandwala, Shehnaz; Ambrus, Andy; Bray, Jocelyn; Vuong, Christina; Vinodkumar, Vanitha; Dominowski, Paul J.; Rai, Sharath; Mwangi, Duncan; Foss, Dennis L.; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2017-01-01

    Lack of safe and effective adjuvants is a major hindrance to the development of efficacious vaccines. Signaling via CD40 pathway leads to enhanced antigen processing and presentation, nitric oxide expression, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by antigen presenting cells, and stimulation of B-cells to undergo somatic hypermutation, immunoglobulin class switching, and proliferation. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies have shown promising adjuvant qualities in human and mouse vaccine studies. An anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated 2E4E4, was identified and shown to have strong agonistic effects on primary cells from multiple livestock species. The mAb recognize swine, bovine, caprine, and ovine CD40, and evoked 25-fold or greater proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from these species relative to cells incubated with an isotype control (p<0.001). In addition, the mAb induced significant nitric oxide (p<0.0001) release by bovine macrophages. Furthermore, the mAb upregulated the expression of MHC-II by PBMCs, and stimulated significant (p<0.0001) IL-1α, IL6, IL-8, and TNF-α expression by PBMCs. These results suggest that the mAb 2E4E4 can target and stimulate cells from multiple livestock species and thus, it is a potential candidate for adjuvant development. This is the first study to report an anti-swine CD40 agonistic mAb that is also broadly reactive against multiple species. PMID:28107431

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and NF-kappa B/Rel are at the divergence of CD40-mediated proliferation and survival pathways.

    PubMed

    Andjelic, S; Hsia, C; Suzuki, H; Kadowaki, T; Koyasu, S; Liou, H C

    2000-10-01

    CD40 receptor ligation evokes several crucial outcomes for the fate of an activated B cell, including proliferation and survival. Although multiple signaling molecules in the CD40 pathways have been identified, their specific roles in regulating proliferation and maintaining cell viability are still obscure. In this report, we demonstrate that the activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) and NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors is crucial for CD40-mediated proliferation. Furthermore, our data indicate that PI-3K is indispensable for CD40-mediated NF-kappaB/Rel activation. This is achieved via activation of AKT and the degradation of IkappaBalpha. Furthermore, we show that PI-3K activity is necessary for the degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27kip. Therefore, both of these events comprise the mechanism by which PI-3K controls cell proliferation. In contrast to the absolute requirement of PI-3K and NF-kappaB/Rel for proliferation, these signaling molecules are only partially responsible for CD40-mediated survival, as blocking of PI-3K activity did not lead to apoptosis of anti-CD40-treated cells. However, the PI-3K/NF-kappaB pathway is still required for CD40-induced Bcl-X gene expression. Taken together, our data indicate that multiple survival pathways are triggered via this receptor, whereas NF-kappaB/Rel and PI-3K are crucial for CD40-induced proliferation.

  9. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an Eimeria vaccine candidate based on Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 and chicken CD40 ligand.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Lin, Qian; Qiu, Jianhan; Qin, Mei; Tang, Xinming; Suo, Xun; Huang, Zhijian; Liu, Xianyong

    2015-05-30

    The CD40 ligand (CD40L) has shown potential as a powerful immunological adjuvant in various studies. Here, the efficacy of a chimeric subunit vaccine, consisting of Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 (EtIMP1) and chicken CD40L, was evaluated against E. tenella infection. The recombinant EtIMP1-CD40L was purified from E. coli over-expressing this protein. Chickens were vaccinated with EtIMP1-CD40L without adjuvant or EtIMP1 with Freund's adjuvant. Immunization of chickens with EtIMP1-CD40L fusion protein resulted in stronger IFN-γ secretion and IgA response than that with only recombinant EtIMP1 with Freund's adjuvant. The clinical effect (cecal lesions, body weights gain, and oocysts shedding) of the EtIMP1-CD40L without adjuvant was also better than that of the EtIMP1 with adjuvant, as evidenced by the difference between the two groups in the oocyst output of E. tenella-challenged chickens. The results suggest that the EtIMP1-CD40L fusion protein can be used as an effective immunogen in the development of subunit vaccines against Eimeria infection.

  10. Dendritic cells induce Tc1 cell differentiation via the CD40/CD40L pathway in mice after exposure to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Liang-Jian; Deng, Ting-Ting; Wang, Qin; Qiu, Shi-Lin; Liang, Yi; He, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, Jian-Quan; Bai, Jing; Li, Mei-Hua; Deng, Jing-Min; Liu, Guang-Nan; Liu, Ji-Feng; Zhong, Xiao-Ning

    2016-09-01

    Dendritic cells and CD8(+) T cells participate in the pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including emphysema, but little is known of the involvement of the CD40/CD40L pathway. We investigated the role of the CD40/CD40L pathway in Tc1 cell differentiation induced by dendritic cells in a mouse model of emphysema, and in vitro. C57BL/6J wild-type and CD40(-/-) mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) or not (control), for 24 wk. In vitro experiments involved wild-type and CD40(-/-) dendritic cells treated with CS extract (CSE) or not. Compared with the control groups, the CS mice (both wild type and CD40(-/-)) had a greater percentage of lung dendritic cells and higher levels of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I molecules and costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80. Relative to the CS CD40(-/-) mice, the CS wild type showed greater signs of lung damage and Tc1 cell differentiation. In vitro, the CSE-treated wild-type cells evidenced more cytokine release (IL-12/p70) and Tc1 cell differentiation than did the CSE-treated CD40(-/-) cells. Exposure to cigarette smoke increases the percentage of lung dendritic cells and promotes Tc1 cell differentiation via the CD40/CD40L pathway. Blocking the CD40/CD40L pathway may suppress development of emphysema in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Manipulations of cholinesterase gene expression modulate murine megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Patinkin, D; Seidman, S; Eckstein, F; Benseler, F; Zakut, H; Soreq, H

    1990-11-01

    Megakaryocytopoiesis was selectively inhibited in cultured murine bone marrow cells by a 15-mer oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to the initiator AUG region in butyrylcholinesterase mRNA. Furthermore, conditioned medium from Xenopus oocytes producing recombinant butyrylcholinesterase stimulated megakaryocytopoiesis. These observations implicate butyrylcholinesterase in megakaryocytopoiesis and suggest application of oligodeoxynucleotides for modulating bone marrow development.

  12. Manipulations of cholinesterase gene expression modulate murine megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Patinkin, D; Seidman, S; Eckstein, F; Benseler, F; Zakut, H; Soreq, H

    1990-01-01

    Megakaryocytopoiesis was selectively inhibited in cultured murine bone marrow cells by a 15-mer oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to the initiator AUG region in butyrylcholinesterase mRNA. Furthermore, conditioned medium from Xenopus oocytes producing recombinant butyrylcholinesterase stimulated megakaryocytopoiesis. These observations implicate butyrylcholinesterase in megakaryocytopoiesis and suggest application of oligodeoxynucleotides for modulating bone marrow development. Images PMID:2233731

  13. Effect of CD40/CD40L signaling on IL-10-producing regulatory B cells in Chinese children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baohui; Tan, Xiongjun; Xiong, Xiao; Wu, Daoqi; Zhang, Gaofu; Wang, Mo; Dong, Shifang; Liu, Wei; Yang, Haiping; Li, Qiu

    2016-11-11

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role and mechanism of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B cells (B10 cells) in the pathogenesis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN). We examined the percentage of B10 cells, CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells, CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD27(+) B cells, Th17 cells, and T regulatory (Treg) cells within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population in healthy subjects and HSP/HSPN patients. The percentage of B10 cells and CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells was reduced in HSPN patients and that of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD27(+) B cells was decreased only in HSPN patients with hematuria and proteinuria or massive proteinuria. The expression of IL-10 by B10 cells and their subsets was decreased in HSPN patients and returned to normal levels in HSP/HSPN patients in remission. B10 cells and their subsets negatively correlated with the Th17/Treg ratio. There was no difference in B10pro + B10 cells, Th17 cells, Treg cells, and the Th17/Treg ratio between children with HSP/HSPN and healthy controls after CD40L stimulation. On the other hand, the level of IL-10 expressed by CD19(+)CD40(+) B cells was decreased in HSPN, and the percentage of B10pro + B10 cells and Treg cells was reduced and that of Th17 cell was increased in the presence of anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody (mAb). Thus, decreased B10 cells and CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells may function as an early marker of renal impairment in HSPN. The dysfunction of B10 cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of HSPN by regulating the Th17/Treg balance. Moreover, the CD40/CD40L signaling pathway may play a role in B10 cell differentiation and functional maturation.

  14. CD40L is not involved in acute experimental pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Aree; Awla, Darbaz; Jeppsson, Bengt; Regnér, Sara; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2011-05-20

    Recent data suggest that platelets not only control thrombosis and hemostasis but may also regulate inflammatory processes such as acute pancreatitis. However, the specific role of platelet-derived mediators in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis is not known. Herein, we examined the role of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) in different models of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced by repetitive caerulein administration (50μg/kg, i.p.) or infusion of sodium taurocholate (5%-10μl) into the pancreatic duct in wild-type C57BL/6 and CD40L-deficient mice. Neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) levels, acinar cell necrosis, edema and hemorrhage in the pancreas as well as serum amylase activity and lung levels of MPO were quantified 24h after induction of acute pancreatitis. Caerulein and taurocholate challenge caused a clear-cut pancreatic damage characterized by increased acinar cell necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, focal hemorrhage, edema formation as well as increased levels of serum amylase and MIP-2 in the pancreas and lung MPO and histological damage. Notably, CD40L gene-deficient animals exhibited a similar phenotype as wild-type mice after challenge with caerulein and taurocholate. Similarly, administration of an antibody directed against CD40L had no effect against acute pancreatitis. Our data suggest that CD40L does not play a functional role in experimental acute pancreatitis. Thus, other candidates than CD40L needs to be explored in order to identify platelet-derived mediators in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis.

  15. Tuning of CD40-CD154 interactions in human B-lymphocyte activation: a broad array of in vitro models for a complex in vivo situation.

    PubMed

    Néron, Sonia; Nadeau, Philippe J; Darveau, André; Leblanc, Jean-François

    2011-02-01

    Naive and memory B-lymphocyte populations can be activated through the binding of CD154 to CD40, a receptor that is constitutively expressed on the surface of these cells. Models based on the in vitro stimulation of human B lymphocytes through CD40 have greatly contributed to our understanding of the human immune response in healthy individuals and patients suffering from immune disorders. The nature of the engineered CD40 ligands is as diverse as the in vitro models used in studies of CD40-activated B lymphocytes. Monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies, recombinant CD154 proteins, soluble CD154(+) membranes as well as CD154(+) cell lines have turned out to be very useful tools, and are still in use today. As for any receptor-ligand interaction, parameters such as duration and strength of contact, timing, affinity, and receptor density are major determinants of CD40 binding by CD154 or anti-CD40. Furthermore, variation in the intensity of CD40 stimulation has been shown to influence proliferation, differentiation and immunoglobulin secretion of human hybridomas, B-cell lines, tonsil and blood B lymphocytes. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the great diversity of CD40 agonists used in in vitro models of B-lymphocyte activation, with a particular emphasis on variations in the resulting strength of CD40 signaling generated by these models. A better understanding of these models could open up new avenues for the rational use of human B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells in cellular therapies.

  16. Spontaneous Activation of Antigen-presenting Cells by Genes Encoding Truncated Homo-Oligomerizing Derivatives of CD40.

    PubMed

    Levin, Noam; Pato, Aviad; Cafri, Gal; Eisenberg, Galit; Peretz, Tamar; Margalit, Alon; Lotem, Michal; Gross, Gideon

    The interaction between the CD40 receptor on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and its trimeric ligand on CD4 T cells is essential for the initiation and progression of the adaptive immune response. Here we undertook to endow CD40 with the capacity to trigger spontaneous APC activation through ligand-independent oligomerization. To this end we exploited the GCN4 yeast transcriptional activator, which contains a leucine zipper DNA-binding motif that induces homophilic interactions. We incorporated GCN4 variants forming homodimers, trimers, or tetramers at the intracellular domain of human and mouse CD40 and replaced the extracellular portion with peptide-β2m or other peptide tags. In parallel we examined similarly truncated CD40 monomers lacking a GCN4 motif. The oligomeric products appeared to arrange in high-molecular-weight aggregates and were considerably superior to the monomer in their ability to trigger nuclear factor kB signaling, substantiating the anticipated constitutively active (ca) phenotype. Cumulative results in human and mouse APC lines transfected with caCD40 mRNA revealed spontaneous upregulation of CD80, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-12, which could be further enhanced by caTLR4 mRNA. In mouse bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells caCD40 upregulated CD80, CD86, MHC-II, and IL-12 and in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells it elevated surface CD80, CD83 CD86, CCR7, and HLA-DR. Oligomeric products carrying the peptide-β2m extracellular portion could support MHC-I presentation of the linked peptide up to 4 days post-mRNA transfection. These findings demonstrate that the expression of a single caCD40 derivative in APCs can exert multiple immunostimulatory effects, offering a new powerful tool in the design of gene-based cancer vaccines.

  17. Metabolism-associated danger signal-induced immune response and reverse immune checkpoint-activated CD40(+) monocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Fang, Pu; Saredy, Jason; Xi, Hang; Ramon, Cueto; Yang, William; Choi, Eric T; Ji, Yong; Mao, Wei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2017-07-24

    Adaptive immunity is critical for disease progression and modulates T cell (TC) and antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions. Three signals were initially proposed for adaptive immune activation: signal 1 antigen recognition, signal 2 co-stimulation or co-inhibition, and signal 3 cytokine stimulation. In this article, we propose to term signal 2 as an immune checkpoint, which describes interactions of paired molecules leading to stimulation (stimulatory immune checkpoint) or inhibition (inhibitory immune checkpoint) of an immune response. We classify immune checkpoint into two categories: one-way immune checkpoint for forward signaling towards TC only, and two-way immune checkpoint for both forward and reverse signaling towards TC and APC, respectively. Recently, we and others provided evidence suggesting that metabolic risk factors (RF) activate innate and adaptive immunity, involving the induction of immune checkpoint molecules. We summarize these findings and suggest a novel theory, metabolism-associated danger signal (MADS) recognition, by which metabolic RF activate innate and adaptive immunity. We emphasize that MADS activates the reverse immune checkpoint which leads to APC inflammation in innate and adaptive immunity. Our recent evidence is shown that metabolic RF, such as uremic toxin or hyperhomocysteinemia, induced immune checkpoint molecule CD40 expression in monocytes (MC) and elevated serum soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) resulting in CD40(+) MC differentiation. We propose that CD40(+) MC is a novel pro-inflammatory MC subset and a reliable biomarker for chronic kidney disease severity. We summarize that CD40:CD40L immune checkpoint can induce TC and APC activation via forward stimulatory, reverse stimulatory, and TC contact-independent immune checkpoints. Finally, we modeled metabolic RF-induced two-way stimulatory immune checkpoint amplification and discussed potential signaling pathways including AP-1, NF-κB, NFAT, STAT, and DNA methylation and their

  18. Dendritic cell based PSMA immunotherapy for prostate cancer using a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Williams, Briana Jill; Bhatia, Shilpa; Adams, Lisa K; Boling, Susan; Carroll, Jennifer L; Li, Xiao-Lin; Rogers, Donna L; Korokhov, Nikolay; Kovesdi, Imre; Pereboev, Alexander V; Curiel, David T; Mathis, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Human prostate tumor vaccine and gene therapy trials using ex vivo methods to prime dendritic cells (DCs) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been somewhat successful, but to date the lengthy ex vivo manipulation of DCs has limited the widespread clinical utility of this approach. Our goal was to improve upon cancer vaccination with tumor antigens by delivering PSMA via a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector directly to DCs as an efficient means for activation and antigen presentation to T-cells. To test this approach, we developed a mouse model of prostate cancer by generating clonal derivatives of the mouse RM-1 prostate cancer cell line expressing human PSMA (RM-1-PSMA cells). To maximize antigen presentation in target cells, both MHC class I and TAP protein expression was induced in RM-1 cells by transduction with an Ad vector expressing interferon-gamma (Ad5-IFNγ). Administering DCs infected ex vivo with CD40-targeted Ad5-huPSMA, as well as direct intraperitoneal injection of the vector, resulted in high levels of tumor-specific CTL responses against RM-1-PSMA cells pretreated with Ad5-IFNγ as target cells. CD40 targeting significantly improved the therapeutic antitumor efficacy of Ad5-huPSMA encoding PSMA when combined with Ad5-IFNγ in the RM-1-PSMA model. These results suggest that a CD-targeted adenovirus delivering PSMA may be effective clinically for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Dendritic Cell Based PSMA Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer Using a CD40-Targeted Adenovirus Vector

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Briana Jill; Bhatia, Shilpa; Adams, Lisa K.; Boling, Susan; Carroll, Jennifer L.; Li, Xiao-Lin; Rogers, Donna L.; Korokhov, Nikolay; Kovesdi, Imre; Pereboev, Alexander V.; Curiel, David T.; Mathis, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Human prostate tumor vaccine and gene therapy trials using ex vivo methods to prime dendritic cells (DCs) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been somewhat successful, but to date the lengthy ex vivo manipulation of DCs has limited the widespread clinical utility of this approach. Our goal was to improve upon cancer vaccination with tumor antigens by delivering PSMA via a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector directly to DCs as an efficient means for activation and antigen presentation to T-cells. To test this approach, we developed a mouse model of prostate cancer by generating clonal derivatives of the mouse RM-1 prostate cancer cell line expressing human PSMA (RM-1-PSMA cells). To maximize antigen presentation in target cells, both MHC class I and TAP protein expression was induced in RM-1 cells by transduction with an Ad vector expressing interferon-gamma (Ad5-IFNγ). Administering DCs infected ex vivo with CD40-targeted Ad5-huPSMA, as well as direct intraperitoneal injection of the vector, resulted in high levels of tumor-specific CTL responses against RM-1-PSMA cells pretreated with Ad5-IFNγ as target cells. CD40 targeting significantly improved the therapeutic antitumor efficacy of Ad5-huPSMA encoding PSMA when combined with Ad5-IFNγ in the RM-1-PSMA model. These results suggest that a CD-targeted adenovirus delivering PSMA may be effective clinically for prostate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23056548

  20. CD40-directed scFv-TRAIL fusion proteins induce CD40-restricted tumor cell death and activate dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    El-Mesery, M; Trebing, J; Schäfer, V; Weisenberger, D; Siegmund, D; Wajant, H

    2013-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy concepts often aim at the induction of adjuvant antitumor immunity or stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis. There is further evidence that combined application of immune stimulating and tumor apoptosis-inducing compounds elicits a synergistic antitumor effect. Here, we describe the development and characterization of bifunctional fusion proteins consisting of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) domain derived from the CD40-specific monoclonal antibody G28-5 that is fused to the N-terminus of stabilized trimeric soluble variants of the death ligand TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). As shown before by us and others for other cell surface antigen-targeted scFv-TRAIL fusion proteins, scFv:G28-TRAIL displayed an enhanced capacity to induce apoptosis upon CD40 binding. Studies with scFv:G28 fusion proteins of TRAIL mutants that discriminate between the two TRAIL death receptors, TRAILR1 and TRAILR2, further revealed that the CD40 binding-dependent mode of apoptosis induction of scFv:G28-TRAIL is operable with each of the two TRAIL death receptors. Binding of scFv:G28-TRAIL fusion proteins to CD40 not only result in enhanced TRAIL death receptor signaling but also in activation of the targeted CD40 molecule. In accordance with the latter, the scFv:G28-TRAIL fusion proteins triggered strong CD40-mediated maturation of dendritic cells. The CD40-targeted TRAIL fusion proteins described in this study therefore represent a novel type of bifunctional fusion proteins that couple stimulation of antigen presenting cells and apoptosis induction. PMID:24232092

  1. Expression cloning of the murine interferon gamma receptor cDNA.

    PubMed

    Munro, S; Maniatis, T

    1989-12-01

    A cDNA encoding a receptor for murine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) was isolated from an expression library made from murine thymocytes. The clone was identified by transfecting the library into monkey COS cells and probing the transfected monolayer with radiolabeled murine IFN-gamma. Cells expressing the receptor were identified by autoradiography and plasmids encoding the receptor were directly rescued from those cells producing a positive signal. A partial cDNA so obtained was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from mouse L929 cells by conventional means. When this cDNA was expressed in COS cells it produced a specific binding site for murine IFN-gamma with an affinity constant similar to that of the receptor found on L929 cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of the murine IFN-gamma receptor shows homology to that previously reported for the human IFN-gamma receptor. However, although the two proteins are clearly related, they show less than 60% identity in both the putative extracellular domain and the intracellular domain.

  2. Synergy between CD40 and MyD88 Does Not Influence Host Survival to Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Ulf Alexander; Fernandez-Santoscoy, Maria; Tam, Miguel A; Tegtmeyer, Pia; Wick, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using purified toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands plus agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies showed that TLRs and CD40 can act synergistically on dendritic cells (DCs) to optimize T cell activation and Th1 differentiation. However, a synergistic effect of TLRs and CD40 during bacterial infection is not known. Here, we show that mice lacking the TLR adaptor MyD88 alone, or lacking both MyD88 and CD40 [double knockout (DKO) mice], are compromised in survival to Salmonella infection but have intact recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes as well as unaltered abundance of DC subsets and DC activation in infected tissues. In contrast to infected wildtype and CD40(-/-) mice, both MyD88(-/-) mice and DKO mice lack detectable serum IFN-γ and have elevated IL-10. A synergistic effect of TLRs and CD40 was revealed in co-culture experiments where OT-II T cell proliferation was compromised when DKO DCs were pulsed with OVA protein and OVA323-339 peptide, but not with heat-killed Salmonella expressing OVA (HKSOVA), relative to MyD88(-/-) DCs. By contrast, MyD88(-/-) or DKO DCs pulsed with any of the antigens had a similar ability to induce IFN-γ that was lower than WT or CD40(-/-) DCs. DKO DCs pulsed with HKSOVA, but not with OVA or OVA323-339, had increased IL-10 relative to MyD88(-/-) DCs. Finally, HKSOVA-pulsed MyD88(-/-) and DKO DCs had similar and low induction of NFκB-dependent and -independent genes upon co-culture with OT-II cells. Overall, our data revealed that synergistic effects of CD40 and MyD88 do not influence host survival to Salmonella infection or serum levels of IFN-γ or IL-10. However, synergistic effects of MyD88 and CD40 may be apparent on some (IL-10 production) but not all (OT-II proliferation and IFN-γ production) DC functions and depend on the complexity of the antigen. Indeed, synergistic effects observed using purified ligands and well-defined antigens may not necessarily apply when complex antigens, such as live bacteria

  3. CD40-independent help by memory CD4 T cells induces pathogenic alloantibody but does not lead to long-lasting humoral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ran; Yu, Hong; Valujskikh, Anna

    2014-01-01

    CD40/CD154 interactions are essential for productive antibody responses to T-dependent antigens. Memory CD4 T cells express accelerated helper functions and are less dependent on costimulation when compared to naïve T cells. Here we report that donor-reactive memory CD4 T cells can deliver help to CD40-deficient B cells and induce high titers of IgG alloantibodies that contribute to heart allograft rejection in CD40−/− heart recipients. While cognate interactions between memory helper T cells and B cells are crucial for CD40-independent help, this process is not accompanied by germinal center formation and occurs despite ICOS blockade. Consistent with the extrafollicular nature of T/B cell interactions, CD40-independent help fails to maintain stable levels of serum alloantibody and induce differentiation of long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells. In summary, our data suggest that while CD40-independent help by memory CD4 T cells is sufficient to induce high levels of pathogenic alloantibody, it does not sustain long-lasting anti-donor humoral immunity and B cell memory responses. This information may guide the future use of CD40/CD154 targeting therapies in transplant recipients containing donor-reactive memory T cells. PMID:24102790

  4. Increased CD40 ligation and reduced BCR signalling leads to higher IL-10 production in B-cells from tolerant kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nova-Lamperti, Estefania; Chana, Prabhjoat; Mobillo, Paula; Runglall, Manohursingh; Kamra, Yogesh; McGregor, Reuben; Lord, Graham M.; Lechler, Robert I.; Lombardi, Giovanna; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Background An increased percentage of peripheral transitional B-cells producing IL-10 has been observed in patients tolerant to kidney allografts. In healthy volunteers, the balance between the CD40 and B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling modulated IL-10 production by B-cells, with stimulation via the BCR decreasing CD40-mediated-IL-10 production. In this study, we evaluate whether in tolerant kidney transplant patients the increased IL-10 production by B-cells was due to an altered CD40 and/or BCR signalling. Methods B-cells obtained from a new cohort of tolerant renal transplant recipients and those from age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers, were activated via CD40 and BCR, either alone or in combination. Results In tolerant patients we observed higher percentages of B-cells producing IL-10 after CD40 ligation and higher expression of CD40L on activated T-cells, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, B-cells from tolerant recipients had reduced ERK signalling following BCR-mediated activation compared to healthy controls. In keeping with this, combining BCR signalling with CD40 ligation did not reduce IL-10 secretion as was observed in healthy control transitional B-cells. Conclusion Altogether our data suggests that the altered response of B-cells in tolerant recipients may contribute to long-term stable graft acceptance. PMID:27472092

  5. Immune stimulatory receptor CD40 is required for T-cell suppression and T regulatory cell activation mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ping-Ying; Ma, Ge; Weber, Kaare J; Ozao-Choy, Junko; Wang, George; Yin, Bingjiao; Divino, Celia M; Chen, Shu-Hsia

    2010-01-01

    Immune tolerance to tumors is often associated with accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and an increase in the number of T-regulatory cells (Treg). In tumor-bearing mice, MDSCs can themselves facilitate the generation of tumor-specific Tregs. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of the immune stimulatory receptor CD40 on MDSCs is required to induce T-cell tolerance and Treg accumulation. In an immune reconstitution model, adoptive transfer of Gr-1+CD115+ monocytic MDSCs derived from CD40-deficient mice failed to recapitulate the ability of wild-type MDSCs to induce tolerance and Treg development in vivo. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies phenocopied the effect of CD40 deficiency and also improved the therapeutic efficacy of IL-12 and 4-1BB immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced tumors. Our findings suggest that CD40 is essential not only for MDSC-mediated immune suppression but also for tumor-specific Treg expansion. Blockade of CD40-CD40L interaction between MDSC and Treg may provide a new strategy to ablate tumoral immune suppression and thereby heighten responses to immunotherapy.

  6. CD40-targeted adenoviral cancer vaccines: the long and winding road to the clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hangalapura, Basav N.; Timares, Laura; Oosterhoff, Dinja; Scheper, Rik J.; Curiel, David T.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The ability of Dendritic Cells (DC) to orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses has been exploited to develop potent anti-cancer immunotherapies. Recent clinical trials exploring the efficacy of ex vivo modified autologous DC-based vaccines have reported some promising results. However, in vitro generation of autologous DC for clinical administration, their loading with tumor associated antigens (TAA) and their activation, is laborious and expensive, and, due to interindividual variability in the personalized vaccines, poorly standardized. An attractive alternative approach is to load resident DC in vivo by targeted delivery of TAA , using viral vectors and activating them simultaneously. To this end we have constructed genetically modified Adenoviral (Ad) vectors and bispecific adaptor molecules to retarget Ad vectors encoding TAA to the CD40 receptor on DC. Preclinical human and murine studies conducted so far have clearly demonstrated the suitability of a “two-component”, i.e. Ad and adaptor molecule, configuration for targeted modification of DC in vivo for cancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes recent progress in the development of CD40-targeted Ad-based cancer vaccines and highlights pre-clinical issues in clinical translation of this approach. PMID:22228547

  7. Expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in murine small intestine during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ryo; Yajima, Takaji; Tsukahara, Takamitsu

    2017-02-01

    The important role played by the gut microbiota in host immunity is mediated, in part, through toll-like receptors (TLRs). We evaluated the postnatal changes in expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the murine small intestine and assessed how expression is influenced by gut microbiota. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the murine small intestine was highly dynamic during development. The changes were especially profound during the suckling period, with the maximal mRNA levels detected in the mid-suckling period. Immunohistochemical and flow-cytometric analyses indicated that the changes in TLR2 and TLR4 expression involve primarily epithelial cells. The germ-free mice showed minor changes in TLR2/TLR4 mRNA and TLR2 protein during the suckling period. This study demonstrated that the postnatal expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in small intestinal epithelial cells is dynamic and depends on the presence of commensal intestinal microbiota.

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α/CD40 Ligand-Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cells Greatly Enhanced the Antitumor Immune Response and Lifespan in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmandi, Saeed; Menaa, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) affects T cell development and function. Further, the chemotactic capacity of MSCs, their interaction with the tumor microenvironment, and the intervention of immune-stimulatory molecules suggest possible exploitation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and CD40 ligand (CD40L) to genetically modify MSCs for enhanced cancer therapy. Both DCs and MSCs were isolated from BALB/c mice. DCs were then cocultured with MSCs transduced with TNF-α and/or CD40L [(TNF-α/CD40L)-MSCs]. Major DCs' maturation markers, DC and T cell cytokines such as interleukin-4, -6, -10, -12, TNF-α, tumor growth factor-β, as well as T cell proliferation, were assessed. Meantime, a BALB/c mouse breast tumor model was inducted by injecting 4T1 cells subcutaneously. Mice (n=10) in each well-defined test groups (n=13) were cotreated with DCs and/or (TNF-α/CD40L)-MSCs. The controls included untreated, empty vector-MSC, DC-lipopolysaccharide, and immature DC mouse groups. Eventually, cytokine levels from murine splenocytes, as well as tumor volume and survival of mice, were assessed. Compared with the corresponding controls, both in vitro and in vivo analyses showed induction of T helper 1 (Th1) as well as suppression of Th2 and Treg responses in test groups, which led to a valuable antitumor immune response. Further, the longest mouse survival was observed in mouse groups that were administered with DCs plus (TNF-α/CD40L)-MSCs. In our experimental setting, the present pioneered study demonstrates that concomitant genetic modification of MSCs with TNF-α and CD40L optimized the antitumor immunity response in the presence of DCs, meantime increasing the mouse lifespan. PMID:24372569

  9. Expression and function of the murine B7 antigen, the major costimulatory molecule expressed by peritoneal exudate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Razi-Wolf, Z; Freeman, G J; Galvin, F; Benacerraf, B; Nadler, L; Reiser, H

    1992-01-01

    The murine B7 (mB7) protein is a potent costimulatory molecule for the T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of murine CD4+ T cells. We have previously shown that stable mB7-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells but not vector-transfected controls synergize with either anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody-induced or concanavalin A-induced T-cell activation, resulting ultimately in lymphokine production and proliferation. We now have generated a hamster anti-mB7 monoclonal antibody. This reagent recognizes a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50-60 kDa. The mB7 antigen is expressed on activated B cells and on peritoneal exudate cells (PECs). Antibody blocking experiments demonstrate that mB7 is the major costimulatory molecule expressed by PECs for the activation of murine CD4+ T cells. This suggests an important role for mB7 during immune-cell interactions. We have also surveyed a panel of murine cell lines capable of providing costimulatory activity. Our results indicate that mB7 is the major costimulatory molecule on some but not all cell lines and that there may be additional molecules besides mB7 that can costimulate the activation of murine CD4+ T cells. Images PMID:1373896

  10. Kinetics of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Gene Expression following Infection of Murine Cells in Culture and in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rochford, Rosemary; Lutzke, Mary L.; Alfinito, Rosiane S.; Clavo, Anaira; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2001-01-01

    A model system to study the pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infections is the infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68). To define the kinetics of infection, we developed an RNase protection assay to quantitate gene expression from lytic (K3, Rta, M8, DNA polymerase [DNA pol], and gB) and candidate latency (M2, M3, M9, M11, ORF73, and ORF74) genes. All candidate latency genes were expressed during lytic infection of 3T3 cells. Four kinetic classes of transcripts were observed following infection of 3T3 cells: immediate-early (K3, Rta, M8, and ORF73), early (DNA pol), early-late (M3, M11, and ORF74), and late (M2, M9, and gB). To assess the kinetics of viral gene expression in vivo, lungs, spleens, and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) were harvested from MHV-68-infected mice. All transcripts were expressed between 3 and 6 days postinfection (dpi) in the lungs. In the spleen, K3, M3, M8, and M9 transcripts were expressed between 10 and 16 dpi when latency is established. The K3, M3, M8, M9, and M11 transcripts were detected in the MLN from 2 through 16 dpi. This is the first demonstration of MHV-68 gene expression in the MLN. Importantly, our data showed that MHV-68 has different kinetics of gene expression at different sites of infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that K3, a gene recently shown to encode a protein that downregulates major histocompatibility complex class I on the surface of cells, is expressed during latency, which argues for a role of K3 in immune evasion during latent infection. PMID:11333874

  11. Kinetics of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 gene expression following infection of murine cells in culture and in mice.

    PubMed

    Rochford, R; Lutzke, M L; Alfinito, R S; Clavo, A; Cardin, R D

    2001-06-01

    A model system to study the pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infections is the infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68). To define the kinetics of infection, we developed an RNase protection assay to quantitate gene expression from lytic (K3, Rta, M8, DNA polymerase [DNA pol], and gB) and candidate latency (M2, M3, M9, M11, ORF73, and ORF74) genes. All candidate latency genes were expressed during lytic infection of 3T3 cells. Four kinetic classes of transcripts were observed following infection of 3T3 cells: immediate-early (K3, Rta, M8, and ORF73), early (DNA pol), early-late (M3, M11, and ORF74), and late (M2, M9, and gB). To assess the kinetics of viral gene expression in vivo, lungs, spleens, and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) were harvested from MHV-68-infected mice. All transcripts were expressed between 3 and 6 days postinfection (dpi) in the lungs. In the spleen, K3, M3, M8, and M9 transcripts were expressed between 10 and 16 dpi when latency is established. The K3, M3, M8, M9, and M11 transcripts were detected in the MLN from 2 through 16 dpi. This is the first demonstration of MHV-68 gene expression in the MLN. Importantly, our data showed that MHV-68 has different kinetics of gene expression at different sites of infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that K3, a gene recently shown to encode a protein that downregulates major histocompatibility complex class I on the surface of cells, is expressed during latency, which argues for a role of K3 in immune evasion during latent infection.

  12. Expression of murine Asb-9 during mouse spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Man Ryul; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Jong Soo; Rhim, Si Youn; Kim, Kye-Seong

    2008-12-31

    We previously showed that Asb-4 and Asb-17 is uniquely expressed in developing male germ cells. A recent report showed that Asb-9 is specifically expressed in the kidney and testes; however, detailed expression patterns in developing germ cells have not been shown. Northern blot analysis in various tissues demonstrated that mAsb-9 was strongly expressed in the testes. Expression analysis by RT-PCR and Northern blot in developing mouse testes indicates that mAsb-9 is expressed from the fourth week after birth to adulthood, with the highest expression in round spermatids. Expression sites were further localized by in situ hybridization in the testes. Pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids expressed mAsb-9 but spermatogonia and generated spermatozoa did not. This study reveals that mAsb-9 could be a specific marker of active spermatogenesis and would be useful for studies of male germ cell development.

  13. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide and CCL2 production in CD40-mediated behavioral hypersensitivity in a model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    MALON, JENNIFER T.; MADDULA, SWATHI; BELL, HARMONY; CAO, LING

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is known to play a pro-nociceptive role after peripheral nerve injury upon its release from primary afferent neurons in preclinical models of neuropathic pain. We previously demonstrated a critical role for spinal cord microglial CD40 in the development of spinal nerve L5 transection (L5Tx)-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Herein, we investigated whether CGRP is involved in the CD40-mediated behavioral hypersensitivity. First, L5Tx was found to significantly induce CGRP expression in wild-type (WT) mice up to 14 days post-L5Tx. This increase in CGRP expression was reduced in CD40 knockout (KO) mice at day 14 post-L5Tx. Intrathecal injection of the CGRP antagonist CGRP8–37 significantly blocked L5Tx-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. In vitro, CGRP induced glial IL-6 and CCL2 production, and CD40 stimulation added to the effects of CGRP in neonatal glia. Further, there was decreased CCL2 production in CD40 KO mice compared to WT mice 21 days post-L5Tx. However, CGRP8–37 did not significantly affect spinal cord CCL2 production following L5Tx in WT mice. Altogether, these data suggest that CD40 contributes to the maintenance of behavioral hypersensitivity following peripheral nerve injury in part through two distinct pathways, the enhancement of CGRP expression and spinal cord CCL2 production. PMID:22377050

  14. Ligation of CD40 in Human Müller Cells Induces P2X7 Receptor–Dependent Death of Retinal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Jose-Andres C.; Lopez Corcino, Yalitza; Dubyak, George R.; Kern, Timothy S.; Matsuyama, Shigemi; Subauste, Carlos S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40) is required for retinal capillary degeneration in diabetic mice, a process mediated by the retinal endothelial cells (REC) death. However, CD40 activates prosurvival signals in endothelial cells. The purpose of this study was to identify a mechanism by which CD40 triggers programmed cell death (PCD) of RECs and address this paradox. Methods Human RECs and Müller cells were incubated with CD154 and L-N6-(1-Iminoethyl)lysine (L-Nil, nitric oxide synthase 2 inhibitor), α-lipoic acid (inhibitor of oxidative stress), anti-Fas ligand antibody, or A-438079 (P2X7 adenosine triphosphate [ATP] receptor inhibitor). Programmed cell death was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) or Hoechst/propidium iodide staining. Release of ATP was measured using a luciferase-based assay. Mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin. Expression of P2X7 was assessed by FACS, quantitative PCR, or immunohistochemistry. Results Ligation of CD40 in primary RECs did not induce PCD. In contrast, in the presence of primary CD40+ Müller cells, CD40 stimulation caused PCD of RECs that was not impaired by L-Nil, α-lipoic acid, or anti-Fas ligand antibody. We found CD40 did not trigger TNF-α or IL-1β secretion. Primary Müller cells released extracellular ATP in response to CD40 ligation. Inhibition of P2X7 (A-438079) impaired PCD of RECs; CD40 upregulated P2X7 in RECs, making them susceptible to ATP/P2X7–mediated PCD. Diabetic mice upregulated P2X7 in the retina and RECs in a CD40-dependent manner. Conclusions Cluster of differentiation 40 induces PCD of RECs through a dual mechanism: ATP release by Müller cells and P2X7 upregulation in RECs. These findings are likely of in vivo relevance since CD40 upregulates P2X7 in RECs in diabetic mice and CD40 is known to be required for retinal capillary degeneration. PMID:27893093

  15. CD40 ligand-mediated activation of the de novo RelB NF-kappaB synthesis pathway in transformed B cells promotes rescue from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Nora D; Rothstein, Thomas L; Meyers, John A; Lerner, Adam; Sonenshein, Gail E

    2007-06-15

    CD40, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, is expressed on B lymphocytes. Interaction between CD40 and its ligand (CD40L), expressed on activated T lymphocytes, is critical for B cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that CD40 signals B cell survival in part via transcriptional activation of the RelB NF-kappaB subunit. CD40L treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induced levels of relB mRNA. Similarly, CD40L-mediated rescue of WEHI 231 B lymphoma cells from apoptosis induced upon B cell receptor (surface IgM) engagement led to increased relB mRNA levels. Recently, we characterized a new de novo synthesis pathway for the RelB NF-kappaB subunit, induced by the cytomegalovirus IE1 protein, in which binding of p50/p65 NF-kappaB and c-Jun/Fra-2 AP-1 complexes to the relB promoter works in synergy to potently activate transcription (Wang, X., and Sonenshein, G. E. (2005) J. Virol. 79, 95-105). CD40L treatment of WEHI 231 cells caused induction of AP-1 family members Fra-2, c-Jun, JunD, and JunB. Cotransfection of Fra-2 with the Jun AP-1 subunits and p50/c-Rel NF-kappaB led to synergistic activation of the relB promoter. Ectopic expression of relB or RelB knockdown using small interfering RNA demonstrated the important role of this subunit in control of WEHI 231 cell survival and implicated activation of the anti-apoptotic factors Survivin and manganese superoxide dismutase. Thus, CD40 engagement of transformed B cells activates relB gene transcription via a process we have termed the de novo RelB synthesis pathway, which protects these cells from apoptosis.

  16. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is critical for the turnover and subcellular distribution of CD40 ligand mRNA in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Matus-Nicodemos, Rodrigo; Vavassori, Stefano; Castro-Faix, Moraima; Valentin-Acevedo, Anibal; Singh, Karnail; Marcelli, Valentina; Covey, Lori R

    2011-02-15

    CD40L (CD154) is regulated at the posttranscriptional level by an activation-induced process that results in a highly stable transcript at extended times of T cell activation. Transcript stability is mediated by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)-containing complexes (complex I and II) that bind to three adjacent CU-rich sequences within the 3' untranslated region. To assess the role of PTB in the expression and distribution of CD40L mRNA, PTB was targeted using short hairpin RNA in both primary T cells and a T cell line that recapitulates the stability phase of regulated CD40L mRNA decay. PTB knockdown resulted in a marked decrease in the mRNA stability that resulted in lowered CD40L surface expression. PTB was also critical for appropriate distribution of CD40L mRNA between the nucleus and cytoplasm and in the cytoplasm between the cytosol and the translating polysomes. The activation-induced formation of PTB-specific ribonucleoprotein complexes was observed only with cytoplasmic and not nuclear PTB indicating functional differences in the protein defined by cellular localization. Finally, we observed that cytoplasmic and nuclear PTB isoforms were differentially modified relative to each other and that the changes in cytoplasmic PTB were consistent with activation-induced phosphorylation. Together this work suggests that differentially modified PTB regulates CD40L expression at multiple steps by 1) retaining CD40L mRNA in the nucleus, 2) directly regulating mRNA stability at late times of activation, and 3) forming a ribonuclear complex that preferentially associates with translating ribosomes thus leading to an enhanced level of CD40L protein.

  17. Expression of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in murine renal intercalated cells.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jin-Gon; Maeda, Seishi; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Tanaka, Koichi; Hayakawa, Tetsu; Seki, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    Neurons influence renal function and help to regulate fluid homeostasis, blood pressure and ion excretion. Intercalated cells (ICCs) are distributed throughout the renal collecting ducts and help regulate acid/base equilibration. Because ICCs are located among principal cells, it has been difficult to determine the effects that efferent nerve fibers have on this cell population. In this study, we examined the expression of neurotransmitter receptors on the murine renal epithelial M-1 cell line. We found that M-1 cells express a2 and b2 adrenergic receptor mRNA and the b2 receptor protein. Further, b2 receptor-positive cells in the murine cortical collecting ducts also express AQP6, indicating that these cells are ICCs. M-1 cells were found to express m1, m4 and m5 muscarinic receptor mRNAs and the m1 receptor protein. Cells in the collecting ducts also express the m1 receptor protein, and some m1-positive cells express AQP6. Acetylcholinesterase was detected in cortical collecting duct cells. Interestingly, acetylcholinesterase-positive cells neighbored AQP6-positive cells, suggesting that principal cells may regulate the availability of acetylcholine. In conclusion, our data suggest that ICCs in murine renal collecting ducts may be regulated by the adrenergic and cholinergic systems.

  18. Expression of Adrenergic and Cholinergic Receptors in Murine Renal Intercalated Cells

    PubMed Central

    JUN, Jin-Gon; MAEDA, Seishi; KUWAHARA-OTANI, Sachi; TANAKA, Koichi; HAYAKAWA, Tetsu; SEKI, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neurons influence renal function and help to regulate fluid homeostasis, blood pressure and ion excretion. Intercalated cells (ICCs) are distributed throughout the renal collecting ducts and help regulate acid/base equilibration. Because ICCs are located among principal cells, it has been difficult to determine the effects that efferent nerve fibers have on this cell population. In this study, we examined the expression of neurotransmitter receptors on the murine renal epithelial M-1 cell line. We found that M-1 cells express a2 and b2 adrenergic receptor mRNA and the b2 receptor protein. Further, b2 receptor-positive cells in the murine cortical collecting ducts also express AQP6, indicating that these cells are ICCs. M-1 cells were found to express m1, m4 and m5 muscarinic receptor mRNAs and the m1 receptor protein. Cells in the collecting ducts also express the m1 receptor protein, and some m1-positive cells express AQP6. Acetylcholinesterase was detected in cortical collecting duct cells. Interestingly, acetylcholinesterase-positive cells neighbored AQP6-positive cells, suggesting that principal cells may regulate the availability of acetylcholine. In conclusion, our data suggest that ICCs in murine renal collecting ducts may be regulated by the adrenergic and cholinergic systems. PMID:25069412

  19. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays for gene expression profiling in murine tooth germs.

    PubMed

    Osmundsen, Harald; Jevnaker, Anne-Marthe; Landin, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    The use of deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays facilitates rapid expression profiling of gene expression using samples of about 1 μg of total RNA. Here are described practical aspects of the procedures involved, including essential reagents. Analysis of results is discussed from a practical, experimental, point of view together with software required to carry out the required statistical analysis to isolate populations of differentially expressed genes.

  20. CD40CD40 Ligand Pathway Is a Major Component of Acute Neuroinflammation and Contributes to Long-term Cognitive Dysfunction after Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Monique; Danieslki, Lucinéia Gainski; Vieira, Andriele; Florentino, Drielly; Dall’Igna, Dhébora; Galant, Letícia; Sonai, Beatriz; Vuolo, Francieli; Mina, Franciele; Pescador, Bruna; Dominguini, Diogo; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Petronilho, Fabrícia

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. It is not understood what the exact mechanism is for the brain dysfunction that occurs in septic patients, but brain inflammation and oxidative stress are a possible theory. Such events can occur through the alteration of molecules that perpetuate the inflammatory response. Thus, it is possible to postulate that CD40 may be involved in this process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of CD40CD40L pathway activation in brain dysfunction associated with sepsis in an animal model. Microglia activation induces the upregulation of CD40CD40L, both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of microglia activation decreases levels of CD40CD40L in the brain and decreases brain inflammation, oxidative damage and blood brain barrier dysfunction. Despite this, anti-CD40 treatment does not improve mortality in this model. However, it is able to improve long-term cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors. In conclusion, there is a major involvement of the CD40CD40L signaling pathway in long-term brain dysfunction in an animal model of sepsis. PMID:25822797

  1. A multi-trimeric fusion of CD40L and gp100 tumor antigen activates dendritic cells and enhances survival in a B16-F10 melanoma DNA vaccine model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sachin; Termini, James M; Rivas, Yaelis; Otero, Miguel; Raffa, Francesca N; Bhat, Vikas; Farooq, Amjad; Stone, Geoffrey W

    2015-09-11

    Vaccination with tumor-associated antigens can induce cancer-specific CD8+ T cells. A recent improvement has been the targeting of antigen to dendritic cells (DC) using antibodies that bind DC surface molecules. This study explored the use of multi-trimers of CD40L to target the gp100 melanoma tumor antigen to DC. The spontaneously-multimerizing gene Surfactant Protein D (SPD) was used to fuse gp100 tumor antigen and CD40L, creating the recombinant protein SPD-gp100-CD40L. This "third generation" DC-targeting vaccine was designed to both target antigen to DC and optimally activate dendritic cells by aggregating CD40 trimers on the DC membrane surface. SPD-gp100-CD40L expressed as a 110kDa protein. Analytical light scattering analysis gave elution data corresponding to 4-trimer and multi-trimer SPD-gp100-CD40L oligomers. The protein was biologically active on dendritic cells and induced CD40-mediated NF-κB signaling. DNA vaccination with SPD-gp100-CD40L plasmid, together with plasmids encoding IL-12p70 and GM-CSF, significantly enhanced survival and inhibited tumor growth in a B16-F10 melanoma model. Expression of gp100 and SPD-CD40L as separate molecules did not enhance survival, highlighting the requirement to encode gp100 within SPD-CD40L for optimal vaccine activity. These data support a model where DNA vaccination with SPD-gp100-CD40L targets gp100 to DC in situ, induces activation of these DC, and generates a protective anti-tumor response when given in combination with IL-12p70 and GM-CSF plasmids.

  2. Spatial and temporal expression of c-Kit in the development of the murine submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejiu; Qi, Senrong; Wang, Jinsong; Xia, Dengsheng; Qin, Lizheng; Zheng, Zongmei; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Chunmei; Jin, Luyuan; Ding, Gang; Wang, Songlin; Fan, Zhipeng

    2014-08-01

    The c-Kit pathway is important in the development of many mammalian cells and organs and is indispensable for the development of hematopoiesis, melanocytes, and primordial germ cells. Loss-of-function mutations in c-Kit lead to perinatal death in mouse embryos. Previously, c-Kit has been used as one of salivary epithelial stem or progenitor cell markers in mouse, its specific temporo-spatial expression pattern and function in developing murine submandibular gland (SMG) is still unclear. Here we used quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry analysis to detect c-Kit expression during the development of the murine SMG. We found that c-Kit was expressed in the epithelia of developing SMGs from embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5; initial bud stage) to postnatal day 90 (P90; when the SMG is completely mature). c-Kit expression in the end bud epithelium increased during prenatal development and then gradually decreased after birth until its expression was undetectable in mature acini at P30. Moreover, c-Kit was expressed in the SMG primordial cord at the initial bud, pseudoglandular, canacular, and terminal end bud stages. c-Kit was also expressed in the presumptive ductal cells adjacent to the developing acini. By the late terminal end bud stage on P14, c-Kit expression could not be detected in ductal cells. However, c-Kit expression was detected in ductal cells at P30, and its expression had increased dramatically at P90. Taken together, these findings describe the spatial and temporal expression pattern of c-Kit in the developing murine SMG and suggest that c-Kit may play roles in epithelial histo-morphogenesis and in ductal progenitor cell homeostasis in the SMG.

  3. Developmental MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Murine Embryonic Orofacial Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Pihur, Vasyl; Webb, Cynthia; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Orofacial development is a multifaceted process involving precise, spatio-temporal expression of a panoply of genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the largest family of noncoding RNAs involved in gene silencing, represent critical regulators of cell and tissue differentiation. MicroRNA gene expression profiling is an effective means of acquiring novel and valuable information regarding the expression and regulation of genes, under the control of miRNA, involved in mammalian orofacial development. METHODS To identify differentially expressed miRNAs during mammalian orofacial ontogenesis, miRNA expression profiles from gestation day (GD) -12, -13 and -14 murine orofacial tissue were compared utilizing miRXplore microarrays from Miltenyi Biotech. Quantitative real-time PCR was utilized for validation of gene expression changes. Cluster analysis of the microarray data was conducted with the clValid R package and the UPGMA clustering method. Functional relationships between selected miRNAs were investigated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS Expression of over 26% of the 588 murine miRNA genes examined was detected in murine orofacial tissues from GD-12–GD-14. Among these expressed genes, several clusters were seen to be developmentally regulated. Differential expression of miRNAs within such clusters were shown to target genes encoding proteins involved in cell proliferation, cell adhesion, differentiation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, all processes critical for normal orofacial development. CONCLUSIONS Using miRNA microarray technology, unique gene expression signatures of hundreds of miRNAs in embryonic orofacial tissue were defined. Gene targeting and functional analysis revealed that the expression of numerous protein-encoding genes, crucial to normal orofacial ontogeny, may be regulated by specific miRNAs. PMID:20589883

  4. CD40 activation: lessons for HIV immunotherapy from malignancies?

    PubMed

    Le Dieu, Rifca; Gribben, John

    2005-09-01

    In HIV, the immune defects seen are due not only to a decrease in T-cell numbers, but also to qualitative impairment in T-cell function as well as decreased antigen-presenting cell (APC) function. These defects in cell-mediated immunity lead to increased level of infection, contributing to inability to clear the HIV virus, and an increased incidence of tumours. One of the major defects in HIV appears to be the failure of CD4 T cells to provide CD 154 (CD40 ligand)-mediated help, which is required for APC function. In lymphomas, activation through CD40 leads to increased APC activity and induction of immune responses against tumours. Such an effect may also be useful in HIV to increase response against the virus and improve immune surveillance of tumours.

  5. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hachem, Ahmed; Yacoub, Daniel; Zaid, Younes; Mourad, Walid; Merhi, Yahye

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Given that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo

  6. Targeting the HA2 subunit of influenza A virus hemagglutinin via CD40L provides universal protection against diverse subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, X; Hashem, A M; Chen, Z; Li, C; Doyle, T; Zhang, Y; Yi, Y; Farnsworth, A; Xu, K; Li, Z; He, R; Li, X; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    The influenza viral hemagglutinin (HA) is comprised of two subunits. Current influenza vaccine predominantly induces neutralizing antibodies (Abs) against the HA1 subunit, which is constantly evolving in unpredictable fashion. The other subunit, HA2, however, is highly conserved but largely shielded by the HA head domain. Thus, enhancing immune response against HA2 could potentially elicit broadly inhibitory Abs. We generated a recombinant adenovirus (rAd) encoding secreted fusion protein, consisting of codon-optimized HA2 subunit of influenza A/California/7/2009(H1N1) virus fused to a trimerized form of murine CD40L, and determined its ability of inducing protective immunity upon intranasal administration. We found that mice immunized with this recombinant viral vaccine were completely protected against lethal challenge with divergent influenza A virus subtypes including H1N1, H3N2, and H9N2. Codon-optimization of HA2 as well as the use of CD40L as a targeting ligand/molecular adjuvant were indispensable to enhance HA2-specific mucosal IgA and serum IgG levels. Moreover, induction of HA2-specific T-cell responses was dependent on CD40L, as rAd secreting HA2 subunit without CD40L failed to induce any significant levels of T-cell cytokines. Finally, sera obtained from immunized mice were capable of inhibiting 13 subtypes of influenza A viruses in vitro. These results provide proof of concept for a prototype HA2-based universal influenza vaccine. PMID:25052763

  7. Progesterone induces expression of Lrp2 in the murine uterus

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seo Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lim, Jeong Mook; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) and progesterone receptor (PR) have important functions in uterine environment. In previous studies, using high density DNA microarray analysis, we identified low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (Lrp2) is one of the genes upregulated by P4 and PR. In present studies, we examined the expression of Lrp2 through real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry by P4-PR response. Lrp2 mRNA transcript was significantly increased after P4 treatment in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the wild-type mice. However, Lrp2 expression was not observed in the progesterone receptor knock out (PRKO) mice treated with P4. The expression of Lrp2 expression is not regulated by estrogen. During early pregnancy, the expression of Lrp2 was detected at 2.5 dpc and then significantly increased at 3.5 dpc in luminal and glandular epithelium. These results suggest that Lrp2 is a novel target gene by P4 and PR. PMID:24140060

  8. Intraepithelial lymphocytes express junctional molecules in murine small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki-Ohara, Kyoko . E-mail: INAGAKI@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp; Sawaguchi, Akira; Suganuma, Tatsuo; Matsuzaki, Goro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2005-06-17

    Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that reside at basolateral site regulate the proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells (EC) for providing a first line of host defense in intestine. However, it remains unknown how IEL interact and communicate with EC. Here, we show that IEL express junctional molecules like EC. We identified mRNA expression of the junctional molecules in IEL such as zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin and junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) (tight junction), {beta}-catenin and E-cadherin (adherens junction), and connexin26 (gap junction). IEL constitutively expressed occludin and E-cadherin at protein level, while other T cells in the thymus, spleen, liver, mesenteric lymph node, and Peyer's patches did not. {gamma}{delta} IEL showed higher level of these expressions than {alpha}{beta} IEL. The expression of occludin was augmented by anti-CD3 Ab stimulation. These results suggest the possibility of a novel role of IEL concerning epithelial barrier and communication between IEL and EC.

  9. Lipid rafts regulate cellular CD40 receptor localization in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Min; Wang Qing; Zhu Huilian; Ma Jing; Hou Mengjun; Tang Zhihong; Li Juanjuan; Ling Wenhua

    2007-09-28

    Cholesterol enriched lipid rafts are considered to function as platforms involved in the regulation of membrane receptor signaling complex through the clustering of signaling molecules. In this study, we tested whether these specialized membrane microdomains affect CD40 localization in vitro and in vivo. Here, we provide evidence that upon CD40 ligand stimulation, endogenous and exogenous CD40 receptor is rapidly mobilized into lipid rafts compared with unstimulated HAECs. Efficient binding between CD40L and CD40 receptor also increases amounts of CD40 protein levels in lipid rafts. Deficiency of intracellular conserved C terminus of the CD40 cytoplasmic tail impairs CD40 partitioning in raft. Raft disorganization after methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin treatment diminishes CD40 localization into rafts. In vivo studies show that elevation of circulating cholesterol in high-cholesterol fed rabbits increases the cholesterol content and CD40 receptor localization in lipid rafts. These findings identify a physiological role for membrane lipid rafts as a critical regulator of CD40-mediated signal transduction and raise the possibility that certain pathologic conditions may be treated by altering CD40 signaling with drugs affecting its raft localization.

  10. Eukaryotic expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of murine Manic Fringe

    SciTech Connect

    Jinek, Martin; Conti, Elena

    2006-08-01

    The catalytic domain of the murine glycosyltransferase Manic Fringe was expressed in insect cells. Removal by site-directed mutagenesis of two N-glycosylation sites present in the protein was essential to obtain crystals that diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Fringe proteins are Golgi-resident β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that regulate development in metazoa through glycosylation of the Notch receptor and its ligands. The catalytic domain of murine Manic Fringe was expressed in the baculovirus/insect-cell system as a secreted protein. Mass-spectrometric analysis of the purified protein indicated the presence of two N-linked glycans. Abolishing the glycosylation sites by site-directed mutagenesis was necessary in order to obtain orthorhombic crystals that diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. For phasing, a highly redundant data set was collected using a crystal soaked with halide salts.

  11. Pim-1 kinase expression during murine mammary development

    SciTech Connect

    Gapter, Leslie A.; Magnuson, Nancy S.; Ng, Ka-yun; Hosick, Howard L. . E-mail: hosick@wsu.edu

    2006-07-07

    Pim-1 kinase phosphorylates substrates whose activities are linked to proliferation, survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. Although pim-1 is induced by hormones and cytokines, the hormonal control and contribution of Pim-1 to mammary gland development have not been evaluated. We examined Pim-1 expression in mammary cell lines, investigated whether Pim-1 levels could be altered in breast epithelia by mammogenic hormones, and evaluated Pim-1 expression during mammary development. We found that Pim-1 was elevated in most mammary carcinoma cell lines and progesterone increased Pim-1 protein to some extent in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelia. Pim-1 expression in situ was consistent with the documented profile of progesterone activity in mouse mammary glands. Pim-1 nuclear localization correlated with cytoplasmic distribution for its substrate, p21{sup CIP/Waf1}, and we found that Pim-1 and p21 associate in vitro. Our results suggest that Pim-1 expression may be regulated by progesterone during mammary development and Pim-1 associates with p21 in mammary epithelial cells.

  12. CD40L induces functional tunneling nanotube networks exclusively in dendritic cells programmed by mediators of type-1 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zaccard, Colleen R.; Watkins, Simon C.; Kalinski, Pawel; Fecek, Ronald J.; Yates, Aarika L.; Salter, Russell D.; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Mailliard, Robbie B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DC) to mediate CD4+ T cell help for cellular immunity is guided by instructive signals received during DC maturation, and the resulting pattern of DC responsiveness to the Th signal, CD40L. Furthermore, the professional transfer of antigenic information from migratory DC to lymph node-residing DC is critical for the effective induction of cellular immune responses. Here we report that, in addition to their enhanced IL-12p70 producing capacity, human DC matured in the presence of inflammatory mediators of type-1 immunity (DC1) are uniquely programmed to form networks of tunneling nanotube-like structures in response to CD40L-expressing Th cells or recombinant CD40L. This immunologic process of DC ‘reticulation’ facilitates intercellular trafficking of endosome-associated vesicles and Ag, but also pathogens such HIV-1, and is regulated by the opposing roles of IFN-γ and IL-4. The initiation of DC reticulation represents a novel helper function of CD40L and a superior mechanism of intercellular communication possessed by DC1, as well as a target for exploitation by pathogens to enhance direct cell-to-cell spread. PMID:25548234

  13. An autologous in situ tumor vaccination approach for hepatocellular carcinoma. 2. Tumor-specific immunity and cure after radio-inducible suicide gene therapy and systemic CD40-ligand and Flt3-ligand gene therapy in an orthotopic tumor model.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Yujo; Deb, Niloy J; Garg, Madhur K; Kabarriti, Rafi; Fan, Zuoheng; Alfieri, Alan A; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Guha, Chandan

    2014-08-01

    Diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal disease that radiation therapy (RT) currently has a limited role in treating because of the potential for developing fatal radiation-induced liver disease. However, recently diffuse HCC, "radio-inducible suicide gene therapy" has been shown to enhance local tumor control and residual microscopic disease within the liver for diffuse HCC, by using a combination of chemoactivation and molecular radiosensitization. We have demonstrated that the addition of recombinant adenovirus-expressing human Flt3 ligand (Adeno-Flt3L) after radio-inducible suicide gene therapy induced a Th1-biased, immune response and enhanced tumor control in an ectopic model of HCC. We hypothesized that sequential administration of recombinant adenovirus-expressing CD40L (Adeno-CD40L) could further potentiate the efficacy of our trimodal therapy with RT + HSV-TK + Adeno-Flt3L. We examined our hypothesis in an orthotopic model of diffuse HCC using BNL1ME A.7R.1 (BNL) cells in Balb/c mice. BNL murine hepatoma cells (5 × 10(4)) transfected with an expression vector of HSV-TK under the control of a radiation-inducible promoter were injected intraportally into BALB/cJ mice. Fourteen days after the HCC injection, mice were treated with a 25 Gy dose of radiation to the whole liver, followed by ganciclovir (GCV) treatment and systemic adenoviral cytokine gene therapy (Flt3L or CD40L or both). Untreated mice died in 27 ± 4 days. Radiation therapy alone had a marginal effect on survival (median = 35 ± 7 days) and the addition of HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy improved the median survival to 47 ± 6 days. However, the addition of Adeno-Flt3L to radiation therapy and HSV-TK/GCV therapy significantly (P = 0.0005) increased survival to a median of 63 ± 20 days with 44% (7/16) of the animals still alive 116 days after tumor implantation. The curative effect of Flt3L was completely abolished when using immunodeficient nude mice or mice depleted for CD4, CD8 and

  14. Differential expression of murine adult hemoglobins in early ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Wawrzyniak, C.J.; Lewis, S.E.; Popp, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A hemoglobin mutation is described that permits study of the expression of the two adult ..beta..-globin genes throughout fetal and postnatal development. Mice with a mutation at the Hbb/sup s/, ..beta..-globin locus, were used to study the relative levels of ..beta..-s2major and ..beta..-sminor globins specified by the mutant Hbb/sup s2/ haplotype during development. At 11.5 days of gestation ..beta..-sminor comprised over 80% and ..beta..-s2major under 20% of the adult beta-globin. The relative level of ..beta..-sminor decreased through fetal development; at birth ..beta..-sminor represented 33.7% of the ..beta..-globin. The adult values of 71.0% ..beta..-s2major and 29.0% ..beta..-sminor globin are expressed in mice six days after birth. Because the two ..beta..-globin genes are expressed in mice of the Hbb/sup 2s/ haplotype, both the ..beta..-smajor and ..beta..-sminor genes must be expressed in mice of the Hbb/sup s/ haplotype. Expression of the ..beta..-sminor gene is elevated to 35.6% in Hbb/sup s2/ mice that have been bled repeatedly. Thus, the 5' ..beta..-s2major and 3' ..beta..-sminor genes of the Hbb/sup s2/ haplotype and, presumably the 5' ..beta..-smajor and 3' ..beta..-sminor genes of the Hbb/sup s/ haplotype, are regulated independently and are homologous to the 5' ..beta..-dmajor and 3' ..beta..-dminor genes of the Hbb/sup d/ haplotype. Mice of the Hbb/sup s2/ haplotype are better than mice of the Hbb/sup d/ haplotytpe for studying the mechanisms of hemoglobin switching because the Hbb/sup s2/ each of the three embryonic and two adult hemoglobins can be separated by electrophoresis. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in a murine model of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Lin, Jing; Hu, Li-Ting; Che, Cheng-Ye; Li, Cui; Wang, Qian; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Xu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    AIM To observe the presence and expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) during the corneal immunity to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in the murine models. METHODS The murine model of fungal keratitis was established by smearing with colonies of A. fumigatus after scraping central epithelium of cornea and covering with contact lenses in C57BL/6 mice. The mice were randomly divided into control group, sham group and A. fumigatus keratitis group. The cornea was monitored daily using a slit lamp and recorded disease score after infection. Corneal lesion was detected by immunofluorescence staining. IDO mRNA and protein were also detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. RESULTS The disease score and slit lamp photography indicated that disease severity was consistent with corneal inflammation in the murine models, and the disease scores in A. fumigatus keratitis group were obviously higher than those in the sham group. By immunofluorescence staining, IDO was mainly localized in corneal epithelium and stroma in the murine corneal tissues with A. fumigatus keratitis. Compared with the sham group, IDO mRNA expression was significantly enhanced in corneal epithelium infected by A. fumigatus. Furthermore, IDO protein expression detected by Western blot was in accord with transcript levels of IDO mRNA measured by qRT-PCR. IDO protein expression was enhanced after A. fumigatus infection compared with the sham group. CONCLUSION IDO is detected in corneal epithelium and stroma locally, which indicates IDO takes part in the pathogenesis of A. fumigatus keratitis and plays a key role in immune regulation at the early stage. PMID:27162718

  16. OX40 ligand-transduced tumor cell vaccine synergizes with GM-CSF and requires CD40-Apc signaling to boost the host T cell antitumor response.

    PubMed

    Gri, Giorgia; Gallo, Elena; Di Carlo, Emma; Musiani, Piero; Colombo, Mario P

    2003-01-01

    Efficient T cell priming by GM-CSF and CD40 ligand double-transduced C26 murine colon carcinoma is not sufficient to cure metastases in a therapeutic setting. To determine whether a cellular vaccine that interacts directly with both APC and T cells in vivo might be superior, we generated C26 carcinoma cells transduced with the T cell costimulatory molecule OX40 ligand (OX40L) either alone (C26/OX40L) or together with GM-CSF (C26/GM/OX40L), which is known to activate APC. Mice injected with C26/OX40L cells displayed only a delay in tumor growth, while the C26/GM/OX40L tumor regressed in 85% of mice. Tumor rejection required granulocytes, CD4+, CD8+ T cells, and APC-mediated CD40-CD40 ligand cosignaling, but not IFN-gamma or IL-12 as shown using subset-depleted and knockout (KO) mice. CD40KO mice primed with C26/GM/OX40L cells failed to mount a CTL response, and T cells infiltrating the C26/GM/OX40L tumor were OX40 negative, suggesting an impairment in APC-T cell cross-talk in CD40KO mice. Indeed, CD4+ T cell-depleted mice failed to mount any CTL activity against the C26 tumor, while treatment with agonistic mAb to CD40, which acts on APC, bypassed the requirement for CD4+ T cells and restored CTL activation. C26/GM/OX40L cells cured 83% of mice bearing lung metastases, whereas C26/OX40L or C26/GM vaccination cured only 28 and 16% of mice, respectively. These results indicate the synergistic activity of OX40L and GM-CSF in a therapeutic setting.

  17. Murine Hepatic miRNAs Expression and Regulation of Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Jiyun; Kim, Suna; Kwon, Dae Young; Ha, Tae Youl

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression primarily by translational repression or by messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little is known regarding their role in obesity. We investigated differences of microRNA (miRNA) expression in liver tissue from diet-induced obese mice and potential effects of them on gene and protein expression. We used a miRNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR to determine miRNA expression in murine liver tissue. Gene and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Effects of miRNA by knock-down using RNAi or overexpression on putative target genes and/or proteins in a murine hepatic cell line were also investigated. MicroRNA array and qRT-PCR analsysis revealed that > 50 miRNAs were down- or upregulated more than 2-fold in the liver of diet-induced obese mice. While changes in expression of many genes were observed at the mRNA level, some were only altered at the protein level. Overexpression or knock-down of miR-107 in murine hepatic cells revealed that the expression of its putative target, fatty acid synthase, was dramatically decreased or increased, respectively. In conclusion, more than 50 hepatic miRNAs were dysregulated in diet-induced obese mice. Some of them regulate protein expression at translation level and others regulate mRNA expression at transcriptional level. MiR-107 is downregulated while FASN, a putative target of miR-107, was increased in diet-induced obese mice. These findings provide the evidence of the correlation of miRNAs and their targets in diet-induced obese mice. PMID:21120623

  18. Murine heart gene expression during acute Chagasic myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Henao-Martínez, Andrés F.; Parra-Henao, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is transmitted by the parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Acute infection is characterized by acute myocarditis, although it is largely asymptomatic. Initial cardiac insult could be a determinant to the posterior development of chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy, usually after 10 years in only approximately 30% of chronically infected patients. Herein, we characterized the acute gene expression profiling in heart tissue of two strains of mice infected with T. cruzi (tulahuen strain) at 4 weeks and their respective controls. Gene sequence data are available at NCBI under GEO accession number: GSE63847. The output of the genes expression suggests differences in involvement of protein kinase B (AKT), NCAM1, HLA-DRA, and ubiquitin C genes networks. These gene activation differences may correlate with myocardial contractility during the acute infection. PMID:26484182

  19. Inducible expression of endomorphins in murine dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohuai; Xia, Hui; Chen, Yong; Liu, Xiaofen; Zhou, Cheng; Gao, Qin; Li, Zhenghong

    2012-12-15

    Bone marrow precursor cells were extracted from C57BL/6J mice aged 7-8 weeks, and dendritic cells were purified using anti-CD11c (a specific marker for dendritic cells) antibody-coated magnetic beads. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the expression levels of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 were upregulated in dendritic cells activated by lipopolysaccharide. An enzyme immunoassay showed that lipopolysaccharide and other Toll-like receptor ligands promoted the secretion of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 from activated dendritic cells. [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation demonstrated that endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 both inhibited the proliferation of T lymphocyte induced by activated dendritic cells. Furthermore, this immunosuppressive effect was blocked by CTOP, a specific antagonist of µ-opioid receptors. Our experimental findings indicate that activated dendritic cells can induce the expression and secretion of endomorphins, and that endomorphins suppress T lymphocyte proliferation through activation of µ-opioid receptors.

  20. Effects of spaceflight on murine skeletal muscle gene expression.

    PubMed

    Allen, David L; Bandstra, Eric R; Harrison, Brooke C; Thorng, Seiha; Stodieck, Louis S; Kostenuik, Paul J; Morony, Sean; Lacey, David L; Hammond, Timothy G; Leinwand, Leslie L; Argraves, W Scott; Bateman, Ted A; Barth, Jeremy L

    2009-02-01

    Spaceflight results in a number of adaptations to skeletal muscle, including atrophy and shifts toward faster muscle fiber types. To identify changes in gene expression that may underlie these adaptations, we used both microarray expression analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify shifts in mRNA levels in the gastrocnemius from mice flown on the 11-day, 19-h STS-108 shuttle flight and from normal gravity controls. Spaceflight data also were compared with the ground-based unloading model of hindlimb suspension, with one group of pure suspension and one of suspension followed by 3.5 h of reloading to mimic the time between landing and euthanization of the spaceflight mice. Analysis of microarray data revealed that 272 mRNAs were significantly altered by spaceflight, the majority of which displayed similar responses to hindlimb suspension, whereas reloading tended to counteract these responses. Several mRNAs altered by spaceflight were associated with muscle growth, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85alpha, insulin response substrate-1, the forkhead box O1 transcription factor, and MAFbx/atrogin1. Moreover, myostatin mRNA expression tended to increase, whereas mRNA levels of the myostatin inhibitor FSTL3 tended to decrease, in response to spaceflight. In addition, mRNA levels of the slow oxidative fiber-associated transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor (PPAR)-gamma coactivator-1alpha and the transcription factor PPAR-alpha were significantly decreased in spaceflight gastrocnemius. Finally, spaceflight resulted in a significant decrease in levels of the microRNA miR-206. Together these data demonstrate that spaceflight induces significant changes in mRNA expression of genes associated with muscle growth and fiber type.

  1. Changing expression and subcellular distribution of karyopherins during murine oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mihalas, Bettina P; Western, Patrick S; Loveland, Kate L; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Holt, Janet E

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian oocyte growth and development is driven by a strict program of gene expression that relies on the timely presence of transcriptional regulators via nuclear pores. By targeting specific cargos for nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, karyopherin (KPN) proteins are key to the relocation of essential transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors into and out of the nucleus. Using multiple complementary techniques, here we establish that KPNA genes and proteins are dynamically expressed and relocalised throughout mouse oogenesis and folliculogenesis. Of the KPNAs examined (Kpna1, Kpna2, Kpna3, Kpna4, Kpna6, Kpna7, Kpnb1, Ipo5 and Xpo1), all were expressed in the embryonic ovary with up-regulation of protein levels concomitant with meiotic entry for KPNA2, accompanied by the redistribution of the cellular localisation of KPNA2 and XPO1. In contrast, postnatal folliculogenesis revealed significant up-regulation of Kpna1, Kpna2, Kpna4, Kpna6 and Ipo5 and down-regulation of Kpnb1, Kpna7 and Xpo1 at the primordial to primary follicle transition. KPNAs exhibited different localisation patterns in both oocytes and granulosa cells during folliculogenesis, with three KPNAs--KPNA1, KPNA2 and IPO5--displaying marked enrichment in the nucleus by antral follicle stage. Remarkably, varied subcellular expression profiles were also identified in isolated pre-ovulatory oocytes with KPNAs KPNA2, KPNB1 and IPO5 detected in the cytoplasm and at the nuclear rim and XPO1 in cytoplasmic aggregates. Intriguingly, meiotic spindle staining was also observed for KPNB1 and XPO1 in meiosis II eggs, implying roles for KPNAs outside of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Thus, we propose that KPNAs, by targeting specific cargoes, are likely to be key regulators of oocyte development.

  2. Influence of pre-analytical and analytical factors on soluble CD40L measurements.

    PubMed

    Varo, Nerea; Nuzzo, Rebecca; Natal, Cristina; Libby, Peter; Schönbeck, Uwe

    2006-11-01

    The soluble form of CD40L (CD40 ligand), a pro-atherogenic mediator, has emerged as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for cardiovascular events. However, as platelets can shed CD40L upon activation, accurate measurement has proved challenging. The present study addresses the controversy regarding the appropriate specimen and preparation for laboratory evaluation of blood sCD40L (soluble CD40L). Serum and plasma (collected in EDTA, citrate or heparin) were collected from healthy volunteers (n=20), and sCD40L was analysed by ELISA immediately or after one to three freeze-thaw cycles and at different centrifugation speeds. Urine sCD40L levels were measured in subjects with low- and high-plasma sCD40L levels. Serum sCD40L levels (5.45+/-4.55 ng/ml; P<0.001) were higher than in citrate, EDTA or heparin plasma (1.03+/-1.07, 1.43+/-1.03 or 1.80+/-1.25 ng/ml respectively), with no significant differences between plasma preparations. Increasing g values (200-13000 g), which gradually deplete plasma of platelets, yielded lower sCD40L levels. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles significantly (P<0.05) increased sCD40L concentrations in platelet-rich, but not platelet-depleted, plasma (up to 2.4-fold). Bilirubin and haemoglobin interfered positively, and triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and cholesterol quenched CD40L signalling. No sCD40L was detected in urine samples. In conclusion, serum yields higher sCD40L concentrations than plasma; accurate measurements of sCD40L require exclusion of platelets and avoiding their post-hoc activation. Samples with high concentrations of bilirubin, haemoglobin and/or triacylglycerols should be excluded, as these substances interfere with the assay.

  3. Spatial and temporal expression of KLF4 and KLF5 during murine tooth development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Couble, Marie-Lise; Mouterfi, Nassima; Magloire, Henry; Chen, Zhi; Bleicher, Françoise

    2009-05-01

    KLF4 and KLF5, members of the Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family, play key roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development. In order to determine if these transcription factors are associated with tooth development, we examined the expression pattern of KLF4 and KLF5 during murine tooth development. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression pattern of KLF4 and KLF5 from E12.5 to PN3 during murine tooth development. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that Klf4 was specifically expressed in polarizing odontoblasts from E16.5 (incisor) or E18.5 (first molar) to PN3. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that KLF4 was specifically expressed in both polarizing odontoblasts and ameloblasts at the same stages. KLF5 was mainly expressed from E18.5 to PN3 in secretory ameloblasts when enamel mineralization occurs and in secretory odontoblasts. However, an expression of KLF5 was also observed at earlier stages (E14.5 and E16.5) mainly in proliferating epithelial cells. These results suggest that the expression of KLF4 is closely correlated to the growth-arrest and the first step of odontoblast and ameloblast differentiation. Furthermore, KLF5 maybe involved in proliferation at the early stages of tooth development and related to mineralization of both enamel and dentin matrices at later stages.

  4. Vaccination Produces CD4 T Cells with a Novel CD154-CD40-Dependent Cytolytic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Coler, Rhea N; Hudson, Thomas; Hughes, Sean; Huang, Po-Wei D; Beebe, Elyse A; Orr, Mark T

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of new vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer requires the development of novel adjuvants with well-defined activities. The TLR4 agonist adjuvant GLA-SE elicits robust Th1 responses to a variety of vaccine Ags and is in clinical development for both infectious diseases and cancer. We demonstrate that immunization with a recombinant protein Ag and GLA-SE also induces granzyme A expression in CD4 T cells and produces cytolytic cells that can be detected in vivo. Surprisingly, these in vivo CTLs were CD4 T cells, not CD8 T cells, and this cytolytic activity was not dependent on granzyme A/B or perforin. Unlike previously reported CD4 CTLs, the transcription factors Tbet and Eomes were not necessary for their development. CTL activity was also independent of the Fas ligand-Fas, TRAIL-DR5, and canonical death pathways, indicating a novel mechanism of CTL activity. Rather, the in vivo CD4 CTL activity induced by vaccination required T cell expression of CD154 (CD40L) and target cell expression of CD40. Thus, vaccination with a TLR4 agonist adjuvant induces CD4 CTLs, which kill through a previously unknown CD154-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. 1.8 Astroms Structure of Murine GITR Ligand Dimer Expressed in Drosophila Melanogaster S2 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, K.; Ramagopal, U; Nathenson, S; Almo, S

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL), a prominent member of the TNF superfamily, activates its receptor on both effector and regulatory T cells to generate critical costimulatory signals that have been implicated in a wide range of T-cell immune functions. The crystal structures of murine and human orthologs of GITRL recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli have previously been determined. In contrast to all classical TNF structures, including the human GITRL structure, murine GITRL demonstrated a unique 'strand-exchanged' dimeric organization. Such a novel assembly behavior indicated a dramatic impact on receptor activation as well as on the signaling mechanism associated with the murine GITRL costimulatory system. In this present work, the 1.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of murine GITRL expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells is reported. The eukaryotic protein-expression system allows transport of the recombinant protein into the extracellular culture medium, thus maximizing the possibility of obtaining correctly folded material devoid of any folding/assembly artifacts that are often suspected with E. coli-expressed proteins. The S2 cell-expressed murine GITRL adopts an identical 'strand-exchanged' dimeric structure to that observed for the E. coli-expressed protein, thus conclusively demonstrating the novel quaternary structure assembly behavior of murine GITRL.

  6. Gene expression analysis in the compartments of the murine uterus.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Gracy Xavier; Cheng, Jr-Gang; Stewart, Colin L

    2016-01-01

    Embryo implantation, a key critical feature of mammalian pregnancy, involves co-ordinate interplay between an incoming blastocyst and a receptive uterus. Aberrations in signaling cascades during this process result in pregnancy loss in mammals, including women. Analysis of the complete uterus at any given point either during preparation for implantation or during and after embryo attachment and invasion makes it difficult to assign specific signaling mechanism to the individual cellular compartments of the uterus. Here, we describe methods for the specific isolation of the luminal epithelium (LE) and subsequent analysis of gene expression/signaling pathways during embryo attachment. We further describe the analysis of RNA and proteins by specific techniques of quantitative PCR (qPCR), immunostaining and Western blotting of uterine tissues. These methods can be applied to the other cellular compartments of the uterus and embryo invasion and endometrial development. These techniques will be beneficial to investigators for delineating the mechanisms involved during embryo attachment and female reproduction as well as providing a means to studying highly dynamic changes in gene expression in tissues. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene-gene interaction between CD40 and CD40L reduces bone mineral density and increases osteoporosis risk in women.

    PubMed

    Pineda, B; Tarín, J J; Hermenegildo, C; Laporta, P; Cano, A; García-Pérez, M Á

    2011-05-01

    We have analysed the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD40 and CD40L genes with bone mineral density (BMD) in our women. Results showed that women with TT genotype for rs1883832 (CD40) and for rs1126535 (CD40L) SNPs displayed reduced BMD and increased risk for osteopenia/osteoporosis. Our data notwithstanding, the results need to be replicated. Recent data have revealed that the CD40/CD40L system can be implicated in bone metabolism regulation. Moreover, we previously demonstrated that rs1883832 in the CD40 gene was significantly associated with BMD and osteoporosis risk. The objective of the present work was to determine whether polymorphisms in CD40 and CD40L genes are associated with BMD and osteoporosis risk. We conducted an association study of BMD values with SNPs in CD40 and CD40L genes in a population of 811 women of which 693 and 711 had femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) densitometric studies, respectively. Women with the TT genotype for rs1883832 (CD40) showed a reduction in FN-BMD (P = 0.005) and LS-BMD (P = 0.020) when compared with women with the CC/CT genotype. Moreover, we found that rs1126535 (CD40L) was significantly associated with LS-BMD so that women with the TT genotype displayed lower BMD (P = 0.014) than did women with the CC/CT genotype. Interestingly, we have found a strong interaction between polymorphisms in these genes. Thus, women with the TT genotype for both rs1883832 and rs1126535 SNPs (TT + TT women) showed a lower age-adjusted BMD (Z-score) for FN (P = 0.0007) and LS (0.007) after adjusting by years since menopause, body mass index, smoking and menopausal status, densitometer type, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and HRT duration and after making the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons than did the remaining women. Logistic regression analysis adjusted by these covariates showed that TT + TT women had increased risk for FN (odds ratio (OR) = 2.76; P = 0.006) and

  8. Integrating murine gene expression studies to understand obstructive lung disease due to chronic inhaled endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Lai, Peggy S; Hofmann, Oliver; Baron, Rebecca M; Cernadas, Manuela; Meng, Quanxin Ryan; Bresler, Herbert S; Brass, David M; Yang, Ivana V; Schwartz, David A; Christiani, David C; Hide, Winston

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin is a near ubiquitous environmental exposure that that has been associated with both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These obstructive lung diseases have a complex pathophysiology, making them difficult to study comprehensively in the context of endotoxin. Genome-wide gene expression studies have been used to identify a molecular snapshot of the response to environmental exposures. Identification of differentially expressed genes shared across all published murine models of chronic inhaled endotoxin will provide insight into the biology underlying endotoxin-associated lung disease. We identified three published murine models with gene expression profiling after repeated low-dose inhaled endotoxin. All array data from these experiments were re-analyzed, annotated consistently, and tested for shared genes found to be differentially expressed. Additional functional comparison was conducted by testing for significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in known pathways. The importance of this gene signature in smoking-related lung disease was assessed using hierarchical clustering in an independent experiment where mice were exposed to endotoxin, smoke, and endotoxin plus smoke. A 101-gene signature was detected in three murine models, more than expected by chance. The three model systems exhibit additional similarity beyond shared genes when compared at the pathway level, with increasing enrichment of inflammatory pathways associated with longer duration of endotoxin exposure. Genes and pathways important in both asthma and COPD were shared across all endotoxin models. Mice exposed to endotoxin, smoke, and smoke plus endotoxin were accurately classified with the endotoxin gene signature. Despite the differences in laboratory, duration of exposure, and strain of mouse used in three experimental models of chronic inhaled endotoxin, surprising similarities in gene expression were observed. The endotoxin component of tobacco

  9. Integrating Murine Gene Expression Studies to Understand Obstructive Lung Disease Due to Chronic Inhaled Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Peggy S.; Hofmann, Oliver; Baron, Rebecca M.; Cernadas, Manuela; Meng, Quanxin Ryan; Bresler, Herbert S.; Brass, David M.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.; Christiani, David C.; Hide, Winston

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Endotoxin is a near ubiquitous environmental exposure that that has been associated with both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These obstructive lung diseases have a complex pathophysiology, making them difficult to study comprehensively in the context of endotoxin. Genome-wide gene expression studies have been used to identify a molecular snapshot of the response to environmental exposures. Identification of differentially expressed genes shared across all published murine models of chronic inhaled endotoxin will provide insight into the biology underlying endotoxin-associated lung disease. Methods We identified three published murine models with gene expression profiling after repeated low-dose inhaled endotoxin. All array data from these experiments were re-analyzed, annotated consistently, and tested for shared genes found to be differentially expressed. Additional functional comparison was conducted by testing for significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in known pathways. The importance of this gene signature in smoking-related lung disease was assessed using hierarchical clustering in an independent experiment where mice were exposed to endotoxin, smoke, and endotoxin plus smoke. Results A 101-gene signature was detected in three murine models, more than expected by chance. The three model systems exhibit additional similarity beyond shared genes when compared at the pathway level, with increasing enrichment of inflammatory pathways associated with longer duration of endotoxin exposure. Genes and pathways important in both asthma and COPD were shared across all endotoxin models. Mice exposed to endotoxin, smoke, and smoke plus endotoxin were accurately classified with the endotoxin gene signature. Conclusions Despite the differences in laboratory, duration of exposure, and strain of mouse used in three experimental models of chronic inhaled endotoxin, surprising similarities in gene expression were observed

  10. Spatial and temporal expression of histone demethylase, Kdm2a, during murine molar development.

    PubMed

    Yi, Q; Cao, Y; Liu, O S; Lu, Y Q; Wang, J S; Wang, S L; Yao, R; Fan, Z P

    2016-01-01

    The histone demethylase, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2A (Kdm2a), is highly conserved and expressed ubiquitously. Kdm2a can regulate cell proliferation and osteo/dentinogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from dental tissue. We used quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry to detect Kdm2a expression during development of the murine molar at embryonic days E12, E14, E16 and E17 and postnatal days P3 and P14. Immunohistochemistry results showed no positive staining of Kdm2a at E12. At E14, Kdm2a was expressed weakly in the inner enamel epithelium, stellate reticulum cells and dental sac. At E16, Kdm2a was expressed mainly in the inner and outer enamel epithelium, stratum intermedium and dental sac, but weaker staining was found in cervical loop and dental papilla cells adjacent to the basement membrane. At E17, the strongest Kdm2a staining was detected in the ameloblasts and stronger Kdm2a staining also was detected in the stratum intermedium, outer enamel epithelium and dental papilla cells compared to the expression at E16. Postnatally, we found that Kdm2a was localized in secretory and mature ameloblasts and odontoblasts, and dentin was unstained. Real-time RT-PCR showed that Kdm2a mRNA levels in murine germ cells increased from E12 to E14 and from E14 to E16; no significant change occurred at E16, E17 or P3, then the levels decreased at P14 compared to P3. Kdm2a expression may be closely related to cell proliferation, to ameloblast and odontoblast differentiation and to the secretion of extracellular enamel and dentin during murine tooth development.

  11. CD40L deficiency ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic manifestations of obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Marjorie; Engel, David; Christ, Anette; Beckers, Linda; Wijnands, Erwin; Boon, Louis; Driessen, Ann; Cleutjens, Jack; Weber, Christian; Gerdes, Norbert; Lutgens, Esther

    2011-10-01

    Obese adipose tissue shows hallmarks of chronic inflammation, which promotes the development of metabolic disorders. The mechanisms by which immune cells interact with each other or with metabolism-associated cell types, and the players involved, are still unclear. The CD40-CD40L costimulatory dyad plays a pivotal role in immune responses and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and may therefore be a mediator of obesity. Here we investigated whether CD40L is involved in adipose tissue inflammation and its associated metabolic changes. To assess a putative role of CD40L in obesity in vivo, we evaluated metabolic and inflammatory consequences of 18 weeks of high-fat feeding in CD40L(+/+) and CD40L(-/-) mice. In addition, C57Bl6 mice were injected with neutralizing anti-CD40L (αCD40L) antibody for 12 weeks while being fed a high-fat diet. Genetic deficiency of CD40L attenuated the development of diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and increased systemic insulin sensitivity. In adipose tissue, it impaired obesity-induced immune cell infiltration and the associated deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism. Accordingly, αCD40L treatment improved systemic insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and CD4(+) T-cell infiltration in adipose tissue with limited effects on adipose tissue weight. CD40L plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-induced inflammation and metabolic complications.

  12. Microarray Based Gene Expression Analysis of Murine Brown and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: Significance with Human

    PubMed Central

    Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Mantri, Shrikant; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Background Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT) and brown (BAT) are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models. Methodology/Principle Findings The present study was designed to: (a) investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b) to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c) to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1) and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1) or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1) and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74). Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets) (a) which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b) where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human. Conclusion Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human) differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose

  13. Microarray based gene expression analysis of murine brown and subcutaneous adipose tissue: significance with human.

    PubMed

    Baboota, Ritesh K; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Boparai, Ravneet K; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Mantri, Shrikant; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT) and brown (BAT) are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models. The present study was designed to: (a) investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b) to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c) to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1) and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1) or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1) and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74). Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets) (a) which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b) where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human. Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human) differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose tissue to another using murine model with focus on

  14. Angiogenesis inhibition using an oncolytic herpes simplex virus expressing endostatin in a murine lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Jonathan M; Schmitt, Anthony D; McGinn, Christopher M; Fuchs, Bryan C; Kuruppu, Darshini; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Lanuti, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Herpes-mediated viral oncolysis alone is not sufficient to completely eradicate tumors. In this study we used a replication conditional, endostatin-expressing herpes simplex virus-1 mutant (HSV-Endo) in a murine lung cancer model. We hypothesized that the anti-angiogenic action of endostatin would improve upon the oncolytic effect of HSV-1. HSV-Endo was evaluated in a pulmonary metastases and orthotopic flank model, where there was significantly less tumor burden and reduced microvessel density compared to a control virus. Endostatin expression appears to improve the anti-tumor effect of HSV-1 in a lung cancer model.

  15. Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression of the murine SALL1 ortholog Sall1.

    PubMed

    Buck, A; Archangelo, L; Dixkens, C; Kohlhase, J

    2000-01-01

    SALL1 has been identified as one of now three human homologs of the region specific homeotic gene spalt (sal) of Drosophila, which encodes a zinc finger protein of characteristic structure. Mutations of SALL1 on chromosome 16q12.1 cause Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS, OMIM no. 107480). In order to facilitate functional studies of this gene in a model organism, we searched for the murine homolog of SALL1. Here we report the genomic cloning, chromosome mapping, and partial expression analysis of the gene Sall1. Sequence comparison, Northern blot hybridization as well as the conserved chromosome location on the homologous mouse chromosome indicate that we have indeed isolated the murine homolog of SALL1. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Murine Brca2: Sequence, map position, and expression pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Sharan, S.K.; Bradley, A.

    1997-03-01

    Mutations in the human BRCA2 gene are responsible for about 45% of hereditary early onset breast cancer. Recently, the human BRCA2 gene was cloned, and several germline mutations were identified. Here we describe the cloning of the mouse homologue of BRCA2. The mouse cDNA sequence predicts a 3328-amino-acid Brca2 protein, 90 amino acids shorter than the human protein. The overall identity between the mouse and the human proteins is 59%, while the similarity is 72%. At the nucleotide level the homology is 74%. By comparing the amino acid sequences of the two homologues we have identified five highly conserved novel domains that may be functionally significant. Brca2 has been mapped to the distal end of mouse chromosome 5, a region of the mouse genome that contains other genes that also map to human chromosome 13q12-q13, confirming the conservation of this linkage group between the two species. Expression of Brca2 was detected in midgestation embryos and adult testis, thymus, and ovary. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  17. CD40 signaling synergizes with TLR-2 in the BCR independent activation of resting B cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shweta; Chodisetti, Sathi Babu; Agrewala, Javed N

    2011-01-01

    Conventionally, signaling through BCR initiates sequence of events necessary for activation and differentiation of B cells. We report an alternative approach, independent of BCR, for stimulating resting B (RB) cells, by involving TLR-2 and CD40--molecules crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. CD40 triggering of TLR-2 stimulated RB cells significantly augments their activation, proliferation and differentiation. It also substantially ameliorates the calcium flux, antigen uptake capacity and ability of B cells to activate T cells. The survival of RB cells was improved and it increases the number of cells expressing activation induced deaminase (AID), signifying class switch recombination (CSR). Further, we also observed increased activation rate and decreased threshold period required for optimum stimulation of RB cells. These results corroborate well with microarray gene expression data. This study provides novel insights into coordination between the molecules of innate and adaptive immunity in activating B cells, in a BCR independent manner. This strategy can be exploited to design vaccines to bolster B cell activation and antigen presenting efficiency, leading to faster and better immune response.

  18. Structure and expression of the murine calcyon gene.

    PubMed

    Dai, Rujuan; Bergson, Clare

    2003-06-05

    Calcyon was recently identified as a D1 dopamine receptor (DR1) interacting protein. Previous studies show that calcyon can potentiate DR1 mediated intracellular Ca(2+) release in transfected HEK293 cells, and may play an important role in DR1 Ca(2+) signaling in brain. We report that similar to the genomic structure of the human gene, the mouse calcyon gene contains six relatively short exons, with a large intron (about 8.4 kb) between exons one and two. The mouse and human calcyon genes exhibit a high level of sequence homology (77.5% at the nucleotide level) within coding regions. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses reveal that mouse calcyon transcripts are most abundant in brain, but also present in testis and ovary, as well as in kidney and heart at much lower levels. The most distal of the transcript initiation sites identified by 5' RACE is located 159 nucleotides upstream of the putative start of translation. BLAST search of the NCBI mouse EST database and RT-PCR analysis uncovered two differentially spliced transcripts, "mcal-A" and "mcal-B." The two transcripts are identical, except that mcal-B contains a longer 3' untranslated region due to retention of a short intron (I5) between exons five and six. However, mcal-A represents the predominant calcyon transcript in mouse tissue. Further, the presence of I5 produced no detectable differences in the biosynthesis of calcyon polypeptide when expressed in HEK293, MDCK and Neuro2a cells.

  19. Tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells exacerbate immune-mediated hepatitis in mice in a CD40-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Manns, Michael P; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2015-04-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing (TB) mice. We studied hepatic MDSCs in two murine models of immune-mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of TB mice with Concanavalin A (Con A) or α-galactosylceramide resulted in increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels in comparison to tumor-free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSCs into naïve mice exacerbated Con A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells revealed a polarized proinflammatory gene signature after Con A treatment. An IFN-γ-dependent upregulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells along with an upregulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Con A treatment was observed. Con A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSCs as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSCs led to increased arginase activity upon Con A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40(-/-) tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased ROS production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSCs act as proinflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner.

  20. Identical expression profiling of human and murine TIPE3 protein reveals links to its functions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Hao, Chunyan; Zhang, Wenqian; Shao, Jie; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Guizhong; Liu, Suxia

    2015-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein-8 like-3 (TNFAIP8L3, TIPE3) is a newly discovered member of TNFAIP8 family and regarded as a lipid second messenger transfer protein that promotes cancer. Yet the nature of the cells and tissues that express TIPE3 protein has not been determined. In this study, we examined TIPE3 expression in various murine and human tissues by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. We found that TIPE3 expression was almost identical in most organs from human and mice. TIPE3 is a cytoplasmic protein expressed preferentially in epithelial-derived cells with secretory functions. Furthermore, TIPE3 protein is highly expressed in most human carcinoma cell lines. These results suggest that TIPE3 may play important roles in carcinogenesis and cell secretion.

  1. Identical Expression Profiling of Human and Murine TIPE3 Protein Reveals Links to Its Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Hao, Chunyan; Zhang, Wenqian; Shao, Jie; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Guizhong

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein-8 like-3 (TNFAIP8L3, TIPE3) is a newly discovered member of TNFAIP8 family and regarded as a lipid second messenger transfer protein that promotes cancer. Yet the nature of the cells and tissues that express TIPE3 protein has not been determined. In this study, we examined TIPE3 expression in various murine and human tissues by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. We found that TIPE3 expression was almost identical in most organs from human and mice. TIPE3 is a cytoplasmic protein expressed preferentially in epithelial-derived cells with secretory functions. Furthermore, TIPE3 protein is highly expressed in most human carcinoma cell lines. These results suggest that TIPE3 may play important roles in carcinogenesis and cell secretion. PMID:25479791

  2. Resveratrol inhibits mucus overproduction and MUC5AC expression in a murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhen-Hua; Tang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Guo; Lai, Yi-Min; Chen, Qing-Ge; Li, Zao; Yang, Wei; Luo, Xu-Min; Wang, Xiong-Biao

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that resveratrol is able to significantly inhibit the upregulation of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), a major component of mucus; thus indicating that resveratrol may have potential in regulating mucus overproduction. However, there have been few studies regarding the resveratrol‑mediated prevention of MUC5AC overproduction in vivo, and the mechanisms by which resveratrol regulates MUC5AC expression have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, an ovalbumin (OVA)‑challenged murine model of asthma was used to assess the effects of resveratrol treatment on mucus production in vivo. The results demonstrated that resveratrol significantly inhibited OVA‑induced airway inflammation and mucus production. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of MUC5AC were increased in the OVA‑challenged mice, whereas treatment with resveratrol significantly inhibited this effect. The expression levels of murine calcium‑activated chloride channel (mCLCA)3, an important key mediator of MUC5AC production, were also reduced following resveratrol treatment. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrated that resveratrol significantly inhibited human (h)CLCA1 and MUC5AC expression in a dose‑dependent manner. These results indicated that resveratrol was effective in preventing mucus overproduction and MUC5AC expression in vivo, and its underlying mechanism may be associated with regulation of the mCLCA3/hCLCA1 signaling pathway.

  3. Expression and regulation of RB1CC1 in developing murine and human tissues.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Noriko; Chano, Tokuhiro; Taga, Takashi; Ohta, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2004-10-01

    RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) is a novel molecule implicated in the regulation of RB1 (retinoblastoma 1) expression. However, information about the RB1CC1 gene is limited and its function remains somewhat obscure. The present study analyzes the expression and promoter activities of RB1CC1 in developing murine and human tissues. Rb1cc1 was abundantly expressed from an early stage of the mouse embryo throughout development. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that Rb1cc1 was ubiquitous in the mouse, rather than in the human embryo, especially in the musculoskeletal system, heart and neural tissues. Promoter activity was highest in a region located about 300 bp immediately upstream of exon 1 in both the mouse and human RB1CC1 genes, suggesting that this region is a core promoter. The promoter activity of RB1CC1 was generally higher in mice than in humans, and suppressive with intron 1, especially in humans. These results suggested that more Rb1cc1 is expressed throughout developing murine than in human tissues, and that RB1CC1 expression is controlled more stringently by modification at intron 1 in humans than in mice.

  4. CD40 Ligand Deficient C57BL/6 Mouse Is a Potential Surrogate Model of Human X-Linked Hyper IgM (X-HIGM) Syndrome for Characterizing Immune Responses against Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Saucedo, Catalina; Bernal-Reynaga, Rodolfo; Zayas-Jahuey, Jesus; Galindo-Gomez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; Garcia-Galvez, Carlos; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with X-HIGM syndrome fail to express functional CD40 ligand; consequently they cannot mount effective protective antibody responses against pathogenic bacteria. We evaluated, compared, and characterized the humoral immune response of wild type (WT) and C57-CD40L deficient (C57-CD40L−/−) mice infected with Citrobacter rodentium. Basal serum isotype levels were similar for IgM and IgG3 among mice, while total IgG and IgG2b concentrations were significantly lower in C57-CD40L−/− mice compared with WT. Essentially IgG1 and IgG2c levels were detectable only in WT mice. C57-CD40L−/− animals, orally inoculated with 2 × 109 CFU, presented several clinical manifestations since the second week of infection and eventually died. In contrast at this time point no clinical manifestations were observed among C57-CD40L−/− mice infected with 1 × 107 CFU. Infection was subclinical in WT mice inoculated with either bacterial dose. The serum samples from infected mice (1 × 107 CFU), collected at day 14 after infection, had similar C. rodentium-specific IgM titres. Although C57-CD40L−/− animals had lower IgG and IgG2b titres than WT mice, C57-CD40L−/− mice sera displayed complement-mediated bactericidal activity against C. rodentium. C. rodentium-infected C57-CD40L−/− mice are capable of producing antibodies that are protective. C57-CD40L−/− mouse is a useful surrogate model of X-HIGM syndrome for studying immune responses elicited against pathogens. PMID:26064940

  5. TLR7-expressing cells comprise an interfollicular epidermal stem cell population in murine epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chaoran; Zhang, Ting; Qiao, Liangjun; Du, Jia; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Hengguang; Wang, Fangfang; Huang, Qiaorong; Meng, Wentong; Zhu, Hongyan; Bu, Hong; Li, Hui; Xu, Hong; Mo, Xianming

    2014-01-01

    Normal interfollicular epidermis (IFE) homeostasis is maintained throughout the entire life by its own stem cells that self-renew and generate progeny that undergo terminal differentiation. However, the fine markers of the stem cells in interfollicular epidermis are not well defined yet. Here we found that TLR7 identified the existence of progenitors and interfollicular epidermal stem cells in murine skin. In vitro, TLR7-expressing cells comprised of two subpopulations that were competent to proliferate and exhibited distinct differentiation potentials. Three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture and skin reconstitution assays showed that TLR7-expressing cells were able to reconstruct the interfollicular epidermis. Finally, TLR7-expressing cells maintained the intact interfollicular epidermal structures revealed in serial transplantation assays in vivo in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that TLR7-expressing cells comprise an interfollicular epidermal stem cell population. PMID:25060222

  6. Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) limits murine gammaherpesvirus-68 induced monokine expression.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Daniel A; Nirmaier, Jamie L; Singh, Sam J; Tolbert, Melanie D; Bost, Kenneth L

    2008-08-01

    While Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) has been shown to modulate immune responses, no studies have addressed drug-induced alterations to viral infection. In this study, bone marrow-derived macrophages were exposed to MDMA, then infected with murine gammaherpesvirus-68, and the expression of monokines assessed. MDMA-induced reductions in virus-stimulated monokine mRNA expression were observed in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, IL-6 mRNA expression and secretion was significantly decreased in gammaherpesvirus-infected macrophages exposed to MDMA. Concentrations of MDMA capable of reducing monokine production did not induce significant cell death and allowed normal viral gene expression. These studies represent the first to demonstrate the ability of this drug of abuse to alter a viral-induced macrophage response.

  7. TLR7-expressing cells comprise an interfollicular epidermal stem cell population in murine epidermis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chaoran; Zhang, Ting; Qiao, Liangjun; Du, Jia; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Hengguang; Wang, Fangfang; Huang, Qiaorong; Meng, Wentong; Zhu, Hongyan; Bu, Hong; Li, Hui; Xu, Hong; Mo, Xianming

    2014-07-25

    Normal interfollicular epidermis (IFE) homeostasis is maintained throughout the entire life by its own stem cells that self-renew and generate progeny that undergo terminal differentiation. However, the fine markers of the stem cells in interfollicular epidermis are not well defined yet. Here we found that TLR7 identified the existence of progenitors and interfollicular epidermal stem cells in murine skin. In vitro, TLR7-expressing cells comprised of two subpopulations that were competent to proliferate and exhibited distinct differentiation potentials. Three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture and skin reconstitution assays showed that TLR7-expressing cells were able to reconstruct the interfollicular epidermis. Finally, TLR7-expressing cells maintained the intact interfollicular epidermal structures revealed in serial transplantation assays in vivo in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that TLR7-expressing cells comprise an interfollicular epidermal stem cell population.

  8. Blocking CD40-TRAF6 signaling is a therapeutic target in obesity-associated insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Seijkens, Tom; Zarzycka, Barbara; Engel, David; Poggi, Marjorie; van den Berg, Susan; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Soehnlein, Oliver; Winkels, Holger; Beckers, Linda; Lievens, Dirk; Driessen, Ann; Kusters, Pascal; Biessen, Erik; Garcia-Martin, Ruben; Klotzsche-von Ameln, Anne; Gijbels, Marion; Noelle, Randolph; Boon, Louis; Hackeng, Tilman; Schulte, Klaus-Martin; Xu, Aimin; Vriend, Gert; Nabuurs, Sander; Chung, Kyoung-Jin; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Gerdes, Norbert; de Winther, Menno; Block, Norman L.; Schally, Andrew V.; Weber, Christian; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Nicolaes, Gerry; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Lutgens, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The immune system plays an instrumental role in obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we unravel the role of the costimulatory molecule CD40 and its signaling intermediates, TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), in diet-induced obesity (DIO). Although not exhibiting increased weight gain, male CD40−/− mice in DIO displayed worsened insulin resistance, compared with wild-type mice. This worsening was associated with excessive inflammation of adipose tissue (AT), characterized by increased accumulation of CD8+ T cells and M1 macrophages, and enhanced hepatosteatosis. Mice with deficient CD40-TRAF2/3/5 signaling in MHCII+ cells exhibited a similar phenotype in DIO as CD40−/− mice. In contrast, mice with deficient CD40-TRAF6 signaling in MHCII+ cells displayed no insulin resistance and showed a reduction in both AT inflammation and hepatosteatosis in DIO. To prove the therapeutic potential of inhibition of CD40-TRAF6 in obesity, DIO mice were treated with a small-molecule inhibitor that we designed to specifically block CD40-TRAF6 interactions; this compound improved insulin sensitivity, reduced AT inflammation, and decreased hepatosteatosis. Our study reveals that the CD40-TRAF2/3/5 signaling pathway in MHCII+ cells protects against AT inflammation and metabolic complications associated with obesity whereas CD40-TRAF6 interactions in MHCII+ cells aggravate these complications. Inhibition of CD40-TRAF6 signaling by our compound may provide a therapeutic option in obesity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:24492375

  9. Cancer immunotherapy: activating innate and adaptive immunity through CD40 agonists.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Gregory L; Li, Yan; Long, Kristen B

    2017-02-01

    CD40 is a promising therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. In patients with advanced solid malignancies, CD40 agonists have demonstrated some anti-tumor activity and a manageable toxicity profile. A 2(nd) generation of CD40 agonists has now been designed with optimized Fc receptor (FcR) binding based on preclinical evidence suggesting a critical role for FcR engagement in defining the potency of CD40 agonists in vivo. Areas covered: We provide a comprehensive review using PubMed and Google Patent databases on the current clinical status of CD40 agonists, strategies for applying CD40 agonists in cancer therapy, and the preclinical data that supports and is guiding the future development of CD40 agonists. Expert commentary: There is a wealth of preclinical data that provide rationale on several distinct approaches for using CD40 agonists in cancer immunotherapy. This data illustrates the need to strategically combine CD40 agonists with other clinically active treatment regimens in order to realize the full potential of activating CD40 in vivo. Thus, critical to the success of this class of immune-oncology drugs, which have the potential to restore both innate and adaptive immunosurveillance, will be the identification of biomarkers for monitoring and predicting responses as well as informing mechanisms of treatment resistance.

  10. Developmentally regulated availability of RANKL and CD40 ligand reveals distinct mechanisms of fetal and adult cross-talk in the thymus medulla.

    PubMed

    Desanti, Guillaume E; Cowan, Jennifer E; Baik, Song; Parnell, Sonia M; White, Andrea J; Penninger, Josef M; Lane, Peter J L; Jenkinson, Eric J; Jenkinson, William E; Anderson, Graham

    2012-12-15

    T cell tolerance in the thymus is a key step in shaping the developing T cell repertoire. Thymic medullary epithelial cells play multiple roles in this process, including negative selection of autoreactive thymocytes, influencing thymic dendritic cell positioning, and the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Previous studies show that medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC) development involves hemopoietic cross-talk, and numerous TNFR superfamily members have been implicated in this process. Whereas CD40 and RANK represent key examples, interplay between these receptors, and the individual cell types providing their ligands at both fetal and adult stages of thymus development, remain unclear. In this study, by analysis of the cellular sources of receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and CD40L during fetal and adult cross-talk in the mouse, we show that the innate immune cell system drives initial fetal mTEC development via expression of RANKL, but not CD40L. In contrast, cross-talk involving the adaptive immune system involves both RANKL and CD40L, with analysis of distinct subsets of intrathymic CD4(+) T cells revealing a differential contribution of CD40L by conventional, but not Foxp3(+) regulatory, T cells. We also provide evidence for a stepwise involvement of TNFRs in mTEC development, with CD40 upregulation induced by initial RANK signaling subsequently controlling proliferation within the mTEC compartment. Collectively, our findings show how multiple hemopoietic cell types regulate mTEC development through differential provision of RANKL/CD40L during ontogeny, revealing molecular differences in fetal and adult hemopoietic cross-talk. They also suggest a stepwise process of mTEC development, in which RANK is a master player in controlling the availability of other TNFR family members.

  11. Desipramine decreases expression of human and murine indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alexandra K; Janda, Tiffany M; Lawson, Marcus A; Rytych, Jennifer L; Smith, Robin A; Ocampo-Solis, Cecilia; McCusker, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    Abundant evidence connects depression symptomology with immune system activation, stress and subsequently elevated levels of kynurenine. Anti-depressants, such as the tricyclic norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor desipramine (Desip), were developed under the premise that increasing extracellular neurotransmitter level was the sole mechanism by which they alleviate depressive symptomologies. However, evidence suggests that anti-depressants have additional actions that contribute to their therapeutic potential. The Kynurenine Pathway produces tryptophan metabolites that modulate neurotransmitter activity. This recognition identified another putative pathway for anti-depressant targeting. Considering a recognized role of the Kynurenine Pathway in depression, we investigated the potential for Desip to alter expression of rate-limiting enzymes of this pathway: indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenases (Ido1 and Ido2). Mice were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) with Desip to determine if Desip alters indoleamine-dioxygenase (DO) expression in vivo following a modeled immune and stress response. This work was followed by treating murine and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with interferon-gamma (IFNγ) and Desip. In vivo: Desip blocked LPS-induced Ido1 expression in hippocampi, astrocytes, microglia and PBMCs and Ido2 expression by PBMCs. Ex vivo: Desip decreased IFNγ-induced Ido1 and Ido2 expression in murine PBMCs. This effect was directly translatable to the human system as Desip decreased IDO1 and IDO2 expression by human PBMCs. These data demonstrate for the first time that an anti-depressant alters expression of Ido1 and Ido2, identifying a possible new mechanism behind anti-depressant activity. Furthermore, we propose the assessment of PBMCs for anti-depressant responsiveness using IDO expression as a biomarker.

  12. Constitutive expression of lymphoma-associated NFKB-2/Lyt-10 proteins is tumorigenic in murine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ciana, P; Neri, A; Cappellini, C; Cavallo, F; Pomati, M; Chang, C C; Maiolo, A T; Lombardi, L

    1997-04-17

    The NFKB-2 (Lyt-10) gene codes for an NF-kappaB-related transcription factor containing rel-polyG-ankyrin domains. Rearrangements of the NFKB-2 locus leading to the production of 3' truncated NFKB-2 proteins are recurrently found in lymphoid neoplasms, particularly cutaneous lymphomas. Such mutant NFKB-2 proteins have lost the ability to repress transcription that is typical of NFKB-2 subunit p52, and function as constitutive transcriptional activators. To verify whether the expression of abnormal NFKB-2 proteins can lead to malignant transformations in mammalian cells, we transfected human lymphoblastoid cell lines and murine fibroblasts (Balb/3T3) with expression vectors carrying the cDNAs coding for normal NFKB-2p52, Lyt-10C alpha or LB40 proteins, which are representative of the abnormal types found in lymphoma cases. The expression of both normal and mutant NFKB-2 proteins has a lethal effect on lymphoblastoid cells and a cytotoxic effect was also observed in murine fibroblasts. The fibroblast cell lines expressing Lyt-10C alpha or LB40, but not those expressing normal NFKB-2p52, were capable of forming colonies in soft agar. The analysis of individual clones revealed that cloning efficiency correlated with the expression levels of the abnormal proteins. Injection of the Lyt-10C alpha-transfected Balb cells in SCID mice led to tumor formation in all of the animals, whereas no tumors were observed in the mice injected with control or NFKB-2p52-transfected cells, thus indicating that abnormal NFKB-2 protein expression is tumorigenic in vivo. Our results show that mutant NFKB-2 proteins can lead to the transformed phenotype, and support the hypothesis that alterations in NFKB-2 genes may play a role in lymphomagenesis.

  13. The expression of TIPE1 in murine tissues and human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Zhang, Guizhong; Hao, Chunyan; Wang, Yan; Lou, Yunwei; Zhang, Wenqian; Wang, Juan; Liu, Suxia

    2011-07-01

    Members of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein-8 (TNFAIP8 or TIPE) family play important roles in immune homeostasis and cancer. TIPE1 (TNFAIP8-like 1) is a new member of the TIPE family that may regulate cell death. However, due to the lack of a suitable antibody, the nature of cells and tissues that express TIPE1 protein has not been determined. In this study, we generated a highly specific antibody to TIPE1 and examined TIPE1 expression in various murine tissues and human cell lines by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription real-time PCR, and Western blot. We found that TIPE1 protein was detected in a wide variety of tissues in C57BL/6 mice, such as neurons in brain, hepatocytes, germ cells of female and male reproductive organs, muscular tissues, and a variety of cells of the epithelial origin, particularly those with secretory functions. TIPE1 protein was not expressed in mature T or B lymphocytes, but detectable in human B lymphoblast cell line HMy2.CIR and murine T cell line EL4. Furthermore, high levels of TIPE1 mRNA were detected in most human carcinoma cell lines, especially in cells transformed with viral genomes. These results indicate that TIPE1 may perform functions in cell secretion and carcinogenesis, but not in immunity.

  14. Expression of transcripts for cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) in the murine lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Haendler, B; Toda, I; Sullivan, D A; Schleuning, W D

    1999-03-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) represent a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins which may play a role in the innate immune system and are transcriptionally regulated by androgens in several tissues. Transcripts for all three members of the CRISP family have now been identified in the murine lacrimal gland. RT-PCR using primers able to discriminate between the related CRISP forms allowed the amplification of fragments with the expected length. DNA sequencing revealed a complete identity with the hitherto characterized epididymal CRISP-1, testicular CRISP-2, and salivary gland CRISP-3. An analysis of several mouse strains indicated that all expressed the three CRISP forms, but in differing amounts. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from acinar cells of lacrimal glands revealed that they expressed CRISP-1 and CRISP-2. Semiquantitative and quantitative analyses furthermore showed higher CRISP-1 and CRISP-3 mRNA levels in the lacrimal glands of male BALB/c and NOD mice when compared to females. Testosterone treatment of C3H/HeJ female mice was followed by an upregulation of the steady-state CRISP-1 but not CRISP-2 transcript levels. A comparable stimulation was observed for the mRNAs coding for parotid secretory protein (PSP), a factor previously shown to exhibit sexual dimorphism in the murine lacrimal gland. The expression of CRISP transcripts in the lacrimal gland is consistent with a function in the innate immune system.

  15. Divergent dysregulation of gene expression in murine models of fragile X syndrome and tuberous sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome and tuberous sclerosis are genetic syndromes that both have a high rate of comorbidity with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Several lines of evidence suggest that these two monogenic disorders may converge at a molecular level through the dysfunction of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Methods To explore the characteristics of transcriptomic changes in these monogenic disorders, we profiled genome-wide gene expression levels in cerebellum and blood from murine models of fragile X syndrome and tuberous sclerosis. Results Differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways were distinct for the two murine models examined, with the exception of immune response-related pathways. In the cerebellum of the Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) model, the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and gene sets associated with synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation, gap junction, and axon guidance were the most significantly perturbed pathways. The phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway was significantly dysregulated in both cerebellum and blood of Fmr1-KO mice. In Tsc2 heterozygous (+/−) mice, immune system-related pathways, genes encoding ribosomal proteins, and glycolipid metabolism pathways were significantly changed in both tissues. Conclusions Our data suggest that distinct molecular pathways may be involved in ASD with known but different genetic causes and that blood gene expression profiles of Fmr1-KO and Tsc2+/− mice mirror some, but not all, of the perturbed molecular pathways in the brain. PMID:24564913

  16. Differential expression of Ran GTPase during HMBA-induced differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, N; García-Sacristán, A; López-Fernández, L A; Párraga, M; del Mazo, J; Hernández, P; Schvartzman, J B; Krimer, D B

    2003-07-01

    Murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells undergo erythroid differentiation in vitro when treated with hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). To identify genes involved in the commitment of MEL cells to differentiate, we screened a cDNA library constructed from HMBA-induced cells by differential hybridization and isolated GTPase Ran as a down-regulated gene. We observed that Ran was expressed in a biphasic mode. Following a decrease in mRNA level during the initial hours of induction, Ran re-expressed at 24-48 h, and gradually declined again. To investigate the role of Ran during MEL differentiation we constructed MEL transfectants capable to express or block Ran mRNA production constitutively. No effects were observed on cell growth and proliferation. Blockage of Ran, however, interfered with MEL cell differentiation resulting in a decrease of cell survival in the committed population.

  17. 1.8 Å structure of murine GITR ligand dimer expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Kausik; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

    2009-05-01

    1.8 Å X-ray crystal structure of mouse GITRL expressed in D. melanogaster S2 cells shows an identical ‘strand-exchanged’ dimeric assembly similar to that observed previously for the E. coli-expressed protein. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL), a prominent member of the TNF superfamily, activates its receptor on both effector and regulatory T cells to generate critical costimulatory signals that have been implicated in a wide range of T-cell immune functions. The crystal structures of murine and human orthologs of GITRL recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli have previously been determined. In contrast to all classical TNF structures, including the human GITRL structure, murine GITRL demonstrated a unique ‘strand-exchanged’ dimeric organization. Such a novel assembly behavior indicated a dramatic impact on receptor activation as well as on the signaling mechanism associated with the murine GITRL costimulatory system. In this present work, the 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of murine GITRL expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells is reported. The eukaryotic protein-expression system allows transport of the recombinant protein into the extracellular culture medium, thus maximizing the possibility of obtaining correctly folded material devoid of any folding/assembly artifacts that are often suspected with E. coli-expressed proteins. The S2 cell-expressed murine GITRL adopts an identical ‘strand-exchanged’ dimeric structure to that observed for the E. coli-expressed protein, thus conclusively demonstrating the novel quaternary structure assembly behavior of murine GITRL.

  18. T cell receptor transgenic lymphocytes infiltrating murine tumors are not induced to express foxp3

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) that express the transcription factor Foxp3 are enriched within a broad range of murine and human solid tumors. The ontogeny of these Foxp3 Tregs - selective accumulation or proliferation of natural thymus-derived Treg (nTreg) or induced Treg (iTreg) converted in the periphery from naïve T cells - is not known. We used several strains of mice in which Foxp3 and EGFP are coordinately expressed to address this issue. We confirmed that Foxp3-positive CD4 T cells are enriched among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and splenocytes (SPL) in B16 murine melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 Foxp3EGFP mice. OT-II Foxp3EGFP mice are essentially devoid of nTreg, having transgenic CD4 T cells that recognize a class II-restricted epitope derived from ovalbumin; Foxp3 expression could not be detected in TIL or SPL in these mice when implanted with ovalbumin-transfected B16 tumor (B16-OVA). Likewise, TIL isolated from B16 tumors implanted in Pmel-1 Foxp3EGFP mice, whose CD8 T cells recognize a class I-restricted gp100 epitope, were not induced to express Foxp3. All of these T cell populations - wild-type CD4, pmel CD8 and OTII CD4 - could be induced in vitro to express Foxp3 by engagement of their T cell receptor (TCR) and exposure to transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). B16 melanoma produces TGFβ and both pmel CD8 and OTII CD4 express TCR that should be engaged within B16 and B16-OVA respectively. Thus, CD8 and CD4 transgenic T cells in these animal models failed to undergo peripheral induction of Foxp3 in a tumor microenvironment. PMID:22112546

  19. Bifidobacterium bifidum Actively Changes the Gene Expression Profile Induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Murine Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gudrun; Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen Fink, Lisbeth; Jarmer, Hanne; Nøhr Nielsen, Birgit; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal regulatory role in activation of both the innate as well as the adaptive immune system by responding to environmental microorganisms. We have previously shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a strong production of the pro-inflammatory and Th1 polarizing cytokine IL-12 in DC, whereas bifidobacteria do not induce IL-12 but inhibit the IL-12 production induced by lactobacilli. In the present study, genome-wide microarrays were used to investigate the gene expression pattern of murine DC stimulated with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium bifidum Z9. L. acidophilus NCFM strongly induced expression of interferon (IFN)-β, other virus defence genes, and cytokine and chemokine genes related to the innate and the adaptive immune response. By contrast, B. bifidum Z9 up-regulated genes encoding cytokines and chemokines related to the innate immune response. Moreover, B. bifidum Z9 inhibited the expression of the Th1-promoting genes induced by L. acidophilus NCFM and had an additive effect on genes of the innate immune response and Th2 skewing genes. The gene encoding Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a transcription factor regulating the activation of JNK, was one of the few genes only induced by B. bifidum Z9. Neutralization of IFN-β abrogated L. acidophilus NCFM-induced expression of Th1-skewing genes, and blocking of the JNK pathway completely inhibited the expression of IFN-β. Our results indicate that B. bifidum Z9 actively inhibits the expression of genes related to the adaptive immune system in murine dendritic cells and that JPD2 via blocking of IFN-β plays a central role in this regulatory mechanism. PMID:20548777

  20. Sunitinib enhances the antitumor responses of agonistic CD40-antibody by reducing MDSCs and synergistically improving endothelial activation and T-cell recruitment

    PubMed Central

    van Hooren, Luuk; Georganaki, Maria; Huang, Hua; Mangsbo, Sara M.; Dimberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    CD40-activating immunotherapy has potent antitumor effects due to its ability to activate dendritic cells and induce cytotoxic T-cell responses. However, its efficacy is limited by immunosuppressive cells in the tumor and by endothelial anergy inhibiting recruitment of T-cells. Here, we show that combining agonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy with vascular targeting using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib decreased tumor growth and improved survival in B16.F10 melanoma and T241 fibrosarcoma. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with anti-CD40 mAb led to increased activation of CD11c+ dendritic cells in the tumor draining lymph node, while sunitinib treatment reduced vessel density and decreased accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells. The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules was up-regulated on tumor endothelial cells only when anti-CD40 mAb treatment was combined with sunitinib. This was associated with enhanced intratumoral infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. Our results show that combining CD40-stimulating immunotherapy with sunitinib treatment exerts potent complementary antitumor effects mediated by dendritic cell activation, a reduction in myeloid derived suppressor cells and increased endothelial activation, resulting in enhanced recruitment of cytotoxic T-cells. PMID:27385210

  1. CD154-CD40 T-cell co-stimulation pathway is a key mechanism in kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    de Ramon, Laura; Ripoll, Elia; Merino, Ana; Lúcia, Marc; Aran, Josep M; Pérez-Rentero, S; Lloberas, Nuria; Cruzado, Josep M; Grinyó, Josep M; Torras, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion occurs in a great many clinical settings and contributes to organ failure or dysfunction. CD154-CD40 signaling in leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions or T-cell activation facilitates tissue inflammation and injury. Here we tested a siRNA anti-CD40 in rodent warm and cold ischemia models to check the therapeutic efficacy and anti-inflammatory outcome of in vivo gene silencing. In the warm ischemia model different doses were used, resulting in clear renal function improvement and a structural renoprotective effect. Renal ischemia activated the CD40 gene and protein expression, which was inhibited by intravenous siRNA administration. CD40 gene silencing improved renal inflammatory status, as seen by the reduction of CD68 and CD3 T-cell infiltrates, attenuated pro-inflammatory, and enhanced anti-inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, siRNA administration decreased a spleen pro-inflammatory monocyte subset and reduced TNFα secretion by splenic T cells. In the cold ischemia model with syngeneic and allogeneic renal transplantation, the most effective dose induced similar functional and structural renoprotective effects. Our data show the efficacy of our siRNA in modulating both the local and the systemic inflammatory milieu after an ischemic insult. Thus, CD40 silencing could emerge as a novel therapeutic strategy in solid organ transplantation. PMID:25993320

  2. BCL11B expression in intramembranous osteogenesis during murine craniofacial suture development.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Greg; van Bakel, Harm; Zhou, Xueyan; Losic, Bojan; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Sutures, where neighboring craniofacial bones are separated by undifferentiated mesenchyme, are major growth sites during craniofacial development. Pathologic fusion of bones within sutures occurs in a wide variety of craniosynostosis conditions and can result in dysmorphic craniofacial growth and secondary neurologic deficits. Our knowledge of the genes involved in suture formation is poor. Here we describe the novel expression pattern of the BCL11B transcription factor protein during murine embryonic craniofacial bone formation. We examined BCL11B protein expression at E14.5, E16.5, and E18.5 in 14 major craniofacial sutures of C57BL/6J mice. We found BCL11B expression to be associated with all intramembranous craniofacial bones examined. The most striking aspects of BCL11B expression were its high levels in suture mesenchyme and increasingly complementary expression with RUNX2 in differentiating osteoblasts during development. BCL11B was also expressed in mesenchyme at the non-sutural edges of intramembranous bones. No expression was seen in osteoblasts involved in endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous cranial base. BCL11B is expressed to potentially regulate the transition of mesenchymal differentiation and suture formation within craniofacial intramembranous bone.

  3. BCL11B expression in intramembranous osteogenesis during murine craniofacial suture development

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Greg; van Bakel, Harm; Zhou, Xueyan; Losic, Bojan; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Sutures, where neighboring craniofacial bones are separated by undifferentiated mesenchyme, are major growth sites during craniofacial development. Pathologic fusion of bones within sutures occurs in a wide variety of craniosynostosis conditions and can result in dysmorphic craniofacial growth and secondary neurologic deficits. Our knowledge of the genes involved in suture formation is poor. Here we describe the novel expression pattern of the BCL11B transcription factor protein during murine embryonic craniofacial bone formation. We examined BCL11B protein expression at E14.5, E16.5, and E18.5 in 14 major craniofacial sutures of C57BL/6J mice. We found BCL11B expression to be associated with all intramembranous craniofacial bones examined. The most striking aspects of BCL11B expression were its high levels in suture mesenchyme and increasingly complementary expression with RUNX2 in differentiating osteoblasts during development. BCL11B was also expressed in mesenchyme at the non-sutural edges of intramembranous bones. No expression was seen in osteoblasts involved in endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous cranial base. BCL11B is expressed to potentially regulate the transition of mesenchymal differentiation and suture formation within craniofacial intramembranous bone. PMID:25511173

  4. Connexin43 expression levels influence intercellular coupling and cell proliferation of native murine cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Kanter, Evelyn M; Laing, James G; Aprhys, Colette; Johns, David C; Kardami, Elissavet; Yamada, Kathryn A

    2008-09-01

    Little is known about connexin expression and function in murine cardiac fibroblasts. The authors isolated native ventricular fibroblasts from adult mice and determined that although they expressed both connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin45 (Cx45), the relative abundance of Cx45 was greater than that of Cx43 in fibroblasts compared to myocytes, and the electrophoretic mobility of both Cx43 and Cx45 differed in fibroblasts and in myocytes. Increasing Cx43 expression by adenoviral infection increased intercellular coupling, whereas decreasing Cx43 expression by genetic ablation decreased coupling. Interestingly, increasing Cx43 expression reduced fibroblast proliferation, whereas decreasing Cx43 expression increased proliferation. These data demonstrate that native fibroblasts isolated from the mouse heart exhibit intercellular coupling via gap junctions containing both Cx43 and Cx45. Fibroblast proliferation is inversely related to the expression level of Cx43. Thus, connexin expression and remodeling is likely to alter fibroblast function, maintenance of the extracellular matrix, and ventricular remodeling in both normal and diseased hearts.

  5. Host CD40 Is Essential for DCG Treatment Against Metastatic Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Fujita, Mitsugu; Nishi, Masayasu; Tanaka, Tomoko; Arimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kamigaki, Takashi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    For the application of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in cancer therapy, the CD40-CD40L interaction is indispensable in administering alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer). We hypothesized that CD40 plays an important role in dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with αGalCer (DCGs) in the treatment of lung metastases. Wild-type (WT) and CD40(-/-) mice were treated with DCGs isolated from WT or CD40(-/-) mice in a B16F10 lung metastases model and NK and NKT cell activity in lungs and the spleen were examined. DCG treatment improved WT mice survival but CD40(-/-) hosts received no survival benefit. Conversely, attenuation of a therapeutic effect in mice treated with CD40(-/-) DCGs was not observed. The functional activities of NK and NKT cells in DCG-treated CD40(-/-) mice were partially suppressed. Host CD40 is essential for DCG treatment to have a therapeutic effect on B16F10 lung metastases. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Reactive oxygen species regulate osteopontin expression in a murine model of postischemic neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Alicia N; Joseph, Giji; Fan, Aaron E; Weiss, Daiana; Landázuri, Natalia; Taylor, W Robert

    2012-06-01

    Previous findings from our laboratory demonstrated that neovascularization was impaired in osteopontin (OPN) knockout animals. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of OPN expression in the setting of ischemia remain undefined. Therefore, we sought to determine whether OPN is upregulated in response to ischemia and hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a critical component of the signaling mechanism by which OPN expression is upregulated in response to ischemia in vivo. To determine whether ischemic injury upregulates OPN, we used a murine model of hindlimb ischemia. Femoral artery ligation in C57BL/6 mice significantly increased OPN expression and H(2)O(2) production. Infusion of C57BL/6 mice with polyethylene glycol-catalase (10 000 U/kg per day) or the use of transgenic mice with smooth muscle cell-specific catalase overexpression blunted ischemia-induced OPN, suggesting ischemia-induced OPN expression is H(2)O(2)-dependent. Decreased H(2)O(2)-mediated OPN blunted reperfusion and collateral formation in vivo. In contrast, the overexpression of OPN using lentivirus restored neovascularization. Scavenging H(2)O(2) blocks ischemia-induced OPN expression, providing evidence that ischemia-induced OPN expression is H(2)O(2) dependent. Decreased OPN expression impaired neovascularization, whereas overexpression of OPN increased angiogenesis, supporting our hypothesis that OPN is a critical mediator of postischemic neovascularization and a potential novel therapeutic target for inducing new vessel growth.

  7. Dynamic expression of the Slit-Robo GTPase activating protein genes during development of the murine nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Claire; Endris, Volker; Rappold, Gudrun

    2009-03-10

    We investigated the expression of the three known Slit-Robo GTPase activating protein (srGAP) genes in the developing murine nervous system using in situ hybridization. The three genes are expressed during embryonic and early postnatal development in the murine nervous system, showing a distinct pattern of expression in the olfactory system, the eye, forebrain and midbrain structures, the cerebellum, the spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia, which we discuss in relation to Slit-Robo expression patterns and signaling pathways. We also report srGAP2 expression in zones of neuronal differentiation and srGAP3 in ventricular zones of neurogenesis in many different tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). Compared to srGAP2 and srGAP3, the onset of srGAP1 expression is later in most CNS tissues. We propose that these differences in expression point to functional differences between these three genes in the development of neural tissues.

  8. Regulation of endothelial VCAM-1 expression in murine cardiac grafts. Roles for TNF and IL4.

    PubMed Central

    Bergese, S.; Pelletier, R.; Vallera, D.; Widmer, M.; Orosz, C.

    1995-01-01

    The in vivo mechanisms of vascular endothelial activation and VCAM-1 expression were studied in murine heterotopic cardiac grafts. Preliminary studies demonstrated that cardiac allograft endothelia develop reactivity with MECA-32 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and M/K-2 (anti-VCAM-1) MAb within 3 days of transplantation, whereas cardiac isografts develop MECA-32 reactivity but no M/K-2 reactivity. Additional studies demonstrated that a single treatment of cardiac isograft recipients with the anti-CD3 MAb 145-2C11 induces VCAM-1 expression on isograft microvascular endothelia within 24 hours. We have used this experimental system to identify the cytokines responsible for expression of VCAM-1 and MECA-32 MAb reactivity on graft vascular endothelia. We report that the expression of VCAM-1 on isograft endothelia that was induced with anti-CD3 MAb was blocked by simultaneous treatment with either pentoxifylline, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR-Fc), anti-IL4 MAb, or soluble IL4R, but not by anti-IFN-gamma MAb. Alternatively, a similar pattern of isograft endothelial VCAM-1 expression was stimulated in the absence of anti-CD3 MAbs with a single injection of human recombinant TNF-alpha, or with recombinant murine IL4 provided as IL4/anti-IL4 MAb complexes. In addition, the IL4-induced VCAM-1 expression was completely blocked by a single intravenous treatment of the isograft recipients with TNFR:Fc. This suggests that high concentrations of TNF-alpha can stimulate endothelial VCAM-1 expression, but these concentrations are apparently not achieved in cardiac isografts. In the absence of an inducing agent such as anti-CD3 MAb, the stimulation of VCAM-1 expression with exogenous IL4 may reflect functional interaction between endogenous TNF and exogenous IL4, as suggested by the blocking experiments with TNFR:Fc. Although cardiac isograft endothelia normally develop reactivity with MECA-32 MAb within 3 days of transplantation, treatment of cardiac isograft

  9. Stomatin-related olfactory protein, SRO, specifically expressed in the murine olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kobayakawa, Ko; Hayashi, Reiko; Morita, Kenji; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Oka, Yuichiro; Tsuboi, Akio; Sakano, Hitoshi

    2002-07-15

    We identified a stomatin-related olfactory protein (SRO) that is specifically expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). The mouse sro gene encodes a polypeptide of 287 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 32 kDa. SRO shares 82% sequence similarity with the murine stomatin, 78% with Caenorhabditis elegans MEC-2, and 77% with C. elegans UNC-1. Unlike other stomatin-family genes, the sro transcript was present only in OSNs of the main olfactory epithelium. No sro expression was seen in vomeronasal neurons. SRO was abundant in most apical dendrites of OSNs, including olfactory cilia. Immunoprecipitation revealed that SRO associates with adenylyl cyclase type III and caveolin-1 in the low-density membrane fraction of olfactory cilia. Furthermore, anti-SRO antibodies stimulated cAMP production in fractionated cilia membrane. SRO may play a crucial role in modulating odorant signals in the lipid rafts of olfactory cilia.

  10. Effect of Red Wine Polyphenols on the Expression of Transthyretin in Murine Choroid Plexus.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian C; Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Ritieni, Alberto

    Plasmatic transthyretin may be regarded as a suitable candidate biomarker for the onset, severity, and progression of Alzheimer disease. The aim of the present experimental work was to evaluate the effect of red wine polyphenols (RWPs) on the expression of transthyretin in murine choroid plexus. In contrast to what generally reported in literature for polyphenols, our experimental results indicated a correlation between RWPs assumption and a decrease of transthyretin expression, with a non-dose dependent trend. The present study would point out the attention on the possible pro-oxidant effects of red wine polyphenols at certain doses, although further in vitro, in vivo, and clinical experiments must be performed in order to clarify the mechanisms of action at the base of observed results.

  11. Expression of Ia antigens by murine kidney epithelium after exposure to streptozotocin.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, A. G.; Mannschreck, J. W.; Anderson, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    In the normal murine kidney, Ia antigens are expressed by dendritic cells located within the interstitial connective tissue and scattered cells within the glomerulus. After receiving multiple low doses of streptozotocin, a nitrosourea derivative of glucose, kidney epithelium labeled intensely with anti-Ia antibodies. Ultrastructural immunohistochemistry indicated that the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules expressed Ia antigens on their basolateral surfaces while remaining Ia- on their luminal surfaces. This response to streptozotocin does not appear to be related to the diabetogenic potential of the drug, because BALB/cJ mice, which remain normoglycemic after treatment with streptozotocin, also exhibited strongly Ia+ tubular epithelium after treatment with streptozotocin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2950766

  12. Increased TLR4 expression in murine placentas after oral infection with periodontal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Arce, R.M.; Barros, S.P.; Wacker, B.; Peters, B.; Moss, K.; Offenbacher, S.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal periodontitis has emerged as a putative risk factor for preterm births in humans. The periodontitis-associated dental biofilm is thought to serve as an important source of oral bacteria and related virulence factors that hematogenously disseminate and affect the fetoplacental unit; however the underlying biological mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. This study hypothesized that an oral infection with the human periodontal pathogens Campylobacter rectus and Porphyromonas gingivalis is able to induce fetal growth restriction, placental inflammation and enhance Toll-like receptors type 4 (TLR4) expression in a murine pregnancy model. Female Balb/C mice (n=40) were orally infected with C. rectus and/or P. gingivalis over a 16-week period and mated once per week. Pregnant mice were sacrificed at embryonic day (E) 16.5 and placentas were collected and analyzed for TLR4 mRNA levels and qualitative protein expression by real time PCR and immunofluorescence. TLR4 mRNA expression was found to be increased in C. rectus-infected group (1.98±0.886 fold difference, P<0.01, ANOVA) compared to controls. Microscopic analysis of murine placentas showed enhanced immunofluorescence of TLR4 in trophoblasts, mainly in the placental labyrinth layer. Also, combined oral infection with C. rectus and P. gingivalis significantly reduced the overall fecundity compared to controls (16.7% vs. 75%, infected vs. non-infected mice respectively, P=0.03, Kaplan-Meier). The results supported an enhanced placental TLR4 expression after oral infection with periodontal pathogens. The TLR4 pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm births; therefore the abnormal regulation of placental TLR4 may give new insights into how maternal periodontitis and periodontal pathogens might be linked to placental inflammation and preterm birth pathogenesis. PMID:19101032

  13. Autoregulation of pituitary corticotroph SOCS-3 expression: characterization of the murine SOCS-3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Auernhammer, C J; Bousquet, C; Melmed, S

    1999-06-08

    Pituitary corticotroph SOCS-3 is a novel intracellular regulator of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-mediated proopiomelanocortin gene expression and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion, inhibiting LIF-activated Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling in a negative autoregulatory loop. We now demonstrate in corticotroph AtT-20 cells that LIF-stimulated endogenous SOCS-3 mRNA expression is blocked in stable transfectants of SOCS-3 wild type or in dominant negative STAT-3 mutants, respectively. We characterized approximately 3.8-kb genomic 5' sequence of murine SOCS-3, including approximately 2.9-kb sequence upstream of the transcription start site (+1), which was determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RNase protection assay. Different 5' constructs were cloned into the pGL3Basic vector, and luciferase activity was assayed in transiently transfected ACTH-secreting corticotroph AtT-20 cells. A STAT-1/STAT-3 binding element, located at nucleotides -72 to -64, was essential for LIF stimulation of SOCS-3 promoter activity. LIF induced 10-fold increased luciferase activity in a wild-type construct spanning -2757 to +929 bases. However, deletion or point mutation of the STAT-1/STAT-3 binding element abrogated LIF action (2- to 3-fold). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay analysis confirmed specific binding of STAT-1 and STAT-3 to this region. These results characterize the genomic 5' region of murine SOCS-3 and identify an important STAT-1/STAT-3 binding element therein. Thus, LIF-stimulated SOCS-3 gene expression is at least in part mediated by STAT-3 and STAT-1. The cytokine inhibitor SOCS-3 acts in a negative loop to autoregulate its own gene expression, thus limiting its accumulation in the corticotroph cell. These results demonstrate a mechanism for corticotroph plasticity with rapid "on" and "off" ACTH induction in response to neuro-immuno-endocrine stimuli, such as LIF.

  14. Retrovirally transduced murine T lymphocytes expressing FasL mediate effective killing of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Symes, JC; Siatskas, C; Fowler, DH; Medin, JA

    2010-01-01

    Adoptively transferred T cells possess anticancer activities partially mediated by T-cell FasL engagement of Fas tumor targets. However, antigen-induced T-cell activation and clonal expansion, which stimulates FasL activity, is often inefficient in tumors. As a gene therapy approach to overcome this obstacle, we have created oncoretroviral vectors to overexpress FasL or non-cleavable FasL (ncFasL) on murine T cells of a diverse T-cell receptor repertoire. Expression of c-FLIP was also engineered to prevent apoptosis of transduced cells. Retroviral transduction of murine T lymphocytes has historically been problematic, and we describe optimized T-cell transduction protocols involving CD3/CD28 co-stimulation of T cells, transduction on ice using concentrated oncoretrovirus, and culture with IL-15. Genetically modified T cells home to established prostate cancer tumors in vivo. Co-stimulated T cells expressing FasL, ncFasL and ncFasL/c-FLIP each mediated cytotoxicity in vitro against RM-1 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To evaluate the compatibility of this approach with current prostate cancer therapies, we exposed RM-1, LNCaP, and TRAMP-C1 cells to radiation, mitoxantrone, or docetaxel. Fas and H-2b expression were upregulated by these methods. We have developed a novel FasL-based immuno-gene therapy for prostate cancer that warrants further investigation given the apparent constitutive and inducible Fas pathway expression in this malignancy. PMID:19096446

  15. Retinal expression of small non-coding RNAs in a murine model of proliferative retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hsiu; Wang, Zhongxiao; Sun, Ye; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization is a leading cause of blindness in proliferative retinopathy. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) play critical roles in both vascular and neuronal development of the retina through post-transcriptional regulation of target gene expression. To identify the function and therapeutic potential of sncRNAs in retinopathy, we assessed the expression profile of retinal sncRNAs in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) with pathologic proliferation of neovessels. Approximately 2% of all analyzed sncRNAs were significantly altered in OIR retinas compared with normoxic controls. Twenty three microRNAs with substantial up- or down-regulation were identified, including miR-351, -762, -210, 145, -155, -129-5p, -150, -203, and -375, which were further analyzed for their potential target genes in angiogenic, hypoxic, and immune response-related pathways. In addition, nineteen small nucleolar RNAs also revealed differential expression in OIR retinas compared with control retinas. A decrease of overall microRNA expression in OIR retinas was consistent with reduced microRNA processing enzyme Dicer, and increased expression of Alu element in OIR. Together, our findings elucidated a group of differentially expressed sncRNAs in a murine model of proliferative retinopathy. These sncRNAs may exert critical post-transcriptional regulatory roles in regulating pathological neovascularization in eye diseases. PMID:27653551

  16. Expression of Pit2 sodium-phosphate cotransporter during murine odontogenesis is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dawei; Vaziri Sani, Forugh; Nilsson, Jeanette; Rodenburg, Michaela; Stocking, Carol; Linde, Anders; Gritli-Linde, Amel

    2006-12-01

    Different sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate (P(i)) uptake mechanisms play a major role in cellular P(i) homeostasis. The function and detailed distribution patterns of the type III Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter, PiT-2, in different organs during development are still largely unknown. We therefore examined the temporospatial expression patterns of Pit2 during murine odontogenesis. Odontoblasts were always devoid of Pit2 expression, whereas a transient, but strong, expression was detected in young secretory ameloblasts. However, the stratum intermedium and, later on, the papillary layer and cells of the subodontoblastic layer, exhibited high levels of Pit2 mRNA, which increased gradually as the tooth matured. Hormonal treatment or P(i) starvation of tooth germs in vitro did not alter Pit2 levels or patterns of expression, indicating mechanisms of regulation different from those of PiT-1 or other cell types. PiT-2 also functions as a retroviral receptor, and functional membrane-localized protein was confirmed throughout the dental papilla/pulp by demonstrating cellular permissiveness to infection by a gammaretrovirus that uses PiT-2 as a receptor. The distinct pattern of Pit2 expression during odontogenesis suggests that its P(i)-transporter function may be important for homeostasis of dental cells and not specifically for mineralization of the dental extracellular matrices. The expression of viral receptors in enamel-forming cells and the dental pulp may be of pathological significance.

  17. Co-expression of murine opsins facilitates identifying the site of cone adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ekesten, Björn; Gouras, Peter; Hargitai, Janos

    2002-01-01

    Murine cones contain two opsins in the same cone, one ultraviolet (UV) and the other middle-wavelength sensitive (M). A long-wavelength flash only affecting M-opsin suppresses the cone electroretinogram (ERG) produced by light absorption of UV-cone opsin raising the hypothesis that activation of M-cone opsin suppresses UV-cone opsin responses in the same cone. Here we show that pharmacologic blockade of synaptic transmission in the superfused murine retina, which eliminates interaction from second-order neurons, fails to prevent suppression of the UV-opsin driven pathway by long-wavelength stimuli. This proves that the antagonism must be occurring in the same cone, co-expressing both opsins. Our results show that UV-opsin suppression successively ceases in presence of the M-opsin activating background light, which implies that cone light adaptation is controlled at the opsin stage, before activation of transducin. It also reveals the time course of a transient desensitization of cones due to post-opsin factors in the transduction cascade.

  18. Effect of the hepatitis B virus S‑ecdCD40L vaccine therapy in HBV transgenic mice: A vaccine‑induced activation of antigen presenting dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huaqin; Lan, Songsong; Wu, Jinming; Tang, Binbin; Xu, Yin

    2017-08-22

    The classical hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccination plasmid only encodes for a single viral antigen, either the S or the PreS2/S antigen. Many strategies have been employed to improve the effect of these DNA vaccines. Our previous study identified that the fusion gene, HBV S‑ecd cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (CD40L), may promote the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and enhance their function in vitro. In the current study, the effect of HBV S‑ecdCD40L vaccine therapy on liver DCs was investigated, and its therapeutic potential in HBV transgenic (HBV‑Tg) mice was evaluated. The eukaryotic expression plasmid, pcDNA3.1‑S‑ecdCD40L, was constructed by inserting the HBV S gene and mouse CD40L gene into the vector, pcDNA3.1 (+). HBV‑Tg mice were immunized with pcDNA3.1‑S‑ecdCD40L, pcDNA3.1‑S, pcDNA3.1 or PBS. Following this, immunophenotyping, cytokine production and T‑cell activation were analyzed in the CD11c‑enriched DC population obtained from the liver. Vaccine efficacy was further assessed by the detection of serological and biochemical parameters. When comparing with other control groups, DCs from HBV‑Tg mice immunized with pcDNA3.1‑S‑ecdCD40L exhibited increased expression of immunologically important cell molecules (CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II), pro‑inflammatory cytokines (interleukin‑12), and enhanced capacity to promote allogeneic T‑cell proliferation. Furthermore, the HBV S‑ecdCD40L vaccine resulted in a significant inhibition of HBV DNA replication and downregulation of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in HBV‑Tg mice, without obvious liver injury. In conclusion, the HBV S‑ecdCD40L vaccine may be a feasible strategy for chronic HBV immunotherapy via promoting DC activation and function.

  19. Interleukin 4 induces membrane Thy-1 expression on normal murine B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Snapper, C M; Hornbeck, P V; Atasoy, U; Pereira, G M; Paul, W E

    1988-01-01

    Thy-1, a cell-surface glycoprotein of undetermined function, is expressed in relatively large amounts on mouse thymocytes, peripheral T cells, and neurons. It is widely used as a marker to distinguish peripheral T cells from B cells in mice. We show here that, in five distinct mouse strains, recombinant interleukin 4 (IL-4/B-cell stimulatory factor 1) strikingly induces membrane expression of Thy-1 on the vast majority of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated normal murine B cells. Thy-1+ B cells are precursors for immunoglobulin-secreting cells. RNA blot analysis indicates that B cells express a Thy-1 mRNA of 1.8 kilobases, the same size as that found in T cells. Cell mixing experiments show that only cells derived from Thy-1.2+ donors express Thy-1.2, indicating that B cells expressing Thy-1 have not passively absorbed the glycoprotein from another cell source. Recombinant interferon-gamma inhibits Thy-1 induction by B cells stimulated with LPS and IL-4. Thy-1 is also induced on B cells that have been stimulated as a result of the specific activation of an IL-4-producing T-helper clone. Anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody inhibits the induction of B-cell Thy-1 in this T-cell-B-cell interaction. Images PMID:2901096

  20. Effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on melanogenic protein expression in murine B16 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuomi; Toriyama, Masaru

    2009-02-01

    Increased production and accumulation of melanin leads to various hyperpigmentation disorders. Melanin synthesis is regulated by melanogenic proteins such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and -2, and their transcription factors. In this study, we assessed the effects of PQQ on melanogenic protein expression of murine B16 melanoma cells. We assessed melanin production of PQQ-treated B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of PQQ on the activity of melanogenic enzymes and their expression using Western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses. In the present study, PQQ inhibited melanin synthesis in cultured melanoma cells stimulated by either alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). To elucidate the mechanism of the effect of PQQ on melanogenesis, we performed Western blotting for melanogenic proteins, such as tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. PQQ inhibited tyrosinase expression, however, it did not inhibit TRP-2 expression. Used as the stimulant for melanogenesis, both alpha-MSH and IBMX gave the same results for melanogenic protein expression. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the depigmentation effect of PQQ might be due to the inhibition of tyrosinase gene transcription but not the inhibition of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf). This report indicates that PQQ is a possible anti-melanogenic agent and might be effective against hyperpigmentation disorders.

  1. Myocarditis induced by targeted expression of the MCP-1 gene in murine cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kolattukudy, P. E.; Quach, T.; Bergese, S.; Breckenridge, S.; Hensley, J.; Altschuld, R.; Gordillo, G.; Klenotic, S.; Orosz, C.; Parker-Thornburg, J.

    1998-01-01

    To explore the possible role of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) in inflammatory diseases of the heart, we expressed the murine MCP-1(JE) gene under the control of the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain promoter to attempt to target MCP-1 expression to the adult heart muscle. The five lines of transgenic mice thus produced showed targeted expression of MCP-1 transcripts and protein in the adult heart muscle and pulmonary vein but not in skeletal muscle. MCP-1 level in the transgenic hearts increased up to 30 to 45 days of age, and leukocyte infiltration into interstitium between cardiomyocytes increased up to 60 to 75 days. The infiltrate was mainly macrophages but not T cells. The presence of MCP-1 in the transgenic hearts did not induce cytokine production indicative of leukocyte activation. Echocardiographic analysis of 1-year-old mice that express MCP-1 in the myocardium and of age-matched controls revealed cardiac hypertrophy and dilation, increases in left ventricular (LV) mass, and systolic and diastolic left ventricular internal diameters. A significant decline in M-mode shortening fraction showed depressed contractile function. Transgenic hearts were 65% heavier, and histological analysis showed moderate myocarditis, edema, and some fibrosis. Thus, MCP-1 expression in the heart muscle may provide a model to investigate myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9422528

  2. Kick-starting the cancer-immunity cycle by targeting CD40

    PubMed Central

    Ellmark, P; Mangsbo, S M; Furebring, C; Tötterman, T H; Norlén, P

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of CD40 on dendritic cells to expand and activate tumor-specific T cells and generate anticancer immunity is an attractive therapeutic approach. Since CD40 agonists exert their effects upstream of checkpoint inhibitors, including PD-1 or PD-L1 antagonists, they are ideal candidates for combination regimens. PMID:26140231

  3. TGF-β induces surface LAP expression on murine CD4 T cells independent of Foxp3 induction.

    PubMed

    Oida, Takatoku; Weiner, Howard L

    2010-11-24

    It has been reported that human FOXP3(+) CD4 Tregs express GARP-anchored surface latency-associated peptide (LAP) after activation, based on the use of an anti-human LAP mAb. Murine CD4 Foxp3(+) Tregs have also been reported to express surface LAP, but these studies have been hampered by the lack of suitable anti-mouse LAP mAbs. We generated anti-mouse LAP mAbs by immunizing TGF-β(-/-) animals with a mouse Tgfb1-transduced P3U1 cell line. Using these antibodies, we demonstrated that murine Foxp3(+) CD4 Tregs express LAP on their surface. In addition, retroviral transduction of Foxp3 into mouse CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells induced surface LAP expression. We then examined surface LAP expression after treating CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells with TGF-β and found that TGF-β induced surface LAP not only on T cells that became Foxp3(+) but also on T cells that remained Foxp3(-) after TGF-β treatment. GARP expression correlated with the surface LAP expression, suggesting that surface LAP is GARP-anchored also in murine T cells. Unlike human CD4 T cells, surface LAP expression on mouse CD4 T cells is controlled by Foxp3 and TGF-β. Our newly described anti-mouse LAP mAbs will provide a useful tool for the investigation and functional analysis of T cells that express LAP on their surface.

  4. Association between serum soluble CD40 ligand levels and mortality in patients with severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CD40 Ligand (CD40L) and its soluble counterpart (sCD40L) are proteins that exhibit prothrombotic and proinflammatory properties on binding to their cell surface receptor CD40. The results of small clinical studies suggest that sCD40L levels could play a role in sepsis; however, there are no data on the association between sCD40L levels and mortality of septic patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether circulating sCD40L levels could be a marker of adverse outcome in a large cohort of patients with severe sepsis. Methods This was a multicenter, observational and prospective study carried out in six Spanish intensive care units. Serum levels of sCD40L, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10, and plasma levels of tissue factor were measured in 186 patients with severe sepsis at the time of diagnosis. Serum sCD40L was also measured in 50 age- and sex-matched controls. Survival at 30 days was used as the endpoint. Results Circulating sCD40L levels were significantly higher in septic patients than in controls (P = 0.01), and in non-survivors (n = 62) compared to survivors (n = 124) (P = 0.04). However, the levels of CD40L were not different regarding sepsis severity. Logistic regression analysis showed that sCD40L levels >3.5 ng/mL were associated with higher mortality at 30 days (odds ratio = 2.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.37 to 6.07; P = 0.005). The area under the curve of sCD40L levels >3.5 ng/mL as predictor of mortality at 30 days was 0.58 (95% CI = 0.51 to 0.65; P = 0.03). Conclusions In conclusion, circulating sCD40L levels are increased in septic patients and are independently associated with mortality in these patients; thus, its modulation could represent an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:21406105

  5. Temperature-sensitive viral RNA expression in Moloney murine sarcoma virus ts110-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hamelin, R; Brizzard, B L; Nash, M A; Murphy, E C; Arlinghaus, R B

    1985-01-01

    We examined the mos-specific intracellular RNA species in 6m2 cells, an NRK cell line nonproductively infected with the ts110 mutant of Moloney murine sarcoma virus. These cells present a normal phenotype at 39 degrees C and a transformed phenotype at 28 or 33 degrees C, expressing two viral proteins, termed P85gag-mos and P58gag, at 28 to 33 degrees C, whereas only P58gag is expressed at 39 degrees C. It has been previously shown that 6m2 cells contain two virus-specific RNA species, a 4.0-kilobase (kb) RNA coding for P58gag and a 3.5-kb RNA coding for P85gag-mos. Using both Northern blot and S1 nuclease analyses, we show here that the 3.5-kb RNA is the predominant viral RNA species in 6m2 cells grown at 28 degrees C, whereas only the 4.0-kb RNA is detected at 39 degrees C. During temperature shift experiments, the 3.5-kb RNA species disappears after a shift from 28 to 39 degrees C and is detected again after a shift back from 39 to 28 degrees C. By Southern blot analysis, we have detected only one ts110 proviral DNA in the 6m2 genome. This observation, as well as previously published heteroduplex and S1 nuclease analyses which showed that the 3.5-kb RNA species lacks about 430 bases found at the gag gene-mos gene junction in the 4.0-kb RNA, suggests that the 3.5-kb RNA is a splicing product of the 4.0-kb RNA. The absence of the 3.5-kb RNA when 6m2 cells are grown at 39 degrees C indicates that the splicing reaction is thermosensitive. The splicing defect of the ts110 Moloney murine sarcoma virus viral RNA in 6m2 cells cannot be complemented by acute Moloney murine leukemia virus superinfection, since no 3.5-kb ts110 RNA was detected in acutely superinfected 6m2 cells maintained at 39 degrees C. The spliced Moloney murine leukemia virus env mRNA, however, is found in acutely infected cells maintained at 39 degrees C, suggesting that the lack of ts110 viral RNA splicing at 39 degrees C is not due to an obvious host defect. In sharp contrast, however, 6m2 cells

  6. Expression of murine interleukin 7 in a murine glioma cell line results in reduced tumorigenicity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, T; Tashiro, K; Miyatake, S; Kinashi, T; Nakano, T; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H; Honjo, T

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the immunoregulatory effect of local and continuous secretion of interleukin 7 (IL-7) from murine glioma cells (203-glioma) engineered by murine IL-7 gene transfection. Secretion of IL-7 from glioma cells did not result in morphology or growth rate changes but did reduce tumorigenicity in vivo in proportion to the amount of IL-7 produced. This reduction in tumorigenicity could be reversed in a dose-dependent fashion by injection of anti-IL-7 neutralizing monoclonal antibody at the tumor site. Mice immunized with IL-7-producing glioma cells showed a specific immune response to 203-glioma but not to two other syngeneic cell lines (B-16, a melanoma, and YM-12, a fibrosarcoma). IL-7-producing glioma cells were not rejected in mice depleted of CD8+ cells but were rejected in mice depleted of CD4+ or NK1.1+ cells. These results suggest that CD8+ T cells may play an important role in tumor rejection. Images PMID:1570303

  7. MicroRNA expression profiling of the developing murine upper lip.

    PubMed

    Warner, Dennis R; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Webb, Cindy L; Michele Pisano, M; Greene, Robert M

    2014-08-01

    Clefts of the lip and palate are thought to be caused by genetic and environmental insults but the role of epigenetic mechanisms underlying this common birth defect are unknown. We analyzed the expression of over 600 microRNAs in the murine medial nasal and maxillary processes isolated on GD10.0-GD11.5 to identify those expressed during development of the upper lip and analyzed spatial expression of a subset. A total of 142 microRNAs were differentially expressed across gestation days 10.0-11.5 in the medial nasal processes, and 66 in the maxillary processes of the first branchial arch with 45 common to both. Of the microRNAs exhibiting the largest percent increase in both facial processes were five members of the Let-7 family. Among those with the greatest decrease in expression from GD10.0 to GD11.5 were members of the microRNA-302/367 family that have been implicated in cellular reprogramming. The distribution of expression of microRNA-199a-3p and Let-7i was determined by in situ hybridization and revealed widespread expression in both medial nasal and maxillary facial process, while that for microRNA-203 was much more limited. MicroRNAs are dynamically expressed in the tissues that form the upper lip and several were identified that target mRNAs known to be important for its development, including those that regulate the two main isoforms of p63 (microRNA-203 and microRNA-302/367 family). Integration of these data with corresponding proteomic datasets will lead to a greater appreciation of epigenetic regulation of lip development and provide a better understanding of potential causes of cleft lip.

  8. Comparison of galectin expression signatures in rejected and accepted murine corneal allografts.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Satoshi; Chen, Wei-Sheng; Cao, Zhiyi; Kenyon, Kenneth R; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Omoto, Masashiro; Hamrah, Pedram; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2015-06-01

    Although members of the galectin family of carbohydrate-binding proteins are thought to play a role in the immune response and regulation of allograft survival, little is known about the galectin expression signature in failed corneal grafts. The aim of this study was to compare the galectin expression pattern in accepted and rejected murine corneal allografts. Using BALB/c mice as recipients and C57BL/6 mice as donors, a total of 57 transplants were successfully performed. One week after transplantation, the grafts were scored for opacity by slit-lamp microscopy. Opacity scores of 3+ or greater on postoperative week 4 were considered rejected. Grafted corneas were harvested on postoperative week 4, and their galectin expressions were analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. As determined by the Western blot analyses, galectins-1, 3, 7, 8 and 9 were expressed in normal corneas. Although in both accepted and rejected grafts, expression levels of the 5 lectins were upregulated compared with normal corneas, there were distinct differences in the expression levels of galectins-8 and 9 between accepted and rejected grafts, as both the Western blot and immunofluorescence staining revealed that galectin-8 is upregulated, whereas galectin-9 is downregulated in the rejected grafts compared with the accepted grafts. Our findings that corneal allograft rejection is associated with increased galectin-8 expression and reduced galectin-9 expression, support the hypothesis that galectin-8 may reduce graft survival, whereas galectin-9 may promote graft survival. As a potential therapeutic intervention, inhibition of galectin-8 and/or treatment with exogenous galectin-9 may enhance corneal allograft survival rates.

  9. Comparison of galectin expression signatures in rejected and accepted murine corneal allografts

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Kenneth R; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Omoto, Masashiro; Hamrah, Pedram; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although members of the galectin family of carbohydrate-binding proteins are thought to play a role in the immune response and regulation of allograft survival, little is known about the galectin expression signature in failed corneal grafts. The goal of this study is to compare the galectin expression pattern in accepted and rejected murine corneal allografts. Method Using BALB/c mice as recipients and C57BL/6 mice as donors, a total of 57 transplants were successfully performed. One week after transplantation, the grafts were scored for opacity by slit-lamp microscopy. Opacity scores of 3+ or greater on postoperative week 4 were considered rejected. Grafted corneas were harvested on postoperative week 4, and their galectin expression was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Result As determined by Western blot analyses, galectins-1, -3, -7, -8 and -9 were expressed in normal corneas. Although in both accepted and rejected grafts, expression levels of the five lectins were upregulated compared to normal corneas, there were distinct differences in the expression levels of galectins-8 and -9 between accepted and rejected grafts, as both Western blot and immunofluorescence staining revealed galectin-8 is upregulated, whereas galectin-9 is downregulated in rejected grafts compared to accepted grafts. Conclusion Our findings that corneal allograft rejection is associated with an increased galectin-8 expression and a reduced galectin-9 expression, support the hypothesis that galectin-8 may reduce graft survival, whereas galectin-9 may promote graft survival. As a potential therapeutic intervention, inhibition of galectin-8 and/or treatment with exogenous galectin-9 may enhance corneal allograft survival rates. PMID:25961492

  10. Expression of the Murine Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene in Muscle and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.; Pearlman, Joel A.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Ranier, Joel E.; Reeves, Alice A.; Caskey, C. Thomas

    1988-03-01

    Complementary DNA clones were isolated that represent the 5' terminal 2.5 kilobases of the murine Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Dmd) messenger RNA (mRNA). Mouse Dmd mRNA was detectable in skeletal and cardiac muscle and at a level approximately 90 percent lower in brain. Dmd mRNA is also present, but at much lower than normal levels, in both the muscle and brain of three different strains of dystrophic mdx mice. The identification of Dmd mRNA in brain raises the possibility of a relation between human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene expression and the mental retardation found in some DMD males. These results also provide evidence that the mdx mutations are allelic variants of mouse Dmd gene mutations.

  11. Association of CD40L gene polymorphism with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Prasanta; Mohanty, Pradeep Kumar; Patel, Siris; Das, Padmalaya; Das, Kishalaya; Panigrahi, Jogeswar

    2017-01-01

    Many host genetic factors are associated with the disease severity and fatal outcome of falciparum malaria. CD40L gene has been found to be one of the most important factors associated with malaria in African countries. This study was aimed to investigate the possible association of CD40L gene polymorphism in severe falciparum malaria in Indian adults. One hundred fifteen adult cases with severe falciparum malaria were included in the study. Two single- nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CD40L gene, CD40L-726(C/T) and CD40L+220(C/T) were investigated, and the possible association with different clinical sub-phenotypes of severe falciparum malaria were analyzed. Statistically no significant difference was observed in the incidence of CD40L-726C between the patients and control group. The incidence of CD40L+220C allele was found to be significantly higher (OR, 2.25; p = 0.03) in male patients compared to controls but no significant difference was observed in females. Haplotype data showed the susceptibility of -726T/+220C haplotype to severe malaria whereas -726C/+220T was associated with protection against severe malaria. CD40L+220C allele was associated with severe malarial anaemia in males (χ2 = 6.60; p = 0.01). CD40L gene polymorphism was found to be associated with severe falciparum malaria in Indian population especially in severe malarial anaemia. CD40L may be considered as a factor of immunity in understanding the pathophysiology of falciparum malaria.

  12. Expression and Bactericidal Activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Brucella suis-Infected Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Antoine; Spiesser, Sandra; Terraza, Annie; Rouot, Bruno; Caron, Emmanuelle; Dornand, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    We examined the expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in both gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-treated and untreated murine macrophages infected with the gram-negative bacterium Brucella suis. The bacteria were opsonized with a mouse serum containing specific antibrucella antibodies (ops-Brucella) or with a control nonimmune serum (c-Brucella). The involvement of the produced NO in the killing of intracellular B. suis was evaluated. B. suis survived and replicated within J774A.1 cells. Opsonization with specific antibodies increased the number of phagocytized bacteria but lowered their intramacrophage development. IFN-γ enhanced the antibrucella activity of phagocytes, with this effect being greater in ops-Brucella infection. Expression of iNOS, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs was induced in both c-Brucella- and ops-Brucella-infected cells and was strongly potentiated by IFN-γ. In contrast to that of cytokine mRNAs, iNOS mRNA expression was independent of opsonization. Similar levels of iNOS mRNAs were expressed in IFN-γ-treated cells infected with c-Brucella or ops-Brucella; however, expression of iNOS protein and production of NO were detected only in IFN-γ-treated cells infected with ops-Brucella. These discrepencies between iNOS mRNA and protein levels were not due to differences in TNF-α production. The iNOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester increased B. suis multiplication specifically in IFN-γ-treated cells infected with ops-Brucella, demonstrating a microbicidal effect of the NO produced. This observation was in agreement with in vitro experiments showing that B. suis was sensitive to NO killing. Together our data indicate that in B. suis-infected murine macrophages, the posttranscriptional regulation of iNOS necessitates an additive signal triggered by macrophage Fcγ receptors. They also support the possibility that in mice, NO favors the elimination of Brucella, providing that IFN-γ and

  13. Expressing anti-HIV VRC01 antibody using the murine IgG1 secretion signal in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Aw, Rochelle; McKay, Paul F; Shattock, Robin J; Polizzi, Karen M

    2017-12-01

    The use of the recombinant expression platform Pichia pastoris to produce pharmaceutically important proteins has been investigated over the past 30 years. Compared to mammalian cultures, expression in P. pastoris is cheaper and faster, potentially leading to decreased costs and process development times. Product yields depend on a number of factors including the secretion signal chosen for expression, which can influence the host cell response to recombinant protein production. VRC01, a broadly neutralising anti-HIV antibody, was expressed in P. pastoris, using the methanol inducible AOX1 promoter for both the heavy and light chains. Titre reached up to 3.05 μg mL(-1) in small scale expression. VRC01 was expressed using both the α-mating factor signal peptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the murine IgG1 signal peptide. Surprisingly, using the murine IgG1 signal peptide resulted in higher yield of antibody capable of binding gp140 antigen. Furthermore, we evaluated levels of secretory stress compared to the untransformed wild-type strain and show a reduced level of secretory stress in the murine IgG1 signal peptide strains versus those containing the α-MF signal peptide. As bottlenecks in the secretory pathway are often the limiting factor in protein secretion, reduced levels of secretory stress and the higher yield of functional antibody suggest the murine IgG1 signal peptide may lead to better protein folding and secretion. This work indicates the possibilities for utilising the murine IgG1 signal peptide for a range of antibodies, resulting in high yields and reduced cellular stress.

  14. Acrolein increases 5-lipoxygenase expression in murine macrophages through activation of ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chae E.; Lee, Seung J.; Seo, Kyo W.; Park, Hye M.; Yun, Jung W.; Bae, Jin U.; Bae, Sun S.; Kim, Chi D.

    2010-05-15

    Episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants has been linked to acute myocardial infarction, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is involved in the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, the present study determined the effect of acrolein on 5-LO/leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) production in murine macrophages. Stimulation of J774A.1 cells with acrolein led to increased LTB{sub 4} production in association with increased 5-LO expression. Acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway, but not by inhibitors for JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. In line with these results, acrolein exclusively increased the phosphorylation of ERK among these MAPK, suggesting a role for the ERK pathway in acrolein-induced 5-LO expression with subsequent production of LTB{sub 4}. Among the receptor tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), acrolein-evoked ERK phosphorylation was attenuated by AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, but not by AG1295, a PDGFR inhibitor. In addition, acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was also inhibited by inhibition of EGFR pathway, but not by inhibition of PDGFR pathway. These observations suggest that acrolein has a profound effect on the 5-LO pathway via an EGFR-mediated activation of ERK pathway, leading to acute ischemic syndromes through the generation of LTB{sub 4}, subsequent MMP-9 production and plaque rupture.

  15. ICAM-1-expressing neutrophils exhibit enhanced effector functions in murine models of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Woodfin, Abigail; Beyrau, Martina; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; Ma, Bin; Whiteford, James R; Hordijk, Peter L; Hogg, Nancy; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2016-02-18

    Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface of numerous cell types such as endothelial and epithelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and certain leukocyte subsets. With respect to the latter, ICAM-1 has been detected on neutrophils in several clinical and experimental settings, but little is known about the regulation of expression or function of neutrophil ICAM-1. In this study, we report on the de novo induction of ICAM-1 on the cell surface of murine neutrophils by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor, and zymosan particles in vitro. The induction of neutrophil ICAM-1 was associated with enhanced phagocytosis of zymosan particles and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Conversely, neutrophils from ICAM-1-deficient mice were defective in these effector functions. Mechanistically, ICAM-1-mediated intracellular signaling appeared to support neutrophil ROS generation and phagocytosis. In vivo, LPS-induced inflammation in the mouse cremaster muscle and peritoneal cavity led to ICAM-1 expression on intravascular and locally transmigrated neutrophils. The use of chimeric mice deficient in ICAM-1 on myeloid cells demonstrated that neutrophil ICAM-1 was not required for local neutrophil transmigration, but supported optimal intravascular and extravascular phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Collectively, the present results shed light on regulation of expression and function of ICAM-1 on neutrophils and identify it as an additional regulator of neutrophil effector responses in host defense.

  16. The expression of MTNR3 and nuclear receptors in murine leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Cernysiov, Vitalij; Bozaite, Ruta; Mauricas, Mykolas; Girkontaite, Irute

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of melatonin receptor MTNR3 and nuclear receptors in murine lymphocytes and their dependence on lighting conditions and circadian time. The mRNA levels of melatonin receptors were investigated in cells isolated from thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow during the day or during the night. The expression of MTNR3 in B-cells and bone marrow cells was much higher than in thymocytes and T-cells. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor A (Rora) was found mostly in thymocytes and cluster of differentiation 4 positive (Cd4(+)) T cells. Rorc was detected in thymocytes; its expression in peripheral T-cells was very low. Rorb was not detected in lymphocytes. MTNR3 transcripts in B-cells and Rorc transcripts in thymocytes increased during the day and decreased during the night. Circadian time and lighting could be involved in the regulation of the expression of melatonin receptors MTNR3 and Rorc. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Heterogeneity of Functional Properties of Clone 66 Murine Breast Cancer Cells Expressing Various Stem Cell Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Farrell, Tracy; Sharma, Gayatri; McGuire, Timothy R.; O’Kane, Barbara; Sharp, J. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer grows, metastasizes and relapses from rare, therapy resistant cells with a stem cell phenotype (cancer stem cells/CSCs). However, there is a lack of studies comparing the functions of CSCs isolated using different phenotypes in order to determine if CSCs are homogeneous or heterogeneous. Methods Cells with various stem cell phenotypes were isolated by sorting from Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that grow orthotopically in immune intact syngeneic mice. These populations were compared by in vitro functional assays for proliferation, growth, sphere and colony formation; and in vivo limiting dilution analysis of tumorigenesis. Results The proportion of cells expressing CD44highCD24low/neg, side population (SP) cells, ALDH1+, CD49fhigh, CD133high, and CD34high differed, suggesting heterogeneity. Differences in frequency and size of tumor spheres from these populations were observed. Higher rates of proliferation of non-SP, ALDH1+, CD34low, and CD49fhigh suggested properties of transit amplifying cells. Colony formation was higher from ALDH1− and non-SP cells than ALDH1+ and SP cells suggesting a progenitor phenotype. The frequency of clonal colonies that grew in agar varied and was differentially altered by the presence of Matrigel™. In vivo, fewer cells with a stem cell phenotype were needed for tumor formation than “non-stem” cells. Fewer SP cells were needed to form tumors than ALDH1+ cells suggesting further heterogeneities of cells with stem phenotypes. Different levels of cytokines/chemokines were produced by Clone 66 with RANTES being the highest. Whether the heterogeneity reflects soluble factor production remains to be determined. Conclusions These data demonstrate that Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that express stem cell phenotypes are heterogeneous and exhibit different functional properties, and this may also be the case for human breast cancer stem cells. PMID:24265713

  18. Heterogeneity of functional properties of Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells expressing various stem cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Farrell, Tracy; Sharma, Gayatri; McGuire, Timothy R; O'Kane, Barbara; Sharp, J Graham

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer grows, metastasizes and relapses from rare, therapy resistant cells with a stem cell phenotype (cancer stem cells/CSCs). However, there is a lack of studies comparing the functions of CSCs isolated using different phenotypes in order to determine if CSCs are homogeneous or heterogeneous. Cells with various stem cell phenotypes were isolated by sorting from Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that grow orthotopically in immune intact syngeneic mice. These populations were compared by in vitro functional assays for proliferation, growth, sphere and colony formation; and in vivo limiting dilution analysis of tumorigenesis. The proportion of cells expressing CD44(high)CD24(low/neg), side population (SP) cells, ALDH1(+), CD49f(high), CD133(high), and CD34(high) differed, suggesting heterogeneity. Differences in frequency and size of tumor spheres from these populations were observed. Higher rates of proliferation of non-SP, ALDH1(+), CD34(low), and CD49f(high) suggested properties of transit amplifying cells. Colony formation was higher from ALDH1(-) and non-SP cells than ALDH1(+) and SP cells suggesting a progenitor phenotype. The frequency of clonal colonies that grew in agar varied and was differentially altered by the presence of Matrigel™. In vivo, fewer cells with a stem cell phenotype were needed for tumor formation than "non-stem" cells. Fewer SP cells were needed to form tumors than ALDH1(+) cells suggesting further heterogeneities of cells with stem phenotypes. Different levels of cytokines/chemokines were produced by Clone 66 with RANTES being the highest. Whether the heterogeneity reflects soluble factor production remains to be determined. These data demonstrate that Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that express stem cell phenotypes are heterogeneous and exhibit different functional properties, and this may also be the case for human breast cancer stem cells.

  19. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Is Expressed in Germ Cells throughout the Murine Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Natsumi; Davy, Philip M C; Gardner, Lauren H; Mathews, Juanita; Yamazaki, Yuki; Allsopp, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo, and germ line cells, are essential to ensure uncompromised development to adulthood as well as species propagation, respectively. Recently, the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) has been shown to have important roles in embryonic stem cells; in particular, regulation of conversion to glycolytic metabolism and, as we have shown, maintenance of functional levels of telomerase. In the present study, we sought to assess whether Hif1α was also expressed in the primitive cells of the murine embryo. We observed expression of Hif1α in pre-implantation embryos, specifically the 2-cell stage, morula, and blastocyst. Robust Hif1α expression was also observed in male and female primordial germ cells. We subsequently assessed whether Hif1α was expressed in adult male and female germ cells. In the testis, Hif1α was robustly expressed in spermatogonial cells, in both juvenile (6-week old) and adult (3-month old) males. In the ovaries, Hif1α was expressed in mature oocytes from adult females, as assessed both in situ and in individual oocytes flushed from super-ovulated females. Analysis of Hif1α transcript levels indicates a mechanism of regulation during early development that involves stockpiling of Hif1α protein in mature oocytes, presumably to provide protection from hypoxic stress until the gene is re-activated at the blastocyst stage. Together, these observations show that Hif1α is expressed throughout the life-cycle, including both the male and female germ line, and point to an important role for Hif1α in early progenitor cells.

  20. Differential Expression of Granzyme B and C in Murine Cytotoxic Lymphocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Sheng F.; Fehniger, Todd A.; Cao, Xuefang; Mayer, Joshua C.; Brune, Joel D.; French, Anthony R.; Ley, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes use the granule exocytosis pathway to kill pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Although many genes in this pathway have been extensively characterized (e.g., perforin, granzymes A and B), the role of granzyme C is less clear. We therefore developed a granzyme C-specific mAb and used flow cytometry to examine the expression of granzyme B and C in the lymphocyte compartments of wild-type and mutant GzmB−/− cre mice, which have a small deletion in the granzyme B gene. We detected granzyme B and C expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells activated with CD3/CD28 beads or MLRs. Stimulation of NK cells in vitro with IL-15 also induced expression of both granzymes. Granzyme C up-regulation was delayed relative to granzyme B in wild-type lymphocytes, whereas GzmB−/− cre cells expressed granzyme C earlier and more abundantly on a per-cell basis, suggesting that the deleted 350-bp region in the granzyme B gene is important for the regulation of both granzymes B and C. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that granzyme C protein levels were regulated by mRNA abundance. In vivo, a population of wild-type CD8αα+ intraepithelial lymphocytes constitutively expressed granzyme B and GzmB−/− cre intraepithelial lymphocytes likewise expressed granzyme C. Using a model of a persistent murine CMV infection, we detected delayed expression of granzyme C in NK cells from infected hosts. Taken together, these findings suggest that granzyme C is activated with persistent antigenic stimulation, providing nonredundant backup protection for the host when granzyme B fails. PMID:19414782

  1. Methamphetamine and HIV-Tat Alter Murine Cardiac DNA Methylation and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Koczor, Christopher A.; Fields, Earl; Jedrzejczak, Mark J.; Jiao, Zhe; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Shang, Joan; Torres, Rebecca A.; Lewis, William

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the individual and combined effects of HIV-1 and methamphetamine (N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine, METH) on cardiac dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of HIV/AIDS. METH is abused epidemically and is frequently associated with acquisition of HIV-1 infection or AIDS. We employed microarrays to identify mRNA differences in cardiac left ventricle (LV) gene expression following METH administration (10d, 3mg/kg/d, subcutaneously) in C57Bl/6 wild-type littermates (WT) and Tat-expressing transgenic (TG) mice. Arrays identified 880 differentially expressed genes (expression fold change>1.5, p<0.05) following METH exposure, Tat expression, or both. Using pathway enrichment analysis, mRNAs encoding polypeptides for calcium signaling and contractility were altered in the LV samples. Correlative DNA methylation analysis revealed significant LV DNA methylation changes following METH exposure and Tat expression. By combining these data sets, 38 gene promoters (27 related to METH, 11 related to Tat) exhibited differences by both methods of analysis. Among those, only the promoter for CACNA1C that encodes L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 displayed DNA methylation changes concordant with its gene expression change. Quantitative PCR verified that Cav1.2 LV mRNA abundance doubled following METH. Correlative immunoblots specific for Cav1.2 revealed a 3.5-fold increase in protein abundance in METH LVs. Data implicate Cav1.2 in calcium dysregulation and hypercontractility in the murine LV exposed to METH. They suggest a pathogenetic role for METH exposure to promote LV dysfunction that outweighs Tat-induced effects. PMID:26307267

  2. Two-step amplification of the human PPT sequence provides specific gene expression in an immunocompetent murine prostate cancer model.

    PubMed

    Dzojic, H; Cheng, W-S; Essand, M

    2007-03-01

    The recombinant prostate-specific PPT sequence comprises a prostate-specific antigen enhancer, a PSMA enhancer and a TARP promoter. It is transcriptionally active in human prostate cancer cells both in the presence and absence of testosterone. However, in experimental murine prostate cancer, it has no detectable transcriptional activity. Herein, we describe that the PPT sequence in combination with a two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system becomes active also in murine prostate cancer cells. An adenovirus with TSTA-amplified PPT-controlled expression of the luciferase reporter gene, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc], has up to 100-fold higher prostate-specific transcriptional activity than a non-amplified PPT-based adenovirus, Ad[PPT-Luc], in human cells. In addition, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] confers prostate-specific transgene expression in murine cells, with an activity that is approximately 23% of Ad[CMV-Luc] in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP)-C2 cells. Moreover, to visualize luciferase expression in living mice a charge-coupled device camera was used. Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] yielded approximately 30-fold higher transgene expression than Ad[PPT-Luc] in LNCaP tumor xenografts. Importantly, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] also showed activity in murine TRAMP-C2 tumors, whereas Ad[PPT-Luc] activity was undetectable. These results highlight that the recombinant PPT sequence is active in murine prostate cancer cells when augmented by a TSTA system. This finding opens up for preclinical studies with prostate-specific therapeutic gene expression in immunocompetent mice.

  3. Association of murine lupus and thymic full-length endogenous retroviral expression maps to a bone marrow stem cell

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, A.M.; Gourley, M.F.; Steinberg, A.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Recent studies of thymic gene expression in murine lupus have demonstrated 8.4-kb (full-length size) modified polytropic (Mpmv) endogenous retroviral RNA. In contrast, normal control mouse strains do not produce detectable amounts of such RNA in their thymuses. Prior studies have attributed a defect in experimental tolerance in murine lupus to a bone marrow stem cell rather than to the thymic epithelium; in contrast, infectious retroviral expression has been associated with the thymic epithelium, rather than with the bone marrow stem cell. The present study was designed to determine whether the abnormal Mpmv expression associated with murine lupus mapped to thymic epithelium or to a marrow precursor. Lethally irradiated control and lupus-prone mice were reconstituted with T cell depleted bone marrow; one month later their thymuses were studied for endogenous retroviral RNA and protein expression. Recipients of bone marrow from nonautoimmune donors expressed neither 8.4-kb Mpmv RNA nor surface MCF gp70 in their thymuses. In contrast, recipients of bone marrow from autoimmune NZB or BXSB donors expressed thymic 8.4-kb Mpmv RNA and mink cell focus-forming gp70. These studies demonstrate that lupus-associated 8.4-kb Mpmv endogenous retroviral expression is determined by bone marrow stem cells.

  4. Molecular variants of KCNQ channels expressed in murine portal vein myocytes: a role in delayed rectifier current.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Susumu; Sergeant, Gerard P; Greenwood, Iain A; Horowitz, Burton

    2003-05-16

    We have analyzed the expression of KCNQ genes in murine portal vein myocytes and determined that of the 5 known KCNQ channels, only KCNQ1 was expressed. In addition to the full-length KCNQ1 transcript, a novel spliced form (termed KCNQ1b) was detected that had a 63 amino acid truncation at the C-terminus. KCNQ1b was not detected in heart or brain but represented approximately half the KCNQ1 transcripts expressed in PV. Antibodies specific for KCNQ1a stained cell membranes from portal vein myocytes and HEK cells expressing the channel. However, because the antibodies were generated against an epitope in the deleted, C-terminal portion of the protein, these antibodies did not stain HEK cells expressing KCNQ1b. In murine portal vein myocytes, in the presence of 5 mmol/L 4-aminopyridine, an outwardly rectifying K+ current was recorded that was sensitive to linopirdine, a specific blocker of KCNQ channels. Currents produced by the heterologous expression of KCNQ1a or KCNQ1b were inhibited by similar concentrations of linopirdine, and linopirdine prolonged the time-course of the action potential in isolated portal vein myocytes. Our data suggest that these two KCNQ1 splice forms are expressed in murine portal vein and contribute to the delayed rectifier current in these myocytes.

  5. Metallothionein-1 and nitric oxide expression are inversely correlated in a murine model of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Mejia, Martha Elba; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M; Salgado, Hilda Rosas; Totolhua, José-Luis; Ortega, Arturo; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa Clara Regina; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, represents an endemic among Latin America countries. The participation of free radicals, especially nitric oxide (NO), has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of seropositive individuals with T. cruzi. In Chagas disease, increased NO contributes to the development of cardiomyopathy and megacolon. Metallothioneins (MTs) are efficient free radicals scavengers of NO in vitro and in vivo. Here, we developed a murine model of the chronic phase of Chagas disease using endemic T. cruzi RyCH1 in BALB/c mice, which were divided into four groups: infected non-treated (Inf), infected N-monomethyl-L-arginine treated (Inf L-NAME), non-infected L-NAME treated and non-infected vehicle-treated. We determined blood parasitaemia and NO levels, the extent of parasite nests in tissues and liver MT-I expression levels. It was observed that NO levels were increasing in Inf mice in a time-dependent manner. Inf L-NAME mice had fewer T. cruzi nests in cardiac and skeletal muscle with decreased blood NO levels at day 135 post infection. This affect was negatively correlated with an increase of MT-I expression (r = -0.8462, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, we determined that in Chagas disease, an unknown inhibitory mechanism reduces MT-I expression, allowing augmented NO levels. PMID:24676665

  6. Expression pattern and mapping of the murine versican gene (Cspg2) to chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Naso, M.F.; Morgan, J.L.; Buchberg, A.M.

    1995-09-01

    Versican is a modular proteoglycan harboring a hyaluronan-binding domain at its amino-terminal end and a selectin-like domain at its carboxyl-terminal end, separated by a large intervening region containing the attachment sites for the glycosaminoglycan side chains. By virtue of its modular nature, versican may play a role in cellular attachment, migration, and proliferation by interacting with cell surfaces and extracellular matrix molecules. To discern the function of versican through the analysis of spontaneous and targeted genetic mutations, we have isolated a mouse versican cDNA encoding part of the hyaluronan-binding region, analyzed its mRNA expression in various adult mouse tissues and embryos, and determined the chromosomal location of the gene. Murine versican was 89% identical to human versican at the amino acid level and was highly expressed in mouse embryos at Days 13, 14, and 18. Expression was also detected in adult mouse brain, heart, lung, spleen, skeletal muscle, skin, tail, kidney, and testis. Using interspecific backcross analysis, we assigned the versican gene (Cspg2) to mouse chromosome 13, in a region that is syntenic with the long arm of human chromosome 5 where the human CSPG2 gene is located. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke alters gene expression in the developing murine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horn, Kristin H; Greene, Robert M; Michele Pisano, M

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of passive smoke exposures on the developing brain. The purpose of the current study was to identify changes in gene expression in the murine hippocampus as a consequence of in utero exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (an experimental equivalent of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)) at exposure levels that do not result in fetal growth inhibition. A whole body smoke inhalation exposure system was utilized to deliver ETS to pregnant C57BL/6J mice for 6 h/day from gestational days 6-17 (gd 6-17) [for microarray] or gd 6-18.5 [for fetal phenotyping]. There were no significant effects of ETS exposure on fetal phenotype. However, 61 "expressed" genes in the gd 18.5 fetal hippocampus were differentially regulated (up- or down-regulated by 1.5-fold or greater) by maternal exposure to ETS. Of these 61 genes, 25 genes were upregulated while 36 genes were down-regulated. A systems biology approach, including computational methodologies, identified cellular response pathways, and biological themes, underlying altered fetal programming of the embryonic hippocampus by in utero cigarette smoke exposure. Results from the present study suggest that even in the absence of effects on fetal growth, prenatal smoke exposure can alter gene expression during the "early" period of hippocampal growth and may result in abnormal hippocampal morphology, connectivity, and function. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential gene expression in human, murine, and cell line-derived macrophages upon polarization.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Kara L; Wrona, Emily A; Romero-Torres, Saly; Pallotta, Isabella; Graney, Pamela L; Witherel, Claire E; Panicker, Leelamma M; Feldman, Ricardo A; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Santambrogio, Laura; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Freytes, Donald O

    2016-09-10

    The mechanisms by which macrophages control the inflammatory response, wound healing, biomaterial-interactions, and tissue regeneration appear to be related to their activation/differentiation states. Studies of macrophage behavior in vitro can be useful for elucidating their mechanisms of action, but it is not clear to what extent the source of macrophages affects their apparent behavior, potentially affecting interpretation of results. Although comparative studies of macrophage behavior with respect to cell source have been conducted, there has been no direct comparison of the three most commonly used cell sources: murine bone marrow, human monocytes from peripheral blood (PB), and the human leukemic monocytic cell line THP-1, across multiple macrophage phenotypes. In this study, we used multivariate discriminant analysis to compare the in vitro expression of genes commonly chosen to assess macrophage phenotype across all three sources of macrophages, as well as those derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), that were polarized towards four distinct phenotypes using the same differentiation protocols: M(LPS,IFN) (aka M1), M(IL4,IL13) (aka M2a), M(IL10) (aka M2c), and M(-) (aka M0) used as control. Several differences in gene expression trends were found among the sources of macrophages, especially between murine bone marrow-derived and human blood-derived M(LPS,IFN) and M(IL4,IL13) macrophages with respect to commonly used phenotype markers like CCR7 and genes associated with angiogenesis and tissue regeneration like FGF2 and MMP9. We found that the genes with the most similar patterns of expression among all sources were CXCL-10 and CXCL-11 for M(LPS,IFN) and CCL17 and CCL22 for M(IL4,IL13). Human PB-derived macrophages and human iPSC-derived macrophages showed similar gene expression patterns among the groups and genes studied here, suggesting that iPSC-derived monocytes have the potential to be used as a reliable cell source of human macrophages

  9. Blocking α5β1 Integrin Attenuates sCD40L-Mediated Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Simic, Damir; Bogdan, Nancy; Teng, Fang; Otieno, Monicah

    2017-09-01

    The soluble form of CD40L (sCD40L) is a platelet-derived mediator that links inflammation, hemostasis, and vascular dysfunction. Indeed, blockade of CD40L by neutralizing antibodies or genetic disruption in mice prevents atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. Until recently, it was believed that CD40 and αIIbβ3 were the only receptors on platelets responsible for binding sCD40L, leading to platelet activation and initiation of thrombotic events. Recent findings showed α5β1 integrin as a novel platelet sCD40L receptor, with an unknown function. For the first time, using anti-α5β1 blocking antibodies, we show that sCD40L/α5β1 interaction leads to platelet activation as evaluated in the human whole blood. Establishing α5β1 integrin's role in platelet activation, and therefore thrombosis will help further shed light on the etiology of thrombotic disease.

  10. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice immunized with adenovirus encoding the thyrotropin receptor: T cell epitopes and functional analysis of the CD40 Graves' polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Pichurin, Pavel; Pham, Nancy; David, Chella S; Rapoport, Basil; McLachlan, Sandra M

    2006-12-01

    The major histocompatibility (MHC) molecule HLA-DR3 is a susceptibility gene for Graves' disease (GD) in Caucasians. Mice lacking murine MHC and expressing human HLA-DR3 develop thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) antibodies and sometimes hyperthyroidism after vaccination with TSHR-DNA. MHC molecules present peptides processed from antigens to T cells. Therefore, we used DR3-transgenic mice to investigate recognition of TSHR ectodomain peptides. After immunization with TSHR A-subunit adenovirus (A-subunit-Ad) but not control-adenovirus (Control-Ad), splenocytes from DR3 mice responded to A-subunit protein in culture by producing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). When challenged with 29 overlapping TSHR peptides, splenocytes from A-subunit-Ad- or Control-Ad-immunized mice responded to several peptides. However, in splenocytes from A-subunit-Ad but not Control-Ad mice, a peptide containing TSHR residues 142-161 induced significantly more IFN-gamma than the same splenocytes in medium alone. Immunized DR3 mice also permitted testing the TSHR-specific function of the CD40 single nucleotide polymorphism (C vs. T) associated with GD. Of three human DR3 human Epstein-Barr virus lines (EBVL), two had C in both alleles (CC) and one was CT. However, these EBVL presented peptides poorly and there was no difference between CC vs. CT EBVL in peptide presentation to splenocytes from immunized mice. A peptide corresponding to residues 145-163 is one of seven suggested to be important in GD based on HLA-binding affinities, T-epitope algorithms, and human studies. Consequently, as in human GD, TSHR amino acids 142-161 appear to include a major T cell epitope in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice immunized with A-subunit-Ad.

  11. The selective expression of distinct fucosylated glycoproteins on murine T and B lymphocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Salam, Fatma; Mansour, Mohamed H; Al-Shemary, Tahany

    2005-01-01

    The putative expression of distinct terminally fucosylated glycoconjugates among murine lymphocyte subpopulations was sought using Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Anguilla anguilla agglutinin (AAA), each with a distinctive primary binding preference to type II and type I blood group H oligosaccharide determinants, respectively. In newly born and adult mice, direct labeling of isolated lymphocyte subsets in suspension, as well as immunohistochemical assays were indicative of the age-regulated co-expression of the UEA-I-reactive ligand among thymic epithelial cells and a subset of the mature (PNA-), medullary thymocytes. In the spleen, UEA-I-ligand expression was selectively confined to a subset of the CD4+ T lymphocytes scattered around red pulp sinuses in newly born mice, but distinctively localized within the T cell-dependent periarteriolar lymphoid sheath compartment in adult mice. Among thymocytes of adult mice, two-dimensional Western blots demonstrated the expression of the UEA-I-reactive ligand among multiple isoforms of three major 50, 114 and 180kDa acidic glycoproteins, of which, heterogeneous weight and charge variants of the 114kDa component were also evident among splenocytes. The expression of the AAA-reactive ligand was, on the other hand, restricted to a single major 120 kDa acidic glycoprotein, in addition to a minor molecular weight variant of 115kDa, associated with a subset of immature IgM+ B lymphocytes localized within the red pulp, in both newly born and adult mice. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to mechanisms that govern lymphocyte maturation, selection and migration.

  12. Gene expression profile of androgen modulated genes in the murine fetal developing lung

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidences suggest that sex affects lung development. Indeed, a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome is observed in male compared to female preterm neonates at comparable developmental stage and experimental studies demonstrated an androgen-related delay in male lung maturation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects of androgens in lung maturation are only partially understood. Methods To build up a better understanding of the effect of androgens on lung development, we analyzed by microarrays the expression of genes showing a sexual difference and those modulated by androgens. Lungs of murine fetuses resulting from a timely mating window of 1 hour were studied at gestational day 17 (GD17) and GD18, corresponding to the period of surge of surfactant production. Using injections of the antiandrogen flutamide to pregnant mice, we hunted for genes in fetal lungs which are transcriptionally modulated by androgens. Results Results revealed that 1844 genes were expressed with a sexual difference at GD17 and 833 at GD18. Many genes were significantly modulated by flutamide: 1597 at GD17 and 1775 at GD18. Datasets were analyzed by using in silico tools for reconstruction of cellular pathways. Between GD17 and GD18, male lungs showed an intensive transcriptional activity of proliferative pathways along with the onset of lung differentiation. Among the genes showing a sex difference or an antiandrogen modulation of their expression, we specifically identified androgen receptor interacting genes, surfactant related genes in particularly those involved in the pathway leading to phospholipid synthesis, and several genes of lung development regulator pathways. Among these latter, some genes related to Shh, FGF, TGF-beta, BMP, and Wnt signaling are modulated by sex and/or antiandrogen treatment. Conclusion Our results show clearly that there is a real delay in lung maturation between male and female in this period

  13. Greying with age in mice: relation to expression of murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed

    Morse, H C; Yetter, R A; Stimpfling, J H; Pitts, O M; Fredrickson, T N; Hartley, J W

    1985-06-01

    Some strains of C57BL/10 H-2-congenic mice were found to exhibit greying with age, whereas others did not. Two patterns of greying were observed, diffuse greying beginning at 4 to 6 months of age and patterned greying beginning at 4 to 6 weeks. Strains exhibiting either greying pattern expressed high levels of infectious ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) in tests of thymus and spleen and in cultures from skin or tail biopsies, whereas nongreying strains expressed little virus until late in life. Electron microscopy demonstrated large accumulations of MuLV in grey, but not in black areas, of skin from a mouse with patterned greying. Infectious MuLV was produced spontaneously by embryos of greying, but not of nongreying, mice and pups of nongreying strains fostered on greying mothers turned grey after 3 months. These results suggest that greying with age results from melanocyte dysfunction that occurs subsequent to pre- or early postnatal infection with MuLV.

  14. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ALTERS GENE EXPRESSION IN THE DEVELOPING MURINE HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horn, Kristin H.; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of passive smoke exposures on the developing brain. Objective The purpose of the current study was to identify changes in gene expression in the murine hippocampus as a consequence of in utero exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (an experimental equivalent of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)) at exposure levels that do not result in fetal growth inhibition. Methods A whole body smoke inhalation exposure system was utilized to deliver ETS to pregnant C57BL/6J mice for six hours/day from gestational days 6–17 (gd 6–17) [for microarray] or gd 6–18.5 [for fetal phenotyping]. Results There were no significant effects of ETS exposure on fetal phenotype. However, 61 “expressed” genes in the gd 18.5 fetal hippocampus were differentially regulated (up- or down-regulated by 1.5 fold or greater) by maternal exposure to ETS. Of these 61 genes, 25 genes were upregulated while 36 genes were downregulated. A systems biology approach, including computational methodologies, identified cellular response pathways, and biological themes, underlying altered fetal programming of the embryonic hippocampus by in utero cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusions Results from the present study suggest that even in the absence of effects on fetal growth, prenatal smoke exposure can alter gene expression during the “early” period of hippocampal growth and may result in abnormal hippocampal morphology, connectivity, and function. PMID:19969065

  15. Murine muscle-specific enolase: cDNA cloning, sequence, and developmental expression.

    PubMed Central

    Lamandé, N; Mazo, A M; Lucas, M; Montarras, D; Pinset, C; Gros, F; Legault-Demare, L; Lazar, M

    1989-01-01

    In vertebrates, the glycolytic enzyme enolase (EC 4.2.1.11) is present as homodimers and heterodimers formed from three distinct subunits of identical molecular weight, alpha, beta, and gamma. We report the cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the beta subunit of murine muscle-specific enolase. The corresponding amino acid sequence shows greater than 80% homology with the beta subunit from chicken obtained by protein sequencing and with alpha and gamma subunits from rat and mouse deduced from cloned cDNAs. In contrast, there is no homology between the 3' untranslated regions of mouse alpha, beta, and gamma enolase mRNAs, which also differ greatly in length. The short 3' untranslated region of beta enolase mRNA accounts for its distinct length, 1600 bases. It is known that a progressive transition from alpha alpha to beta beta enolase occurs in developing skeletal muscle. We show that this transition mainly results from a differential regulation of alpha and beta mRNA levels. Analysis of myogenic cell lines shows that beta enolase gene is expressed at the myoblast stage. Moreover, transfection of premyogenic C3H10T1/2 cells with MyoD1 cDNA shows that the initial expression of beta transcripts occurs during the very first steps of the myogenic pathway, suggesting that it could be a marker event of myogenic lineage determination. Images PMID:2734297

  16. Murine Cytomegalovirus Abortively Infects Human Dendritic Cells, Leading to Expression and Presentation of Virally Vectored Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuqing; Messerle, Martin; Sapinoro, Ramil; Santos, Kathlyn; Hocknell, Peter K.; Jin, Xia; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play a crucial role in antigen-specific immune responses. Thus, the targeting of exogenous antigens to DC has become a popular approach for cancer immunotherapy and vaccine development. In this report, we studied the interplay between murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and human monocyte-derived DC. The results showed that an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-encoding, replication-competent MCMV vector underwent abortive infection in human DC; this was accompanied by the efficient expression of EGFP. Infection of human DC by this vector resulted in a modest increase in the expression of cell surface proteins associated with DC maturation and has no significant effect on the immunostimulatory function of the cells, as reflected by their ability to support T-cell proliferation in a mixed-lymphocyte reaction. Finally, an MCMV vector encoding the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein was constructed and used to infect cultured human DC. The infected DC were shown to be capable of stimulating the expansion of autologous, gp120-specific, class I-restricted T lymphocytes from an HIV-1-negative donor, as determined by tetramer staining and enzyme-linked immunospot analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that MCMV may have potential utility as a vector for human vaccine development. PMID:12805417

  17. Direct and Indirect Suppression of Interleukin-6 Gene Expression in Murine Macrophages by Nuclear Orphan Receptor REV-ERBα

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shogo; Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Shirato, Ken; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Haga, Shukoh; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Izawa, Tetsuya; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako

    2014-01-01

    It is now evident that many nuclear hormone receptors can modulate target gene expression. REV-ERBα, one of the nuclear hormone receptors with the capacity to alter clock function, is critically involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, and the inflammatory response. Recent studies suggest that REV-ERBα plays a key role in the mediation between clockwork and inflammation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of REV-ERBα in the regulation of interleukin-6 (il6) gene expression in murine macrophages. REV-ERBα agonists, or overexpression of rev-erb α in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264 cells, suppressed the induction of il6 mRNA following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin challenge. Also, rev-erb α overexpression decreased LPS-stimulated nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation in RAW264 cells. We showed that REV-ERBα represses il6 expression not only indirectly through an NFκB binding motif but also directly through a REV-ERBα binding motif in the murine il6 promoter region. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from mice lacking rev-erb α increased il6 mRNA expression. These data suggest that REV-ERBα regulates the inflammatory response of macrophages through the suppression of il6 expression. REV-ERBα may therefore be identified as a potent anti-inflammatory receptor and be a therapeutic target receptor of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25401152

  18. Loss of caveolin-1 alters extracellular matrix protein expression and ductal architecture in murine mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Christopher; Hielscher, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is abnormal in breast tumors and has been reported to contribute to breast tumor progression. One factor, which may drive ongoing matrix synthesis in breast tumors, is the loss of stromal caveolin-1 (cav-1), a scaffolding protein of caveolae, which has been linked to breast tumor aggressiveness. To determine whether loss of cav-1 results in the abnormal expression of matrix proteins, mammary glands from cav- 1-/- and cav- 1 +/+ mice were investigated for differences in expression of several ECM proteins. In addition, the presence of myofibroblasts, changes in the vessel density, and differences in duct number and size were assessed in the mammary glands of both animal models. Using immunohistochemistry, expression of fibronectin, tenascin-C, collagens and αSMA were significantly increased in the mammary glands of cav-1-/- mice. Second harmonic generation revealed more organized collagen fibers in cav-1 -/- glands and supported immunohistochemical analyses of increased collagen abundance in the glands of cav-1 -/- mice. Analysis of the ductal structure demonstrated a significant increase in the number of proliferating ducts in addition to significant increases in the duct circumference and area in cav-1 -/- glands compared to cav- 1 +/+ glands. Differences in microvessel density weren’t apparent between the animal models. In summary, we found that the loss of cav-1 resulted in increased ECM and α-SMA protein expression in murine mammary glands. Furthermore, we found that an abnormal ductal architecture accompanied the loss of cav-1. These data support a role for cav-1 in maintaining mammary gland structure. PMID:28187162

  19. A Targeted Proteomics Approach for Profiling Murine Cytochrome P450 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hersman, Elisabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (P450) superfamily of enzymes plays a prominent role in drug metabolism. Although mice are a widely used preclinical model in pharmacology, the expression of murine P450 enzymes at the protein level has yet to be fully defined. Twenty-seven proteins belonging to P450 subfamilies 1A, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F, 2J, 2U, 3A, 4A, 4B, 4F, and 4V were readily detectable in Balb/c mouse tissue using a global mass spectrometry–based proteomics approach. Subsequently, a targeted mass spectrometry–based assay was developed to simultaneously quantify these enzymes in ranges of femtomoles of P450 per microgram of total protein concentration range. This screen was applied to mouse liver microsomes and tissue lysates of kidney, lung, intestine, heart, and brain isolated from mixed-sex fetuses; male and female mice that were 3–4 weeks, 9–10 weeks, and 8–10 months of age; and pregnant mice. CYP1A2 was consistently more abundant in male mouse liver microsomes compared with age-matched females. Hepatic expression of CYP2B9 was more abundant in 3- to 4-week-old male and female mice than in mice of other ages; in addition, CYP2B9 was the only enzyme that was detectable at higher levels in pregnant mouse liver microsomes compared with age-matched females. Interestingly, sexually dimorphic expression of CYP2B9, 2D26, 2E1, and 4B1 was observed in kidney only. The targeted proteomics assay described here can be broadly used as a tool for investigating the expression patterns of P450 enzymes in mice. PMID:24594750

  20. Life spanning murine gene expression profiles in relation to chronological and pathological aging in multiple organs.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Martijs J; Melis, Joost Pm; Kuiper, Raoul V; van der Hoeven, Tessa V; Wackers, P F K; Robinson, Joke; van der Horst, Gijsbertus Tj; Dollé, Martijn Et; Vijg, Jan; Breit, Timo M; Hoeijmakers, Jan Hj; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-10-01

    Aging and age-related pathology is a result of a still incompletely understood intricate web of molecular and cellular processes. We present a C57BL/6J female mice in vivo aging study of five organs (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and brain), in which we compare genome-wide gene expression profiles during chronological aging with pathological changes throughout the entire murine life span (13, 26, 52, 78, 104, and 130 weeks). Relating gene expression changes to chronological aging revealed many differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and altered gene sets (AGSs) were found in most organs, indicative of intraorgan generic aging processes. However, only ≤ 1% of these DEGs are found in all organs. For each organ, at least one of 18 tested pathological parameters showed a good age-predictive value, albeit with much inter- and intraindividual (organ) variation. Relating gene expression changes to pathology-related aging revealed correlated genes and gene sets, which made it possible to characterize the difference between biological and chronological aging. In liver, kidney, and brain, a limited number of overlapping pathology-related AGSs were found. Immune responses appeared to be common, yet the changes were specific in most organs. Furthermore, changes were observed in energy homeostasis, reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, cell motility, and DNA damage. Comparison of chronological and pathology-related AGSs revealed substantial overlap and interesting differences. For example, the presence of immune processes in liver pathology-related AGSs that were not detected in chronological aging. The many cellular processes that are only found employing aging-related pathology could provide important new insights into the progress of aging. © 2013 The Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Expression patterns of members of the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene family in murine inner ear.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-R; Kim, K-H; Lee, S; Oh, S-K; Park, J-W; Lee, K-Y; Baek, J-I; Kim, U-K

    2017-09-19

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is characterized by an age-dependent decline of auditory function characterized by with loss of sensory hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis (SV) cells in the cochlea of the inner ear. Aging and age-related diseases result from accumulated oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria. The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) family includes three enzymes in human cells: IDH1, IDH2, and IDH3. Although all three enzymes catalyze the same enzymatic reaction, that is, oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to produce α-ketoglutarate, each IDH enzyme has unique features. We identified and characterized IDH expression in the cochlea and vestibule of the murine inner ear. We examined the mRNA expression levels of Idh family members in the cochlea and vestibule using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and detected expression of IDH family members in both tissues. We also used immunohistochemistry to localize IDH family members within the cochlea and vestibule of the adult mouse inner ear. IDH1 was detected throughout the cochlea. IDH2 was expressed specifically in the hair cells, spiral ganglion, and stria vascularis. IDH3α was found in the cell bodies of neurons of the spiral ganglion, the stria vascularis, and in types II, IV, and V cells of the spiral ligament in a pattern that resembled the location of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ion channel. We postulate that the IDH family participates in transporting K(+) ions in the cochlea. In the vestibule, all IDH family members were detected in both hair cells and the vestibular ganglion. We hypothesize that IDH1, IDH2, and IDH3 function to protect proteins in the inner ear from oxidative stress during K(+) recycling.

  2. Loss of caveolin-1 alters extracellular matrix protein expression and ductal architecture in murine mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Christopher; Rahim, Sahar; Arnold, Jeremiah; Hielscher, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is abnormal in breast tumors and has been reported to contribute to breast tumor progression. One factor, which may drive ongoing matrix synthesis in breast tumors, is the loss of stromal caveolin-1 (cav-1), a scaffolding protein of caveolae, which has been linked to breast tumor aggressiveness. To determine whether loss of cav-1 results in the abnormal expression of matrix proteins, mammary glands from cav- 1-/- and cav- 1 +/+ mice were investigated for differences in expression of several ECM proteins. In addition, the presence of myofibroblasts, changes in the vessel density, and differences in duct number and size were assessed in the mammary glands of both animal models. Using immunohistochemistry, expression of fibronectin, tenascin-C, collagens and αSMA were significantly increased in the mammary glands of cav-1-/- mice. Second harmonic generation revealed more organized collagen fibers in cav-1 -/- glands and supported immunohistochemical analyses of increased collagen abundance in the glands of cav-1 -/- mice. Analysis of the ductal structure demonstrated a significant increase in the number of proliferating ducts in addition to significant increases in the duct circumference and area in cav-1 -/- glands compared to cav- 1 +/+ glands. Differences in microvessel density weren't apparent between the animal models. In summary, we found that the loss of cav-1 resulted in increased ECM and α-SMA protein expression in murine mammary glands. Furthermore, we found that an abnormal ductal architecture accompanied the loss of cav-1. These data support a role for cav-1 in maintaining mammary gland structure.

  3. Soluble CD40 ligand stimulates CD40-dependent activation of the β2 integrin Mac-1 and protein kinase C zeda (PKCζ) in neutrophils: implications for neutrophil-platelet interactions and neutrophil oxidative burst.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Yu, Shiyong; Song, Zifang; Zhu, Xiaolei; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Jinchuan; Wu, Fusheng; Nanda, Anil; Granger, D Neil; Li, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has revealed an essential involvement of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) in inflammation and vascular disease. Activated platelets are the major source of sCD40L, which has been implicated in platelet and leukocyte activation, although its exact functional impact on leukocyte-platelet interactions and the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We aimed to determine the impact and the mechanisms of sCD40L on neutrophils. We studied neutrophil interactions with activated, surface-adherent platelets as a model for leukocyte recruitment to the sites of injury. Our data show that CD40L contributes to neutrophil firm adhesion to and transmigration across activated surface-adherent platelets, possibly through two potential mechanisms. One involves the direct interaction of ligand-receptor (CD40L-CD40), i.e., platelet surface CD40L interaction with neutrophil CD40; another involves an indirect mechanism, i.e. soluble CD40L stimulates activation of the leukocyte-specific β2 integrin Mac-1 in neutrophils and thereby further promotes neutrophil adhesion and migration. Activation of the integrin Mac-1 is known to be critical for mediating neutrophil adhesion and migration. sCD40L activated Mac-1 in neutrophils and enhanced neutrophil-platelet interactions in wild-type neutrophils, but failed to elicit such responses in CD40-deficient neutrophils. Furthermore, our data show that the protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) is critically required for sCD40L-induced Mac-1 activation and neutrophil adhesive function. sCD40L strongly stimulated the focal clustering of Mac-1 (CD11b) and the colocalization of Mac-1 with PKCζ in wild-type neutrophils, but had minimal effect in CD40-deficient neutrophils. Blocking PKCζ completely inhibited sCD40L-induced neutrophil firm adhesion. Moreover, sCD40L strongly stimulates neutrophil oxidative burst via CD40-dependent activation of PI3K/NF-KB, but independent of Mac-1 and PKCζ. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the

  4. Differential expression of the Slc4 bicarbonate transporter family in murine corneal endothelium and cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Shei, William; Liu, Jun; Htoon, Hla M.; Aung, Tin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the relative expression levels of all the solute carrier 4 (Slc4) transporter family members (Slc4a1–Slc4a11) in murine corneal endothelium using real-time quantitative (qPCR), to identify further important members besides Slc4a11 and Slc4a4, and to explore how close to the baseline levels the gene expressions remain after cells have been subjected to expansion and culture. Methods Descemet’s membrane-endothelial layers of 8–10-week-old C57BL6 mice were stripped from corneas and used for both primary cell culture and direct RNA extraction. Total RNA (from uncultured cells as well as cultured cells at passages 2 and 7) was reverse transcribed, and the cDNA was used for real time qPCR using specific primers for all the Slc4 family members. The geNorm method was applied to determine the most stable housekeeping genes and normalization factor, which was calculated from multiple housekeeping genes for more accurate and robust quantification. Results qPCR analyses revealed that all Slc4 bicarbonate transporter family members were expressed in mouse corneal endothelium. Slc4a11 showed the highest expression, which was approximately three times higher than that of Slc4a4 (3.4±0.3; p=0.004). All Slc4 genes were also expressed in cultured cells, and interestingly, the expression of Slc4a11 in cultured cells was significantly reduced by approximately 20-fold (0.05±0.001; p=0.000001) in early passage and by approximately sevenfold (0.14±0.002; p=0.000002) in late passage cells. Conclusions Given the known involvement of SLC4A4 and SLC4A11 in corneal dystrophies, we speculate that the other two highly expressed genes in the uncultured corneal endothelium, SLC4A2 and SLC4A7, are worthy of being considered as potential candidate genes for corneal endothelial diseases. Moreover, as cell culture can affect expression levels of Slc4 genes, caution and careful design of experiments are necessary when undertaking studies of Slc4-mediated ion transport

  5. Differential expression of the Slc4 bicarbonate transporter family in murine corneal endothelium and cell culture.

    PubMed

    Shei, William; Liu, Jun; Htoon, Hla M; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the relative expression levels of all the solute carrier 4 (Slc4) transporter family members (Slc4a1-Slc4a11) in murine corneal endothelium using real-time quantitative (qPCR), to identify further important members besides Slc4a11 and Slc4a4, and to explore how close to the baseline levels the gene expressions remain after cells have been subjected to expansion and culture. Descemet's membrane-endothelial layers of 8-10-week-old C57BL6 mice were stripped from corneas and used for both primary cell culture and direct RNA extraction. Total RNA (from uncultured cells as well as cultured cells at passages 2 and 7) was reverse transcribed, and the cDNA was used for real time qPCR using specific primers for all the Slc4 family members. The geNorm method was applied to determine the most stable housekeeping genes and normalization factor, which was calculated from multiple housekeeping genes for more accurate and robust quantification. qPCR analyses revealed that all Slc4 bicarbonate transporter family members were expressed in mouse corneal endothelium. Slc4a11 showed the highest expression, which was approximately three times higher than that of Slc4a4 (3.4±0.3; p=0.004). All Slc4 genes were also expressed in cultured cells, and interestingly, the expression of Slc4a11 in cultured cells was significantly reduced by approximately 20-fold (0.05±0.001; p=0.000001) in early passage and by approximately sevenfold (0.14±0.002; p=0.000002) in late passage cells. Given the known involvement of SLC4A4 and SLC4A11 in corneal dystrophies, we speculate that the other two highly expressed genes in the uncultured corneal endothelium, SLC4A2 and SLC4A7, are worthy of being considered as potential candidate genes for corneal endothelial diseases. Moreover, as cell culture can affect expression levels of Slc4 genes, caution and careful design of experiments are necessary when undertaking studies of Slc4-mediated ion transport in cultured cells.

  6. Expression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in the murine urogenital system.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J; Schalling, M; Buckler, A J; Rogers, A; Haber, D A; Housman, D

    1991-08-01

    The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is a recessive oncogene that encodes a putative transcription factor implicated in nephrogenesis during kidney development. In this report we analyze expression of WT1 in the murine urogenital system. WT1 is expressed in non-germ-cell components of the testis and ovaries in both young and adult mice. In situ mRNA hybridization studies demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the granulosa and epithelial cells of ovaries, the Sertoli cells of the testis, and in the uterine wall. In addition to the 3.1-kb WT1 transcript detected by Northern blotting of RNA from kidney, uterus, and gonads, there is an approximately 2.5-kb WT1-related mRNA species in testis. The levels of WT1 mRNA in the gonads are among the highest observed, surpassing amounts detected in the embryonic kidney. During development, these levels are differentially regulated, depending on the sexual differentiation of the gonad. Expression of WT1 mRNA in the female reproductive system does not fluctuate significantly from days 4 to 40 postpartum. In contrast, WT1 mRNA levels in the tesis increase steadily after birth, reaching their highest expression levels at day 8 postpartum and decreasing slightly as the animal matures. Expression of WT1 in the gonads is detectable as early as 12.5 days postcoitum (p.c.). As an initial step toward exploring the tissue-specific expression of WT1, DNA elements upstream of WT1 were cloned and sequenced. Three putative transcription initiation sites, utilized in testis, ovaries, and uterus, were mapped by S1 nuclease protection assays. The sequences surrounding these sites have a high G + C content, and typical upstream CCAAT and TATAA boxes are not present. These studies allowed us to identify the translation initiation site for WT1 protein synthesis. We have also used an epitope-tagging protocol to demonstrate that WT1 is a nuclear protein, consistent with its role as a transcription factor. Our results demonstrate regulation of WT1 expression

  7. IgE and IgA produced by OX40-OX40L or CD40-CD40L interaction in B cells-mast cells re-activate FcεRI or FcαRI on mast cells in mouse allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gwan Ui; Lim, Ji Yeun; Kim, Nam Goo; Shin, Joo-Ho; Ro, Jai Youl

    2015-05-05

    Mast cells are major effector cells of allergic diseases related to IgE. This study was undertaken to determine whether IgE or IgA, produced by CD40-CD40L or OX40-OX40L interactions between B cells and mast cells, re-activate FcεRI or FcαRI on mast cell surface. C57BL mice were sensitized and subjected to OVA challenge to induce asthma. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) and primary B cells were co-cultured. Mast cell recruitment into airways was stained by May-Grünwald Giemsa, the expression of markers or signaling molecules were determined by immunohistochemistry or Western blotting, and co-localization of B cells and mast cells by immunofluorescence. Anti-CD40 plus anti-OX40L Abs synergistically reduced IgE and IgA production, and mediators (histamine, LTs and cytokines) released in mast cells, and additively reduced other responses, such as, numbers of mast cells, the expression of markers (tryptase, mMCP5, B220 and CD19), surface molecules (CD40, CD40L, OX40 and OX40L), FcεRI or FcαRI and the co-localization of BMMCs and B cells, and IgE- or IgA-producing cells, as compared with individual blocking Ab treatment which reducedresponses in BAL cells or lung tissues of OVA-challenged mice or in co-culture of B and mast cells. The data suggest that IgE and IgA, produced by OX40-OX40L or CD40-CD40L interaction between B cells and mast cells, may re-activate receptors of FCεRI and FcαRI on mast cell surfaces, followed by more mediator release, and furthermore, that treatment with anti-CD40 plus anti-OX40L Abs offers a potential treatment for allergic asthma.

  8. Gene expression profiling of microglia infected by a highly neurovirulent murine leukemia virus: implications for neuropathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dimcheff, Derek E; Volkert, L Gwenn; Li, Ying; DeLucia, Angelo L; Lynch, William P

    2006-01-01

    Background Certain murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) are capable of inducing progressive spongiform motor neuron disease in susceptible mice upon infection of the central nervous system (CNS). The major CNS parenchymal target of these neurovirulent retroviruses (NVs) are the microglia, whose infection is largely coincident with neuropathological changes. Despite this close association, the role of microglial infection in disease induction is still unknown. In this paper, we investigate the interaction of the highly virulent MLV, FrCasE, with microglia ex vivo to evaluate whether infection induces specific changes that could account for neurodegeneration. Specifically, we compared microglia infected with FrCasE, a related non-neurovirulent virus (NN) F43/Fr57E, or mock-infected, both at a basic virological level, and at the level of cellular gene expression using quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Afffymetrix 430A mouse gene chips. Results Basic virological comparison of NN, NV, and mock-infected microglia in culture did not reveal differences in virus expression that provided insight into neuropathogenesis. Therefore, microglial analysis was extended to ER stress gene induction based on previous experiments demonstrating ER stress induction in NV-infected mouse brains and cultured fibroblasts. Analysis of message levels for the ER stress genes BiP (grp78), CHOP (Gadd153), calreticulin, and grp58 in cultured microglia, and BiP and CHOP in microglia enriched fractions from infected mouse brains, indicated that FrCasE infection did not induce these ER stress genes either in vitro or in vivo. To broadly identify physiological changes resulting from NV infection of microglia in vitro, we undertook a gene array screen of more than 14,000 well-characterized murine genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). This analysis revealed only a small set of gene expression changes between infected and uninfected cells (<18). Remarkably, gene array comparison of NN- and NV

  9. Vaccination produces CD4 T cells with a novel CD154-CD40 dependent cytolytic mechanism ¶

    PubMed Central

    Coler, Rhea N.; Hudson, Thomas; Hughes, Sean; Huang, Po-wei D.; Beebe, Elyse A.; Orr, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer requires the development of novel adjuvants with well-defined activities. The TLR4 agonist adjuvant GLA-SE elicits robust TH1 responses to a variety of vaccine antigens and is in clinical development for both infectious diseases and cancer. We demonstrate that immunization with a recombinant protein antigen and GLA-SE also induces granzyme A expression in CD4 T cells and produces cytolytic cells that can be detected in vivo. Surprisingly these in vivo CTLs were CD4 T cells, not CD8 T cells and this cytolytic activity was not dependent on granzyme A/B or perforin. Unlike previously reported CD4 CTLs the transcription factors Tbet and Eomes were not necessary for their development. CTL activity was also independent of the FasL-Fas, TRAIL-DR5, and canonical death pathways, indicating a novel mechanism of CTL activity. Rather, the in vivo CD4 CTL activity induced by vaccination required T cell expression of CD154 (CD40 ligand) and target cell expression of CD40. Thus, vaccination with a TLR4 agonist adjuvant induces CD4 CTLs which kill through a previously unknown CD154-dependent mechanism. PMID:26297758

  10. Synergy of anti-CD40, CpG and MPL in activation of mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongyu; Felder, Mildred A R; Sondel, Paul M; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L

    2015-08-01

    Activation of macrophages is a prerequisite for their antitumor effects. Several reagents, including agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD40), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), can stimulate activation of macrophages. Our previous studies showed synergy between anti-CD40 and CpG and between anti-CD40 and MPL in macrophage activation and antitumor efficacy in mice. In the present study, we asked whether there was synergy among these three reagents. The activation of adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from mice injected with anti-CD40 and then treated with CpG and/or MPL in vitro was determined by their ability to suppress proliferation of tumor cells and to produce various cytokines and chemokines in vitro. Cell sorting and histology followed by functional testing showed that macrophages were the main cell population in PEC activated by CD40 ligation in vivo. A combination of anti-CD40, CpG or MPL activated PEC to suppress proliferation of B16 cells and produce nitric oxide far greater than the single reagents or any of the double combinations of these reagents. In addition, the combination of all three reagents activated PEC to secrete IL-12, IFN-γ and MCP-1 to a greater degree than any single reagent or any two combined reagents. These results demonstrate that macrophages can be synergistically activated by anti-CD40, CpG and MPL, suggesting that this novel combined approach might be further investigated as potential cancer therapy.

  11. The four murine peroxisomal ABC-transporter genes differ in constitutive, inducible and developmental expression.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Albet, S; Bentejac, M; Netik, A; Holzinger, A; Roscher, A A; Bugaut, M; Forss-Petter, S

    1999-10-01

    Four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporters have been identified in mammalian peroxisomes: adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP), 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and PMP70-related protein (P70R). Inherited defects in ALDP cause the neurodegenerative disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). By comparative Northern blot analyses we found each of the four murine peroxisomal ABC transporter mRNA species at maximum abundance only in a few tissues, which differed for each family member. The four genes were also regulated differentially during mouse brain development: ALDP mRNA was most abundant in embryonic brain and gradually decreased during maturation; ALDRP and P70R mRNA accumulated in the early postnatal period; and the amount of PMP70 transcript increased slightly during the second and third postnatal week. The different expression patterns could explain why beta-oxidation is defective in X-ALD, although ALDRP and PMP70 can replace ALDP functionally in fibroblasts. Dietary fenofibrate had no effect on the ALD and P70R genes, but strongly increased expression of the ALDR and PMP70 genes in mouse liver. However, in P-glycoprotein Mdr1a-deficient mice fenofibrate treatment increased ALDR gene expression also in the brain, suggesting that the multidrug-transporter P-glycoprotein restricts entry of fenofibrate to the brain at the blood-brain barrier. Analysis of the promoter sequences revealed a cryptic nuclear hormone receptor response element of the DR+4 type in the ALDR promoter and a novel 18-bp sequence motif present only in the 5' flanking DNA of the ALDR and PMP70 genes. The mouse ALDR gene uses a single transcription start site but alternative polyadenylation sites. These data are of importance for the use of ALDP-deficient mice as a model in pharmacological gene therapy studies.

  12. Global microRNA expression is essential for murine mast cell development in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun Young; Brandal, Stephanie; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Zhou; Takemoto, Clifford M

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that have been shown to play a critical role in normal physiology and disease, such as hematopoietic development and cancer. However, their role in mast-cell function and development is poorly understood. The major objective of this study was to determine how global miRNA expression affects mast-cell physiology. The RNase III endonuclease, Dicer, is required for the processing of pre-miRNAs into mature miRNAs. To investigate the effect of global miRNA depletion on mast cells in vivo, we generated a mast-cell-specific knock out of Dicer in mice. Transgenic mice (Mcpt5-Cre) that express Cre selectively in connective tissue mast cells were crossed with mice carrying the floxed conditional Dicer allele (Dicer fl/fl). Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer fl/fl mice with homozygous Dicer gene deletion in mast cells were found to have a profound mast-cell deficiency with near complete loss of peritoneal, gastrointestinal, and skin mast cells. We examined the in vivo functional consequence of mast-cell-specific Dicer deletion using an immunoglobulin-E-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis murine model. Immunoglobulin-E-sensitized wild type Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer +/+ and heterozygous Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer fl/+ mice show marked hypothermia with antigen; however, homozygous Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer fl/fl mice were completely unresponsive to antigen challenge. These studies suggest a critical role for Dicer and miRNA expression for establishment of tissue compartments of functional mast cells in vivo.

  13. An Anacardiaceae preparation reduces the expression of inflammation-related genes in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Leiro, J; García, D; Arranz, J A; Delgado, R; Sanmartín, M L; Orallo, F

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae; Vimang), which contains a defined mixture of components including polyphenols (principally mangiferin, MA), triterpenes, phytosteroids, fatty acids and microelements, on expression of inflammation mediators in inflammatory murine macrophages after stimulation in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In vitro treatment with Vimang at 4 microg/ml reduced levels of NOS-2 mRNA and NOS-2, while treatment at 40 microg/ml also reduced levels of COX-2 mRNA, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Results suggested that MA is involved in these effects. In vitro treatment with Vimang at 40 microg/ml also inhibited mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), but did not affect mRNA levels of IL-6 or tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Extracellular release of TNF-alpha by inflammatory macrophages was inhibited by in vitro treatment with Vimang at the same concentrations that showed inhibition of TNF-alpha mRNA levels. The inhibition of TNF-alpha production appears to be at least partially attributable to MA. Vimang at 4 microg/ml decreased mRNA levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) but did not affect expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor (IkappaB). These data indicate that the potent anti-inflammatory effects of Vimang are due to selective modulation of the expression of inflammation-related genes, leading to attenuation of macrophage activation.

  14. Downregulation of Orai1 expression in the airway alleviates murine allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Lin, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Orai1 is the key subunit of the Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ channel. Our previous report has demonstrated that Orai1 expression in the airway was upregulated in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse models. To observe whether inhibition of Orai1 expression in the airway could suppress symptoms in a murine model of AR and to assess the impacts of this inhibition on the responses of local and systemic immunocytes, we administered recombinant lentivirus vectors that encoded shRNA against ORAI1 (lenti-ORAI1) into the nostrils of OVA-sensitized mice before the challenges, and analyzed its effect on allergic responses, as compared with the unsensitized mice and untreated AR mice. Administration of lenti-ORAI1 into the nasal cavity successfully infected cells in the epithelial layer of the nasal mucosa, and significantly decreased the frequencies of sneezing and nasal rubbing of the mice. Protein levels of leukotriene C4, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 in the nasal lavage fluid and serum and eosinophil cation protein in the serum were also significantly reduced by lenti-ORAI1, as were the mRNA levels of these factors in the nasal mucosa and spleen. These data suggested that administration of lenti-ORAI1 into the nasal cavity effectively decreased Orai1 expression in the nasal mucosa, alleviated AR symptoms, and partially inhibited the hyperresponsiveness of the local and systemic immune cells including T cells, B cells, mast cells and eosinophils that are involved in the pathogenesis of AR. PMID:22170034

  15. TGF-β Induces Surface LAP Expression on Murine CD4 T Cells Independent of Foxp3 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Oida, Takatoku; Weiner, Howard L.

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been reported that human FOXP3+ CD4 Tregs express GARP-anchored surface latency-associated peptide (LAP) after activation, based on the use of an anti-human LAP mAb. Murine CD4 Foxp3+ Tregs have also been reported to express surface LAP, but these studies have been hampered by the lack of suitable anti-mouse LAP mAbs. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated anti-mouse LAP mAbs by immunizing TGF-β−/− animals with a mouse Tgfb1-transduced P3U1 cell line. Using these antibodies, we demonstrated that murine Foxp3+ CD4 Tregs express LAP on their surface. In addition, retroviral transduction of Foxp3 into mouse CD4+CD25− T cells induced surface LAP expression. We then examined surface LAP expression after treating CD4+CD25− T cells with TGF-β and found that TGF-β induced surface LAP not only on T cells that became Foxp3+ but also on T cells that remained Foxp3− after TGF-β treatment. GARP expression correlated with the surface LAP expression, suggesting that surface LAP is GARP-anchored also in murine T cells. Conclusions/Significance Unlike human CD4 T cells, surface LAP expression on mouse CD4 T cells is controlled by Foxp3 and TGF-β. Our newly described anti-mouse LAP mAbs will provide a useful tool for the investigation and functional analysis of T cells that express LAP on their surface. PMID:21124798

  16. Antibodies to CD40 prevent Epstein-Barr virus-mediated human B-cell lymphomagenesis in severe combined immune deficient mice given human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, W J; Funakoshi, S; Beckwith, M; Rushing, S E; Conley, D K; Armitage, R J; Fanslow, W C; Rager, H C; Taub, D D; Ruscetti, F W

    1995-09-01

    CD40 is expressed on both normal and neoplastic B lymphocytes. Signal transduction through CD40 in vitro has been shown to exert stimulatory effects on normal B cells and inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced B-cell lymphoma lines and some other cell lines derived from patients with aggressive histology lymphoma. The transfer of normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (huPBL) from EBV-seropositive donors into severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice has been previously shown to result in the generation of human B-cell lymphomas. These tumors are similar to the highly aggressive EBV-induced lymphomas that can arise clinically after transplantation or in the setting of immunodeficiency. Treatment of huPBL-SCID chimeric mice with anti-CD40 or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) significantly delayed the development of EBV-induced B-cell lymphoma. However, the effects of the two MoAb were mechanistically distinct. Anti-CD40 treatment prevented lymphoma generation, while still allowing for functional human B-cell engraftment in the huPBL-SCID mice compared with mice receiving no treatment, all of which succumbed to lymphoma. By contrast, treatment with anti-CD20 significantly inhibited total human B-cell engraftment in the SCID recipients, which accounted for the absence of lymphomas. In vitro assays examining the transformation of human B cells by EBV also indicated that anti-CD40 could directly inhibit EBV-transformation, whereas anti-CD20 antibodies had no effect. Thus, anti-CD40 exerts selective effects to allow for the engraftment of normal human B cells and prevent the emergence of EBV lymphomas. Stimulation of CD40 by antibodies or its physiologic ligand may, therefore, be of significant clinical use in the prevention of EBV-induced B lymphomas that may arise when EBV-seropositive individuals receive immunosuppressive regimens after transplantation or in immune deficiency states, such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  17. A SNP in 5′ untranslated region of CD40 gene is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese population: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hua-Tuo; Guo, Jing; Xiang, Yang; Chen, Jian-Ming; Luo, Hong-Cheng; Meng, Lan-Qing; Wei, Ye-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40), the receptor for CD154, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of the CD40 rs1883832 polymorphism on atherosclerotic disease in different population; however, inconsistent results were obtained. In this study, we investigated the association of four polymorphisms (rs1883832, rs13040307, rs752118 and rs3765459) of CD40 gene and their effect on CD40 expression with the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) in a Chinese population. Three hundred and eighty patients with IS and 450 control subjects were included in the study. The CD40 polymorphisms were discriminated by Snapshot SNP genotyping assay. Serum soluble CD40 (sCD40) levels were detected by ELISA. We found that the rs1883832CT and rs1883832TT genotypes were associated with an increased risk of IS compared with the rs1883832CC genotype (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.03–1.95, p = 0.030 and OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.29–2.82, P = 0.001, respectively), and the rs1883832T allele was associated with a significantly increased risk of IS compared with rs1883832C allele (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15–1.70, P = 0.001). Elevated serum sCD40 levels were observed in patients with IS compared with the control gropu (P < 0.01). Individuals carrying the rs1883832TT or rs1883832CT genotypes showed significantly higher sCD40 levels compared with the rs1883832CC genotype in the IS group [(64.8 ± 25.4 pg/mL, TT = 94); (63.9 ± 24.3 pg/mL, CT = 185) vs (53.3 ± 22.5 pg/mL, CC = 101), P < 0.01]. The TCCA haplotype was associated with an increased risk of IS compared with the control group (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.23–3.58, p = 0.005). However, we did not find a significant association between the other three polymorphisms and IS risk. In conclusion, after a comprehensive comparison with other studies, we confirmed that the rs1883832T allele but not the rs1883832C allele is associated with an increased risk of IS. The

  18. Elevated soluble CD40 ligand in diabetic patients with painless myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Qiu, Jianping; Zhang, Denghai; Qiu, Geng

    2011-01-01

    Because a useful biomarker for painless myocardial infarction (MI) has yet to be identified, the aim of this study was to identify a biomarker for diabetic patients with painless MI. A case-control design was used to compare inflammatory cytokine levels among 111 patients with diabetes mellitus, including 31 patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), 30 patients with painful MI, 20 patients with painless MI, and 30 age- and sex-matched patients without CHD (control group). In addition to baseline parameters, cytokine levels, including plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) levels, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No differences in baseline characteristics were observed for patients with painless MI as compared to the other patient groups. Significantly higher sCD40L, HsCRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected in patients with MI, and markedly elevated sCD40L and IL-6 levels were observed in patients with painless MI as compared to those with painful MI. sCD40L may be a useful biomarker for painless MI in diabetic patients, which could reduce misdiagnosis and expedite treatment. Further studies are required to validate the diagnostic utility of this putative biomarker as well as investigate the mechanism by which sCD40L is elevated in these patients.

  19. Roles of the kinase TAK1 in CD40-mediated effects on vascular oxidative stress and neointima formation after vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Zifang; Zhu, Xiaolei; Jin, Rong; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Jinchuan; Zheng, Qichang; Nanda, Anil; Granger, D Neil; Li, Guohong

    2014-01-01

    Although TAK1 has been implicated in inflammation and oxidative stress, its roles in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and in response to vascular injury have not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the role of TAK1 in modulating oxidative stress in VSMCs and its involvement in neointima formation after vascular injury. Double immunostaining reveals that vascular injury induces a robust phosphorylation of TAK1 (Thr187) in the medial VSMCs of injured arteries in wildtype mice, but this effect is blocked in CD40-deficient mice. Upregulation of TAK1 in VSMCs is functionally important, as it is critically involved in pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects on VSMCs and eventual neointima formation. In vivo, pharmacological inhibition of TAK1 with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol blocked the injury-induced phosphorylation of both TAK1 (Thr187) and NF-kB/p65 (Ser536), associated with marked inhibition of superoxide production, 3-nitrotyrosine, and MCP-1 in the injured arteries. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that either siRNA knockdown or 5Z-7-oxozeaenol inhibition of TAK1 significantly attenuated NADPH oxidase activation and superoxide production induced by CD40L/CD40 stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that blockade of TAK1 disrupted the CD40L-induced complex formation of p22phox with p47phox, p67phox, or Nox4. Blockade of TAK1 also inhibited CD40L-induced NF-kB activation by modulating IKKα/β and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and this was related to reduced expression of proinflammatory genes (IL-6, MCP-1 and ICAM-1) in VSMCs. Lastly, treatment with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol attenuated neointimal formation in wire-injured femoral arteries. Our findings demonstrate previously uncharacterized roles of TAK1 in vascular oxidative stress and the contribution to neointima formation after vascular injury.

  20. Non-survivor septic patients have persistently higher serum sCD40L levels than survivors.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ferreres, José; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is a protein with proinflammatory and prothrombotic effects. Previously we found higher circulating sCD40L levels in non-survivor than in survivor patients at sepsis diagnosis. Now some questions arise such as how are serum sCD40L levels during the first week of severe sepsis?, is there an association between serum sCD40L levels during the first week and mortality?, and serum sCD40L levels during the first week could be used as sepsis mortality biomarker?. This study was developed to answer these asks. Study from 6 Spanish Intensive Care Units with 291 severe septic patients. There were determined serum levels of sCD40L and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha during the first week. The end-point study was 30-day mortality. We found that serum sCD40L at days 1, 4, and 8 could predict mortality at 30days, and are associated with mortality. The novel findings of our study were that there were higher serum sCD40L levels persistently during the first week in non-survivor than in survivor patients, that there is an association between serum sCD40L levels during the first week and sepsis mortality, and that serum sCD40L levels during the first week could be used as sepsis mortality biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. p62 regulates CD40-mediated NFκB activation in macrophages through interaction with TRAF6

    SciTech Connect

    Seibold, Kristina; Ehrenschwender, Martin

    2015-08-14

    CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Activation-induced recruitment of adapter proteins, so-called TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) to the cytoplasmic tail of CD40 triggers signaling cascades important in the immune system, but has also been associated with excessive inflammation in diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Especially, pro-inflammatory nuclear factor κB (NFκB) signaling emanating from CD40-associated TRAF6 appears to be a key pathogenic driving force. Consequently, targeting the CD40-TRAF6 interaction is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy, but the underlying molecular machinery of this signaling axis is to date poorly understood. Here, we identified the multifunctional adaptor protein p62 as a critical regulator in CD40-mediated NFκB signaling via TRAF6. CD40 activation triggered formation of a TRAF6-p62 complex. Disturbing this interaction tremendously reduced CD40-mediated NFκB signaling in macrophages, while TRAF6-independent signaling pathways remained unaffected. This highlights p62 as a potential target in hyper-inflammatory, CD40-associated pathologies. - Highlights: • CD40 activation triggers interaction of the adapter protein TRAF6 with p62. • TRAF6-p62 interaction regulates CD40-mediated NFκB signaling in macrophages. • Defective TRAF6-p62 interaction reduces CD40-mediated NFκB activation in macrophages.

  2. Effects of representative glucocorticoids on TNFα- and CD40L-induced NF-κB activation in sensor cells.

    PubMed

    Cechin, Sirlene R; Buchwald, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are an important class of anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive drugs. A crucial part of their anti-inflammatory action results from their ability to repress proinflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) upon binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Accordingly, sensor cells quantifying their effect on inflammatory signal-induced NF-κB activation can provide useful information regarding their potencies as well as their transrepression abilities. Here, we report results obtained on their effect in suppressing both the TNFα- and the CD40L-induced activation of NF-κB in sensor cells that contain an NF-κB-inducible SEAP construct. In these cells, we confirmed concentration-dependent NF-κB activation for both TNFα and CD40L at low nanomolar concentrations (EC50). Glucocorticoids tested included hydrocortisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, loteprednol etabonate, triamcinolone acetonide, beclomethasone dipropionate, and clobetasol propionate. They all caused significant, but only partial inhibition of these activations in concentration-dependent manners that could be well described by sigmoid response-functions. Despite the limitations of only partial maximum inhibitions, this cell-based assay could be used to quantitate the suppressing ability of glucocorticoids (transrepression potency) on the expression of proinflammatory transcription factors caused by two different cytokines in parallel both in a detailed, full dose-response format as well as in a simpler single-dose format. Whereas inhibitory potencies obtained in the TNF assay correlated well with consensus glucocorticoid potencies (receptor-binding affinities, Kd, RBA, at the GR) for all compounds, the non-halogenated steroids (hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and loteprednol etabonate) were about an order of magnitude more potent than expected in the CD40 assay in this system.

  3. Targeting reverse tetracycline-dependent transactivator to murine mammary epithelial cells that express the progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Atish; Soyal, Selma M; Fernandez-Valdivia, Rodrigo; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P

    2007-10-01

    Through an established gene-targeting strategy, reverse tetracycline-dependent transactivator (rtTA) was targeted downstream of the murine progesterone receptor (PR) promoter. Mice were generated in which one (PR(+/rtTA)) or both (PR(rtTA/rtTA)) PR alleles harbor the rtTA insertion. The PR(+/rtTA) and PR(rtTA/rtTA) knockins exhibit phenotypes identical to the normal and the progesterone receptor knockout mouse, respectively. Crossed with the TZA reporter, which carries the TetO-LacZ responder transgene, the PR(+/rtTA)/TZA and PR(rtTA/rtTA)/TZA bigenics exhibit doxycycline-induced beta-galactosidase activity specifically in progesterone responsive target tissues such as the mammary gland, uterus, ovary, and pituitary gland. In the case of the PR(+/rtTA)/TZA mammary epithelium, dual immunofluorescence demonstrated that PR expression and doxycycline-induced beta-galactosidase activity colocalized; beta-galactosidase was not detected in the absence of doxycycline. Although both the PR(+/rtTA) and PR(rtTA/rtTA) knockins represent innovative animal models with which to further query progesterone's mechanism of action in vivo, the PR(rtTA/rtTA) mouse in particular promises to provide unique insight into the paracrine mechanism of action, which underpins progesterone's involvement in mammary morphogenesis with obvious implications for extending our understanding of this steroid's role in breast cancer progression.

  4. STAT3 and SOCS3 Expression Patterns During Murine Placenta Development

    PubMed Central

    San Martin, S.; Fitzgerald, J.S.; Weber, M.; Párraga, M.; Sáez, T.; Zorn, T.M.; Markert, U.R.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been identified as an important signal transducer in the invasive phenotype of the trophoblasts cells in in vitro studies. However, the in situ distribution and patterns of expression of this molecule in trophoblast cells during the development of the placenta are still under-elucidated. Mice uteri of gestational ages between 7 and 14 days of pregnancy (dop) were fixed in methacarn and processed with immunoperoxidase techniques for detection of STAT3 and its phosphorylation at serine (p-ser727) residues, as well as the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression. STAT3 was observed at 7 through 9 dop in both the antimesometrial and mesometrial deciduas, while continued immunoreactivity between 10 and 13 dop was seen only in the mesometrial decidua. In the placenta, STAT3 was detected in the cytotrophoblast cells of labyrinth and giant trophoblast cells between 10 and 14 dop. Immunoreactivity for STAT3 was also seen in trophoblast cells surrounding the maternal blood vessels. On days 10 and 11 of pregnancy, p-ser727 was detectable in the mesometrial decidua and in giant trophoblasts, while during 12-14 dop in the spongiotrophoblast region. In addition, SOCS3 was immunodetected in maternal and placental tissues, principally in the giant trophoblast cells during the whole period of the study. The present in situ study shows the distribution of STAT3, its serine activation and SOCS3 in different maternal and fetal compartments during murine placental development, thus further supporting the idea that they play a role during physiological placentation in mice. PMID:23807298

  5. Inducible activation of MyD88 and CD40 in CAR T-cells results in controllable and potent antitumor activity in preclinical solid tumor models.

    PubMed

    Mata, Melinda; Gerken, Claudia; Nguyen, Phuong; Krenciute, Giedre; Spencer, David M; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2017-08-11

    Adoptive immunotherapy with T-cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has had limited success for solid tumors in early phase clinical studies. We reasoned that introducing into CAR T-cells an inducible co-stimulatory (iCO) molecule consisting of a chemical inducer of dimerization (CID)-binding domain and the MyD88 and CD40 signaling domains would improve and control CAR T-cell activation. In the presence of CID, T-cells expressing HER2-CARζ and a MyD88/CD40-based iCO molecule (HER2ζ.iCO T-cells) had superior T-cell proliferation, cytokine production, and ability to sequentially kill targets in vitro relative to HER2ζ.iCO T-cells without CID and T-cells expressing HER2-CAR.CD28ζ. HER2ζ.iCO T-cells with CID also significantly improved survival in vivo in two xenograft models. Repeat injections of CID were able to further increase the antitumor activity of HER2ζ.iCO T-cells in vivo. Thus, expressing MyD88/CD40-based iCO molecules in CAR T-cells has the potential to improve the efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy approaches for solid tumors. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Differences of cell surface marker expression between bone marrow- and kidney-derived murine mesenchymal stromal cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, F; Osbahr, J W; Kramer, J; Rohwedel, J

    2016-10-31

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are undifferentiated, multipotent adult cells with regenerative properties. They are particularly relevant for therapeutic approaches due to the simplicity of their isolation and cultivation. Since MSC show an expression pattern of cell surface marker, which is almost identical to fibroblasts, many attempts have been made to address the similarities and differences between MSC and fibroblasts. In this study we aimed to isolate murine MSC from bone marrow (BM) and kidney to characterize them in comparison to fibroblasts. Cells were isolated from murine kidney, BM and abdominal skin by plastic adherence and subsequently characterized by analysing their capability to build colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-F), their morphology, their proliferation, expression of telomerase activity and cell surface antigens as well as their differentiation capacity. Plastic adherent cells from the 3 mouse tissues showed similar morphology, proliferation profiles and CFU-F building capacities. However, while MSC from BM and kidney differentiated into the adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic direction, fibroblasts were not able to do so efficiently. In addition, a tendency for lower expression of telomerase was found in the fibroblast population. Proliferating cells from kidney and BM expressed the MSC-specific cell surface markers CD105 and Sca-1 on a significantly higher and CD117 on a significantly lower level compared to fibroblasts and were thereby distinguishable from fibroblasts. Furthermore, we found that certain CD markers were specifically expressed on a higher level, either in BM-derived cells or fibroblasts. This study demonstrates that murine MSC isolated from different organs express certain specific markers, which enable their discrimination.

  7. Expression of bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gI and gIII in transfected murine cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, D.R.; Zamb, T.; Parker, M.D.; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S.; Babiuk, L.A.; Lawman, M.J.P.

    1988-11-01

    Genes encoding two of the major glycoproteins of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), gI and gIII, were cloned into the eucaryotic expression vectors pRSVcat and pSV2neo and transfected into murine LMTK/sup -/ cells, and cloned cell lines were established. The relative amounts of gI or gIII expressed from the two vectors were similar. Expression of gI was cell associated and localized predominantly in the perinuclear region, but nuclear and plasma membrane staining was also observed. Expression of gI was additionally associated with cell fusion and the formation of polykaryons and giant cells. Expression of gIII was localized predominantly in the nuclear and plasma membranes. Radioimmunoprecipitation in the presence or absence of tunicamycin revealed that the recombinant glycoproteins were proteolytically processed and glycosylated and had molecular weights similar to those of the forms of gI and gIII expressed in BHV-1 infected bovine cells. However, both recombinant glycoproteins were glycosylated to a lesser extent than were the forms found in BHV-1 infected bovine cells. For gI, a deficiency in N-linked glycosylated of the amino-terminal half of the protein was identified; for gIII, a deficiency in O-linked glycosylation was implicated. The reactivity pattern of a panel of gI- and gIII-specific monoclonal antibodies, including six which recognize conformation-dependent epitopes, was found to be unaffected by the glycosylation differences and was identical for transfected of BHV-1-infected murine cells. Use of the transfected cells as targets in immune-mediated cytotoxicity assays demonstrated the functional recognition of recombinant gI and gIII by murine antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

  8. Enhanced Interleukin-12 and CD40 Ligand Activities but Reduced Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1-Induced Responses Suggest a Generalized and Progressively Impaired Type 1 Cytokine Pattern for Human Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Silvia M. L.; Abath, Frederico G. C.; Domingues, Ana Lúcia C.; Melo, Wlademir G.; Morais, Clarice N. L.; Coutinho, Eridan M.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Wynn, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    Whole-blood-cell cultures from schistosomiasis patients were stimulated with a variety of T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent stimuli to determine whether the defect in type 1 cytokine expression observed following helminth infection is associated with alterations in interleukin-12 (IL-12) or CD40 ligand (CD40L) responsiveness. Cultures from uninfected individuals produced abundant gamma interferon in response to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 (SAC), while patients with intestinal and hepatosplenic disease displayed intermediate and weak responses, respectively. Importantly, the decrease in type 1 cytokine expression was not attributed to defects in IL-12- or CD40L-induced activity. Indeed, schistosomiasis patients displayed heightened responses and even produced more biologically active IL-12 when stimulated with SAC and CD40L than did uninfected controls. Finally, additional studies suggested only a partial role for IL-10, since intestinal patients were the only group that overproduced this downregulatory cytokine. Together, these studies demonstrate that the type 1 deficiency in chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis is not related to specific defects in IL-12, IL-10, or CD40L activity, although changes in the functional status of antigen-presenting cells appear to be involved. PMID:12379664

  9. Cellular RNA homologous to the Abelson murine leukemia virus transforming gene: expression and relationship to the viral sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J Y; Baltimore, D

    1983-01-01

    To examine the expression of the cellular homolog of the Abelson murine leukemia virus transforming gene (the v-abl sequence), a DNA probe representing the v-abl sequence was prepared. The probe detected two cytoplasmic polyadenylic acid-containing c-abl RNAs of about 6.5 and 5.5 kilobases in a variety of rodent cells, and slightly larger RNAs were detected in human cells. These two RNA species were found in all normal tissues or cell lines examined, but at differing concentrations: liver cells had the least, fibroblastic cell lines had the most. By using a probe able to detect the cellular but not the viral gene, the two RNAs were shown to be present in Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed cells at levels found either in their untransformed counterparts or in similar cell types transformed by other means. The target cells of the virus have a somewhat elevated level of the two RNAs although expression of the c-abl gene is not restricted to these cells. The v-abl sequence lacks 0.35 and 0.85 kilobases of the c-abl RNA on the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. Thus, the Abelson murine leukemia virus transforming gene is an internal fragment of the transcript of a normal cellular gene. Images PMID:6306446

  10. Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, C. T.; Chen, C. C.; Cheong, U.-I.; Liu, S. L.; Huang, T. H.

    2014-08-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 and 48 h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5 J and 10 J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5 J and 10 J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Prominent mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells was visible using a von Kossa stain in the 5 J LLLT group. Osteogenic genes (Col-1, OC, OPG and BMP-2) were significantly expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5 J and 10 J LLLT (p < 0.05). LLLT in tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells showed synergistic osteogenic effects, including increases in cell proliferation and Col-1, OPN, OC, OPG and BMP-2 gene expression. LLLT might be beneficial for bone remodeling on the tension side of orthodontics.

  11. Protein Phosphatase 2A in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Murine Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yu-Fan; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Huang, Shiu-Wen; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Ou, George; Tsai, Yu-Jou; Hsu, Ming-Jen

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic endothelium plays an important role in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. It also participates in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which lymphatic endothelial cell responds to inflammatory stimuli. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in murine lymphatic endothelial cells (SV-LECs). LPS caused increases in cox-2 mRNA and protein levels, as well as in COX-2 promoter luciferase activity in SV-LECs. These actions were associated with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), JNK1/2 and p38MAPK activation, and NF-κB subunit p65 and C/EBPβ phosphorylation. PP2A-ASK1 signaling blockade reduced LPS-induced JNK1/2, p38MAPK, p65 and C/EBPβ phosphorylation. Transfection with PP2A siRNA reduced LPS’s effects on p65 and C/EBPβ binding to the COX-2 promoter region. Transfected with the NF-κB or C/EBPβ site deletion of COX-2 reporter construct also abrogated LPS’s enhancing effect on COX-2 promoter luciferase activity in SV-LECs. Taken together, the induction of COX-2 in SV-LECs exposed to LPS may involve PP2A-ASK1-JNK and/or p38MAPK-NF-κB and/or C/EBPβ cascade. PMID:26317424

  12. Transcriptional networks of murine diabetic peripheral neuropathy and nephropathy: common and distinct gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Junguk; O’Brien, Phillipe D.; Nair, Viji; Hinder, Lucy M.; McGregor, Brett A.; Jagadish, Hosagrahar V.; Kretzler, Matthias; Brosius, Frank C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are two common microvascular complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus that are associated with a high degree of morbidity. In this study, using a variety of systems biology approaches, our aim was to identify common and distinct mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these two complications. Methods Our previously published transcriptomic datasets of peripheral nerve and kidney tissue, derived from murine models of type 1 diabetes (streptozotocin-injected mice) and type 2 diabetes (BKS-db/db mice) and their respective controls, were collected and processed using a unified analysis pipeline so that comparisons could be made. In addition to looking at genes and pathways dysregulated in individual datasets, pairwise comparisons across diabetes type and tissue type were performed at both gene and transcriptional network levels to complete our proposed objective. Results Gene-level analysis identified exceptionally high levels of concordant gene expression in DN (94% of 2,433 genes), but not in DPN (55% of 1,558 genes), between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that common pathogenic mechanisms exist in DN across diabetes type, while in DPN the mechanisms are more distinct. When these dysregulated genes were examined at the transcriptional network level, we found that the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway was significantly dysregulated in both complications, irrespective of diabetes type. Conclusions/interpretation Using a systems biology approach, our findings suggest that common pathogenic mechanisms exist in DN across diabetes type, while in DPN the mechanisms are more distinct. We also found that JAK–STAT signalling is commonly dysregulated among all datasets. Using such approaches, further investigation is warranted to determine whether the same changes are observed in patients with diabetic

  13. Lipid Alterations in Experimental Murine Colitis: Role of Ceramide and Imipramine for Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jessica; Liebisch, Gerhard; Hofmann, Claudia; Huy, Christian; Schmitz, Gerd; Obermeier, Florian; Bock, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Dietary lipids or pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism are potential therapeutic strategies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we analysed alterations of bioactive lipids in experimental models of colitis and examined the functional consequence of the second messenger ceramide in inflammatory pathways leading to tissue destruction. Methodology/Principal Findings Chronic colitis was induced by dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) or transfer of CD4+CD62L+ cells into RAG1−/−-mice. Lipid content of isolated murine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of MMP-1 in supernatants of Caco-2-IEC and human intestinal fibroblasts from patients with ulcerative colitis were determined by ELISA. Imipramine was used for pharmacologic inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Ceramide increased by 71% in chronic DSS–induced colitis and by 159% in the transfer model of colitis. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) decreased by 22% in both models. No changes were detected for phosphatidylcholine. Generation of ceramide by exogenous SMase increased MMP-1-protein production of Caco-2-IEC up to 7-fold. Inhibition of ASM completely abolished the induction of MMP-1 by TNF or IL-1β in Caco-2-IEC and human intestinal fibroblasts. Conclusions/Significance Mucosal inflammation leads to accumulation of ceramide and decrease of LPC in the intestinal epithelium. One aspect of ceramide generation is an increase of MMP-1. Induction of MMP-1 by TNF or IL-1β is completely blocked by inhibition of ASM with imipramine. Therefore, inhibition of ASM may offer a treatment strategy to reduce MMP-1 expression and tissue destruction in inflammatory conditions. PMID:19787068

  14. Lipid alterations in experimental murine colitis: role of ceramide and imipramine for matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jessica; Liebisch, Gerhard; Hofmann, Claudia; Huy, Christian; Schmitz, Gerd; Obermeier, Florian; Bock, Jürgen

    2009-09-29

    Dietary lipids or pharmacologic modulation of lipid metabolism are potential therapeutic strategies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we analysed alterations of bioactive lipids in experimental models of colitis and examined the functional consequence of the second messenger ceramide in inflammatory pathways leading to tissue destruction. Chronic colitis was induced by dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) or transfer of CD4(+)CD62L(+) cells into RAG1(-/-)-mice. Lipid content of isolated murine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of MMP-1 in supernatants of Caco-2-IEC and human intestinal fibroblasts from patients with ulcerative colitis were determined by ELISA. Imipramine was used for pharmacologic inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Ceramide increased by 71% in chronic DSS-induced colitis and by 159% in the transfer model of colitis. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) decreased by 22% in both models. No changes were detected for phosphatidylcholine. Generation of ceramide by exogenous SMase increased MMP-1-protein production of Caco-2-IEC up to 7-fold. Inhibition of ASM completely abolished the induction of MMP-1 by TNF or IL-1beta in Caco-2-IEC and human intestinal fibroblasts. Mucosal inflammation leads to accumulation of ceramide and decrease of LPC in the intestinal epithelium. One aspect of ceramide generation is an increase of MMP-1. Induction of MMP-1 by TNF or IL-1beta is completely blocked by inhibition of ASM with imipramine. Therefore, inhibition of ASM may offer a treatment strategy to reduce MMP-1 expression and tissue destruction in inflammatory conditions.

  15. CD40 agonist converting CTL exhaustion via the activation of the mTORC1 pathway enhances PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aizhang; Wang, Rong; Freywald, Andrew; Stewart, Kristoffor; Tikoo, Suresh; Xu, Jianqing; Zheng, Changyu; Xiang, Jim

    2017-03-11

    Expansion of PD-1-expressing CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and associated CTL exhaustion are chief issues for ineffective virus-elimination in chronic infectious diseases. PD-1 blockade using antagonistic anti-PD-L1 antibodies results in a moderate conversion of CTL exhaustion. We previously demonstrated that CD40L signaling of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific vaccine, OVA-Texo, converts CTL exhaustion via the activation of the mTORC1 pathway in OVA-expressing adenovirus (AdVova)-infected B6 mice showing CTL inflation and exhaustion. Here, we developed AdVova-infected B6 and transgenic CD11c-DTR (termed AdVova-B6 and AdVova-CD11c-DTR) mice with chronic infection, and assessed a potential effect of CD40 agonist on the conversion of CTL exhaustion and on a potential enhancement of PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in our chronic infection models. We demonstrate that a single dose of anti-CD40 alone can effectively convert CTL exhaustion by activating the mTORC1 pathway, leading to CTL proliferation, up-regulation of an effector-cytokine IFN-γ and the cytolytic effect in AdVova-B6 mice. Using anti-CD4 antibody and diphtheria toxin (DT) to deplete CD4(+) T-cells and dendritic cells (DCs), we discovered that the CD40 agonist-induced conversion in AdVova-B6 and AdVova-CD11c-DTR mice is dependent upon host CD4(+) T-cell and DC involvements. Moreover, CD40 agonist significantly enhances PD-1 antagonist effectiveness in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate the importance of CD40 signaling in the conversion of CTL exhaustion and its ability to enhance PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection. Therefore, our findings may positively impact the design of new therapeutic strategies for chronic infectious diseases.

  16. HCELL Expression on Murine MSC Licenses Pancreatotropism and Confers Durable Reversal of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Reza; Moore, Robert; Sakai, Shinobu; Donnelly, Conor B.; Mounayar, Marwan; Sackstein, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease resulting in destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties, garnering increasing attention as cellular therapy for T1D and other immunologic diseases. However, MSCs generally lack homing molecules, hindering their colonization at inflammatory sites following intravenous (IV) administration. Here we analyzed whether enforced E-selectin ligand expression on murine MSCs could impact their effect in reversing hyperglycemia in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Though murine MSCs natively do not express the E-selectin binding determinant sialyl Lewisx (sLex), we found that fucosyltransferase-mediated α(1,3)-exofucosylation of murine MSCs resulted in sLex display uniquely on cell surface CD44 thereby creating HCELL, the E-selectin-binding glycoform of CD44. Following IV infusion into diabetic NOD mice, allogeneic HCELL+ MSCs showed 3-fold greater peri-islet infiltrates compared to buffer-treated (i.e., HCELL−) MSCs, with distribution in proximity to E-selectin-expressing microvessels. Exofucosylation had no effect on MSC immunosuppressive capacity in in vitro assays, however, though engraftment was temporary for both HCELL+ and HCELL− MSCs, administration of HCELL+ MSCs resulted in durable reversal of hyperglycemia, whereas only transient reversal was observed following administration of HCELL− MSCs. Notably, exofucosylation of MSCs generated from CD44−/− mice induced prominent membrane expression of sLex, but IV administration of these MSCs into hyperglycemic NOD mice showed no enhanced pancreatotropism or reversal of hyperglycemia. These findings provide evidence that glycan engineering to enforce HCELL expression boosts trafficking of infused MSCs to pancreatic islets of NOD mice and substantially improves their efficacy in reversing autoimmune diabetes. PMID:25641589

  17. HCELL Expression on Murine MSC Licenses Pancreatotropism and Confers Durable Reversal of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Reza; Moore, Robert; Sakai, Shinobu; Donnelly, Conor B; Mounayar, Marwan; Sackstein, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease resulting in destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties, garnering increasing attention as cellular therapy for T1D and other immunologic diseases. However, MSCs generally lack homing molecules, hindering their colonization at inflammatory sites following intravenous (IV) administration. Here, we analyzed whether enforced E-selectin ligand expression on murine MSCs could impact their effect in reversing hyperglycemia in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Although murine MSCs natively do not express the E-selectin-binding determinant sialyl Lewis(x) (sLe(x) ), we found that fucosyltransferase-mediated α(1,3)-exofucosylation of murine MSCs resulted in sLe(x) display uniquely on cell surface CD44 thereby creating hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand (HCELL), the E-selectin-binding glycoform of CD44. Following IV infusion into diabetic NOD mice, allogeneic HCELL(+) MSCs showed threefold greater peri-islet infiltrates compared to buffer-treated (i.e., HCELL(-) ) MSCs, with distribution in proximity to E-selectin-expressing microvessels. Exofucosylation had no effect on MSC immunosuppressive capacity in in vitro assays; however, although engraftment was temporary for both HCELL(+) and HCELL(-) MSCs, administration of HCELL(+) MSCs resulted in durable reversal of hyperglycemia, whereas only transient reversal was observed following administration of HCELL(-) MSCs. Notably, exofucosylation of MSCs generated from CD44(-/-) mice induced prominent membrane expression of sLe(x) , but IV administration of these MSCs into hyperglycemic NOD mice showed no enhanced pancreatotropism or reversal of hyperglycemia. These findings provide evidence that glycan engineering to enforce HCELL expression boosts trafficking of infused MSCs to pancreatic islets of NOD mice and substantially improves their efficacy in reversing autoimmune diabetes. Stem Cells

  18. [Relationship between serum level of CD40 ligand and persistent lone atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Bozçalı, Evin; Polat, Veli; Kutlu, Gönül; Opan, Selçuk; Paker, Nurcan; Uygun, Turgut; Ökçün, Barış; Karakaya, Osman

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. The relationship between CD40 ligand (CD40L), a prothrombotic and proinflammatory molecule, and lone atrial fibrillation was presently investigated for the first time. Levels of serum CD40L were also tested, regarding potential to distinguish patients with lone atrial fibrillation from healthy individuals. Presently included were 35 patients with lone persistent atrial fibrillation and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. Serum levels of CD40L and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Mean serum CD40L, hs-CRP, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and left atrial diameter values were significantly higher in the group with lone persistent atrial fibrillation than in the control group (7.4±3.5 ng/mL vs 4.3±1.2 ng/mL, p<0.0001; 3.7±1.6 mg/L vs 1.7±0.8 mg/L, p<0.0001; 53.0±4.2 mm vs 46.0±3.8, p<0.0001; 43.5±3.5 mm vs 33.7±3.5, p<0.0001, respectively). Serum CD40L levels were positively correlated with left atrial diameter (r=0.81, p<0.0001) and hs-CRP (r=0.72, p<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that serum CD40L at the optimal cut-off level of >4.5 ng/mL successfully discriminated patients with lone atrial fibrillation from controls (area under the curve: 0.847; 95% confidence interval: 0.759-0.934; p<0.0001). The present findings suggest that CD40L levels play a crucial role in the development of lone atrial fibrillation. In addition, results support that regular clinical follow-up of these patients is necessary, due to increased cardiovascular disease risk, determined by elevated CD40L levels.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression of murine vascular endothelial-cadherin in early stage development of cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Breier, G; Breviario, F; Caveda, L; Berthier, R; Schnürch, H; Gotsch, U; Vestweber, D; Risau, W; Dejana, E

    1996-01-15

    An early step in the formation of the extraembryonic and intraembryonic vasculature is endothelial cell differentiation and organization in blood islands and vascular structures. This involves the expression and function of specific adhesive molecules at cell-to-cell junctions. Previous work showed that endothelial cells express a cell-specific cadherin (vascular endothelial [VE]-cadherin, or 7B4/cadherin-5) that is organized at cell-to-cell contacts in cultured cells and is able to promote intercellular adhesion. In this study, we investigated whether VE-cadherin could be involved in early cardiovascular development in the mouse embryo. We first cloned and sequenced the mouse VE-cadherin cDNA. At the protein level, murine VE-cadherin presented 75% identity (90%, considering conservative amino acid substitutions) with the human homologue. Transfection of murine VE-cadherin cDNA in L cells induced Ca(++)-dependent cell-to-cell aggregation and reduced cell detachment from monolayers. In situ hybridization of adult tissues showed that the murine molecule is specifically expressed by endothelial cells. In mouse embryos, VE-cadherin transcripts were detected at the very earliest stages of vascular development (E7.5) in mesodermal cells of the yolk sac mesenchyme. At E9.5, expression of VE-cadherin was restricted to the peripheral cell layer of blood islands that gives rise to endothelial cells. Hematopoietic cells in the center of blood islands were not labeled. At later embryonic stages, VE-cadherin transcripts were detected in vascular structures of all organs examined, eg, in the ventricle of the heart, the inner cell lining of the atrium and the dorsal aorta, in intersomitic vessels, and in the capillaries of the developing brain. A comparison with flk-1 expression during brain angiogenesis revealed that brain capillaries expressed relatively low amounts of VE-cadherin. In the adult brain, the level of VE-cadherin transcript was further reduced. By

  20. APE/Ref-1 makes fine-tuning of CD40-induced B cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Gri, Giorgia; Gattei, Valter; Pagano, Michele; Pucillo, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/Redox factor-1, a multifunctional DNA base excision repair and redox regulation enzyme, plays an important role in oxidative signalling, transcription factor regulation, and cell cycle control. Recently, we have demonstrated that following the triggering of CD40 on B cells, APE/Ref-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and regulates the activity of B cell-specific transcription factors. In the present paper we investigate whether APE/Ref-1 plays a role in controlling CD40-mediated B cell proliferation too. We demonstrate a concurrent increase in proliferation and decrease in apoptosis of primary mouse B cells activated by CD40 cross-linking and transfected with functional APE/Ref-1 antisense oligonucleotide. Moreover, we provide evidence that a redox-mediated signalling mechanism is involved in this process and we propose that APE/Ref-1, controlling the intracellular redox state, may also affect the cell cycle by inducing nucleus-cytoplasm redistribution of p21. Together, these findings suggest that APE/Ref-1 could act as a negative regulator in an adaptive response to elevated ROS levels following CD40 cross-linking. Considering the important role of ROS and APE/Ref-1 in CD40-mediated B cell proliferation, our data will contribute to understand the mechanisms of tumor escape and suggest APE/Ref-1 as a novel target for tumor therapeutic approaches. PMID:18617267

  1. APE/Ref-1 makes fine-tuning of CD40-induced B cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Gri, Giorgia; Gattei, Valter; Pagano, Michele; Pucillo, Carlo

    2008-08-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/Redox factor-1, a multifunctional DNA base excision repair and redox regulation enzyme, plays an important role in oxidative signalling, transcription factor regulation, and cell cycle control. Recently, we have demonstrated that following the triggering of CD40 on B cells, APE/Ref-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and regulates the activity of B cell-specific transcription factors. In the present paper we investigate whether APE/Ref-1 plays a role in controlling CD40-mediated B cell proliferation too. We demonstrate a concurrent increase in proliferation and decrease in apoptosis of primary mouse B cells activated by CD40 cross-linking and transfected with functional APE/Ref-1 antisense oligonucleotide. Moreover, we provide evidence that a redox-mediated signalling mechanism is involved in this process and we propose that APE/Ref-1, controlling the intracellular redox state, may also affect the cell cycle by inducing nucleus-cytoplasm redistribution of p21. Together, these findings suggest that APE/Ref-1 could act as a negative regulator in an adaptive response to elevated ROS levels following CD40 cross-linking. Considering the important role of ROS and APE/Ref-1 in CD40-mediated B cell proliferation, our data will contribute to understand the mechanisms of tumor escape and suggest APE/Ref-1 as a novel target for tumor therapeutic approaches.

  2. Role of Different CD40 Polymorphisms in Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongguo; Chen, Jiayu; Zhang, Huanyuan; Zhang, Fangfang; Yang, Linjun; Mou, Yonghua

    2017-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have led to the discovery of several susceptibility genes related to autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). However, controversial results have been reported regarding the role of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CD40 in the disease susceptibility. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship of the polymorphisms of three sites of CD40 with the susceptibility to AITD in the Chinese population. We genotyped three polymorphisms of CD40: C/T -1 SNP, 58038T site of the third exon and C64610G site of the ninth exon in 196 GD cases, 121 HT cases and 122 control subjects. The three putative polymorphism sites were amplified by PCR for sequencing and analysis. The genotype frequencies of CD40 -1 C/C genotype and C allele were significantly higher in the GD group than those in normal control. For the C64610G polymorphism, the C/G genotype was significantly more frequent in HT group than in control group, and the G allele frequencies in the GD and HT group were both higher than those in control group. These results indicated that there exist different susceptibility loci for AITD within CD40, each contributing a different effect in the onset and development of AITDs.

  3. MiR-145-5p regulates hypoxia-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by targeting CD40.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Liwei; You, Fei; Zhou, Jingyu; Ma, Yongjiang; Yang, Feifei; Tao, Ling

    2017-03-09

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that inflammation and apoptosis are involved in the development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this study, we sought to investigate the specific role and the underlying regulatory mechanism of miR-145-5p in myocardial ischemic injury. H9c2 cardiac cells were exposed to hypoxia to establish a model of myocardial hypoxic/ischemic injury. We found that miR-145-5p was notably down-regulated, while CD40 expression was highly elevated in H9c2 cells following exposure to acute hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia markedly enhanced the inflammatory response, as reflected by an increase in the secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, whereas the introduction of miR-145-5p effectively suppressed inflammatory factor production triggered by hypoxia. Furthermore, we observed hypoxia stimulation significantly augmented apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and an increase in the expression of Bax, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9. However, augmentation of miR-145-5p led to a dramatic prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Importantly, we identified CD40 as a direct target of miR-145-5p. Interestingly, the depletion of CD40 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) apparently repressed the production of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in the setting of acute hypoxic treated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that miR-145-5p may function as a cardiac-protective molecule in myocardial ischemic injury by ameliorating inflammation and apoptosis via negative regulation of CD40. The study gives evidence that miR-145-5p provides an interesting strategy for protecting cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis.

  4. Evaluation of murine lymphocyte membrane potential, intracellular free calcium, and interleukin-2 receptor expression upon exposure to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Frazier, D E; Tarr, M J; Olsen, R G

    1992-06-01

    The effects of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) on several early events associated with lymphocyte activation were examined. The concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and membrane potential of murine lymphocytes were found to be altered upon exposure to UDMH; [Ca2+]i was increased in murine thymocytes, while splenocytes exhibited membrane hyperpolarization. In addition, interleukin-2 receptor expression induced by in-vitro concanavalin A stimulation of murine splenocytes at 24 and 48 h in the presence of UDMH was not affected. UDMH may interfere with the ability of these two distinct lymphocyte populations to regulate normal ionic fluctuations, thus contributing to altered immune responsiveness.

  5. Expression, localization, and functional model of cholesterol transporters in lactating and nonlactating mammary tissues of murine, bovine, and human origin.

    PubMed

    Mani, Orlando; Körner, Meike; Sorensen, Martin T; Sejrsen, Kristen; Wotzkow, Carlos; Ontsouka, Corneille E; Friis, Robert R; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Albrecht, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a pivotal role in cellular lipid efflux. To identify candidate cholesterol transporters implicated in lipid homeostasis and mammary gland (MG) physiology, we compared expression and localization of ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 and their regulatory genes in mammary tissues of different species during the pregnancy-lactation cycle. Murine and bovine mammary glands (MGs) were investigated during different functional stages. The abundance of mRNAs was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, transporter proteins were localized in murine, bovine, and human MGs by immunohistochemistry. In the murine MG, ABCA1 mRNA abundance was elevated during nonlactating compared with lactating stages, whereas ABCA7 and ABCA1 mRNA profiles were not altered. In the bovine MG, ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 mRNAs abundances were increased during nonlactating stages compared with lactation. Furthermore, associations between mRNA levels of transporters and their regulatory genes LXRalpha, PPARgamma, and SREBPs were found. ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 proteins were localized in glandular MG epithelial cells (MEC) during lactation, whereas during nonlactating stages, depending on species, the proteins showed distinct localization patterns in MEC and adipocytes. Our results demonstrate that ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA7 are differentially expressed between lactation and nonlactating stages and in association with regulatory genes. Combined expression and localization data suggest that the selected cholesterol transporters are universal MG transporters involved in transport and storage of cholesterol and in lipid homeostasis of MEC. Because of the species-specific expression patterns of transporters in mammary tissue, mechanisms of cholesterol homeostasis seem to be differentially regulated between species.

  6. Syngeneic murine ovarian cancer model reveals that ascites enriches for ovarian cancer stem-like cells expressing membrane GRP78

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Lihong; Bachelder, Robin E.; Kennedy, Margaret; Chen, Po-Han; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Berchuck, Andrew; Cianciolo, George; Pizzo, Salvatore V.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer patients are generally diagnosed at FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage III/IV, when ascites is common. The volume of ascites correlates positively with the extent of metastasis and negatively with prognosis. Membrane GRP78, a stress-inducible endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that is also expressed on the plasma membrane (memGRP78) of aggressive cancer cells, plays a crucial role in the embryonic stem cell maintenance. We studied ascites effects on ovarian cancer stem-like cells using a syngeneic mouse model. Our study demonstrates that ascites-derived tumor cells from mice injected intraperitoneally with murine ovarian cancer cells (ID8) express increased memGRP78 levels compared to ID8 cells from normal culture. We hypothesized that these ascites associated memGRP78+ cells are cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Supporting this hypothesis, we show that memGRP78+ cells isolated from murine ascites exhibit increased sphere forming and tumor initiating abilities compared to memGRP78− cells. When the tumor microenvironment is recapitulated by adding ascites fluid to cell culture, ID8 cells express more memGRP78 and increased self-renewing ability compared to those cultured in medium alone. Moreover, compared to their counterparts cultured in normal medium, ID8 cells cultured in ascites, or isolated from ascites, show increased stem cell marker expression. Antibodies directed against the carboxy-terminal domain of GRP78: 1) reduce self-renewing ability of murine and human ovarian cancer cells pre-incubated with ascites and 2) suppress a GSK3α-AKT/SNAI1 signaling axis in these cells. Based on these data, we suggest that memGRP78 is a logical therapeutic target for late stage ovarian cancer. PMID:25589495

  7. The ryanodine receptor/calcium channel genes are widely and differentially expressed in murine brain and peripheral tissues

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium release channels that participate in controlling cytosolic calcium levels. At variance with the probably ubiquitous inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-operated calcium channels (1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors), RyRs have been mainly regarded as the calcium release channels controlling skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Increasing evidence has recently suggested that RyRs may be more widely expressed, but this has never been extensively examined. Therefore, we cloned three cDNAs corresponding to murine RyR homologues to carry a comprehensive analysis of their expression in murine tissues. Here, we report that the three genes are expressed in almost all tissues analyzed, where tissue-specific patterns of expression were observed. In the uterus and vas deferens, expression of RyR3 was localized to the smooth muscle component of these organs. In the testis, expression of RyR1 and RyR3 was detected in germ cells. RyR mRNAs were also detected in in vitro-cultured cell lines. RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3 mRNA were detected in the cerebrum and in the cerebellum. In situ analysis revealed a cell type-specific pattern of expression in the different regions of the central nervous system. The differential expression of the three ryanodine receptor genes in the central nervous system was also confirmed using specific antibodies against the respective proteins. This widespread pattern of expression suggests that RyRs may participate in the regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis in a range of cells wider than previously recognized. PMID:7876312

  8. Structure, distribution, and expression of an ancient murine endogenous retroviruslike DNA family.

    PubMed Central

    Obata, M M; Khan, A S

    1988-01-01

    An endogenous retroviruslike DNA, B-26, was cloned from a BALB/c mouse embryo gene library by using a generalized murine leukemia virus DNA probe. Southern blot hybridization and nucleotide sequence analyses indicated that B-26 DNA might be a novel member of the GLN DNA family (A. Itin and E. Keshet, J. Virol. 59:301-307, 1986) which contains murine leukemia virus-related pol and env sequences. Northern analysis indicated that B-26-related RNAs of 8.4 and 3.0 kilobases were transcribed in thymus, spleen, brain, and liver tissues of 6-week-old BALB/c mice. Images PMID:3172346

  9. Internalization of IgG-Coated Targets Results in Activation and Secretion of Soluble CD40 Ligand and RANTES by Human Platelets ▿

    PubMed Central

    Antczak, Adam J.; Vieth, Joshua A.; Singh, Navinderjit; Worth, Randall G.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are crucial elements for maintenance of hemostasis. Other functions attributable to platelets are now being appreciated, such as their role in inflammatory reactions and host defense. Platelets have been reported to bind immunological stimuli like IgG complexes, and for nearly 50 years it has been speculated that platelets may participate in immunological reactions. Platelets have been reported to bind and internalize various substances, similar to other leukocytes, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that human platelets can bind and internalize IgG-coated particles, similar to leukocytes. To this end, we observed that interaction with IgG-coated beads resulted in platelet activation (as measured by CD62P expression), internalization of targets, and significant soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expresses and secreted) secretion. Blocking FcγRIIA with monoclonal antibody (MAb) IV.3 or inhibiting actin remodeling with cytochalasin D inhibited platelet activation, internalization, and cytokine production. These data suggest that platelets are capable of mediating internalization of IgG-coated particles, resulting in platelet activation and release of both sCD40L and RANTES. PMID:21177916

  10. Recent developments in StemBase: a tool to study gene expression in human and murine stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sandie, Reatha; Palidwor, Gareth A; Huska, Matthew R; Porter, Christopher J; Krzyzanowski, Paul M; Muro, Enrique M; Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    Background Currently one of the largest online repositories for human and mouse stem cell gene expression data, StemBase was first designed as a simple web-interface to DNA microarray data generated by the Canadian Stem Cell Network to facilitate the discovery of gene functions relevant to stem cell control and differentiation. Findings Since its creation, StemBase has grown in both size and scope into a system with analysis tools that examine either the whole database at once, or slices of data, based on tissue type, cell type or gene of interest. As of September 1, 2008, StemBase contains gene expression data (microarray and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) from 210 stem cell samples in 60 different experiments. Conclusion StemBase can be used to study gene expression in human and murine stem cells and is available at . PMID:19284540

  11. Small Molecule Inhibition of the TNF Family Cytokine CD40 Ligand Through a Subunit Fracture Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    L Silvian; J Friedman; K Strauch; T Cachero; E Day; F Qian; B Cunningham; A Fung; L Sun; et al.

    2011-12-31

    BIO8898 is one of several synthetic organic molecules that have recently been reported to inhibit receptor binding and function of the constitutively trimeric tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family cytokine CD40 ligand (CD40L, aka CD154). Small molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interfaces are relatively rare, and their discovery is often very challenging. Therefore, to understand how BIO8898 achieves this feat, we characterized its mechanism of action using biochemical assays and X-ray crystallography. BIO8898 inhibited soluble CD40L binding to CD40-Ig with a potency of IC{sub 50} = 25 {mu}M and inhibited CD40L-dependent apoptosis in a cellular assay. A co-crystal structure of BIO8898 with CD40L revealed that one inhibitor molecule binds per protein trimer. Surprisingly, the compound binds not at the surface of the protein but by intercalating deeply between two subunits of the homotrimeric cytokine, disrupting a constitutive protein-protein interface and breaking the protein's 3-fold symmetry. The compound forms several hydrogen bonds with the protein, within an otherwise hydrophobic binding pocket. In addition to the translational splitting of the trimer, binding of BIO8898 was accompanied by additional local and longer-range conformational perturbations of the protein, both in the core and in a surface loop. Binding of BIO8898 is reversible, and the resulting complex is stable and does not lead to detectable dissociation of the protein trimer. Our results suggest that a set of core aromatic residues that are conserved across a subset of TNF family cytokines might represent a generic hot-spot for the induced-fit binding of trimer-disrupting small molecules.

  12. CD40-mediated NFκB activation in B cells is increased in multiple sclerosis and modulated by therapeutics1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ding; Ireland, Sara J.; Remington, Gina; Alvarez, Enrique; Racke, Michael K.; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.; Monson, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    CD40 interacts with CD40 ligand and plays an essential role in immune regulation and homeostasis. Recent research findings, however, support a pathogenic role of CD40 in a number of autoimmune diseases. We previously showed that memory B cells from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients exhibited enhanced proliferation with CD40 stimulation compared to healthy donors. In this study, we used a multi-parameter phosflow approach to analyze the phosphorylation status of NFκB and three major MAP kinases (P38, ERK and JNK), the essential components of signaling pathways downstream of CD40 engagement in B cells from MS patients. We found that memory and naïve B cells from RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients exhibited a significantly elevated level of phosphorylated NFκB (p-P65) following CD40 stimulation compared to healthy donor controls. Combination therapy with interferon beta-1a (Avonex) and mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept) modulated the hyper-phosphorylation of P65 in B cells of RRMS patients at levels similar to healthy donor controls. Lower disease activity after the combination therapy correlated with the reduced phosphorylation of P65 following CD40 stimulation in treated patients. In addition, glatiramer acetate (GA) treatment also significantly reduced CD40-mediated P65 phosphorylation in RRMS patients, suggesting that reducing CD40-mediated p-P65 induction may be a general mechanism by which some current therapies modulate MS disease. PMID:27798157

  13. CD40 deficiency in mice exacerbates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chang-An; Kogan, Sophia; Amano, Shinya U.; Wang, Mengxi; Dagdeviren, Sezin; Friedline, Randall H.; Aouadi, Myriam; Kim, Jason K.

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes in rodents and humans is characterized by low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue and liver. The CD40 receptor and its ligand CD40L initiate immune cell signaling promoting inflammation, but conflicting data on CD40L-null mice confound its role in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that CD40 receptor-deficient mice on a high-fat diet display the expected decrease in hepatic cytokine levels but paradoxically exhibit liver steatosis, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance compared with their age-matched wild-type controls. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies also demonstrated insulin resistance in glucose utilization by the CD40-null mice compared with wild-type mice. In contrast to liver, adipose tissue in CD40-deficient animals harbors elevated cytokine levels and infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages and CD8+ effector T cells. In addition, ex vivo explants of epididymal adipose tissue from CD40−/− mice display elevated basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis, suggesting a potential increase of lipid efflux from visceral fat to the liver. These findings reveal that 1) CD40-null mice represent an unusual model of hepatic steatosis with reduced hepatic inflammation, and 2) CD40 unexpectedly functions in adipose tissue to attenuate its inflammation in obesity, thereby protecting against hepatic steatosis. PMID:23482447

  14. RelB regulates Bcl-xl expression and the irradiation-induced apoptosis of murine prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, LIANG; ZHU, BIN; YANG, LUOYAN; ZHAO, XIAOKUN; JIANG, HONHYI; MA, FANG

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis in prostate cancer (PCa) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) is believed to play a critical role in radioresistance. Bcl-xl, an important member of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family, has critical roles in tumor progression and development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of Bcl-xl expression and radiosensitivity from murine PCa RM-1 cells. An adenovirus-mediated RNA interference technique was employed to inhibit the expression of the RelB gene. RelB proteins were detected upon irradiation following transfection with small interfering (si)RelB, as shown by western blot analysis. The radiosensitivity of the RM-1 cells was determined by clonogenic assays. The apoptosis of the RM-1 cells were detected by flow cytometry assay, then quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to determine the expression level of Bcl-xl mRNA in the RM-1 cells. Radiation treatment increased the RelB protein levels from the cytosol and nucleus in the RM-1 cells. The protein expression levels of RelB in the pLentilox-sh-RelB-transfected RM-1 cells were significantly lower than in the negative interference group following radiation treatment. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis in the siRelB-RM-1 group was significantly higher than that in the control group following radiation treatment. Finally, a positive link between Bcl-xl expression and RelB activity was established in the RM-1 cells. Inhibition of RelB correlates with a decrease in expression of Bcl-xl. In conclusion, adenovirus-mediated siRNA targeting RelB inhibits Bcl-xl expression, enhances radiosensitivity and regulates the irradiation-induced apoptosis of the murine PCa RM-1 cell line. PMID:24839547

  15. Cloning, embryonic expression, and alternative splicing of a murine kidney-specific Na-K-Cl cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, P; Vanden Heuvel, G B; Payne, J A; Forbush, B

    1995-09-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding the murine renal Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) was cloned using library screening and anchored polymerase chain reaction. The deduced protein sequence contained 1,095 amino acids and was 93.5% identical to rabbit NKCC2 and 97.6% identical to rat BSC1. Two potential sites of phosphorylation by adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase and seven potential sites of phosphorylation by protein kinase C, which were previously identified in the rabbit and rat sequences, were phylogenetically conserved in the mouse. The expression of NKCC2 in the mouse was examined with Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. Expression of NKCC2 was kidney specific in both adult and embryonic mice. In the developing metanephros, NKCC2 was induced at 14.5 days post coitus and was expressed in distal limbs of immature loops of Henle but was absent from the ureteric bud, S-shaped bodies, and earlier nephrogenic structures. Similar to the rabbit, isoforms of NKCC2 that differed in the sequence of a 96-bp segment were identified in the mouse. In situ hybridization revealed that the isoforms exhibited different patterns of expression in the mature thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle as follows: isoform F was most highly expressed in the inner stripe of outer medulla, isoform A was most highly expressed in the outer stripe of the outer medulla, and isoform B was most highly expressed in the cortical thick ascending limb. To verify that the isoforms were generated by alternative splicing of mutually exclusive cassette exons, genomic clones encoding murine NKCC2 were characterized. Cassette exons were identified that corresponded to each of the three isoforms and were flanked by consensus splice donor and acceptor sequences.

  16. The murine decorin. Complete cDNA cloning, genomic organization, chromosomal assignment, and expression during organogenesis and tissue differentiation.

    PubMed

    Scholzen, T; Solursh, M; Suzuki, S; Reiter, R; Morgan, J L; Buchberg, A M; Siracusa, L D; Iozzo, R V

    1994-11-11

    Decorin, a proteoglycan known to interact with collagen and growth factors, may play key roles during ontogenesis, tissue remodeling, and cancer. We have deciphered the complete protein sequence of the murine decorin by cDNA cloning, elucidated its gene structure and chromosomal location, and investigated its expression in the developing embryo. The decorin protein and the gene were highly conserved vis à vis the human counterpart; however, the murine gene lacked a leader exon, exon Ib, which was found only in the human. Using interspecific backcrossing, we assigned the gene to chromosome 10 just proximally to the Steel gene locus. In situ hybridization studies of developing mouse embryos showed a distinct pattern of expression with a progressive increase of decorin mRNA during ontogenesis. At early stages (day 11 postconception), decorin was detectable only in the floor plate region. Subsequently (days 13-16 postconception), decorin expression was especially prominent in the meninges and mesothelial linings of pericardium, pleura, and coelomic cavity, as well as in the dermis and subepithelial layers of the intestine and urinary bladder. In contrast, the major parenchymal organs were only weakly positive for decorin mRNA. These findings suggest that decorin may play a role in epithelial/mesenchymal interactions during organ development and shaping.

  17. Spatial and temporal expression of FoxO transcription factors in the developing and adult murine brain.

    PubMed

    Hoekman, Marco F M; Jacobs, Frank M J; Smidt, Marten P; Burbach, J Peter H

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain leads to molecular mechanisms of signal transduction pathways and controlled gene expression in neuronal development we have screened the adult mouse brain for expressed forkhead transcription factors using a degenerate RT-PCR approach. Here, we focus on three FoxO genes found to be expressed in the brain: FoxO1, FoxO3 and FoxO6. The FoxO subfamily of forkhead transcription family is emerging as a central keypoint in an array of cellular functions, such as metabolism, differentiation and transformation. In situ hybridization experiments on adult and embryonic mouse brain showed differential expression patterns for three FoxO members. FoxO1 was strongly expressed in the striatum and neuronal subsets of the hippocampus (dentate gyrus and the ventral/posterior part of the CA regions), whereas FoxO3 was more diffusely expressed throughout the brain including all hippocampal areas, cortex and cerebellum. FoxO6 expression was eminent in various parts of the adult mouse brain, including the entire hippocampus, the amygdalohippocampal area and the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Remarkably, all three FoxO transcription factors were expressed relatively late in the developing murine brain, starting between E12.5 and E14. In summary, the presented data show FoxO factors to be expressed in the adult and developing mouse brain, in a spatially end temporally restricted manner.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 reveal differential expression patterns in cancer and low antigen expression in normal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bujak, Emil; Pretto, Francesca; Ritz, Danilo; Gualandi, Laura; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

    2014-09-10

    There is a considerable interest for the discovery and characterization of tumor-associated antigens, which may facilitate antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies. Thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 are homologous secreted proteins, which have previously been reported to be overexpressed during remodeling typical for wound healing and tumor progression and to possibly play a functional role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. To our knowledge, a complete immunohistochemical characterization of thrombospondins levels in normal rodent tissues has not been reported so far. Using antibody phage technology, we have generated and characterized monoclonal antibodies specific to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2, two antigens which share 62% aminoacid identity. An immunofluorescence analysis revealed that both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues, except for a weak staining of heart tissue by antibodies specific to thrombospondin-1. The analysis also showed that thrombospondin-1 was strongly expressed in 5/7 human tumors xenografted in nude mice, while it was only barely detectable in 3/8 murine tumors grafted in immunocompetent mice. By contrast, a high-affinity antibody to thrombospondin-2 revealed a much lower level of expression of this antigen in cancer specimens. Our analysis resolves ambiguities related to conflicting reports on thrombosponding expression in health and disease. Based on our findings, thrombospondin-1 (and not thrombospondin-2) may be considered as a target for antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies, in consideration of its low expression in normal tissues and its upregulation in cancer. - Highlights: • High affinity monoclonal antibodies to murine and human TSP1 and 2 were raised. • Both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues. • Strong positivity of human tumor xenografts for TSP1 was detected. • Study revealed much lower level of TSP2 expression in cancer specimens

  19. Regulated Expansion and Survival of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells Using Small Molecule-Dependent Inducible MyD88/CD40.

    PubMed

    Foster, Aaron E; Mahendravada, Aruna; Shinners, Nicholas P; Chang, Wei-Chun; Crisostomo, Jeannette; Lu, An; Khalil, Mariam; Morschl, Eva; Shaw, Joanne L; Saha, Sunandan; Duong, MyLinh T; Collinson-Pautz, Matthew R; Torres, David L; Rodriguez, Tania; Pentcheva-Hoang, Tsvetelina; Bayle, J Henri; Slawin, Kevin M; Spencer, David M

    2017-09-06

    Anti-tumor efficacy of T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is dependent on their specificity, survival, and in vivo expansion following adoptive transfer. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and CD40 signaling in T cells can improve persistence and drive proliferation of antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells following pathogen challenge or in graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) settings, suggesting that these costimulatory pathways may be co-opted to improve CAR-T cell persistence and function. Here, we present a novel strategy to activate TLR and CD40 signaling in human T cells using inducible MyD88/CD40 (iMC), which can be triggered in vivo via the synthetic dimerizing ligand, rimiducid, to provide potent costimulation to CAR-modified T cells. Importantly, the concurrent activation of iMC (with rimiducid) and CAR (by antigen recognition) is required for interleukin (IL)-2 production and robust CAR-T cell expansion and may provide a user-controlled mechanism to amplify CAR-T cell levels in vivo and augment anti-tumor efficacy. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phase IA/II, multicentre, open-label study of the CD40 antagonistic monoclonal antibody lucatumumab in adult patients with advanced non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Fanale, Michelle; Assouline, Sarit; Kuruvilla, John; Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Heo, Dae S; Verhoef, Gregor; Corradini, Paolo; Abramson, Jeremy S; Offner, Fritz; Engert, Andreas; Dyer, Martin J S; Carreon, Daniel; Ewald, Brett; Baeck, Johan; Younes, Anas; Freedman, Arnold S

    2014-01-01

    Despite advancements in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), patients continue to relapse and thus a need for new targeted therapies remains. The CD40 receptor is highly expressed on neoplastic B cells and activation leads to enhanced proliferation and survival. Lucatumumab (HCD122) is a fully human antagonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody. A phase IA/II study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and activity of lucatumumab in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. Determination of the MTD was the primary objective of the phase IA dose escalation portion and clinical response was the primary objective of the phase II dose expansion portion. Patients received escalating doses of lucatumumab administered intravenously once weekly for 4 weeks of an 8-week cycle. MTD was determined at 4 mg/kg of lucatumumab. A total of 111 patients with NHL (n = 74) and HL (n = 37) were enrolled. Responses were observed across various lymphoma subtypes. The overall response rate by computed tomography among patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MZL/MALT) was 33·3% and 42·9%, respectively. Lucatumumab demonstrates modest activity in relapsed/refractory patients with advanced lymphoma, suggesting that targeting of CD40 warrants further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Simultaneous activation of viral antigen-specific memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells using mRNA-electroporated CD40-activated autologous B-cells.

    PubMed

    Van den Bosch, Glenn A; Van Gulck, Ellen; Ponsaerts, Peter; Nijs, Griet; Lenjou, Marc; Apers, Ludwig; Kint, Ilse; Heyndrickx, Leo; Vanham, Guido; Van Bockstaele, Dirk R; Berneman, Zwi N; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it has become obvious that not only CD8 T-cells, but also CD4 T-helper cells are required for the induction of an effective, long-lasting cellular immune response. In view of the clinical importance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we developed 2 strategies to simultaneously reactivate viral antigen-specific memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells of CMV-seropositive and HIV-seropositive subjects using mRNA-electroporated autologous CD40-activated B cells. In the setting of HIV, we provide evidence that CD40-activated B cells can be cultured from HAART-naive HIV-1 seropositive patients. These cells not only express and secrete the HIV p24 antigen after electroporation with codon-optimized HIV-1 gag mRNA, but can also be used to in vitro reactivate Gag antigen-specific interferon-gamma-producing CD4 and CD8 autologous T-cells. For the CMV-specific approach, we applied mRNA coding for the pp65 protein coupled to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 to transfect CD40-activated B cells to induce CMV antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cells. More detailed analysis of the activated interferon-gamma-producing CMV pp65 tetramer positive CD8 T-cells revealed an effector memory phenotype with the capacity to produce interleukin-2. Our findings clearly show that the concomitant activation of both CD4 and CD8 (memory) T-cells using mRNA-electroporated CD40-B cells is feasible in CMV and HIV-1-seropositive persons, which indicates the potential value of this approach for application in cellular immunotherapy of infectious diseases.

  2. Human and murine pituitary expression of leukemia inhibitory factor. Novel intrapituitary regulation of adrenocorticotropin hormone synthesis and secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Akita, S; Webster, J; Ren, S G; Takino, H; Said, J; Zand, O; Melmed, S

    1995-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene expression was detected in human fetal pituitary tissue by expression of LIF mRNA transcripts, protein immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Fetal LIF immunoreactivity colocalized with 30% of ACTH-expressing cells, approximately 20% of somatotrophs, and approximately 15% of non-hormone-expressing cells. LIF was also strongly expressed in normal adult pituitary and in four growth hormone-producing and two ACTH-producing adenomas, but not in eight nonfunctioning pituitary tumors. Culture of fetal cells expressing surface LIF-binding sites demonstrated predominance of in vitro ACTH secretion as compared with other pituitary hormones. In AtT-20 murine cells, LIF (ED50 10 pM) stimulated basal proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels by 40% and corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced ACTH secretion (two- to threefold), as did oncostatin M (ED50 30 pM), a related peptide. ACTH responses were not further enhanced by both cytokines together, which is consistent with their shared receptor. Anti-LIF antiserum neutralized basal and LIF-induced ACTH secretion, suggesting autocrine regulation of ACTH by LIF. The results show that human pituitary cells express the LIF gene and LIF-binding sites, predominantly in corticotrophs. Pituitary LIF expression and LIF regulation of proopiomelanocortin and ACTH reflect an intrapituitary role for LIF in modulating early embryonic determination of specific human pituitary cells and as a paracrine or autocrine regulator of mature ACTH. Images PMID:7883977

  3. ACAT1 deletion in murine macrophages associated with cytotoxicity and decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Annabelle . E-mail: arodrig5@jhmi.edu; Ashen, M. Dominique; Chen, Edward S.

    2005-05-27

    In contrast to some published studies of murine macrophages, we previously showed that ACAT inhibitors appeared to be anti-atherogenic in primary human macrophages in that they decreased foam cell formation without inducing cytotoxicity. Herein, we examined foam cell formation and cytotoxicity in murine ACAT1 knockout (KO) macrophages in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies. Elicited peritoneal macrophages from normal C57BL6 and ACAT1 KO mice were incubated with DMEM containing acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 {mu}g protein/ml) for 48 h. Cells became cholesterol enriched and there were no differences in the total cholesterol mass. Esterified cholesterol mass was lower in ACAT1 KO foam cells compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.04). Cytotoxicity, as measured by the cellular release of [{sup 14}C]adenine from macrophages, was approximately 2-fold greater in ACAT1 KO macrophages as compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.0001), and this was independent of cholesterol enrichment. cDNA microarray analysis showed that ACAT1 KO macrophages expressed substantially less collagen type 3A1 (26-fold), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. Total collagen content was also significantly reduced (57%) in lung homogenates isolated from ACAT1 KO mice (p < 0.02). Thus, ACAT1 KO macrophages show biochemical changes consistent with increased cytotoxicity and also a novel association with decreased expression of collagen type 3A1.

  4. Cell-mediated immunomodulation of chemokine receptor 7-expressing porcine sertoli cells in murine heterotopic heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hong-Gook; Lee, Hak-Mo; Oh, Byoung Chol; Lee, Jeong Ryul

    2009-01-01

    Sertoli cells (SC) have immunomodulative properties, and chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) can optimize the systemic immunomodulatory effect by guiding SC from the periphery to the secondary lymphoid organs. The effect of immortalized neonatal porcine SC (NPSCi) was evaluated by analysis of cytokine levels. Hyporesponsiveness to donor cells was determined by MLC and analysis of splenocyte phenotypes using a murine allogeneic skin graft model. The effect of CCR7-expressing NPSCi (NPSCi-CCR7) combined with cobra venom factor (CVF) was evaluated using a heterotopically transplanted murine allogeneic heart model. Expression of immune cytokines was markedly modulated by NPSCi. The lymphocyte proliferation and splenocyte phenotypes were significantly suppressed by NPSCi-CCR7. Although pre-transplantation of NPSCi or NPSCi-CCR7 did not prolong graft survival of allogeneic cardiac grafts, CVF treatment facilitated pre-transplantation of NPSCi-CCR7 to prolong survival of allogeneic cardiac grafts (25.5 +/- 7.05 vs 9.5 +/- 0.58 days, p < 0.01). NPSCi may be used as a powerful immunomodulatory tool, and our strategy to traffic NPSCi to lymphoid organs using CCR7 optimizes the systemic immunomodulatory effect in vivo. With the help of initial immunosuppression for humoral mechanisms using CVF, the host immune response against allogeneic cardiac grafts can be effectively ameliorated by immunomodulation of the cellular mechanism with NPSCi-CCR7.

  5. [Mesenchymal stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase inhibit growth of murine melanoma B16F10 in vivo].

    PubMed

    Krasikova, L S; Karshieva, S S; Cheglakov, I B; Belyavsky, A V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell-based suicide gene therapy in mice bearing murine melanoma B16F10. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transfected with plasmid constructs expressing cytosine deaminase fused with uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CDA/UPRT) or CDA/UPRT fused with HSV-1 tegument protein VP22 (CDA/UPRT/VP22). In this study, we demonstrate that direct intratumoral transplantation of MSCs expressing CDA/UPRT or CDA/UPRT/VP22 followed by systemic administration of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) results in a significant inhibition of tumor growth. There was a 53% reduction in tumor volume in mice treated with CDA/UPRT-MSCs and 58% reduction in tumor volume in mice treated with CDA/UPRT/VP22-MSCs as compared with control animals transplanted with B16F10 melanoma alone. Injection of CDA/UPRT-MSC and CDA/UPRT/VP22-MSC prolonged the life span of mice bearing B16F10 melanoma by 15 and 26%, respectively. The data indicate that in murine B16F10 melanoma model, MSCs encoding CDA/UPRT suicide gene have a significant antitumor effect.

  6. Zoledronic acid induces cell-cycle prolongation in murine lung cancer cells by perturbing cyclin and Ras expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Ying; Chang, John W-C; Liu, Ying-Chieh; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Chang, Hsin-Ju; Tsai, Meng-Chun; Su, Shiawhwa Paul; Yeh, Kun-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZOL) was shown earlier to prolong survival in animal models of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to examine whether alteration of intracellular cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, retinoblastoma, and Ras protein expression and E2F localization are among the possible antilung cancer mechanisms driven by ZOL. Furthermore, we used geranylgeraniol to test whether the mevalonate pathway is involved in the antitumor effects of ZOL against lung cancer. Line-1 cells, a murine lung adenocarcinoma cell line, were examined. ZOL significantly slowed the growth of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. The ZOL-treated cells typically arrested at the S/G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by increased intracellular levels of cyclin A, B1, and CDC2 and decreased levels of cyclin D, p21, p27, phosphorylated retinoblastoma, and Ras. In addition, ZOL affected the distribution of E2F. When geranylgeraniol was added to the ZOL-treated cells, either in vitro or in vivo, tumor growth, cell-cycle progression, the expression of certain cyclins, and cyclin-related regulatory proteins were partially returned to that of untreated controls. Therefore, ZOL elicits cell-cycle prolongation that seems to be associated with alterations in the levels of certain cyclins and cyclin-related regulatory proteins. Furthermore, the mevalonate pathway regulates ZOL-induced murine lung cancer inhibition both in vitro and in vivo.