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Sample records for expressing simian immunodeficiency

  1. Inhibition of simian immunodeficiency virus by foamy virus vectors expressing siRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeonghae; Nadeau, Peter; Zucali, James R.; Johnson, Calvin M.; Mergia, Ayalew . E-mail: mergiaa@mail.vetmed.ufl.edu

    2005-12-20

    Viral vectors available for gene therapy are either inefficient or suffer from safety concerns for human applications. Foamy viruses are non-pathogenic retroviruses that offer several unique opportunities for gene transfer in various cell types from different species. In this report, we describe the use of simian foamy virus type 1 (SFV-1) vector to examine the efficacy of therapeutic genes. Hairpin short-interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) rev/env was placed under the control of the PolIII U6 snRNA promoter for expression and screened for silencing target genes using cognate target-reporter fusions. We have identified an effective siRNA (designated R2) which reduces the rev and env gene expression by 89% and 95%, respectively. Using the simian foamy virus type 1 (SFV-1) based vector, we delivered the PolIII expressed R2 siRNA into cultured cells and challenged with SIV. The results show that the R2 siRNA is a potent inhibitor of SIV replication as determined by p27 expression and reverse transcriptase assays. Vectors based on a non-pathogenic SFV-1 vector may provide a safe and efficient alternative to currently available vectors, and the SIV model will help devise protocols for effective anti-HIV gene therapy.

  2. Genetic analysis of simian immunodeficiency virus expressed in milk and selectively transmitted through breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rychert, Jenna; Lacour, Nedra; Amedee, Angela Martin

    2006-04-01

    To develop effective intervention strategies that prevent breast milk transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we must understand the specific viral properties and mechanisms responsible for infant infection. We have used lactating rhesus macaques infected with a pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) stock to analyze the viral genotypes expressed in plasma and milk throughout the disease course and to identify those variants ultimately transmitted to infants through breastfeeding. In these studies we observed mother-to-infant transmission of SIV/Delta(B670) by eight females during the chronic phase of disease, and we analyzed by heteroduplex tracking assays and sequence analysis the distribution and fluctuations in viral genotypes expressed. Each female expressed multiple V1 envelope genotypes in milk near the time of transmission, while a single genotype was found in each of the infants. Variants transmitted to infants were not expressed throughout the maternal disease course but were only detected near the time of transmission. The emergence of the transmitted genotype in the dam typically occurred in plasma before milk and was coincident with increased milk viral loads. Transmitted genotypes tended to be longer and more glycosylated and had a less negative charge over the V1 region compared to viral genotypes expressed in milk but not transmitted. These observations demonstrate that specific viral genotypes are selectively transmitted to infants through breastfeeding and support the hypothesis that transmission occurs as genotypes adapt for efficient expression in milk.

  3. Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Disruption through Altered Mucosal MicroRNA Expression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gaulke, Christopher A.; Porter, Matthew; Han, Yan-Hong; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; George, Michael D.; Dang, Angeline T.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Jiang, Guochun; Korf, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial barrier dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely been attributed to the rapid and severe depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although it is known that changes in mucosal gene expression contribute to intestinal enteropathy, the role of small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA), has not been investigated. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate model of HIV pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of viral infection on miRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. SIV infection led to a striking decrease in the expression of mucosal miRNA compared to that in uninfected controls. This decrease coincided with an increase in 5′-3′-exoribonuclease 2 protein and alterations in DICER1 and Argonaute 2 expression. Targets of depleted miRNA belonged to molecular pathways involved in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and immune response. Decreased expression of several miRNA involved in maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the gut was localized to the proliferative crypt region of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that SIV-induced decreased expression of miRNA involved in epithelial homeostasis, disrupted expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery, and increased expression of XRN2 are involved in the development of epithelial barrier dysfunction and gastroenteropathy. IMPORTANCE MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate the development and function of intestinal epithelial cells, and many viruses disrupt normal host miRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV and HIV disrupt expression of miRNA in the small intestine during infection. The depletion of several key miRNA is localized to the proliferative crypt region of the gut epithelium. These miRNA are known to control expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell death, and epithelial maturation. Our data indicate that this disruption might be caused by altered expression of mi

  4. Dynamic Modulation of Expression of Lentiviral Restriction Factors in Primary CD4(+) T Cells following Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Rahmberg, Andrew R; Rajakumar, Premeela A; Billingsley, James M; Johnson, R Paul

    2017-04-01

    Although multiple restriction factors have been shown to inhibit HIV/SIV replication, little is known about their expression in vivo Expression of 45 confirmed and putative HIV/SIV restriction factors was analyzed in CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood and the jejunum in rhesus macaques, revealing distinct expression patterns in naive and memory subsets. In both peripheral blood and the jejunum, memory CD4(+) T cells expressed higher levels of multiple restriction factors compared to naive cells. However, relative to their expression in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells, jejunal CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells exhibited significantly lower expression of multiple restriction factors, including APOBEC3G, MX2, and TRIM25, which may contribute to the exquisite susceptibility of these cells to SIV infection. In vitro stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies or type I interferon resulted in upregulation of distinct subsets of multiple restriction factors. After infection of rhesus macaques with SIVmac239, the expression of most confirmed and putative restriction factors substantially increased in all CD4(+) T cell memory subsets at the peak of acute infection. Jejunal CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells exhibited the highest levels of SIV RNA, corresponding to the lower restriction factor expression in this subset relative to peripheral blood prior to infection. These results illustrate the dynamic modulation of confirmed and putative restriction factor expression by memory differentiation, stimulation, tissue microenvironment and SIV infection and suggest that differential expression of restriction factors may play a key role in modulating the susceptibility of different populations of CD4(+) T cells to lentiviral infection.IMPORTANCE Restriction factors are genes that have evolved to provide intrinsic defense against viruses. HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) target CD4(+) T cells. The baseline level of expression in vivo and degree to which expression of restriction factors is

  5. A Bivalent, Chimeric Rabies Virus Expressing Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Induces Multifunctional Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dunkel, Amber; Shen, Shixue; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We previously showed that a matrix (M) gene-deleted rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccine (RABV-ΔM) is highly immunogenic and induces potent B cell responses in the context of RABV infection. We speculated that RABV-ΔM expressing HIV proteins would also induce potent B cell responses against HIV antigens. As a prerequisite to future studies in nonhuman primates, we completed immunogenicity studies in mice to confirm the ability of RABV-ΔM to induce polyfunctional B cell responses in the context of HIV. To that end, the envelope protein from the mac239 strain of SIV (SIVmac239Env) was cloned into RABV-ΔM, resulting in RABV-ΔM-Env. Infectious virus was recovered following standard methods and propagated on baby hamster kidney cells stably expressing RABV M [>107 focus forming units (ffu)/ml]. Western blot analysis of cell lysates or of purified virions confirmed Env expression on the surface of infected cells and within virus particles, respectively. Positive neutralization activity against a neutralization-sensitive SIV strain and to a lesser extent against a neutralization-resistant SIV strain was detected in mice after a single intramuscular inoculation with RABV-ΔM-Env. The quality, but not quantity, of the antibody response was enhanced via boosting with recombinant gp130 or RABV-ΔM-Env as measured by an increase in antibody avidity and a skewing toward a Th1-type antibody response. We also show that an intradermal inoculation induces higher antibodies than an intramuscular or intranasal inoculation. An intradermal inoculation of RABV-ΔM-Env followed by a boost inoculation with recombinant gp130 produced anti-SIV antibodies with neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibody (nNAb) effector functions. Together, RABV-ΔM-Env induces B cells to secrete antibodies against SIV with the potential to clear both “free” and cell-associated virus. Strategies capable of eliciting both NAbs as well as nNAbs might help to improve the efficacy of HIV-1 vaccines

  6. Vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

    PubMed

    Nègre, Didier; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2002-11-01

    In contrast to other retroviruses, lentiviruses have the unique property of infecting non-proliferating cells. Thus vectors derived from lentiviruses are promising tools for in vivo gene delivery applications. Vectors derived from human primate and non-primate lentiviruses have recently been described and, unlike retroviral vectors derived from murine leukemia viruses, lead to stable integration of the transgene into quiescent cells in various organs. Despite all the safety safeguards that have been progressively introduced in lentiviral vectors, the clinical acceptance of vectors derived from pathogenic lentiviruses is subject to debate. It is therefore essential to design vectors derived from a wide range of lentivirus types and to comparatively examine their properties in terms of transduction efficiency and bio-safety. Here, we review the properties of lentiviral vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

  7. Utilization of C-C chemokine receptor 5 by the envelope glycoproteins of a pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmac239.

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, L; Choe, H; Martin, K A; Farzan, M; Ponath, P D; Wu, L; Newman, W; Gerard, N; Gerard, C; Sodroski, J

    1997-01-01

    We examined chemokine receptors for the ability to facilitate the infection of CD4-expressing cells by viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of a pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmac239. Expression of either human or simian C-C chemokine receptor CCR5 allowed the SIVmac239 envelope glycoproteins to mediate virus entry and cell-to-cell fusion. Thus, distantly related immunodeficiency viruses such as SIV and the primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates can utilize CCR5 as an entry cofactor. PMID:9032394

  8. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and its relationship with virus infection in the brain of macaques inoculated with macrophage-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hui Qin; Moritoyo, Takashi; Mori, Kazuyasu; Sugimoto, Chie; Ono, Fumiko; Izumo, Shuji

    2009-02-01

    The pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex (ADC) is still poorly understood. Many studies suggest that proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha released by microglia/macrophages or astrocytes play a role in CNS injury. A microscopic finding of a microglial nodule with multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) is a histopathologic hallmark of ADC and named HIV encephalitis. However, in vivo expression of these cytokines in this microenvironment of HIV encephalitis is not yet clarified. One of the main reasons is complexities of brain pathology in patients who have died from terminal AIDS. In this study, we infected two macaques with macrophage-tropic Simian immunodeficiency virus SIV239env/MERT and examined expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in inflammatory lesions with MNGCs and its relation to virus-infected cells using immunohistochemistry. One macaque showed typical inflammatory lesions with MNGCs in the frontal white matter. Small microglial nodules were also detected in the basal ganglia and the spinal cord. SIVenv positive cells were detected mainly in inflammatory lesions, and seemed to be microglia/macrophages and MNGCs based on their morphology. Expression of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were detected in the inflammatory lesions with MNGCs, and these positive cells were found to be negative for SIVenv by double-labeling immunohistochemistry or immunohistochemistry of serial sections. There were a few TNF-alpha positive cells and almost no IL-1beta positive cells in the area other than inflammatory lesions. Another macaque showed scattered CD3+ cells and CD68+ cells in the perivascular regions of the white matter. SIVenv and TNF-alpha was demonstrated in a few perivascular macrophages. These findings indicate that virus-infected microglia/macrophages do not always express IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, which suggests an indirect role of HIV-1-infected cells in cytokine-mediated pathogenesis of ADC. Our macaque model for human ADC

  9. Chronic binge alcohol administration accentuates expression of pro-fibrotic and inflammatory genes in the skeletal muscle of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Tracy; Simon, Liz; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Mussell, Jason; Berner, Paul; Ford, Stephen; Dufour, Jason; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Molina, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration exacerbates skeletal muscle (SKM) wasting at the terminal stage of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques. This is associated with a pro-inflammatory and oxidative milieu which we have previously shown to be associated with a disrupted balance between anabolic and catabolic mechanisms. In this study, we attempted to characterize the SKM gene expression signature in CBA-administered SIV-infected macaques; using the same animals from the previous study. Methods Administration of intragastric alcohol or sucrose to male rhesus macaques began three months prior to SIV infection and continued throughout the duration of study. Gene transcriptomes of SKM excised at necropsy (~10 mo. post-SIV) from healthy naive control (Control), sucrose-administered, SIV-infected (SUC-SIV), and CBA-administered, SIV-infected (CBA-SIV) macaques were evaluated in microarray datasets. The Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) classification tool was used to filter differentially regulated genes based on their predicted function into select biological processes relevant to SKM wasting which were: inflammation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, and metabolism. Results In total, 1124 genes were differentially regulated between SUC-SIV and controls, 2022 genes were differentially expressed between the CBA-SIV and controls and 836 genes were differentially expressed between CBA-SIV and SUC-SIV animals. The relevance of altered gene expression was reflected in the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory CCL-2, CCL-8, CX3CL1, SELE, HP, and TNFRS10A mRNA expression. In addition, ECM remodeling was reflected in the up-regulation of TIMP-1, MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression and TGF-β protein expression. In addition, hydroxyproline content and picrosirius staining reflected increased collagen deposition in the CBA-SIV muscle tissue. Conclusions The results of the study demonstrate SKM inflammation as an

  10. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of CD8+ lymphocytes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G A; Reubel, G H; Pedersen, N C

    1996-01-01

    To determine the lymphoid target cells of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in vivo, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) were positively selected (>97% purity) for surface expression of CD4, CD8, or CD20 and then analyzed for SIV provirus using semiquantitative DNA amplification. We found provirus in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes but none in CD20+ lymphocytes. During acute SIV infection (< or = 214 days postinoculation), the percentage of PBL and LNL CD4+ cells containing proviral DNA ranged from 0.2 to 20% and from 0.2 to 2%, respectively. Proviral burden in the CD8+ population of either PBL or LNL ranged from 0.01 to 0.2%. Virus isolation by cocultivation was positive for both CD4+ and CD8+ purified populations. No difference in proviral burden was observed between PBL and LNL subsets during acute SIV infection. Up to 19.4% of positively selected CD8+ cells also expressed CD4, and thus the provirus may reside within a dual-positive population. This dual-positive population may represent activated lymphocytes that are particularly susceptible to infection and may provide an opportunity for virus entry into the CD8+ CD4- lymphocytes in vivo. PMID:8764081

  11. Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Lawrance C.; Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Winsauer, Peter; Amedee, Angela; Molina, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recreational and medical use of cannabis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, chronic administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) inhibited viral replication and intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation and systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including Δ9-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30, and 60 days postinfection (days p.i.) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving Δ9-THC (n = 3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n = 4) or THC (THC/SIV; n = 4). Chronic Δ9-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60 days p.i. At 60 days p.i., ∼28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in the VEH/SIV group compared to none showing decrease in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149, and miR-187, previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator, was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4+ crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV macaques compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal

  12. Cannabinoid administration attenuates the progression of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Molina, Patricia E; Winsauer, Peter; Zhang, Ping; Walker, Edith; Birke, Leslie; Amedee, Angela; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Troxclair, Dana; McGoey, Robin; Varner, Kurt; Byerley, Lauri; LaMotte, Lynn

    2011-06-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary psychoactive component in marijuana, is FDA approved to ameliorate AIDS-associated wasting. Because cannabinoid receptors are expressed on cells of the immune system, chronic Δ(9)-THC use may impact HIV disease progression. We examined the impact of chronic Δ(9)-THC administration (0.32 mg/kg im, 2 × daily), starting 28 days prior to inoculation with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV(mac251); 100 TCID(50)/ml, iv), on immune and metabolic indicators of disease during the initial 6 month asymptomatic phase of infection in rhesus macaques. SIV(mac251) inoculation resulted in measurable viral load, decreased lymphocyte CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, and increased CD8(+) proliferation. Δ(9)-THC treatment of SIV-infected animals produced minor to no effects in these parameters. However, chronic Δ(9)-THC administration decreased early mortality from SIV infection (p = 0.039), and this was associated with attenuation of plasma and CSF viral load and retention of body mass (p = NS). In vitro, Δ(9)-THC (10 μm) decreased SIV (10 TCID(50)) viral replication in MT4-R5 cells. These results indicate that chronic Δ(9)-THC does not increase viral load or aggravate morbidity and may actually ameliorate SIV disease progression. We speculate that reduced levels of SIV, retention of body mass, and attenuation of inflammation are likely mechanisms for Δ(9)-THC-mediated modulation of disease progression that warrant further study.

  13. Development of vivo of genetic variability of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Baier, M; Dittmar, M T; Cichutek, K; Kurth, R

    1991-01-01

    Rapid development of genetic variability may contribute to the pathogenicity of lentiviruses as it may allow escape from immune surveillance and/or from suppression of virus replication. Although apathogenic in African green monkeys, simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from African green monkeys is shown to display extensive genetic variability and defectiveness in the V1- and V2-like variable domains of the external envelope protein comparable to that known for human immunodeficiency virus. However, in contrast to the situation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, a predominant major virus variant was detected neither in a monkey naturally infected for more than 10 years nor in two monkeys infected with a molecular virus clone for 15-20 months. Extensive variability evolves from a single genotype with a maximal rate of 7.7 mutations per 1000 nucleotides per year. A remarkable selection for nonsynonymous mutations that accounts for 92% of all changes indicates continuous selection of variants. Images PMID:1896460

  14. Nef proteins from simian immunodeficiency viruses are tetherin antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengwen; Wilson, Sam J.; Langford, Wilmina; Virgen, Beatriz; Gregory, Devon; Johnson, Marc; Munch, Jan; Kirchhoff, Frank; Bieniasz, Paul D.; Hatziioannou, Theodora

    2010-01-01

    The tetherin/BST2/CD317 protein blocks the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses by inducing tethering of nascent particles to infected cell surfaces. The HIV-1 Vpu protein antagonizes the antiviral activity of human but not monkey tetherins and many simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) do not encode Vpu. Here, we show that the apparently ‘missing’ anti-tetherin activity in SIVs has been acquired by several SIV Nef proteins. Specifically, SIVMAC/SIVSMM, SIVAGM and SIVBLU Nef proteins can suppress tetherin activity. Notably, tetherin antagonism by SIV Nef proteins is species-specific, is genetically separable from other Nef activities and is most evident with simian rather than human tetherin proteins. Accordingly, a critical determinant of sensitivity to SIVMAC Nef in the tetherin cytoplasmic tail is variable in nonhuman primate tetherins and deleted in human tetherin, likely due to selective pressures imposed by viral antagonists, perhaps including Nef proteins. PMID:19501037

  15. Expansion of dysfunctional Tim-3-expressing effector memory CD8+ T cells during simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Burwitz, Benjamin J; Chew, Glen M; Reed, Jason S; Pathak, Reesab; Seger, Elizabeth; Clayton, Kiera L; Rini, James M; Ostrowski, Mario A; Ishii, Naoto; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Hansen, Scott G; Sacha, Jonah B; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C

    2014-12-01

    The T cell Ig- and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) negative immune checkpoint receptor demarcates functionally exhausted CD8(+) T cells arising from chronic stimulation in viral infections like HIV. Tim-3 blockade leads to improved antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses in vitro and, therefore, represents a novel intervention strategy to restore T cell function in vivo and protect from disease progression. However, the Tim-3 pathway in the physiologically relevant rhesus macaque SIV model of AIDS remains uncharacterized. We report that Tim-3(+)CD8(+) T cell frequencies are significantly increased in lymph nodes, but not in peripheral blood, in SIV-infected animals. Tim-3(+)PD-1(+)CD8(+) T cells are similarly increased during SIV infection and positively correlate with SIV plasma viremia. Tim-3 expression was found primarily on effector memory CD8(+) T cells in all tissues examined. Tim-3(+)CD8(+) T cells have lower Ki-67 content and minimal cytokine responses to SIV compared with Tim-3(-)CD8(+) T cells. During acute-phase SIV replication, Tim-3 expression peaked on SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells by 2 wk postinfection and then rapidly diminished, irrespective of mutational escape of cognate Ag, suggesting non-TCR-driven mechanisms for Tim-3 expression. Thus, rhesus Tim-3 in SIV infection partially mimics human Tim-3 in HIV infection and may serve as a novel model for targeted studies focused on rejuvenating HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses.

  16. Inner architecture of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Fukui, T; Imura, S; Goto, T; Nakai, M

    1993-07-01

    The cores of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) were observed by negative staining after isolation of the core with Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde. Four kinds of cores were found: asymmetric and symmetric sectoral shapes, a bar shape, and a triangular shape. These results were confirmed by the examination of ultrathin sections of whole virions. In some virions, the connection between the core and the envelope was observed after freeze fracturing. Its structure was considered to be characteristic of an intermediate stage of viral maturation. The HIV-1 core was reacted with anti-HIV-1 p24 mouse monoclonal antibody.

  17. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Sparger, Ellen E. Dubie, Robert A.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Cole, Kelly S.; Chang, W.L.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2008-05-10

    Studies in non-human primates, with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have demonstrated that live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly effective; however these vaccine viruses maintain a low level of pathogenicity. Lentivirus attenuation associated with deletion of the viral vif gene carries a significantly reduced risk for pathogenicity, while retaining the potential for virus replication of low magnitude in the host. This report describes a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 provirus that was tested as an attenuated proviral DNA vaccine by inoculation of female rhesus macaques. SIV-specific interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot responses of low magnitude were observed after immunization with plasmid containing the vif-deleted SIV provirus. However, vaccinated animals displayed strong sustained virus-specific T cell proliferative responses and increasing antiviral antibody titers. These immune responses suggested either persistent vaccine plasmid expression or low level replication of vif-deleted SIV in the host. Immunized and unvaccinated macaques received a single high dose vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. A transient suppression of challenge virus load and a greater median survival time was observed for vaccinated animals. However, virus loads for vaccinated and unvaccinated macaques were comparable by twenty weeks after challenge and overall survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, a vif-deleted SIVmac239 proviral DNA vaccine is immunogenic and capable of inducing a transient suppression of pathogenic challenge virus, despite severe attenuation of the vaccine virus.

  18. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Integration Preference Is Similar to That of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Crise, Bruce; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Chiuchin; Morcock, David R.; Whitby, Denise; Munroe, David J.; Arthur, Larry O.; Wu, Xiaolin

    2005-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a useful model for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy. As with all other retroviruses, integration is a necessary step in the replication cycle of SIV. The location of the retrovirus integration site is known to impact on viral gene expression, establishment of viral latency, and other aspects of the replication cycle of a retrovirus. In this study, 148 SIV provirus integration sites were sequenced and mapped in the human genome. Our analysis showed that SIV integration, like that of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), exhibited a strong preference for actively transcribed regions in the genome (A. R. Schroder et al., Cell 110:521-529, 2002) and no preference for the CpG islands or transcription start sites, in contrast to observations for murine leukemia virus (X. Wu et al., Science 300:1749-1751, 2003). The parallel integration target site preferences of SIV and HIV-1 suggest that these lentiviruses may share similar mechanisms for target site selection and that SIV serves as an accurate model of HIV-1 with respect to integration. PMID:16160146

  19. Neutralization Properties of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Infecting Chimpanzees and Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Hannah J.; Decker, Julie M.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Galimidi, Rachel P.; West, Anthony P.; Learn, Gerald H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Li, Yingying; Pace, Craig S.; Song, Ruijiang; Huang, Yaoxing; Denny, Thomas N.; Mouquet, Hugo; Martin, Loic; Acharya, Priyamvada; Zhang, Baoshan; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Verrips, C. Theo; Strokappe, Nika M.; Rutten, Lucy; McCoy, Laura E.; Weiss, Robin A.; Brown, Corrine S.; Jackson, Raven; Silvestri, Guido; Connors, Mark; Burton, Dennis R.; Shaw, George M.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ho, David D.; Farzan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Igmim2, CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized >90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4+ T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection. PMID:25900654

  20. Simian immunodeficiency virus confounds T follicular helper T cells and the germinal centre

    PubMed Central

    Lea-Henry, Tom N.

    2016-01-01

    Yamamoto et al. have studied T follicular helper (TFH) and germinal centre (GC) responses after infection of rhesus macaques (RM) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). In this study the authors examined the behaviour of TFH, reproducing infection-associated TFH accumulation and their association with the quality of antibody responses against cross-clade viral epitopes. The authors correlate TFH IL4 and CD154 expression with superior antibody responses. Accumulation of TFH was accompanied by aberrant expression of non-TFH transcriptional regulators such as BLIMP1 in TFH, suggesting viral induced abnormalities may affect TFH function. PMID:28149882

  1. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Letvin, N L; Schmitz, J E; Jordan, H L; Seth, A; Hirsch, V M; Reimann, K A; Kuroda, M J

    1999-08-01

    A non-human primate model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey, was used to explore the role of the AIDS virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in disease pathogenesis. This CTL response was measured using the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I/peptide tetramer technology. Large numbers of tetramer-binding CD8+ T lymphocytes were demonstrable not only in the peripheral blood, but in lymph nodes and even in semen of chronically SIV-infected monkeys. The central role of these effector T lymphocytes in containing SIV spread during primary infection was demonstrated by showing that early SIV clearance during primary infection correlated with the emergence of the tetramer binding CD8+ T lymphocytes and that in vivo depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes eliminated the ability of the infected monkeys to contain SIV replication. These observations suggest that an effective AIDS vaccine should elicit a potent virus-specific CTL response. In fact, a live, recombinant SIV vaccine constructed using the attenuated pox virus vector modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) elicited a high-frequency CTL response, comparable in magnitude to that elicited by SIV infection itself. This suggests that vaccine modalities such as MVA may prove useful in creating an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. These studies also indicate the power of both the SIV/macaque model and MHC class I/peptide tetramers for assessing AIDS vaccine strategies.

  2. BST-2 mediated restriction of simian-human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Autumn; Lau, David; Mitchell, Richard S; Hill, M Sarah; Schmitt, Kimberly; Guatelli, John C; Stephens, Edward B

    2010-10-25

    Pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) contain HIV-1 Vpu and SIV Nef, both shown to counteract BST-2 (HM1.24; CD317; tetherin) inhibition of virus release in a species-specific manner. We show that human and pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) restrict SHIV. We found that sequential "humanization" of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) protein resulted in a fluctuation in sensitivity to HIV-1 Vpu. Our results also show that the length of the TMD in human and ptBST-2 proteins is important for BST-2 restriction and susceptibility to Vpu. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of tertiary structure in BST-2 antagonism and suggests that the HIV-1 Vpu transmembrane domain may have additional functions in vivo unrelated to BST-2 antagonism.

  3. BST-2 Mediated Restriction of Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Autumn; Lau, David; Mitchell, Richard S.; Hill, M. Sarah; Schmitt, Kimberly; Guatelli, John C.; Stephens, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV)contain HIV-1 Vpu and SIV Nef, both shown to counteract BST-2 (HM1.24; CD317; tetherin) inhibition of virus release in a species-specific manner. We show that human and pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) restrict SHIV. We found that sequential “humanize” of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) protein resulted in a fluctuation in sensitivity to HIV-1 Vpu. Our results also show that the length of the TMD in human and ptBST-2 proteins is important for BST-2 restriction and susceptibility to Vpu. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of tertiary structure in BST-2 antagonism and suggests that the HIV-1 Vpu transmembrane domain may have additional functions in vivo unrelated to BST-2 antagonism. PMID:20708210

  4. Simian-Human immunodeficiency viruses expressing chimeric subtype B/C Vpu proteins demonstrate the importance of the amino terminal and transmembrane domains in the rate of CD4(+) T cell loss in macaques.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Autumn; Schmitt, Kimberly; Culley, Nathan; Stephens, Edward B

    2013-01-20

    Previously, we reported that simian-human immunodeficiency viruses expressing either the lab adapted subtype B (SHIV(KU-1bMC33)) or subtype C (SHIV(SCVpu)) Vpu proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) had different rates of CD4(+) T cell loss following inoculation into macaques. In this study, we have generated SHIVs that express either the subtype B or subtype C N-terminal (NTD) and transmembrane (TMD) domains and the opposing cytoplasmic domain (SHIV(VpuBC), SHIV(VpuCB)). In culture systems, SHIV(VpuBC) replicated faster than SHIV(VpuCB) while both proteins exhibited similar ability to down-modulate CD4 surface expression. Following inoculation into macaques, SHIV(VpuBC) resulted in rapid CD4(+) T cell loss similar to the parental SHIV(KU-1bMC33), while the rate of CD4(+) T cell loss in those inoculated with SHIV(VpuCB) was intermediate of SHIV(SCVpu) and SHIV(KU-1bMC33). These results emphasize the importance of the Vpu NTD/TMD region in the rate of CD4(+) T cell loss in the pathogenic X4 SHIV/macaque model.

  5. Tissue tropism of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Wyand, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a T-lymphotropic lentivirus that is genetically, immunologically, and morphologically related to the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2). In rhesus monkeys, SIV induces a progressively fatal immunodeficiency syndrome strikingly similar to human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The tissue and cellular tropism of SIV was determined by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization using a 3.48 kilobase SIV envelope gene probe labeled with biotin, {sup 35}S, or {sup 3}H. Probes labeled with {sup 35}S nonspecifically bound to tissue eosinophils and produced poor signal resolution compared to tritium labeled probes. Biotin labeled probes did not detect SIV under similar hybridization conditions. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues produced strong hybridization signal with superior morphology compared to frozen tissues. Gastrointestinal, respiratory, and lymphoid tissues most frequently contained SIV RNA. The distribution of SIV did not correlate with sex, or viral inoculum, but was most extensive in animals with SIV induced granulomatous encephalitis. SIV was most frequently observed in lymphocytes and macrophages. In the brain focal granulomas were composed almost entirely of EBM11+, lysozyme+, macrophages which contained large amounts of SIV RNA and p27 core protein detected by the monoclonal antibody R1C7. Cells away from granulomas in the brain parenchyma and around blood vessels contained virus and were compatible with oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Lymph nodes in follicular hyperplasia contained small numbers of SIV positive cells compatible with lymphocytes in the paracortex and mantle zones as well as in cells of the germinal center. Lymph nodes in various stages of follicular depletion with expanded paracortices contained large numbers of cells with SIV RNA in lymphocytes and macrophages.

  6. Persistent infection of macaques with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J T; Halloran, M; Lord, C I; Watson, A; Ranchalis, J; Fung, M; Letvin, N L; Sodroski, J G

    1995-01-01

    Chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) containing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tat, rev, env, and, in some cases, vpu genes were inoculated into eight cynomolgus monkeys. Viruses could be consistently recovered from the CD8-depleted peripheral blood lymphocytes of all eight animals for at least 2 months. After this time, virus isolation varied among the animals, with viruses continuing to be isolated from some animals beyond 600 days after inoculation. The level of viral RNA in plasma during acute infection and the frequency of virus isolation after the initial 2-month period were higher for the Vpu-positive viruses. All of the animals remained clinically healthy, and the absolute numbers of CD4-positive lymphocytes were stable. Antibodies capable of neutralizing HIV-1 were generated at high titers in animals exhibiting the greatest consistency of virus isolation. Strain-specific HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies were initially elicited, and then more broadly neutralizing antibodies were elicited. env sequences from two viruses isolated more than a year after infection were analyzed. In the Vpu-negative SHIV, for which virus loads were lower, a small amount of env variation, which did not correspond to that found in natural HIV-1 variants, was observed. By contrast, in the Vpu-positive virus, which was consistently isolated from the host animal, extensive variation of the envelope glycoproteins in the defined variable gp120 regions was observed. Escape from neutralization by CD4 binding site monoclonal antibodies was observed for the viruses with the latter envelope glycoproteins, and the mechanism of escape appears to involve decreased binding of the antibody to the monomeric gp120 glycoproteins. The consistency with which SHIV infection of cynomolgus monkeys is initiated and the similarities in the neutralizing antibody response to SHIV and HIV-1 support the utility of this model system for the study of HIV-1 prophylaxis. PMID

  7. Stability of the gorilla microbiome despite simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Andrew H; Peeters, Martine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Esteban, Amadine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2015-02-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have been discovered in over 45 primate species; however, the pathogenic potential of most SIV strains remains unknown due to difficulties inherent in observing wild populations. Because those SIV infections that are pathogenic have been shown to induce changes in the host's gut microbiome, monitoring the microbiota present in faecal samples can provide a noninvasive means for studying the effects of SIV infection on the health of wild-living primates. Here, we examine the effects of SIVgor, a close relative of SIVcpz of chimpanzees and HIV-1 of humans, on the gut bacterial communities residing within wild gorillas, revealing that gorilla gut microbiomes are exceptionally robust to SIV infection. In contrast to the microbiomes of HIV-1-infected humans and SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees, SIVgor-infected gorilla microbiomes exhibit neither rises in the frequencies of opportunistic pathogens nor elevated rates of microbial turnover within individual hosts. Regardless of SIV infection status, gorilla microbiomes assort into enterotypes, one of which is compositionally analogous to those identified in humans and chimpanzees. The other gorilla enterotype appears specialized for a leaf-based diet and is enriched in environmentally derived bacterial genera. We hypothesize that the acquisition of this gorilla-specific enterotype was enabled by lowered immune system control over the composition of the microbiome. Our results indicate differences between the pathology of SIVgor and SIVcpz/HIV-1 infections, demonstrating the utility of investigating host microbial ecology as a means for studying disease in wild primates of high conservation priority.

  8. Natural simian immunodeficiency virus transmission in mandrills: a family affair?

    PubMed Central

    Fouchet, David; Verrier, Delphine; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Souquière, Sandrine; Makuwa, Maria; Kazanji, Mirdad; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Pontier, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how pathogens spread and persist in the ecosystem is critical for deciphering the epidemiology of diseases of significance for global health and the fundamental mechanisms involved in the evolution of virulence and host resistance. Combining long-term behavioural and epidemiological data collected in a naturally infected mandrill population and a Bayesian framework, the present study investigated unknown aspects of the eco-epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), the recent ancestor of HIV. Results show that, in contrast to what is expected from aggressive and sexual transmission (i.e. the two commonly accepted transmission modes for SIV), cases of SIVmnd-1 subtype were significantly correlated among related individuals (greater than 30% of the observed cases). Challenging the traditional view of SIV, this finding suggests the inheritance of genetic determinants of susceptibility to SIV and/or a role for behavioural interactions among maternal kin affecting the transmission of the virus, which would highlight the underappreciated role of sociality in the spread of infectious diseases. Outcomes of this study also provide novel insights into the role of host social structure in the evolution of pathogens. PMID:22673358

  9. Molecular characterization of gag proteins from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVMne).

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L E; Benveniste, R E; Sowder, R; Copeland, T D; Schultz, A M; Oroszlan, S

    1988-01-01

    A simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) designated SIVMne was isolated from a pig-tailed macaque with lymphoma housed at the University of Washington Regional Primate Research Center, Seattle. To better establish the relationship of SIVMne to other immunodeficiency viruses, we purified and determined the partial amino acid sequences of six structural proteins (p1, p2, p6, p8, p16, and p28) from SIVMne and compared these amino acid sequences to the translated nucleotide sequences of SIVMac and human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2). A total of 125 residues of SIVMne amino acid sequence were compared to the predicted amino acid sequences of the gag precursors of SIV and HIVs. In the compared regions 92% of the SIVMne amino acids were identical to predicted residues of SIVMac, 83% were identical to predicted residues of HIV-2, and 41% were identical to predicted residues of HIV-1. These data reveal that the six SIVMne proteins are proteolytic cleavage products of the gag precursor (Pr60gag) and that their order in the structure of Pr60gag is p16-p28-p2-p8-p1-p6. Rabbit antisera prepared against purified p28 and p16 were shown to cross-react with proteins of 60, 54, and 47 kilodaltons present in the viral preparation and believed to be SIVMne Pr60gag and intermediate cleavage products, respectively. SIVMne p16 was shown to contain covalently bound myristic acid, and p8 was identified as a nucleic acid-binding protein. The high degree of amino acid sequence homology between SIVs and HIV-2 around proven proteolytic cleavage sites in SIV Pr60gag suggests that proteolytic processing of the HIV-2 gag precursor is probably very similar to processing of the SIV gag precursor. Peptide bonds cleaved during proteolytic processing of the SIV gag precursor were similar to bonds cleaved during processing of HIV-1 gag precursors, suggesting that the SIV and HIV viral proteases have similar cleavage site specificities. Images PMID:3292789

  10. Lymphatic Dissemination of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus after Penile Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong-Min; Dutra, Joseph; Fritts, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is primarily transmitted by heterosexual contact, and approximately equal numbers of men and women worldwide are infected with the virus. Understanding the biology of HIV acquisition and dissemination in men exposed to the virus by insertive penile intercourse is likely to help with the rational design of vaccines that can limit or prevent HIV transmission. To characterize the target cells and dissemination pathways involved in establishing systemic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, we necropsied male rhesus macaques at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after penile SIV inoculation and quantified the levels of unspliced SIV RNA and spliced SIV RNA in tissue lysates and the number of SIV RNA-positive cells in tissue sections. We found that penile (glans, foreskin, coronal sulcus) T cells and, to a lesser extent, macrophages and dendritic cells are primary targets of infection and that SIV rapidly reaches the regional lymph nodes. At 7 days after inoculation, SIV had disseminated to the blood, systemic lymph nodes, and mucosal lymphoid tissues. Further, at 7 days postinoculation (p.i.), spliced SIV RNA levels were the highest in the genital lymph nodes, indicating that this is the site where the infection is initially amplified. By 14 days p.i., spliced SIV RNA levels were high in all tissues, but they were the highest in the gastrointestinal tract, indicating that the primary site of virus replication had shifted from the genital lymph nodes to the gut. The stepwise pattern of virus replication and dissemination described here suggests that vaccine-elicited immune responses in the genital lymph nodes could help prevent infection after penile SIV challenge. IMPORTANCE To be the most effective, vaccines should produce antiviral immune responses in the anatomic sites of virus replication. Thus, understanding the path taken by HIV from the mucosal surfaces, which are the site of virus exposure, to the deeper tissues where

  11. Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody Gene Transfer Protects Nonhuman Primates from Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kevin O; Wang, Lingshu; Joyce, M Gordon; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Balazs, Alejandro B; Cheng, Cheng; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Duan, Lijie; Foulds, Kathryn E; Donaldson, Mitzi; Xu, Ling; Schmidt, Stephen D; Todd, John-Paul; Baltimore, David; Roederer, Mario; Haase, Ashley T; Kwong, Peter D; Rao, Srinivas S; Mascola, John R; Nabel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys, durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a potential solution to this problem, although immune responses to the viral vector or to the antibody may limit its durability and efficacy. Here, we delivered an adeno-associated viral vector encoding a simianized form of a CD4bs bnAb, VRC07, and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The expressed antibody circulated in macaques for 16 weeks at levels up to 66 g/ml, although immune suppression with cyclosporine (CsA) was needed to sustain expression. Gene-delivered simian VRC07 protected against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in monkeys 5.5 weeks after treatment. Gene transfer of an anti-HIV antibody can therefore protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when the host immune responses are controlled.

  12. Identification of a novel retroviral gene unique to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVMAC.

    PubMed Central

    Kappes, J C; Morrow, C D; Lee, S W; Jameson, B A; Kent, S B; Hood, L E; Shaw, G M; Hahn, B H

    1988-01-01

    Human and simian immunodeficiency-associated retroviruses are extraordinarily complex, containing at least five genes, tat, art, sor, R, and 3' orf, in addition to the structural genes gag, pol, and env. Recently, nucleotide sequence analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVMAC revealed the existence of still another open reading frame, termed X, which is highly conserved between these two viruses but absent from HIV-1. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that the X open reading frame represents a functional retroviral gene in both HIV-2 and SIVMAC and that it encodes a virion-associated protein of 14 and 12 kilodaltons, respectively. We also describe the production of recombinant TrpE/X fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and show that sera from some HIV-2-infected individuals specifically recognize these proteins. Images PMID:3136256

  13. Longitudinal Examination of the Intestinal Lamina Propria Cellular Compartment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Provides Broader and Deeper Insights into the Link between Aberrant MicroRNA Expression and Persistent Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Kenway, Carys S.; Schiro, Faith R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic immune activation/inflammation driven by factors like microbial translocation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) disease progression. Although extensive research on inflammation has focused on studying protein regulators, increasing evidence suggests a critical role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating several aspects of the immune/inflammatory response and immune cell proliferation, differentiation, and activation. To understand their immunoregulatory role, we profiled miRNA expression sequentially in intestinal lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) of eight macaques before and at 21, 90, and 180 days postinfection (dpi). At 21 dpi, ∼20 and 9 miRNAs were up- and downregulated, respectively. However, at 90 dpi (n = 60) and 180 dpi (n = 44), ≥75% of miRNAs showed decreased expression. Notably, the T-cell activation-associated miR-15b, miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p, and miR-150 expression was significantly downregulated at 90 and 180 dpi. Out of ∼10 downregulated miRNAs predicted to regulate CD69, we confirmed miR-92a to directly target CD69. Interestingly, the SIV-induced miR-190b expression was elevated at all time points. Additionally, elevated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive miR-146b-5p expression at 180 dpi was confirmed in primary intestinal macrophages following LPS treatment in vitro. Further, reporter and overexpression assays validated IRAK1 (interleukin-1 receptor 1 kinase) as a direct miR-150 target. Furthermore, IRAK1 protein levels were markedly elevated in intestinal LPLs and epithelium. Finally, blockade of CD8+ T-cell activation/proliferation with delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) significantly prevented miR-150 downregulation and IRAK1 upregulation. Our findings suggest that miR-150 downregulation during T-cell activation disrupts the translational control of IRAK1, facilitating persistent gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. Finally, the ability of Δ9-THC to block the mi

  14. Macrophages in Progressive Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    DiNapoli, Sarah R.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    The cells that are targeted by primate lentiviruses (HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) are of intense interest given the renewed effort to identify potential cures for HIV. These viruses have been reported to infect multiple cell lineages of hematopoietic origin, including all phenotypic and functional CD4 T cell subsets. The two most commonly reported cell types that become infected in vivo are memory CD4 T cells and tissue-resident macrophages. Though viral infection of CD4 T cells is routinely detected in both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected Asian macaques, significant viral infection of macrophages is only routinely observed in animal models wherein CD4 T cells are almost entirely depleted. Here we review the roles of macrophages in lentiviral disease progression, the evidence that macrophages support viral replication in vivo, the animal models where macrophage-mediated replication of SIV is thought to occur, how the virus can interact with macrophages in vivo, pathologies thought to be attributed to viral replication within macrophages, how viral replication in macrophages might contribute to the asymptomatic phase of HIV/SIV infection, and whether macrophages represent a long-lived reservoir for the virus. PMID:27307568

  15. C5A Protects Macaques from Vaginal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Chatterji, Udayan; Bobardt, Michael; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei; Gallay, Philippe A

    2015-11-09

    A safe and effective vaginal microbicide could decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in women. Here, we evaluated the safety and microbicidal efficacy of a short amphipathic peptide, C5A, in a rhesus macaque model. We found that a vaginal application of C5A protects 89% of the macaques from a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-162P3) challenge. We observed no signs of lesions or inflammation in animals vaginally treated with repeated C5A applications. With its noncellular cytotoxic activity and rare mechanism of action, C5A represents an attractive microbicidal candidate.

  16. Evaluation of recombinant influenza virus-simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines in macaques.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Amy; De Rose, Robert; Reece, Jeanette C; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Loh, Liyen; Moffat, Jessica M; Laurie, Karen; Hurt, Aeron; Doherty, Peter C; Turner, Stephen J; Kent, Stephen J; Stambas, John

    2009-08-01

    There is an urgent need for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines that induce robust mucosal immunity. Influenza A viruses (both H1N1 and H3N2) were engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) CD8 T-cell epitopes and evaluated following administration to the respiratory tracts of 11 pigtail macaques. Influenza virus was readily detected from respiratory tract secretions, although the infections were asymptomatic. Animals seroconverted to influenza virus and generated CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses to influenza virus proteins. SIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses bearing the mucosal homing marker beta7 integrin were induced by vaccination of naïve animals. Further, SIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses could be boosted by recombinant influenza virus-SIV vaccination of animals with already-established SIV infection. Sequential vaccination with influenza virus-SIV recombinants of different subtypes (H1N1 followed by H3N2 or vice versa) produced only a limited boost in immunity, probably reflecting T-cell immunity to conserved internal proteins of influenza A virus. SIV challenge of macaques vaccinated with an influenza virus expressing a single SIV CD8 T cell resulted in a large anamnestic recall CD8 T-cell response, but immune escape rapidly ensued and there was no impact on chronic SIV viremia. Although our results suggest that influenza virus-HIV vaccines hold promise for the induction of mucosal immunity to HIV, broader antigen cover will be needed to limit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape.

  17. Structure and immunogenicity of alternative forms of the simian immunodeficiency virus gag protein expressed using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Chad; West, Ande; Collier, Martha; Jurgens, Christy; Madden, Victoria; Whitmore, Alan; Johnston, Robert; Moore, Dominic T; Swanstrom, Ronald; Davis, Nancy L

    2007-06-05

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP) were engineered to express different forms of SIV Gag to compare expression in vitro, formation of intra- and extracellular structures and induction of humoral and cellular immunity in mice. The three forms examined were full-length myristylated SIV Gag (Gagmyr+), full-length Gag lacking the myristylation signal (Gagmyr-) or a truncated form of Gagmyr- comprising only the matrix and capsid domains (MA/CA). Comparison of VRP-infected primary mouse embryo fibroblasts, mouse L929 cells and primate Vero cells showed comparable expression levels for each protein, as well as extracellular virus-like particles (VRP-Gagmyr+) and distinctive cytoplasmic aggregates (VRP-Gagmyr-) with each cell type. VRP were used to immunize BALB/c mice, and immune responses were compared using an interferon (IFN)-gamma ELISPOT assay and a serum antibody ELISA. Although all three VRP generated similar levels of IFN-gamma-producing cells at 1 week post-boost, at 10 weeks post-boost the MA/CA-VRP-induced response was maintained at a significantly higher level relative to that induced by Gagmyr+-VRP. Antibody responses to MA/CA-VRP and Gagmyr+-VRP were not significantly different.

  18. Chemokine Adjuvanted Electroporated-DNA Vaccine Induces Substantial Protection from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaginal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hutnick, N A; Moldoveanu, Z; Hunter, M; Reuter, M; Yuan, S; Yan, J; Ginsberg, A; Sylvester, A; Pahar, B; Carnathan, D; Kathuria, N; Khan, A S; Montefiori, D; Sardesai, N Y; Betts, M R; Mestecky, J; Marx, P; Weiner, D B

    2015-01-01

    There have been encouraging results for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. However, many questions remain regarding the quality of immune responses and the role of mucosal antibodies. We addressed some of these issues by using a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccine adjuvanted with plasmid-expressed mucosal chemokines combined with an intravaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaque (RhM) model. We previously reported on the ability of CCR9 and CCR10 ligand (L) adjuvants to enhance mucosal and systemic IgA and IgG in small animals. In this study, RhMs were intramuscularly immunized five times with either DNA or DNA plus chemokine adjuvant delivered by electroporation followed by challenge with SIVsmE660. Sixty-eight percent of all vaccinated animals (P=0.0016) remained either uninfected or had aborted infection compared to only 14% in the vaccine naïve group. The highest protection was observed in the CCR10L chemokines group, where 6 of 9 animals had aborted infection and two remained uninfected, leading to 89% protection (P=0.0003). The induction of mucosal SIV-specific antibodies and neutralization titers correlated with trends in protection. These results indicate the need to further investigate the contribution of chemokine adjuvants to modulate immune responses and the role of mucosal antibodies in SIV/HIV protection. PMID:25943275

  19. Chemokine-adjuvanted electroporated DNA vaccine induces substantial protection from simian immunodeficiency virus vaginal challenge.

    PubMed

    Kutzler, M A; Wise, M C; Hutnick, N A; Moldoveanu, Z; Hunter, M; Reuter, M A; Yuan, S; Yan, J; Ginsberg, A A; Sylvester, A; Pahar, B; Carnathan, D G; Kathuria, N; Khan, A S; Montefiori, D; Sardesai, N Y; Betts, M R; Mestecky, J; Marx, P A; Weiner, D B

    2016-01-01

    There have been encouraging results for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. However, many questions remain regarding the quality of immune responses and the role of mucosal antibodies. We addressed some of these issues by using a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccine adjuvanted with plasmid-expressed mucosal chemokines combined with an intravaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaque (RhM) model. We previously reported on the ability of CCR9 and CCR10 ligand (L) adjuvants to enhance mucosal and systemic IgA and IgG responses in small animals. In this study, RhMs were intramuscularly immunized five times with either DNA or DNA plus chemokine adjuvant delivered by electroporation followed by challenge with SIVsmE660. Sixty-eight percent of all vaccinated animals (P<0.01) remained either uninfected or had aborted infection compared with only 14% in the vaccine naïve group. The highest protection was observed in the CCR10L chemokines group, where six of nine animals had aborted infection and two remained uninfected, leading to 89% protection (P<0.001). The induction of mucosal SIV-specific antibodies and neutralization titers correlated with trends in protection. These results indicate the need to further investigate the contribution of chemokine adjuvants to modulate immune responses and the role of mucosal antibodies in SIV/HIV protection.

  20. Visualization and quantification of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells using non-invasive molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiasheng; Cai, Zhengxin; White, Alexander G.; Jin, Tao; Wang, Xiaolei; Kadayakkara, Deepak; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Ambrose, Zandrea

    2015-01-01

    In vivo imaging can provide real-time information and three-dimensional (3D) non-invasive images of deep tissues and organs, including the brain, whilst allowing longitudinal observation of the same animals, thus eliminating potential variation between subjects. Current in vivo imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI), can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of target cells, which is urgently needed for revealing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination in real-time and HIV-1 reservoirs during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). To demonstrate that in vivo imaging can be used to visualize and quantify simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-transduced cells, we genetically engineered SIV to carry different imaging reporters. Based on the expression of the reporter genes, we could visualize and quantify the SIV-transduced cells via vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyping in a mouse model using BLI, PET-CT or MRI. We also engineered a chimeric EcoSIV for in vivo infection study. Our results demonstrated that BLI is sensitive enough to detect as few as five single cells transduced with virus, whilst PET-CT can provide 3D images of the spatial location of as few as 10 000 SIV-infected cells. We also demonstrated that MRI can provide images with high spatial resolution in a 3D anatomical context to distinguish a small population of SIV-transduced cells. The in vivo imaging platform described here can potentially serve as a powerful tool to visualize lentiviral infection, including when and where viraemia rebounds, and how reservoirs are formed and maintained during latency or suppressive ART. PMID:26297664

  1. Five recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus pseudotypes lead to exclusive transduction of retinal pigmented epithelium in rat.

    PubMed

    Duisit, Ghislaine; Conrath, Hervé; Saleun, Sylvie; Folliot, Sebastien; Provost, Nathalie; Cosset, François-Loïc; Sandrin, Virginie; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate lentiviral vector-mediated rat retinal transduction using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) pseudotyped with envelope proteins from vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G), Mokola virus G protein (MK-G), amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope (4070A-Env), influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus G protein (LCMV-G), and RD114 retrovirus envelope (RD114-Env). The six pseudotyped lentivirus vectors carried CMV-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) or beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) reporter genes. Intravitreal and subretinal injections of each pseudotyped recombinant SIV were performed in cohorts of Wistar rats. Our results showed that no transgene expression was detected after intravitreal injection of each pseudotyped SIV vector. Also, no transduction could be detected following subretinal injection of RD114 pseudotyped SIV vectors. However, selective transduction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells was repeatedly obtained after subretinal delivery of VSV-G, MK-G, 4070A-Env, HA, and LCMV-G pseudotyped SIV. GFP expression was maximum as soon as 4 days postadministration for VSV-G, MK-G, 4070A-Env, and HA pseudotypes, with no evidence of pseudotransduction for VSV-G. Maximum transgene expression was observed 3 weeks postinjection for LCMV-6. Importantly, HA and VSV-G pseudotyped SIV lead to such a high level of transgene expression that GFP-related toxicity occurred. Therefore, when a high level of GFP synthesis is achieved, replacement of enhanced GFP (egfp, Aequorea victoria) by a low-toxicity GFP (Renilla reniformis) cDNA is necessary to allow long-term expression.

  2. Coexpression of the simian immunodeficiency virus Env and Rev proteins by a recombinant human adenovirus host range mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S M; Lee, S G; Ronchetti-Blume, M; Virk, K P; Mizutani, S; Eichberg, J W; Davis, A; Hung, P P; Hirsch, V M; Chanock, R M

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human adenoviruses (Ads) that replicate in the intestinal tract offer a novel, yet practical, means of immunoprophylaxis against a wide variety of viral and bacterial pathogens. For some infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the potential for residual infectious material in vaccine preparations must be eliminated. Therefore, recombinant human Ads that express noninfectious HIV or other microbial proteins are attractive vaccine candidates. To test such an approach for HIV, we chose an experimental model of AIDS based on simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques. Our data demonstrate that the SIV Env gene products are expressed in cultured cells after infection with a recombinant Ad containing both SIV env and rev genes. An E3 deletion vector derived from a mutant of human Ad serotype 5 that efficiently replicates in both human and monkey cells was used to bypass the usual host range restriction of Ad infection. In addition, we show that the SIV rev gene is properly spliced from a single SIV subgenomic DNA fragment and that the Rev protein is expressed in recombinant Ad-SIV-infected human as well as monkey cells. The expression of SIV gene products in suitable live Ad vectors provides an excellent system for studying the regulation of SIV gene expression in cultured cells and evaluating the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of SIV proteins in macaques. Images PMID:1404612

  3. Dissecting the role of dendritic cells in simian immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wonderlich, Elizabeth R.; Kader, Muhamuda; Wijewardana, Viskam

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the loss of the two principal types of dendritic cell (DC), myeloid DC (mDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC), but the mechanism of this loss and its relationship to AIDS pathogenesis remain ill-defined. The nonhuman primate is a powerful model to dissect this response for several reasons. Both DC subsets have been well characterized in nonhuman primates and shown to have strikingly similar phenotypic and functional characteristics to their counterparts in the human. Moreover, decline of mDC and pDC occurs in rhesus macaques with end-stage simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, the model of HIV infection in humans. In this brief review, we discuss what is known about DC subsets in pathogenic and nonpathogenic nonhuman primate models of HIV infection and highlight the advances and controversies that currently exist in the field. PMID:21717075

  4. Induction of Mucosal and Systemic Immunity to a Recombinant Simian Immunodeficiency Viral Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, T.; Bergmeier, L. A.; Panagiotidi, C.; Tao, L.; Brookes, R.; Klavinskis, L. S.; Walker, P.; Walker, J.; Ward, R. G.; Hussain, L.; Gearing, A. J. H.; Adams, S. E.

    1992-11-01

    Heterosexual transmission through the cervico-vaginal mucosa is the principal route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa and is increasing in the United States and Europe. Vaginal immunization with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) had not yet been studied in nonhuman primates. Immune responses in macaques were investigated by stimulation of the genital and gut-associated lymphoid tissue with a recombinant, particulate SIV antigen. Vaginal, followed by oral, administration of the vaccine elicited three types of immunity: (i) gag protein p27-specific, secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the vaginal fluid, (ii) specific CD4^+ T cell proliferation and helper function in B cell p27-specific IgA synthesis in the genital lymph nodes, and (iii) specific serum IgA and IgG, with CD4^+ T cell proliferative and helper functions in the circulating blood.

  5. Conserved serines in simian immunodeficiency virus capsid are required for virus budding.

    PubMed

    Rue, Sarah M; Roos, Jason W; Clements, Janice E; Barber, Sheila A

    2005-05-25

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) capsid protein (CA), a constituent of the Pr55Gag polyprotein, is phosphorylated in virions but not in virus-producing cells (Rue, S.M., Roos, J.W., Tarwater, P.M., Clements, J.E., Barber, S.A., 2005. Phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage of gag proteins in budded simian immunodeficiency virus. J. Virol. 79 (4), 2484-2492.). Using phosphoamino acid analysis of CA, we show that serine is the primary phosphate acceptor. A series of substitution mutants of serines in the CA domain of Pr55Gag were constructed in the infectious viral clone SIVmac239. These virus mutants were examined for defects in virus replication and virion infectivity, release, and morphology, as well as alterations in phosphorylation of CA-containing proteins. Although the virus mutants exhibited a number of replication defects, none of these defects could be directly attributed to aberrant CA phosphorylation. A novel defect was a block in early budding, which was common among several virus mutants with substitutions in the CA N terminus. Together, these results indicate that certain residues in the CA N terminus are crucial for early budding events.

  6. Quantitation of Productively Infected Monocytes and Macrophages of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Claudia R.; Price, Sarah L.; Forsyth, Ellen R.; Pin, Julia N.; Shirk, Erin N.; Bullock, Brandon T.; Queen, Suzanne E.; Li, Ming; Gellerup, Dane; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Zink, M. Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Gama, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a lifelong infection because of latent viral reservoirs in infected patients. The contribution of CD4+ T cells to infection and disease progression has been extensively studied. However, during early HIV infection, macrophages in brain and other tissues are infected and contribute to tissue-specific diseases, such as encephalitis and dementia in brain and pneumonia in lung. The extent of infection of monocytes and macrophages has not been rigorously assessed with assays comparable to those used to study infection of CD4+ T cells and to evaluate the number of CD4+ T cells that harbor infectious viral genomes. To assess the contribution of productively infected monocytes and macrophages to HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected cells in vivo, we developed a quantitative virus outgrowth assay (QVOA) based on similar assays used to quantitate CD4+ T cell latent reservoirs in HIV- and SIV-infected individuals in whom the infection is suppressed by ART. Myeloid cells expressing CD11b were serially diluted and cocultured with susceptible cells to amplify virus. T cell receptor β RNA was measured as a control to assess the potential contribution of CD4+ T cells in the assay. Virus production in the supernatant was quantitated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Productively infected myeloid cells were detected in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, spleen, and brain, demonstrating that these cells persist throughout SIV infection and have the potential to contribute to the viral reservoir during ART. IMPORTANCE Infection of CD4+ T cells and their role as latent reservoirs have been rigorously assessed; however, the frequency of productively infected monocytes and macrophages in vivo has not been similarly studied. Myeloid cells, unlike lymphocytes, are resistant to the cytopathic effects of HIV. Moreover, tissue

  7. Chronic Binge Alcohol Administration Dysregulates Hippocampal Genes Involved in Immunity and Neurogenesis in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Maxi, John K.; Dean, Matt; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Reiss, Krzysztof; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Winsauer, Peter J.; Peruzzi, Francesca; Molina, Patricia E.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+) patients. We have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration (13–14 g EtOH/kg/wk) prior to and during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques unmasks learning deficits in operant learning and memory tasks. The underlying mechanisms of neurocognitive alterations due to alcohol and SIV are not known. This exploratory study examined the CBA-induced differential expression of hippocampal genes in SIV-infected (CBA/SIV+; n = 2) macaques in contrast to those of sucrose administered, SIV-infected (SUC/SIV+; n = 2) macaques. Transcriptomes of hippocampal samples dissected from brains obtained at necropsy (16 months post-SIV inoculation) were analyzed to determine differentially expressed genes. MetaCore from Thomson Reuters revealed enrichment of genes involved in inflammation, immune responses, and neurodevelopment. Functional relevance of these alterations was examined in vitro by exposing murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to ethanol (EtOH) and HIV trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein. EtOH impaired NPC differentiation as indicated by decreased βIII tubulin expression. These findings suggest a role for neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in CBA/SIV neuropathogenesis and warrant further investigation of their potential contribution to CBA-mediated neurobehavioral deficits. PMID:27834864

  8. A molecularly cloned, pathogenic, neutralization-resistant simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVsmE543-3.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, V; Adger-Johnson, D; Campbell, B; Goldstein, S; Brown, C; Elkins, W R; Montefiori, D C

    1997-01-01

    An infectious molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm was derived from a biological isolate obtained late in disease from an immunodeficient rhesus macaque (E543) with SIV-induced encephalitis. The molecularly cloned virus, SIVsmE543-3, replicated well in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages and resisted neutralization by heterologous sera which broadly neutralized genetically diverse SIV variants in vitro. SIVsmE543-3 was infectious and induced AIDS when inoculated intravenously into pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Two of four infected macaques developed no measurable SIV-specific antibody and succumbed to a wasting syndrome and SIV-induced meningoencephalitis by 14 and 33 weeks postinfection. The other two macaques developed antibodies reactive in Western blot and virus neutralization assays. One macaque was sacrificed at 1 year postinoculation, and the survivor has evidence of immunodeficiency, characterized by persistently low CD4 lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood. Plasma samples from these latter animals neutralized SIVsmE543-3 but with much lower efficiency than neutralization of other related SIV strains, confirming the difficulty by which this molecularly cloned virus is neutralized in vitro. SIVsmE543-3 will provide a valuable reagent for studying SIV-induced encephalitis, mapping determinants of neutralization, and determining the in vivo significance of resistance to neutralization in vitro. PMID:8995688

  9. Nuclear factors that bind two regions important to transcriptional activity of the simian immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Winandy, S; Renjifo, B; Li, Y; Hopkins, N

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies identified two regions in the U3 region of a molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVmac142, that are important to transcriptional activity under conditions of induction as well as basal-level expression (B. Renjifo, N. A. Speck, S. Winandy, N. Hopkins, and Y. Li, J. Virol. 64:3130-3134, 1990). One region includes the NF-kappa B binding site, while the other lies just 5' of this site between nucleotides -162 and -114 (the -162 to -114 region). The fact that the NF-kappa B site mutation attenuated transcriptional activity in uninduced T cells and fibroblasts where activated NF-kappa B would not be present suggested that a factor(s) other than NF-kappa B could be acting through this site. In this study, we have identified a factor which binds to a cis element overlapping the NF-kappa B site. This factor, which we call simian factor 3 (SF3), would play a role in regulation under conditions of basal level expression, whereas under conditions of induction, NF-kappa B would act via this region. SF3 may also bind to an element in the -162 to -114 region. In addition, we have identified two other factors that bind the -162 to -114 region. One, which we designated SF1, is a ubiquitous basal factor, and the other, SF2, is a T-cell-predominant phorbol myristate acetate-inducible factor. Through identification of nuclear factors that interact with the U3 region of the SIVmac142 long terminal repeat, we can gain insight into how this virus is transcriptionally regulated under conditions of basal-level expression as well as conditions of T-cell activation. Images PMID:1501272

  10. Gene-based vaccination with a mismatched envelope protects against simian immunodeficiency virus infection in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Flatz, Lukas; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Lingshu; Foulds, Kathryn E; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Shi, Wei; Bao, Saran; Todd, John-Paul; Asmal, Mohammed; Shen, Ling; Donaldson, Mitzi; Schmidt, Stephen D; Gall, Jason G D; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Letvin, Norman L; Rao, Srinivas; Mascola, John R; Roederer, Mario; Nabel, Gary J

    2012-08-01

    The RV144 trial demonstrated that an experimental AIDS vaccine can prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans. Because of its limited efficacy, further understanding of the mechanisms of preventive AIDS vaccines remains a priority, and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of lentiviral infection provide an opportunity to define immunogens, vectors, and correlates of immunity. In this study, we show that prime-boost vaccination with a mismatched SIV envelope (Env) gene, derived from simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239, prevents infection by SIVsmE660 intrarectally. Analysis of different gene-based prime-boost immunization regimens revealed that recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) prime followed by replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) boost elicited robust CD4 and CD8 T-cell and humoral immune responses. This vaccine protected against infection after repetitive mucosal challenge with efficacies of 82% per exposure and 62% cumulatively. No effect was seen on viremia in infected vaccinated monkeys compared to controls. Protection correlated with the presence of neutralizing antibodies to the challenge viruses tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data indicate that a vaccine expressing a mismatched Env gene alone can prevent SIV infection in NHPs and identifies an immune correlate that may guide immunogen selection and immune monitoring for clinical efficacy trials.

  11. Trivalent live attenuated influenza-simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines: efficacy and evolution of cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape in macaques.

    PubMed

    Reece, Jeanette C; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Gooneratne, Shayarana; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Amaresena, Thakshila; Fernandez, Caroline S; Laurie, Karen; Hurt, Aeron; O'Connor, Shelby L; Harris, Max; Petravic, Janka; Martyushev, Alexey; Grimm, Andrew; Davenport, Miles P; Stambas, John; De Rose, Robert; Kent, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    There is an urgent need for a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine that induces robust mucosal immunity. CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) apply substantial antiviral pressure, but CTLs to individual epitopes select for immune escape variants in both HIV in humans and SIV in macaques. Inducing multiple simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CTLs may assist in controlling viremia. We vaccinated 10 Mane-A1*08401(+) female pigtail macaques with recombinant influenza viruses expressing three Mane-A1*08401-restricted SIV-specific CTL epitopes and subsequently challenged the animals, along with five controls, intravaginally with SIV(mac251). Seroconversion to the influenza virus vector resulted and small, but detectable, SIV-specific CTL responses were induced. There was a boost in CTL responses after challenge but no protection from high-level viremia or CD4 depletion was observed. All three CTL epitopes underwent a coordinated pattern of immune escape during early SIV infection. CTL escape was more rapid in the vaccinees than in the controls at the more dominant CTL epitopes. Although CTL escape can incur a "fitness" cost to the virus, a putative compensatory mutation 20 amino acids upstream from an immunodominant Gag CTL epitope also evolved soon after the primary CTL escape mutation. We conclude that vaccines based only on CTL epitopes will likely be undermined by rapid evolution of both CTL escape and compensatory mutations. More potent and possibly broader immune responses may be required to protect pigtail macaques from SIV.

  12. Isolation of a simian immunodeficiency virus from a malbrouck (Chlorocebus cynosuros).

    PubMed

    Carr, Michael; Kawaguchi, Akira; Sasaki, Michihito; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Ito, Kimihito; Thomas, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Zhao, Guoyan; Wang, David; Orba, Yasuko; Ishii, Akihiro; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) among nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Zambia, next-generation sequencing was performed to determine the complete genome sequence of a novel SIV recovered by co-culturing African green monkey (AGM) peripheral blood lymphocytes with human CD4(+) T-cell lines. We report the first described SIV (SIVagmMAL-ZMB) from a malbrouck (Chlorocebus cynosuros). SIVagmMAL-ZMB was detected by real-time PCR analysis of splenic RNA in 3.2% (3/94) of AGMs and was undetectable in baboons (0/105). SIVagmMAL-ZMB possessed <80% nucleotide sequence identity to known SIV isolates and was located basally to vervet monkey SIV strains in all phylogenies.

  13. Viral Determinants of Integration Site Preferences of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Monse, Hella; Laufs, Stephanie; Kuate, Seraphin; Zeller, W. Jens; Fruehauf, Stefan; Überla, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Preferential integration into transcriptionally active regions of genomes has been observed for retroviral vectors based on gamma-retroviruses and lentiviruses. However, differences in the integration site preferences were detected, which might be explained by differences in viral components of the preintegration complexes. Viral determinants of integration site preferences have not been defined. Therefore, integration sites of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-based vectors produced in the absence of accessory genes or lacking promoter and enhancer elements were compared. Similar integration patterns for the different SIV vectors indicate that vif, vpr, vpx, nef, env, and promoter or enhancer elements are not required for preferential integration of SIV into transcriptionally active regions of genomes. PMID:16873270

  14. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome.

    PubMed

    Handley, Scott A; Thackray, Larissa B; Zhao, Guoyan; Presti, Rachel; Miller, Andrew D; Droit, Lindsay; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Stanley, Kelly; Kramer, Joshua; Macri, Sheila C; Permar, Sallie R; Schmitz, Joern E; Mansfield, Keith; Brenchley, Jason M; Veazey, Ronald S; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2012-10-12

    Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy, which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next-generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence by using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis.

  15. A noninfectious simian/human immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine that protects macaques against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh K; Liu, Zhenqian; Sheffer, Darlene; Mackay, Glenn A; Smith, Marilyn; Dhillon, Sukhbir; Hegde, Ramakrishna; Jia, Fenglan; Adany, Istvan; Narayan, Opendra

    2005-03-01

    Simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(KU2) replicates with extremely high titers in macaques. In order to determine whether the DNA of the viral genome could be used as a vaccine if the DNA were rendered noninfectious, we deleted the reverse transcriptase gene from SHIVKU2 and inserted this DNA (DeltartSHIVKU2) into a plasmid that was then used to test gene expression and immunogenicity. Transfection of Jurkat and human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK 293) cells with the DNA resulted in production of all of the major viral proteins and their precursors and transient export of a large quantity of the Gag p27 into the supernatant fluid. As expected, no infectious virus was produced in these cultures. Four macaques were injected intradermally with 2 mg of the DNA at 0, 8, and 18 weeks. The animals developed neutralizing antibodies and low enzyme-linked immunospot assay (E-SPOT) titers against SHIVKU2. These four animals and two unvaccinated control animals were then challenged with heterologous SHIV89.6P administered into their rectums. The two control animals developed viral RNA titers exceeding 10(6) copies/ml of plasma, and these titers were accompanied by the loss of CD4+ T cells by 2 weeks after challenge. The two control animals died at weeks 8 and 16, respectively. All four of the immunized animals became infected with the challenge virus but developed lower titers of viral RNA in plasma than the control animals, and the titers decreased over time in three of the four macaques. The fourth animal remained viremic and died at week 47. Whereas the control animals failed to develop E-SPOT responses, all four of the immunized animals developed anamnestic E-SPOT responses after challenge. The animal that died developed the highest E-SPOT response and was the only one that produced neutralizing antibodies against the challenge virus. These results established that noninfectious DNA of pathogenic SHIV could be used as a vaccine to prevent AIDS, even though the

  16. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Prime and Intramuscular Protein Boost Provides Protection against Intrarectal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Thippeshappa, Rajesh; Tian, Baoping; Cleveland, Brad; Guo, Wenjin; Polacino, Patricia; Hu, Shiu-Lok

    2015-12-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition occurs predominantly through mucosal transmission. We hypothesized that greater mucosal immune responses and protective efficacy against mucosal HIV-1 infection may be achieved by prime-boost immunization at mucosal sites. We used a macaque model to determine the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of orally delivered, replication-competent but attenuated recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing full-length HIV-1 SF162 envelope (Env) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol proteins. We examined the dose and route that are suitable for oral immunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses. We showed that sublingual inoculation of two vaccinia virus-naive pigtailed macaques with 5 × 10(8) PFU of recombinant vaccinia viruses was safe. However, sublingual inoculation with a higher dose or tonsillar inoculation resulted in secondary oral lesions, indicating the need to optimize the dose and route for oral immunization with replication-competent vaccinia virus vectors. Oral priming alone elicited antibody responses to vaccinia virus and to the SF162 Env protein. Intramuscular immunization with the SF162 gp120 protein at either 20 or 21 weeks postpriming resulted in a significant boost in antibody responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments. Furthermore, we showed that immune responses induced by recombinant vaccinia virus priming and intramuscular protein boosting provided protection against intrarectal challenge with the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162-P4.

  17. Extensive genetic variability of simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Naidu, Y M; Daniel, M D; Desrosiers, R C

    1989-01-01

    Serological surveys have revealed that 30 to 50% of wild-caught African green monkeys have antibodies reactive to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a retrovirus related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although the nucleotide sequence of one SIVagm isolate, Tyo1, was recently reported, the extent of genetic variability among SIVagm isolates remains to be determined. Restriction endonuclease mapping of infectious molecular clones of two SIVagm isolates (266 and 385), described in this note, revealed conservation of only 4 of 39 sites across the genome. Partial sequence analysis of the molecular clones revealed only 80% amino acid sequence conservation in the pol gene. Although the three Kenyan SIVagm isolates, Tyo1, 385, and 266, are more closely related to each other than to other primate lentiviruses, genetic variation among these three isolates is much greater than that observed previously among individual HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, or SIVmac isolates. Less variability among HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates could be explained by recent entry into the human population. The extensive genetic variation in these Kenyan SIVagm isolates should prompt continued examination of SIVagm variability from dispersed geographic regions; SIVagm strains much more closely related to HIV-1, HIV-2, or SIVmac which would be reasonable candidates for recent cross-species transmission may be found. PMID:2467010

  18. Persistent Peripheral Nervous System Damage in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Jamie L; Mangus, Lisa M; Hauer, Peter; Ebenezer, Gigi J; Queen, Suzanne E; Laast, Victoria A; Adams, Robert J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication associated with HIV infection. In addition to virus-mediated injury of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), treatment of HIV infection with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may induce toxic neuropathy as a side effect. Antiretroviral toxic neuropathy is clinically indistinguishable from the sensory neuropathy induced by HIV; in some patients, these 2 processes are likely superimposed. To study these intercurrent PNS disease processes, we first established a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/pigtailed macaque model in which more than 90% of animals developed PNS changes closely resembling those seen in HIV-infected individuals with distal sensory neuropathy. To determine whether cART alters the progression of SIV-induced PNS damage, dorsal root ganglia and epidermal nerve fibers were evaluated in SIV-infected macaques after long-term suppressive cART. Although cART effectively suppressed SIV replication and reduced macrophage activation in the dorsal root ganglia, PGP 9.5 immunostaining and measurements of epidermal nerve fibers in the plantar surface of the feet of treated SIV-infected macaques clearly showed that cART did not normalize epidermal nerve fiber density. These findings illustrate that significant PNS damage persists in SIV-infected macaques on suppressive cART.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of human and simian immunodeficiency viral antigens in fixed tissue sections.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Baskin, G. B.; Benveniste, R.; Harris, C. A.; Nara, P. L.; Rhodes, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Antigens of human (HIV) or simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) were identified with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies and avidin-biotin complex (ABC) immunohistochemistry in fixed surgical pathology and autopsy specimens of humans or monkeys with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With B-5 fixative, viral antigens were readily detected in lymph nodes of 8 of 13 patients with follicular hyperplasia, but in only 1 of 12 patients with follicular atrophy. Antigen was detected in follicular dendritic reticular cells and rare blastlike cells, extracellularly, and in postcapillary venules, medullary lymphocytes, sinus histiocytes, and macrophages in some lymph nodes. In the brain at autopsy, antigen could be found in gliomesenchymal-cell nodules, astrocytes, vascular endothelial cells, multinucleated cells, and astrocytes and macrophages associated with demyelination. In contrast, 4 rhesus monkeys with experimental SIV infection had abundant antigen in sinus histiocytes, macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells of lymph nodes and spleen and in thymic epithelial cells. Brain lesions of monkeys resembled those of humans, with antigen found in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Antibodies to HIV also were immunoreactive in formalin-fixed tissue sections of monkeys containing SIV antigens. The ABC technique provided a fast and efficient method for localizing HIV and SIV antigens in fixed surgical and autopsy specimens. These findings are consistent with those found with in situ hybridization, ultrastructural studies, frozen sections of lymph nodes, and permanent sections of brain. Images Figure 1 p[201]-b p[201]-c Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:3472469

  20. Understanding the Failure of CD8+ T-Cell Vaccination against Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    De Boer, Rob J.

    2007-01-01

    Although CD8+ T cells play an important role in controlling viral infections, boosting specific CD8+ T cells by prophylactic vaccination with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) epitopes fails to provide sterilizing immunity. Viral replication rates and viral contraction rates after the peak viremia hardly depend on the presence of memory CD8+ T cells. To study these paradoxical findings, we parameterize novel mathematical models for acute SIV and human immunodeficiency virus infection. These models explain that failure of vaccination is due to the fact that effector/target ratios are too low during the viral expansion phase. Because CD8+ T cells require cell-to-cell contacts, immune protection requires high effector/target ratios at the primary site of infection. Effector/target ratios become favorable for immune control at the time of the peak in the viral load when the virus becomes limited by other factors, such as the availability of uninfected target cells. At the viral set point, effector/target ratios are much higher, and perturbations of the number of CD8+ effector cells have a large impact on the viral load. Such protective effector/target ratios are difficult to achieve with nucleic acid- or protein-based vaccines. PMID:17202215

  1. Extensive envelope heterogeneity of simian immunodeficiency virus in tissues from infected macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B J; Hirsch, V M

    1994-01-01

    The extent of virus genetic variation within tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from two simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques was analyzed. The products of PCR amplification of two regions, region 1 (SIV V1 region) and region 2 (region corresponding to the human immunodeficiency virus V3 cysteine loop and part of the C3 region immediately downstream), of the SIV envelope were examined for single-stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequence analysis of selected clones. The V1 region of the SIV envelope of viruses present within lymphoid tissues displayed extensive heterogeneity, while viral populations within the PBMC and brain appeared to be less variable. Region 2 heterogeneity in both animals was generally confined to three residues in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, virus from the brains of both animals appeared to be distinct compared with viruses present in other tissues and PBMC of the same animal, both in the pattern of PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism SCP and in the sequence of region 2. These studies revealed that the tissues of SIV-infected macaques were a reservoir for viral variants distinct from those seen in PBMC. Images PMID:8151778

  2. Toward an AIDS vaccine: lessons from natural simian immunodeficiency virus infections of African nonhuman primate hosts.

    PubMed

    Sodora, Donald L; Allan, Jonathan S; Apetrei, Cristian; Brenchley, Jason M; Douek, Daniel C; Else, James G; Estes, Jacob D; Hahn, Beatrice H; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Kaur, Amitinder; Kirchhoff, Frank; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela; Pandrea, Ivona; Schmitz, Jörn E; Silvestri, Guido

    2009-08-01

    The design of an effective AIDS vaccine has eluded the efforts of the scientific community to the point that alternative approaches to classic vaccine formulations have to be considered. We propose here that HIV vaccine research could greatly benefit from the study of natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections of African nonhuman primates. Natural SIV hosts (for example, sooty mangabeys, African green monkeys and mandrills) share many features of HIV infection of humans; however, they usually do not develop immunodeficiency. These natural, nonprogressive SIV infections represent an evolutionary adaptation that allows a peaceful coexistence of primate lentiviruses and the host immune system. This adaptation does not result in reduced viral replication but, rather, involves phenotypic changes to CD4(+) T cell subsets, limited immune activation and preserved mucosal immunity, all of which contribute to the avoidance of disease progression and, possibly, to the reduction of vertical SIV transmission. Here we summarize the current understanding of SIV infection of African nonhuman primates and discuss how unraveling these evolutionary adaptations may provide clues for new vaccine designs that might induce effective immune responses without the harmful consequences of excessive immune activation.

  3. Antiretroviral Therapy in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Sooty Mangabeys: Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calascibetta, Francesca; Micci, Luca; Carnathan, Diane; Lawson, Benton; Vanderford, Thomas H.; Bosinger, Steven E.; Easley, Kirk; Chahroudi, Ann; Mackel, Joseph; Keele, Brandon F.; Long, Samuel; Lifson, Jeffrey; Paiardini, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) do not develop AIDS despite high levels of viremia. Key factors involved in the benign course of SIV infection in SMs are the absence of chronic immune activation and low levels of infection of CD4+ central memory (TCM) and stem cell memory (TSCM) T cells. To better understand the role of virus replication in determining the main features of SIV infection in SMs, we treated 12 SMs with a potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for 2 to 12 months. We observed that ART suppressed viremia to <60 copies/ml of plasma in 10 of 12 animals and induced a variable decrease in the level of cell-associated SIV DNA in peripheral blood (average changes of 0.9-, 1.1-, 1.5-, and 3.7-fold for CD4+ transitional memory [TTM], TCM, effector memory [TEM], and TSCM cells, respectively). ART-treated SIV-infected SMs showed (i) increased percentages of circulating CD4+ TCM cells, (ii) increased levels of CD4+ T cells in the rectal mucosa, and (iii) significant declines in the frequencies of HLA-DR+ CD8+ T cells in the blood and rectal mucosa. In addition, we observed that ART interruption resulted in rapid viral rebound in all SIV-infected SMs, indicating that the virus reservoir persists for at least a year under ART despite lower infection levels of CD4+ TCM and TSCM cells than those seen in pathogenic SIV infections of macaques. Overall, these data indicate that ART induces specific immunological changes in SIV-infected SMs, thus suggesting that virus replication affects immune function even in the context of this clinically benign infection. IMPORTANCE Studies of natural, nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of African monkeys have provided important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the progression to AIDS during pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of humans and SIV infection of Asian macaques. In this study, for the first time, we treated SIV

  4. Infection of monkeys by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses with transmitted/founder clade C HIV-1 envelopes.

    PubMed

    Asmal, Mohammed; Luedemann, Corinne; Lavine, Christy L; Mach, Linh V; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Brinkley, Christie; Denny, Thomas N; Lewis, Mark G; Anderson, Hanne; Pal, Ranajit; Sok, Devin; Le, Khoa; Pauthner, Matthias; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Seaman, Michael S; Letvin, Norman L; Burton, Dennis R; Sodroski, Joseph G; Haynes, Barton F; Santra, Sampa

    2015-01-15

    Simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that mirror natural transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses in man are needed for evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates in nonhuman primates. Currently available SHIVs contain HIV-1 env genes from chronically-infected individuals and do not reflect the characteristics of biologically relevant HIV-1 strains that mediate human transmission. We chose to develop clade C SHIVs, as clade C is the major infecting subtype of HIV-1 in the world. We constructed 10 clade C SHIVs expressing Env proteins from T/F viruses. Three of these ten clade C SHIVs (SHIV KB9 C3, SHIV KB9 C4 and SHIV KB9 C5) replicated in naïve rhesus monkeys. These three SHIVs are mucosally transmissible and are neutralized by sCD4 and several HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, like natural T/F viruses, they exhibit low Env reactivity and a Tier 2 neutralization sensitivity. Of note, none of the clade C T/F SHIVs elicited detectable autologous neutralizing antibodies in the infected monkeys, even though antibodies that neutralized a heterologous Tier 1 HIV-1 were generated. Challenge with these three new clade C SHIVs will provide biologically relevant tests for vaccine protection in rhesus macaques.

  5. Selection of genetic variants of simian immunodeficiency virus in persistently infected rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, D P; Desrosiers, R C

    1991-01-01

    Genetic and antigenic variation may be one means by which lentiviruses that cause AIDS avoid elimination by host immune responses. Genetic variation in the envelope gene (env) was studied by comparing the nucleotide sequences of 27 clones obtained from two rhesus monkeys infected with molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus. All 27 clones differed from each other and differed from the input clone in the gp120 (SU) portion of the envelope gene. Nucleotide substitutions were shown to accumulate with time at an average rate of 8.5 per 1,000 per year in SU. Surprisingly, the majority of nucleotide substitutions (81%) resulted in amino acid changes. Variation in SU was not random but occurred predominantly in five discrete regions. Within these variable regions, a remarkable 98% of the nucleotide substitutions changed the amino acid. These results demonstrate that extensive sequence variability accumulates in vivo after infection with molecularly cloned virus and that selection occurs in vivo for changes in distinct variable regions in env. PMID:2002545

  6. Enhancement of Mucosal Immunization with Virus-Like Particles of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Compans, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is the most potent known mucosal adjuvant, but its toxicity precludes its use in humans. Here, in an attempt to develop safe and effective mucosal adjuvants, we compared immune responses to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virus-like particles (VLPs) after intranasal coimmunization with RANTES, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), or CT. Antibody analysis demonstrated that RANTES and CpG ODN had capacities for mucosal adjuvanticity, i.e., for enhancing serum and vaginal antibodies specific to SIV Env, similar to those for CT. RANTES and CpG ODN skewed serum antibodies predominantly to the immunoglobulin G2a isotype. Most importantly, RANTES and CpG ODN were more effective than CT in increasing neutralizing titers of both serum and vaginal antibodies. After intranasal coadministration with VLPs, RANTES or CpG ODN also induced increased levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing lymphocyte and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activities in both spleen and lymph nodes but did not increase the levels of interleukin-4-producing lymphocytes. The results suggest that RANTES and CpG ODN enhance immune responses in a T-helper-cell-type-1 (Th1)-oriented manner and that they can be used as effective mucosal adjuvants for enhancing both humoral and cellular immune responses in the context of VLPs, which are particulate antigens. PMID:12610137

  7. Repair and evolution of nef in vivo modulates simian immunodeficiency virus virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Whatmore, A M; Cook, N; Hall, G A; Sharpe, S; Rud, E W; Cranage, M P

    1995-01-01

    Experimental evidence from the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model of AIDS has shown that the nef gene is critical in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Consequently, nef is of considerable interest in both antiviral drug and vaccine development. Preliminary findings in two rhesus macaques indicated that a deletion of only 12 bp found in the overlapping nef/3' long terminal repeat (LTR) region (9501 to 9512) of the SIVmacC8 molecular clone was associated with reduced virus isolation frequency. We show that this deletion can be repaired in vivo by a sequence duplication event and that sequence evolution continues until the predicted amino acid sequence of the repair is virtually indistinguishable from that of the virulent wild type. These changes occurred concomitantly with reversion to virulence, evidenced by a high virus isolation frequency and load, decline in anti-p27 antibody, substantial reduction in the CD4/CD8 ratio, and development of opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. These findings clearly illustrate the capacity for repair of small attenuating deletions in primate lentiviruses and also strongly suggest that the region from 9501 to 9512 in the SIV nef/3' LTR region is of biological relevance. In addition, the ability of attenuated virus to revert to virulence raises fundamental questions regarding the nature of superinfection immunity. PMID:7609080

  8. Reactivation of simian immunodeficiency virus reservoirs in the brain of virally suppressed macaques

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Lucio; Abreu, Celina M.; Shirk, Erin N.; Price, Sarah L.; Li, Ming; Laird, Greg M.; Pate, Kelly A. Metcalf; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; Pianowski, Luiz; Haase, Ashley T.; Van Lint, Carine; Siliciano, Robert F.; Clements, Janice E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Resting CD4+ T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. Design: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious central nervous system-penetrant ART. After 500 days of viral suppression animals were treated with two cycles of latency reversing agents and increases in viral transcripts were examined. Methods: Longitudinal plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral loads were analyzed by quantitative and digital droplet PCR. After necropsy, viral transcripts in organs were analyzed by PCR, in-situ hybridization, and phylogenetic genotyping based on env V1 loop sequences. Markers for neuronal damage and CSF activation were measured by ELISA. Results: Increases in activation markers and plasma and CSF viral loads were observed in one animal treated with latency reversing agents, despite ongoing ART. SIV transcripts were identified in occipital cortex macrophages by in-situ hybridization and CD68+ staining. The most abundant SIV genotype in CSF was unique and expanded independent from viruses found in the periphery. Conclusion: The central nervous system harbors latent SIV genomes after long-term viral suppression by ART, indicating that the brain represents a potential viral reservoir and should be seriously considered during AIDS cure strategies. PMID:27898590

  9. Effects of Fecal Microbial Transplantation on Microbiome and Immunity in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Hensley-McBain, Tiffany; Zevin, Alexander S.; Manuzak, Jennifer; Smith, Elise; Gile, Jillian; Miller, Charlene; Agricola, Brian; Katze, Michael; Reeves, R. Keith; Kraft, Colleen S.; Langevin, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An altered intestinal microbiome during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with mucosal dysfunction, inflammation, and disease progression. We performed a preclinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential therapeutic in HIV-infected individuals. Antiretroviral-treated, chronically simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques received antibiotics followed by FMT. The greatest microbiota shift was observed after antibiotic treatment. The bacterial community composition at 2 weeks post-FMT resembled the pre-FMT community structure, although differences in the abundances of minor bacterial populations remained. Immunologically, we observed significant increases in the number of peripheral Th17 and Th22 cells and reduced CD4+ T cell activation in gastrointestinal tissues post-FMT. Importantly, the transplant was well tolerated with no negative clinical side effects. Although this pilot study did not control for the differential contributions of antibiotic treatment and FMT to the observed results, the data suggest that FMT may have beneficial effects that should be further evaluated in larger studies. IMPORTANCE Due to the immunodeficiency and chronic inflammation that occurs during HIV infection, determination of the safety of FMT is crucial to prevent deleterious consequences if it is to be used as a treatment in the future. Here we used the macaque model of HIV infection and performed FMT on six chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques on antiretroviral treatment. In addition to providing a preclinical demonstration of the safety of FMT in primates infected with a lentivirus, this study provided a unique opportunity to examine the relationships between alterations to the microbiome and immunological parameters. In this study, we found increased numbers of Th17 and Th22 cells as well as decreased activation of CD4+ T cells post-FMT, and these changes

  10. SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN THE BRAIN AND LUNG LEADS TO DIFFERENTIAL TYPE I INTERFERON SIGNALING DURING ACUTE INFECTION*

    PubMed Central

    Alammar, Luna; Gama, Lucio; Clements, Janice E.

    2011-01-01

    Using an accelerated and consistent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) pigtailed macaque model of HIV associated neurological disorders, we have demonstrated that virus enters the brain during acute infection. However, neurological symptoms do not manifest until late stages of infection, suggesting that immunological mechanisms exist within the central nervous system (CNS) that control viral replication and associated inflammation. We have shown that interferon beta, a type I interferon central to viral innate immunity, is a major cytokine present in the brain during acute infection and is responsible for limiting virus infection and inflammatory cytokine expression. However, the induction and role of interferon alpha in the CNS during acute SIV infection has never been examined in this model. In the classical model of interferon signaling, interferon beta signals through the interferon α/β receptor, leading to expression of interferon alpha. Surprisingly, although interferon beta is up regulated during acute SIV infection, we found that interferon alpha is down regulated. We demonstrate that this down regulation is coupled with a suppression of signaling molecules downstream of the interferon receptor, namely tyk2, STAT1 and IRF7, as indicated by either lack of protein phosphorylation, lack of nuclear accumulation, or transcriptional and/or translational repression. In contrast to brain, interferon alpha is up regulated in lung and accompanied by activation of tyk2 and STAT1. These data provide a novel observation that during acute SIV infection in the brain there is differential signaling through the interferon α/β receptor that fails to activate expression of interferon alpha in the brain. PMID:21368232

  11. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Karyn E.; Guo, Wen; Serra, Carlo; Beck, Matthew; Wachtman, Lynn; Hoggatt, Amber; Xia, Dongling; Pearson, Chris; Knight, Heather; O’Connell, Micheal; Miller, Andrew D.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-01-01

    There are no approved therapies for muscle wasting in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which portends poor disease outcomes. To determine whether a soluble ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein (ActRIIB.Fc), a ligand trap for TGF-β/activin family members including myostatin, can prevent or restore loss of lean body mass and body weight in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Fourteen pair-housed, juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239 and, 4 wk postinoculation (WPI) treated with intramuscular injections of 10 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ wk−1 ActRIIB.Fc or saline placebo. Body weight, lean body mass, SIV titers, and somatometric measurements were assessed monthly for 16 wk. Age-matched SIV-infected rhesus macaques were injected with saline. Intervention groups did not differ at baseline. Gains in lean mass were significantly greater in the ActRIIB.Fc group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with greater gains in body weight (P = 0.01) and upper arm circumference than placebo. Serum CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and SIV copy numbers did not differ between groups. Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with higher muscle expression of myostatin than placebo. ActRIIB.Fc effectively blocked and reversed loss of body weight, lean mass, and fat mass in juvenile SIV-infected rhesus macaques.—O’Connell, K. E., Guo, W., Serra, C., Beck, M., Wachtman, L., Hoggatt, A., Xia, D., Pearson, C., Knight, H., O’Connell, M., Miller, A. D., Westmoreland, S. V., Bhasin, S. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. PMID:25466897

  12. Macaques immunized with HLA-DR are protected from challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, L O; Bess, J W; Urban, R G; Strominger, J L; Morton, W R; Mann, D L; Henderson, L E; Benveniste, R E

    1995-01-01

    Macaques immunized with uninfected human cells have been shown to be protected from challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) propagated in human cells. To identify the potential antigens involved in this protection, macaques were immunized with uninfected human cells, sucrose density gradient-purified culture fluid from uninfected human cells (mock virus), beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2M), immunoaffinity-purified HLA class I and class II proteins from these human cells, and adjuvant. Although all macaques immunized with beta 2M and HLA class I developed high antibody titers to beta 2M, these animals were not protected from a subsequent challenge with infectious SIV grown in human cells. In contrast, the macaques immunized with class II protein (HLA-DR) and mock virus developed antibodies to class II protein and were protected from the intravenous infectious virus challenge. The class II protein- and mock virus-immunized animals which were protected from challenge were given boosters of the appropriate antigen and challenged with the same SIV propagated in macaque cells. All animals became infected, indicating that the protection seen with human class II protein did not extend to protection from infection with SIV containing macaque class II proteins. Since the virus released from SIV-infected macaque cells would contain macaque class II proteins, our results suggest that the initial SIV infected was completely prevented. In addition, the lack of protection from challenge with SIV propagated in macaque cells provided strong evidence that the protection was due to an immune response to the cellular proteins and not to epitopes cross-reactive between class II proteins and the viral proteins, since the identical virus proteins were present in both challenge stocks. These results are the first demonstration that immunization with a purified cellular protein can protect from virus infection. PMID:7707540

  13. Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian T; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

  14. Distinct Patterns of Tryptophan Maintenance in Tissues during Kynurenine Pathway Activation in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, Julia L.; Croteau, Joshua D.; Shirk, Erin N.; Engle, Elizabeth L.; Zink, M. C.; Graham, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Induction of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) catabolism has been proposed to contribute to T cell dysfunction during human/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection via depletion of local TRP levels and production of immunomodulatory KP metabolites. However, while changes in TRP and KP metabolites have been observed in plasma, their levels in lymphoid tissues and levels of enzymes downstream of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) have been relatively unexplored. We used our SIV-infected pigtailed macaque model to analyze longitudinal changes in KP metabolites and enzymes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and NanoString nCounter gene expression analysis, respectively, in spleen and blood compared to changes previously established in brain and CSF. We found that TRP levels were remarkably stable in tissue sites despite robust depletion in the circulating plasma and CSF. We also demonstrated that intracellular TRP reserves were maintained in cultured cells even in the presence of depleted extracellular TRP levels. Kynurenine (KYN), 3-hydroxykynurenine, quinolinic acid, and the KP enzymes all displayed highly divergent patterns in the sites examined, though IDO1 expression always correlated with local KYN/TRP ratios. Finally, we demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting that myeloid dendritic cells and cells of monocytic lineage were the highest producers of IDO1 in chronically infected spleens. Overall, our study reveals insights into the tissue-specific regulation of KP enzymes and metabolites and, in particular, highlights the multiple mechanisms by which cells and tissues seek to prevent TRP starvation during inflammation. PMID:28066416

  15. Inhibition of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication by CD8+ cells of SIV-infected rhesus macaques: implications for immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blackbourn, D J; Chuang, L F; Killam, K F; Chuang, R Y

    1994-08-01

    The ability of the CD8+ cells from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques to inhibit SIV replication was investigated. Inhibition was produced by a heat-stable soluble factor of molecular size greater than 10kDa. CD8+ supernatants from some macaques were found not only to suppress SIV growth but also to be cytolytic toward both infected and uninfected CD4+ cells. Such indiscriminate CD8+ cell-mediated cell killing may therefore account for DC4+ cell depletion in certain SIV-infected macaques.

  16. Amplification of a Complete Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Genome from Fecal RNA of a Wild Chimpanzee

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Kamenya, Shadrack; Muller, Martin N.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Shaw, George M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) infection of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is incomplete since few isolates, mostly from captive apes from Cameroon and Gabon, have been characterized; yet this information is critical for understanding the origins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the circumstances leading to the HIV-1 pandemic. Here, we report the first full-length SIVcpz sequence (TAN1) from a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from Gombe National Park (Tanzania), which was obtained noninvasively by amplification of virion RNA from fecal samples collected under field conditions. Using reverse transcription-PCR and a combination of generic and strain-specific primers, we amplified 13 subgenomic fragments which together spanned the entire TAN1 genome (9,326 bp). Distance and phylogenetic tree analyses identified TAN1 unambiguously as a member of the HIV-1/SIVcpz group of viruses but also revealed an extraordinary degree of divergence from all previously characterized SIVcpz and HIV-1 strains. In Gag, Pol, and Env proteins, TAN1 differed from west-central African SIVcpz and HIV-1 strains on average by 36, 30, and 51% of amino acid sequences, respectively, approaching distance values typically found for SIVs from different primate species. The closest relative was SIVcpzANT, also from a P. t. schweinfurthii ape, which differed by 30, 25, and 44%, respectively, in these same protein sequences but clustered with TAN1 in all major coding regions in a statistically highly significant manner. These data indicate that east African chimpanzees, like those from west-central Africa, are naturally infected by SIVcpz but that their viruses comprise a second, divergent SIVcpz lineage which appears to have evolved in relative isolation for an extended period of time. Our data also demonstrate that noninvasive molecular epidemiological studies of SIVcpz in wild chimpanzees are feasible and that

  17. Simian immunodeficiency virus mutants resistant to serum neutralization arise during persistent infection of rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, D P; Collignon, C; Desrosiers, R C

    1993-01-01

    We previously described the pattern of sequence variation in gp120 following persistent infection of rhesus monkeys with the pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 molecular clone (D.P.W. Burns and R.C. Desrosiers, J. Virol. 65:1843, 1991). Sequence changes were confined largely to five variable regions (V1 to V5), four of which correspond to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 variable regions. Remarkably, 182 of 186 nucleotide substitutions that were documented in these variable regions resulted in amino acid changes. This is an extremely nonrandom pattern, which suggests selective pressure driving amino acid changes in discrete variable domains. In the present study, we investigated whether neutralizing-antibody responses are one selective force responsible at least in part for the observed pattern of sequence variation. Variant env sequences called 1-12 and 8-22 obtained 69 and 93 weeks after infection of a rhesus monkey with cloned SIVmac239 were recombined into the parental SIVmac239 genome, and variant viruses were generated by transfection of cultured cells with cloned DNA. The 1-12 and 8-22 recombinants differ from the parental SIVmac239 at 18 amino acid positions in gp120 and at 5 and 10 amino acid positions, respectively, in gp41. Sequential sera from the monkey infected with cloned SIVmac239 from which the 1-12 and 8-22 variants were isolated showed much higher neutralizing antibody titers to cloned SIVmac239 than to the cloned 1-12 and 8-22 variants. For example, at 55 weeks postinfection the neutralizing antibody titer against SIVmac239 was 640 while those to the variant viruses were 40 and less than 20. Two other rhesus monkeys infected with cloned SIVmac239 showed a similar pattern. Rhesus monkeys were also experimentally infected with the cloned variants so that the type-specific nature of the neutralizing antibody responses could be verified. Indeed, each of these monkeys showed neutralizing-antibody responses of much

  18. Suppression of a Natural Killer Cell Response by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Peptides.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Jamie L; Ries, Moritz; Guha, Natasha; Connole, Michelle; Colantonio, Arnaud D; Wiertz, Emmanuel J; Wilson, Nancy A; Kaur, Amitinder; Evans, David T

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell responses in primates are regulated in part through interactions between two highly polymorphic molecules, the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on NK cells and their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I ligands on target cells. We previously reported that the binding of a common MHC class I molecule in the rhesus macaque, Mamu-A1*002, to the inhibitory receptor Mamu-KIR3DL05 is stabilized by certain simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) peptides, but not by others. Here we investigated the functional implications of these interactions by testing SIV peptides bound by Mamu-A1*002 for the ability to modulate Mamu-KIR3DL05+ NK cell responses. Twenty-eight of 75 SIV peptides bound by Mamu-A1*002 suppressed the cytolytic activity of primary Mamu-KIR3DL05+ NK cells, including three immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitopes previously shown to stabilize Mamu-A1*002 tetramer binding to Mamu-KIR3DL05. Substitutions at C-terminal positions changed inhibitory peptides into disinhibitory peptides, and vice versa, without altering binding to Mamu-A1*002. The functional effects of these peptide variants on NK cell responses also corresponded to their effects on Mamu-A1*002 tetramer binding to Mamu-KIR3DL05. In assays with mixtures of inhibitory and disinhibitory peptides, low concentrations of inhibitory peptides dominated to suppress NK cell responses. Consistent with the inhibition of Mamu-KIR3DL05+ NK cells by viral epitopes presented by Mamu-A1*002, SIV replication was significantly higher in Mamu-A1*002+ CD4+ lymphocytes co-cultured with Mamu-KIR3DL05+ NK cells than with Mamu-KIR3DL05- NK cells. These results demonstrate that viral peptides can differentially affect NK cell responses by modulating MHC class I interactions with inhibitory KIRs, and provide a mechanism by which immunodeficiency viruses may evade NK cell responses.

  19. Foci of endemic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Mario L; Lukasik, Magdalena; Kamenya, Shadrack; Li, Yingying; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Muller, Martin N; Emery, Melissa; Goldenberg, David A; Lwanga, Jeremiah S; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Nerrienet, Eric; McClure, Harold M; Heeney, Jonathan L; Watts, David P; Pusey, Anne E; Collins, D Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W; Goodall, Jane; Brookfield, John F Y; Sharp, Paul M; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2003-07-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) is the immediate precursor to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet remarkably, the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz in wild ape populations are unknown. Studies of SIVcpz infection rates in wild chimpanzees are complicated by the species' endangered status and by its geographic location in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed sensitive and specific urine and fecal tests for SIVcpz antibody and virion RNA (vRNA) detection and describe herein the first comprehensive prevalence study of SIVcpz infection in five wild Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii communities in east Africa. In Kibale National Park in Uganda, 31 (of 52) members of the Kanyawara community and 39 (of approximately 145) members of the Ngogo community were studied; none were found to be positive for SIVcpz infection. In Gombe National Park in Tanzania, 15 (of 20) members of the Mitumba community, 51 (of 55) members of the Kasekela community, and at least 10 (of approximately 20) members of the Kalande community were studied. Seven individuals were SIVcpz antibody and/or vRNA positive, and two others had indeterminate antibody results. Based on assay sensitivities and the numbers and types of specimens analyzed, we estimated the prevalence of SIVcpz infection to be 17% in Mitumba (95% confidence interval, 10 to 40%), 5% in Kasekela (95% confidence interval, 4 to 7%), and 30% in Kalande (95% confidence interval, 15 to 60%). For Gombe as a whole, the SIVcpz prevalence was estimated to be 13% (95% confidence interval, 7 to 25%). SIVcpz infection was confirmed in five chimpanzees by PCR amplification of partial pol and gp41/nef sequences which revealed a diverse group of viruses that formed a monophyletic lineage within the SIVcpzPts radiation. Although none of the 70 Kibale chimpanzees tested SIVcpz positive, we estimated the likelihood that a 10% or higher prevalence existed but went undetected because of sampling and

  20. Significance of premature stop codons in env of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, T; Wooley, D P; Naidu, Y M; Kestler, H W; Daniel, M D; Li, Y; Desrosiers, R C

    1989-01-01

    The location of the translational termination codon for the transmembrane protein (TMP) varies in three infectious molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus from macaques (SIVmac). The SIVmac251 and SIVmac142 infectious clones have premature stop signals that differ in location by one codon; transfection of these DNAs into human HUT-78 cells yielded virus with a truncated TMP (28 to 30 kilodaltons [kDa]). The SIVmac239 infectious clone does not have a premature stop codon in its TMP-coding region. Transfection of HUT-78 cells with this clone initially yielded virus with a full-length TMP (41 kDa). At 20 to 30 days posttransfection, SIVmac239 virus with a 41-kDa TMP gradually disappeared coincident with the emergence of a virus with a 28-kDa TMP. Virus production dramatically increased in parallel with the emergence of a virus with a 28-kDa TMP. Sequence analysis of viral DNAs from these cultures showed that premature stop codons arising by point mutation were responsible for the change in size of the TMP with time. A similar selective pressure for truncated forms of TMP was observed when the SIVmac239 clone was transfected into human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In contrast, no such selective pressure was observed in macaque PBL. When the SIVmac239 clone was transfected into macaque PBL and the resultant virus was serially passaged in macaque PBL, the virus replicated very well and maintained a 41-kDa TMP for 80 days in culture. Macaque monkeys were infected with SIVmac239 having a 28-kDa TMP; virus subsequently recovered from T4-enriched lymphocytes of peripheral blood showed only the 41-kDa form of TMP. These results indicate that the natural form of TMP in SIVmac is the full-length 41-kDa TMP, just as in human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Viruses with truncated forms of TMP appear to result from mutation and selection during propagation in unnatural human cells. Images PMID:2795718

  1. Foci of Endemic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Living Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Kamenya, Shadrack; Li, Yingying; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Muller, Martin N.; Emery, Melissa; Goldenberg, David A.; Lwanga, Jeremiah S.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Nerrienet, Eric; McClure, Harold M.; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Watts, David P.; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Sharp, Paul M.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) is the immediate precursor to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet remarkably, the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz in wild ape populations are unknown. Studies of SIVcpz infection rates in wild chimpanzees are complicated by the species' endangered status and by its geographic location in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed sensitive and specific urine and fecal tests for SIVcpz antibody and virion RNA (vRNA) detection and describe herein the first comprehensive prevalence study of SIVcpz infection in five wild Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii communities in east Africa. In Kibale National Park in Uganda, 31 (of 52) members of the Kanyawara community and 39 (of ∼145) members of the Ngogo community were studied; none were found to be positive for SIVcpz infection. In Gombe National Park in Tanzania, 15 (of 20) members of the Mitumba community, 51 (of 55) members of the Kasekela community, and at least 10 (of ∼20) members of the Kalande community were studied. Seven individuals were SIVcpz antibody and/or vRNA positive, and two others had indeterminate antibody results. Based on assay sensitivities and the numbers and types of specimens analyzed, we estimated the prevalence of SIVcpz infection to be 17% in Mitumba (95% confidence interval, 10 to 40%), 5% in Kasekela (95% confidence interval, 4 to 7%), and 30% in Kalande (95% confidence interval, 15 to 60%). For Gombe as a whole, the SIVcpz prevalence was estimated to be 13% (95% confidence interval, 7 to 25%). SIVcpz infection was confirmed in five chimpanzees by PCR amplification of partial pol and gp41/nef sequences which revealed a diverse group of viruses that formed a monophyletic lineage within the SIVcpzPts radiation. Although none of the 70 Kibale chimpanzees tested SIVcpz positive, we estimated the likelihood that a 10% or higher prevalence existed but went undetected because of sampling and assay limitations; this

  2. Monocyte adhesion to endothelium in simian immunodeficiency virus-induced AIDS encephalitis is mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W.; Brodie, S. J.; Hesterberg, P.; Pauley, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Because the mechanisms associated with recruitment of monocytes to brain in AIDS encephalitis are unknown, we used tissues from rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to examine the relative contributions of various adhesion pathways in mediating monocyte adhesion to endothelium from encephalitic brain. Using a modified Stamper and Woodruff tissue adhesion assay, we found that the human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and the B cell line, Ramos, preferentially bound to brain vessels from monkeys with AIDS encephalitis. Using a combined tissue adhesion/immunohistochemistry approach, these cells only bound to vessels expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, pretreatment of tissues with antibodies to VCAM-1 or cell lines with antibodies to VLA-4 (CD49d) inhibited adhesion by more than 70%. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/beta 2 integrin interactions were not significant in mediating cell adhesion to the vasculature in encephalitic simian brain using a cell line (JY) capable of binding rhesus monkey ICAM-1. In addition, selectin-mediated interactions did not significantly contribute to cell binding to encephalitic brain as there was no immunohistochemical expression of E-selectin and P-selectin in either normal or encephalitic brain, nor was there a demonstrable adhesive effect from L-selectin using L-selectin-transfected 300.19 cells on simian encephalitic brain. These results demonstrate that using the tissue adhesion assay, THP-1, U937, and Ramos cells bind to vessels in brain from animals with AIDS encephalitis using VCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions and suggest that VCAM-1 and VLA-4 may be integral for monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7507300

  3. Selection of a Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Strain Resistant to a Vaginal Microbicide in Macaques▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Dawn M.; Wentzel, Jennifer L.; Lalonde, Matthew S.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Arts, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    PSC-RANTES binds to CCR5, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and has been shown as a vaginal microbicide to protect rhesus macaques from a simian-human immunodeficiency virus chimera (SHIVSF162-p3) infection in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, env gene sequences from SHIVSF162-p3-infected rhesus macaques treated with PSC-RANTES were analyzed for possible drug escape variants. Two specific mutations located in the V3 region of gp120 (K315R) and C-helical domain of gp41 (N640D) were identified in a macaque (m584) pretreated with a 100 μM dose of PSC-RANTES. These two env mutations were found throughout infection (through week 77) but were found at only low frequencies in the inoculating SHIVSF162-p3 stock and in the other SHIVSF162-p3-infected macaques. HIV-1 env genes from macaque m584 (envm584) and from inoculating SHIVSF162-p3 (envp3) were cloned into an HIV-1 backbone. Increases in 50% inhibitory concentrations to PSC-RANTES with envm584 were modest (sevenfold) and most pronounced in cells expressing rhesus macaque CCR5 as compared to human CCR5. Nonetheless, virus harboring envm584, unlike inoculating virus envp3, could replicate even at the highest tissue culture PSC-RANTES concentrations (100 nM). Dual-virus competitions revealed a dramatic increase in fitness of chimeric virus containing envm584 (K315R/N640D) over that containing envp3, but again, only in rhesus CCR5-expressing cells. This study is the first to describe the immediate selection and infection of a drug-resistant SHIV variant in the face of a protective vaginal microbicide, PSC-RANTES. This rhesus CCR5-specific/PSC- RANTES resistance selection is particularly alarming given the relative homogeneity of the SHIVSF162-p3 stock compared to the potential exposure to a heterogeneous HIV-1 population in human transmission. PMID:19279098

  4. Vaccine-Elicited Mucosal and Systemic Antibody Responses Are Associated with Reduced Simian Immunodeficiency Viremia in Infant Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kara; Nabi, Rafiq; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Robichaux, Spencer; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Piatak, Michael; Jacobs, William R.; Fennelly, Glenn; Canfield, Don; Mollan, Katie R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Larsen, Michelle H.; Amedee, Angela M.; Kozlowski, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite significant progress in reducing peripartum mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with antiretroviral therapy (ART), continued access to ART throughout the breastfeeding period is still a limiting factor, and breast milk exposure to HIV accounts for up to 44% of MTCT. As abstinence from breastfeeding is not recommended, alternative means are needed to prevent MTCT of HIV. We have previously shown that oral vaccination at birth with live attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) genes safely induces persistent SIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses both systemically and at the oral and intestinal mucosa. Here, we tested the ability of oral M. tuberculosis vaccine strains expressing SIV Env and Gag proteins, followed by systemic heterologous (MVA-SIV Env/Gag/Pol) boosting, to protect neonatal macaques against oral SIV challenge. While vaccination did not protect infant macaques against oral SIV acquisition, a subset of immunized animals had significantly lower peak viremia which inversely correlated with prechallenge SIV Env-specific salivary and intestinal IgA responses and higher-avidity SIV Env-specific IgG in plasma. These controller animals also maintained CD4+ T cell populations better and showed reduced tissue pathology compared to noncontroller animals. We show that infants vaccinated at birth can develop vaccine-induced SIV-specific IgA and IgG antibodies and cellular immune responses within weeks of life. Our data further suggest that affinity maturation of vaccine-induced plasma antibodies and induction of mucosal IgA responses at potential SIV entry sites are associated with better control of viral replication, thereby likely reducing SIV morbidity. IMPORTANCE Despite significant progress in reducing peripartum MTCT of HIV with ART, continued access to ART throughout the breastfeeding period is still a limiting factor. Breast milk exposure

  5. With minimal systemic T-cell expansion, CD8+ T Cells mediate protection of rhesus macaques immunized with attenuated simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6 from vaginal challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Genescà, Meritxell; Skinner, Pamela J; Hong, Jung Joo; Li, Jun; Lu, Ding; McChesney, Michael B; Miller, Christopher J

    2008-11-01

    The presence, at the time of challenge, of antiviral effector T cells in the vaginal mucosa of female rhesus macaques immunized with live-attenuated simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6 (SHIV89.6) is associated with consistent and reproducible protection from pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaginal challenge (18). Here, we definitively demonstrate the protective role of the SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response in SHIV-immunized monkeys by CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion, an intervention that abrogated SHIV-mediated control of challenge virus replication and largely eliminated the SIV-specific T-cell responses in blood, lymph nodes, and genital mucosa. While in the T-cell-intact SHIV-immunized animals, polyfunctional and degranulating SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were present in the genital tract and lymphoid tissues from the day of challenge until day 14 postchallenge, strikingly, expansion of SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in the immunized monkeys was minimal and limited to the vagina. Thus, protection from uncontrolled SIV replication in animals immunized with attenuated SHIV89.6 is primarily mediated by CD8(+) T cells that do not undergo dramatic systemic expansion after SIV challenge. These findings demonstrate that despite, and perhaps because of, minimal systemic expansion of T cells at the time of challenge, a stable population of effector-cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells can provide significant protection from vaginal SIV challenge.

  6. Strong, but Age-Dependent, Protection Elicited by a Deoxyribonucleic Acid/Modified Vaccinia Ankara Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Kannanganat, Sunil; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Nabi, Rafiq; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Montefiori, David C; LaBranche, Celia C; Wrammert, Jens; Keele, Brandon F; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Sahu, Sujata; Lifton, Michelle; Santra, Sampa; Basu, Rahul; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background.  In this study, we analyzed the protective efficacy of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque 239 (SIVmac239) analogue of the clinically tested GOVX-B11 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Methods.  The tested vaccine used a DNA immunogen mutated to mimic the human vaccine and a regimen with DNA deliveries at weeks 0 and 8 and MVA deliveries at weeks 16 and 32. Twelve weekly rectal challenges with 0.3 animal infectious doses of SIV sootey mangabey E660 (SIVsmE660) were administered starting at 6 months after the last immunization. Results.  Over the first 6 rectal exposures to SIVsmE660, <10-year-old tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5)α-permissive rhesus macaques showed an 80% reduction in per-exposure risk of infection as opposed to a 46% reduction in animals over 10 years old; and, over the 12 challenges, they showed a 72% as opposed to a 10% reduction. Analyses of elicited immune responses suggested that higher antibody responses in the younger animals had played a role in protection. Conclusions.  The simian analogue of the GOVX-B11 HIV provided strong protection against repeated rectal challenges in young adult macaques.

  7. Alterations in potential sites for glycosylation predominate during evolution of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope gene in macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Overbaugh, J; Rudensey, L M

    1992-01-01

    Genetic diversity is a hallmark of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome, but the role of distinct HIV variants in the development of AIDS is unclear. Envelope (env) is the most highly variable gene in HIV as well as in other retroviruses. We have previously demonstrated that variation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env is primarily localized in two regions (V1 and V4) during progression to simian AIDS. To determine whether there is a common genotype that evolves as AIDS develops, a total of 160 SIV env genes isolated directly from the tissue DNAs of four macaques infected with cloned virus were compared. Common amino acid sequence changes were identified within V1, V4, and, in the late stages of disease, near V3. At several positions, the same amino acid change was seen frequently in the variant genomes from all four animals. As AIDS developed, the majority of viruses evolved an extended sequence in V1 that was rich in serine and threonine residues and shared similarity with proteins modified by O-linked glycosylation. Several of the predominant common sequence changes in V1 and V4 created new sites for N-linked glycosylation. Thus, common features of the SIV variants that evolve during progression to AIDS are motifs that potentially allow for structural and functional changes in the env protein as a result of carbohydrate addition. PMID:1527847

  8. Strong, but Age-Dependent, Protection Elicited by a Deoxyribonucleic Acid/Modified Vaccinia Ankara Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Kannanganat, Sunil; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Nabi, Rafiq; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Wrammert, Jens; Keele, Brandon F.; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Sahu, Sujata; Lifton, Michelle; Santra, Sampa; Basu, Rahul; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L.; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background. In this study, we analyzed the protective efficacy of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque 239 (SIVmac239) analogue of the clinically tested GOVX-B11 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Methods. The tested vaccine used a DNA immunogen mutated to mimic the human vaccine and a regimen with DNA deliveries at weeks 0 and 8 and MVA deliveries at weeks 16 and 32. Twelve weekly rectal challenges with 0.3 animal infectious doses of SIV sootey mangabey E660 (SIVsmE660) were administered starting at 6 months after the last immunization. Results. Over the first 6 rectal exposures to SIVsmE660, <10-year-old tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5)α-permissive rhesus macaques showed an 80% reduction in per-exposure risk of infection as opposed to a 46% reduction in animals over 10 years old; and, over the 12 challenges, they showed a 72% as opposed to a 10% reduction. Analyses of elicited immune responses suggested that higher antibody responses in the younger animals had played a role in protection. Conclusions. The simian analogue of the GOVX-B11 HIV provided strong protection against repeated rectal challenges in young adult macaques. PMID:27006959

  9. Importance of vpr for infection of rhesus monkeys with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, S M; Weeger, M; Stahl-Hennig, C; Coulibaly, C; Hunsmann, G; Müller, J; Müller-Hermelink, H; Fuchs, D; Wachter, H; Daniel, M M

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the vpr gene for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication, persistence, and disease progression was examined by using the infectious pathogenic molecular clone called SIVmac239. The ATG start codon of the vpr gene was converted to TTG by site-specific mutagenesis. The constructed Vpr- mutant virus is identical with the parental SIVmac239/nef-stop virus with the exception of this one nucleotide. These viruses replicated with similar kinetics and to similar extents in rhesus monkey lymphocyte cultures and in the human CEMX174 cell line. Five rhesus monkeys were inoculated with the Vpr- variant of SIVmac239/nef-stop, and two monkeys received SIVmac239/nef-stop as controls. Both controls showed reversion of the TAA stop signal in nef by 2 weeks postinfection, as has been observed previously. Reversion of the TAA stop codon in nef also occurred in the five monkeys that received the Vpr- variant, but reversion was delayed on average to about 4 weeks. Thus, the mutation in vpr appeared to delay the rapidity with which reversion occurred in the nef gene. Reversion of the TTG sequence in vpr to ATG was observed in three of the five test animals. Reversion in vpr was first observed in these three animals 4 to 8 weeks postinfection. No vpr revertants were found over the entire 66 weeks of observation in the other two test animals that received the vpr mutant. Antibodies to vpr developed in those three animals in which reversion of vpr was documented, but antibodies to vpr were not observed in the two animals in which reversion of vpr was not detected. Antibody responses to gag and to whole virus antigens were of similar strength in all seven animals. Both control animals and two of the test animals in which vpr reverted maintained high virus loads and developed progressive disease. Low virus burden and no disease have been observed in the two animals in which vpr did not revert and in the one animal in which vpr reversion was first detected only at 8

  10. Topically applied recombinant chemokine analogues fully protect macaques from vaginal simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Ling, Binhua; Green, Linda C; Ribka, Erin P; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Piatak, Michael; Lederman, Michael M; Mosier, Donald; Offord, Robin; Hartley, Oliver

    2009-05-15

    Effective strategies for preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection are urgently needed, but recent failures in key clinical trials of vaccines and microbicides highlight the need for new approaches validated in relevant animal models. Here, we show that 2 new chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 inhibitors, 5P12-RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and 6P4-RANTES, fully protect against infection in the rhesus vaginal challenge model. These highly potent molecules, which are amenable to low-cost production, represent promising new additions to the microbicides pipeline.

  11. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S.; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C.; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d’Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d’Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d’Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  12. Use of a Small Molecule CCR5 Inhibitor in Macaques to Treat Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection or Prevent Simian–Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Klasse, Per Johan; Ketas, Thomas J.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Piatak, Michael; Kunstman, Kevin; Kuhmann, Shawn E.; Marx, Preston A.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Dufour, Jason; Mefford, Megan; Pandrea, Ivona; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Doms, Robert W.; DeMartino, Julie A.; Siciliano, Salvatore J.; Lyons, Kathy; Springer, Martin S.; Moore, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fuses with cells after sequential interactions between its envelope glycoproteins, CD4 and a coreceptor, usually CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4). CMPD 167 is a CCR5-specific small molecule with potent antiviral activity in vitro. We show that CMPD 167 caused a rapid and substantial (4–200-fold) decrease in plasma viremia in six rhesus macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains SIVmac251 or SIVB670, but not in an animal infected with the X4 simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), SHIV-89.6P. In three of the SIV-infected animals, viremia reduction was sustained. In one, there was a rapid, but partial, rebound and in another, there was a rapid and complete rebound. There was a substantial delay (>21 d) between the end of therapy and the onset of full viremia rebound in two animals. We also evaluated whether vaginal administration of gel-formulated CMPD 167 could prevent vaginal transmission of the R5 virus, SHIV-162P4. Complete protection occurred in only 2 of 11 animals, but early viral replication was significantly less in the 11 CMPD 167-recipients than in 9 controls receiving carrier gel. These findings support the development of small molecule CCR5 inhibitors as antiviral therapies, and possibly as components of a topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission. PMID:14623909

  13. Monoclonal antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 core proteins: cross-reactivity with HIV type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Minassian, A A; Kalyanaraman, V S; Gallo, R C; Popovic, M

    1988-09-01

    Four mouse monoclonal antibodies were developed after immunization with one human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 isolate and were tested for reactivity with different HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolates in an immunofluorescence assay and by immunological blot analysis. One of them, an anti-capsid (p24) antibody, called R1C7, reacted with all HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV isolates tested, thus identifying an epitope shared by all HIV and SIV. Another anti-capsid antibody, named A4F6, reacted with three HIV-2 isolates (HIV-2NIH-Z, LAV-2Rod, and LK001 ST9), some SIV isolates (STLV-IIIAGM, SIV-251, and SIV-309), but no HIV-1 isolates. Two anti-matrix (p16) antibodies, named R5C4 and R5F6, reacted strongly only with the HIV-2 isolates. The use of these monoclonal antibodies for rapid discrimination and identification of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related retroviruses is discussed.

  14. Envelope residue 375 substitutions in simian-human immunodeficiency viruses enhance CD4 binding and replication in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wang, Shuyi; Kong, Rui; Ding, Wenge; Lee, Fang-Hua; Parker, Zahra; Kim, Eunlim; Learn, Gerald H; Hahn, Paul; Policicchio, Ben; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Deleage, Claire; Hao, Xingpei; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Gorman, Jason; Gardner, Matthew; Lewis, Mark G; Hatziioannou, Theodora; Santra, Sampa; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona; Alam, S Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Farzan, Michael; Chertova, Elena; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Doms, Robert W; Montefiori, David C; Haynes, Barton F; Sodroski, Joseph G; Kwong, Peter D; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M

    2016-06-14

    Most simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) bearing envelope (Env) glycoproteins from primary HIV-1 strains fail to infect rhesus macaques (RMs). We hypothesized that inefficient Env binding to rhesus CD4 (rhCD4) limits virus entry and replication and could be enhanced by substituting naturally occurring simian immunodeficiency virus Env residues at position 375, which resides at a critical location in the CD4-binding pocket and is under strong positive evolutionary pressure across the broad spectrum of primate lentiviruses. SHIVs containing primary or transmitted/founder HIV-1 subtype A, B, C, or D Envs with genotypic variants at residue 375 were constructed and analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Bulky hydrophobic or basic amino acids substituted for serine-375 enhanced Env affinity for rhCD4, virus entry into cells bearing rhCD4, and virus replication in primary rhCD4 T cells without appreciably affecting antigenicity or antibody-mediated neutralization sensitivity. Twenty-four RMs inoculated with subtype A, B, C, or D SHIVs all became productively infected with different Env375 variants-S, M, Y, H, W, or F-that were differentially selected in different Env backbones. Notably, SHIVs replicated persistently at titers comparable to HIV-1 in humans and elicited autologous neutralizing antibody responses typical of HIV-1. Seven animals succumbed to AIDS. These findings identify Env-rhCD4 binding as a critical determinant for productive SHIV infection in RMs and validate a novel and generalizable strategy for constructing SHIVs with Env glycoproteins of interest, including those that in humans elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies or bind particular Ig germ-line B-cell receptors.

  15. Live-attenuated lentivirus immunization modulates innate immunity and inflammation while protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal simian immunodeficiency virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Genescà, Meritxell; Ma, Zhong-Min; Wang, Yichuan; Assaf, Basel; Qureshi, Huma; Fritts, Linda; Huang, Ying; McChesney, Michael B; Miller, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    Immunization with attenuated lentiviruses is the only reliable method of protecting rhesus macaques (RM) from vaginal challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion prior to SIVmac239 vaginal challenge demonstrated that a modest, Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell response induced by immunization with simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6 (SHIV89.6) protects RM. Although CD8(+) T cells are required for protection, there is no anamnestic expansion of SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in any tissues except the vagina after challenge. Further, SHIV immunization increased the number of viral target cells in the vagina and cervix, suggesting that the ratio of target cells to antiviral CD8(+) T cells was not a determinant of protection. We hypothesized that persistent replication of the attenuated vaccine virus modulates inflammatory responses and limits T cell activation and expansion by inducing immunoregulatory T cell populations. We found that attenuated SHIV infection decreased the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells, suppressed T cell activation, decreased mRNA levels of proinflammatory mediators, and increased mRNA levels of immunoregulatory molecules. Three days after SIV vaginal challenge, SHIV-immunized RM had significantly more T regulatory cells in the vagina than the unimmunized RM. By day 14 postchallenge, immune activation and inflammation were characteristic of unimmunized RM but were minimal in SHIV-immunized RM. Thus, a modest vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell response in the context of immunoregulatory suppression of T cell activation may protect against vaginal HIV transmission.

  16. env Sequences of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses from Chimpanzees in Cameroon Are Strongly Related to Those of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Group N from the Same Geographic Area

    PubMed Central

    Corbet, Sylvie; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Versmisse, Pierre; Delarue, Severine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Lewis, John; Brunak, Soren; Martin, Paul; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise; Simon, François; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Mauclere, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group N from Cameroon is phylogenetically close, in env, to the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) cpz-gab from Gabon and SIVcpz-US of unknown geographic origin. We screened 29 wild-born Cameroonian chimpanzees and found that three (Cam3, Cam4, and Cam5) were positive for HIV-1 by Western blotting. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that Cam3 and Cam5 belonged to Pan troglodytes troglodytes and that Cam4 belonged to P. t. vellerosus. Genetic analyses of the viruses together with serological data demonstrated that at least one of the two P. t. troglodytes chimpanzees (Cam5) was infected in the wild, and revealed a horizontal transmission between Cam3 and Cam4. These data confirm that P. t. troglodytes is a natural host for HIV-1-related viruses. Furthermore, they show that SIVcpz can be transmitted in captivity, from one chimpanzee subspecies to another. All three SIVcpz-cam viruses clustered with HIV-1 N in env. The full Cam3 SIVcpz genome sequence showed a very close phylogenetic relationship with SIVcpz-US, a virus identified in a P. t. troglodytes chimpanzee captured nearly 40 years earlier. Like SIVcpz-US, SIVcpz-cam3 was closely related to HIV-1 N in env, but not in pol, supporting the hypothesis that HIV-1 N results from a recombination event. SIVcpz from chimpanzees born in the wild in Cameroon are thus strongly related in env to HIV-1 N from Cameroon, demonstrating the geographic coincidence of these human and simian viruses and providing a further strong argument in favor of the origin of HIV-1 being in chimpanzees. PMID:10590144

  17. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) promotes neuroimmune-modulatory microRNA profile in striatum of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Liz; Song, Keijing; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Hollenbach, Andrew; Amedee, Angela; Mohan, Mahesh; Winsauer, Peter; Molina, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoid administration before and after simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-inoculation ameliorated disease progression and decreased inflammation in male rhesus macaques. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) did not increase viral load in brain tissue or produce additive neuropsychological impairment in SIV-infected macaques. To determine if the neuroimmunomodulation of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miR) expression, miR expression in the striatum of uninfected macaques receiving vehicle (VEH) or Δ9-THC (THC) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV) or Δ9-THC (THC/SIV) was profiled using next generation deep sequencing. Among the 24 miRs that were differentially expressed among the four groups, 16 miRs were modulated by THC in the presence of SIV. These 16 miRs were classified into four categories and the biological processes enriched by the target genes determined. Our results indicate that Δ9-THC modulates miRs that regulate mRNAs of proteins involved in 1) neurotrophin signaling, 2) MAPK signaling, and 3) cell cycle and immune response thus promoting an overall neuroprotective environment in the striatum of SIV-infected macaques. This is also reflected by increased Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression compared to the VEH/SIV group. Whether Δ9-THC-mediated modulation of epigenetic mechanisms provides neuroprotection in other regions of the brain and during chronic SIV-infection remains to be determined. PMID:26607731

  18. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) Promotes Neuroimmune-Modulatory MicroRNA Profile in Striatum of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Infected Macaques.

    PubMed

    Simon, Liz; Song, Keijing; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; Hollenbach, Andrew; Amedee, Angela; Mohan, Mahesh; Winsauer, Peter; Molina, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Cannabinoid administration before and after simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-inoculation ameliorated disease progression and decreased inflammation in male rhesus macaques. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) did not increase viral load in brain tissue or produce additive neuropsychological impairment in SIV-infected macaques. To determine if the neuroimmunomodulation of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miR) expression, miR expression in the striatum of uninfected macaques receiving vehicle (VEH) or Δ9-THC (THC) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV) or Δ9-THC (THC/SIV) was profiled using next generation deep sequencing. Among the 24 miRs that were differentially expressed among the four groups, 16 miRs were modulated by THC in the presence of SIV. These 16 miRs were classified into four categories and the biological processes enriched by the target genes determined. Our results indicate that Δ9-THC modulates miRs that regulate mRNAs of proteins involved in 1) neurotrophin signaling, 2) MAPK signaling, and 3) cell cycle and immune response thus promoting an overall neuroprotective environment in the striatum of SIV-infected macaques. This is also reflected by increased Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression compared to the VEH/SIV group. Whether Δ9-THC-mediated modulation of epigenetic mechanisms provides neuroprotection in other regions of the brain and during chronic SIV-infection remains to be determined.

  19. Enhanced responsiveness to nuclear factor kappa B contributes to the unique phenotype of simian immunodeficiency virus variant SIVsmmPBj14.

    PubMed Central

    Dollard, S C; Gummuluru, S; Tsang, S; Fultz, P N; Dewhurst, S

    1994-01-01

    Infection with a variant of simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVsmmPBj14, leads to severe acute disease in macaques. This study was designed to investigate the functional significance of previously described mutations in the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and to elucidate their contribution to the unique phenotype of SIVsmmPBj14. LTR-directed transcription was measured by using luciferase reporter constructs that were transiently transfected into cultured cells. In a wide range of cell types, the basal transcriptional activity of the LTR from SIVsmmPBj14 was found to be 2- to 4.5-fold higher than that of an LTR from a non-acutely pathogenic strain. These LTRs differ by five point mutations and a 22-bp duplication in SIVsmmPBj14, which includes a nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) site. Transcriptional differences between these LTRs were further enhanced by two- to threefold upon treatment of cells with phorbol ester or tumor necrosis factor alpha or by cotransfection with plasmids expressing NF kappa B subunits. Mutagenesis studies, and the use of a reporter construct containing an enhancerless promoter, indicate that these transcriptional effects are due principally to the 22-bp sequence duplication and the NF kappa B site contained within it. Finally, infectious virus stocks that were isogenic except for the LTR were generated. The LTR from SIVsmmPBj14 was found to confer an increase in the kinetics of virus replication in cultured cells. Inclusion of this LTR in recombinant SIVs also resulted in a two- to threefold rise in the extent of cellular proliferation that was induced in quiescent simian peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that LTR mutations assist SIVsmmPBj14 in responding efficiently to cellular stimulation and allow it to replicate to high titers during the acute phase of viral infection. Images PMID:7966569

  20. Immunization of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys with soluble human CD4 elicits an antiviral response.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Levine, C G; Shen, L; Fisher, R A; Letvin, N L

    1991-01-01

    Since the CD4 molecule is a high-affinity cell-surface receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it has been suggested that a soluble truncated form of CD4 may compete with cell-surface CD4 for HIV binding and thus be of use in the therapy of AIDS. We have utilized the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac)-infected rhesus monkeys to explore another possible therapeutic application of CD4 in AIDS--the use of recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4) as an immunogen. SIVmac-infected rhesus monkeys immunized with human rsCD4 developed not only an anti-human CD4 but also an anti-rhesus monkey CD4 antibody response. Coincident with the generation of this antibody response, SIVmac could not be isolated easily from peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow macrophages of these animals. Furthermore, the decreased number of both granulocyte/macrophage and erythrocyte colonies grown from the bone marrow of these immunized monkeys rose to normal levels. These findings suggest that a modified human CD4 molecule serving as an immunogen might elicit an antibody response in man that could induce a beneficial therapeutic response in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:2052546

  1. Antiviral antibodies and T cells are present in the foreskin of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Rothaeusler, Kristina; Ma, Zhong-Min; Qureshi, Huma; Carroll, Timothy D; Rourke, Tracy; McChesney, Michael B; Miller, Christopher J

    2012-07-01

    No information exists regarding immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the foreskin or glans of the human penis, although this is a key tissue for HIV transmission. To address this gap, we characterized antiviral immune responses in foreskin of male rhesus macaques (RMs) inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain SIVmac251 by penile foreskin exposure. We found a complete population of immune cells in the foreskin and glans of normal RMs, although B cells were less common than CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. IgG-secreting cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in cell suspensions made from the foreskin. In the foreskin and glans of SIV-infected RMs, although B cells were less common than CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, SIV-specific IgG antibody was present in foreskin secretions. In addition, cytokine-secreting SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were readily found in cell suspensions made from the foreskin. Although potential HIV target cells were found in and under the epithelium covering all penile surfaces, the presence of antiviral effector B and T cells in the foreskin suggests that vaccines may be able to elicit immunity in this critical site to protect men from acquiring HIV.

  2. Elevated Plasma Viral Loads in Romidepsin-Treated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques on Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Prete, Gregory Q.; Oswald, Kelli; Lara, Abigail; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Smedley, Jeremy; Macallister, Rhonda; Coalter, Vicky; Wiles, Adam; Wiles, Rodney; Li, Yuan; Fast, Randy; Kiser, Rebecca; Lu, Bing; Zheng, Jim; Alvord, W. Gregory; Trubey, Charles M.; Piatak, Michael; Deleage, Claire; Keele, Brandon F.; Estes, Jacob D.; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas

    2015-01-01

    Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques and evaluated the impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin (RMD) on viremia in vivo. Eight macaques virologically suppressed to clinically relevant levels (<30 viral RNA copies/ml of plasma), using a three-class five-drug cART regimen, received multiple intravenous infusions of either RMD (n = 5) or saline (n = 3) starting 31 to 54 weeks after cART initiation. In vivo RMD treatment resulted in significant transient increases in acetylated histone levels in CD4+ T cells. RMD-treated animals demonstrated plasma viral load measurements for each 2-week treatment cycle that were significantly higher than those in saline control-treated animals during periods of treatment, suggestive of RMD-induced viral reactivation. However, plasma virus rebound was indistinguishable between RMD-treated and control-treated animals for a subset of animals released from cART. These findings suggest that HDACi drugs, such as RMD, can reactivate residual virus in the presence of suppressive antiviral therapy and may be a valuable component of a comprehensive HIV functional cure/eradication strategy. PMID:26711758

  3. Efavirenz therapy in rhesus macaques infected with a chimera of simian immunodeficiency virus containing reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michael J; Higgins, Joanne; Matthews, Timothy B; Pedersen, Niels C; Tan, Chalet; Schinazi, Raymond F; North, Thomas W

    2004-09-01

    The specificity of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the RT of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has prevented the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the study of NNRTIs and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. However, a SIV-HIV-1 chimera (RT-SHIV), in which the RT from SIVmac239 was replaced with the RT-encoding region from HIV-1, is susceptible to NNRTIs and is infectious to rhesus macaques. We have evaluated the antiviral activity of efavirenz against RT-SHIV and the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants in vitro and in vivo. RT-SHIV was susceptible to efavirenz with a mean effective concentration of 5.9 +/- 4.5 nM, and RT-SHIV variants selected with efavirenz in cell culture displayed 600-fold-reduced susceptibility. The efavirenz-resistant mutants of RT-SHIV had mutations in RT similar to those of HIV-1 variants that were selected under similar conditions. Efavirenz monotherapy of RT-SHIV-infected macaques produced a 1.82-log-unit decrease in plasma viral-RNA levels after 1 week. The virus load rebounded within 3 weeks in one treated animal and more slowly in a second animal. Virus isolated from these two animals contained the K103N and Y188C or Y188L mutations. The RT-SHIV-rhesus macaque model may prove useful for studies of antiretroviral drug combinations that include efavirenz.

  4. Efavirenz Therapy in Rhesus Macaques Infected with a Chimera of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Containing Reverse Transcriptase from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Michael J.; Higgins, Joanne; Matthews, Timothy B.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Tan, Chalet; Schinazi, Raymond F.; North, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The specificity of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the RT of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has prevented the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the study of NNRTIs and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. However, a SIV-HIV-1 chimera (RT-SHIV), in which the RT from SIVmac239 was replaced with the RT-encoding region from HIV-1, is susceptible to NNRTIs and is infectious to rhesus macaques. We have evaluated the antiviral activity of efavirenz against RT-SHIV and the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants in vitro and in vivo. RT-SHIV was susceptible to efavirenz with a mean effective concentration of 5.9 ± 4.5 nM, and RT-SHIV variants selected with efavirenz in cell culture displayed 600-fold-reduced susceptibility. The efavirenz-resistant mutants of RT-SHIV had mutations in RT similar to those of HIV-1 variants that were selected under similar conditions. Efavirenz monotherapy of RT-SHIV-infected macaques produced a 1.82-log-unit decrease in plasma viral-RNA levels after 1 week. The virus load rebounded within 3 weeks in one treated animal and more slowly in a second animal. Virus isolated from these two animals contained the K103N and Y188C or Y188L mutations. The RT-SHIV-rhesus macaque model may prove useful for studies of antiretroviral drug combinations that include efavirenz. PMID:15328115

  5. Evidence for an increased risk of transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus and malaria in a rhesus macaque coinfection model.

    PubMed

    Trott, Kristin A; Chau, Jennifer Y; Hudgens, Michael G; Fine, Jason; Mfalila, Chelu K; Tarara, Ross P; Collins, William E; Sullivan, Joann; Luckhart, Shirley; Abel, Kristina

    2011-11-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-1 infection frequently occurs in the context of other coinfecting pathogens, most importantly, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and malaria parasites. The consequences are often devastating, resulting in enhanced morbidity and mortality. Due to the large number of confounding factors influencing pathogenesis in coinfected people, we sought to develop a nonhuman primate model of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-malaria coinfection. In sub-Saharan Africa, Plasmodium falciparum is the most common malaria parasite and is responsible for most malaria-induced deaths. The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium fragile can induce clinical symptoms, including cerebral malaria in rhesus macaques, that resemble those of P. falciparum infection in humans. Thus, based on the well-characterized rhesus macaque model of SIV infection, this study reports the development of a novel rhesus macaque SIV-P. fragile coinfection model to study human HIV-P. falciparum coinfection. Using this model, we show that coinfection is associated with an increased, although transient, risk of both HIV and malaria transmission. Specifically, SIV-P. fragile coinfected macaques experienced an increase in SIV viremia that was temporarily associated with an increase in potential SIV target cells and systemic immune activation during acute parasitemia. Conversely, primary parasitemia in SIV-P. fragile coinfected animals resulted in higher gametocytemia that subsequently translated into higher oocyst development in mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model able to recapitulate the increased transmission risk of both HIV and malaria in coinfected humans. Therefore, this model could serve as an essential tool to elucidate distinct immunological, virological, and/or parasitological parameters underlying disease exacerbation in HIV-malaria coinfected people.

  6. Ability of herpes simplex virus vectors to boost immune responses to DNA vectors and to protect against challenge by simian immunodeficiency virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Amitinder . E-mail: amitinder_kaur@hms.harvard.edu; Sanford, Hannah B.; Garry, Deirdre; Lang, Sabine; Klumpp, Sherry A.; Watanabe, Daisuke; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Rosati, Margherita; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.; Knipe, David M.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2007-01-20

    The immunogenicity and protective capacity of replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector-based vaccines were examined in rhesus macaques. Three macaques were inoculated with recombinant HSV vectors expressing Gag, Env, and a Tat-Rev-Nef fusion protein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Three other macaques were primed with recombinant DNA vectors expressing Gag, Env, and a Pol-Tat-Nef-Vif fusion protein prior to boosting with the HSV vectors. Robust anti-Gag and anti-Env cellular responses were detected in all six macaques. Following intravenous challenge with wild-type, cloned SIV239, peak and 12-week plasma viremia levels were significantly lower in vaccinated compared to control macaques. Plasma SIV RNA in vaccinated macaques was inversely correlated with anti-Rev ELISPOT responses on the day of challenge (P value < 0.05), anti-Tat ELISPOT responses at 2 weeks post challenge (P value < 0.05) and peak neutralizing antibody titers pre-challenge (P value 0.06). These findings support continued study of recombinant herpesviruses as a vaccine approach for AIDS.

  7. Envelope-modified single-cycle simian immunodeficiency virus selectively enhances antibody responses and partially protects against repeated, low-dose vaginal challenge.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Michael D; Rahmberg, Andrew R; Neidermyer, William; Ng, Sharon K; Carville, Angela; Camp, Jeremy V; Wilson, Robert L; Piatak, Michael; Mansfield, Keith G; Li, Wenjun; Miller, Christopher J; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Evans, David T

    2010-10-01

    Immunization of rhesus macaques with strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that are limited to a single cycle of infection elicits T-cell responses to multiple viral gene products and antibodies capable of neutralizing lab-adapted SIV, but not neutralization-resistant primary isolates of SIV. In an effort to improve upon the antibody responses, we immunized rhesus macaques with three strains of single-cycle SIV (scSIV) that express envelope glycoproteins modified to lack structural features thought to interfere with the development of neutralizing antibodies. These envelope-modified strains of scSIV lacked either five potential N-linked glycosylation sites in gp120, three potential N-linked glycosylation sites in gp41, or 100 amino acids in the V1V2 region of gp120. Three doses consisting of a mixture of the three envelope-modified strains of scSIV were administered on weeks 0, 6, and 12, followed by two booster inoculations with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G trans-complemented scSIV on weeks 18 and 24. Although this immunization regimen did not elicit antibodies capable of detectably neutralizing SIV(mac)239 or SIV(mac)251(UCD), neutralizing antibody titers to the envelope-modified strains were selectively enhanced. Virus-specific antibodies and T cells were observed in the vaginal mucosa. After 20 weeks of repeated, low-dose vaginal challenge with SIV(mac)251(UCD), six of eight immunized animals versus six of six naïve controls became infected. Although immunization did not significantly reduce the likelihood of acquiring immunodeficiency virus infection, statistically significant reductions in peak and set point viral loads were observed in the immunized animals relative to the naïve control animals.

  8. Adoptive Transfer of Engineered Rhesus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Reduces the Number of Transmitted/Founder Viruses Established in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Victor I; Trivett, Matthew T; Barsov, Eugene V; Jain, Sumiti; Piatak, Michael; Trubey, Charles M; Alvord, W Gregory; Chertova, Elena; Roser, James D; Smedley, Jeremy; Komin, Alexander; Keele, Brandon F; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E

    2016-11-01

    AIDS virus infections are rarely controlled by cell-mediated immunity, in part due to viral immune evasion and immunodeficiency resulting from CD4(+) T-cell infection. One likely aspect of this failure is that antiviral cellular immune responses are either absent or present at low levels during the initial establishment of infection. To test whether an extensive, timely, and effective response could reduce the establishment of infection from a high-dose inoculum, we adoptively transferred large numbers of T cells that were molecularly engineered with anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (anti-SIV) activity into rhesus macaques 3 days following an intrarectal SIV inoculation. To measure in vivo antiviral activity, we assessed the number of viruses transmitted using SIVmac239X, a molecularly tagged viral stock containing 10 genotypic variants, at a dose calculated to transmit 12 founder viruses. Single-genome sequencing of plasma virus revealed that the two animals receiving T cells expressing SIV-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) had significantly fewer viral genotypes than the two control animals receiving non-SIV-specific T cells (means of 4.0 versus 7.5 transmitted viral genotypes; P = 0.044). Accounting for the likelihood of transmission of multiple viruses of a particular genotype, the calculated means of the total number of founder viruses transmitted were 4.5 and 14.5 in the experimental and control groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Thus, a large antiviral T-cell response timed with virus exposure can limit viral transmission. The presence of strong, preexisting T-cell responses, including those induced by vaccines, might help prevent the establishment of infection at the lower-exposure doses in humans that typically transmit only a single virus.

  9. Lineage-specific differences between human and simian immunodeficiency virus regulation of gp120 trimer association and CD4 binding.

    PubMed

    Finzi, Andrés; Pacheco, Beatriz; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Pancera, Marie; Herschhorn, Alon; Wang, Liping; Zeng, Xing; Desormeaux, Anik; Kwong, Peter D; Sodroski, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Metastable conformations of the gp120 and gp41 envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) must be maintained in the unliganded state of the envelope glycoprotein trimer. Binding of gp120 to the primary receptor, CD4, triggers the transition to an open conformation of the trimer, promoting interaction with the CCR5 chemokine receptor and ultimately leading to gp41-mediated virus-cell membrane fusion and entry. Topological layers in the gp120 inner domain contribute to gp120-trimer association in the unliganded state and to CD4 binding. Here we describe similarities and differences between HIV-1 and SIVmac gp120. In both viruses, the gp120 N/C termini and the inner domain β-sandwich and layer 2 support the noncovalent association of gp120 with the envelope glycoprotein trimer. Layer 1 of the SIVmac gp120 inner domain contributes more to trimer association than the corresponding region of HIV-1 gp120. On the other hand, layer 1 plays an important role in stabilizing the CD4-bound conformation of HIV-1 but not SIVmac gp120 and thus contributes to HIV-1 binding to CD4. In SIVmac, CD4 binding is instead enhanced by tryptophan 375, which fills the Phe 43 cavity of gp120. Activation of SIVmac by soluble CD4 is dependent on tryptophan 375 and on layer 1 residues that determine a tight association of gp120 with the trimer. Distinct biological requirements for CD4 usage have resulted in lineage-specific differences in the HIV-1 and SIV gp120 structures that modulate trimer association and CD4 binding.

  10. Antibody-dependent enhancement of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in vitro by plasma from SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Montefiori, D C; Robinson, W E; Hirsch, V M; Modliszewski, A; Mitchell, W M; Johnson, P R

    1990-01-01

    Plasma from two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) experimentally infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV; isolate SIVmac251) enhanced SIVmac infection of a human CD4+ lymphoblastoid cell line, MT-2. Prechallenge plasma samples from these animals and serum from SIV-negative macaques did not enhance infection. Compared with controls, infection enhancement was characterized by the rapid appearance of syncytium formation (3 to 4 days sooner), reverse transcriptase release (10-fold increase), and cytopathic effect (60% cell killing). Enhancement of activity was dependent on the presence of diluted, fresh SIV-negative macaque serum as a source of complement. A requirement for complement was shown by the absence of enhancement in heat-inactivated serum and by dose-dependent inhibition of enhancement in the presence of polyclonal antibody to monkey complement component C3. Monoclonal antibody to CD4 (OKT4a) blocked enhancement completely, while monoclonal antibody to the human complement component C3d receptor CR2 (OKB7) reduced enhancement by greater than 50%, indicating a requirement for CD4 and CR2 in mediating this phenomenon. SIV infection-enhancing activity appeared in macaques soon after experimental inoculation (28 days). The titer increased over time and peaked just prior to the death of both macaques from opportunistic infections and lymphoma. In vitro SIV infection enhancement is nearly identical to the in vitro complement-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancing (C'-ADE) activity observed in human immunodeficiency virus-positive human sera (Robinson et al., Lancet i:790-794, 1988; Robinson et al., J. Acq. Immun. Def. Synd. 2:33-42, 1989). These observations validate the macaque-SIV model for studies of C'-ADE. Images PMID:2152808

  11. Protection of Macaques against Pathogenic Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus 89.6PD by Passive Transfer of Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mascola, John R.; Lewis, Mark G.; Stiegler, Gabriela; Harris, Dawn; VanCott, Thomas C.; Hayes, Deborah; Louder, Mark K.; Brown, Charles R.; Sapan, Christine V.; Frankel, Sarah S.; Lu, Yichen; Robb, Merlin L.; Katinger, Hermann; Birx, Deborah L.

    1999-01-01

    The role of antibody in protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) has been difficult to study in animal models because most primary HIV-1 strains do not infect nonhuman primates. Using a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based on the envelope of a primary isolate (HIV-89.6), we performed passive-transfer experiments in rhesus macaques to study the role of anti-envelope antibodies in protection. Based on prior in vitro data showing neutralization synergy by antibody combinations, we evaluated HIV immune globulin (HIVIG), and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 given alone, compared with the double combination 2F5/2G12 and the triple combination HIVIG/2F5/2G12. Antibodies were administered 24 h prior to intravenous challenge with the pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD. Six control monkeys displayed high plasma viremia, rapid CD4+-cell decline, and clinical AIDS within 14 weeks. Of six animals given HIVIG/2F5/2G12, three were completely protected; the remaining three animals became SHIV infected but displayed reduced plasma viremia and near normal CD4+-cell counts. One of three monkeys given 2F5/2G12 exhibited only transient evidence of infection; the other two had marked reductions in viral load. All monkeys that received HIVIG, 2F5, or 2G12 alone became infected and developed high-level plasma viremia. However, compared to controls, monkeys that received HIVIG or MAb 2G12 displayed a less profound drop in CD4+ T cells and a more benign clinical course. These data indicate a general correlation between in vitro neutralization and protection and suggest that a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibody should have a protective effect against HIV-1 infection or disease. PMID:10196297

  12. Protection of Macaques against pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus 89.6PD by passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mascola, J R; Lewis, M G; Stiegler, G; Harris, D; VanCott, T C; Hayes, D; Louder, M K; Brown, C R; Sapan, C V; Frankel, S S; Lu, Y; Robb, M L; Katinger, H; Birx, D L

    1999-05-01

    The role of antibody in protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) has been difficult to study in animal models because most primary HIV-1 strains do not infect nonhuman primates. Using a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based on the envelope of a primary isolate (HIV-89.6), we performed passive-transfer experiments in rhesus macaques to study the role of anti-envelope antibodies in protection. Based on prior in vitro data showing neutralization synergy by antibody combinations, we evaluated HIV immune globulin (HIVIG), and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 given alone, compared with the double combination 2F5/2G12 and the triple combination HIVIG/2F5/2G12. Antibodies were administered 24 h prior to intravenous challenge with the pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD. Six control monkeys displayed high plasma viremia, rapid CD4(+)-cell decline, and clinical AIDS within 14 weeks. Of six animals given HIVIG/2F5/2G12, three were completely protected; the remaining three animals became SHIV infected but displayed reduced plasma viremia and near normal CD4(+)-cell counts. One of three monkeys given 2F5/2G12 exhibited only transient evidence of infection; the other two had marked reductions in viral load. All monkeys that received HIVIG, 2F5, or 2G12 alone became infected and developed high-level plasma viremia. However, compared to controls, monkeys that received HIVIG or MAb 2G12 displayed a less profound drop in CD4(+) T cells and a more benign clinical course. These data indicate a general correlation between in vitro neutralization and protection and suggest that a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibody should have a protective effect against HIV-1 infection or disease.

  13. Spontaneous substitutions in the vicinity of the V3 analog affect cell tropism and pathogenicity of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, V M; Martin, J E; Dapolito, G; Elkins, W R; London, W T; Goldstein, S; Johnson, P R

    1994-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) exists within tissues of infected macaques as a mixture of diverse genotypes. The goal of this study was to investigate the biologic significance of this variation in terms of cellular tropism and pathogenicity. PCR was used to amplify and clone 3'-half genomes from the spleen of an immunodeficiency SIV-infected pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina). Eight infectious clones were generated by ligation of respective 3' clones into a related SIVsm 5' clone, and virus stocks were generated by transient transfection. Four of these viruses were infectious for macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Three viruses with distinct tropism for macaque PBMC or MDM were tested for in vivo infectivity and pathogenicity. The ability of these three viruses to infect PBMC and macrophages correlated with differences in infectivity and pathogenicity. Thus, a virus that was infectious for both PBMC and MDM was highly infectious for macaques and induced AIDS in half of the inoculated animals. In contrast, virus that was less infectious for PBMC and not infectious for MDM induced only transient viremia. Finally, a virus that was not infectious for either primary cell type did not infect macaques. Chimeric clones exchanging portions of the envelope gene of the 62A and smH4 molecular clones and a series of point mutants were used to map the determinant of tropism to a 60-amino-acid region of gp120 encompassing the V3 analog of SIV. Naturally occurring mutations within this region were critical for determining tropism and, as a result, pathogenicity of these SIVsm clones. Images PMID:8139042

  14. Soluble human CD4 elicits an antibody response in rhesus monkeys that inhibits simian immunodeficiency virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Chen, Zheng W.; Tsubota, Hiroshi; Lord, C.I.; Levine, C.G.; Letvin, N.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIV{sub mac}) demonstrate significant virologic and clinical improvement as a result of treatment with human recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4). The authors show that human rsCD4 does not efficiently inhibit SIV{sub mac} replication in bone marrow macrophages of rhesus monkeys and does not significantly augment bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro. However, plasma of human rsCD4-treated rhesus monkeys does exhibit significant anti-SIV{sub mac} activity in vitro. Plasma of these animals efficiently blocks SIV{sub mac} replicaton in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow macrophages. It also increases granulocyte/macrophage colony formation in vitro by bone marrow cells of SIV{sub mac}-infected monkeys. This plasma and the IgG fraction of plasma from a rhesus monkey immunized with human rsCD4 in adjuvant demonstrate reactivity with a soluble form of the rhesus monkey CD4 molecule, exhibit binding to CD4{sup +} but not CD8{sup +} concanavalin A-activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes, and precipitate the CD4 molecule from surface-labeled activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-viral activity is demonstrable in the IgG fraction of plasma from a human rsCD4-immunized monkey. These studies raise the possibility that a modified human CD4 molecule serving as an immunogen might elicit an antibody response that could potentially induce a beneficial therapeutic response in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

  15. Neutralizing IgG at the portal of infection mediates protection against vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Klein, Katja; Veazey, Ronald S; Warrier, Ranjit; Hraber, Peter; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Buffa, Viviana; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Shaw, George M; Shattock, Robin J

    2013-11-01

    Neutralizing antibodies may have critical importance in immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the amount of protective antibody needed at mucosal surfaces has not been fully established. Here, we evaluated systemic and mucosal pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of 2F5 IgG and 2F5 Fab fragments with respect to protection against vaginal challenge with simian-human immunodeficiency virus-BaL in macaques. Antibody assessment demonstrated that 2F5 IgG was more potent than polymeric forms (IgM and IgA) across a range of cellular and tissue models. Vaginal challenge studies demonstrated a dose-dependent protection for 2F5 IgG and no protection with 2F5 Fab despite higher vaginal Fab levels at the time of challenge. Animals receiving 50 or 25 mg/kg of body weight 2F5 IgG were completely protected, while 3/5 animals receiving 5 mg/kg were protected. In the control animals, infection was established by a minimum of 1 to 4 transmitted/founder (T/F) variants, similar to natural human infection by this mucosal route; in the two infected animals that had received 5 mg 2F5 IgG, infection was established by a single T/F variant. Serum levels of 2F5 IgG were more predictive of sterilizing protection than measured vaginal levels. Fc-mediated antiviral activity did not appear to influence infection of primary target cells in cervical explants. However, PK studies highlighted the importance of the Fc portion in tissue biodistribution. Data presented in this study may be important in modeling serum levels of neutralizing antibodies that need to be achieved by either vaccination or passive infusion to prevent mucosal acquisition of HIV-1 infection in humans.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsm in U.S. Primate Centers Unravels the Origin of SIVmac and SIVstm

    PubMed Central

    Apetrei, Cristian; Kaur, Amitinder; Lerche, Nicholas W.; Metzger, Michael; Pandrea, Ivona; Hardcastle, Johnny; Falkenstein, Shelley; Bohm, Rudolf; Koehler, Jeffrey; Traina-Dorge, Vicki; Williams, Tessa; Staprans, Silvija; Plauche, Gail; Veazey, Ronald S.; McClure, Harold; Lackner, Andrew A.; Gormus, Bobby; Robertson, David L.; Marx, Preston A.

    2005-01-01

    Retrospective molecular epidemiology was performed on samples from four sooty mangabey (SM) colonies in the United States to characterize simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm diversity in SMs and to trace virus circulation among different primate centers (PCs) over the past 30 years. The following SIVsm sequences were collected from different monkeys: 55 SIVsm isolates from the Tulane PC sampled between 1984 and 2004, 10 SIVsm isolates from the Yerkes PC sampled in 2002, 7 SIVsm isolates from the New Iberia PC sampled between 1979 and 1986, and 8 SIVsm isolates from the California PC sampled between 1975 and 1977. PCR and sequencing were done to characterize the gag, pol, and env gp36 genes. Phylogenetic analyses were correlated with the epidemiological data. Our analysis identified nine different divergent phylogenetic lineages that cocirculated in these four SM colonies in the Unites States in the past 30 years. Lineages 1 to 5 have been identified previously. Two of the newly identified SIVsm lineages found in SMs are ancestral to SIVmac251/SIVmac239/SIVmne and SIVstm. We further identified the origin of these two macaque viruses in SMs from the California National Primate Research Center. The diversity of SIVsm isolates in PCs in the United States mirrors that of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M subtypes and offers a model for the molecular epidemiology of HIV and a new approach to vaccine testing. The cocirculation of divergent SIVsm strains in PCs resulted in founder effects, superinfections, and recombinations. This large array of SIVsm strains showing the same magnitude of diversity as HIV-1 group M subtypes should be extremely useful for modeling the efficacy of vaccination strategies under the real-world conditions of HIV-1 diversity. The genetic variability of SIVsm strains among PCs may influence the diagnosis and monitoring of SIVsm infection and, consequently, may bias the results of pathogenesis studies. PMID:15994793

  17. Mucosal Immunization with Virus-Like Particles of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Conjugated with Cholera Toxin Subunit B

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Yao, Qizhi; Guo, Lizheng; Compans, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of antigen uptake at mucosal surfaces, CTB was conjugated to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virus-like particles (VLPs). We characterized the immune responses to the Env and Gag proteins after intranasal administration. Intranasal immunization with a mixture of VLPs and CTB as an adjuvant elicited higher levels of SIV gp160-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in sera and IgA in mucosae, including saliva, vaginal-wash samples, lung, and intestine, as well as a higher level of neutralization activities than immunization with VLPs alone. Conjugation of CTB to VLPs also enhanced the SIV VLP-specific antibodies in sera and in mucosae to similar levels. Interestingly, CTB-conjugated VLPs showed higher levels of cytokine (gamma interferon)-producing splenocytes and cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte activities of immune cells than VLPs plus CTB, as well as an increased level of both IgG1 and IgG2a serum antibodies, which indicates enhancement of both Th1- and Th2-type cellular immune responses. These results demonstrate that CTB can be an effective mucosal adjuvant in the context of VLPs to induce enhanced humoral, as well as cellular, immune responses. PMID:12941891

  18. Envelope-specific B-cell populations in African green monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruijun; Martinez, David R.; Nguyen, Quang N.; Pollara, Justin; Arifin, Trina; Stolarchuk, Christina; Foulger, Andrew; Amos, Josh D.; Parks, Robert; Himes, Jonathon E.; Wang, Minyue; Edwards, Regina W.; Trama, Ashley M.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Colvin, Lisa; Dewar, Ken; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Ferrari, Guido; Liao, Hua-Xin; Permar, Sallie R.

    2016-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural primate hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Interestingly, features of the envelope-specific antibody responses in SIV-infected AGMs are distinct from that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, including gp120-focused responses and rapid development of autologous neutralization. Yet, the lack of genetic tools to evaluate B-cell lineages hinders potential use of this unique non-human primate model for HIV vaccine development. Here we define features of the AGM Ig loci and compare the proportion of Env-specific memory B-cell populations to that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. AGMs appear to have a higher proportion of Env-specific memory B cells that are mainly gp120 directed. Furthermore, AGM gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies display robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and CD4-dependent virion capture activity. Our results support the use of AGMs to model induction of functional gp120-specific antibodies by HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:27381634

  19. Chimeric adenovirus type 5/35 vector encoding SIV gag and HIV env genes affords protective immunity against the simian/human immunodeficiency virus in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Someya, Kenji; Xin, Ke-Qin; Ami, Yasushi; Izumi, Yasuyuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Shinrai; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo; Okuda, Kenji

    2007-10-25

    Replication-defective adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vector-based vaccines are widely known to induce strong immunity against immunodeficiency viruses. To exploit this immunogenicity while overcoming the potential problem of preexisting immunity against human adenoviruses type 5, we developed a recombinant chimeric adenovirus type 5 with type 35 fiber vector (rAd5/35). We initially produced a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag DNA plasmid (rDNA-Gag), a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) 89.6 env DNA plasmid (rDNA-Env) and a recombinant Ad5/35 vector encoding the SIV gag and HIV env gene (rAd5/35-Gag and rAd5/35-Env). Prime-boost vaccination with rDNA-Gag and -Env followed by high doses of rAd5/35-Gag and -Env elicited higher levels of cellular immune responses than did rDNAs or rAd5/35s alone. When challenged with a pathogenic simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), animals receiving a prime-boost regimen or rAd5/35s alone maintained a higher number of CD4(+) T cells and remarkably suppressed plasma viral RNA loads. These findings suggest the clinical promise of an rAd5/35 vector-based vaccine.

  20. Capsid proteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac can coassemble into mature cores of infectious viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbo; Pathak, Vinay K; Peng, Weiqun; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2008-09-01

    We have recently shown that the Gag polyproteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 can coassemble and functionally complement each other. During virion maturation, the Gag polyproteins undergo proteolytic cleavage to release mature proteins including capsid (CA), which refolds and forms the outer shell of a cone-shaped mature core. Less than one-half of the CA proteins present within the HIV-1 virion are required to form the mature core. Therefore, it is unclear whether the mature core in virions containing both HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag consists of CA proteins from a single virus or from both viruses. To determine whether CA proteins from two different viruses can coassemble into mature cores of infectious viruses, we exploited the specificity of the tripartite motif 5alpha protein from the rhesus monkey (rhTRIM5alpha) for cores containing HIV-1 CA (hCA) but not the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac) CA protein (sCA). If hCA and sCA cannot coassemble into the same core when equal amounts of sCA and hCA are coexpressed, the infectivities of such virus preparations in cells should be inhibited less than twofold by rhTRIM5alpha. However, if hCA and sCA can coassemble into the same core structure to form a mixed core, rhTRIM5alpha would be able to recognize such cores and significantly restrict virus infectivity. We examined the restriction phenotypes of viruses containing both hCA and sCA. Our results indicate that hCA and sCA can coassemble into the same mature core to produce infectious virus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of functional coassembly of heterologous CA protein into the retroviral core.

  1. Three-dimensional structure of a simian immunodeficiency virus protease/inhibitor complex. Implications for the design of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, B; Winborne, E; Minnich, M D; Culp, J S; Debouck, C; Abdel-Meguid, S S

    1993-12-07

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) proteins have considerable amino acid sequence homology to those from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); thus monkeys are considered useful models for the preclinical evaluation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapeutics. We have crystallized and determined the three-dimensional structure of SIV protease bound to the hydroxyethylene isostere inhibitor SKF107457. Crystals of the complex were grown from 25-32% saturated sodium chloride, by the hanging drop method of vapor diffusion. They belong to the orthorhombic space group I222, with a = 46.3 A, b = 101.5 A, and c = 118.8 A. The structure has been determined at 2.5-A resolution by molecular replacement and refined to a crystallographic discrepancy factor, R (= sigma parallel Fo magnitude of - magnitude of Fc parallel/sigma magnitude of Fo magnitude of), of 0.189. The overall structure of the complex is very similar to previously reported structures of HIV-1 protease bound to inhibitors. The inhibitor is bound in a conformation that is almost identical to that found for the same inhibitor bound to HIV-1 protease, except for an overall translation of the inhibitor, varying along the backbone atoms from about 1.0 A at the termini to about 0.5 A around the scissile bond surrogate. The structures of the SIV and HIV-1 proteins vary significantly only in three surface loops composed of amino acids 15-20, 34-45, and 65-70. Superposition of the 1188 protein backbone atoms from the two structures gives an rms deviation of 1.0 A; this number is reduced to 0.6 A when atoms from the three surface loops are eliminated from the rms calculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Modulation of Gut-Specific Mechanisms by Chronic Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration in Male Rhesus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: A Systems Biology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amedee, Angela M.; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Mohan, Mahesh; Winsauer, Peter J.; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; McGoey, Robin R.; Auten, Matthew W.; LaMotte, Lynn; Chandra, Lawrance C.; Birke, Leslie L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our studies have demonstrated that chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration results in a generalized attenuation of viral load and tissue inflammation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue is an important site for HIV replication and inflammation that can impact disease progression. We used a systems approach to examine the duodenal immune environment in 4- to 6-year-old male rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVMAC251 after 17 months of chronic THC administration (0.18–0.32 mg/kg, intramuscularly, twice daily). Duodenal tissue samples excised from chronic THC- (N=4) and vehicle (VEH)-treated (N=4) subjects at ∼5 months postinoculation showed lower viral load, increased duodenal integrin beta 7+(β7) CD4+ and CD8+ central memory T cells, and a significant preferential increase in Th2 cytokine expression. Gene array analysis identified six genes that were differentially expressed in intestinal samples of the THC/SIV animals when compared to those differentially expressed between VEH/SIV and uninfected controls. These genes were identified as having significant participation in (1) apoptosis, (2) cell survival, proliferation, and morphogenesis, and (3) energy and substrate metabolic processes. Additional analysis comparing the duodenal gene expression in THC/SIV vs. VEH/SIV animals identified 93 differentially expressed genes that participate in processes involved in muscle contraction, protein folding, cytoskeleton remodeling, cell adhesion, and cell signaling. Immunohistochemical staining showed attenuated apoptosis in epithelial crypt cells of THC/SIV subjects. Our results indicate that chronic THC administration modulated duodenal T cell populations, favored a pro-Th2 cytokine balance, and decreased intestinal apoptosis. These findings reveal novel mechanisms that may potentially contribute to cannabinoid-mediated disease modulation. PMID:24400995

  3. Modulation of gut-specific mechanisms by chronic δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol administration in male rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus: a systems biology analysis.

    PubMed

    Molina, Patricia E; Amedee, Angela M; LeCapitaine, Nicole J; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Mohan, Mahesh; Winsauer, Peter J; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; McGoey, Robin R; Auten, Matthew W; LaMotte, Lynn; Chandra, Lawrance C; Birke, Leslie L

    2014-06-01

    Our studies have demonstrated that chronic Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration results in a generalized attenuation of viral load and tissue inflammation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue is an important site for HIV replication and inflammation that can impact disease progression. We used a systems approach to examine the duodenal immune environment in 4- to 6-year-old male rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVMAC251 after 17 months of chronic THC administration (0.18-0.32 mg/kg, intramuscularly, twice daily). Duodenal tissue samples excised from chronic THC- (N=4) and vehicle (VEH)-treated (N=4) subjects at ∼5 months postinoculation showed lower viral load, increased duodenal integrin beta 7(+)(β7) CD4(+) and CD8(+) central memory T cells, and a significant preferential increase in Th2 cytokine expression. Gene array analysis identified six genes that were differentially expressed in intestinal samples of the THC/SIV animals when compared to those differentially expressed between VEH/SIV and uninfected controls. These genes were identified as having significant participation in (1) apoptosis, (2) cell survival, proliferation, and morphogenesis, and (3) energy and substrate metabolic processes. Additional analysis comparing the duodenal gene expression in THC/SIV vs. VEH/SIV animals identified 93 differentially expressed genes that participate in processes involved in muscle contraction, protein folding, cytoskeleton remodeling, cell adhesion, and cell signaling. Immunohistochemical staining showed attenuated apoptosis in epithelial crypt cells of THC/SIV subjects. Our results indicate that chronic THC administration modulated duodenal T cell populations, favored a pro-Th2 cytokine balance, and decreased intestinal apoptosis. These findings reveal novel mechanisms that may potentially contribute to cannabinoid-mediated disease modulation.

  4. Simian Virus 40-Based Replication of Catalytically Inactive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase Mutants in Nonpermissive T Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Richard; Nakajima, Noriko; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Benkirane, Monsef; Teh-Jeang, Kuan; Sodroski, Joseph; Engelman, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Integrase function is required for retroviral replication in most instances. Although certain permissive T-cell lines support human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in the absence of functional integrase, most cell lines and primary human cells are nonpermissive for integrase mutant growth. Since unintegrated retroviral DNA is lost from cells following cell division, we investigated whether incorporating a functional origin of DNA replication into integrase mutant HIV-1 might overcome the block to efficient gene expression and replication in nonpermissive T-cell lines and primary cells. Whereas the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) origin (oriP) did little to augment expression from an integrase mutant reporter virus in EBV nuclear antigen 1-expressing cells, simian virus 40 (SV40) oriT dramatically enhanced integrase mutant infectivity in T-antigen (Tag)-expressing cells. Incorporating oriT into the nef position of a full-length, integrase-defective virus strain yielded efficient replication in Tag-expressing nonpermissive Jurkat T cells without reversion to an integration-competent genotype. Adding Tag to integrase mutant-oriT viruses yielded 11.3-kb SV40-HIV chimeras that replicated in Jurkat cells and primary monocyte-derived macrophages. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses of Jurkat cell infections revealed that amplified copies of unintegrated DNA likely contributed to SV40-HIV integrase mutant replication. SV40-based HIV-1 integrase mutant replication in otherwise nonpermissive cells suggests alternative approaches to standard integrase-mediated retroviral gene transfer strategies. PMID:14694097

  5. A quantitative measurement of antiviral activity of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drugs against simian immunodeficiency virus infection: dose-response curve slope strongly influences class-specific inhibitory potential.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Zink, M Christine; Clements, Janice E; Siliciano, Robert F

    2012-10-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques is so far the best animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) studies, but suppressing viral replication in infected animals remains challenging. Using a novel single-round infectivity assay, we quantitated the antiviral activities of antiretroviral drugs against SIV. Our results emphasize the importance of the dose-response curve slope in determining the inhibitory potential of antiretroviral drugs and provide useful information for regimen selection in treating SIV-infected animals in models of therapy and virus eradication.

  6. Superior Efficacy of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Combined with Antiretroviral Prevention in Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Challenged Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Dispinseri, Stefania; Gosse, Leslie; Desjardins, Delphine; Shen, Xiaoying; Tolazzi, Monica; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Saidi, Hela; Tomaras, Georgia; Prague, Mélanie; Barnett, Susan W.; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although vaccines and antiretroviral (ARV) prevention have demonstrated partial success against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in clinical trials, their combined introduction could provide more potent protection. Furthermore, combination approaches could ameliorate the potential increased risk of infection following vaccination in the absence of protective immunity. We used a nonhuman primate model to determine potential interactions of combining a partially effective ARV microbicide with an envelope-based vaccine. The vaccine alone provided no protection from infection following 12 consecutive low-dose intravaginal challenges with simian-HIV strain SF162P3, with more animals infected compared to naive controls. The microbicide alone provided a 68% reduction in the risk of infection relative to that of the vaccine group and a 45% reduction relative to that of naive controls. The vaccine-microbicide combination provided an 88% reduction in the per-exposure risk of infection relative to the vaccine alone and a 79% reduction relative to that of the controls. Protected animals in the vaccine-microbicide group were challenged a further 12 times in the absence of microbicide and demonstrated a 98% reduction in the risk of infection. A total risk reduction of 91% was observed in this group over 24 exposures (P = 0.004). These important findings suggest that combined implementation of new biomedical prevention strategies may provide significant gains in HIV prevention. IMPORTANCE There is a pressing need to maximize the impact of new biomedical prevention tools in the face of the 2 million HIV infections that occur each year. Combined implementation of complementary biomedical approaches could create additive or synergistic effects that drive improved reduction of HIV incidence. Therefore, we assessed a combination of an untested vaccine with an ARV-based microbicide in a nonhuman primate vaginal challenge model. The vaccine alone provided no

  7. Small intestine CD4+ cell reduction and enteropathy in simian/human immunodeficiency virus KS661-infected rhesus macaques in the presence of low viral load.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Katsuhisa; Fukazawa, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Kenta; Himeno, Ai; Matsuyama, Megumi; Ibuki, Kentaro; Miura, Yoshiharu; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Nakajima, Atsushi; Blumberg, Richard S; Takahashi, Hidemi; Hayami, Masanori; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki

    2010-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, simian immunodeficiency virus and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection generally lead to death of the host accompanied by high viraemia and profound CD4(+) T-cell depletion. SHIV clone KS661-infected rhesus macaques with a high viral load set point (HVL) ultimately experience diarrhoea and wasting at 6-12 months after infection. In contrast, infected macaques with a low viral load set point (LVL) usually live asymptomatically throughout the observation period, and are therefore referred to as asymptomatic LVL (Asym LVL) macaques. Interestingly, some LVL macaques exhibit diarrhoea and wasting similar to the symptoms of HVL macaques and are termed symptomatic LVL (Sym LVL) macaques. This study tested the hypothesis that Sym LVL macaques have the same degree of intestinal abnormalities as HVL macaques. The proviral DNA loads in lymphoid tissue and the intestines of Sym LVL and Asym LVL macaques were comparable and all infected monkeys showed villous atrophy. Notably, the CD4(+) cell frequencies of lymphoid tissues and intestines in Sym LVL macaques were remarkably lower than those in Asym LVL and uninfected macaques. Furthermore, Sym LVL and HVL macaques exhibited an increased number of activated macrophages. In conclusion, intestinal disorders including CD4(+) cell reduction and abnormal immune activation can be observed in SHIV-KS661-infected macaques independent of virus replication levels.

  8. Nonhuman primate models for cell-associated simian immunodeficiency virus transmission: the need to better understand the complexity of HIV mucosal transmission.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Stoecklin, Sibylle; Gommet, Céline; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Le Grand, Roger

    2014-12-15

    Nonhuman primates are extensively used to assess strategies to prevent infection from sexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to study mechanisms of mucosal transmission. However, although semen represents one of the most important vehicles for the virus, the vast majority of preclinical challenge studies have used cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) viral particles inoculated as diluted culture supernatants. Semen is a complex body fluid containing many factors that may facilitate or decrease HIV infectiousness. The virus in semen is present in different forms: as free virus particles or as cell-associated virus (ie, within infected leukocytes). Although cell-to-cell transmission of HIV is highly efficient, the role of cell-associated virus in semen has been surprisingly poorly investigated in nonhuman primate models. Mucosal exposure of macaques to cell-associated SIV by using infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells or spleen cells has been shown to be an efficient means of infection; however, it has yet to be shown that SIV- or SHIV-infected seminal leukocytes can transmit infection in vivo. Improvement of animal models to better recapitulate the complex microenvironment at portals of HIV entry is needed for testing candidate antiretrovirals, microbicides, and vaccines.

  9. Transient antiretroviral treatment during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection facilitates long-term control of the virus.

    PubMed

    Wodarz, D; Arnaout, R A; Nowak, M A; Lifson, J D

    2000-08-29

    Experimental evidence and mathematical models indicate that CD4+ T-cell help is required to generate memory cytotoxicT-lymphocyte precursors (CTLp) that are capable of persisting without ongoing antigenic stimulation, and that such responses are necessary to clear an infection or to control it in the long term. Here we analyse mathematical models of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in macaques, assuming that SIV impairs specific CD4+ T-cell responses. According to the models, fast viral replication during the initial stages of primary infection can result in failure to generate sufficient long-lived memory CTLp required to control the infection in the long term. Modelling of drug therapy during the acute phase of the infection indicates that transient treatment can minimize the amount of virus-induced immune impairment, allowing a more effective initial immune sensitization. The result is the development of high levels of memory CTLp that are capable of controlling SIV replication in the long term, in the absence of continuous treament. In the model, the success of treatment depends crucially on the timing and duration of antiretroviral therapy. Data on SIV-infected macaques receiving transient drug therapy during acute infection support these theoretical predictions. The data and modelling suggest that among subjects controlling SIV replication most efficiently after treatment, there is a positive correlation between cellular immune responses and virus load in the post-acute stage of infection. Among subjects showing less-efficient virus control, the correlation is negative. We discuss our findings in relation to previously published data on HIV infection.

  10. Comparative characterization of transfection- and infection-derived simian immunodeficiency virus challenge stocks for in vivo nonhuman primate studies.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Scarlotta, Matthew; Newman, Laura; Reid, Carolyn; Parodi, Laura M; Roser, James D; Oswald, Kelli; Marx, Preston A; Miller, Christopher J; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Barouch, Dan H; Pal, Ranajit; Piatak, Michael; Chertova, Elena; Giavedoni, Luis D; O'Connor, David H; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Keele, Brandon F

    2013-04-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) stocks for in vivo nonhuman primate models of AIDS are typically generated by transfection of 293T cells with molecularly cloned viral genomes or by expansion in productively infected T cells. Although titers of stocks are determined for infectivity in vitro prior to in vivo inoculation, virus production methods may differentially affect stock features that are not routinely analyzed but may impact in vivo infectivity, mucosal transmissibility, and early infection events. We performed a detailed analysis of nine SIV stocks, comprising five infection-derived SIVmac251 viral swarm stocks and paired infection- and transfected-293T-cell-derived stocks of both SIVmac239 and SIVmac766. Representative stocks were evaluated for (i) virus content, (ii) infectious titer, (iii) sequence diversity and polymorphism frequency by single-genome amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, (iv) virion-associated Env content, and (v) cytokine and chemokine content by 36-plex Luminex analysis. Regardless of production method, all stocks had comparable particle/infectivity ratios, with the transfected-293T stocks possessing the highest overall virus content and infectivity titers despite containing markedly lower levels of virion-associated Env than infection-derived viruses. Transfected-293T stocks also contained fewer and lower levels of cytokines and chemokines than infection-derived stocks, which had elevated levels of multiple analytes, with substantial variability among stocks. Sequencing of the infection-derived SIVmac251 stocks revealed variable levels of viral diversity between stocks, with evidence of stock-specific selection and expansion of unique viral lineages. These analyses suggest that there may be underappreciated features of SIV in vivo challenge stocks with the potential to impact early infection events, which may merit consideration when selecting virus stocks for in vivo studies.

  11. The Effects of Chronic Binge Alcohol on the Genital Microenvironment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Female Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H.; Nelson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876

  12. Evaluation of -2 RANTES vaginal microbicide formulations in a nonhuman primate simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge model.

    PubMed

    Kish-Catalone, Tina; Pal, Ranajit; Parrish, John; Rose, Nicholas; Hocker, Lindsey; Hudacik, Lauren; Reitz, Marvin; Gallo, Robert; Devico, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A potential strategy to combat the worldwide AIDS epidemic is to develop a vaginal microbicide that prevents the sexual transmission of HIV-1. One approach for preventing vaginal HIV transmission is to block the viral coreceptor CCR5 with naturally occurring chemokine ligands. In this study, we used a cynomolgus macaque model to evaluate whether a variant of the CCR5 ligand RANTES (-2 RANTES), tested alone or in a nonphospholipid liposome carrier (Novasomes 7474), blocks vaginal challenge with a CCR5-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(162P3)). When tested in vitro, the synthetic chemokine potently inhibited SHIV(162P3) infection of cynomolgus macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Colposcopic examinations of treated animals and histological examination of cervicovaginal biopsies showed minimal signs of tissue inflammation following vaginal application of Novasomes 7474, -2 RANTES formulated in Novasomes 7474, or -2 RANTES alone. Following vaginal challenge with SHIV(162P3), complete protection was observed in four of six animals treated vaginally with -2 RANTES (0.13 mM) formulated in Novasomes 7474. However, the same proportion of animals was protected by treatment with Novasomes 7474 carrier alone. Two of five animals treated with 0.5 mM -2 RANTES in PBS were protected from infection. Further, all animals were infected when treated with lower chemokine concentrations. These findings indicate that natural CCR5 ligands may have limited efficacy in stringent nonhuman primate models for vaginal infection. In comparison, liposomal agents such as Novasomes 7474 provide comparatively robust protection against vaginal transmission.

  13. Cell Tropism of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Culture Is Not Predictive of in Vivo Tropism or Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Borda, Juan T.; Alvarez, Xavier; Kondova, Ivanela; Aye, Pyone; Simon, Meredith A.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    SIVmac239/316 is a molecular clone derived from SIVmac239 that differs from the parental virus by nine amino acids in env. This virus, unlike the parental SIVmac239, is able to replicate well in alveolar macrophages in culture. We have not however, observed macrophage-associated inflammatory disease in any animal infected with SIVmac239/316. Therefore, we sought to examine the cell tropism of this virus in vivo in multiple tissues using in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry and multilabel confocal microscopy for viral nucleic acid and multiple cell-type-specific markers for macrophages and T lymphocytes. Tissues examined included brain, heart, lung, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and small and large intestine. Matched tissues from macaques infected with the parental SIVmac239 and uninfected macaques were also examined. Many infected cells were detected in the tissues of animals infected with SIVmac239 and SIVmac239/316 although there appeared to be fewer positive cells in animals infected with SIVmac239/316. Surprisingly, in light of the cell culture observations, nearly every simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cell in animals inoculated with SIVmac239/316 was a T lymphocyte rather than a macrophage. This was true both during early infection (first 2 months) and in terminal disease. In contrast, as previously described, SIVmac239 was found in both T cells and macrophages in tissues as early as 21 days after infection. These studies indicate that during both acute and chronic SIVmac239/316 infection T lymphocytes rather than macrophages are the principal targets in vivo. These data combined with the absence of macrophage-associated lesions in SIVmac239/316-infected animals indicate that in vitro cell tropism is not predictive of in vivo tropism or disease pathogenesis. PMID:15579453

  14. Characterization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Variants Anatomically Compartmentalized in Plasma and Milk in Chronically Infected African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Jonathon E.; Ho, Carrie; Nguyen, Quang N.; Amos, Joshua D.; Xu, Haolin; Chan, Cliburn; Chow, Shein-Chung; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Keating, Sheila M.; Fouda, Genevieve G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans, African-origin, natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), sustain nonpathogenic SIV infections and rarely vertically transmit SIV to their infants. Interestingly, chronically SIV-infected AGMs have anatomically compartmentalized SIV variants in plasma and milk, whereas humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs), Asian-origin nonnatural SIV hosts, do not exhibit this compartmentalization. Thus, it is possible that AGM SIV populations in milk have unique phenotypic features that contribute to the low postnatal transmission rates observed in this natural host species. In this study, we explored this possibility by characterizing the infectivity, tropism, and neutralization susceptibility of plasma and milk SIVsab env variants isolated from chronically SIVsab92018ivTF-infected AGMs. AGM plasma and milk SIVsab env pseudovirus variants exhibited similar infectivities, neutralization susceptibilities to autologous and heterologous plasma, and chemokine coreceptor usages for cell entry, suggesting similar abilities to initiate infection in a new host. We also assessed the cytokine milieu in SIV-infected AGM milk and compared it to that of SIV-infected RMs. MIP-1β, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin-12/23 (IL-12/23), and IL-13 trended significantly higher in SIV-infected AGM milk than in that of RMs, while IL-18 and IL-6 trended significantly higher in SIV-infected RM milk than in that of AGMs. Taken together, our findings imply that nonviral maternal factors, such as the cytokine milieu, rather than unique characteristics of SIV populations in the milk contribute to the low postnatal transmission rates observed in AGMs. IMPORTANCE Due to the ongoing global incidence of pediatric HIV-1 infections, including many that occur via breastfeeding, development of effective vaccine strategies capable of preventing vertical HIV

  15. Heterogeneity in neutralization sensitivities of viruses comprising the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmE660 isolate and vaccine challenge stock.

    PubMed

    Lopker, Michael; Easlick, Juliet; Sterrett, Sarah; Decker, Julie M; Barbian, Hannah; Learn, Gerald; Keele, Brandon F; Robinson, James E; Li, Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Bar, Katharine J

    2013-05-01

    The sooty mangabey-derived simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain E660 (SIVsmE660) is a genetically heterogeneous, pathogenic isolate that is commonly used as a vaccine challenge strain in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Though it is often employed to assess antibody-based vaccine strategies, its sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization has not been well characterized. Here, we utilize single-genome sequencing and infectivity assays to analyze the neutralization sensitivity of the uncloned SIVsmE660 isolate, individual viruses comprising the isolate, and transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses arising from low-dose mucosal inoculation of macaques with the isolate. We found that the SIVsmE660 isolate overall was highly sensitive to neutralization by SIV-infected macaque plasma samples (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] < 10(-5)) and monoclonal antibodies targeting V3 (IC50 < 0.01 μg/ml), CD4-induced (IC50 < 0.1 μg/ml), CD4 binding site (IC50 ~ 1 μg/ml), and V4 (IC50, ~5 μg/ml) epitopes. In comparison, SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were highly resistant to neutralization by these same antibodies. Differences in neutralization sensitivity between SIVsmE660 and SIVmac251/239 were not dependent on the cell type in which virus was produced or tested. These findings indicate that in comparison to SIVmac251/239 and primary HIV-1 viruses, SIVsmE660 generally exhibits substantially less masking of antigenically conserved Env epitopes. Interestingly, we identified a minor population of viruses (~10%) in both the SIVsmE660 isolate and T/F viruses arising from it that were substantially more resistant (>1,000-fold) to antibody neutralization and another fraction (~20%) that was intermediate in neutralization resistance. These findings may explain the variable natural history and variable protection afforded by heterologous Env-based vaccines in rhesus macaques challenged by high-dose versus low-dose SIVsmE660

  16. Biphasic CD8+ T-Cell Defense in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Control by Acute-Phase Passive Neutralizing Antibody Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Iseda, Sumire; Takahashi, Naofumi; Poplimont, Hugo; Nomura, Takushi; Seki, Sayuri; Nakane, Taku; Nakamura, Midori; Shi, Shoi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Shota; Harada, Shigeyoshi; Naruse, Taeko K.; Kimura, Akinori; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identifying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) control mechanisms by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is critical for anti-HIV-1 strategies. Recent in vivo studies on animals infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and related viruses have shown the efficacy of postinfection NAb passive immunization for viremia reduction, and one suggested mechanism is its occurrence through modulation of cellular immune responses. Here, we describe SIV control in macaques showing biphasic CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses following acute-phase NAb passive immunization. Analysis of four SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaque pairs matched with major histocompatibility complex class I haplotypes found that counterparts receiving day 7 anti-SIV polyclonal NAb infusion all suppressed viremia for up to 2 years without accumulating viral CTL escape mutations. In the first phase of primary viremia control attainment, CD8+ cells had high capacities to suppress SIVs carrying CTL escape mutations. Conversely, in the second, sustained phase of SIV control, CTL responses converged on a pattern of immunodominant CTL preservation. During this sustained phase of viral control, SIV epitope-specific CTLs showed retention of phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)hi/phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)lo subpopulations, implying their correlation with SIV control. The results suggest that virus-specific CTLs functionally boosted by acute-phase NAbs may drive robust AIDS virus control. IMPORTANCE In early HIV infection, NAb responses are lacking and CTL responses are insufficient, which leads to viral persistence. Hence, it is important to identify immune responses that can successfully control such HIV replication. Here, we show that monkeys receiving NAb passive immunization in early SIV infection strictly control viral replication for years. Passive infusion of NAbs with CTL cross-priming capacity resulted in induction of functionally

  17. Detection of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Semen, Urethra, and Male Reproductive Organs during Efficient Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Matusali, G.; Dereuddre-Bosquet, N.; Le Tortorec, A.; Moreau, M.; Satie, A.-P.; Mahé, D.; Roumaud, P.; Bourry, O.; Sylla, N.; Bernard-Stoecklin, S.; Pruvost, A.; Le Grand, R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A number of men receiving prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) still shed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in semen. To investigate whether this seminal shedding may be due to poor drug penetration and/or viral production by long-lived cells within male genital tissues, we analyzed semen and reproductive tissues from macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251) who were treated for 4 months with HAART, which was intensified over the last 7 weeks with an integrase inhibitor. We showed that a subset of treated animals continued shedding SIV in semen despite efficient HAART. This shedding was not associated with low antiretroviral drug concentrations in semen or in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate. HAART had no significant impact on SIV RNA in the urethra, whereas it drastically reduced SIV RNA levels in the prostate and vas deferens and to a lesser extent in the epididymis and seminal vesicle. The only detectable SIV RNA-positive cells within the male genital tract after HAART were urethral macrophages. SIV DNA levels in genital tissues were not decreased by HAART, suggesting the presence throughout the male genital tract of nonproductively infected cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 4 months of HAART induced variable and limited control of viral infection in the male reproductive organs, particularly in the urethra, and suggest that infected long-lived cells in the male genital tract may be involved in persistent seminal shedding during HAART. These results pave the way for further investigations of male genital organ infection in long-term-treated infected individuals. IMPORTANCE A substantial subset of men receiving prolonged HAART suppressing viral loads in the blood still harbor HIV in semen, and cases of sexual transmission have been reported. To understand the origin of this persistence, we analyzed the semen and male reproductive tissues from SIV

  18. A vaccine-elicited, single viral epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response does not protect against intravenous, cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Yasutomi, Y; Koenig, S; Woods, R M; Madsen, J; Wassef, N M; Alving, C R; Klein, H J; Nolan, T E; Boots, L J; Kessler, J A

    1995-01-01

    Protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge was assessed in rhesus monkeys with a vaccine-elicited, single SIV epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in the absence of SIV-specific antibody. Strategies were first explored for eliciting an optimal SIV Gag epitope-specific CTL response. These studies were performed in rhesus monkeys expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene Mamu-A*01, a haplotype associated with a predominant SIV CTL epitope mapped to residues 182 to 190 of the Gag protein (p11C). We demonstrated that a combined modality immunization strategy using a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG-SIV Gag construct for priming, and peptide formulated in liposome for boosting, elicited a greater p11C-specific CTL response than did a single immunization with peptide-liposome alone. Vaccinated and control monkeys were then challenged with cell-free SIVmne by an intravenous route of inoculation. Despite a vigorous p11C-specific CTL response at the time of virus inoculation, all monkeys became infected with SIV. gag gene sequencing of the virus isolated from these monkeys demonstrated that the established viruses had no mutations in the p11C-coding region. Thus, the preexisting CTL response did not select for a viral variant that might escape T-cell immune recognition. These studies demonstrate that a potent SIV-specific CTL response can be elicited by combining live vector and peptide vaccine modalities. However, a single SIV Gag epitope-specific CTL response in the absence of SIV-specific antibody did not provide protection against a cell-free, intravenous SIV challenge. PMID:7884874

  19. Combination Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Prevents Vaginal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Macaques Harboring Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Radzio, Jessica; Henning, Tara; Jenkins, Leecresia; Ellis, Shanon; Farshy, Carol; Phillips, Christi; Holder, Angela; Kuklenyik, Susan; Dinh, Chuong; Hanson, Debra; McNicholl, Janet; Heneine, Walid; Papp, John; Kersh, Ellen N; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2016-05-15

    Genital inflammation associated with sexually transmitted infections increases susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but it is unclear whether the increased risk can reduce the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated whether coinfection of macaques with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis decreases the prophylactic efficacy of oral emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Macaques were exposed to simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) vaginally each week for up to 16 weeks and received placebo or FTC/TDF pericoitally. All animals in the placebo group were infected with SHIV, while 4 of 6 PrEP recipients remained uninfected (P= .03). Oral FTC/TDF maintains efficacy in a macaque model of sexually transmitted coinfection, although the infection of 2 macaques signals a modest loss of PrEP activity.

  20. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Efficiently Utilizes Non-CCR5 Entry Pathways in African Green Monkey Lymphocytes: Potential Role for GPR15 and CXCR6 as Viral Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Nadeene E.; Wu, Fan; Matsuda, Kenta; Whitted, Sonya; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Goldstein, Simoy; Goeken, Robert M.; Plishka, Ronald J.; Buckler-White, Alicia; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and infection in these animals is generally nonpathogenic, whereas infection of nonnatural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM), is commonly pathogenic. CCR5 has been described as the primary entry coreceptor for SIV in vivo, while human-derived CXCR6 and GPR15 also appear to be used in vitro. However, sooty mangabeys that are genetically deficient in CCR5 due to an out-of-frame deletion are infectible with SIVsmm, indicating that SIVsmm can use alternative coreceptors in vivo. In this study, we examined the CCR5 dependence of SIV strains derived from vervet AGM (SIVagmVer) and the ability of AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 to serve as potential entry coreceptors. We found that SIVagmVer replicated efficiently in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, despite the fact that maraviroc was capable of blocking the CCR5-tropic strains SIVmac239, SIVsmE543-3, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-AD8 in RM PBMC. We also found that AGM CXCR6 and AGM GPR15, to a lesser extent, supported entry of pseudotype viruses bearing SIVagm envelopes, including SIVagm transmitted/founder envelopes. Lastly, we found that CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 mRNAs were detected in AGM and RM memory CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that GPR15 and CXCR6 are expressed on AGM CD4+ T cells and are potential alternative coreceptors for SIVagm use in vivo. These data suggest that the use of non-CCR5 entry pathways may be a common feature of SIV replication in natural host species, with the potential to contribute to nonpathogenicity in these animals. IMPORTANCE African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of SIV, and infection in these animals generally does not cause AIDS, whereas SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) typically develop AIDS. Although it has been reported that SIV generally uses CD4 and CCR5 to enter target cells in vivo, other

  1. Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutjipto, S.; Pedersen, N.C.; Miller, C.J.; Gardner, M.B.; Hanson, C.V.; Gettie, A.; Jennings, M.; Higgins, J.; Marx, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge.

  2. Ultrasensitive allele-specific PCR reveals rare preexisting drug-resistant variants and a large replicating virus population in macaques infected with a simian immunodeficiency virus containing human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Valerie F; Ambrose, Zandrea; Kearney, Mary F; Shao, Wei; Kewalramani, Vineet N; Maldarelli, Frank; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M

    2012-12-01

    It has been proposed that most drug-resistant mutants, resulting from a single-nucleotide change, exist at low frequency in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) populations in vivo prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To test this hypothesis and to investigate the emergence of resistant mutants with drug selection, we developed a new ultrasensitive allele-specific PCR (UsASP) assay, which can detect drug resistance mutations at a frequency of ≥0.001% of the virus population. We applied this assay to plasma samples obtained from macaques infected with an SIV variant containing HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) (RT-simian-human immunodeficiency [SHIV](mne)), before and after they were exposed to a short course of efavirenz (EFV) monotherapy. We detected RT inhibitor (RTI) resistance mutations K65R and M184I but not K103N in 2 of 2 RT-SHIV-infected macaques prior to EFV exposure. After three doses over 4 days of EFV monotherapy, 103N mutations (AAC and AAT) rapidly emerged and increased in the population to levels of ∼20%, indicating that they were present prior to EFV exposure. The rapid increase of 103N mutations from <0.001% to 20% of the viral population indicates that the replicating virus population size in RT-SHIV-infected macaques must be 10(6) or more infected cells per replication cycle.

  3. Chronic Alcohol Increases CD8+ T-Cell Immunosenescence in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Paige S.; Siggins, Robert W.; Porretta, Connie; Armstrong, Megan L.; Zea, Arnold H.; Mercante, Donald E.; Parsons, Christopher; Veazey, Ronald S.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Molina, Patricia E.; Welsh, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Activated CD8+ T-cells correlate with viral load and may foretell antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure. HIV infection has been suggested to accelerate immunosenescence through chronic persistent inflammation. Alcohol-use disorders (AUD) are prevalent in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We tested the hypothesis that hazardous alcohol consumption accelerates immune activation and immunosenescence. Methods Immune activation and immunosenescence were examined in CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD3+CD4−CD8+) isolated from intestinal biopsies, axillary lymph nodes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of chronic binge alcohol (CBA)-consuming simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART; CBA/ART+, CBA/ART−) and in PBMCs isolated from a cohort of PLWHA. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to phenotype cells isolated from intestinal biopsies, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood from rhesus macaques and PLWHA. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) identified hazardous alcohol drinking in PLWHA. Viral load was determined by RT-qPCR and telomere length was measured using qPCR. Results PBMC CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and immunosenescence (CD28−) were increased over baseline levels (857% ± 334, p < 0.05; 398% ± 80, p < 0.05, respectively) only in CBA animals not receiving ART. Viral load correlated with CD8+ T-cell immunosenescence in macaque PBMCs (rs = 0.49, p = 0.02). Activated immunosenescent T-cell (CD8+CD38+CD28−) frequencies in PBMCs from PLWHA significantly correlated with AUDIT scores (rs = 0.75, p = 0.001), while no correlation was observed with CD4+ T-cell and AUDIT scores (rs = −0.24, p = 0.38). Activated immunosenescent T-cells had shorter telomeres than CD8+ T-cells (CD8+CD28+) from PLWHA. Conclusions Our results suggest that CBA and AUD augment immune activation and immunosenescence in SIV-infected macaques and PLWHA. PMID:26603633

  4. A simian-human immunodeficiency virus carrying the rt gene from Chinese CRF01_AE strain of HIV is sensitive to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and has a highly genetic stability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Nan; Ju, Bin; Dong, Zhihui; Cong, Zhe; Jiang, Hong; Qin, Chuan; Wei, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtype CRF01_AE is one of the major HIV-1 subtypes that dominate the global epidemic. However, its drug resistance, associated mutations, and viral fitness have not been systemically studied, because available chimeric simian-HIVs (SHIVs) usually express the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (rt) gene of subtype B HIV-1, which is different from subtype CRF01_AE HIV-1. In this study, a recombinant plasmid, pRT-SHIV/AE, was constructed to generate a chimeric RT-SHIV/AE by replacing the rt gene of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239) with the counterpart of Chinese HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE. The infectivity, replication capacity, co-receptor tropism, drug sensitivity, and genetic stability of RT-SHIV/AE were characterized. The new chimeric RT-SHIV/AE effectively infected and replicated in human T cell line and rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (rhPBMC). The rt gene of RT-SHIV/AE lacked the common mutation (T215I) associated with drug resistance. RT-SHIV-AE retained infectivity and immunogenicity, similar to that of its counterpart RT-SHIV/TC virus following intravenous inoculation in Chinese rhesus macaque. RT-SHIV-AE was more sensitive to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) than the RT-SHIV/TC. RT-SHIV/AE was genetically stable in Chinese rhesus macaque. The new chimeric RT-SHIV/AE may be a valuable tool for evaluating the efficacy of the rt-based antiviral drugs against the subtype CRF01_AE HIV-1.

  5. Homeostatic Cytokines Induce CD4 Downregulation in African Green Monkeys Independently of Antigen Exposure To Generate Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Resistant CD8αα T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Molly R.; Briant, Judith A.; Calantone, Nina; Whitted, Sonya; Vinton, Carol L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Ortiz, Alexandra M.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGMs; genus Chlorocebus) are a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). As they do not develop simian AIDS, there is great interest in understanding how this species has evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Adult African green monkeys naturally have low numbers of CD4 T cells and a large population of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted CD8αdim T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4+ T cells. Mechanisms that drive this process of CD4 downregulation are unknown. Here, we show that juvenile AGMs accelerate CD4-to-CD8αα conversion upon SIV infection and avoid progression to AIDS. The CD4 downregulation induced by SIV infection is not limited to SIV-specific T cells, and vaccination of an adult AGM who had a negligible number of CD4 T cells demonstrated that CD4 downregulation can occur without antigenic exposure. Finally, we show that the T cell homeostatic cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, and IL-15 can induce CD4 downregulation in vitro. These data identify a mechanism that allows AGMs to generate a large, diverse population of T cells that perform CD4 T cell functions but are resistant to SIV infection. A better understanding of this mechanism may allow the development of treatments to induce protective CD4 downregulation in humans. IMPORTANCE Many African primate species are naturally infected with SIV. African green monkeys, one natural host species, avoid simian AIDS by creating a population of T cells that lack CD4, the human immunodeficiency virus/SIV receptor; therefore, they are resistant to infection. However, these T cells maintain properties of CD4+ T cells even after receptor downregulation and preserve immune function. Here, we show that juvenile AGMs, who have not undergone extensive CD4 downregulation, accelerate this process upon SIV infection. Furthermore, we show that in vivo, CD4 downregulation does not occur exclusively in antigen-experienced T cells

  6. The NF-kappa B binding site is necessary for efficient replication of simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques in primary macrophages but not in T cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, R E; Hopkins, N; Li, Y

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate here that the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) binding site in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) long terminal repeat is essential for efficient virus replication in primary alveolar macrophages but dispensable for efficient replication in primary T cells. Mutation of the NF-kappa B site does not seriously impair replication of a T-cell-tropic SIVmac239 or a macrophagetropic SIVmacEm* in peripheral blood lymphocytes or established CD4+ cell lines; however, mutation of the NF-kappa B site prevents efficient SIVmacEm* replication in primary alveolar macrophages. These data suggest that efficient replication in primary macrophages requires both envelope and long terminal repeat determinants. Images PMID:8474179

  7. Genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses from West African green monkeys: evidence of multiple genotypes within populations from the same geographical locale.

    PubMed Central

    Bibollet-Ruche, F; Brengues, C; Galat-Luong, A; Galat, G; Pourrut, X; Vidal, N; Veas, F; Durand, J P; Cuny, G

    1997-01-01

    High simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) seroprevalence rates have been reported in the different African green monkey (AGM) subspecies. Genetic diversity of these viruses far exceeds the diversity observed in the other lentivirus-infected human and nonhuman primates and is thought to reflect ancient introduction of SIV in the AGM population. We investigate here genetic diversity of SIVagm in wild-living AGM populations from the same geographical locale (i.e., sympatric population) in Senegal. For 11 new strains, we PCR amplified and sequenced two regions of the genome spanning the first tat exon and part of the transmembrane glycoprotein. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences shows that viruses found in sympatric populations cluster into distinct lineages, with at least two distinct genotypes in each troop. These data strongly suggest an ancient introduction of these divergent viruses in the AGM population. PMID:8985351

  8. Short communication: a repeated simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase/herpes simplex virus type 2 cochallenge macaque model for the evaluation of microbicides.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Aravantinou, Meropi; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Frank, Ines; Gettie, Agegnehu; Grasperge, Brooke; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition, underscoring the need to develop coinfection models to evaluate promising prevention strategies. We previously established a single high-dose vaginal coinfection model of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/HSV-2 in Depo-Provera (DP)-treated macaques. However, this model does not appropriately mimic women's exposure. Repeated limiting dose SHIV challenge models are now used routinely to test prevention strategies, yet, at present, there are no reports of a repeated limiting dose cochallenge model in which to evaluate products targeting HIV and HSV-2. Herein, we show that 20 weekly cochallenges with 2-50 TCID50 simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) and 10(7) pfu HSV-2 results in infection with both viruses (4/6 SHIV-RT, 6/6 HSV-2). The frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding were significantly greater in the repeated exposure model compared to the single high-dose model (p<0.0001). We used this new model to test the Council's on-demand microbicide gel, MZC, which is active against SHIV-RT in DP-treated macaques and HSV-2 and human papillomavirus (HPV) in mice. While MZC reduced SHIV and HSV-2 infections in our repeated limiting dose model when cochallenging 8 h after each gel application, a barrier effect of carrageenan (CG) that was not seen in DP-treated animals precluded evaluation of the significance of the antiviral activity of MZC. Both MZC and CG significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding compared to no gel treatment. This validates the use of this repeated limiting dose cochallenge model for testing products targeting HIV and HSV-2.

  9. Derivation and Characterization of Pathogenic Transmitted/Founder Molecular Clones from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsmE660 and SIVmac251 following Mucosal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lopker, Michael J.; Del Prete, Gregory Q.; Estes, Jacob D.; Li, Hui; Reid, Carolyn; Newman, Laura; Lipkey, Leslie; Camus, Celine; Easlick, Juliet L.; Wang, Shuyi; Decker, Julie M.; Bar, Katharine J.; Learn, Gerald; Pal, Ranajit; Weiss, Deborah E.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Shaw, George M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently available simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infectious molecular clones (IMCs) and isolates used in nonhuman primate (NHP) models of AIDS were originally derived from infected macaques during chronic infection or end stage disease and may not authentically recapitulate features of transmitted/founder (T/F) genomes that are of particular interest in transmission, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment studies. We therefore generated and characterized T/F IMCs from genetically and biologically heterogeneous challenge stocks of SIVmac251 and SIVsmE660. Single-genome amplification (SGA) was used to identify full-length T/F genomes present in plasma during acute infection resulting from atraumatic rectal inoculation of Indian rhesus macaques with low doses of SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660. All 8 T/F clones yielded viruses that were infectious and replication competent in vitro, with replication kinetics similar to those of the widely used chronic-infection-derived IMCs SIVmac239 and SIVsmE543. Phenotypically, the new T/F virus strains exhibited a range of neutralization sensitivity profiles. Four T/F virus strains were inoculated into rhesus macaques, and each exhibited typical SIV replication kinetics. The SIVsm T/F viruses were sensitive to TRIM5α restriction. All T/F viruses were pathogenic in rhesus macaques, resulting in progressive CD4+ T cell loss in gastrointestinal tissues, peripheral blood, and lymphatic tissues. The animals developed pathological immune activation; lymphoid tissue damage, including fibrosis; and clinically significant immunodeficiency leading to AIDS-defining clinical endpoints. These T/F clones represent a new molecular platform for the analysis of virus transmission and immunopathogenesis and for the generation of novel “bar-coded” challenge viruses and next-generation simian-human immunodeficiency viruses that may advance the HIV/AIDS vaccine agenda. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primate research has relied on only a few

  10. Incorporation of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Granulocyte- Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor or CD40 Ligand Enhances Immunogenicity of Chimeric Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Like Particles▿

    PubMed Central

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Quan, Fu-Shi; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Ye, Ling; Vzorov, Andrei; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Jacob, Joshy; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    The rapid worldwide spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mandates the development of successful vaccination strategies. Since live attenuated HIV is not accepted as a vaccine due to safety concerns, virus-like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive safe alternative because they lack the viral genome yet they are perceived by the immune system as a virus particle. We hypothesized that adding immunostimulatory signals to VLPs would enhance their efficacy. To accomplish this we generated chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) VLPs containing either glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or CD40 ligand (CD40L) and investigated their biological activity and ability to enhance immune responses in vivo. Immunization of mice with chimeric SIV VLPs containing GM-CSF induced SIV Env-specific antibodies as well as neutralizing activity at significantly higher levels than those induced by standard SIV VLPs, SIV VLPs containing CD40L, or standard VLPs mixed with soluble GM-CSF. In addition, mice immunized with chimeric SIV VLPs containing either GM-CSF or CD40L showed significantly increased CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell responses to SIV Env, compared to standard SIV VLPs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the incorporation of immunostimulatory molecules enhances humoral and cellular immune responses. We propose that anchoring immunostimulatory molecules into SIV VLPs can be a promising approach to augmenting the efficacy of VLP antigens. PMID:17108046

  11. Complete Protection from Repeated Vaginal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Exposures in Macaques by a Topical Gel Containing Tenofovir Alone or with Emtricitabine▿

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Urvi M.; Dobard, Charles; Sharma, Sunita; Cong, Mian-er; Jia, Hongwei; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hanson, Debra L.; Guenthner, Patricia; Smith, James; Kersh, Ellen; Garcia-Lerma, J. Gerardo; Novembre, Francis J.; Otten, Ron; Folks, Thomas; Heneine, Walid

    2009-01-01

    New-generation gels that deliver potent antiretroviral drugs against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 have renewed hopes for topical prophylaxis as a prevention strategy. Previous preclinical research with monkey models suggested that high concentrations and drug combinations are needed for high efficacy. We evaluated two long-acting reverse transcriptase inhibitors, tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC), by using a twice-weekly repeat challenge macaque model and showed that a preexposure vaginal application of gel with 1% TFV alone or in combination with 5% FTC fully protected macaques from a total of 20 exposures to simian-human immunodeficiency virus SF162p3. FTC and TFV were detected in plasma 30 min after vaginal application, suggesting rapid absorption. FTC was detected more frequently than TFV and showed higher levels, reflecting the fivefold-higher concentration of this drug than of TFV. Two of 12 repeatedly exposed but protected macaques showed limited T-cell priming, which did not induce resistance to infection when macaques were rechallenged. Thus, single drugs with durable antiviral activity can provide highly effective topical prophylaxis and overcome the need for noncoital use or for drug combinations which are more complex and costly to formulate and approve. PMID:19656878

  12. Complete protection from repeated vaginal simian-human immunodeficiency virus exposures in macaques by a topical gel containing tenofovir alone or with emtricitabine.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Urvi M; Dobard, Charles; Sharma, Sunita; Cong, Mian-er; Jia, Hongwei; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hanson, Debra L; Guenthner, Patricia; Smith, James; Kersh, Ellen; Garcia-Lerma, J Gerardo; Novembre, Francis J; Otten, Ron; Folks, Thomas; Heneine, Walid

    2009-10-01

    New-generation gels that deliver potent antiretroviral drugs against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 have renewed hopes for topical prophylaxis as a prevention strategy. Previous preclinical research with monkey models suggested that high concentrations and drug combinations are needed for high efficacy. We evaluated two long-acting reverse transcriptase inhibitors, tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC), by using a twice-weekly repeat challenge macaque model and showed that a preexposure vaginal application of gel with 1% TFV alone or in combination with 5% FTC fully protected macaques from a total of 20 exposures to simian-human immunodeficiency virus SF162p3. FTC and TFV were detected in plasma 30 min after vaginal application, suggesting rapid absorption. FTC was detected more frequently than TFV and showed higher levels, reflecting the fivefold-higher concentration of this drug than of TFV. Two of 12 repeatedly exposed but protected macaques showed limited T-cell priming, which did not induce resistance to infection when macaques were rechallenged. Thus, single drugs with durable antiviral activity can provide highly effective topical prophylaxis and overcome the need for noncoital use or for drug combinations which are more complex and costly to formulate and approve.

  13. Vaccination of rhesus monkeys with synthetic peptide in a fusogenic proteoliposome elicits simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    An effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus should be capable of eliciting both an antibody and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. However, when viral proteins and peptides are formulated with traditional immunological adjuvants and inoculated via a route acceptable for use in humans, they have not been successful at eliciting virus-specific, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted CTL. We have designed a novel viral subunit vaccine by encapsulating a previously defined synthetic peptide CTL epitope of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag protein within a proteoliposome capable of attaching to and fusing with plasma membranes. Upon fusing, the encapsulated contents of this proteoliposome can enter the MHC class I processing pathway through the cytoplasm. In this report, we show that after a single intramuscular vaccination, rhesus monkeys develop a CD8+ cell-mediated, MHC class I-restricted CTL response that recognizes the synthetic peptide immunogen. The induced CTL also demonstrate antiviral immunity by recognizing SIV gag protein endogenously processed by target cells infected with SIV/vaccinia recombinant virus. These results demonstrate that virus-specific, MHC class I-restricted, CD8+ CTL can be elicited by a safe, nonreplicating viral subunit vaccine in a primate model for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Moreover, the proteoliposome vaccine formation described can include multiple synthetic peptide epitopes, and, thus, offers a simple means of generating antiviral cell-mediated immunity in a genetically heterogeneous population. PMID:1460429

  14. Relationship between Vaccine-Induced Antibody Capture of Infectious Virus and Infection Outcomes following Repeated Low-Dose Rectal Challenges with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251

    PubMed Central

    Gach, Johannes S.; Venzon, David; Vaccari, Monica; Keele, Brandon F.; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibodies are known to enhance in vitro infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We measured the ability of antibodies induced by ALVAC-SIV/gp120 vaccination, given with alum or MF59 adjuvant, to capture infectious SIVmac251 and determined the association between capture and infection outcomes following low-dose, repeated rectal challenge of rhesus macaques. We found that capture correlated with the number of transmitted/founder (T/F) variants that established infection, such that animals whose plasma captured more virus were infected with a higher number of T/F strains. Capture also correlated with results of Env binding assays, indicating that greater immunogenicity resulted in greater capture. Although vaccination elicited negligible neutralizing activity against the challenge strain (50% inhibitory dilutions of >1/80 in all cases), animals with low capture and whose plasma, at a fixed dilution, inhibited a higher fraction of virus were infected at a lower rate than animals with high capture and low neutralization (P = 0.039); only animals with the low capture/high neutralization response profile were protected compared with unvaccinated control animals (P = 0.026). In a sieve analysis, high capture and low capture were distinguishable on the basis of polymorphisms in the V1 loop of Env at amino acids 144 and 145. Our results indicate that vaccine-induced antibody that binds to and captures infectious virus but does not inhibit its infectivity may enhance the likelihood of infection following rectal challenge with SIVmac251. Higher immunogenicity resulting in better antibody capture but similar anti-infectivity may not improve vaccine efficacy. IMPORTANCE Vaccines generally prevent viral infections by eliciting antibodies that inhibit virus infectivity. However, antibodies, including those induced by vaccination, have the potential to enhance, rather than prevent infection. We measured the ability of

  15. Loss of memory CD4+ T-cells in semi-wild mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) naturally infected with species-specific simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmnd-1

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Edward J. D.; Schmidt, Fabian; Liégeois, Florian; Kondova, Ivanela; Herbert, Anaïs; Ngoubangoye, Barthelemy; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is found in a number of African primate species and is thought to be generally non-pathogenic. However, studies of wild primates are limited to two species, with SIV infection appearing to have a considerably different outcome in each. Further examination of SIV-infected primates exposed to their natural environment is therefore warranted. We performed a large cross-sectional study of a cohort of semi-wild mandrills with naturally occurring SIV infection, including 39 SIV-negative and 33 species-specific SIVmnd-1-infected animals. This study was distinguished from previous reports by considerably greater sample size, examination of exclusively naturally infected animals in semi-wild conditions and consideration of simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV) status in addition to SIVmnd-1 infection. We found that SIVmnd-1 infection was associated with a significant and progressive loss of memory CD4+ T-cells. Limited but significant increases in markers of immune activation in the T-cell populations, significant increases in plasma neopterin and changes to B-cell subsets were also observed in SIV-infected animals. However, no increase in plasma soluble CD14 was observed. Histological examination of peripheral lymph nodes suggested that SIVmnd-1 infection was not associated with a significant disruption of the lymph node architecture. Whilst this species has evolved numerous strategies to resist the development of AIDS, significant effects of SIV infection could be observed when examined in a natural environment. STLVmnd-1 infection also had significant effects on some markers relevant to understanding SIV infection and thus should be considered in studies of SIV infection of African primates where present. PMID:24214347

  16. Activated Memory CD4+ T Helper Cells Repopulate the Intestine Early following Antiretroviral Therapy of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques but Exhibit a Decreased Potential To Produce Interleukin-2

    PubMed Central

    Mattapallil, Joseph J.; Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Dailey, Peter; Dandekar, Satya

    1999-01-01

    Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model, we performed a longitudinal study to determine the effect of antiretroviral therapy on the phenotype and functional potential of CD4+ T cells repopulating intestinal mucosa in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Severe depletion of CD4+ and CD4+ CD8+ T cells occurred in the intestinal mucosa during primary SIV infection. The majority of these cells were of activated memory phenotype. Phosphonate 9-[2-(phosphomethoxypropyl]adenine (PMPA) treatment led to a moderate suppression of intestinal viral loads and repopulation of intestinal mucosa by predominantly activated memory CD4+ T-helper cells. This repopulation was independent of the level of viral suppression. Compared to preinfection values, the frequency of naive CD4+ T cells increased following PMPA therapy, suggesting that new CD4+ T cells were repopulating the intestinal mucosa. Repopulation by CD4+ CD8+ T cells was not observed in either jejunum or colon lamina propria. The majority of CD4+ T cells repopulating the intestinal mucosa following PMPA therapy were CD29hi and CD11ahi. A subset of repopulating intestinal CD4+ T cells expressed Ki-67 antigen, indicating that local proliferation may play a role in the repopulation process. Although the majority of repopulating CD4+ T cells in the intestinal mucosa were functionally capable of providing B- and T-cell help, as evidenced by their expression of CD28, these CD4+ T cells were found to have a reduced capacity to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) compared to the potential of CD4+ T cells prior to SIV infection. Persistent viral infection may play a role in suppressing the potential of repopulating CD4+ T cells to produce IL-2. Hence, successful antiretroviral therapy should aim at complete suppression of viral loads in mucosal lymphoid tissues, such as intestinal mucosa. PMID:10400763

  17. Generation of lineage-related, mucosally transmissible subtype C R5 simian-human immunodeficiency viruses capable of AIDS development, induction of neurological disease, and coreceptor switching in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wuze; Mumbauer, Alexandra; Gettie, Agegnehu; Seaman, Michael S; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Westmoreland, Susan; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia

    2013-06-01

    Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions are initiated with CCR5 (R5)-using viruses across mucosal surfaces, with the majority in regions where HIV type 1 (HIV-1) clade C predominates. Mucosally transmissible, highly replication competent, pathogenic R5 simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) encoding biologically relevant clade C envelopes are therefore needed as challenge viruses in vaccine efficacy studies with nonhuman primates. Here we describe the generation of three lineage-related subtype C SHIVs through four successive rapid transfers in rhesus macaques of SHIVC109F.PB4, a molecular clone expressing the soluble-CD4 (sCD4)-sensitive CCR5-tropic clade C envelope of a recently infected subject in Zambia. The viruses differed in their monkey passage histories and neutralization sensitivities but remained R5 tropic. SHIVC109P3 and SHIVC109P3N were recovered from a passage-3 rapid-progressor animal during chronic infection (24 weeks postinfection [wpi]) and at end-stage disease (34 wpi), respectively, and are classified as tier 1B strains, whereas SHIVC109P4 was recovered from a passage-4 normal-progressor macaque at 22 wpi and is a tier 2 virus, more difficult to neutralize. All three viruses were transmitted efficiently via intrarectal inoculation, reaching peak viral loads of 10(7) to 10(9) RNA copies/ml plasma and establishing viremia at various set points. Notably, one of seven (GC98) and two of six (CL31, FI08) SHIVC109P3- and SHIVC109P3N-infected macaques, respectively, progressed to AIDS, with neuropathologies observed in GC98 and FI08, as well as coreceptor switching in the latter. These findings support the use of these new SHIVC109F.PB4-derived viruses to study the immunopathology of HIV-1 clade C infection and to evaluate envelope-based AIDS vaccines in nonhuman primates.

  18. Autologous neutralizing antibodies to the transmitted/founder viruses emerge late after simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 infection of rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Wendy W; Rahman, Ishita; Hraber, Peter; Coffey, Rory T; Nevidomskyte, Daiva; Giri, Ayush; Asmal, Mohammed; Miljkovic, Svetlana; Daniels, Marcus; Whitney, James B; Keele, Brandon F; Hahn, Beatrice H; Korber, Bette T; Shaw, George M; Seaman, Michael S; Letvin, Norman L

    2010-06-01

    While the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey is an important animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of humans, much remains to be learned about the evolution of the humoral immune response in this model. In HIV-1 infection, autologous neutralizing antibodies emerge 2 to 3 months after infection. However, the ontogeny of the SIV-specific neutralizing antibody response in mucosally infected animals has not been defined. We characterized the kinetics of the autologous neutralizing antibody response to the transmitted/founder SIVmac251 using a pseudovirion-based TZM-bl cell assay and monitored env sequence evolution using single-genome amplification in four rhesus animals that were infected via intrarectal inoculations. We show that the SIVmac251 founder viruses induced neutralizing antibodies at 5 to 8 months after infection. Despite their slow emergence and low titers, these neutralizing antibodies selected for escape mutants that harbored substitutions and deletions in variable region 1 (V1), V2, and V4 of Env. The neutralizing antibody response was initially focused on V4 at 5 to 8 months after infection and then targeted V1/V2 and V4 by 16 months. These findings reveal a striking delay in the development of neutralizing antibodies in SIVmac-infected animals, thus raising questions concerning the suitability of SIVmac251 as a challenge strain to screen AIDS vaccines that elicit neutralizing antibodies as a means to prevent virus acquisition. They also illustrate the capacity of the SIVmac quasispecies to modify antigenic determinants in response to very modest titers of neutralizing antibodies.

  19. Generation of a neutralization-resistant CCR5 tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-MK38) molecular clone, a derivative of SHIV-89.6.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuki; Yoneda, Mai; Otsuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yuji; Kato, Fumihiro; Matsuura, Kanako; Kikukawa, Minako; Matsushita, Shuzo; Hishiki, Takayuki; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Previously, we reported that a new genetically diverse CCR5 (R5) tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-MK38) adapted to rhesus monkeys became more neutralization resistant to SHIV-infected plasma than did the parental SHIV-KS661 clone. Here, to clarify the significance of the neutralization-resistant phenotype of SHIV in a macaque model, we initially investigated the precise neutralization phenotype of the SHIVs, including SHIV-MK38 molecular clones, using SHIV-MK38-infected plasma, a pooled plasma of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, soluble CD4 and anti-HIV-1 neutralizing mAbs, the epitopes of which were known. The results show that SHIV-KS661 had tier 1 neutralization sensitivity, but monkey-adapted R5 tropic SHIV-MK38 acquired neutralization resistance similar to that of tier 2 or 3 as a clone virus. Sequence analysis of the env gene suggested that the neutralization-resistant phenotype of SHIV-MK38 was acquired by conformational changes in Env associated with the net charge and potential N-linked glycosylation sites. To examine the relationship between neutralization phenotype and stably persistent infection in monkeys, we performed in vivo rectal inoculation experiments using a SHIV-MK38 molecular clone. The results showed that one of three rhesus monkeys exhibited durable infection with a plasma viral load of 105 copies ml- 1 despite the high antibody responses that occurred in the host. Whilst further improvements are required in the development of a challenge virus, it will be useful to generate a neutralization-resistant R5 tropic molecular clone of the SHIV-89.6 lineage commonly used for vaccine development - a result that can be used to explore the foundation of AIDS pathogenesis.

  20. Lentiviral vector-based prime/boost vaccination against AIDS: pilot study shows protection against Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 challenge in macaques.

    PubMed

    Beignon, Anne-Sophie; Mollier, Karine; Liard, Christelle; Coutant, Frédéric; Munier, Sandie; Rivière, Julie; Souque, Philippe; Charneau, Pierre

    2009-11-01

    AIDS vaccination has a pressing need for more potent vaccination vectors capable of eliciting strong, diversified, and long-lasting cellular immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lentiviral vectors have demonstrated efficiency not only as gene delivery vehicles for gene therapy applications but also as vaccination tools. This is likely due to their ability to transduce nondividing cells, including dendritic cells, enabling sustained endogenous antigen presentation and thus the induction of high proportions of specific cytotoxic T cells and long-lasting memory T cells. We show in a first proof-of-concept pilot study that a prime/boost vaccination strategy using lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with a glycoprotein G from two non-cross-reactive vesicular stomatitis virus serotypes elicited robust and broad cellular immune responses against the vector-encoded antigen, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) GAG, in cynomolgus macaques. Vaccination conferred strong protection against a massive intrarectal challenge with SIVmac251, as evidenced both by the reduction of viremia at the peak of acute infection (a mean of over 2 log(10) fold reduction) and by the full preservation of the CD28(+) CD95(+) memory CD4(+) T cells during the acute phase, a strong correlate of protection against pathogenesis. Although vaccinees continued to display lower viremia than control macaques during the early chronic phase, these differences were not statistically significant by day 50 postchallenge. A not-optimized SIV GAG antigen was chosen to show the strong potential of the lentiviral vector system for vaccination. Given that a stronger protection can be anticipated from a modern HIV-1 antigen design, gene transfer vectors derived from HIV-1 appear as promising candidates for vaccination against HIV-1 infection.

  1. Autologous Neutralizing Antibodies to the Transmitted/Founder Viruses Emerge Late after Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Infection of Rhesus Monkeys▿

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Wendy W.; Rahman, Ishita; Hraber, Peter; Coffey, Rory T.; Nevidomskyte, Daiva; Giri, Ayush; Asmal, Mohammed; Miljkovic, Svetlana; Daniels, Marcus; Whitney, James B.; Keele, Brandon F.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Korber, Bette T.; Shaw, George M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Letvin, Norman L.

    2010-01-01

    While the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey is an important animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of humans, much remains to be learned about the evolution of the humoral immune response in this model. In HIV-1 infection, autologous neutralizing antibodies emerge 2 to 3 months after infection. However, the ontogeny of the SIV-specific neutralizing antibody response in mucosally infected animals has not been defined. We characterized the kinetics of the autologous neutralizing antibody response to the transmitted/founder SIVmac251 using a pseudovirion-based TZM-bl cell assay and monitored env sequence evolution using single-genome amplification in four rhesus animals that were infected via intrarectal inoculations. We show that the SIVmac251 founder viruses induced neutralizing antibodies at 5 to 8 months after infection. Despite their slow emergence and low titers, these neutralizing antibodies selected for escape mutants that harbored substitutions and deletions in variable region 1 (V1), V2, and V4 of Env. The neutralizing antibody response was initially focused on V4 at 5 to 8 months after infection and then targeted V1/V2 and V4 by 16 months. These findings reveal a striking delay in the development of neutralizing antibodies in SIVmac-infected animals, thus raising questions concerning the suitability of SIVmac251 as a challenge strain to screen AIDS vaccines that elicit neutralizing antibodies as a means to prevent virus acquisition. They also illustrate the capacity of the SIVmac quasispecies to modify antigenic determinants in response to very modest titers of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:20357097

  2. Genetic differences accounting for evolution and pathogenicity of simian immunodeficiency virus from a sooty mangabey monkey after cross-species transmission to a pig-tailed macaque.

    PubMed Central

    Courgnaud, V; Lauré, F; Fultz, P N; Montagnier, L; Bréchot, C; Sonigo, P

    1992-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of two related isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus from the sooty mangabey monkey (SIVsmm) that exhibit dramatic differences in virulence. These isolates are separated by one experimental cross-species transmission, from sooty mangabey to pig-tailed macaque. The parental virus (SIVsmm9), nonpathogenic in the original host (sooty mangabeys), causes a chronic AIDS-like disease in macaques. In contrast, the variant virus (SIVsmmPBj14) induces an acute lethal disease in various macaque species and is also pathogenic for sooty mangabeys. The combination of necessary and sufficient mutations that determined the acutely lethal phenotype on the SIVsmm9 genetic background is included within a maximal set of 57 point mutations, plus two insertions located in the long terminal repeat (22 bp spanning an NF-kappa B-like enhancer element) and in the surface envelope glycoprotein (5 amino acids). Comparisons of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in the genome of SIVsmm indicated that selective pressures, probably due to the host immune response, favored amino acid changes in the envelope. This immunoevolutionary mechanism could explain the increase in diversity and the apparition of new virulent phenotypes after cross-species transmission. PMID:1727495

  3. Virion Background and Efficiency of Virion Incorporation Determine Susceptibility of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Env-Driven Viral Entry to Inhibition by IFITM Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Florian; Hoffmann, Markus; Gärtner, Sabine; Nehlmeier, Inga; Winkler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) can inhibit the cellular entry of several enveloped viruses, including simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The blockade of SIV by IFITMs is isolate specific, raising the question of which parameters impact sensitivity to IFITM. We show that the virion context in which SIV-Env is presented and the efficiency of virion incorporation determine Env susceptibility to inhibition by IFITMs. Thus, determinants other than the nature of the envelope protein can impact the IFITM sensitivity of viral entry. IMPORTANCE The host cell-encoded IFITM proteins can block viral entry and are an important component of the innate defenses against viral infection. However, the determinants controlling whether a virus is susceptible to blockade by IFITM proteins are incompletely understood. Our study shows that the amount of envelope proteins incorporated into virions as well as the nature of the virion particle itself can impact the sensitivity of viral entry to IFITMs. These results show for the first time that determinants other than the viral envelope protein can impact sensitivity to IFITM and have implications for the interpretation of previously published data on inhibition of viruses by IFITM proteins. Moreover, our findings might help to define the mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins. PMID:27807233

  4. Identification and Structural Characterization of the ALIX-Binding Late Domains of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239 and SIVagmTan-1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Q.; Robinson, H.; Landesman, M. B.; Sundquist, W. I.; Hill, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Retroviral Gag proteins contain short late-domain motifs that recruit cellular ESCRT pathway proteins to facilitate virus budding. ALIX-binding late domains often contain the core consensus sequence YPX{sub n}L (where X{sub n} can vary in sequence and length). However, some simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag proteins lack this consensus sequence, yet still bind ALIX. We mapped divergent, ALIX-binding late domains within the p6{sup Gag} proteins of SIV{sub mac239} ({sub 40}SREK{und P}YKE{und VT}ED{und L}LHLNSLF{sub 59}) and SIV{sub agmTan-1} ({sub 24}AAG{und A}YDP{und AR}KL{und L}EQYAKK{sub 41}). Crystal structures revealed that anchoring tyrosines (in lightface) and nearby hydrophobic residues (underlined) contact the ALIX V domain, revealing how lentiviruses employ a diverse family of late-domain sequences to bind ALIX and promote virus budding.

  5. Identification and Structural Characterization of the ALIX-Binding Late Domains of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIV mac239 and SIV agmTan-1

    SciTech Connect

    Q Zhai; M Landesman; H Robinson; W Sundquist; C Hill

    2011-12-31

    Retroviral Gag proteins contain short late-domain motifs that recruit cellular ESCRT pathway proteins to facilitate virus budding. ALIX-binding late domains often contain the core consensus sequence YPX{sub n}L (where X{sub n} can vary in sequence and length). However, some simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag proteins lack this consensus sequence, yet still bind ALIX. We mapped divergent, ALIX-binding late domains within the p6{sup Gag} proteins of SIV{sub MAC239} ({sub 40}SREK{und P}YKE{und VT}ED{und L}LHLNSLF{sub 59}) and SIV{sub agmTan-1} ({sub 24}AAG{und A}YDP{und AR}KL{und L}EQYAKK{sub 41}). Crystal structures revealed that anchoring tyrosines (in lightface) and nearby hydrophobic residues (underlined) contact the ALIX V domain, revealing how lentiviruses employ a diverse family of late-domain sequences to bind ALIX and promote virus budding.

  6. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant rhesus macaques as a model to test antiretroviral drug prophylaxis and therapy: oral 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine prevents SIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, K K; Marthas, M L; Ramos, R A; Mandell, C P; McGowan, E K; Joye, S M; Pedersen, N C

    1992-01-01

    The prophylactic and therapeutic properties of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection were tested in four 3-month-old rhesus macaques. The infant monkeys were inoculated intravenously with a low dose (1 to 10 100% animal infectious doses) of uncloned SIVmac. The monkeys were treated orally with 50 mg of AZT per kg of body weight every 8 h; two animals were started on treatment 2 h prior to virus inoculation, and two animals were started on treatment 6 weeks later. All four animals were treated for a period of 6 to 10 weeks. Outward signs of AZT toxicity were absent, but a mild macrocytic anemia occurred soon after therapy was started and resolved shortly after it was discontinued. The two infants that were begun on AZT treatment 2 h prior to virus inoculation never became infected, as demonstrated by the inability to detect cell-free or cell-associated virus in the blood, proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or anti-SIV antibodies. AZT administration over a 10-week period had no detectable effect on the course of disease in the two animals that were begun on treatment after the infection had been established. In addition to demonstrating the prophylactic effect of AZT against low-dose SIV exposure, the study demonstrated the ease with which infant rhesus macaques can be used for antiretroviral drug testing. Images PMID:1489181

  7. Effect of a tsA mutation of simian virus 40 late gene expression: variations between host cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Alwine, J C; Khoury, G

    1980-01-01

    Infection of AGMK or CV-1 cells by the early simian virus 40 mutant tsA58 at the permissive temperature (32 degrees C) followed by a shift to the nonpermissive temperature (41 degrees C) caused a substantial decrease in the levels of late viral RNA in the cytoplasm of AGMK cells but not CV-1 cells. At the translational level, this depression of late viral RNA levels was reflected by a decrease in late viral protein synthesis. Thus, in AGMK cells, an early region gene product (presumably large T-antigen) appeared to be continuously required for efficient expression of the late viral genes. In contrast, late simian virus 40 gene expression, once it is initiated in CV-1 cells, continued efficiently regardless of the tsA mutation. The difference in expression of the late simian virus 40 genes in these tsA mutant-infected monkey kidney cell lines may reflect a difference in host cell proteins which regulate viral gene expression in conjunction with early viral proteins. Images PMID:6251258

  8. Human influenza virus hemagglutinin is expressed in monkey cells using simian virus 40 vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, J R; Nayak, D P; Fareed, G C

    1982-01-01

    We have cloned and expressed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a human influenza virus (A/WSN/33) in monkey kidney cells by linking it to deleted simian virus 40 (SV40) genomes that contain the entire early gene region, the origin of replication, and late leader sequences. The HA gene (1775 base pairs long) was originally inserted by the dG . dC tailing technique into the multicopy plasmid of Escherichia coli, pBR322, using cDNA made from viral RNA. The cloned gene was further modified by treatment with nuclease Bal 31 to remove the dG . dC tails and some of the untranslated sequences and recloned in E. coli after addition of BamHI restriction endonuclease linkers. A number of SV40 and HA recombinants (SV--HA) were constructed by inserting recloned HA DNA into the late gene region of SV40. The SV--HA recombinants, when complemented in a lytic infection of monkey cells by the helper function of SV40 early deletion mutants expressed influenza HA as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation of in vivo-labeled proteins using either heterogeneous anti-influenza rabbit antibodies or monoclonal antibodies against HA. Furthermore, the WSN HA expressed by the SV--HA recombinants was also glycosylated and possessed the same molecular weight (approximately 70,000) as the uncleaved HA of WSN virus in monkey cells. Images PMID:6281758

  9. Interactions of the Cytoplasmic Domains of Human and Simian Retroviral Transmembrane Proteins with Components of the Clathrin Adaptor Complexes Modulate Intracellular and Cell Surface Expression of Envelope Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Erdtmann, Lars; Delamarre, Lelia; Bouchaert, Isabelle; Sonigo, Pierre; Dokhelar, Marie Christine; Benarous, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The cytoplasmic domains of the transmembrane (TM) envelope proteins (TM-CDs) of most retroviruses have a Tyr-based motif, YXXØ, in their membrane-proximal regions. This signal is involved in the trafficking and endocytosis of membrane receptors via clathrin-associated AP-1 and AP-2 adaptor complexes. We have used CD8-TM-CD chimeras to investigate the role of the Tyr-based motif of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and human T-leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) TM-CDs in the cell surface expression of the envelope glycoprotein. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies showed that this motif is a major determinant of the cell surface expression of the CD8-HTLV chimera. The YXXØ motif also plays a key role in subcellular distribution of the envelope of lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV. However, these viruses, which encode TM proteins with a long cytoplasmic domain, have additional determinants distal to the YXXØ motif that participate in regulating cell surface expression. We have also used the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro binding assays to demonstrate that all three retroviral YXXØ motifs interact with the μ1 and μ2 subunits of AP complexes and that the C-terminal regions of HIV-1 and SIV TM proteins interact with the β2 adaptin subunit. The TM-CDs of HTLV-1, HIV-1, and SIV also interact with the whole AP complexes. These results clearly demonstrate that the cell surface expression of retroviral envelope glycoproteins is governed by interactions with adaptor complexes. The YXXØ-based signal is the major determinant of this interaction for the HTLV-1 TM, which contains a short cytoplasmic domain, whereas the lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV have additional determinants distal to this signal that are also involved. PMID:9882340

  10. Some human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu proteins are able to antagonize macaque BST-2 in vitro and in vivo: Vpu-negative simian-human immunodeficiency viruses are attenuated in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shingai, Masashi; Yoshida, Takeshi; Martin, Malcolm A; Strebel, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu enhances the release of viral particles from infected cells by targeting BST-2/tetherin, a cellular protein inhibiting virus release. The widely used HIV-1(NL4-3) Vpu functionally inactivates human BST-2 but not murine or monkey BST-2, leading to the notion that Vpu antagonism is species specific. Here we investigated the properties of the CXCR4-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus DH12 (SHIV(DH12)) and the CCR5-tropic SHIV(AD8), each of which carries vpu genes derived from different primary HIV-1 isolates. We found that virion release from infected rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells was enhanced to various degrees by the Vpu present in both SHIVs. Transfer of the SHIV(DH12) Vpu transmembrane domain to the HIV-1(NL4-3) Vpu conferred antagonizing activity against macaque BST-2. Inactivation of the SHIV(DH12) and SHIV(AD8) vpu genes impaired virus replication in 6 of 8 inoculated rhesus macaques, resulting in lower plasma viral RNA loads, slower losses of CD4(+) T cells, and delayed disease progression. The expanded host range of the SHIV(DH12) Vpu was not due to adaptation during passage in macaques but was an intrinsic property of the parental HIV-1(DH12) Vpu protein. These results demonstrate that the species-specific inhibition of BST-2 by HIV-1(NL4-3) Vpu is not characteristic of all HIV-1 Vpu proteins; some HIV-1 isolates encode a Vpu with a broader host range.

  11. Resistance to Infection, Early and Persistent Suppression of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Viremia, and Significant Reduction of Tissue Viral Burden after Mucosal Vaccination in Female Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Mariana; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Cobo-Molinos, Antonio; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Wilson, Robert L.; Martinez-Viedma, Maria del Pilar; Montefiori, David C.; Carville, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of oral, intestinal, nasal, and vaginal vaccinations with DNA simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/interleukin-2 (IL-2)/IL-15, SIV Gag/Pol/Env recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA), and AT-2 SIVmac239 inactivated particles was compared in rhesus macaques after low-dose vaginal challenge with SIVmac251. Intestinal immunization provided better protection from infection, as a significantly greater median number of challenges was necessary in this group than in the others. Oral and nasal vaccinations provided the most significant control of disease progression. Fifty percent of the orally and nasally vaccinated animals suppressed viremia to undetectable levels, while this occurred to a significantly lower degree in intestinally and vaginally vaccinated animals and in controls. Viremia remained undetectable after CD8+ T-cell depletion in seven vaccinated animals that had suppressed viremia after infection, and tissue analysis for SIV DNA and RNA was negative, a result consistent with a significant reduction of viral activity. Regardless of the route of vaccination, mucosal vaccinations prevented loss of CD4+ central memory and CD4+/α4β7+ T-cell populations and reduced immune activation to different degrees. None of the orally vaccinated animals and only one of the nasally vaccinated animals developed AIDS after 72 to 84 weeks of infection, when the trial was closed. The levels of anti-SIV gamma interferon-positive, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells at the time of first challenge inversely correlated with viremia and directly correlated with protection from infection and longer survival. PMID:24155376

  12. The nonnucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor MIV-160 delivered from an intravaginal ring, but not from a carrageenan gel, protects against simian/human immunodeficiency virus-RT Infection.

    PubMed

    Aravantinou, Meropi; Singer, Rachel; Derby, Nina; Calenda, Giulia; Mawson, Paul; Abraham, Ciby J; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Villegas, Guillermo; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Piatak, Michael; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia; Robbiani, Melissa

    2012-11-01

    We previously showed that a carrageenan (CG) gel containing 50 μM MIV-150 (MIV-150/CG) reduced vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-RT infection of macaques (56%, p>0.05) when administered daily for 2 weeks with the last dose given 8 h before challenge. Additionally, when 100 mg of MIV-150 was loaded into an intravaginal ring (IVR) inserted 24 h before challenge and removed 2 weeks after challenge, >80% protection was observed (p<0.03). MIV-160 is a related NNRTI with a similar IC(50), greater aqueous solubility, and a shorter synthesis. To objectively compare MIV-160 with MIV-150, herein we evaluated the antiviral effects of unformulated MIV-160 in vitro as well as the in vivo protection afforded by MIV-160 delivered in CG (MIV-160/CG gel) and in an IVR under regimens used with MIV-150 in earlier studies. Like MIV-150, MIV-160 exhibited potent antiviral activity against SHIV-RT in macaque vaginal explants. However, formulated MIV-160 exhibited divergent effects in vivo. The MIV-160/CG gel offered no protection compared to CG alone, whereas the MIV-160 IVRs protected significantly. Importantly, the results of in vitro release studies of the MIV-160/CG gel and the MIV-160 IVR suggested that in vivo efficacy paralleled the amount of MIV-160 released in vitro. Hundreds of micrograms of MIV-160 were released daily from IVRs while undetectable amounts of MIV-160 were released from the CG gel. Our findings highlight the importance of testing different modalities of microbicide delivery to identify the optimal formulation for efficacy in vivo.

  13. Immunogenicity of a vaccine regimen composed of simian immunodeficiency virus DNA, rMVA, and viral particles administered to female rhesus macaques via four different mucosal routes.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Mariana; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Cobo-Molinos, Antonio; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Wilson, Robert L; Montefiori, David C; Carville, Angela; Aldovini, Anna

    2013-04-01

    A comparative evaluation of the immunity stimulated with a vaccine regimen that includes simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and IL-15 DNAs, recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA), and inactivated SIVmac239 particles administered into the oral and nasal cavities, small intestine, and vagina was carried out in female rhesus macaques to determine the best route to induce diverse anti-SIV immunity that may be critical to protection from SIV infection and disease. All four immunizations generated mucosal SIV-specific IgA. Oral immunization was as effective as vaginal immunization in inducing SIV-specific IgA in vaginal secretions and generated greater IgA responses in rectal secretions and saliva samples compared to the other immunization routes. All four immunizations stimulated systemic T-cell responses against Gag and Env, albeit to a different extent, with oral immunization providing greater magnitude and nasal immunization providing wider functional heterogeneity. SIV-specific T cells producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) dominated these responses. Limited levels of SIV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in plasma samples, and no SIV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in secretions. Vaccination also induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses in the rectal and vaginal mucosa with greater functional heterogeneity than in blood samples. Rectal T-cell responses were significantly greater in the orally vaccinated animals than in the other animals. The most balanced, diverse, and higher-magnitude vaginal T-cell responses were observed after intestinal vaccination. Significantly higher CD8(+) granzyme B-positive T-cell responses were observed systemically after intestinal vaccination and in rectal cells after oral immunization. The majority of SIV-specific T cells that produced granzyme B did not produce cytokines. Of the immunization routes tested, oral vaccination provided the most diverse and significant response to the vaccine.

  14. An adenovirus-simian immunodeficiency virus env vaccine elicits humoral, cellular, and mucosal immune responses in rhesus macaques and decreases viral burden following vaginal challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Buge, S L; Richardson, E; Alipanah, S; Markham, P; Cheng, S; Kalyan, N; Miller, C J; Lubeck, M; Udem, S; Eldridge, J; Robert-Guroff, M

    1997-01-01

    Six female rhesus macaques were immunized orally and intranasally at 0 weeks and intratracheally at 12 weeks with an adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm env recombinant and at 24 and 36 weeks with native SIVmac251 gp120 in Syntex adjuvant. Four macaques received the Ad5hr vector and adjuvant alone; two additional controls were naive. In vivo replication of the Ad5hr wild-type and recombinant vectors occurred with detection of Ad5 DNA in stool samples and/or nasal secretions in all macaques and increases in Ad5 neutralizing antibody in 9 of 10 macaques following Ad administrations. SIV-specific neutralizing antibodies appeared after the second recombinant immunization and rose to titers > 10,000 following the second subunit boost. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies able to bind gp120 developed in nasal and rectal secretions, and SIV-specific IgGs were also observed in vaginal secretions and saliva. T-cell proliferative responses to SIV gp140 and T-helper epitopes were sporadically detected in all immunized macaques. Following vaginal challenge with SIVmac251, transient or persistent infection resulted in both immunized and control monkeys. The mean viral burden in persistently infected immunized macaques was significantly decreased in the primary infection period compared to that of control macaques. These results establish in vivo use of the Ad5hr vector, which overcomes the host range restriction of human Ads for rhesus macaques, thereby providing a new model for evaluation of Ad-based vaccines. In addition, they show that a vaccine regimen using the Ad5hr-SIV env recombinant and gp120 subunit induces strong humoral, cellular, and mucosal immunity in rhesus macaques. The reduced viral burden achieved solely with an env-based vaccine supports further development of Ad-based vaccines comprising additional viral components for immune therapy and AIDS vaccine development. PMID:9343211

  15. Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVagm.sab infection of Caribbean African green monkeys: a new model for the study of SIV pathogenesis in natural hosts.

    PubMed

    Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian; Dufour, Jason; Dillon, Nora; Barbercheck, Joseph; Metzger, Michael; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Bohm, Rudolf; Marx, Preston A; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2006-05-01

    Caribbean-born African green monkeys (AGMs) were classified as Chlorocebus sabaeus by cytochrome b sequencing. Guided by these phylogenetic analyses, we developed a new model for the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in natural hosts by inoculating Caribbean AGMs with their species-specific SIVagm.sab. SIVagm.sab replicated efficiently in Caribbean AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. During SIVagm.sab primary infection of six Caribbean AGMs, the virus replicated at high levels, with peak viral loads (VLs) of 10(7) to 10(8) copies/ml occurring by day 8 to 10 postinfection (p.i.). Set-point values of up to 2 x 10(5) copies/ml were reached by day 42 p.i. and maintained throughout follow-up (through day 450 p.i.). CD4(+) T-cell counts in the blood showed a transient depletion at the peak of VL, and then returned to near preinfection values by day 28 p.i. and remained relatively stable during the chronic infection. Preservation of CD4 T cells was also found in lymph nodes (LNs) of chronic SIVagm.sab-infected Caribbean AGMs. No activation of CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery in SIV-infected Caribbean AGMs. These virological and immunological profiles from peripheral blood and LNs were identical to those previously reported in African-born AGMs infected with the same viral strain (SIVagm.sab92018). Due to these similarities, we conclude that Caribbean AGMs are a useful alternative to AGMs of African origin as a model for the study of SIV infection in natural African hosts.

  16. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm.sab Infection of Caribbean African Green Monkeys: a New Model for the Study of SIV Pathogenesis in Natural Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian; Dufour, Jason; Dillon, Nora; Barbercheck, Joseph; Metzger, Michael; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Bohm, Rudolf; Marx, Preston A.; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Caribbean-born African green monkeys (AGMs) were classified as Chlorocebus sabaeus by cytochrome b sequencing. Guided by these phylogenetic analyses, we developed a new model for the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in natural hosts by inoculating Caribbean AGMs with their species-specific SIVagm.sab. SIVagm.sab replicated efficiently in Caribbean AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. During SIVagm.sab primary infection of six Caribbean AGMs, the virus replicated at high levels, with peak viral loads (VLs) of 107 to 108 copies/ml occurring by day 8 to 10 postinfection (p.i.). Set-point values of up to 2 × 105 copies/ml were reached by day 42 p.i. and maintained throughout follow-up (through day 450 p.i.). CD4+ T-cell counts in the blood showed a transient depletion at the peak of VL, and then returned to near preinfection values by day 28 p.i. and remained relatively stable during the chronic infection. Preservation of CD4 T cells was also found in lymph nodes (LNs) of chronic SIVagm.sab-infected Caribbean AGMs. No activation of CD4+ T cells was detected in the periphery in SIV-infected Caribbean AGMs. These virological and immunological profiles from peripheral blood and LNs were identical to those previously reported in African-born AGMs infected with the same viral strain (SIVagm.sab92018). Due to these similarities, we conclude that Caribbean AGMs are a useful alternative to AGMs of African origin as a model for the study of SIV infection in natural African hosts. PMID:16641277

  17. Phyloepidemiological Analysis Reveals that Viral Divergence Led to the Paucity of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmus/gsn/mon Infections in Wild Populations

    PubMed Central

    Liegeois, Florian; Greenwood, Edward J. D.; LeBreton, Matthew; Lester, James; Deleplancque, Luc; Peeters, Martine; Aghokeng, Avelin; Tamoufe, Ubald; Diffo, Joseph L. D.; Takuo, Jean M.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Leroy, Eric; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the result of cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (SIVcpz). SIVcpz is a chimeric virus which shares common ancestors with viruses infecting red-capped mangabeys and a subset of guenon species. The epidemiology of SIV infection in hominoids is characterized by low prevalences and an uneven geographic distribution. Surveys in Cameroon indicated that two closely related members of the guenon species subset, mustached guenons and greater spot-nosed guenons, infected with SIVmus and SIVgsn, respectively, also have low rates of SIV infections in their populations. Compared to that for other monkeys, including red-capped mangabeys and closely related guenon species, such an epidemiology is unusual. By intensifying sampling of geographically distinct populations of mustached and greater spot-nosed guenons in Gabon and including large sample sets of mona guenons from Cameroon, we add strong support to the hypothesis that the paucity of SIV infections in wild populations is a general feature of this monophyletic group of viruses. Furthermore, comparative phylogenetic analysis reveals that this phenotype is a feature of this group of viruses infecting phylogenetically disparate hosts, suggesting that this epidemiological phenotype results from infection with these HIV-1-related viruses rather than from a common host factor. Thus, these HIV-1-related viruses, i.e., SIVcpz and the guenon viruses which share an ancestor with part of the SIVcpz genome, have an epidemiology distinct from that found for SIVs in other African primate species. IMPORTANCE Stable virus-host relationships are established over multiple generations. The prevalence of viral infections in any given host is determined by various factors. Stable virus-host relationships of viruses that are able to cause persistent infections and exist with high incidences of infection are generally characterized by a lack of

  18. Multiple sites in the N-terminal half of simian immunodeficiency virus capsid protein contribute to evasion from rhesus monkey TRIM5α-mediated restriction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously reported that cynomolgus monkey (CM) TRIM5α could restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) strains carrying a proline at the 120th position of the capsid protein (CA), but it failed to restrict those with a glutamine or an alanine. In contrast, rhesus monkey (Rh) TRIM5α could restrict all HIV-2 strains tested but not simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac), despite its genetic similarity to HIV-2. Results We attempted to identify the viral determinant of SIVmac evasion from Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction using chimeric viruses formed between SIVmac239 and HIV-2 GH123 strains. Consistent with a previous study, chimeric viruses carrying the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5) (from the 82nd to 99th amino acid residues) of HIV-2 CA were efficiently restricted by Rh TRIM5α. However, the corresponding loop of SIVmac239 CA alone (from the 81st to 97th amino acid residues) was not sufficient to evade Rh TRIM5α restriction in the HIV-2 background. A single glutamine-to-proline substitution at the 118th amino acid of SIVmac239 CA, corresponding to the 120th amino acid of HIV-2 GH123, also increased susceptibility to Rh TRIM5α, indicating that glutamine at the 118th of SIVmac239 CA is necessary to evade Rh TRIM5α. In addition, the N-terminal portion (from the 5th to 12th amino acid residues) and the 107th and 109th amino acid residues in α-helix 6 of SIVmac CA are necessary for complete evasion from Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. A three-dimensional model of hexameric GH123 CA showed that these multiple regions are located on the CA surface, suggesting their direct interaction with TRIM5α. Conclusion We found that multiple regions of the SIVmac CA are necessary for complete evasion from Rh TRIM5α restriction. PMID:20825647

  19. Phyloepidemiological Analysis Reveals that Viral Divergence Led to the Paucity of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmus/gsn/mon Infections in Wild Populations.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Fabian; Liegeois, Florian; Greenwood, Edward J D; LeBreton, Matthew; Lester, James; Deleplancque, Luc; Peeters, Martine; Aghokeng, Avelin; Tamoufe, Ubald; Diffo, Joseph L D; Takuo, Jean M; Wolfe, Nathan D; Leroy, Eric; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2017-03-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the result of cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (SIVcpz). SIVcpz is a chimeric virus which shares common ancestors with viruses infecting red-capped mangabeys and a subset of guenon species. The epidemiology of SIV infection in hominoids is characterized by low prevalences and an uneven geographic distribution. Surveys in Cameroon indicated that two closely related members of the guenon species subset, mustached guenons and greater spot-nosed guenons, infected with SIVmus and SIVgsn, respectively, also have low rates of SIV infections in their populations. Compared to that for other monkeys, including red-capped mangabeys and closely related guenon species, such an epidemiology is unusual. By intensifying sampling of geographically distinct populations of mustached and greater spot-nosed guenons in Gabon and including large sample sets of mona guenons from Cameroon, we add strong support to the hypothesis that the paucity of SIV infections in wild populations is a general feature of this monophyletic group of viruses. Furthermore, comparative phylogenetic analysis reveals that this phenotype is a feature of this group of viruses infecting phylogenetically disparate hosts, suggesting that this epidemiological phenotype results from infection with these HIV-1-related viruses rather than from a common host factor. Thus, these HIV-1-related viruses, i.e., SIVcpz and the guenon viruses which share an ancestor with part of the SIVcpz genome, have an epidemiology distinct from that found for SIVs in other African primate species.IMPORTANCE Stable virus-host relationships are established over multiple generations. The prevalence of viral infections in any given host is determined by various factors. Stable virus-host relationships of viruses that are able to cause persistent infections and exist with high incidences of infection are generally characterized by a lack of morbidity prior

  20. Noninvasive Detection of New Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Lineages in Captive Sooty Mangabeys: Ability To Amplify Virion RNA from Fecal Samples Correlates with Viral Load in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Binhua; Santiago, Mario L.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Gormus, Bobby; McClure, Harold M.; Apetrei, Cristian; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Marx, Preston A.

    2003-01-01

    The sooty mangabey (SM) (Cercocebus atys) is the natural host of a simian immunodeficiency virus, termed SIVsm, which gave rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Data on the geographic distribution, prevalence, and genetic diversity of SIVsm in the wild remains limited. To address this issue, noninvasive strategies based on screening SM fecal and urine specimens for SIVsm-specific antibodies and virion RNA (vRNA) were developed, and the results were correlated with viral loads in plasma. Twenty-three SIVsm-infected and 27 uninfected SMs were evaluated. Time-matched urine, fecal and plasma samples were collected over a 2-month period from 16 captive naturally infected SMs. The remaining 7 infected and 27 uninfected SMs were sampled once. Each specimen was subjected to enhanced chemiluminescence-Western blot analysis and nested reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR. The results showed that urine was highly sensitive (96%) and specific (100%) for detection of SIVsm antibodies, while fecal detection was much less sensitive (16%). Conversely, vRNA detection was more sensitive in feces (50%) than in urine (2%) samples. Fecal-vRNA detection correlated with viral loads in plasma (P < 0.002). SMs with detectable fecal vRNA had a mean viral load in plasma of 458,006 copies/ml, while those with undetectable fecal vRNA had a mean viral load in plasma of 29,428 copies/ml. Moreover, for every log increase in the viral load in plasma, the odds of detecting virus in fecal samples increased 87-fold. Genetic diversity of SIVsm in the SM colony was characterized by sequencing partial gag (846 bp) and gp43 (439 bp) fragments. Surprisingly, four new SIVsm lineages were identified, two of which were initially detected by fecal RT-PCR. This study documents the suitability of noninvasive methods for the detection and molecular characterization of new SIV variants. These assays will be useful for studying the phylogeny and epidemiology of SIVsm infections in the wild, and they hold promise

  1. Simian crease

    MedlinePlus

    ... negative meaning (the word "simian" refers to a monkey or ape). The crease is usually just referred ... Single palmar crease; Transverse palmar crease; Palmar crease Images Single palmar crease References Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM. ...

  2. CXCR6-Mediated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagmSab Entry into Sabaeus African Green Monkey Lymphocytes Implicates Widespread Use of Non-CCR5 Pathways in Natural Host Infections.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Katherine S; Yi, Yanjie; Elliott, Sarah T C; Romero, Dino; Jacquelin, Beatrice; Hahn, Beatrice H; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona; Collman, Ronald G

    2017-02-15

    African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that do not progress to AIDS when infected with their species-specific viruses. Natural hosts of SIV express very low levels of the canonical entry coreceptor CCR5, and recent studies have shown that CCR5 is dispensable for SIV infection of SM in vivo and that blocking of CCR5 does not prevent ex vivo infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from SM or vervet AGM. In both hosts, CXCR6 is an efficient entry pathway in vitro Here we investigated the use of species-matched CXCR6 and other alternative coreceptors by SIVagmSab, which infects sabaeus AGM. We cloned sabaeus CD4 and 10 candidate coreceptors. Species-matched CXCR6, CCR5, and GPR15 mediated robust entry into transfected cells by pseudotypes carrying SIVagmSab92018ivTF Env, with lower-level entry through GPR1 and APJ. We cloned genetically divergent env genes from the plasma of two wild-infected sabaeus AGM and found similar patterns of coreceptor use. Titration experiments showed that CXCR6 and CCR5 were more efficient than other coreceptors when tested at limiting CD4/coreceptor levels. Finally, blocking of CXCR6 with its ligand CXCL16 significantly inhibited SIVagmSab replication in sabaeus PBMC and had a greater impact than did the CCR5 blocker maraviroc, confirming the use of CXCR6 in primary lymphocyte infection. These data suggest a new paradigm for SIV infection of natural host species, whereby a shared outcome of virus-host coevolution is the use of CXCR6 or other alternative coreceptors for entry, which may direct SIV toward CD4(+) T cell subsets and anatomical sites that support viral replication without disrupting immune homeostasis and function.

  3. Sequential priming with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccines, with or without encoded cytokines, and a replicating adenovirus-SIV recombinant followed by protein boosting does not control a pathogenic SIVmac251 mucosal challenge.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Thorsten; Boyer, Jean D; Malkevich, Nina; Patterson, L Jean; Venzon, David; Summers, Ebonita L; Kalisz, Irene; Kalyanaraman, V S; Lee, Eun Mi; Weiner, David B; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2008-11-01

    Previously, combination DNA/nonreplicating adenovirus (Ad)- or poxvirus-vectored vaccines have strongly protected against SHIV(89.6P), DNAs expressing cytokines have modulated immunity elicited by DNA vaccines, and replication-competent Ad-recombinant priming and protein boosting has strongly protected against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge. Here we evaluated a vaccine strategy composed of these promising components. Seven rhesus macaques per group were primed twice with multigenic SIV plasmid DNA with or without interleukin-12 (IL-12) DNA or IL-15 DNA. After a multigenic replicating Ad-SIV immunization, all groups received two booster immunizations with SIV gp140 and SIV Nef protein. Four control macaques received control DNA plasmids, empty Ad vector, and adjuvant. All vaccine components were immunogenic, but the cytokine DNAs had little effect. Macaques that received IL-15-DNA exhibited higher peak anti-Nef titers, a more rapid anti-Nef anamnestic response postchallenge, and expanded CD8(CM) T cells 2 weeks postchallenge compared to the DNA-only group. Other immune responses were indistinguishable between groups. Overall, no protection against intrarectal challenge with SIV(mac251) was observed, although immunized non-Mamu-A*01 macaques as a group exhibited a statistically significant 1-log decline in acute viremia compared to non-Mamu-A*01 controls. Possible factors contributing to the poor outcome include administration of cytokine DNAs to sites different from the Ad recombinants (intramuscular and intratracheal, respectively), too few DNA priming immunizations, a suboptimal DNA delivery method, failure to ensure delivery of SIV and cytokine plasmids to the same cell, and instability and short half-life of the IL-15 component. Future experiments should address these issues to determine if this combination approach is able to control a virulent SIV challenge.

  4. Live, attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines elicit potent resistance against a challenge with a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 chimeric virus.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, R; Siemon, C; Czajak, S C; Desrosiers, R C; Martin, M A

    1997-01-01

    Three rhesus macaques, previously immunized with SIVdelta3 or SIVdelta2, each an attenuated derivative of SIVmac239, and two naive monkeys were challenged with 30,000 50% tissue culture infective doses of SHIV, an SIV/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) chimeric virus bearing the dual-tropic envelope of HIV-1DH12. By several criteria, including virus isolation, serological assays, and PCR (both DNA and reverse transcriptase), SHIV levels were reduced to barely detectable levels in the circulating blood of vaccinated animals. The resistant SIV-vaccinated macaques had no preexisting neutralizing antibodies directed against SHIV, nor did they produce neutralizing antibodies at any time over a 14-month observation period following SHIV challenge. Interestingly, SIV sequences, derived from the vaccine, could be amplified from numerous tissue samples collected at the conclusion of the experiment, 60 weeks postchallenge, but SHIV-specific sequences (viz., HIV-1 env) could not. These results demonstrate that live attenuated SIV vaccines provide strong long-term protection even against challenge strains with highly divergent envelope sequences. PMID:9343164

  5. A rat model of human immunodeficiency virus 1 encephalopathy using envelope glycoprotein gp120 expression delivered by SV40 vectors.

    PubMed

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Agrawal, Lokesh; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2009-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) encephalopathy is thought to result in part from the toxicity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 for neurons. Experimental systems for studying the effects of gp120 and other HIV proteins on the brain have been limited to the acute effects of recombinant proteins in vitro or in vivo in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. We describe an experimental rodent model of ongoing gp120-induced neurotoxicity in which HIV-1 envelope is expressed in the brain using an SV40-derived gene delivery vector, SV(gp120). When it is inoculated stereotaxically into the rat caudate putamen, SV(gp120) caused a partly hemorrhagic lesion in which neuron and other cell apoptosis continues for at least 12 weeks. Human immunodeficiency virus gp120 is expressed throughout this time, and some apoptotic cells are gp120 positive. Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal assays indicated that there was lipid peroxidation in these lesions. Prior administration of recombinant SV40 vectors carrying antioxidant enzymes, copper/ zinc superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase, was protective against SV(gp120)-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis. Thus, in vivo inoculation of SV(gp120) into the rat caudate putamen causes ongoing oxidative stress and apoptosis in neurons and may therefore represent a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of HIV-1 envelope-related brain damage.

  6. Viral determinants of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virulence in rhesus macaques assessed by using attenuated and pathogenic molecular clones of SIVmac.

    PubMed Central

    Marthas, M L; Ramos, R A; Lohman, B L; Van Rompay, K K; Unger, R E; Miller, C J; Banapour, B; Pedersen, N C; Luciw, P A

    1993-01-01

    To identify viral determinants of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virulence, two pairs of reciprocal recombinants constructed from a pathogenic (SIVmac239) and a nonpathogenic (SIVmac1A11) molecular clone of SIV were tested in rhesus macaques. A large 6.2-kb fragment containing gag, pol, env, and the regulatory genes from each of the cloned (parental) viruses was exchanged to produce one pair of recombinant viruses (designated SIVmac1A11/239gag-env/1A11 and SIVmac239/1A11gag-env/239 to indicate the genetic origins of the 5'/internal/3' regions, respectively, of the virus). A smaller 1.4-kb fragment containing the external env domain of each of the parental viruses was exchanged to create the second pair (SIVmac1A11/239env/1A11 and SIVmac239/1A11env/239) of recombinant viruses. Each of the two parental and four recombinant viruses was inoculated intravenously into four rhesus macaques, and all 24 animals were viremic by 4 weeks postinoculation (p.i.). Virus could not be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of any animals infected with SIVmac1A11 after 6 weeks p.i. but was consistently isolated from all macaques inoculated with SIVmac239 for 92 weeks p.i. Virus isolation was variable from animals infected with recombinant viruses; SIVmac1A11/239gag-env/1A11 and SIVmac239/1A11env/239 were isolated most frequently. Animals inoculated with SIVmac239 had 10 to 100 times more virus-infected PBMC than those infected with recombinant viruses. Three animals infected with SIVmac239 died with simian AIDS (SAIDS) during the 2-year observation period after inoculation, and the fourth SIVmac239-infected animal had clinical signs of SAIDS. Two animals infected with recombinant viruses died with SAIDS; one was infected with SIVmac239/1A11gag-env/239, and the other was infected with SIVmac1A11/239gag-env/1A11. The remaining 18 macaques remained healthy by 2 years p.i., and 13 were aviremic. One year after inoculation, peripheral lymph nodes of some of these

  7. Virus-Like Particles Displaying Trimeric Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Envelope gp160 Enhance the Breadth of DNA/Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara SIV Vaccine-Induced Antibody Responses in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Smita S.; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Victor, Blandine; Shen, Xiaoying; Chen, Xuemin; Nabi, Rafiq; Kasturi, Sudhir P.; Sabula, Michael J.; Labranche, Celia C.; Reddy, Pradeep B. J.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Montefiori, David C.; Spearman, Paul; Pulendran, Bali; Kozlowski, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The encouraging results of the RV144 vaccine trial have spurred interest in poxvirus prime-protein boost human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine modalities as a strategy to induce protective immunity. Because vaccine-induced protective immunity is critically determined by HIV envelope (Env) conformation, significant efforts are directed toward generating soluble trimeric Env immunogens that assume native structures. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model, we tested the immunogenicity and efficacy of sequential immunizations with DNA (D), modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) (M), and protein immunogens, all expressing virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying membrane-anchored trimeric Env. A single VLP protein boost displaying trimeric gp160 adjuvanted with nanoparticle-encapsulated Toll-like receptor 4/7/8 (TLR4/7/8) agonists, administered 44 weeks after the second MVA immunization, induced up to a 3-fold increase in Env-specific IgG binding titers in serum and mucosa. Importantly, the VLP protein boost increased binding antibody against scaffolded V1V2, antibody-dependent phagocytic activity against VLP-coated beads, and antibody breadth and neutralizing antibody titers against homologous and heterologous tier 1 SIVs. Following 5 weekly intrarectal SIVmac251 challenges, two of seven DNA/MVA and VLP (DM+VLP)-vaccinated animals were completely protected compared to productive infection in all seven DM-vaccinated animals. Vaccinated animals demonstrated stronger acute viral pulldown than controls, but a trend for higher acute viremia was observed in the DM+VLP group, likely due to a slower recall of Gag-specific CD8 T cells. Our findings support immunization with VLPs containing trimeric Env as a strategy to augment protective antibody but underscore the need for optimal engagement of CD8 T cells to achieve robust early viral control. IMPORTANCE The development of an effective HIV vaccine remains a global necessity for preventing HIV

  8. Direct modulation of simian virus 40 late gene expression by thyroid hormone and its receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, F; Kraus, R J; Gulick, T; Moore, D D; Mertz, J E

    1997-01-01

    Transcription of the late genes of simian virus 40 (SV40) is repressed during the early phase of the lytic cycle of infection of primate cells by the binding of cellular factors, called IBP-s, to the SV40 late promoter; repression is relieved after the onset of viral DNA replication by titration of these repressors (S. R. Wiley, R. J. Kraus, F. R. Zuo, E. E. Murray, K. Loritz, and J. E. Mertz, Genes Dev. 7:2206-2219, 1993). Recently, we showed that IBP-s consists of several members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily (F. Zuo and J. E. Mertz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:8586-8590, 1995). Here, we show that the thyroid hormone receptor TRalpha1, in combination with retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), is specifically bound at the transcriptional initiation site of the major late promoter of SV40. This binding repressed transcription from the SV40 late promoter by preventing the formation of pre-initiation complexes. Addition of the thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3) resulted in reversal of this repression in cotransfected CV-1 cells. Interestingly, repression did not occur when this thyroid response element (TRE) was translocated to 50 bp upstream of the major late initiation site. Binding of TRalpha1/RXRalpha heterodimers to this TRE induced bending of the promoter DNA. We conclude that hormones and their receptors can directly affect the expression of SV40, probably by affecting protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions involved in the formation of functional preinitiation complexes. PMID:8985367

  9. Feline immunodeficiency virus OrfA alters gene expression of splicing factors and proteasome-ubiquitination proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, Magnus; Chatterji, Udayan; Schaffer, Lana; Rozieres, Sohela de; Elder, John H.

    2008-02-20

    Expression of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) accessory protein OrfA (or Orf2) is critical for efficient viral replication in lymphocytes, both in vitro and in vivo. OrfA has been reported to exhibit functions in common with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) accessory proteins Vpr and Tat, although the function of OrfA has not been fully explained. Here, we use microarray analysis to characterize how OrfA modulates the gene expression profile of T-lymphocytes. The primary IL-2-dependent T-cell line 104-C1 was transduced to express OrfA. Functional expression of OrfA was demonstrated by trans complementation of the OrfA-defective clone, FIV-34TF10. OrfA-expressing cells had a slightly reduced cell proliferation rate but did not exhibit any significant alteration in cell cycle distribution. Reverse-transcribed RNA from cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP + OrfA were hybridized to Affymetrix HU133 Plus 2.0 microarray chips representing more than 47,000 genome-wide transcripts. By using two statistical approaches, 461 (Rank Products) and 277 (ANOVA) genes were identified as modulated by OrfA expression. The functional relevance of the differentially expressed genes was explored by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The analyses revealed alterations in genes critical for RNA post-transcriptional modifications and protein ubiquitination as the two most significant functional outcomes of OrfA expression. In these two groups, several subunits of the spliceosome, cellular splicing factors and family members of the proteasome-ubiquitination system were identified. These findings provide novel information on the versatile function of OrfA during FIV infection and indicate a fine-tuning mechanism of the cellular environment by OrfA to facilitate efficient FIV replication.

  10. A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}) susceptible to rimantadine

    SciTech Connect

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Lisa M.; Pacyniak, Erik; Miller, Jean-Marie; Hill, M. Sarah; Stephens, Edward B. . E-mail: estephen@kumc.edu

    2006-05-10

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the transmembrane domain (TM) of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} in macaques and that the TM domain of Vpu could be replaced with the M2 protein viroporin from influenza A virus. Recently, we showed that the replacement of the TM domain of Vpu with that of the M2 protein of influenza A virus resulted in a virus (SHIV{sub M2}) that was sensitive to rimantadine [Hout, D.R., Gomez, M.L., Pacyniak, E., Gomez, L.M., Inbody, S.H., Mulcahy, E.R., Culley, N., Pinson, D.M., Powers, M.F., Wong, S.W., Stephens, E.B., 2006. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology 344, 541-558]. Based on previous studies of the M2 protein which have shown that the His-X-X-X-Trp motif within the M2 is essential to the function of the M2 proton channel, we have constructed a novel SHIV in which the alanine at position 19 of the TM domain was replaced with a histidine residue resulting in the motif His-Ile-Leu-Val-Trp. The SHIV{sub VpuA19H} replicated with similar kinetics as the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} and pulse-chase analysis revealed that the processing of viral proteins was similar to SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. This SHIV{sub VpuA19H} virus was found to be more sensitive to the M2 ion channel blocker rimantadine than SHIV{sub M2}. Electron microscopic examination of SHIV{sub VpuA19H}-infected cells treated with rimantadine revealed an accumulation of viral particles at the cell surface and within intracellular vesicles, which was similar to that previously observed to SHIV{sub M2}-infected cells treated with rimantadine. These data indicate that the Vpu protein of HIV-1 can be converted into a rimantadine-sensitive ion channel with the

  11. Envelope Glycoprotein Incorporation, Not Shedding of Surface Envelope Glycoprotein (gp120/SU), Is the Primary Determinant of SU Content of Purified Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chertova, Elena; Bess, Jr., Julian W.; Crise, Bruce J.; Sowder II, Raymond C.; Schaden, Terra M.; Hilburn, Joanne M.; Hoxie, James A.; Benveniste, Raoul E.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Henderson, Louis E.; Arthur, Larry O.

    2002-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) particles typically contain small amounts of the surface envelope protein (SU), and this is widely believed to be due to shedding of SU from mature virions. We purified proteins from HIV-1 and SIV isolates using procedures which allow quantitative measurements of viral protein content and determination of the ratios of gag- and env-encoded proteins in virions. All of the HIV-1 and most of the SIV isolates examined contained low levels of envelope proteins, with Gag:Env ratios of approximately 60:1. Based on an estimate of 1,200 to 2,500 Gag molecules per virion, this corresponds to an average of between 21 and 42 SU molecules, or between 7 and 14 trimers, per particle. In contrast, some SIV isolates contained levels of SU at least 10-fold greater than SU from HIV-1 isolates. Quantification of relative amounts of SU and transmembrane envelope protein (TM) provides a means to assess the impact of SU shedding on virion SU content, since such shedding would be expected to result in a molar excess of TM over SU on virions that had shed SU. With one exception, viruses with sufficient SU and TM to allow quantification were found to have approximately equivalent molar amounts of SU and TM. The quantity of SU associated with virions and the SU:TM ratios were not significantly changed during multiple freeze-thaw cycles or purification through sucrose gradients. Exposure of purified HIV-1 and SIV to temperatures of 55°C or greater for 1 h resulted in loss of most of the SU from the virus but retention of TM. Incubation of purified virus with soluble CD4 at 37°C resulted in no appreciable loss of SU from either SIV or HIV-1. These results indicate that the association of SU and TM on the purified virions studied is quite stable. These findings suggest that incorporation of SU-TM complexes into the viral membrane may be the primary factor determining the quantity of SU associated with SIV and

  12. Distribution of simian immunodeficiency virus target cells in vaginal tissues of normal rhesus macaques: implications for virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Bhawna; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S

    2006-12-01

    Most new cases of HIV-1 infection occur as the result of vaginal transmission. Identifying the phenotype and distribution of potential viral target cells in the vagina is important for understanding events in viral transmission and for developing effective prevention strategies. For example, compounds that prevent CD4 or CCR5 binding have been demonstrated recently to prevent vaginal transmission in rhesus macaques, but the expression and distribution of CCR5 has not been examined in the macaque vagina. The objective of this study was to examine the distribution and phenotype of cells and molecules in the vagina of rhesus macaques that may be involved in HIV transmission, including CCR5, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD1a, CD28, CD95, CD123 and HLA-DR. Normal juvenile and adult female rhesus macaques were examined by multicolor immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Although both CD4 and CCR5 were observed in the lamina propria, essentially no CD4 or CCR5 expression was detected within the squamous or keratinized layers of the vaginal epithelium. CCR5 expression was higher in the vaginal lamina propria of mature macaques compared to 1-3-year-old juveniles. The vast majority of CD4(+)CCR5(+) lymphocytes in the vagina had a central memory (CD95(+)CD28(+)) phenotype. Numerous CCR5-expressing dendritic cells (CD123(+)) or macrophages (CD68(+)) were observed in the lamina propria, but no CCR5, CD4 or DC-SIGN expression was detectable in the epithelium. Thus, the multiple layers of squamous epithelium normally covering the vaginal mucosa may provide an effective barrier against vaginal HIV-1 transmission. Microbicides that block CD4 or CCR5 expression may act within the deeper layers of the vaginal epithelium rather than on the epithelial surface.

  13. Antigenic requirement for Gag in a vaccine that protects against high-dose mucosal challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Schell, John B; Bahl, Kapil; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa; Rose, Nina; Buonocore, Linda; Marx, Preston A; Gambhira, Ratish; Rose, John K

    2015-02-01

    We reported previously on a vaccine approach that conferred apparent sterilizing immunity to SIVsmE660. The vaccine regimen employed a prime-boost using vectors based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and an alphavirus replicon expressing either SIV Gag or SIV Env. In the current study, we tested the ability of vectors expressing only the SIVsmE660 Env protein to protect macaques against the same high-dose mucosal challenge. Animals developed neutralizing antibody levels comparable to or greater than seen in the previous vaccine study. When the vaccinated animals were challenged with the same high-dose of SIVsmE660, all became infected. While average peak viral loads in animals were slightly lower than those of previous controls, the viral set points were not significantly different. These data indicate that Gag, or the combination of Gag and Env are required for the generation of apparent sterilizing immunity to the SIVsmE660 challenge.

  14. Linking Pig-Tailed Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Haplotypes and Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Escape Mutations in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Shayarana L.; Alinejad-Rokny, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Diako; Bohn, Patrick S.; Wiseman, Roger W.; O'Connor, David H.; Davenport, Miles P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influence of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) alleles on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity in humans has been well characterized at the population level. MHC-I alleles likely affect viral diversity in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) model, but this is poorly characterized. We studied the evolution of SIV in pig-tailed macaques with a range of MHC-I haplotypes. SIVmac251 genomes were amplified from the plasma of 44 pig-tailed macaques infected with SIVmac251 at 4 to 10 months after infection and characterized by Illumina deep sequencing. MHC-I typing was performed on cellular RNA using Roche/454 pyrosequencing. MHC-I haplotypes and viral sequence polymorphisms at both individual mutations and groups of mutations spanning 10-amino-acid segments were linked using in-house bioinformatics pipelines, since cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape can occur at different amino acids within the same epitope in different animals. The approach successfully identified 6 known CTL escape mutations within 3 Mane-A1*084-restricted epitopes. The approach also identified over 70 new SIV polymorphisms linked to a variety of MHC-I haplotypes. Using functional CD8 T cell assays, we confirmed that one of these associations, a Mane-B028 haplotype-linked mutation in Nef, corresponded to a CTL epitope. We also identified mutations associated with the Mane-B017 haplotype that were previously described to be CTL epitopes restricted by Mamu-B*017:01 in rhesus macaques. This detailed study of pig-tailed macaque MHC-I genetics and SIV polymorphisms will enable a refined level of analysis for future vaccine design and strategies for treatment of HIV infection. IMPORTANCE Cytotoxic T lymphocytes select for virus escape mutants of HIV and SIV, and this limits the effectiveness of vaccines and immunotherapies against these viruses. Patterns of immune escape variants are similar in HIV type 1-infected human

  15. Live simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine correlate of protection: immune complex-inhibitory Fc receptor interactions that reduce target cell availability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony J; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Shang, Liang; Reilly, Cavan S; Southern, Peter J; Perkey, Katherine E; Duan, Lijie; Kohler, Heinz; Müller, Sybille; Robinson, James; Carlis, John V; Li, Qingsheng; Johnson, R Paul; Haase, Ashley T

    2014-09-15

    Principles to guide design of an effective vaccine against HIV are greatly needed, particularly to protect women in the pandemic's epicenter in Africa. We have been seeking these principles by identifying correlates of the robust protection associated with SIVmac239Δnef vaccination in the SIV-rhesus macaque animal model of HIV-1 transmission to women. We identified one correlate of SIVmac239Δnef protection against vaginal challenge as a resident mucosal system for SIV-gp41 trimer Ab production and neonatal FcR-mediated concentration of these Abs on the path of virus entry to inhibit establishment of infected founder populations at the portal of entry. In this study, we identify blocking CD4(+) T cell recruitment to thereby inhibit local expansion of infected founder populations as a second correlate of protection. Virus-specific immune complex interactions with the inhibitory FcγRIIb receptor in the epithelium lining the cervix initiate expression of genes that block recruitment of target cells to fuel local expansion. Immune complex-FcγRIIb receptor interactions at mucosal frontlines to dampen the innate immune response to vaginal challenge could be a potentially general mechanism for the mucosal immune system to sense and modulate the response to a previously encountered pathogen. Designing vaccines to provide protection without eliciting these transmission-promoting innate responses could contribute to developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine.

  16. Multiply spliced env and nef transcripts of simian immunodeficiency virus from West African green monkey (SIVagm-sab).

    PubMed

    Bibollet-Ruche, F; Cuny, G; Pourrut, X; Brengues, C; Galat-Luong, A; Galat, G; Delaporte, E

    1998-04-10

    We have characterized the spliced transcripts of nef and envelope genes of SIVagm from African green monkey of the sabaeus subspecies. Most of the transcripts we have studied, representing the most abundant mRNA species in our assay, have undergone a specific splicing event that removes a part of the trans-activation response (TAR) element. This region is predicted to form a stable secondary structure (four stem-loop elements in SIVagm-sab) that affects the trans-activation of viral gene expression by Tat and the translation of the viral transcripts. Contrary to what is observed in other viruses, in which this R-region splicing has also been described (e.g., HIV-2), the LTR splicing in SIVagm-sab removes part of the first stem-loop and the following ones, nearly completely disrupting the TAR element secondary structure. Because LTR splicing seems to be a conserved feature among the strains we have characterized, these results suggest that this phenomenon could have important consequences for virus replication, pathogenicity, and latency.

  17. Full-length genome analyses of two new simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains from mustached monkeys (C. Cephus) in Gabon illustrate a complex evolutionary history among the SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Florian; Schmidt, Fabian; Boué, Vanina; Butel, Christelle; Mouacha, Fatima; Ngari, Paul; Ondo, Bertrand Mve; Leroy, Eric; Heeney, Jonathan L; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Rouet, François

    2014-07-22

    The Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) mus/mon/gsn lineage is a descendant of one of the precursor viruses to the HIV-1/SIVcpz/gor viral lineage. SIVmus and SIVgsn were sequenced from mustached and greater spot nosed monkeys in Cameroon and SIVmon from mona monkeys in Cameroon and Nigeria. In order to further document the genetic diversity of SIVmus, we analyzed two full-length genomes of new strains identified in Gabon. The whole genomes obtained showed the expected reading frames for gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, rev, env, nef, and also for a vpu gene. Analyses showed that the Gabonese SIVmus strains were closely related and formed a monophyletic clade within the SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Nonetheless, within this lineage, the position of both new SIVmus differed according to the gene analyzed. In pol and nef gene, phylogenetic topologies suggested different evolutions for each of the two new SIVmus strains whereas in the other nucleic fragments studied, their positions fluctuated between SIVmon, SIVmus-1, and SIVgsn. In addition, in C1 domain of env, we identified an insertion of seven amino acids characteristic for the SIVmus/mon/gsn and HIV‑1/SIVcpz/SIVgor lineages. Our results show a high genetic diversity of SIVmus in mustached monkeys and suggest cross-species transmission events and recombination within SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Additionally, in Central Africa, hunters continue to be exposed to these simian viruses, and this represents a potential threat to humans.

  18. Full-Length Genome Analyses of Two New Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Strains from Mustached Monkeys (C. Cephus) in Gabon Illustrate a Complex Evolutionary History among the SIVmus/mon/gsn Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Liégeois, Florian; Schmidt, Fabian; Boué, Vanina; Butel, Christelle; Mouacha, Fatima; Ngari, Paul; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Leroy, Eric; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Rouet, François

    2014-01-01

    The Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) mus/mon/gsn lineage is a descendant of one of the precursor viruses to the HIV-1/SIVcpz/gor viral lineage. SIVmus and SIVgsn were sequenced from mustached and greater spot nosed monkeys in Cameroon and SIVmon from mona monkeys in Cameroon and Nigeria. In order to further document the genetic diversity of SIVmus, we analyzed two full-length genomes of new strains identified in Gabon. The whole genomes obtained showed the expected reading frames for gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, rev, env, nef, and also for a vpu gene. Analyses showed that the Gabonese SIVmus strains were closely related and formed a monophyletic clade within the SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Nonetheless, within this lineage, the position of both new SIVmus differed according to the gene analyzed. In pol and nef gene, phylogenetic topologies suggested different evolutions for each of the two new SIVmus strains whereas in the other nucleic fragments studied, their positions fluctuated between SIVmon, SIVmus-1, and SIVgsn. In addition, in C1 domain of env, we identified an insertion of seven amino acids characteristic for the SIVmus/mon/gsn and HIV‑1/SIVcpz/SIVgor lineages. Our results show a high genetic diversity of SIVmus in mustached monkeys and suggest cross-species transmission events and recombination within SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Additionally, in Central Africa, hunters continue to be exposed to these simian viruses, and this represents a potential threat to humans. PMID:25054885

  19. Relationship between expression of epidermal growth factor and simian virus 40 T antigen in a line of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lafond, R E; Giammalvo, J T; Norkin, L C

    1995-09-01

    The pattern of expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen gene and resultant dysplasia were re-examined in a line of transgenic mice in which the T antigen gene was under the control of the SV40 early promoter. We found that T antigen expression in the kidney, and resulting dysplastic lesions, occurred exclusively in the distal convoluted tubules and the ascending limbs of Henle. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in the kidney of normal mice was similarly immunolocalized. The correlation between high EGF immunoreactivity in normal mouse tissues and T antigen expression in the transgenic counterpart was also seen in the choroid plexus epithelium and in the submandibular glands of male mice. T antigen was not found in the submandibular gland of transgenic females. Similarly, EGF was only rarely detected in the normal female submandibular gland. In contrast to the correlation between T antigen expression in the transgenic mice and EGF expression in the corresponding tissues of the normal mice, within the dysplastic lesions of the transgenic mice EGF expression was severely diminished. Adenocarcinomas of the male submandibular gland from another line of transgenic mice that expresses the Int-1 transgene, showed similarly reduced levels of immunostaining for EGF. Thus, reduced expression of EGF might be a general feature of dysplasia and tumorigenesis in those tissues that normally express EGF.

  20. Cyclophilin A is required for the replication of group M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(CPZ)GAB but not group O HIV-1 or other primate immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Braaten, D; Franke, E K; Luban, J

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein binds to cyclophilin A and incorporates this cellular peptidyl prolyl-isomerase into virions. Disruption of cyclophilin A incorporation, either by gag mutations or by cyclosporine A, inhibits virion infectivity, indicating that cyclophilin A plays an essential role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Using assays for packaging of cyclophilin A into virions and for viral replication sensitivity to cyclosporine A, as well as information gleaned from the alignment of Gag residues encoded by representative viral isolates, we demonstrate that of the five lineages of primate immunodeficiency viruses, only HIV-1 requires cyclophilin A for replication. Cloned viral isolates from clades A, B, and D of HIV-1 group M, as well as a phylogenetically related isolate from chimpanzee, all require cyclophilin A for replication. In contrast, the replication of two outlier (group O) HIV-1 isolates is unaffected by concentrations of cyclosporine A which disrupt cyclophilin A incorporation into virions, indicating that these viruses are capable of replicating independently of cyclophilin A. These studies identify the first phenotypic difference between HIV-1 group M and group O and are consistent with phylogenetic studies suggesting that the two HIV-1 groups were introduced into human populations via separate zoonotic transmission events. PMID:8676442

  1. Comparative analysis of the magnitude, quality, phenotype, and protective capacity of simian immunodeficiency virus gag-specific CD8+ T cells following human-, simian-, and chimpanzee-derived recombinant adenoviral vector immunization.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Kylie M; Da Costa, Andreia; Yamamoto, Ayako; Berry, Dana; Lindsay, Ross W B; Darrah, Patricia A; Wang, Lingshu; Cheng, Cheng; Kong, Wing-Pui; Gall, Jason G D; Nicosia, Alfredo; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A; Gomez, Carmen E; Esteban, Mariano; Wyatt, Linda S; Moss, Bernard; Morgan, Cecilia; Roederer, Mario; Bailer, Robert T; Nabel, Gary J; Koup, Richard A; Seder, Robert A

    2013-03-15

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAds) are the most potent recombinant vaccines for eliciting CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity in humans; however, prior exposure from natural adenoviral infection can decrease such responses. In this study we show low seroreactivity in humans against simian- (sAd11, sAd16) or chimpanzee-derived (chAd3, chAd63) compared with human-derived (rAd5, rAd28, rAd35) vectors across multiple geographic regions. We then compared the magnitude, quality, phenotype, and protective capacity of CD8(+) T cell responses in mice vaccinated with rAds encoding SIV Gag. Using a dose range (1 × 10(7)-10(9) particle units), we defined a hierarchy among rAd vectors based on the magnitude and protective capacity of CD8(+) T cell responses, from most to least, as: rAd5 and chAd3, rAd28 and sAd11, chAd63, sAd16, and rAd35. Selection of rAd vector or dose could modulate the proportion and/or frequency of IFN-γ(+)TNF-α(+)IL-2(+) and KLRG1(+)CD127(-)CD8(+) T cells, but strikingly ∼30-80% of memory CD8(+) T cells coexpressed CD127 and KLRG1. To further optimize CD8(+) T cell responses, we assessed rAds as part of prime-boost regimens. Mice primed with rAds and boosted with NYVAC generated Gag-specific responses that approached ∼60% of total CD8(+) T cells at peak. Alternatively, priming with DNA or rAd28 and boosting with rAd5 or chAd3 induced robust and equivalent CD8(+) T cell responses compared with prime or boost alone. Collectively, these data provide the immunologic basis for using specific rAd vectors alone or as part of prime-boost regimens to induce CD8(+) T cells for rapid effector function or robust long-term memory, respectively.

  2. Diverse peptide presentation of rhesus macaque major histocompatibility complex class I Mamu-A 02 revealed by two peptide complex structures and insights into immune escape of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Dai, Lianpan; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, Feng; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Wenjun; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2011-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I)-restricted CD8(+) T-cell responses play a pivotal role in anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunity and the control of viremia. The rhesus macaque is an important animal model for HIV-related research. Among the MHC I alleles of the rhesus macaque, Mamu-A 02 is prevalent, presenting in ≥20% of macaques. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of Mamu-A 02, the second structure-determined MHC I from the rhesus macaque after Mamu-A 01. The peptide presentation characteristics of Mamu-A 02 are exhibited in complex structures with two typical Mamu-A 02-restricted CD8(+) T-cell epitopes, YY9 (Nef159 to -167; YTSGPGIRY) and GY9 (Gag71 to -79; GSENLKSLY), derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). These two peptides utilize similar primary anchor residues (Ser or Thr) at position 2 and Tyr at position 9. However, the central region of YY9 is different from that of GY9, a difference that may correlate with the immunogenic variance of these peptides. Further analysis indicated that the distinct conformations of these two peptides are modulated by four flexible residues in the Mamu-A 02 peptide-binding groove. The rare combination of these four residues in Mamu-A 02 leads to a variant presentation for peptides with different residues in their central regions. Additionally, in the two structures of the Mamu-A 02 complex, we compared the binding of rhesus and human β(2) microglobulin (β(2)m) to Mamu-A 02. We found that the peptide presentation of Mamu-A 02 is not affected by the interspecies interaction with human β(2)m. Our work broadens the understanding of CD8(+) T-cell-specific immunity against SIV in the rhesus macaque.

  3. Diverse Peptide Presentation of Rhesus Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Mamu-A*02 Revealed by Two Peptide Complex Structures and Insights into Immune Escape of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Dai, Lianpan; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, Feng; Feng, Youjun; Liu, Wenjun; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I)-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses play a pivotal role in anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunity and the control of viremia. The rhesus macaque is an important animal model for HIV-related research. Among the MHC I alleles of the rhesus macaque, Mamu-A*02 is prevalent, presenting in ≥20% of macaques. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of Mamu-A*02, the second structure-determined MHC I from the rhesus macaque after Mamu-A*01. The peptide presentation characteristics of Mamu-A*02 are exhibited in complex structures with two typical Mamu-A*02-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes, YY9 (Nef159 to -167; YTSGPGIRY) and GY9 (Gag71 to -79; GSENLKSLY), derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). These two peptides utilize similar primary anchor residues (Ser or Thr) at position 2 and Tyr at position 9. However, the central region of YY9 is different from that of GY9, a difference that may correlate with the immunogenic variance of these peptides. Further analysis indicated that the distinct conformations of these two peptides are modulated by four flexible residues in the Mamu-A*02 peptide-binding groove. The rare combination of these four residues in Mamu-A*02 leads to a variant presentation for peptides with different residues in their central regions. Additionally, in the two structures of the Mamu-A*02 complex, we compared the binding of rhesus and human β2 microglobulin (β2m) to Mamu-A*02. We found that the peptide presentation of Mamu-A*02 is not affected by the interspecies interaction with human β2m. Our work broadens the understanding of CD8+ T-cell-specific immunity against SIV in the rhesus macaque. PMID:21561910

  4. A combination microbicide gel protects macaques against vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase infection, but only partially reduces herpes simplex virus-2 infection after a single high-dose cochallenge.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mayla; Aravantinou, Meropi; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, Jose A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

    2014-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection increases HIV susceptibility. We previously established a rhesus macaque model of vaginal HSV-2 preexposure followed by cochallenge with HSV-2 and simian/human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Using this model, we showed that a gel containing the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 in carrageenan (CG) reduced SHIV-RT infection. To evaluate the efficacy of new generation microbicides against both viruses, we first established dual infection after single vaginal cochallenge with SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in HSV-2-naive macaques. All animals (6/6) became HSV-2 infected, with 4/6 coinfected with SHIV-RT. In a control group cochallenged with SHIV-RT and UV-inactivated HSV-2, 2/4 became SHIV-RT infected, and none had detectable HSV-2. Low-level HSV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses were detected in some HSV-2-infected animals. To test a CG gel containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate (MZC), which provided naive animals full protection from SHIV-RT for at least 8 h, MZC (vs. CG) was applied daily for 14 days followed by cochallenge 8 h later. MZC prevented SHIV-RT infection (0/9 infected, p=0.04 vs. 3/6 in CG controls), but only reduced HSV-2 infection by 20% (6/9 infected vs. 5/6 in CG, p=0.6). In HSV-2-infected animals, none of the gel-treated animals seroconverted, and only the CG controls had measurable HSV-2-specific T cell responses. This study shows the promise of MZC to prevent immunodeficiency virus infection (even in the presence of HSV-2) and reduce HSV-2 infection after exposure to a high-dose inoculum. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential of a macaque coinfection model to evaluate broad-spectrum microbicides.

  5. Limited contribution of mucosal IgA to Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific neutralizing antibody response and virus envelope evolution in breast milk of SIV-infected, lactating rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Permar, Sallie R; Wilks, Andrew B; Ehlinger, Elizabeth P; Kang, Helen H; Mahlokozera, Tatenda; Coffey, Rory T; Carville, Angela; Letvin, Norman L; Seaman, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    Breast milk transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains an important mode of infant HIV acquisition. Interestingly, the majority of infants remain uninfected during prolonged virus exposure via breastfeeding, raising the possibility that immune components in milk prevent mucosal virus transmission. HIV-specific antibody responses are detectable in the milk of HIV-infected women and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected monkeys; however, the role of these humoral responses in virus neutralization and local virus quasispecies evolution has not been characterized. In this study, four lactating rhesus monkeys were inoculated with SIVmac251 and monitored for SIV envelope-specific humoral responses and virus evolution in milk and plasma throughout infection. While the kinetics and breadth of the SIV-specific IgG and IgA responses in milk were similar to those in plasma, the magnitude of the milk responses was considerably lower than that of the plasma responses. Furthermore, a neutralizing antibody response against the inoculation virus was not detected in milk samples at 1 year after infection, despite a measurable autologous neutralizing antibody response in plasma samples obtained from three of four monkeys. Interestingly, while IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin in milk, the milk SIV envelope-specific IgA response was lower in magnitude and demonstrated more limited neutralizing capacity against a T-cell line-adapted SIV compared to those of the milk IgG response. Finally, amino acid mutations in the envelope gene product of SIV variants in milk and plasma samples occurred in similar numbers and at similar positions, indicating that the humoral immune pressure in milk does not drive distinct virus evolution in the breast milk compartment.

  6. Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Ballow, M; Notarangelo, L; Grimbacher, B; Cunningham-Rundles, C; Stein, M; Helbert, M; Gathmann, B; Kindle, G; Knight, A K; Ochs, H D; Sullivan, K; Franco, J L

    2009-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are uncommon, chronic and severe disorders of the immune system in which patients cannot mount a sufficiently protective immune response, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections. The treatment of choice for PID patients with predominant antibody deficiency is intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy. Despite major advances over the last 20 years in the molecular characterization of PIDs, many patients remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed too late, with severe consequences. Various strategies to ensure timely diagnosis of PIDs are in place, and novel approaches are being developed. In recent years, several patient registries have been established. Such registries shed light on the pathology and natural history of these varied disorders. Analyses of the registry data may also reveal which patients are likely to respond well to higher Ig infusion rates and may help to determine the optimal dosing of Ig products. Faster infusion rates may lead to improved convenience for patients and thus increase patient compliance, and may reduce nursing time and the need for hospital resources. Data from two recent studies suggest that Gamunex® and Privigen® are well tolerated at high infusion rates. Nevertheless, careful selection of patients for high infusion rates, based on co-morbid conditions and tolerance of the current infusion rate, is advisable. Based on the available data, intravenous Ig offers broad protection against encapsulated organisms. As vaccine trends change, careful monitoring of specific antibody levels in the general population, such as those against pneumococcal and meningococcal bacteria, should be implemented. PMID:19883420

  7. A method for obtaining simian immunodeficiency virus RNA sequences from laser capture microdissected and immune captured CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages from frozen tissue sections of bone marrow and brain.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Jaclyn; Papazian, Emily; Soulas, Caroline; Nolan, David J; Salemi, Marco; Williams, Kenneth C

    2017-03-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to extract cells or tissue regions for analysis of RNA, DNA or protein. Several methods of LCM are established for different applications, but a protocol for consistently obtaining lentiviral RNA from LCM captured immune cell populations is not described. Obtaining optimal viral RNA for analysis of viral genes from immune-captured cells using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and LCM is challenging. IHC protocols have long antibody incubation times that increase risk of RNA degradation. But, immune capture of specific cell populations like macrophages without staining for virus cannot result in obtaining only a fraction of cells which are productively lentivirally infected. In this study we sought to obtain simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA from SIV gp120+ and CD68+ monocyte/macrophages in bone marrow (BM) and CD163+ perivascular macrophages in brain of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Here, we report an IHC protocol with RNase inhibitors that consistently results in optimal quantity and yield of lentiviral RNA from LCM-captured immune cells.

  8. Relative Transmissibility of an R5 Clade C Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Across Different Mucosae in Macaques Parallels the Relative Risks of Sexual HIV-1 Transmission Via Different Routes

    PubMed Central

    Chenine, Agnès L.; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Kramer, Victor G.; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Rasmussen, Robert A.; Lee, Sandra J.; Santosuosso, Michael; Poznansky, Mark C.; Velu, Vijayakumar; Amara, Rama R.; Souder, Chris; Anderson, Daniel C.; Villinger, François; Else, James G.; Novembre, Francis J.; Strobert, Elizabeth; O’Neil, Shawn P.; Secor, W. Evan; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide, ~90% of all HIV transmissions occur mucosally; almost all involve R5 strains. Risks of sexual HIV acquisition are highest for rectal, followed by vaginal and then oral exposures. Methods Mucosal lacerations may affect the rank-order of susceptibility to HIV but cannot be assessed in humans. We measured relative virus transmissibility across intact mucosae in macaques using a single stock of SHIV-1157ipd3N4, a simian-human immunodeficiency virus encoding a primary R5 HIV clade C env (SHIV-C). Results The penetrability of rhesus macaque mucosae differed significantly, with rectal challenge requiring the least virus, followed by the vaginal and then oral routes. These findings imply that intrinsic mucosal properties are responsible for the differential mucosal permeability. The latter paralleled the rank-order reported for humans, with relative risk estimates within the range of epidemiologic human studies. To test whether inflammation facilitates virus transmission – as predicted from human studies – we established a macaque model of localized buccal inflammation. Systemic infection occurred across inflamed, but not normal buccal mucosa. Conclusion Our primate data recapitulate virus transmission risks observed in humans, thus establishing R5 SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in macaques as a robust model system to study cofactors involved in human mucosal HIV transmission and its prevention. PMID:20214475

  9. Elite Control, Gut CD4 T Cell Sparing, and Enhanced Mucosal T Cell Responses in Macaca nemestrina Infected by a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Lacking a gp41 Trafficking Motif

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Matthew W.; Elser, Samra E.; Torben, Workineh; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Aye, Pyone P.; Midkiff, Cecily; Schiro, Faith; Sugimoto, Chie; Alvarez-Hernandez, Xavier; Blair, Robert V.; Somasunderam, Anoma; Utay, Netanya S.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Pahar, Bapi; Wiseman, Roger W.; O'Connor, David H.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.; Marsh, Mark; Li, Yuan; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Fultz, Patricia N.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deletion of Gly-720 and Tyr-721 from a highly conserved GYxxØ trafficking signal in the SIVmac239 envelope glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain, producing a virus termed ΔGY, leads to a striking perturbation in pathogenesis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Infected macaques develop immune activation and progress to AIDS, but with only limited and transient infection of intestinal CD4+ T cells and an absence of microbial translocation. Here we evaluated ΔGY in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), a species in which SIVmac239 infection typically leads to increased immune activation and more rapid progression to AIDS than in rhesus macaques. In pig-tailed macaques, ΔGY also replicated acutely to high peak plasma RNA levels identical to those for SIVmac239 and caused only transient infection of CD4+ T cells in the gut lamina propria and no microbial translocation. However, in marked contrast to rhesus macaques, 19 of 21 pig-tailed macaques controlled ΔGY replication with plasma viral loads of <15 to 50 RNA copies/ml. CD4+ T cells were preserved in blood and gut for up to 100 weeks with no immune activation or disease progression. Robust antiviral CD4+ T cell responses were seen, particularly in the gut. Anti-CD8 antibody depletion demonstrated CD8+ cellular control of viral replication. Two pig-tailed macaques progressed to disease with persisting viremia and possible compensatory mutations in the cytoplasmic tail. These studies demonstrate a marked perturbation in pathogenesis caused by ΔGY's ablation of the GYxxØ trafficking motif and reveal, paradoxically, that viral control is enhanced in a macaque species typically predisposed to more pathogenic manifestations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. IMPORTANCE The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) reflects a balance between viral replication, host innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses, and sustained immune activation

  10. Convergence and Divergence in the Evolution of the APOBEC3G-Vif Interaction Reveal Ancient Origins of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Alex A.; Emerman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Naturally circulating lentiviruses are abundant in African primate species today, yet their origins and history of transmitting between hosts remain obscure. As a means to better understand the age of primate lentiviruses, we analyzed primate genomes for signatures of lentivirus-driven evolution. Specifically, we studied the adaptive evolution of host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G) in Old World Monkey (OWM) species. We find recurrent mutation of A3G in multiple primate lineages at sites that determine susceptibility to antagonism by the lentiviral accessory protein Vif. Using a broad panel of SIV Vif isolates, we demonstrate that natural variation in OWM A3G confers resistance to Vif-mediated degradation, suggesting that adaptive variants of the host factor were selected upon exposure to pathogenic lentiviruses at least 5–6 million years ago (MYA). Furthermore, in members of the divergent Colobinae subfamily of OWM, a multi-residue insertion event in A3G that arose at least 12 MYA blocks the activity of Vif, suggesting an even more ancient origin of SIV. Moreover, analysis of the lentiviruses associated with Colobinae monkeys reveal that the interface of the A3G-Vif interaction has shifted and given rise to a second genetic conflict. Our analysis of virus-driven evolution describes an ancient yet ongoing genetic conflict between simian primates and lentiviruses on a million-year time scale. PMID:23359341

  11. T cells increase before zoster and PD-1 expression increases at the time of zoster in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates latently infected with simian varicella virus.

    PubMed

    James, Stephanie F; Traina-Dorge, Vicki; Deharo, Eileen; Wellish, Mary; Palmer, Brent E; Gilden, Don; Mahalingam, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Like varicella zoster virus in humans, simian varicella virus (SVV) becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis and reactivates in immunosuppressed monkeys. Five rhesus macaques were inoculated with SVV; 142 days later (latency), four monkeys were immunosuppressed, and T cells were analyzed for naïve, memory, and effector phenotypes and expression of programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1; T cell exhaustion). All T cell subsets decreased during immunosuppression and except for CD8 effectors, peaked 2 weeks before zoster. Compared to before immunosuppression, PD-1 expression increased at reactivation. Increased T cells before zoster is likely due to virus reactivation.

  12. Highly-restricted, cell-specific expression of the simian CMV-IE promoter in transgenic zebrafish with age and after heat shock.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Steven T; Ramachandran, Rajesh; Fuller, Cynthia L; Veldman, Matthew B; Byrd, Christine A; Goldman, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Promoters with high levels of ubiquitous expression are of significant utility in the production of transgenic animals and cell lines. One such promoter is derived from the human cytomegalovirus immediate early (CMV-IE) gene. We sought to ascertain if the simian CMV-IE promoter (sCMV), used extensively in non-mammalian vertebrate research, also directs intense, widespread expression when stably introduced into zebrafish. Analysis of sCMV-driven expression revealed a temporal and spatial pattern not predicted by studies using the hCMV promoter in other transgenic animals or by observations of early F0 embryos expressing injected sCMV-reporter plasmids. Unexpectedly, in transgenic fish produced by both integration of linearized plasmid or Tol2-mediated transgenesis, sCMV promoter expression was generally observed in a small population of cells in telencephalon and spinal cord between days 2 and 7, and was thereafter confined to discrete regions of CNS that included the olfactory bulb, retina, cerebellum, spinal cord, and lateral line. In skeletal muscle, intense transgene expression was not observed until well into adulthood (>2-3 months post-fertilization). One final unexpected characteristic of the sCMV promoter in stable transgenic fish was tissue-specific responsiveness of the promoter to heat shock at both embryonic and adult stages. These data suggest that, in the context of stable transgenesis, the simian CMV-IE gene promoter responds differently to intracellular regulatory forces than other characterized CMV promoters.

  13. Nef from primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 suppresses surface CD4 expression in human and mouse T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S; Shugars, D C; Swanstrom, R; Garcia, J V

    1993-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nef gene was originally described as a negative regulator of transcription from the viral long terminal repeat promoter. This observation has been disputed, and the function of Nef remains unclear. In vivo experiments have indicated that an intact nef gene is required for disease progression in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, suggesting a role for Nef in the pathogenesis of AIDS. We and others have previously shown that expression of Nef in cells bearing surface CD4 results in a sustained decrease in surface CD4 expression. This was demonstrated for Nef from two laboratory strains of HIV-1, Bru and SF2. Because both of these isolates were passaged in vitro prior to molecular cloning and in vitro passage can result in mutations which might alter nef gene function, we have analyzed two primary isolates of Nef for their ability to suppress cell surface CD4 expression. The nef genes of HIV-1 isolates from two patients with fewer than 200 CD4+ T cells per mm3 of blood were introduced into human and mouse T-cell lines by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Expression of Nef from both isolates correlated with a decrease in surface expression of both human and mouse CD4. To determine whether the ability to suppress surface CD4 expression is a general function of Nef, we also tested an artificially generated consensus nef gene derived from analysis of 54 patient isolates of HIV-1. Expression of the consensus Nef protein also correlated with decreased cell surface CD4 expression in both mouse and human T-cell lines. These results suggest that the ability to suppress cell surface CD4 expression is an intrinsic feature of HIV-1 Nef. Images PMID:8331733

  14. Improved Protection of Rhesus Macaques against Intrarectal Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Challenge by a Replication-Competent Ad5hr-SIVenv/rev and Ad5hr-SIVgag Recombinant Priming/gp120 Boosting Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Pinczewski, Joel; Gómez-Román, Victor R.; Venzon, David; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Markham, Phillip D.; Aldrich, Kristine; Moake, Matthew; Montefiori, David C.; Lou, Yuanmei; Pavlakis, George N.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we investigated the ability of a replication-competent Ad5hr-SIVenv/rev and Ad5hr-SIVgag recombinant priming/gp120 boosting regimen to induce protective immunity in rhesus macaques against pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virusmac251. Immunization of macaques by two sequential administrations of the same recombinants by the same route resulted in boosting and persistence of SIV-specific cellular immune responses for 42 weeks past the initial immunization. Anti-SIV gp120 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies were induced in secretory fluids, and all macaques exhibited serum neutralizing antibody activity. After intrarectal SIVmac251 challenge, all of the macaques became infected. However, relative protection, as assessed by statistically significant lower SIV viral loads in plasma at both acute infection and set point, was observed in 8 out of 12 immunized non-Mamu-A∗01 animals. Elevated mean cellular immune responses to Gag and Env, neutralizing antibody activity, and IgG and IgA binding antibody levels were observed in the eight protected macaques. Statistically significant correlations with protective outcome were observed for cellular immune responses to SIV Env and Gag and for SIV gp120-specific IgG antibodies in nasal and vaginal fluids. Two macaques that exhibited the greatest and most persistent viremia control also exhibited strong CD8+ T-cell antiviral activity. The results suggest that a spectrum of immune responses may be necessary for adequate control of viral replication and disease progression and highlight a potential role for nonneutralizing antibodies at mucosal sites. PMID:12857905

  15. Potent, Persistent Induction and Modulation of Cellular Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques Primed with Ad5hr-Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) env/rev, gag, and/or nef Vaccines and Boosted with SIV gp120

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, L. Jean; Malkevitch, Nina; Pinczewski, Joel; Venzon, David; Lou, Yuanmei; Peng, Bo; Munch, Cindy; Leonard, Melissa; Richardson, Ersell; Aldrich, Kristine; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Pavlakis, George N.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2003-01-01

    Immunity elicited by multicomponent vaccines delivered by replication-competent Ad5hr-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinants was systematically investigated. Rhesus macaques were immunized mucosally at weeks 0 and 12 with Ad5hr-SIVsmH4 env/rev, with or without Ad5hr-SIVmac239 gag or Ad5hr-SIVmac239 nef, or with all three recombinants. The total Ad5hr dosage was comparably adjusted among all animals with empty Ad5hr-ΔE3 vector. The macaques were boosted with SIV gp120 in monophosphoryl A-stable emulsion adjuvant at 24 and 36 weeks. Controls received Ad5hr-ΔE3 vector or adjuvant only. By ELISPOT analysis, all four SIV gene products elicited potent cellular immune responses that persisted 42 weeks post-initial immunization. Unexpectedly, modulation of this cellular immune response was observed among macaques receiving one, two, or three Ad5hr-SIV recombinants. Env responses were significantly enhanced throughout the immunization period in macaques immunized with Ad5hr-SIV env/rev plus Ad5hr-SIV gag and tended to be higher in macaques that also received Ad5hr-SIV nef. Macaques primed with all three recombinants displayed significant down-modulation in numbers of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting cells specific for SIV Nef, and the Env- and Gag-specific responses were also diminished. Modulation of antibody responses was not observed. Down-modulation was seen only during the period of Ad5hr-recombinant priming, not during subunit boosting, although SIV-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells persisted. The effect was not attributable to Ad5hr replication differences among immunization groups. Vaccine delivery via replication-competent live vectors, which can persistently infect new cells and continuously present low-level antigen, may be advantageous in overcoming competition among complex immunogens for immune recognition. Effects of current multicomponent vaccines on individual immune responses should be evaluated with regard to future vaccine design. PMID

  16. Direct Inoculation of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus from Sooty Mangabeys in Black Mangabeys (Lophocebus aterrimus): First Evidence of AIDS in a Heterologous African Species and Different Pathologic Outcomes of Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Apetrei, Cristian; Gormus, Bobby; Pandrea, Ivona; Metzger, Michael; ten Haaft, Peter; Martin, Louis N.; Bohm, Rudolf; Alvarez, Xavier; Koopman, Gerrit; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Baskin, Gary; Heeney, Jonathan; Marx, Preston A.

    2004-01-01

    A unique opportunity for the study of the role of serial passage and cross-species transmission was offered by a series of experiments carried out at the Tulane National Primate Research Center in 1990. To develop an animal model for leprosy, three black mangabeys (BkMs) (Lophocebus aterrimus) were inoculated with lepromatous tissue that had been serially passaged in four sooty mangabeys (SMs) (Cercocebus atys). All three BkMs became infected with simian immunodeficiency virus from SMs (SIVsm) by day 30 postinoculation (p.i.) with lepromatous tissue. One (BkMG140) died 2 years p.i. from causes unrelated to SIV, one (BkMG139) survived for 10 years, whereas the third (BkMG138) was euthanized with AIDS after 5 years. Histopathology revealed a high number of giant cells in tissues from BkMG138, but no SIV-related lesions were found in the remaining two BkMs. Four-color immunofluorescence revealed high levels of SIVsm associated with both giant cells and T lymphocytes in BkMG138 and no detectable SIV in the remaining two. Serum viral load (VL) showed a significant increase (>1 log) during the late stage of the disease in BkMG138, as opposed to a continuous decline in VL in the remaining two BkMs. With the progression to AIDS, neopterin levels increased in BkMG138. This study took on new significance when phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly showed that all four serially inoculated SMs were infected with different SIVsm lineages prior to the beginning of the experiment. Furthermore, the strain infecting the BkMs originated from the last SM in the series. Therefore, the virus infecting BkMs has not been serially passaged. In conclusion, we present the first compelling evidence that direct cross-species transmission of SIV may induce AIDS in heterologous African nonhuman primate (NHP) species. The results showed that cross-species-transmitted SIVsm was well controlled in two of three BkMs for 2 and 10 years, respectively. Finally, this case of AIDS in an African monkey

  17. Attenuation of pathogenic immune responses during infection with human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) by the tetracycline derivative minocycline.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Julia L; Szeto, Gregory L; Engle, Elizabeth L; Liao, Zhaohao; Shearer, Gene M; Zink, M Christine; Graham, David R

    2014-01-01

    HIV immune pathogenesis is postulated to involve two major mechanisms: 1) chronic innate immune responses that drive T cell activation and apoptosis and 2) induction of immune regulators that suppress T cell function and proliferation. Both arms are elevated chronically in lymphoid tissues of non-natural hosts, which ultimately develop AIDS. However, these mechanisms are not elevated chronically in natural hosts of SIV infection that avert immune pathogenesis despite similarly high viral loads. In this study we investigated whether minocycline could modulate these pathogenic antiviral responses in non-natural hosts of HIV and SIV. We found that minocycline attenuated in vitro induction of type I interferon (IFN) and the IFN-stimulated genes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs exposed to aldrithiol-2 inactivated HIV or infectious influenza virus. Activation-induced TRAIL and expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in isolated CD4+ T cells were also reduced by minocycline. Translation of these in vitro findings to in vivo effects, however, were mixed as minocycline significantly reduced markers of activation and activation-induced cell death (CD25, Fas, caspase-3) but did not affect expression of IFNβ or the IFN-stimulated genes IDO1, FasL, or Mx in the spleens of chronically SIV-infected pigtailed macaques. TRAIL expression, reflecting the mixed effects of minocycline on activation and type I IFN stimuli, was reduced by half, but this change was not significant. These results show that minocycline administered after infection may protect against aspects of activation-induced cell death during HIV/SIV immune disease, but that in vitro effects of minocycline on type I IFN responses are not recapitulated in a rapid progressor model in vivo.

  18. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

  19. Induction of immune response in macaque monkeys infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus having the TNF-{alpha} gene at an early stage of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Yuya; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Ibuki, Kentaro; Suzuki, Hajime; Kaneyasu, Kentaro; Goto, Yoshitaka; Hayami, Masanori; Miura, Tomoyuki; Haga, Takeshi . E-mail: a0d518u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp

    2005-12-20

    TNF-{alpha} has been implicated in the pathogenesis of, and the immune response against, HIV-1 infection. To clarify the roles of TNF-{alpha} against HIV-1-related virus infection in an SHIV-macaque model, we genetically engineered an SHIV to express the TNF-{alpha} gene (SHIV-TNF) and characterized the virus's properties in vivo. After the acute viremic stage, the plasma viral loads declined earlier in the SHIV-TNF-inoculated monkeys than in the parental SHIV (SHIV-NI)-inoculated monkeys. SHIV-TNF induced cell death in the lymph nodes without depletion of circulating CD4{sup +} T cells. SHIV-TNF provided some immunity in monkeys by increasing the production of the chemokine RANTES and by inducing an antigen-specific proliferation of lymphocytes. The monkeys immunized with SHIV-TNF were partly protected against a pathogenic SHIV (SHIV-C2/1) challenge. These findings suggest that TNF-{alpha} contributes to the induction of an effective immune response against HIV-1 rather than to the progression of disease at the early stage of infection.

  20. Robust vaccine-elicited cellular immune responses in breast milk following systemic simian immunodeficiency virus DNA prime and live virus vector boost vaccination of lactating rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Andrew B; Christian, Elizabeth C; Seaman, Michael S; Sircar, Piya; Carville, Angela; Gomez, Carmen E; Esteban, Mariano; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Barouch, Dan H; Letvin, Norman L; Permar, Sallie R

    2010-12-01

    Breast milk transmission of HIV remains an important mode of infant HIV acquisition. Enhancement of mucosal HIV-specific immune responses in milk of HIV-infected mothers through vaccination may reduce milk virus load or protect against virus transmission in the infant gastrointestinal tract. However, the ability of HIV/SIV strategies to induce virus-specific immune responses in milk has not been studied. In this study, five uninfected, hormone-induced lactating, Mamu A*01(+) female rhesus monkey were systemically primed and boosted with rDNA and the attenuated poxvirus vector, NYVAC, containing the SIVmac239 gag-pol and envelope genes. The monkeys were boosted a second time with a recombinant Adenovirus serotype 5 vector containing matching immunogens. The vaccine-elicited immunodominant epitope-specific CD8(+) T lymphocyte response in milk was of similar or greater magnitude than that in blood and the vaginal tract but higher than that in the colon. Furthermore, the vaccine-elicited SIV Gag-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte polyfunctional cytokine responses were more robust in milk than in blood after each virus vector boost. Finally, SIV envelope-specific IgG responses were detected in milk of all monkeys after vaccination, whereas an SIV envelope-specific IgA response was only detected in one vaccinated monkey. Importantly, only limited and transient increases in the proportion of activated or CCR5-expressing CD4(+) T lymphocytes in milk occurred after vaccination. Therefore, systemic DNA prime and virus vector boost of lactating rhesus monkeys elicits potent virus-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in milk and may warrant further investigation as a strategy to impede breast milk transmission of HIV.

  1. Macrophages and Myeloid Dendritic Cells Lose T Cell-Stimulating Function in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Associated with Diminished IL-12 and IFN-α Production.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich, Elizabeth R; Wu, Wen-Chi; Normolle, Daniel P; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M

    2015-10-01

    Impaired T cell responses are a defining characteristic of HIV infection, but the extent to which altered mononuclear phagocyte function contributes to this defect is unclear. We show that mononuclear phagocytes enriched from rhesus macaque lymph nodes have suppressed ability to stimulate CD4 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ release after acute SIV infection. When individual populations were isolated, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and macrophages but not plasmacytoid DC (pDC) had suppressed capacity to stimulate CD4 T cell proliferation, with macrophage function declining as infection progressed. Macrophages, but not pDC or mDC, had suppressed capacity to induce IFN-γ release from CD4 T cells in acute infection, even after stimulation with virus-encoded TLR7/8 ligand. Changes in expression of costimulatory molecules did not explain loss of function postinfection. Conversely, pDC and mDC had marked loss of IFN-α and IL-12 production, respectively, and macrophages lost production of both cytokines. In T cell cocultures without TLR7/8 ligand, macrophages were the primary source of IL-12, which was profoundly suppressed postinfection and correlated with loss of IFN-γ release by T cells. TLR7/8-stimulated pDC, mDC and macrophages all produced IL-12 in T cell cocultures, which was suppressed in chronic infection. Supplementing IL-12 enhanced mDC-driven IFN-γ release from T cells, and IL-12 and IFN-α together restored function in TLR7/8-activated macrophages. These findings reveal loss of macrophage and mDC T cell-stimulating function in lymph nodes of SIV-infected rhesus macaques associated with diminished IL-12 and IFN-α production that may be a factor in AIDS immunopathogenesis.

  2. The simian virus 40 minimal origin and the 72-base-pair repeat are required simultaneously for efficient induction of late gene expression with large tumor antigen.

    PubMed

    Hartzell, S W; Byrne, B J; Subramanian, K N

    1984-10-01

    We have studied the temporal regulation of simian virus 40 (SV40) late gene expression by construction and transient expression analysis of plasmids containing the transposon Tn9 chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene placed downstream from the late control region. The SV40 origin region in the early (but not the late) orientation promotes chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression efficiently in monkey cells lacking large tumor (T) antigen. In monkey cells producing T antigen, the promoter activity of the late control region is induced by approximately 1,000-fold above the basal level. By deletion and point mutagenesis, we define two domains of the late control region required for efficient induction with T antigen. Domain I is the minimal replication origin containing T-antigen binding site II. Domain II consists of the 72-base-pair (bp) repeat and a 19-bp downstream sequence up to nucleotide 270. Domains I and II should act synergistically because the absence of either one or the other decreases induction efficiency by 2 orders of magnitude. Though a complete copy of domain II is optimal, the origin-proximal 22-bp portion of this domain is sufficient. The 21-bp repeat, located between domains I and II, is dispensable for this induction, as are sequences located downstream from nucleotide 270 in the late orientation.

  3. Expression of simian virus 40-rat preproinsulin recombinants in monkey kidney cells: use of preproinsulin RNA processing signals.

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, P; Khoury, G

    1981-01-01

    The complete rat preproinsulin gene I was cloned into a simian virus 30 (SV 40) vector. Most of the late region of the viral vector, including the SV40 intervening sequences (introns) and all of the major splice junctions, was deleted and replaced by the entire rat insulin gene. The recombinant molecules and a temperature-sensitive helper virus (tsA28) were inoculated into monkey kidney cultures. The formation of stable transcripts of the insulin insert was as efficient as the production of late SV40 mRNA. Analysis of these transcripts indicated that the rat preproinsulin gene nucleotide signals involved in RNA splicing and poly(A) addition were used. Examination of the 5' ends of the mRNAs showed several classes, one of which was the same size as the authentic rat insulinoma mRNA. This suggests that a portion of the transcripts may be initiated or processed faithfully, or both, at their 5' ends within rat insulin sequences. Significant quantities of a protein identified as rat proinsulin were synthesized. Detection of most of the proinsulin in the tissue culture medium suggests that this protein was secreted. Images PMID:6264427

  4. Simian virus 40 DNA replication correlates with expression of a particular subclass of T antigen in a human glial cell line.

    PubMed

    Deminie, C A; Norkin, L C

    1990-08-01

    Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to identify simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen expression and viral DNA replication in individual cells of infected semipermissive human cell lines. SV40 infection aborts before T-antigen expression in many cells of each of the human cell lines examined. In all but one of the human cell lines, most of the T-antigen-producing cells replicated viral DNA. However, in the A172 line of human glial cells only a small percentage of the T-antigen-expressing cells replicated viral DNA. Since different structural and functional classes of T antigen can be recognized with anti-T monoclonal antibodies, we examined infected A172 cells with a panel of 10 anti-T monoclonal antibodies to determine whether viral DNA replication might correlate with the expression of a particular epitope of T antigen. One anti-T monoclonal antibody, PAb 100, did specifically recognize that subset of A172 cells which replicated SV40 DNA. The percentage of PAb 100-reactive A172 cells was dramatically increased by the DNA synthesis inhibitors hydroxyurea and aphidicolin. Removal of the hydroxyurea was followed by an increase in the percentage of cells replicating viral DNA corresponding to the increased percentage reactive with PAb 100. The pattern of SV40 infection in A172 cells was not altered by infection with viable viral mutants containing lesions in the small t protein, the agnoprotein, or the enhancer region. Finally, in situ hybridization was used to show that the percentage of human cells expressing T antigen was similar to the percentage transcribing early SV40 mRNA. Thus, the block to T-antigen expression in human cells is at a stage prior to transcription of early SV40 mRNA.

  5. Tumorigenicity of simian virus 40-hepatocyte cell lines: effect of in vitro and in vivo passage on expression of liver-specific genes and oncogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, C D; Kreider, J W; Mengel, L; Miller, T; Meng, Y L; Isom, H C

    1988-01-01

    Five simian virus 40 (SV40)-hepatocyte cell lines were examined for tumorigenicity and the effect of in vitro passage on the expression of four liver-specific genes (albumin, transferrin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), two oncogenes (c-Ha-ras and c-raf), and two genes associated with hepatocarcinogenesis (alpha-fetoprotein and placental-type glutathione-S-transferase). At low passage (12 to 22), all five cell lines expressed the four liver-specific genes at levels similar to those in the liver and were not tumorigenic or were weakly tumorigenic. At high passage (33 to 61), the cell lines formed carcinomas, and four out of five cell lines produced primary tumors that metastasized. At least two cell lines produced well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas that expressed liver-specific RNAs. Levels of expression of liver-specific genes changed with time in culture. Some of the changes in liver-specific gene expression in the tumor tissue (such as for the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene) paralleled those that occurred with in vitro passage, while other changes (such as for the albumin gene) did not parallel those that occurred with in vitro passage. Correlations between enhanced expression of c-Ha-ras and tumorigenic potential and between the process of SV40 immortalization and induced expression of c-raf and glutathione-S-transferase-P were observed. Induction of alpha-fetoprotein was detected with in vitro and in vivo passage only in the CWSV14 cell line and was paralleled by diminished albumin expression. In conclusion, we developed a model system with five SV40-hepatocyte cell lines, tumors induced by them, and tumor cell lines to examine changes in gene expression that accompany the progression from a normal cell to a hepatocellular carcinoma. Because the SV40-hepatocyte cell lines and tumor cell lines remain highly differentiated and vary in the magnitude of expression of specific genes, they can be used to study the

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of H9 cells induces increased glucose transporter expression.

    PubMed Central

    Sorbara, L R; Maldarelli, F; Chamoun, G; Schilling, B; Chokekijcahi, S; Staudt, L; Mitsuya, H; Simpson, I A; Zeichner, S L

    1996-01-01

    A clone obtained from a differential display screen for cellular genes with altered expression during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection matched the sequence for the human GLUT3 facilitative glucose transporter, a high-velocity-high-affinity facilitative transporter commonly expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. Northern (RNA) analysis showed that GLUT3 expression increased during infection. Flow cytometry showed that GLUT3 protein expression increased specifically in the HIV-infected cells; this increase correlated with increased 2-deoxyglucose transport in the HIV-infected culture. HIV infection therefore leads to increased expression of a glucose transporter normally expressed at high levels in other cell types and a corresponding increase in glucose transport activity. If HIV infection places increased metabolic demands on the host cell, changes in the expression of a cellular gene that plays an important role in cellular metabolism might provide a more favorable environment for viral replication. PMID:8794382

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027

  8. Expression from second-generation feline immunodeficiency virus vectors is impaired in human hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Price, Mary A; Case, Scott S; Carbonaro, Denise A; Yu, Xiao-Jin; Petersen, Denise; Sabo, Kathleen M; Curran, Michael A; Engel, Barbara C; Margarian, Hovanes; Abkowitz, Janis L; Nolan, Garry P; Kohn, Donald B; Crooks, Gay M

    2002-11-01

    Vectors based on the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) have been developed as an alternative to those based on another lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), because of theoretical safety advantages. We compared the efficiency of gene transfer and expression in human and feline hematopoietic progenitors using second-generation HIV-1 and FIV-based vectors. Vector pairs were tested using either human cytomegalovirus or murine phospho-glycerate kinase (PGK) internal promoters and were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G). Vector proviral copy numbers were similar in human and feline hematopoietic primary cells and cell lines transduced by HIV-1 or FIV vectors, demonstrating that both vectors are able to transfer genes efficiently to these cell types. HIV-1 vectors were well expressed in human primary hematopoietic cells and cell lines. However, transgene expression from FIV vectors was almost undetectable in human hematopoietic cells. In contrast, the FIV vector was expressed well in primary hematopoietic feline cells and human non-hematopoietic cells, demonstrating that low transgene expression from the FIV vector is a phenomenon specific to human hematopoietic cells. Northern blot analysis demonstrated decreased vector transcript levels in human CEM cells transduced with FIV relative to cells transduced with HIV-1, despite high vector copy numbers. No evidence of vector transcript instability was seen in studies of transduced CEM cells treated with actinomycin D. We conclude that FIV vectors can transfer genes into human hematopoietic cells as effectively as HIV-1 vectors, but that unknown elements in the current FIV backbone inhibit expression from FIV vectors in human hematopoietic cells.

  9. CT-2576, an inhibitor of phospholipid signaling, suppresses constitutive and induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, D W; Peterson, P K; Weeks, R; Gekker, G; Chao, C C; Kaplan, A H; Balantac, N; Tompkins, C; Underiner, G E; Bursten, S

    1995-01-01

    Viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) require cellular activation for expression. Cellular activation in lymphoid cells is associated with augmented accumulation of certain phosphatidic acid (PA) species derived from the hydrolysis of glycan phosphatidylinositol (GPI). This suggests that activation of a phospholipid pathway may play a role in initiation of viral replication. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of tat gene expression on the production of cellular PA species, as the Tat protein is essential for HIV expression and has been implicated in activating the expression of multiple host cellular genes. Expression of tat increased the expression of PA. We then tested whether synthetic inhibitors of PA metabolism would inhibit activation of the HIV long terminal repeat by Tat and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). CT-2576 suppressed both PA generation induced by Tat and HIV long terminal repeat-directed gene expression in response to Tat or TNF-alpha at a posttranscriptional step. CT-2576 also inhibited constitutive as well as TNF-alpha- and interleukin 6-induced expression of HIV p24 antigen in chronically infected U1 cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes acutely infected with a clinical isolate of HIV. Pharmacological inhibition of synthesis of selected PA species may therefore provide a therapeutic approach to suppression of HIV replication. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7761405

  10. Expression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Neutralizing Antibody Fragments Using Human Vaginal Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Marcobal, Angela; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Wenlei; Dimitrov, Antony S.; Jia, Letong; Lee, Peter P.; Fouts, Timothy R.; Parks, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eradication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by vaccination with epitopes that produce broadly neutralizing antibodies is the ultimate goal for HIV prevention. However, generating appropriate immune responses has proven difficult. Expression of broadly neutralizing antibodies by vaginal colonizing lactobacilli provides an approach to passively target these antibodies to the mucosa. We tested the feasibility of expressing single-chain and single-domain antibodies (dAbs) in Lactobacillus to be used as a topical microbicide/live biotherapeutic. Lactobacilli provide an excellent platform to express anti-HIV proteins. Broadly neutralizing antibodies have been identified against epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope and have been made into active antibody fragments. We tested single-chain variable fragment m9 and dAb-m36 and its derivative m36.4 as prototype antibodies. We cloned and expressed the antibody fragments m9, m36, and m36.4 in Lactobacillus jensenii-1153 and tested the expression levels and functionality. We made a recombinant L. jensenii 1153-1128 that expresses dAb-m36.4. All antibody fragments m9, m36, and m36.4 were expressed by lactobacilli. However, we noted the smaller m36/m36.4 were expressed to higher levels, ≥3 μg/ml. All L. jensenii-expressed antibody fragments bound to gp120/CD4 complex; Lactobacillus-produced m36.4 inhibited HIV-1BaL in a neutralization assay. Using a TZM-bl assay, we characterized the breadth of neutralization of the m36.4. Delivery of dAbs by Lactobacillus could provide passive transfer of these antibodies to the mucosa and longevity at the site of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26950606

  11. Immunodeficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Max D; Lanier, Lewis L; Conley, Mary Ellen; Puck, Jennifer M

    2003-01-01

    Hematological complications occur frequently in patients with both primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders. Anemia, thrombocytopenia or leukopenias may bring these individuals to the attention of hematologists. Conversely, evidence suggesting a lymphoproliferative disorder may be the cause for referral. This session will provide an update on the diagnosis and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases ranging from isolated defects in antibody production to the severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID). Immunodeficiency diseases have traditionally been defined as defects in the development and function of T and B cells, the primary effector cells of specific cellular and humoral immunity. However, it has become increasingly evident that innate immune mechanisms contribute greatly to host defense, either through acting alone or by enhancing specific T and B cell responses. In Section I, Dr. Lewis Lanier reviews the burgeoning information on the extensive families of activating and inhibitory immunoreceptors that are expressed on NK cells, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and phagocytic cells. He provides an overview on the biological functions of these receptors in host defense. In Section II, Dr. Mary Ellen Conley defines the spectrum of antibody deficiency disorders, the most frequently occurring types of primary immunodeficiencies. She covers the different defects in B-cell development and function that lead to antibody deficiencies, and includes diagnosis and therapy of these disorders. In Section III, Dr. Jennifer Puck discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the different types of SCID. She describes the genetic basis for SCID, and the benefits, pitfalls, and complications of gene therapy and bone marrow transplantation in SCID patients.

  12. kappa opioid receptors in human microglia downregulate human immunodeficiency virus 1 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, C C; Gekker, G; Hu, S; Sheng, W S; Shark, K B; Bu, D F; Archer, S; Bidlack, J M; Peterson, P K

    1996-01-01

    Microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the brain, play an important role in the neuropathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and recent studies suggest that opioid peptides regulate the function of macrophages from somatic tissues. We report herein the presence of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in human fetal microglia and inhibition of HIV-1 expression in acutely infected microglial cell cultures treated with KOR ligands. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analyses, we found that mRNA for the KOR was constitutively expressed in microglia and determined that the nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame was identical to that of the human brain KOR gene. The expression of KOR in microglial cells was confirmed by membrane binding of [3H]U69,593, a kappa-selective ligand, and by indirect immunofluorescence. Treatment of microglial cell cultures with U50,488 or U69,593 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of expression of the monocytotropic HIV-1 SF162 strain. This antiviral effect of the kappa ligands was blocked by the specific KOR antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine. These findings suggest that kappa opioid agonists have immunomodulatory activity in the brain, and that these compounds could have potential in the treatment of HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8755601

  13. The solution structure of the simian foamy virus protease reveals a monomeric protein.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Maximilian J; Wöhrl, Birgitta M; Rösch, Paul; Schweimer, Kristian

    2008-08-01

    In contrast to orthoretroviruses, foamy viruses (FVs) express their Pol polyprotein from a separate pol-specific transcript. Only the integrase domain is cleaved off, leading to a protease-reverse transcriptase (PR-RT) protein. We purified the separate PR domain (PRshort) of simian FV from macaques by expressing the recombinant gene in Escherichia coli. Sedimentation analyses and size exclusion chromatography indicate that PRshort is a stable monomer in solution. This allowed us to determine the structure of the PRshort monomer using 1426 experimental restraints derived from NMR spectroscopy. The superposition of 20 conformers resulted in a backbone atom rmsd of 0.55 A for residues Gln8-Leu93. Although the overall folds are similar, the macaque simian FV PRshort reveals significant differences in the dimerization interface relative to other retroviral PRs, such as HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) PR, which appear to be rather stable dimers. Especially the flap region and the N- and C-termini of PRshort are highly flexible. Neglecting these regions, the backbone atom rmsd drops to 0.32 A, highlighting the good definition of the central part of the protein. To exclude that the monomeric state of PRshort is due to cleaving off the RT, we purified the complete PR-RT and performed size exclusion chromatography. Our data show that PR-RT is also monomeric. We thus conclude adoption of a monomeric state of PR-RT to be a regulatory mechanism to inhibit PR activity before virus assembly in order to reduce packaging problems. Dimerization might therefore be triggered by additional viral or cellular factors.

  14. An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabel, Gary; Baltimore, David

    1987-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production from latently infected T lymphocytes can be induced with compounds that activate the cells to secrete lymphokines1,2. The elements in the HIV genome which control activation are not known but expression might be regulated through a variety of DNA elements. The cis-acting control elements of the viral genome are enhancer and promoter regions. The virus also encodes trans-acting factors specified by the tat-III (refs 3-6) and art genes7. We have examined whether products specific to activated T cells might stimulate viral transcription by binding to regions on viral DNA. Activation of T cells, which increases HIV expression up to 50-fold, correlated with induction of a DNA binding protein indistinguishable from a recognized transcription factor, called NF-κB (ref. 8), with binding sites in the viral enhancer. Mutation of these binding sites abolished inducibility. That NF-κB acts in synergy with the viral tat-III gene product to enhance HIV expression in T cells may have implications for the pathogenesis of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

  15. Dysregulation of temperature and liver cytokine gene expression in immunodeficient wasted mice

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.R.; Ling-Indeck, L.; Weaver, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Strezoska, V.; Heckert, B.; Woloschak, G.E. |

    1995-04-25

    Wasted mice bear the spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation wst/wst; this genotype is associated with weight loss beginning at 21 days of age, neurologic dysfunction, immunodeficiency at mucosal sites, and increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation. The pathology underlying the disease symptoms is unknown. Experiments reported here were designed to examine thermoregulation and liver expression of specific cytokines in wasted mice and in littermate and parental controls. Our experiments found that wasted mice begin to show a drop in body temperature at 21-23 days following birth, continuing until death at the age of 28 days. Concomitant with that, livers from wasted mice expressed increased amounts of mRNAs specific for cytokines IL,6 and IL-1, the acute phase reactant C-reactive protein, c-jun, and apoptosis-associated Rp-8 when compared to littermate and parental control animals. Levels of {beta}-transforming growth factor (TGF), c-fos, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and ornithine amino transferase (OAT) transcripts were the same in livers from wasted mice and controls. These results suggest a relationship between an acute phase reactant response in wasted mice and temperature dysregulation.

  16. Expression and biochemical characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Kaminchik, J; Bashan, N; Pinchasi, D; Amit, B; Sarver, N; Johnston, M I; Fischer, M; Yavin, Z; Gorecki, M; Panet, A

    1990-01-01

    nef genes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates BH10 and LAV1 (lymphadenopathy-associated virus type 1) were expressed in Escherichia coli under the deo operon promoter. The two proteins found in the soluble compartment of the bacterial lysate were purified by ion-exchange column chromatography to apparent homogeneity. Determination of the amino-terminal sequence revealed glycine as the first amino acid in the Nef protein, indicating removal of the initiator methionine during expression in E. coli. Under native conditions, the recombinant Nef protein is a monomer of 23 kilodaltons. In denaturing polyacrylamide gels, however, BH10 and LAV1 Nef proteins migrate as 28 and 26 kilodaltons, respectively. GTP binding and GTPase activity were monitored during Nef protein purification. These activities did not copurify with the recombinant Nef protein from either the BH10 or the LAV1 isolate. Purified recombinant BH10 Nef protein was used as an immunogen to elicit mouse monoclonal antibodies. A series of monoclonal antibodies were obtained which reacted with sequences at either the amino or carboxy terminus of Nef. In addition, a conformational epitope reacting with native BH10, but not LAV1, Nef was isolated. Images PMID:2191151

  17. Somatic cell genetics of adenosine deaminase expression and severe combined immunodeficiency disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Koch, G; Shows, T B

    1980-07-01

    The somatic cell hybrid method has been used to study the number and different types of human genes involved in the expression of adenosine deaminase (ADA; adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4) in normal cells and cells from a patient with ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID). Genetic and biochemical characterization of ADA in SCID and the ADA tissue-specific isozymes in normal human cells indicates that additional genes, besides the ADA structural gene on chromosome 20, are involved in ADA expression. Human chromosome 6 encodes a gene, ADCP-1, whose presence is necessary for the expression of an ADA-complexing protein in human-mouse somatic cell hybrids [Koch, G. & Shows, T. B. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3876-3880]. We report the identification of a second gene, ADCP-2, on human chromosome 2, that is also involved in the expression of the ADA-complexing protein. The data indicate that these two ADCP genes must be present in the same cell for that cell to express the complexing protein. Human-mouse somatic cell hybrids, in which the human parental cells were fibroblastss from an individual with ADA-deficient SCID, also required human chromosomes 2 and 6 to express the ADA-complexing protein, indicating that neither ADCP-1 nor ADCP-2 is involved in the ADA deficiency in SCID. The SCID-mouse hybrid cells expressed no human ADA even when human chromosome 20 had been retained. The deficiency of human ADA in these hybrids maps to human chromosome 20, and therefore is not due to the repression or inhibiton of ADA or its product by unlinked genes or gene products. We propose that the expression of the polymeric ADA tissue isozymes in human cells requires at least three genes: ADA on chromosome 20, ADCP-1 on chromosome 6, and ADCP-2 on chromosome 2. A genetic scheme is presented and the different genes involved in ADA expression and their possible functions are discussed.

  18. Frequent simian foamy virus infection in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Bhullar, Vinod; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Cong, Mian-Er; Parekh, Bharat; Lerche, Nicholas W; Yee, JoAnn L; Ely, John J; Boneva, Roumiana; Chapman, Louisa E; Folks, Thomas M; Heneine, Walid

    2004-03-01

    The recognition that AIDS originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (NHPs). These retroviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian type D retrovirus (SRV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Although occasional infection with SIV, SRV, or SFV in persons occupationally exposed to NHPs has been reported, the characteristics and significance of these zoonotic infections are not fully defined. Surveillance for simian retroviruses at three research centers and two zoos identified no SIV, SRV, or STLV infection in 187 participants. However, 10 of 187 persons (5.3%) tested positive for SFV antibodies by Western blot (WB) analysis. Eight of the 10 were males, and 3 of the 10 worked at zoos. SFV integrase gene (int) and gag sequences were PCR amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes available from 9 of the 10 persons. Phylogenetic analysis showed SFV infection originating from chimpanzees (n = 8) and baboons (n = 1). SFV seropositivity for periods of 8 to 26 years (median, 22 years) was documented for six workers for whom archived serum samples were available, demonstrating long-standing SFV infection. All 10 persons reported general good health, and secondary transmission of SFV was not observed in three wives available for WB and PCR testing. Additional phylogenetic analysis of int and gag sequences provided the first direct evidence identifying the source chimpanzees of the SFV infection in two workers. This study documents more frequent infection with SFV than with other simian retroviruses in persons working with NHPs and provides important information on the natural history and species origin of these infections. Our data highlight the importance of studies to better define the public health implications of zoonotic SFV infections.

  19. Frequent Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Persons Occupationally Exposed to Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Bhullar, Vinod; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Cong, Mian-er; Parekh, Bharat; Lerche, Nicholas W.; Yee, JoAnn L.; Ely, John J.; Boneva, Roumiana; Chapman, Louisa E.; Folks, Thomas M.; Heneine, Walid

    2004-01-01

    The recognition that AIDS originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (NHPs). These retroviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian type D retrovirus (SRV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Although occasional infection with SIV, SRV, or SFV in persons occupationally exposed to NHPs has been reported, the characteristics and significance of these zoonotic infections are not fully defined. Surveillance for simian retroviruses at three research centers and two zoos identified no SIV, SRV, or STLV infection in 187 participants. However, 10 of 187 persons (5.3%) tested positive for SFV antibodies by Western blot (WB) analysis. Eight of the 10 were males, and 3 of the 10 worked at zoos. SFV integrase gene (int) and gag sequences were PCR amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes available from 9 of the 10 persons. Phylogenetic analysis showed SFV infection originating from chimpanzees (n = 8) and baboons (n = 1). SFV seropositivity for periods of 8 to 26 years (median, 22 years) was documented for six workers for whom archived serum samples were available, demonstrating long-standing SFV infection. All 10 persons reported general good health, and secondary transmission of SFV was not observed in three wives available for WB and PCR testing. Additional phylogenetic analysis of int and gag sequences provided the first direct evidence identifying the source chimpanzees of the SFV infection in two workers. This study documents more frequent infection with SFV than with other simian retroviruses in persons working with NHPs and provides important information on the natural history and species origin of these infections. Our data highlight the importance of studies to better define the public health implications of zoonotic SFV infections. PMID:14990698

  20. Persistent gene expression in mouse nasal epithelia following feline immunodeficiency virus-based vector gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Patrick L; Burnight, Erin R; Hickey, Melissa A; Blissard, Gary W; McCray, Paul B

    2005-10-01

    Gene transfer development for treatment or prevention of cystic fibrosis lung disease has been limited by the inability of vectors to efficiently and persistently transduce airway epithelia. Influenza A is an enveloped virus with natural lung tropism; however, pseudotyping feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based lentiviral vector with the hemagglutinin envelope protein proved unsuccessful. Conversely, pseudotyping FIV with the envelope protein from influenza D (Thogoto virus GP75) resulted in titers of 10(6) transducing units (TU)/ml and conferred apical entry into well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Baculovirus GP64 envelope glycoproteins share sequence identity with influenza D GP75 envelope glycoproteins. Pseudotyping FIV with GP64 from three species of baculovirus resulted in titers of 10(7) to 10(9) TU/ml. Of note, GP64 from Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus resulted in high-titer FIV preparations (approximately 10(9) TU/ml) and conferred apical entry into polarized primary cultures of human airway epithelia. Using a luciferase reporter gene and bioluminescence imaging, we observed persistent gene expression from in vivo gene transfer in the mouse nose with A. californica GP64-pseudotyped FIV (AcGP64-FIV). Longitudinal bioluminescence analysis documented persistent expression in nasal epithelia for approximately 1 year without significant decline. According to histological analysis using a LacZ reporter gene, olfactory and respiratory epithelial cells were transduced. In addition, methylcellulose-formulated AcGP64-FIV transduced mouse nasal epithelia with much greater efficiency than similarly formulated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped FIV. These data suggest that AcGP64-FIV efficiently transduces and persistently expresses a transgene in nasal epithelia in the absence of agents that disrupt the cellular tight junction integrity.

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration Protein Expressed in Escherichia Coli Possesses Selective DNA Cleaving Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Paula A.; Fyfe, James A.

    1990-07-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integration protein, a potential target for selective antiviral therapy, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein, free of detectable contaminating endonucleases, selectively cleaved double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides that mimic the U3 and the U5 termini of linear HIV DNA. Two nucleotides were removed from the 3' ends of both the U5 plus strand and the U3 minus strand; in both cases, cleavage was adjacent to a conserved CA dinucleotide. The reaction was metal-ion dependent, with a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Reaction selectivity was further demonstrated by the lack of cleavage of an HIV U5 substrate on the complementary (minus) strand, an analogous substrate that mimics the U3 terminus of an avian retrovirus, and an HIV U5 substrate in which the conserved CA dinucleotide was replaced with a TA dinucleotide. Such an integration protein-mediated cleavage reaction is expected to occur as part of the integration event in the retroviral life cycle, in which a double-stranded DNA copy of the viral RNA genome is inserted into the host cell DNA.

  2. Simian Hemorrhagic Fever (SHF) Virus. Phase 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-31

    tlll AD111 CONTRACT NO: DAMDI7-91-C-1006 TITLE: SIMIAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (SHF) VIRUS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Margo A. Brinton, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Simian Hemorrhagic Fever (SHF) Virus DAMD17-91-C-1006 6. AUTHOR(S) Margo A. Brinton, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) virus -specific hybridoma cultures, expand two clones from each clone as well as 50 ml of supernatant fluid from

  3. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV{sub KU1bMC33}) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Melissa L.; Pacyniak, Erik; Gomez, Lisa M.; Fegley, Barbara; Mulcahy, Ellyn R.; Hill, M. Sarah; Culley, Nathan; Pinson, David M.; Nothnick, Warren; Powers, Michael F.; Wong, Scott W.; Stephens, Edward B. . E-mail: estephen@kumc.edu

    2006-01-20

    The Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been shown to shunt the CD4 receptor molecule to the proteasome for degradation and to enhance virus release from infected cells. The exact mechanism by which the Vpu protein enhances virus release is currently unknown but some investigators have shown that this function is associated with the transmembrane domain and potential ion channel properties. In this study, we determined if the transmembrane domain of Vpu could be functionally substituted with that of the prototypical viroporin, the M2 protein of influenza A virus. We constructed chimeric vpu gene in which the transmembrane domain of Vpu was replaced with that of the M2 protein of influenza. This chimeric vpu gene was substituted for the vpu gene in the genome of a pathogenic simian human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. The resulting virus, SHIV{sub M2}, synthesized a Vpu protein that had a slightly different M{sub r} compared to the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}, reflecting the different sizes of the two Vpu proteins. The SHIV{sub M2} was shown to replicate with slightly reduced kinetics when compared to the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} but electron microscopy revealed that the site of maturation was similar to the parental virus SHIV{sub KU1bMC33}. We show that the replication and spread of SHIV{sub M2} could be blocked with the antiviral drug rimantadine, which is known to target the M2 ion channel. Our results indicate a dose dependent inhibition of SHIV{sub M2} with 100 {mu}M rimantadine resulting in a >95% decrease in p27 released into the culture medium. Rimantadine did not affect the replication of the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. Examination of SHIV{sub M2}-infected cells treated with 50 {mu}M rimantadine revealed numerous viral particles associated with the cell plasma membrane and within intracytoplasmic vesicles, which is similar to HIV-1 mutants lacking a functional vpu. To determine if SHIV{sub M2} was as pathogenic as

  4. Zoonotic Potential of Simian Arteriviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Adam L.; Lauck, Michael; Sibley, Samuel D.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Jasinska, Anna J.; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E.; Jolly, Clifford J.; Marx, Preston A.; Apetrei, Cristian; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Wild nonhuman primates are immediate sources and long-term reservoirs of human pathogens. However, ethical and technical challenges have hampered the identification of novel blood-borne pathogens in these animals. We recently examined RNA viruses in plasma from wild African monkeys and discovered several novel, highly divergent viruses belonging to the family Arteriviridae. Close relatives of these viruses, including simian hemorrhagic fever virus, have caused sporadic outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in captive macaque monkeys since the 1960s. However, arterivirus infection in wild nonhuman primates had not been described prior to 2011. The arteriviruses recently identified in wild monkeys have high sequence and host species diversity, maintain high viremia, and are prevalent in affected populations. Taken together, these features suggest that the simian arteriviruses may be “preemergent” zoonotic pathogens. If not, this would imply that biological characteristics of RNA viruses thought to facilitate zoonotic transmission may not, by themselves, be sufficient for such transmission to occur. PMID:26559828

  5. High Doses of GM-CSF Inhibit Antibody Responses in Rectal Secretions and Diminish Modified Vaccinia Ankara/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Protection in TRIM5α-Restrictive Macaques.

    PubMed

    Kannanganat, Sunil; Wyatt, Linda S; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Chamcha, Venkatesarlu; Chea, Lynette S; Kozlowski, Pamela A; LaBranche, Celia C; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Lawson, Benton; Reddy, Pradeep B J; Styles, Tiffany M; Vanderford, Thomas H; Montefiori, David C; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-11-01

    We tested, in rhesus macaques, the effects of a 500-fold range of an admixed recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing rhesus GM-CSF (MVA/GM-CSF) on the immunogenicity and protection elicited by an MVA/SIV macaque 239 vaccine. High doses of MVA/GM-CSF did not affect the levels of systemic envelope (Env)-specific Ab, but it did decrease the expression of the gut-homing receptor α4β7 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (p < 0.01) and the magnitudes of Env-specific IgA (p = 0.01) and IgG (p < 0.05) in rectal secretions. The protective effect of the vaccine was evaluated using 12 weekly rectal challenges in rhesus macaques subgrouped by tripartite motif-containing protein 5α (TRIM5α) genotypes that are restrictive or permissive for infection by the challenge virus SIVsmE660. Eight of nine TRIM5α-restrictive animals receiving no or the lowest dose (1 × 10(5) PFU) of MVA/GM-CSF resisted all 12 challenges. In the comparable TRIM5α-permissive group, only 1 of 12 animals resisted all 12 challenges. In the TRIM5α-restrictive animals, but not in the TRIM5α-permissive animals, the number of challenges to infection directly correlated with the magnitudes of Env-specific rectal IgG (r = +0.6) and IgA (r = +0.6), the avidity of Env-specific serum IgG (r = +0.5), and Ab dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (r = +0.6). Titers of neutralizing Ab did not correlate with protection. We conclude that 1) protection elicited by MVA/SIVmac239 is strongly dependent on the presence of TRIM5α restriction, 2) nonneutralizing Ab responses contribute to protection against SIVsmE660 in TRIM5α-restrictive animals, and 3) high doses of codelivered MVA/GM-CSF inhibit mucosal Ab responses and the protection elicited by MVA expressing noninfectious SIV macaque 239 virus-like particles.

  6. A simian virus 40 large T-antigen segment containing amino acids 1 to 127 and expressed under the control of the rat elastase-1 promoter produces pancreatic acinar carcinomas in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tevethia, M J; Bonneau, R H; Griffith, J W; Mylin, L

    1997-01-01

    The simian virus 40 large T antigen induces tumors in a wide variety of tissues in transgenic mice, the precise tissues depending on the tissue specificity of the upstream region controlling T-antigen expression. Expression of mutant T antigens that contain a subset of the protein's activities restricts the spectrum of tumors induced. Others showed previously that expression of a mutant large T antigen containing the N-terminal 121 amino acids (T1-121) under control of the lymphotropic papovavirus promoter resulted in slow-growing choroid plexus tumors, whereas full-length T antigen under the same promoter induced rapidly growing CPR tumors, T-cell lymphomas, and B-cell lymphomas. In those instances, the alteration in tumor induction or progression correlated with inability of the mutant large T antigen to bind the tumor suppressor p53. In the study reported here, we investigated the capacity of an N-terminal T antigen segment (T1-127) expressed in conjunction with small t antigen under control of the rat elastase-1 (E1) promoter to induce pancreatic tumors. The results show that pancreases of transgenic mice expressing T1-127 and small t antigen display acinar cell dysplasia at birth that progresses to neoplasia. The average age to death in these mice is within the range reported for transgenic mice expressing full-length T antigen under control of the E1 promoter. These results indicate that sequestering p53 by binding is not required for the development of rapidly growing acinar cell carcinomas. In addition, we provide evidence that small t antigen is unlikely to be required. Finally, we show that the p53 protein in acinar cell carcinomas is wild type in conformation. PMID:9343166

  7. Spatial alterations between CD4(+) T follicular helper, B, and CD8(+) T cells during simian immunodeficiency virus infection: T/B cell homeostasis, activation, and potential mechanism for viral escape.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung Joo; Amancha, Praveen K; Rogers, Kenneth; Ansari, Aftab A; Villinger, Francois

    2012-04-01

    HIV/SIV infections induce chronic immune activation with remodeling of lymphoid architecture and hypergammaglobulinemia, although the mechanisms leading to such symptoms remain to be fully elucidated. Moreover, lymph nodes have been highlighted as a predilection site for SIV escape in vivo. Following 20 rhesus macaques infected with SIVmac239 as they progress from pre-infection to acute and chronic infection, we document for the first time, to our knowledge, the local dynamics of T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells and B cells in situ. Progression of SIV infection was accompanied by increased numbers of well-delineated follicles containing germinal centers (GCs) and T(FH) cells with a progressive increase in the density of programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression in lymph nodes. The rise in PD-1(+) T(FH) cells was followed by a substantial accumulation of Ki67(+) B cells within GCs. However, unlike in blood, major increases in the frequency of CD27(+) memory B cells were observed in lymph nodes, indicating increased turnover of these cells, correlated with increases in total and SIV specific Ab levels. Of importance, compared with T cell zones, GCs seemed to exclude CD8(+) T cells while harboring increasing numbers of CD4(+) T cells, many of which are positive for SIVgag, providing an environment particularly beneficial for virus replication and reservoirs. Our data highlight for the first time, to our knowledge, important spatial interactions of GC cell subsets during SIV infection, the capacity of lymphoid tissues to maintain stable relative levels of circulating B cell subsets, and a potential mechanism for viral reservoirs within GCs during SIV infection.

  8. Cofactor requirement for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry into a CD4-expressing human cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, R D; Geballe, A P

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) receptor CD4 on many nonhuman and some human cell lines is not sufficient to permit HIV-1 infection. We describe a human glioblastoma cell line (U373-MG) which remains resistant to HIV-1 despite the added expression of an authentic CD4 molecule. The block to HIV-1 infection of these cells is strain independent and appears to be at viral entry. Heterokaryons of CD4-expressing U373-MG (U373-CD4) cells fused to HeLa cells allow HIV-1 entry. A U373-CD4/HeLa hybrid clone allows efficient HIV-1 replication. These results suggest that HeLa cells express a factor(s) that can complement the viral entry defect of U373-CD4 cells and is necessary for efficient CD4-mediated HIV-1 infection. Images PMID:7690415

  9. Syphilis superinfection activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus I in latently infected rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, C. K.; Hughes, M. A.; Hsu, P. L.; Mahoney, S.; Duvic, M.; Sell, S.

    1991-01-01

    Superinfection of latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected rabbits with either Treponema pallidum or Shope fibroma virus (SFV) activates HIV expression. In addition, HIV-infected rabbits demonstrate prolonged cutaneous lesions (chancres) after intracutaneous challenge with T. pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis. Rabbits were infected by intravenous inoculation of 3 x 10(7) human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type III (HTLV-III)/B10 (HIV-1)-infected H9 (human) cells. Five weeks after initial infection, integrated HIV-1-specific DNA sequences were detected in the DNA of the peripheral blood lymphocytes of only one of eight rabbits using polymerase chain reactions (PCR); human DNA could not be detected at this time. Furthermore HIV infection could not be demonstrated by either seroconversion or PCR during the next 6 months. All HIV-infected rabbits remained clinically healthy and had normal white blood cell counts. Six months after HIV infection, four HIV-infected and two noninfected controls were superinfected with 10(6) T. pallidum in eight skin sites in the shaved skin of the back, and four infected and two control animals were challenged with an intradermal injection with SFV. After infection with either syphilis or SFV, the DNA from the white blood cells of all eight HIV-infected rabbits contained HIV sequences, and HIV sequences were demonstrated in dermal mononuclear cells of the syphilitic lesions by in situ hybridization. The SFV-induced tumors were rejected normally in the HIV-infected rabbits, but four of the four rabbits challenged with T. pallidum had delayed development of cutaneous lesions and three of four demonstrated larger and more prolonged lesions. White blood counts, mitogen responses, and interleukin-2 production remained within normal limits, and seroconversion for HIV was not detected. Three of four rabbits in a second group, challenged with T. pallidum 4 months after HIV-inoculation, also had delayed healing of syphilitic

  10. An 11-kDa form of human immunodeficiency virus protease expressed in Escherichia coli is sufficient for enzymatic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, M C; Lim, J J; Heimer, E P; Kramer, R A

    1988-01-01

    In order to define the protease domain of human immunodeficiency virus 1, various regions of the pol open reading frame were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Antiserum directed against the conserved retroviral protease active site was used to identify pol precursor and processed species containing the presumed protease domain. The smallest product that accumulates is about 11 kDa as measured by NaDodSO4/PAGE. This size agrees with that predicted from the presence in this region of two Phe-Pro sequences, which is one of the cleavage sites recognized by HIV protease. DNA encoding only the predicted 11-kDa protein was cloned, bypassing the need for autoprocessing, and the protein was expressed to a high level in E. coli. This form is active as demonstrated by its ability to specifically cleave protease-deficient pol protein in vivo in E. coli. Extracts of E. coli containing the 11-kDa protease also process human immunodeficiency virus gag substrates in vitro. These results demonstrate that the 11-kDa protease is sufficient for enzymatic activity and are consistent with a major role for this form in virus maturation. Images PMID:3282230

  11. Constitutive expression of types 1 and 2 cytokines by alveolar macrophages from feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, J W; Levy, J K; Bliss, S K; Tompkins, W A; Tompkins, M B

    2001-05-10

    Evidence suggests that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), causes pulmonary immunodeficiency. The overall objective of this study was to explore FIV-induced alterations in cell counts and cytokine gene expression in the pulmonary compartment during the acute stage infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were collected from FIV-infected and control cats at 0, 4, 10, and 16 weeks post-FIV infection for phenotype and cytokine analysis. The major change in BAL cellular populations following FIV-infection was the development of a neutrophilia. Total BAL cell counts and relative numbers of alveolar macrophages (AM), eosinophils, and lymphocytes remained similar in both groups. The RT-qcPCR analyses of AM purified from BAL showed constitutive expression of TNFalpha, IL6 and IL10 mRNAs that peaked during the acute stage of infection then declined. The TNFalpha and IL6 bioactive protein secretion showed a similar response. In contrast, IFNgamma expression increased progressively with time after infection and paralleled a progressive increase in FIV-gag mRNA in AM. The IL12 p40 expression also differed from the other cytokines in that there was a progressive decrease in the number of cats with AM IL12 expression following FIV infection. Infection of AM in vitro with FIV also caused an increase in TNFalpha and IL6 mRNA and bioactive protein suggesting that the increased cytokine response by AM following infection of cats with FIV is an intrinsic characteristic of FIV-infected AM. In summary, pulmonary immune changes seen in FIV-infected cats are similar to those seen in HIV-infected human patients.

  12. Subnormal albumin gene expression is associated with weight loss in immunodeficient/DNA-repair-deficient wasted mice

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.R.; Weaver, P.; Woloschak, G.E. |; Mobarhan, S.

    1993-09-01

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation wst express a disease syndrome of immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction, and increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation. The mice were originally characterized as ``wasted`` because of their dramatic weight loss that begins at 21 days of age and progresses until death at 28-32 days of age. Because of the reported association between abnormal liver status and weight loss, we examined expression of a variety of liver-specific genes in wst/wst 10 mice relative to littermate (wst/{center_dot}) and parental strain (BCF{sub 1}) controls. Interestingly, the results revealed a greater than 67% reduction in albumin mRNA expression in livers derived from wst/wst mice relative to both controls. Expression of alpha-fetoprotein as well as a variety of other liver-specific genes (secretory component, metallothionein, cytochrome P{sub 1}450, transferrin receptor, tumor necrosis factor, and Ia antigen) was unaffected. These results suggest a relationship between low albumin expression and wasting syndromes in mice. In addition, we believe that our data suggest the wasted mouse as a unique model for subnormal albumin expression in humans.

  13. Influence of antiretroviral therapy on programmed death-1 (CD279) expression on T cells in lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Ehrhard, Simone; Wernli, Marion; Dürmüller, Ursula; Battegay, Manuel; Gudat, Fred; Erb, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection leads to T-cell exhaustion and involution of lymphoid tissue. Recently, the programmed death-1 pathway was found to be crucial for virus-specific T-cell exhaustion during human immunodeficiency virus infection. Programmed death-1 expression was elevated on human immunodeficiency virus-specific peripheral blood CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and correlated with disease severity. During human immunodeficiency infection, lymphoid tissue acts as a major viral reservoir and is an important site for viral replication, but it is also essential for regulatory processes important for immune recovery. We compared programmed death-1 expression in 2 consecutive inguinal lymph nodes of 14 patients, excised before antiretroviral therapy (antiretroviral therapy as of 1997-1999) and 16 to 20 months under antiretroviral therapy. In analogy to lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-negative individuals, in all treated patients, the germinal center area decreased, whereas the number of germinal centers did not significantly change. Programmed death-1 expression was mostly found in germinal centers. The absolute extent of programmed death 1 expression per section was not significantly altered after antiretroviral therapy resulting in a significant-relative increase of programmed death 1 per shrunken germinal center. In colocalization studies, CD45R0+ cells that include helper/inducer T cells strongly expressed programmed death-1 before and during therapy, whereas CD8+ T cells, fewer in numbers, showed a weak expression for programmed death-1. Thus, although antiretroviral therapy seems to reduce the number of programmed death-1-positive CD8+ T lymphocytes within germinal centers, it does not down-regulate programmed death-1 expression on the helper/inducer T-cell subset that may remain exhausted and therefore unable to trigger immune recovery.

  14. Chemokine receptor expression in the human ectocervix: implications for infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-type I

    PubMed Central

    Yeaman, Grant R; Asin, Susana; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; Gonzalez, Jorge L; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W; Howell, Alexandra L

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is a sexually transmitted pathogen that can infect cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT). The mechanism of viral transmission within the FRT and the mode of viral spread to the periphery are not well understood. To characterize the frequency of potential targets of HIV infection within the FRT, we performed a systematic study of the expression of HIV receptors (CD4, galactosyl ceramide (GalCer)) and coreceptors (CXCR4 and CCR5) on epithelial cells and leucocytes from the ectocervix. The ectocervix is a likely first site of contact with HIV-1 following heterosexual transmission, and expression of these receptors is likely to correlate with susceptibility to viral infection. We obtained ectocervical tissue specimens from women undergoing hysterectomy, and compared expression of these receptors among patients who were classified as being in the proliferative or secretory phases of their menstrual cycle at the time of hysterectomy, as well as from postmenopausal tissues. Epithelial cells from tissues at early and mid-proliferative stages of the menstrual cycle express CD4, although by late proliferative and secretory phases, CD4 expression was absent or weak. In contrast, GalCer expression was uniform in all stages of the menstrual cycle. CXCR4 expression was not detected on ectocervical epithelial cells and positive staining was only evident on individual leucocytes. In contrast, CCR5 expression was detected on ectocervical epithelial cells from tissues at all stages of the menstrual cycle. Overall, our results suggest that HIV infection of cells in the ectocervix could most likely occur through GalCer and CCR5. These findings are important to define potential targets of HIV-1 infection within the FRT, and for the future design of approaches to reduce the susceptibility of women to infection by HIV-1. PMID:15554931

  15. Reduced cell surface expression of processed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the presence of Nef.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, O; Rivière, Y; Heard, J M; Danos, O

    1993-01-01

    nef genes from two laboratory grown human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains and from two proviruses that had not been propagated in vitro were introduced into CD4+ lymphoblastoid CEM cells. The stable expression of all four Nef proteins was associated with an almost complete abrogation of CD4 cell surface localization. The consequences of the presence of Nef on gp160 cleavage, gp120 surface localization, and envelope-induced cytopathic effect were examined in CEM cells in which the HIV-1 env gene was expressed from a vaccinia virus vector. The presence of Nef did not modify the processing of gp160 into its subunits but resulted in a significant decrease of cell surface levels of gp120, associated with a dramatic reduction of the fusion-mediated cell death. Surface levels of mutant envelope glycoproteins unable to bind CD4 were not altered in Nef-expressing cells, suggesting that the phenomenon was CD4 dependent. The intracellular accumulation of fully processed envelope glycoproteins could significantly delay the cytopathic effect associated with envelope surface expression in HIV-infected cells and may be relevant to the selective advantage associated with Nef during the in vivo infectious process. Images PMID:8497051

  16. Bilateral retinal and brain tumors in transgenic mice expressing simian virus 40 large T antigen under control of the human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein promoter

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that postnatal expression of the viral oncoprotein SV40 T antigen in rod photoreceptors (transgene MOT1), at a time when retinal cells have withdrawn from the mitotic cycle, leads to photoreceptor cell death (Al-Ubaidi et al., 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89:1194-1198). To study the effect of the specificity of the promoter, we replaced the mouse opsin promoter in MOT1 by a 1.3-kb promoter fragment of the human IRBP gene which is expressed in both rod and cone photoreceptors during embryonic development. The resulting construct, termed HIT1, was injected into mouse embryos and five transgenic mice lines were established. Mice heterozygous for HIT1 exhibited early bilateral retinal and brain tumors with varying degrees of incidence. Histopathological examination of the brain and eyes of three of the families showed typical primitive neuroectodermal tumors. In some of the bilateral retinal tumors, peculiar rosettes were observed, which were different from the Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes typically associated with human retinoblastomas. The ocular and cerebral tumors, however, contained Homer-Wright rosettes, and showed varying degrees of immunoreactivity to antibodies against the neuronal specific antigens, synaptophysin and Leu7, but not to antibodies against photoreceptor specific proteins. Taken together, the results indicate that the specificity of the promoter used for T antigen and/or the time of onset of transgene expression determines the fate of photoreceptor cells expressing T antigen. PMID:1334963

  17. LAG3 expression in active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bonnie L; Mehra, Smriti; Ahsan, Muhammad H; Selman, Moises; Khader, Shabaana A; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a highly successful pathogen because of its ability to persist in human lungs for long periods of time. MTB modulates several aspects of the host immune response. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) is a protein with a high affinity for the CD4 receptor and is expressed mainly by regulatory T cells with immunomodulatory functions. To understand the function of LAG3 during MTB infection, a nonhuman primate model of tuberculosis, which recapitulates key aspects of natural human infection in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), was used. We show that the expression of LAG3 is highly induced in the lungs and particularly in the granulomatous lesions of macaques experimentally infected with MTB. Furthermore, we show that LAG3 expression is not induced in the lungs and lung granulomas of animals exhibiting latent tuberculosis infection. However, simian immunodeficiency virus-induced reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection results in an increased expression of LAG3 in the lungs. This response is not observed in nonhuman primates infected with non-MTB bacterial pathogens, nor with simian immunodeficiency virus alone. Our data show that LAG3 was expressed primarily on CD4(+) T cells, presumably by regulatory T cells but also by natural killer cells. The expression of LAG3 coincides with high bacterial burdens and changes in the host type 1 helper T-cell response.

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Tat-Activated Expression of Poliovirus Protein 2A Inhibits mRNA Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Hong; Baltimore, David

    1989-04-01

    To study the effect of poliovirus protein 2A on cellular RNA translation, the tat control system of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was used. Protein 2A was expressed from a plasmid construct (pHIV/2A) incorporating the HIV long terminal repeat. Protein synthesis was measured by using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase as a reporter gene driven by the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat. When HIV/2A was contransfected with the reporter, addition of a tat-producing plasmid caused at least a 50-fold drop in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase synthesis. A HeLa cell line carrying HIV/2A was established. In it, tat expression caused more than a 10-fold drop in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase synthesis from the reporter plasmid. Furthermore, 2A induction by tat caused cleavage of the cellular translation factor P220, a part of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F. Thus protein 2A can, by itself, carry out the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis characteristic of a poliovirus infection. Also, the HIV tat activation provides a very effective method to control gene expression in mammalian cells.

  19. SIVsm Quasispecies Adaptation to a New Simian Host

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Despite the potential for infectious agents harbored by other species to become emerging human pathogens, little is known about why some agents establish successful cross-species transmission, while others do not. The simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), certain variants of which gave rise to the human HIV-1 and HIV-2 epidemics, have demonstrated tremendous success in infecting new host species, both simian and human. SIVsm from sooty mangabeys appears to have infected humans on several occasions, and was readily transmitted to nonnatural Asian macaque species, providing animal models of AIDS. Here we describe the first in-depth analysis of the tremendous SIVsm quasispecies sequence variation harbored by individual sooty mangabeys, and how this diverse quasispecies adapts to two different host species—new nonnatural rhesus macaque hosts and natural sooty mangabey hosts. Viral adaptation to rhesus macaques was associated with the immediate amplification of a phylogenetically related subset of envelope (env) variants. These variants contained a shorter variable region 1 loop and lacked two specific glycosylation sites, which may be selected for during acute infection. In contrast, transfer of SIVsm to its natural host did not subject the quasispecies to any significant selective pressures or bottleneck. After 100 d postinfection, variants more closely representative of the source inoculum reemerged in the macaques. This study describes an approach for elucidating how pathogens adapt to new host species, and highlights the particular importance of SIVsm env diversity in enabling cross-species transmission. The replicative advantage of a subset of SIVsm variants in macaques may be related to features of target cells or receptors that are specific to the new host environment, and may involve CD4-independent engagement of a viral coreceptor conserved among primates. PMID:16201015

  20. Familial variable immunodeficiency: autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with variable expression of the defect(s).

    PubMed

    Feldman, G; Koziner, B; Talamo, R; Bloch, K J

    1975-10-01

    In 1963, Rosen and Bougas reported the case of a woman with recurrent infection, marked elevation of 19S, and virtual absence of 7S gamma globulin. Recently, members of her family were found to have similar abnormalities: Ten of the 37 family members tested had elevated levels of serum IgM accompanied by a combined deficiency of IgG and IgA in three, and by a deficiency of either IgG or IgA in two. In five, an increase in IgM was the sole abnormality. Two children had deficiencies of IgG and IgA with normal serum levels of IgM. Ten of the 12 affected individuals had no IgD detectable by radial immunodiffusion and six had a low percentage of IgG-bearing B lymphocytes. A lack of correlation between the immunochemical abnormalities and either the presence or severity of clinical illness was observed. The presence of immunodeficiency in three generations and in both sexes of this family suggests an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with variable penetrance of the defect.

  1. Lac-regulated system for generating adenovirus 5 vaccine vectors expressing cytolytic human immunodeficiency virus 1 genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunxia; Crews, Charles Jefferson; Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Blackwell, Jerry L

    2009-09-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) vectors have been developed as human immunodeficiency-1 (HIV-1) vaccine vectors because they consistently induce immune responses in preclinical animal models and human trials. Strong promoters and codon-optimization are often used to enhance vaccine-induced HIV-1 gene expression and immunogenicity. However, if the transgene is inherently cytotoxic in the cell line used to produce the vector, and is expressed at high levels, it is difficult to rescue a stable Ad HIV-1 vaccine vector. Therefore we hypothesized that generation of Ad vaccine vectors expressing cytotoxic genes, such as HIV-1 env, would be more efficient if expression of the transgene was down-regulated during Ad rescue. To test this hypothesis, a Lac repressor-operator system was applied to regulate expression of reporter luciferase and HIV-1 env transgenes during Ad rescue. The results demonstrate that during Ad rescue, constitutive expression of the Lac repressor in 293 cells reduced transgene expression levels to approximately 5% of that observed in the absence of regulation. Furthermore, Lac-regulation translated into more efficient Ad rescue compared to traditional 293 cells. Importantly, Ad vectors rescued with this system showed high levels of transgene expression when transduced into cells that lack the Lac repressor protein. The Lac-regulated system also facilitated the rescue of modified Ad vectors that have non-native receptor tropism. These tropism-modified Ad vectors infect a broader range of cell types than the unmodified Ad, which could increase their effectiveness as a vaccine vector. Overall, the Lac-regulated system described here (i) is backwards compatible with Ad vector methods that employ bacterial-mediated homologous recombination, (ii) is adaptable for the engineering of tropism-modified Ad vectors, and (iii) does not require co-expression of regulatory genes from the vector or the addition of exogenous chemicals to induce or repress transgene expression. This

  2. Improved gene expression in resting macrophages using an oligopeptide derived from Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type-1

    SciTech Connect

    Mizoguchi, Izuru; Ooe, Yoshihiro; Hoshino, Shigeki; Shimura, Mari; Kasahara, Tadashi; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Toshiko; Takaku, Fumimaro; Nakayama, Yasuhide; Ishizaka, Yukihito . E-mail: zakay@ri.imcj.go.jp

    2005-12-23

    Vpr, an accessory gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type-1, is thought to transport a viral DNA from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in resting macrophages. Previously, we reported that a peptide encompassing amino acids 52-78 of Vpr (C45D18) promotes the nuclear trafficking of recombinant proteins that are conjugated with C45D18. Here, we present evidence that C45D18, when conjugated with a six-branched cationic polymer of poly(N,N-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide)-block-oligo(4-aminostyrene) (SV: star vector), facilitates gene expression in resting macrophages. Although there was no difference between SV alone and C45D18-SV with respect to gene transduction into growing cells, C45D18-SV resulted in more than 40-fold greater expression of the exogenous gene upon transduction into chemically differentiated macrophages and human quiescent monocyte-derived macrophages. The data suggest that C45D18 contributes to improving the ability of a non-viral vector to transduce macrophages with exogenous genes and we discuss its further application.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Modulation of Adaptive Immune Response following Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Alessandro; Tinazzi, Elisa; Rizzi, Monica; Beri, Ruggero; Argentino, Giuseppe; Ottria, Andrea; Lunardi, Claudio; Puccetti, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular intravenous immunoglobulin treatment is used to replace antibody deficiency in primary immunodeficiency diseases; however the therapeutic effect seems to be related not only to antibody replacement but also to an active role in the modulation of the immune response. Common variable immunodeficiency is the most frequent primary immunodeficiency seen in clinical practice. Methods We have studied the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement in patients with common variable immunodeficiency by evaluating the gene-expression profiles from Affimetrix HG-U133A. Some of the gene array results were validated by real time RT-PCR and by the measurement of circulating cytokines and chemokines by ELISA. Moreover we performed FACS analysis of blood mononuclear cells from the patients enrolled in the study. Results A series of genes involved in innate and acquired immune responses were markedly up- or down-modulated before therapy. Such genes included CD14, CD36, LEPR, IRF-5, RGS-1, CD38, TNFRSF25, IL-4, CXCR4, CCR3, IL-8. Most of these modulated genes showed an expression similar to that of normal controls after immunoglobulin replacement. Real time RT-PCR of selected genes and serum levels of IL-4, CXCR4 before and after therapy changed accordingly to gene array results. Interestingly, serum levels of IL-8 remained unchanged, as the corresponding gene, before and after treatment. FACS analysis showed a marked decrease of CD8+T cells and an increase of CD4+T cells following treatment. Moreover we observed a marked increase of CD23−CD27−IgM−IgG− B cells (centrocytes). Conclusions Our results are in accordance with previous reports and provide further support to the hypothesis that the benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are not only related to antibody replacement but also to its ability to modulate the immune response in common variable immunodeficiency. PMID:24831519

  4. Immunomodulator expression in trophoblasts from the feline immunodeficiency virus FIV infected cat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FIV infection frequently compromises pregnancy under experimental conditions and is accompanied by aberrant expression of some placental cytokines. Trophoblasts produce numerous immunomodulators that play a role in placental development and pregnancy maintenance. We hypothesized that FIV infection m...

  5. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, S.; Kamine, J.; Markovitz, D.; Fenrick, R.; Pagano, J.

    1988-03-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are frequently coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this report, the authors demonstrate that an EBV immediate-early gene product, BamHI MLF1, stimulates expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter. The HIV promoter sequences necessary for trans-activation by EBV do not include the tat-responsive sequences. In addition, in contrast to the other herpesvirus trans-activators previously studied, the EBV BamHI MLF1 gene product appears to function in part by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since it increases pHIV-CAT protein activity more than it increases HIV-CAT mRNA. This ability of an EBV gene product to activate HIV gene expression may have biologic consequences in persons coinfected with both viruses.

  6. Altered Monocyte and Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression Is Linked to Vascular Inflammation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manjusha; Bowman, Emily; Gabriel, Janelle; Amburgy, Taylor; Mayne, Elizabeth; Zidar, David A.; Maierhofer, Courtney; Turner, Abigail Norris; Bazan, Jose A.; Koletar, Susan L.; Lederman, Michael M.; Sieg, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk for vascular thrombosis, potentially driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. Methods. Monocyte subsets (CD14+CD16−, CD14+CD16+, CD14DimCD16+) from HIV negative (HIV−) and antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV positive (HIV+) participants (N = 19 and 49) were analyzed by flow cytometry for adhesion molecule expression (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1], macrophage-1 antigen [Mac-1], CD11c/CD18, very late antigen [VLA]-4) and the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1); these receptors recognize ligands (intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAMs], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, fractalkine) on activated endothelial cells (ECs) and promote vascular migration. Plasma markers of monocyte (soluble [s]CD14, sCD163) and EC (VCAM-1, ICAM-1,2, fractalkine) activation and systemic (tumor necrosis factor receptor [TNFR-I], TNFR-II) and vascular (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [Lp-PLA2]) inflammation were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Proportions of CD16+ monocyte subsets were increased in HIV+ participants. Among all monocyte subsets, levels of LFA-1 were increased and CX3CR1 levels were decreased in HIV+ participants (P < .01). Levels of sCD163, sCD14, fractalkine, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, TNFR-II, and Lp-PLA2 were also increased in HIV+ participants (P < .05), and levels of sCD14, TNFR-I, and TNFR-II were directly related to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in HIV+ participants. Expression of CX3CR1 on monocyte subsets was inversely related to plasma Lp-PLA2 (P < .05 for all). Conclusions. Increased proportions of CD16+ monocytes, cells with altered adhesion molecule expression, combined with elevated levels of their ligands, may promote vascular inflammation in HIV infection. PMID:28066794

  7. Potential control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 asp expression by alternative splicing in the upstream untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Michael S; Birch, Katherine E; Deacon, Nicholas J; Mosse, Jennifer A

    2012-07-01

    The negative-sense asp open reading frame (ORF) positioned opposite to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env gene encodes the 189 amino acid, membrane-associated ASP protein. Negative-sense transcription, regulated by long terminal repeat sequences, has been observed early in HIV-1 infection in vitro. All subtypes of HIV-1 were scanned to detect the negative-sense asp ORF and to identify potential regulatory sequences. A series of highly conserved upstream short open reading frames (sORFs) was identified. This potential control region from HIV-1(NL4-3), containing six sORFs, was cloned upstream of the reporter gene EGFP. Expression by transfection of HEK293 cells indicated that the introduction of this sORF region inhibits EGFP reporter expression; analysis of transcripts revealed no significant changes in levels of EGFP mRNA. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR) further demonstrated that the upstream sORF region undergoes alternative splicing in vitro. The most abundant product is spliced to remove sORFs I to V, leaving only the in-frame sORF VI upstream of asp. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of typical splice donor- and acceptor-site motifs. Mutation of the highly conserved splice donor and acceptor sites modulates, but does not fully relieve, inhibition of EGFP production. The strong conservation of asp and its sORFs across all HIV-1 subtypes suggests that the asp gene product may have a role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. Alternative splicing of the upstream sORF region provides a potential mechanism for controlling expression of the asp gene.

  8. Immunomodulator expression in trophoblasts from the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background FIV infection frequently compromises pregnancy under experimental conditions and is accompanied by aberrant expression of some placental cytokines. Trophoblasts produce numerous immunomodulators that play a role in placental development and pregnancy maintenance. We hypothesized that FIV infection may cause dysregulation of trophoblast immunomodulator expression, and aberrant expression of these molecules may potentiate inflammation and compromise pregnancy. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the expression of representative pro-(TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, and GM-CSF) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10); CD134, a secondary co-stimulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells (FIV primary receptor); the chemokine receptor CXCR4 (FIV co-receptor); SDF-1α, the chemokine ligand to CXCR4; and FIV gag in trophoblasts from early-and late-term pregnancy. Methods We used an anti-cytokeratin antibody in immunohistochemistry to identify trophoblasts selectively, collected these cells using laser capture microdissection, and extracted total RNA from the captured cell populations. Real time, reverse transcription-PCR was used to quantify gene expression. Results We detected IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and CXCR4 in trophoblasts from early-and late-term pregnancy. Expression of cytokines increased from early to late pregnancy in normal tissues. A clear, pro-inflammatory microenvironment was not evident in trophoblasts from FIV-infected queens at either stage of pregnancy. Reproductive failure was accompanied by down-regulation of both pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. CD134 was not detected in trophoblasts, and FIV gag was detected in only one of ten trophoblast specimens collected from FIV-infected queens. Conclusion Feline trophoblasts express an array of pro-and anti-inflammatory immunomodulators whose expression increases from early to late pregnancy in normal tissues. Non

  9. Dilute passage promotes expression of genetic and phenotypic variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cell culture.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Palomino, S; Rojas, J M; Martínez, M A; Fenyö, E M; Nájera, R; Domingo, E; López-Galíndez, C

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the extent of genetic and phenotypic diversification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) upon 15 serial passages of clonal viral populations in MT-4 cell cultures. Several genetic and phenotypic modifications previously noted during evolution of HIV-1 in infected humans were also observed upon passages of the virus in cell culture. Notably, the transition from non-syncytium-inducing to syncytium-inducing phenotype (previously observed during disease progression) and fixation of amino acid substitutions at the main antigenic loop V3 of gp120 were observed in the course of replication of the virus in MT-4 cell cultures in the absence of immune selection. Interestingly, most genetic and phenotypic alterations occurred upon passage of the virus at a low multiplicity of infection (0.001 infectious particles per cell) rather than at a higher multiplicity of infection (0.1 infectious particles per cell). The degree of genetic diversification attained by HIV-1, estimated by the RNase A mismatch cleavage method and by nucleotide sequencing, is of about 0.03% of genomic sites mutated after 15 serial passages. This value is not significantly different from previous estimates for foot-and-mouth disease virus when subjected to a similar process and analysis. We conclude that several genetic and phenotypic modifications of HIV-1 previously observed in vivo occur also in the constant environment provided by a cell culture system. Dilute passage promotes in a highly significant way the expression of deviant HIV-1 genomes. Images PMID:8474182

  10. SIV Infection-Mediated Changes in Gastrointestinal Bacterial Microbiome and Virome Are Associated with Immunodeficiency and Prevented by Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Handley, Scott A; Desai, Chandni; Zhao, Guoyan; Droit, Lindsay; Monaco, Cynthia L; Schroeder, Andrew C; Nkolola, Joseph P; Norman, Megan E; Miller, Andrew D; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-09

    AIDS caused by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation, and, in cross-sectional studies, changes in the enteric virome. Here we performed a longitudinal study of a vaccine cohort to define the natural history of changes in the fecal metagenome in SIV-infected monkeys. Matched rhesus macaques were either uninfected or intrarectally challenged with SIV, with a subset receiving the Ad26 vaccine, an adenovirus vector expressing the viral Env/Gag/Pol antigens. Progression of SIV infection to AIDS was associated with increased detection of potentially pathogenic viruses and bacterial enteropathogens. Specifically, adenoviruses were associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal disease and AIDS-related mortality. Viral and bacterial enteropathogens were largely absent from animals protected by the vaccine. These data suggest that the SIV-associated gastrointestinal disease is associated with the presence of both viral and bacterial enteropathogens and that protection against SIV infection by vaccination prevents enteropathogen emergence.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat increases the expression of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 73-kilodalton subunit modulating cellular and viral expression.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Marco A; Sancho, Rocío; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2004-07-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein, which is essential for HIV gene expression and viral replication, is known to mediate pleiotropic effects on various cell functions. For instance, Tat protein is able to regulate the rate of transcription of host cellular genes and to interact with the signaling machinery, leading to cellular dysfunction. To study the effect that HIV-1 Tat exerts on the host cell, we identified several genes that were up- or down-regulated in tat-expressing cell lines by using the differential display method. HIV-1 Tat specifically increases the expression of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) 73-kDa subunit (CPSF3) without affecting the expression of the 160- and 100-kDa subunits of the CPSF complex. This complex comprises four subunits and has a key function in the 3'-end processing of pre-mRNAs by a coordinated interaction with other factors. CPSF3 overexpression experiments and knockdown of the endogenous CPSF3 by mRNA interference have shown that this subunit of the complex is an important regulatory protein for both viral and cellular gene expression. In addition to the known CPSF3 function in RNA polyadenylation, we also present evidence that this protein exerts transcriptional activities by repressing the mdm2 gene promoter. Thus, HIV-1-Tat up-regulation of CPSF3 could represent a novel mechanism by which this virus increases mRNA processing, causing an increase in both cell and viral gene expression.

  12. T cell interleukin-15 surface expression in chimpanzees infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Annette R; Hodara, Vida; Murthy, Kruthi; Morrow, LaShayla; Sanchez, Melissa; Bienvenu, Amy E; Murthy, Krishna K

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) contributes to natural killer cell development and immune regulation. However, IL-15 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production are significantly reduced during progression to AIDS. We have previously reported that HIV infected chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) express CD3-CD8+ IFN-γ+ natural killer (NK) cells with an inverse correlation to plasma HIV viral load. To expand on our initial study, we examined a larger population of HIV infected chimpanzees (n=10). Whole blood flow cytometry analyses showed that recombinant gp120 (rgp120) or recombinant IL-15 induces specific CD3-CD8+ IFN-γ+ NK cells at higher levels than CD3+CD8+ IFN-γ+ T cells in HIV infected specimens. Interestingly, peripheral blood T cells exhibited 0.5-3% IL-15 surface Tcell/NKT cell phenotypes, and rIL-15 stimulation significantly (P<0.007) up-regulated CD4+CD25+ T cell expression. Importantly, these data demonstrate novel T cell interleukin-15 expression and indicate a plausible regulatory mechanism for this cell-type during viral infection.

  13. Increased expression of Candida albicans secretory proteinase, a putative virulence factor, in isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ollert, M W; Wende, C; Görlich, M; McMullan-Vogel, C G; Borg-von Zepelin, M; Vogel, C W; Korting, H C

    1995-01-01

    The increased prevalence and the severity of oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients are attributed exclusively to the virus-induced immune deficiency of the host. The present study was aimed at answering the question of whether Candida albicans secretory proteinase, a putative virulence factor of the opportunistic C. albicans yeast, has any potential influence on the clinical manifestation of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. We measured the secretory proteinase activities of clinical C. albicans isolates from the oropharynges of either HIV-positive individuals (n = 100) or a control group (n = 122). The mean secretory proteinase activity of C. albicans isolates from the HIV-positive group (4,255 +/- 2,372 U/liter) was significantly higher compared with that of isolates from the control group (2,324 +/- 1,487 U/liter) (P < 0.05). The higher level of secretory proteinase activity in the culture supernatants of individual C. albicans isolates correlated with the increased level of proteinase expression on the cell surface, as revealed by cytofluorometry, and with higher levels of secretion of the immunodetectable protein, as shown by Western blotting (immunoblotting). Proteinase activity within the population of C. albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals was independent of the patient's clinical disease stage and the CD4+/CD8+ cell numbers. Furthermore, no correlation of the proteinase activities with the C. albicans serotype was found, although C. albicans serotype B was significantly more frequent in the HIV-positive group (40%) compared with that in the control group (12%). However, a positive correlation of proteinase activity to antifungal susceptibility was evident.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8567880

  14. Increased expression of virulence attributes in oral Candida albicans isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals.

    PubMed

    Mane, Arati; Gaikwad, Shraddha; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Risbud, Arun

    2012-02-01

    Oral candidiasis caused by Candida albicans is recognized as one of the most frequent opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The overall severity and chronicity of oral candidiasis has been attributed exclusively to the HIV-induced immune deficiency of the affected individuals but not to the virulence factors of the pathogen, i.e. C. albicans. However, genotypic and phenotypic studies have suggested that HIV infection might be associated with preferential selection of C. albicans strains with altered virulence determinants, leading to colonization with Candida populations that are better able to cause disease in these immunologically compromised hosts. If this process of selection is indeed related to pathogenicity, it may be possible to measure alterations in different virulence factors produced by C. albicans in HIV-infected patients. To evaluate this hypothesis, the present work was undertaken to determine simultaneously the expression of five virulence factors in oral C. albicans isolates colonizing and infecting HIV-positive and -negative individuals. The significance of genotypes in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis was also elucidated. Oral swabs were collected from 335 consecutive individuals (210 HIV-positive and 125 HIV-negative). Virulence factors and genotypes were determined for all the C. albicans strains isolated. The results showed significantly increased expression of proteinase, phospholipase and haemolytic activities, as well as a greater ability to adhere, in isolates from HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative individuals (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in virulence factor expression in isolates colonizing or infecting HIV-positive individuals were seen. Genotype A was the predominant type (71.3 %); however, a relationship could not be established between the genotypes and the virulence factors, or with clinical infection. These data support the concept of preferential C. albicans

  15. The effects of vinblastine on the expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat.

    SciTech Connect

    Akan, E.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Woloschak, G. E.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-05-01

    Previous work by our group has demonstrated induction of the HIV-LTR following exposure of cells to various DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet (UV) light, cisplatin, and doxorubicin. The current experiments were designed to determine the relative effects of the anti-mitotic drug vinblastine on expression of the HIV-LTR. Using human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells stably transfected with the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter transcriptionally driven by the HIV-LTR promoter, we demonstrated a 9-10-fold induction at 48-72 h following vinblastine treatment. Previous experiments had demonstrated repression of cisplatin or doxorubicin-mediated HIV induction by treatment with salicylic acid. The vinblastine induction also was repressed by salicylic acid treatment, but not by treatment with indomethacin, suggesting a role for the NF{kappa}B pathway in the inductive response. When UV exposure was coupled to the vinblastine treatment, there was no additive or synergistic effect evident, suggesting similar paths of induction between the two agents. Northern blots demonstrated that these agents were operating at the level of transcription and that salicylic acid inhibited vinblastine-mediated induction of HIV-LTR-CAT mRNA only if administered at the same time as vinblastine; addition of salicylic acid 2 h later had no effect on transcript accumulation. All combinations of treatments with vinblastine and/or salicylic acid markedly reduced cell survival.

  16. The expression of the interleukin 6 gene is induced by the human immunodeficiency virus 1 TAT protein

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV1) infection is associated with severe psoriasis, B cell lymphoma, and Kaposi's sarcoma. A deregulated production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying the abnormal IL-6 secretion of HIV1-infected cells may include transactivation of the IL-6 gene by HIV1. To test this hypothesis, we used the pIL6Pr-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) plasmid, an IL- 6 promoter-CAT construct, as a target of the transactivating function of the HIV1 TAT protein. By cotransfecting the pIL6Pr-CAT and the tat- expressing pSVT8 plasmid in MC3 B-lymphoblastoid or in HeLa epithelial cells, we observed that TAT transactivates the human IL-6 promoter. These results were confirmed when pIL6Pr-CAT was transfected in MC3 or HeLa cells that constitutively expressed the tat gene in a sense (pSVT8 cells) or antisense (pSVT10 cells) orientation. 5' deletion plasmids of pIL6Pr-CAT, in which regions at -658, -287, and -172 were inserted 5' to the cat gene, were transiently transfected in pSVT10 and pSVT8 cells and showed that TAT-induced activation of the IL-6 promoter required a minimal region located between -287 and -54 bp. Moreover, experiments with plasmids carrying the -658, -287, and -172 bp regions of the IL-6 promoter inserted downstream to a TAR-deleted HIV1-LTR identified the sequence of -172 to -54 as the minimal region of the IL-6 promoter required for TAT to transactivate the TAR-deleted HIV1-LTR. By DNA- protein binding experiments, tat-transfected cells expressed a consistent increase in kappa B and nuclear factor (NF)-IL-6 binding activity. Accordingly, the pDRCAT and IL-1REK9CAT, carrying tandem repeats of NF-kappa B or NF-IL6 binding motifs, respectively, were activated in TAT-expressing cells. The biological relevance of the TAT- induced IL-6 secretion was addressed by generating 7TD1 cells, an IL-6- dependent mouse cell line, stably expressing the tat gene

  17. Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef gene sequences present in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Shugars, D C; Smith, M S; Glueck, D H; Nantermet, P V; Seillier-Moiseiwitsch, F; Swanstrom, R

    1993-01-01

    The nef genes of the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and the related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) encode a protein (Nef) whose role in virus replication and cytopathicity remains uncertain. As an attempt to elucidate the function of nef, we characterized the nucleotide and corresponding protein sequences of naturally occurring nef genes obtained from several HIV-1-infected individuals. A consensus Nef sequence was derived and used to identify several features that were highly conserved among the Nef sequences. These features included a nearly invariant myristylation signal, regions of sequence polymorphism and variable duplication, a region with an acidic charge, a (Pxx)4 repeat sequence, and a potential protein kinase C phosphorylation site. Clustering of premature stop codons at position 124 was noted in 6 of the 54 Nef sequences. Further analysis revealed four stretches of residues that were highly conserved not only among the patient-derived HIV-1 Nef sequences, but also among the Nef sequences of HIV-2 and the SIVs, suggesting that Nef proteins expressed by these retroviruses are functionally equivalent. The "Nef-defining" sequences were used to evaluate the sequence alignments of known proteins reported to share sequence similarity with Nef sequences and to conduct additional computer-based searches for similar protein sequences. A gene encoding the consensus Nef sequence was also generated. This gene encodes a full-length Nef protein that should be a valuable tool in further studies of Nef function. Images PMID:8043040

  18. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors suppress UV-induced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression at the posttranscriptional level.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagoe, S; Kohda, T; Oishi, M

    1991-01-01

    Gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is induced not only by trans activation mediated through a gene product (tat) encoded by the virus but also by treatment of virus-carrying cells with DNA-damaging agents such as UV light. Employing an artificially constructed DNA in which the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was placed under the control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, we analyzed the induction process in HeLa cells and found that inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppressed UV-induced HIV-1 gene expression but not tat-mediated expression. We also found that suppression occurs at the posttranscriptional level. These results indicate that HIV-1 gene expression is activated by at least two different mechanisms, one of which involves poly-ADP ribosylation. A possible new role of poly-ADP ribosylation in the regulation of specific gene expression is also discussed. Images PMID:1828533

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat responds to T-cell activation signals

    SciTech Connect

    Tong-Starksen, S.E.; Luciw, P.A.; Peterlin, B.M.

    1987-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS, infects and kills lymphoid cells bearing the CD4 antigen. In an infected cell, a number of cellular as well as HIV-encoded gene products determine the levels of viral gene expression and HIV replication. Efficient HIV replication occurs in activated T cells. Utilizing transient expression assays, the authors show that gene expression directed by the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) increases in response to T-cell activation signals. The effects of T-cell activation and of the HIV-encoded trans-activator (TAT) are multiplicative. Analysis of mutations and deletions in the HIV LTR reveals that the region responding to T-cell activation signals is located at positions -105 to -80. These sequences are composed of two direct repeats, which are homologous to the core transcriptional enhancer elements in the simian virus 40 genome. The studies reveal that these elements function as the HIV enhancer. By acting directly on the HIV LTR, T-cell activation may play an important role in HIV gene expression and in the activation of latent HIV.

  20. HTLV-3/4 and simian foamy retroviruses in humans: discovery, epidemiology, cross-species transmission and molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Gessain, Antoine; Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Turpin, Jocelyn; Mahieux, Renaud

    2013-01-05

    Non-human primates are considered to be likely sources of viruses that can infect humans and thus pose a significant threat to human population. This is well illustrated by some retroviruses, as the simian immunodeficiency viruses and the simian T lymphotropic viruses, which have the ability to cross-species, adapt to a new host and sometimes spread. This leads to a pandemic situation for HIV-1 or an endemic one for HTLV-1. Here, we present the available data on the discovery, epidemiology, cross-species transmission and molecular virology of the recently discovered HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 deltaretroviruses, as well as the simian foamy retroviruses present in different human populations at risk, especially in central African hunters. We discuss also the natural history in humans of these retroviruses of zoonotic origin (magnitude and geographical distribution, possible inter-human transmission). In Central Africa, the increase of the bushmeat trade during the last decades has opened new possibilities for retroviral emergence in humans, especially in immuno-compromised persons.

  1. Divergent Simian Arteriviruses Cause Simian Hemorrhagic Fever of Differing Severities in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Moncla, Louise H.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Charlier, Olivia; Rojas, Oscar; Byrum, Russell; Ragland, Dan R.; Cohen, Melanie; Sanford, Hannah B.; Qin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) is a highly lethal disease in captive macaques. Three distinct arteriviruses are known etiological agents of past SHF epizootics, but only one, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), has been isolated in cell culture. The natural reservoir(s) of the three viruses have yet to be identified, but African nonhuman primates are suspected. Eleven additional divergent simian arteriviruses have been detected recently in diverse and apparently healthy African cercopithecid monkeys. Here, we report the successful isolation in MARC-145 cell culture of one of these viruses, Kibale red colobus virus 1 (KRCV-1), from serum of a naturally infected red colobus (Procolobus [Piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles) sampled in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Intramuscular (i.m.) injection of KRCV-1 into four cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) resulted in a self-limiting nonlethal disease characterized by depressive behavioral changes, disturbance in coagulation parameters, and liver enzyme elevations. In contrast, i.m. injection of SHFV resulted in typical lethal SHF characterized by mild fever, lethargy, lymphoid depletion, lymphoid and hepatocellular necrosis, low platelet counts, increased liver enzyme concentrations, coagulation abnormalities, and increasing viral loads. As hypothesized based on the genetic and presumed antigenic distance between KRCV-1 and SHFV, all four macaques that had survived KRCV-1 injection died of SHF after subsequent SHFV injection, indicating a lack of protective heterotypic immunity. Our data indicate that SHF is a disease of macaques that in all likelihood can be caused by a number of distinct simian arteriviruses, although with different severity depending on the specific arterivirus involved. Consequently, we recommend that current screening procedures for SHFV in primate-holding facilities be modified to detect all known simian arteriviruses. PMID:26908578

  2. Reduced frequency of CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) cells and diminished FOXP3 expression in patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency: a link to autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Genre, J; Errante, P R; Kokron, C M; Toledo-Barros, M; Câmara, N O S; Rizzo, L V

    2009-08-01

    Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by defective immunoglobulin production and often associated with autoimmunity. We used flow cytometry to analyze CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells and ask whether perturbations in their frequency in peripheral blood could underlie the high incidence of autoimmune disorders in CVID patients. In this study, we report for the first time that CVID patients with autoimmune disease have a significantly reduced frequency of CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) cells in their peripheral blood accompanied by a decreased intensity of FOXP3 expression. Notably, although CVID patients in whom autoimmunity was not diagnosed had a reduced frequency of CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) cells, FOXP3 expression levels did not differ from those in healthy controls. In conclusion, these data suggest compromised homeostasis of CD4(+)CD25(HIGH)FOXP3(+) cells in a subset of CVID patients with autoimmunity, and may implicate Treg cells in pathological mechanisms of CVID.

  3. Debilitating clinical disease in a wild-born captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) co-infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV).

    PubMed

    Masters, Nicholas; Niphuis, Henk; Verschoor, Ernst; Breuer, Judith; Quinlivan, Mark; Wawrzynczyk, Teresa; Stidworthy, Mark

    2010-12-01

    A wild-born, 34-yr-old female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was transferred between zoologic collections in the United Kingdom. Adjustment to its new environment was difficult and a series of health problems ensued. Progressive severe illness of multiple etiologies, and a failure to respond to multiple therapies, led to its euthanasia 5 mo later. Disease processes included severe thoracic and axillary cutaneous ulceration of T2-3 dermatome distribution, gastroenteritis, ulcerative stomatitis, emaciation, hind limb weakness or paresis, and decubitus ulcers of the ankles and elbows. Ante- and postmortem infectious disease screening revealed that this animal was not infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, simian varicella virus (SVV), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), or hepatitis B virus; but was infected with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV). It is hypothesized that recrudescence of VZV and other disease processes described were associated with chronic STLV infection and the end of a characteristically long incubation period.

  4. Correlation of major depressive disorder symptoms with FKBP5 but not FKBP4 expression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Tatro, Erick T; Nguyen, Timothy B; Bousman, Chad A; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J Hampton; Everall, Ian P

    2010-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a significant cause of morbidity in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FKBP5 is a candidate gene with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1360780 and rs3800373 associated with MDD. This gene product and its relative, FKBP4, physically associate with the glucocorticoid receptor whose function is implicated in MDD pathophysiology. Because these genes are expressed in blood and brain and elevated in HIV infection, we explored the relationship between gene expression, genotype, and MDD symptoms. Longitudinally followed subjects (N = 57) as part of the CNS HIV AntiRetroviral Effects Research study, with diagnosed MDD and who donated blood for genotyping and gene expression analysis, were assessed. Subjects donated blood on adjacent visits with and without meeting criteria for MDD episode. Changes in clinical parameters were compared changes in gene expression. Change in FKBP5 expression correlated with change in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for MDD → euthymic comparison in GG genotype of rs3800373 (P = .013) and TT carriers of rs1360780 (P = .02). In euthymic → MDD comparison, GG homozygous, FKBP5 expression correlated with more severe change in BDI. Change in FKBP4 expression did not correlate with changes in clinical or depression measurements. Higher FKBP5 expression correlated with greater symptom change for GG carriers of rs3800373.

  5. Sequence-specific binding of simian virus 40 A protein to nonorigin and cellular DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, P J; DeLucia, A L; Tegtmeyer, P

    1984-01-01

    The simian virus 40 A protein (T antigen) recognized and bound to the consensus sequence 5'-GAGGC-3' in DNA from many sources. Sequence-specific binding to single pentanucleotides in randomly chosen DNA predominated over binding to nonspecific sequences. The asymmetric orientation of protein bound to nonorigin recognition sequences also resembled that of protein bound to the origin region of simian virus 40 DNA. Sequence variations in the DNA adjacent to single pentanucleotides influenced binding affinities even though methylation interference and protection studies did not reveal specific interactions outside of pentanucleotides. Thus, potential locations of A protein bound to any DNA can be predicted although the determinants of binding affinity are not yet understood. Sequence-specific binding of A protein to cellular DNA would provide a mechanism for specific alterations of host gene expression that facilitate viral function. Images PMID:6570189

  6. Earliest known simian primate found in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Godinot, M; Mahboubi, M

    1992-05-28

    The record of early fossil Simiiformes (Anthropoidea) from the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula has increased dramatically in recent years. We report here the discovery of a new, diminutive and much older (Early or Middle Eocene) simian from an Algerian locality, Glib Zegdou. This species is smaller than any other living or fossil African simiiform. Derived similarities shared with Aegyptopithecus suggest that the new genus is more closely related to propliopithecines than to oligopithecines, implying that these two subfamilies differentiated during the Early Eocene. The new discovery confirms predictions about the great antiquity of Simiiformes and emphasizes a long and endemic African history for higher primates.

  7. Identification of a gag protein epitope conserved among all four groups of primate immunodeficiency viruses by using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Otteken, A; Nick, S; Bergter, W; Voss, G; Faisst, A C; Stahl-Hennig, C; Hunsmann, G

    1992-10-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against the gag proteins of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from African green monkey (SIVagmTYO-7). Two MAbs reacted with the matrix protein p17 and the other three with the core protein p24. Studies on the cross-reactivity of the MAbs revealed that the anti-p24 MAbs detected an epitope shared by the viruses belonging to the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)/SIVmac group and SIVagmTYO-7 and SIVagmTYO-5. The anti-p17 MAbs recognized an epitope present on all these viruses and on SIVagmTYO-1, HIV-1 and SIVmnd. This finding demonstrates for the first time that the matrix protein, p17 or p18, respectively, of all nine HIV and SIV isolates tested in this study expresses at least one conserved immunogenic epitope recognized serologically. By using synthetic peptides, this epitope was identified at the N terminus of p17. Furthermore, this epitope was analysed by multiple sequence alignments of the peptide with homologous sequences of HIV and SIV p17.

  8. High frequency of isolation of defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and heterogeneity of viral gene expression in clones of infected U-937 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boulerice, F; Bour, S; Geleziunas, R; Lvovich, A; Wainberg, M A

    1990-01-01

    Limiting-dilution techniques were employed to derive single-cell clones from U-937 cells that had been chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. All clones thus obtained were positive for the presence of viral antigens; however, not all of the clones produced infectious progeny virus, as detected by the presence of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in culture fluids. Six of these clones were monitored over time to determine whether their phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression was stable. Three clones maintained production of RT activity at a high level and showed a very high percentage of cells positive for viral p24 antigen, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. The other three clones showed variations in either their levels of RT activity or the number of cells positive for p24, after which they stabilized. Infectious virus could be recovered from only three clones, as assessed by coculture experiments with different cell types. Two other clones were shown to produce noninfectious viruses. Molecular analyses at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels showed extensive variations between the viral isolates recovered from each clone. Images PMID:1690823

  9. Epithelial glycoprotein-2 expression is subject to regulatory processes in epithelial-mesenchymal transitions during metastases: an investigation of human cancers transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jojović, M; Adam, E; Zangemeister-Wittke, U; Schumacher, U

    1998-10-01

    The human cell-surface antigen epithelial glycoprotein-2 recognized by the monoclonal antibody MOC-31 is an epithelial tumour-associated glycoprotein expressed in non-squamous carcinomas. MOC-31 immunoreactivity was investigated in human breast, colon, ovarian and lung cancer cell lines, grown either in vitro or in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice as solid tumours and/or metastases. Three of four small-cell lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H69, OH3 and SW2) and three of four ovarian cancer cell lines (SoTu 1, 3 and 4) expressed epithelial glycoprotein-2. In contrast, all three breast (MCF-7, BT20, T47D) and all three colon (HT29, CACO2, SW480) cancer cell lines strongly reacted with monoclonal antibody MOC-31. A notable difference in MOC-31 immunoreactivity was observed in spontaneously formed lung metastases of HT29 colon cancer cells. Whereas larger metastases (> 30 cells) reacted with a similar staining pattern to the primary tumour, smaller metastases did not. These findings indicate that differentiation processes during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition occur in metastases, which lead to a transient loss of epithelial glycoprotein-2 expression during the migratory and early post-migratory period. This loss of antigen expression indicates that the process of metastases formation is a regulatory event, and this transient loss of antigen expression might represent a potential obstacle to antibody-based therapy in the setting of minimal residual disease.

  10. Subgenomic viral DNA species synthesized in simian cells by human and simian adenoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, E

    1981-01-01

    DNA synthesized after infection of simian tissue culture cells (BSC-1 or CV-1) with human adenovirus type 2 or 5 or with simian adenovirus 7 was characterized. It was demonstrated that as much as 40% of the virus-specific DNA in nuclei of infected monkey cells consists of subgenomic pieces. No subgenomic viral DNA species were detected in the nuclei of human (HeLa) cells infected with these adenovirus types. Restriction analysis showed that these short viral DNA molecules contain normal amounts of the sequences from the ends of the viral genome, whereas internal regions are underrepresented. The production of subgenomic DNAs is not correlated with semipermissive infection. Although adenovirus types 2 and 5 are restricted in monkey cells, these cells are fully permissive for simian adenovirus 7. HR404, an adenovirus type 5 mutant which is not restricted in monkey cells, produced the same percentage of subgenomic DNAs as did its wild type (restricted) parent, and coinfection of monkey cells with adenovirus type 5 DNAs. The array of predominant size classes among the heterogeneously sized short DNAs is serotype specific. Extensive plaque purification and comparison of wild-type adenovirus type 5 with several viral mutants indicated that the distribution of aberrant sizes of DNA is characteristic of the virus and not a result of random replicative errors and then enrichment of particular species. Images PMID:6261009

  11. Vaccine-Induced Immunity in Baboons by Using DNA and Replication-Incompetent Adenovirus Type 5 Vectors Expressing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gag Gene

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro, Danilo R.; Tang, Aimin; Chen, Ling; Fu, Tong-Ming; Evans, Robert K.; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Freed, Daniel C.; Hurni, William; Aste-Amezaga, Jose M.; Guan, Liming; Long, Romnie; Huang, Lingyi; Harris, Virginia; Nawrocki, Denise K.; Mach, Henryk; Troutman, Robert D.; Isopi, Lynne A.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Rice, Karen; Wilson, Keith A.; Volkin, David B.; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2003-01-01

    The cellular immunogenicity of formulated plasmid DNA and replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vaccine vectors expressing a codon-optimized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene was examined in baboons. The Ad5 vaccine was capable of inducing consistently strong, long-lived CD8+-biased T-cell responses and in vitro cytotoxic activities. The DNA vaccine-elicited immune responses were weaker than those elicited by the Ad5 vaccine and highly variable; formulation with chemical adjuvants led to moderate increases in the levels of Gag-specific T cells. Increasing the DNA-primed responses with booster doses of either Ad5 or modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccines suggests a difference in the relative levels of cytotoxic and helper responses. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:12805466

  12. Blockade of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Production in CD4^+ T Cells by an Intracellular CD4 Expressed Under Control of the Viral Long Terminal Repeat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonocore, Linda; Rose, John K.

    1993-04-01

    A retroviral vector was constructed in which a gene encoding a mutated soluble CD4 protein that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (sCD4-KDEL) is expressed under control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulatory elements. HIV-1 infection of a human T-cell line transduced with this vector led to induction of sCD4-KDEL synthesis and a block in transport of the HIV envelope protein to the cell surface. There was a complete block to maturation of infectious HIV-1 in the transduced cells, no viral spread, and little or no syncytium formation. Infected cells gradually disappeared from the culture over a period of 2 months. This intracellular trap for HIV has potential application in gene therapy for AIDS.

  13. Extracellular Vpr protein increases cellular permissiveness to human immunodeficiency virus replication and reactivates virus from latency.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, D N; Refaeli, Y; Weiner, D B

    1995-01-01

    The vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus is a virion-associated regulatory protein that has been shown using vpr mutant viruses to increase virus replication, particularly in monocytes/macrophages. We have previously shown that vpr can directly inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation, events linked to the control of HIV replication, and also that the replication of a vpr mutant but not that of wild-type HIV type 1 (HIV-1) was compatible with cellular proliferation (D. N. Levy, L. S. Fernandes, W. V. Williams, and D. B. Weiner, Cell 72:541-550, 1993). Here we show that purified recombinant Vpr protein, in concentrations of < 100 pg/ml to 100 ng/ml, increases wild-type HIV-1 replication in newly infected transformed cell lines via a long-lasting increase in cellular permissiveness to HIV replication. The activity of extracellular Vpr protein could be completely inhibited by anti-Vpr antibodies. Extracellular Vpr also induced efficient HIV-1 replication in newly infected resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Extracellular Vpr transcomplemented a vpr mutant virus which was deficient in replication in promonocytic cells, restoring full replication competence. In addition, extracellular Vpr reactivated HIV-1 expression in five latently infected cell lines of T-cell, B-cell, and promonocytic origin which normally express very low levels of HIV RNA and protein, indicating an activation of translational or pretranslational events in the virus life cycle. Together, these results describe a novel pathway governing HIV replication and a potential target for the development of anti-HIV therapeutics. PMID:7815499

  14. In vitro growth characteristics of simian T-lymphotropic virus type III.

    PubMed Central

    Kannagi, M; Yetz, J M; Letvin, N L

    1985-01-01

    The type C retrovirus simian T-lymphotropic virus type III (STLV-III) has been isolated recently from immunodeficient macaque monkeys at the New England Regional Primate Research Center. The present studies were done to define the in vitro growth characteristics of this agent. STLV-III replicates efficiently in interleukin 2-dependent T-cell cultures of macaque peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), less efficiently in such cultures of human and gibbon PBL, and inefficiently in baboon PBL. No replication, as assessed by measuring reverse transcriptase activity in these culture supernatants, could be detected in similarly maintained cultures of chimpanzee, squirrel monkey, and cotton-top tamarin PBL. Like the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), STLV-III replicates in T4+ but not T8+ lymphocytes and its infection of macaque and human lymphocytes can be blocked with monoclonal anti-T4 antibodies. STLV-III differs from the human AIDS virus, however, in its apparent inability to grow in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes tested, the differing range of nonhuman primate T-cell populations that support its growth, and its less striking toxicity for T lymphocytes. These studies provide further characterization of an agent that will be extremely important in facilitating the development of vaccines and antiviral therapy for AIDS. PMID:2996002

  15. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference of DC-SIGN expression inhibits human immunodeficiency virus transmission from dendritic cells to T cells.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Pion, Marjorie; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B; Garcia, Eduardo; Abraham, Shahnaz; Leuba, Florence; Dutoit, Valérie; Ducrey-Rundquist, Odile; van Kooyk, Yvette; Trono, Didier; Piguet, Vincent

    2004-10-01

    In the early events of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, immature dendritic cells (DCs) expressing the DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) receptor capture small amounts of HIV-1 on mucosal surfaces and spread viral infection to CD4(+) T cells in lymph nodes (22, 34, 45). RNA interference has emerged as a powerful tool to gain insight into gene function. For this purpose, lentiviral vectors that express short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) into mammalian cells represent a powerful tool to achieve stable gene silencing. In order to interfere with DC-SIGN function, we developed shRNA-expressing lentiviral vectors capable of conditionally suppressing DC-SIGN expression. Selectivity of inhibition of human DC-SIGN and L-SIGN and chimpanzee and rhesus macaque DC-SIGN was obtained by using distinct siRNAs. Suppression of DC-SIGN expression inhibited the attachment of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 to DC-SIGN transfectants, as well as transfer of HIV-1 to target cells in trans. Furthermore, shRNA-expressing lentiviral vectors were capable of efficiently suppressing DC-SIGN expression in primary human DCs. DC-SIGN-negative DCs were unable to enhance transfer of HIV-1 infectivity to T cells in trans, demonstrating an essential role for the DC-SIGN receptor in transferring infectious viral particles from DCs to T cells. The present system should have broad applications for studying the function of DC-SIGN in the pathogenesis of HIV as well as other pathogens also recognized by this receptor.

  16. Regulation of expression driven by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type I long terminal repeats in pluripotential human embryonic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maio, J.; Brown, F.L. )

    1988-04-01

    Human pluripotential embryonic teratocarcinoma cells differentially expressed gene activity controlled by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeats (LTRs) when differentiation was induced by the morphogen all-trans retinoic acid. The alterations occurred after commitment and before the appearance of the multiple cell types characteristic of these pluripotential cells. After commitment, gene activity controlled by the HIV-1 LTR markedly increased, whereas that controlled by the HTLV-I LTR decreased. Steady-state mRNA levels and nuclear run-on transcription indicated that the increased HIV-1-directed activity during differentiation occurred posttranscriptionally, whereas the decreased HTLV-I activity was at the transcriptional level. Phorbol esters did not cause commitment but strongly enhanced expression by both viral LTRs at the transcriptional level. Differentiating cells gradually lost the ability to respond to phorbol ester stimulation. Experiments with a deletion mutant of the HIV-1 LTR suggested that this was due to imposition of negative regulation during differentiation that was not reversed by phorbol ester induction. Cycloheximide, with or without phorbol ester, slightly stimulated HIV-1-directed activity at the transcriptional level and massively increased the amounts of steady-state mRNA by posttranscriptional superinduction. It appeared, however, that new nuclear protein synthesis was required for maximal transcriptional stimulation by phorbol esters. Thus, changing cellular regulatory mechanisms influenced human retrovirus expression during human embryonic cell differentiation.

  17. Inhibition of clinical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 isolates in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes by retroviral vectors expressing anti-HIV genes.

    PubMed Central

    Vandendriessche, T; Chuah, M K; Chiang, L; Chang, H K; Ensoli, B; Morgan, R A

    1995-01-01

    Gene therapy may be of benefit in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals by virtue of its ability to inhibit virus replication and prevent viral gene expression. It is not known whether anti-HIV-1 gene therapy strategies based on antisense or transdominant HIV-1 mutant proteins can inhibit the replication and expression of clinical HIV-1 isolates in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. We therefore transduced CD4+ T lymphocytes from uninfected individuals with retroviral vectors expressing either HIV-1-specific antisense-TAR or antisense-Tat/Rev RNA, transdominant HIV-1 Rev protein, and a combination of antisense-TAR and transdominant Rev. The engineered CD4+ T lymphocytes were then infected with four different clinical HIV-1 isolates. We found that replication of all HIV-1 isolates was inhibited by all the anti-HIV vectors tested. Greater inhibition of HIV-1 was observed with transdominant Rev than with antisense RNA. We hereby demonstrated effective protection by antisense RNA or transdominant mutant proteins against HIV-1 infection in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes using clinical HIV-1 isolates, and this represents an essential step toward clinical anti-HIV-1 gene therapy. PMID:7769662

  18. A human recombinant Fab identifies a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced conformational change in cell surface-expressed CD4.

    PubMed Central

    Bachelder, R E; Bilancieri, J; Lin, W; Letvin, N L

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of the CD4 molecule in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection following initial virus-CD4 binding, we have characterized CD4-specific antibodies raised by immunizing an HIV-1-infected human with human recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4). Fabs were selected from a human recombinant Fab library constructed from the bone marrow of this immunized individual. Here, we describe a human rsCD4-specific recombinant Fab clone selected by panning the library over complexes of human rsCD4 and recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein. While this Fab does not bind to CD4-positive T-cell lines or to human T lymphocytes, it recognizes cell surface-expressed CD4 following the incubation of these cells with a recombinant form of HIV-1 gp120 or with HIV-1 virions. The Fab is not HIV-1 envelope specific, since it does not bind to recombinant gp120 or to native cell surface-expressed HIV-1 envelope proteins. As confirmation of its CD4 specificity, we show that this Fab immunoprecipitates a 55-kDa protein, corresponding to the molecular mass of cellular CD4, from an H9 cell lysate. The specificity of this human Fab provides evidence for a virus-induced conformational change in cell surface-expressed on CD4. The characterization of this altered CD4 conformation and its effects on the host cell will be important in defining postbinding events in HIV infection. PMID:7637018

  19. Expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its ligand (uPA) in brain tissues of human immunodeficiency virus patients with opportunistic cerebral diseases.

    PubMed

    Nebuloni, Manuela; Cinque, Paola; Sidenius, Nicolai; Ferri, Angelita; Lauri, Eleonora; Omodeo-Zorini, Elisabetta; Zerbi, Pietro; Vago, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its ligand (uPA) play an important role in cell migration and extracellular proteolysis. We previously described uPAR/uPA overexpression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related cerebral diseases. In this study, we examined uPAR/uPA expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in brains of HIV patients with opportunistic cerebral lesions and in HIV-positive/negative controls. uPAR was found in macrophages/microglia with the highest levels in cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis, toxoplasmosis, and lymphomas; in cryptococcosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) cases, only a few positive cells were found and no positivity was observed in controls. uPA expression was demonstrated only in a few macrophages/microglia and lymphocytes in all the cases and HIV-positive controls without different pattern of distribution; no uPA immunostaining was found in cryptococcosis and HIV-negative controls. The higher expression of uPAR/uPA in most of the opportunistic cerebral lesions supports their role in these diseases, suggesting their contribution to tissue injury.

  20. Temporal aspects of DNA and RNA synthesis during human immunodeficiency virus infection: evidence for differential gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S Y; Byrn, R; Groopman, J; Baltimore, D

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics of retroviral DNA and RNA synthesis are parameters vital to understanding viral growth, especially for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which encodes several of its own regulatory genes. We have established a single-cycle growth condition for HIV in H9 cells, a human CD4+ lymphocyte line. The full-length viral linear DNA is first detectable by 4 h postinfection. During a one-step growth of HIV, amounts of viral DNA gradually increase until 8 to 12 h postinfection and then decrease. The copy number of unintegrated viral DNA is not extraordinarily high even at its peak. Most strikingly, there is a temporal program of RNA accumulation: the earliest RNA is greatly enriched in the 2-kilobase subgenomic mRNA species, while the level of 9.2-kilobase RNA which is both genomic RNA and mRNA remains low until after 24 h of infection. Virus production begins at about 24 h postinfection. Thus, viral DNA synthesis is as rapid as for other retroviruses, but viral RNA synthesis involves temporal alteration in the species that accumulate, presumably as a consequence of viral regulatory genes. Images PMID:2760980

  1. Simian virus 40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Luminita; Bromberg, Zohar; EL-Latif, Mahmoud Abd; Zeira, Evelyn; Oppenheim, Ariella; Weiss, Yoram G

    2007-01-01

    Background Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. One of the primary organs affected by sepsis is the lung, presenting as the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Organ damage in sepsis involves an alteration in gene expression, making gene transfer a potential therapeutic modality. This work examines the feasibility of applying simian virus 40 (SV40) vectors for pulmonary gene therapy. Methods Sepsis-induced ARDS was established by cecal ligation double puncture (2CLP). SV40 vectors carrying the luciferase reporter gene (SV/luc) were administered intratracheally immediately after sepsis induction. Sham operated (SO) as well as 2CLP rats given intratracheal PBS or adenovirus expressing luciferase served as controls. Luc transduction was evaluated by in vivo light detection, immunoassay and luciferase mRNA detection by RT-PCR in tissue harvested from septic rats. Vector abundance and distribution into alveolar cells was evaluated using immunostaining for the SV40 VP1 capsid protein as well as by double staining for VP1 and for the surfactant protein C (proSP-C). Immunostaining for T-lymphocytes was used to evaluate the cellular immune response induced by the vector. Results Luc expression measured by in vivo light detection correlated with immunoassay from lung tissue harvested from the same rats. Moreover, our results showed vector presence in type II alveolar cells. The vector did not induce significant cellular immune response. Conclusion In the present study we have demonstrated efficient uptake and expression of an SV40 vector in the lungs of animals with sepsis-induced ARDS. These vectors appear to be capable of in vivo transduction of alveolar type II cells and may thus become a future therapeutic tool. PMID:17967178

  2. An Escherichia coli Expression Assay and Screen for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Variants with Decreased Susceptibility to Indinavir

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Laurence; Yang, Shiow-Shong; Rossi, Rick; Zepp, Charlie; Heefner, Donald

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a recombinant Escherichia coli screening system for the rapid detection and identification of amino acid substitutions in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease associated with decreased susceptibility to the protease inhibitor indinavir (MK-639; Merck & Co.). The assay depends upon the correct processing of a segment of the HIV-1 HXB2 gag-pol polyprotein followed by detection of HIV reverse transcriptase activity by a highly sensitive, colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highly sensitive system detects the contributions of single substitutions such as I84V, L90M, and L63P. The combination of single substitutions further decreases the sensitivity to indinavir. We constructed a library of HIV protease variant genes containing dispersed mutations and, using the E. coli recombinant system, screened for mutants with decreased indinavir sensitivity. The discovered HIV protease variants contain amino acid substitutions commonly associated with indinavir resistance in clinical isolates, including the substitutions L90M, L63P, I64V, V82A, L24I, and I54T. One substitution, W6R, is also frequently found by the screen and has not been reported elsewhere. Of a total of 12,000 isolates that were screened, 12 protease variants with decreased sensitivity to indinavir were found. The L63P substitution, which is also associated with indinavir resistance, increases the stability of the isolated protease relative to that of the native HXB2 protease. The rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this screen also make it useful for screening for novel inhibitors. We have found the approach described here to be useful for the detection of amino acid substitutions in HIV protease that have been associated with drug resistance as well as for the screening of novel compounds for inhibitory activity. PMID:9835523

  3. Alternative splicing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNA modulates viral protein expression, replication, and infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, D F; Martin, M A

    1993-01-01

    Multiple RNA splicing sites exist within human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA, and these sites enable the synthesis of many mRNAs for each of several viral proteins. We evaluated the biological significance of the alternatively spliced mRNA species during productive HIV-1 infections of peripheral blood lymphocytes and human T-cell lines to determine the potential role of alternative RNA splicing in the regulation of HIV-1 replication and infection. First, we used a semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction of cDNAs that were radiolabeled for gel analysis to determine the relative abundance of the diverse array of alternatively spliced HIV-1 mRNAs. The predominant rev, tat, vpr, and env RNAs contained a minimum of noncoding sequence, but the predominant nef mRNAs were incompletely spliced and invariably included noncoding exons. Second, the effect of altered RNA processing was measured following mutagenesis of the major 5' splice donor and several cryptic, constitutive, and competing 3' splice acceptor motifs of HIV-1NL4-3. Mutations that ablated constitutive splice sites led to the activation of new cryptic sites; some of these preserved biological function. Mutations that ablated competing splice acceptor sites caused marked alterations in the pool of virus-derived mRNAs and, in some instances, in virus infectivity and/or the profile of virus proteins. The redundant RNA splicing signals in the HIV-1 genome and alternatively spliced mRNAs provides a mechanism for regulating the relative proportions of HIV-1 proteins and, in some cases, viral infectivity. Images PMID:8411338

  4. A spontaneous deletion within the desmoglein 3 extracellular domain of mice results in hypomorphic protein expression, immunodeficiency, and a wasting disease phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kountikov, Evgueni I; Poe, Jonathan C; Maclver, Nancie J; Rathmell, Jeffrey C; Tedder, Thomas F

    2015-03-01

    Desmoglein 3 is a transmembrane component of desmosome complexes that mediate epidermal cell-to-cell adhesion and tissue integrity. Antibody blockade of desmoglein 3 function in pemphigus vulgaris patients leads to skin blistering (acantholysis) and oral mucosa lesions. Desmoglein 3 deficiency in mice leads to a phenotype characterized by cyclic alopecia in addition to the dramatic skin and mucocutaneous acantholysis observed in pemphigus patients. In this study, mice that developed an overt squeaky (sqk) phenotype were identified with obstructed airways, cyclic hair loss, and severe immunodeficiency subsequent to the development of oral lesions and malnutrition. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based quantitative trait loci mapping revealed a genetic deletion that resulted in expression of a hypomorphic desmoglein 3 protein with a truncation of an extracellular cadherin domain. Because hypomorphic expression of a truncated desmoglein 3 protein led to a spectrum of severe pathology not observed in mice deficient in desmoglein 3, similar human genetic alterations may also disrupt desmosome function and induce a disease course distinct from pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris.

  5. A Spontaneous Deletion within the Desmoglein 3 Extracellular Domain of Mice Results in Hypomorphic Protein Expression, Immunodeficiency, and a Wasting Disease Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kountikov, Evgueni I.; Poe, Jonathan C.; Maclver, Nancie J.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.; Tedder, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Desmoglein 3 is a transmembrane component of desmosome complexes that mediate epidermal cell-to-cell adhesion and tissue integrity. Antibody blockade of desmoglein 3 function in pemphigus vulgaris patients leads to skin blistering (acantholysis) and oral mucosa lesions. Desmoglein 3 deficiency in mice leads to a phenotype characterized by cyclic alopecia in addition to the dramatic skin and mucocutaneous acantholysis observed in pemphigus patients. In this study, mice that developed an overt squeaky (sqk) phenotype were identified with obstructed airways, cyclic hair loss, and severe immunodeficiency subsequent to the development of oral lesions and malnutrition. Single-nucleotide polymorphism–based quantitative trait loci mapping revealed a genetic deletion that resulted in expression of a hypomorphic desmoglein 3 protein with a truncation of an extracellular cadherin domain. Because hypomorphic expression of a truncated desmoglein 3 protein led to a spectrum of severe pathology not observed in mice deficient in desmoglein 3, similar human genetic alterations may also disrupt desmosome function and induce a disease course distinct from pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris. PMID:25542773

  6. Immunodeficiency disorders in horses.

    PubMed

    Crisman, Mark V; Scarratt, W Kent

    2008-08-01

    Immunodeficiencies are characterized as primary (genetic) or secondary (acquired). Primary immunodeficiencies are relatively uncommon; however, clinically, they present a significant challenge to the practitioner, especially if the underlying disorder goes unrecognized. Secondary immunodeficiencies may present at any age, but failure of passive transfer in neonatal foals is most commonly encountered. This article provides a general overview of clinical signs and diagnosis of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies currently recognized in horses.

  7. Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and cytokine gene expression in myeloid cells by NF-kappa B/Rel transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Roulston, A; Lin, R; Beauparlant, P; Wainberg, M A; Hiscott, J

    1995-01-01

    CD4+ macrophages in tissues such as lung, skin, and lymph nodes, promyelocytic cells in bone marrow, and peripheral blood monocytes serve as important targets and reservoirs for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. HIV-1-infected myeloid cells are often diminished in their ability to participate in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing. HIV-1 infection of myeloid cells can lead to the expression of surface receptors associated with cellular activation and/or differentiation that increase the responsiveness of these cells to cytokines secreted by neighboring cells as well as to bacteria or other pathogens. Enhancement of HIV-1 replication is related in part to increased DNA-binding activity of cellular transcription factors such as NF-kappa B. NF-kappa B binds to the HIV-1 enhancer region of the long terminal repeat and contributes to the inducibility of HIV-1 gene expression in response to multiple activating agents. Phosphorylation and degradation of the cytoplasmic inhibitor I kappa B alpha are crucial regulatory events in the activation of NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity. Both N- and C-terminal residues of I kappa B alpha are required for inducer-mediated degradation. Chronic HIV-1 infection of myeloid cells leads to constitutive NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity and provides an intranuclear environment capable of perpetuating HIV-1 replication. Increased intracellular stores of latent NF-kappa B may also result in rapid inducibility of NF-kappa B-dependent cytokine gene expression. In response to secondary pathogenic infections or antigenic challenge, cytokine gene expression is rapidly induced, enhanced, and sustained over prolonged periods in HIV-1-infected myeloid cells compared with uninfected cells. Elevated levels of several inflammatory cytokines have been detected in the sera of HIV-1-infected individuals. Secretion of myeloid cell-derived cytokines may both increase virus production and contribute to AIDS

  8. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis with a pMyong2 vector expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Gag can induce enhanced virus-specific immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung-Jun; Gong, Jeong-Ryeol; Kim, Ga-Na; Kim, Bo-Ram; Lee, So-Young; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we have developed a novel Mycobacterium-Escherichia coli shuttle vector system using pMyong2, which can provide an enhanced expression of heterologous genes in recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (rSmeg). To investigate the usefulness of rSmeg using pMyong2 in vaccine application, we vaccinated M. smegmatis with pMyong2 system expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1) Gag p24 antigen (rSmeg-pMyong2-p24) into mice and examined its cellular and humoral immune responses against HIV gag protein. We found that rSmeg-pMyong2-p24 expressed higher levels of Gag protein in bacteria, macrophage cell line (J774A.1) and mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) compared to rSmeg strains using two other vector systems, pAL5000 derived vector (rSmeg-pAL-p24) and the integrative plasmid, pMV306 (rSmeg-pMV306-p24). Inoculation of mice with rSmeg-pMyong2-p24 elicited more effective immunity compared to the other two rSmeg strains, as evidenced by higher levels of HIV-1 Gag-specific CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte proliferation, interferon gamma ELISPOT cell induction, and antibody production. Furthermore, rSmeg-pMyong2-p24 showed a higher level of cytotoxic T cell response against target cells expressing Gag p24 proteins. Our data suggest that Mycobacterium-Escherichia coli shuttle vector system with pMyong2 may provide an advantage in vaccine application of rSmeg over other vector systems. PMID:28300196

  9. Adaptation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to cells expressing a binding-deficient CD4 mutant (lysine 46 to aspartic acid).

    PubMed Central

    Choe, H R; Sodroski, J

    1995-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) was adapted to replicate efficiently in cells expressing an altered form of the CD4 viral receptor. The mutant CD4 (46 K/D) contained a single amino acid change (lysine 46 to aspartic acid) in the CDR2 loop of domain 1, which results in a 15-fold reduction in affinity for the viral gp120 glycoprotein. The ability of the adapted virus to replicate in CD4 46 K/D-expressing cells was independently enhanced by single amino acid changes in the V2 variable loop, the V3 variable loop, and the fourth conserved (C4) region of the gp120 glycoprotein. Combinations of these amino acids in the same envelope glycoprotein resulted in additive enhancement of virus replication in cells expressing the CD4 46 K/D molecule. In cells expressing the wild-type CD4 glycoproteins, the same V2 and V3 residue changes also increased the efficiency of replication of a virus exhibiting decreased receptor-binding ability due to an amino acid change (aspartic acid 368 to glutamic acid) in the gp120 glycoprotein. In neither instance did the adaptive changes restore the binding ability of the monomeric gp120 glycoprotein or the oligomeric envelope glycoprotein complex for the mutant or wild-type CD4 glycoproteins, respectively. Thus, particular conformations of the gp120 V2 and V3 variable loops and of the C4 region allow postreceptor binding events in the membrane fusion process to occur in the context of less than optimal receptor binding. These results suggest that the fusion-related functions of the V2, V3, and C4 regions of gp120 are modulated by CD4 binding. PMID:7707502

  10. Modification of simian virus 40 protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Tegtmeyer, P; Rundell, K; Collins, J K

    1977-01-01

    The A protein of simian virus 40 is phosphorylated in both productive and transforming infection. The phosphorylated amino acid has been identified as serine and has been localized in a single tryptic peptide of the protein. Because the A protein synthesized in infection by A mutants is phosphorylated to the same extent and in the same peptide as in infection by wild-type virus, the functional defect of the A mutants is apparently unrelated to phosphorylation. At least three distinct forms of the A protein with apparent molecular weights of 85,000, 88,000, and 100,000 can be identified in extracts of cells infected by wild-type virus. After exposure of cells to Nonidet P-40, the 85,000- and 88,000-dalton proteins were found in varying amounts in extracts of permissive cells but not in extracts of transformed cells. This finding raised the question of the possible functional importance of the smaller proteins in productive infection. However, the virtual absence of the 85,000- and 88,000-dalton proteins in some extracts of the fully permissive CV-1 cell line indicates that a conversion of the larger to the smaller forms of the A protein is not required in significant quantity for productive infection. Furthermore, a study of extraction conditions shows that the smaller proteins are easily generated during extraction and provides an explanation for the appearance of these proteins in some cells after extraction under unfavorable conditions. Images PMID:189092

  11. The Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 counteracts the effect of an AU-rich negative element in the human papillomavirus type 1 late 3' untranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, W; Schwartz, S

    1995-01-01

    We have identified a sequence in the late 3' untranslated region of human papillomavirus type 1 mRNAs that acts posttranscriptionally to repress gene expression. Deletion analysis localized the inhibitory element to an AU-rich sequence between nucleotides 6958 and 6984 on the human papillomavirus type 1 genome. This sequence inhibits gene expression in an orientation-dependent manner. Upon transfection of eucaryotic cells with plasmids containing this sequence, approximately 4-fold-lower cytoplasmic mRNA levels and 64- to 128-fold-lower protein levels were produced compared with those produced by plasmids lacking the inhibitory sequence. Interestingly, providing the constitutive transport element of simian retrovirus type 1 in sense orientation counteracted inhibition exerted by the human papillomavirus type 1 sequence. Inhibition could also be overcome by the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein in trans and its target sequence, the Rev-responsive element, in cis. Rev is a nuclear protein and acts by promoting nuclear export of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mRNAs encoding structural proteins. Our results are consistent with a model for human papillomavirus type 1 late-gene expression in which mRNAs containing human papillomavirus type 1 inhibitory sequences enter a nonproductive route in the nucleus, resulting in inefficient mRNA utilization. Rev directs mRNA containing inhibitory sequences to a productive route by interacting with the Rev-responsive element. PMID:7707519

  12. Neutropenia in primary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sokolic, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Neutropenia is a feature of several primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs). Because of the diverse pathophysiologies of the PIDDs and the rarity of each disorder, data are often lacking, leading to the necessity of empiric treatment. Recent developments in the understanding of neutropenia in several of the PIDDs make a review of the data timely. Recent findings The category of severe congenital neutropenia continues to expand. Mutations in G6PC3 have been identified as the cause of neutropenia in a minority of previously molecularly undefined cases. Recent advances have broadened our understanding of the pathophysiology and the clinical expression of this disorder. A possible function of the C16orf57 gene has been hypothesized that may explain the clinical overlap between Clerucuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia and other marrow diseases. Plerixafor has been shown to be a potentially useful treatment in the warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infection, and myelokathexis syndrome. Investigations of patients with adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency have identified neutropenia, and particularly susceptibility to myelotoxins, as a feature of this disorder. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is the treatment of choice for neutropenia in PIDD, whereas hematopoietic cell transplantation is the only curative option. Summary The number of PIDDs associated with neutropenia has increased, as has our understanding of the range of phenotypes. Additional data and hypotheses have been generated helping to explain the diversity of presentations of neutropenia in PIDDs. PMID:23196894

  13. Spatial analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cougars.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David C; Waller, Lance A; Biek, Roman

    2010-07-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations.

  14. Recombinant measles viruses expressing single or multiple antigens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) induce cellular and humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Liniger, Matthias; Zuniga, Armando; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Combardiere, Behazine; Marty, Rene; Wiegand, Marian; Ilter, Orhan; Knuchel, Marlyse; Naim, Hussein Y

    2009-05-26

    Recombinant measles viruses (rMV) based on the live attenuated measles vaccine strain (MVb) expressing antigens of HIV-1 clade B were generated by reverse genetics. Recombinants expressing single or double antigens of HIV-1 (rMV-HIV) were genetically highly stable on human diploid cells. The production process of these viruses was essentially similar to the parental MV strain, yielding comparative end titers. Immunization of tg-mice by different regimens and formulations showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses against MV and HIV antigens. Recombinant MV-HIV expressing Gag protein conferred protective immunity in tg-mice after a high-dose pseudochallenge with recombinant vaccinia virus. In addition, rMV-HIV boosted anti-HIV antibodies, in the presence of pre-existing anti-vector antibodies.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gene expression in interstitial pneumonitis in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children: is EBV associated or not?

    PubMed

    Toro, Adyléia A D C; Altemani, Albina M A; da Silva, Marcos T N; Morcillo, André M; Vilela, Maria Marluce S

    2010-01-01

    To gain further knowledge on the subject we evaluated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gene expression and TCD4+, TCD8+, and B lymphocyte counts in lung tissue samples from 20 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children with chronic lung disease. Twenty HIV-1 infected children with chronic pulmonary disease underwent open lung biopsy to define the diagnosis. Histological section of this material was submitted to nonisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) using EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) 1/2 probes and TCD4+, TCD8+, and CD20+ B-cell counts by immunohistochemistry. The histology of 16 out of the 20 children (median age 53.5 months) proved to be examples of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia/lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (PLH/LIP) complex, 13 of which were EBER positive, but no significant association was found (Fisher exact test P = 0.439). Four patients had non-LIP diseases (3, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia; 1, diffuse advanced alveolar damage), two being EBER negative. Nineteen children showed a predominant T-CD8+ cell response (CD4+/CD8+ <1) in lung tissue. The mean TCD4+ and theTCD4/TCD8 ratio in lung tissue were significantly higher in the sections with PLH/LIP complex, but without significant difference between EBER positive and EBER negative samples. EBV gene expression was detected in the majority of the lung samples but without significant association with PLH/LIP complex or with TCD4+, TCD8+, B cells and the TCD4+/TCD8+ ratio. Regarding the pattern of lung disease in HIV-1 infected children, associated or not to EBV, the findings are of importance concerning the possible role of EBV in the pathogenesis of PLH/LIP.

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Vpu Induces the Expression of CD40 in Endothelial Cells and Regulates HIV-Induced Adhesion of B-Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Winnie W.; Ruhl, Rebecca; Lewis, Paul; Bentley, Matthew; Nelson, Jay A.; Moses, Ashlee V.

    2004-01-01

    AIDS-related B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). AIDS-NHL is clinically and histologically heterogeneous, but common features include an aggressive clinical course and frequent extranodal presentation. HIV-1 infection of nonimmune cells that interact with malignant B cells at extranodal sites may influence both the development and the clinical presentation of disease. Our previous studies have shown that coculture of B-lymphoma (BL) cells with HIV-1-infected endothelial cells (EC) leads to contact activation of EC and firm BL-cell adhesion. The key event promoting EC-BL-cell adhesion was HIV-1 upregulation of endothelial CD40, which allowed induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in a CD40-dependent manner. The present study was designed to identify the HIV-1 protein(s) that influence EC-BL-cell adhesion. When HIV-1 proteins were individually expressed in EC by using recombinant adenoviruses, cultured BL cells adhered exclusively to Vpu-transduced EC. As with HIV-infected EC, adhesive properties were linked to the capacity of Vpu to upregulate CD40, which in turn allowed efficient expression of VCAM-1. When EC were infected with an HIV-1 pseudotype lacking the Vpu gene, CD40 upregulation and BL-cell adhesive properties were lost, indicating an essential role for Vpu in EC-BL-cell interactions. Thus, these data reveal a novel function for HIV-1 Vpu and further suggest a role for Vpu in the development of AIDS-NHL at EC-rich extranodal sites. PMID:15078922

  17. Loss of CD4 membrane expression and CD4 mRNA during acute human immunodeficiency virus replication

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Using mAbs and genomic probe to the CD4 molecule, the HIV receptor, we demonstrated that HIV replication induces the disappearance of its functional receptor from the cell surface by two distinct mechanisms. First, after being expressed onto the cell surface, HIV envelope gp110 will complex CD4, efficiently masking the CD4 epitope used by the virus to bind its receptor. This phenomenon occurs on the surface of each infected cell and is not due to the release of soluble gp110; infection with recombinant HIV/vaccinia viruses expressing a mutated HIV env gene designed to prevent gp110 release from the cell surface induces a similar gp/CD4 complexes formation. Second, virus replication induces a dramatic and rapid loss of CD4 mRNA transcripts, preventing new CD4 molecules from being synthesized. These two mechanisms of receptor modulation could have been developed to avoid reinfection of cells replicating the virus as well as to produce more infectious particles. These results suggest that the classical virus interference documented for other retroviruses might not only be due to receptor/envelope interaction, but might also depend on receptor gene expression. PMID:3264318

  18. Primate Lentiviruses Modulate NF-κB Activity by Multiple Mechanisms to Fine-Tune Viral and Cellular Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Heusinger, Elena; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) plays a complex role during the replication of primate lentiviruses. On the one hand, NF-κB is essential for induction of efficient proviral gene expression. On the other hand, this transcription factor contributes to the innate immune response and induces expression of numerous cellular antiviral genes. Recent data suggest that primate lentiviruses cope with this challenge by boosting NF-κB activity early during the replication cycle to initiate Tat-driven viral transcription and suppressing it at later stages to minimize antiviral gene expression. Human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) initially exploit their accessory Nef protein to increase the responsiveness of infected CD4+ T cells to stimulation. Increased NF-κB activity initiates Tat expression and productive replication. These events happen quickly after infection since Nef is rapidly expressed at high levels. Later during infection, Nef proteins of HIV-2 and most SIVs exert a very different effect: by down-modulating the CD3 receptor, an essential factor for T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, they prevent stimulation of CD4+ T cells via antigen-presenting cells and hence suppress further induction of NF-κB and an effective antiviral immune response. Efficient LTR-driven viral transcription is maintained because it is largely independent of NF-κB in the presence of Tat. In contrast, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and its simian precursors have lost the CD3 down-modulation function of Nef and use the late viral protein U (Vpu) to inhibit NF-κB activity by suppressing its nuclear translocation. In this review, we discuss how HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses might balance viral and antiviral gene expression through a tight temporal regulation of NF-κB activity throughout their replication cycle. PMID:28261165

  19. Immunochemical Characterization of Plaque Mutants of Simian Virus 40

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, H. L.; Takemoto, K. K.; Kirschstein, R. L.; Axelrod, D.

    1969-01-01

    Analysis of large and small plaque mutants of simian virus 40 using antisera prepared against each has revealed quantitative and possibly qualitative antigenic differences for each plaque type. A sensitive micro radioisotope precipitation test permitted evaluation of immunochemical similarities and differences of capsid antigens by inhibition of precipitation. PMID:4306300

  20. The effects of 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin on expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat

    SciTech Connect

    Panozzo, J.; Akan, E.; Griffiths, T.D.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1996-03-01

    Previous work by many groups has documented induction of the HIV-LTR following exposure of cells to ultraviolet light and other DNA damaging agents. Our experiments set out to determine the relative activation or repression of the HIV-LTR in response to two classes of chemotherapeutic agents: Doxorubicin is a DNA-damage inducing agent, and 5-fluorouracil has an antimetabolic mode of action. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct in which HIV-LTR drives expression of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene, we demonstrated an up to 10-fold induction following doxorubicin treatment in 24 h post-treatment. This induction was repressed by treatment with salicylic acid, suggesting a role for prostaglandin/cyclo-oxygenase pathways and/or NFKB in the inductive response. Induction by 5-fluorouracil, in contrast, was more modest (two-fold at most) though it was consistently elevated over controls.

  1. UV-induced DNA damage is an intermediate step in UV-induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, collagenase, c-fos, and metallothionein

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, B.; Rahmsdorf, H.J.; Steffen, A.; Litfin, M.; Herrlich, P. )

    1989-11-01

    UV irradiation of human and murine cells enhances the transcription of several genes. Here we report on the primary target of relevant UV absorption, on pathways leading to gene activation, and on the elements receiving the UV-induced signal in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat, in the gene coding for collagenase, and in the cellular oncogene fos. In order to induce the expression of genes, UV radiation needs to be absorbed by DNA and to cause DNA damage of the kind that cannot be repaired by cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A. UV-induced activation of the three genes is mediated by the major enhancer elements (located between nucleotide positions -105 and -79 of HIV-1, between positions -72 and -65 of the collagenase gene, and between positions -320 and -299 of fos). These elements share no apparent sequence motif and bind different trans-acting proteins; a member of the NF kappa B family binds to the HIV-1 enhancer, the heterodimer of Jun and Fos (AP-1) binds to the collagenase enhancer, and the serum response factors p67 and p62 bind to fos. DNA-binding activities of the factors recognizing the HIV-1 and collagenase enhancers are augmented in extracts from UV-treated cells. The increase in activity is due to posttranslational modification. While AP-1 resides in the nucleus and must be modulated there, NF kappa B is activated in the cytoplasm, indicating the existence of a cytoplasmic signal transduction pathway triggered by UV-induced DNA damage. In addition to activation, new synthesis of AP-1 is induced by UV radiation.

  2. Low expression of MRP1/GS-X pump ATPase in lymphocytes of Walker 256 tumour-bearing rats is associated with cyclopentenone prostaglandin accumulation and cancer immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, Angela; Rosa, Tatiana Gomes; Puhl, Minéia Taíse; Scola, Gustavo; da Rocha Janner, Daiane; Maslinkiewicz, Alexandre; Lagranha, Denise Jacques; Heck, Thiago Gomes; Curi, Rui; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem

    2006-01-01

    Immunosuppression is a life-threatening complication of late cancer stages. In this regard, overproduction in the host plasma of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CP-PGs), which are strongly antiproliferative at high concentrations, may impair immune function. In fact, lymphoid tissues of tumour-bearing rats accumulated large amounts of CP-PGs while the tumour tissue itself did not. Expression of the CP-PG-induced 72-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) was elevated in lymphocytes from tumour-bearing animals related to controls. As the capacity for CP-PG uptake by lymphocytes is the same as tumour cells, we investigated whether the latter could overexpress the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1/GS-X pump) which extrudes CP-PGs towards the extracellular space as glutathione S-conjugates. Walker 256 tumour cells extruded 15-fold more S-conjugates than lymphocytes from the same rats (p < 0.001). This did not appear to be related to deficiency in lymphocyte glutathione (GSH) metabolism, since the major GSH metabolic routes are consistent with CP-PG conjugation in lymphocytes. This was not the case, however, for the MRP1/GS-X pump activity in lymphocyte membranes (in pmol/min/mg protein: 3.1 +/- 1.7 from normal rats, 0.2 +/- 0.2 from tumour-bearing animals vs 64.3 +/- 7.0 in tumour cells) which was confirmed by Western blot analysis for MRP1 protein. Transfection of lymphocytes with MRP1 gene completely abolished CP-PG (0-40 microM) toxicity. Taken together, these findings suggest that CP-PG accumulation in lymphocytes may be, at least partially, responsible for cancer immunodeficiency. Clinical approaches for overexpressing MRP1/GS-X pump in lymphocytes could then play a role as a tool for the management of cancer therapeutics.

  3. Production and characterization of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins in a mouse model expressing human immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Neil C; Davies, Sarah L; Jeffs, Simon A; Vieira, Sueli M; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2007-02-01

    Human (Hu) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) are useful tools in the structural and functional analysis of Env, are under development both as potential prophylaxis and as therapy for established HIV-1 infection, and have crucial roles in guiding the design of preventative vaccines. Despite representing more than 50% of infections globally, no MAbs have been generated in any species against C clade HIV-1 Env. To generate HuMAbs to a novel Chinese C clade Env vaccine candidate (primary isolate strain HIV-1(97CN54)), we used BAB5 mice that express a human immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody repertoire in place of endogenous murine immunoglobulins. When immunized with HIV-1(97CN54) Env, these mice developed antigen-specific IgM antibodies. Hybridoma fusions using splenocytes from these mice enabled the isolation of two Env-specific IgM HuMAbs: N3C5 and N03B11. N3C5 bound to HIV-1 Env from clades A and C, whereas N03B11 bound two geographically distant clade C isolates but not Env from other clades. These HuMAbs bind conformational epitopes within the immunodominant region of the gp41 ectodomain. N3C5 weakly neutralized the autologous isolate in the absence of complement and weakly enhanced infection in the presence of complement. N03B11 has no effect on infectivity in either the presence or the absence of complement. These novel HuMAbs are useful reagents for the study of HIV-1 Env relevant to the global pandemic, and mice producing human immunoglobulin present a tool for the production of such antibodies.

  4. Adaptation of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses for resistance to tetherin/BST-2.

    PubMed

    Serra-Moreno, Ruth; Evans, David T

    2012-06-01

    Tetherin (BST-2 or CD317) is an interferon-inducible cellular factor that prevents the detachment of enveloped viruses from infected cells. The primate lentiviruses have evolved different countermeasures to tetherin. The majority of SIVs use Nef to antagonize the tetherin proteins of their nonhuman primate hosts. However, due to the absence of sequences in human tetherin required for antagonism by Nef, HIV-1 Vpu and HIV-2 Env evolved to serve this function in humans. We recently identified compensatory changes in the Env cytoplasmic domain of a pathogenic nef-deleted SIV that confers resistance to rhesus macaque tetherin. These observations highlight the extraordinary plasticity of the primate lentiviruses in adapting to the tetherin proteins of their respective hosts, and reveal a prominent role for tetherin in shaping the evolution of the primate lentiviruses.

  5. NK cell responses to simian immunodeficiency virus vaginal exposure in naive and vaccinated rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Shang, Liang; Smith, Anthony J; Duan, Lijie; Perkey, Katherine E; Qu, Lucy; Wietgrefe, Stephen; Zupancic, Mary; Southern, Peter J; Masek-Hammerman, Katherine; Reeves, R Keith; Johnson, R Paul; Haase, Ashley T

    2014-07-01

    NK cell responses to HIV/SIV infection have been well studied in acute and chronic infected patients/monkeys, but little is known about NK cells during viral transmission, particularly in mucosal tissues. In this article, we report a systematic study of NK cell responses to high-dose vaginal exposure to SIVmac251 in the rhesus macaque female reproductive tract (FRT). Small numbers of NK cells were recruited into the FRT mucosa following vaginal inoculation. The influx of mucosal NK cells preceded local virus replication and peaked at 1 wk and, thus, was in an appropriate time frame to control an expanding population of infected cells at the portal of entry. However, NK cells were greatly outnumbered by recruited target cells that fuel local virus expansion and were spatially dissociated from SIV RNA+ cells at the major site of expansion of infected founder populations in the transition zone and adjoining endocervix. The number of NK cells in the FRT mucosa decreased rapidly in the second week, while the number of SIV RNA+ cells in the FRT reached its peak. Mucosal NK cells produced IFN-γ and MIP-1α/CCL3 but lacked several markers of activation and cytotoxicity, and this was correlated with inoculum-induced upregulation of the inhibitory ligand HLA-E and downregulation of the activating receptor CD122/IL-2Rβ. Examination of SIVΔnef-vaccinated monkeys suggested that recruitment of NK cells to the genital mucosa was not involved in vaccine-induced protection from vaginal challenge. In summary, our results suggest that NK cells play, at most, a limited role in defenses in the FRT against vaginal challenge.

  6. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiqiang . E-mail: zhiqiang_zhang@merck.com; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schleif, William A.; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2007-05-10

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection.

  7. High fidelity simian immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase mutants have impaired replication in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Sarah B; Lichtfuss, Marit; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Alcantara, Sheilajen; De Rose, Robert; Tachedjian, Gilda; Alinejad-Rokny, Hamid; Venturi, Vanessa; Davenport, Miles P; Winnall, Wendy R; Kent, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    The low fidelity of HIV replication facilitates immune and drug escape. Some reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor drug-resistance mutations increase RT fidelity in biochemical assays but their effect during viral replication is unclear. We investigated the effect of RT mutations K65R, Q151N and V148I on SIV replication and fidelity in vitro, along with SIV replication in pigtailed macaques. SIVmac239-K65R and SIVmac239-V148I viruses had reduced replication capacity compared to wild-type SIVmac239. Direct virus competition assays demonstrated a rank order of wild-type>K65R>V148I mutants in terms of viral fitness. In single round in vitro-replication assays, SIVmac239-K65R demonstrated significantly higher fidelity than wild-type, and rapidly reverted to wild-type following infection of macaques. In contrast, SIVmac239-Q151N was replication incompetent in vitro and in pigtailed macaques. Thus, we showed that RT mutants, and specifically the common K65R drug-resistance mutation, had impaired replication capacity and higher fidelity. These results have implications for the pathogenesis of drug-resistant HIV.

  8. Default in plasma and intestinal IgA responses during acute infection by simian immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Conflicting results regarding changes in mucosal IgA production or in the proportions of IgA plasma cells in the small and large intestines during HIV-infection have been previously reported. Except in individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but yet remaining uninfected, HIV-specific IgAs are frequently absent in mucosal secretions from HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the organization and functionality of mucosal B-cell follicles in acute HIV/SIV infection during which a T-dependent IgA response should have been initiated. In the present study, we evaluated changes in B-cell and T-cell subsets as well as the extent of apoptosis and class-specific plasma cells in Peyer’s Patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and lamina propria. Plasma levels of IgA, BAFF and APRIL were also determined. Results Plasma IgA level was reduced by 46% by 28 days post infection (dpi), and no IgA plasma cells were found within germinal centers of Peyer’s Patches and isolated lymphoid follicles. This lack of a T-dependent IgA response occurs although germinal centers remained functional with no sign of follicular damage, while a prolonged survival of follicular CD4+ T-cells and normal generation of IgG plasma cells is observed. Whereas the average plasma BAFF level was increased by 4.5-fold and total plasma cells were 1.7 to 1.9-fold more numerous in the lamina propria, the relative proportion of IgA plasma cells in this effector site was reduced by 19% (duodemun) to 35% (ileum) at 28 dpi. Conclusion Our data provide evidence that SIV is unable to initiate a T-dependent IgA response during the acute phase of infection and favors the production of IgG (ileum) or IgM (duodenum) plasma cells at the expense of IgA plasma cells. Therefore, an early and generalized default in IgA production takes place during the acute of phase of HIV/SIV infection, which might impair not only the virus-specific antibody response but also IgA responses to other pathogens and vaccines as well. Understanding the mechanisms that impair IgA production during acute HIV/SIV infection is crucial to improve virus-specific response in mucosa and control microbial translocation. PMID:22632376

  9. Divergent CD4+ T memory stem cell dynamics in pathogenic and nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Emily K; McGary, Colleen S; Cervasi, Barbara; Micci, Luca; Lawson, Benton; Elliott, Sarah T C; Collman, Ronald G; Bosinger, Steven E; Paiardini, Mirko; Vanderford, Thomas H; Chahroudi, Ann; Silvestri, Guido

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies have identified a subset of memory T cells with stem cell-like properties (T(SCM)) that include increased longevity and proliferative potential. In this study, we examined the dynamics of CD4(+) T(SCM) during pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RM) and nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SM). Whereas SIV-infected RM show selective numeric preservation of CD4(+) T(SCM), SIV infection induced a complex perturbation of these cells defined by depletion of CD4(+)CCR5(+) T(SCM), increased rates of CD4(+) T(SCM) proliferation, and high levels of direct virus infection. The increased rates of CD4(+) T(SCM) proliferation in SIV-infected RM correlated inversely with the levels of central memory CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, nonpathogenic SIV infection of SM evidenced preservation of both CD4(+) T(SCM) and CD4(+) central memory T cells, with normal levels of CD4(+) T(SCM) proliferation, and lack of selective depletion of CD4(+)CCR5(+) T(SCM). Importantly, SIV DNA was below the detectable limit in CD4(+) T(SCM) from 8 of 10 SIV-infected SM. We propose that increased proliferation and infection of CD4(+) T(SCM) may contribute to the pathogenesis of SIV infection in RM.

  10. Simian Retrovirus 4 Induces Lethal Acute Thrombocytopenia in Japanese Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Nakagawa, So; Miura, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2001-2002, six of seven Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) died after developing hemorrhagic syndrome at the Kyoto University Primate Research Institute (KUPRI). While the cause of death was unknown at the time, we detected simian retrovirus 4 (SRV-4) in samples obtained from a similar outbreak in 2008-2011, during which 42 of 43 Japanese macaques died after exhibiting hemorrhagic syndrome. In this study, we isolated SRV-4 strain PRI-172 from a Japanese macaque showing severe thrombocytopenia. When inoculated into four Japanese macaques, the isolate induced severe thrombocytopenia in all within 37 days. We then constructed an infectious molecular clone of strain PRI-172, termed pSR415, and inoculated the clone-derived virus into two Japanese macaques. These animals also developed severe thrombocytopenia in just 31 days after inoculation, and the virus was reisolated from blood, bone marrow, and stool. At necropsy, we observed bleeding from the gingivae and subcutaneous bleeding in all animals. SRV-4 infected a variety of tissues, especially in digestive organs, including colon and stomach, as determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, we identified the SRV-4 receptor as ASCT2, a neutral amino acid transporter. ASCT2 mRNA was expressed in a variety of tissues, and the distribution of SRV-4 proviruses in infected Japanese macaques correlated well with the expression levels of ASCT2 mRNA. From these results, we conclude that the causative agent of hemorrhagic syndrome in KUPRI Japanese macaques was SRV-4, and its receptor is ASCT2. IMPORTANCE During two separate outbreaks at the KUPRI, in 2001-2002 and 2008-2011, 96% of Japanese macaques (JM) that developed an unknown hemorrhagic syndrome died. Here, we isolated SRV-4 from a JM developing thrombocytopenia. The SRV-4 isolate and a molecularly cloned SRV-4 induced severe thrombocytopenia in virus-inoculated JMs within 37 days. At necropsy, we

  11. Presence of human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acids in wastewater and their detection by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, S A; Farrah, S R; Chaudhry, G R

    1992-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) released by infected individuals or present in human and hospital wastes can potentially cause contamination problems. The presence of HIV-1 was investigated in 16 environmental samples, including raw wastewater, sludge, final effluent, soil, and pond water, collected from different locations. A method was developed to extract total nucleic acids in intact form directly from the raw samples or from the viral concentrates of the raw samples. The isolated nucleic acids were analyzed for the presence of HIV-1 by using in vitro amplification of the target sequences by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. HIV-1-specific proviral DNA and viral RNA were detected in the extracted nucleic acids obtained from three wastewater samples by this method. The specificity of the PCR-amplified products was determined by Southern blot hybridization with an HIV-1-specific oligonucleotide probe, SK19. The isolated nucleic acids from wastewater samples were also screened for the presence of poliovirus type 1, representing a commonly found enteric virus, and simian immunodeficiency virus, representing, presumably, rare viruses. While poliovirus type 1 viral RNA was found in all of the wastewater samples, none of the samples yielded a simian immunodeficiency virus-specific product. No PCR-amplified product was yielded when wastewater samples were directly used for the detection of HIV-1 and poliovirus type 1. The wastewater constituents appeared to be inhibitory to the enzymes reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1476440

  12. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Historical Outbreaks of Simian Hemorrhagic Fever in Captive Macaques Were Caused by Distinct Arteriviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lauck, Michael; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.; Bào, Yīmíng; Bailey, Adam L.; Shevtsova, Zinaida V.; Shchetinin, Alexey M.; Vishnevskaya, Tatyana V.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Postnikova, Elena; Mazur, Steven; Wada, Jiro; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Lapin, Boris A.; Deriabin, Petr G.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Goldberg, Tony L.; O'Connor, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) is lethal for macaques. Based on clinical presentation and serological diagnosis, all reported SHF outbreaks were thought to be caused by different strains of the same virus, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; Arteriviridae). Here we show that the SHF outbreaks in Sukhumi in 1964 and in Alamogordo in 1989 were caused not by SHFV but by two novel divergent arteriviruses. Our results indicate that multiple divergent simian arteriviruses can cause SHF. PMID:25972539

  14. Simian Foamy Virus Transmission from Apes to Humans, Rural Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Calattini, Sara; Betsem, Edouard B.A.; Froment, Alain; Mauclère, Philippe; Tortevoye, Patricia; Schmitt, Christine; Njouom, Richard; Saib, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Simian virus infections of humans are an increasing public health concern. Simian foamy virus (SFV) infections have been reported in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates and in a few hunters in Cameroon. To better understand this retroviral zoonosis in natural settings, we studied persons who lived in southern Cameroon, near nonhuman primate habitats. First we studied a general population of 1,164 adults; 4 were SFV positive according to serologic and molecular assays. Then we studied 85 persons who reported having been bitten or scratched by nonhuman primates; 7/29 (24.1%) of those who had contact with apes (gorillas or chimpanzees) were SFV positive, compared with only 2/56 (3.6%) of those who had had contact with monkeys. These data demonstrate efficient transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings in central Africa, specifically following ape bites, and viral persistence in the human host. PMID:18252101

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) arrests cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle by inhibiting p34cdc2 activity.

    PubMed Central

    He, J; Choe, S; Walker, R; Di Marzio, P; Morgan, D O; Landau, N R

    1995-01-01

    The Vpr accessory gene product of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus is believed to play a role in permitting entry of the viral core into the nucleus of nondividing cells. A second role for Vpr was recently suggested by Rogel et al. (M. E. Rogel, L. I. Wu, and M. Emerman, J. Virol. 69:882-888, 1995), who showed that Vpr prevents the establishment in vitro of chronically infected HIV producer cell lines, apparently by causing infected cells to arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. In cycling cells, progression from G2 to M phase is driven by activation of the p34cdc2/cyclin B complex, an event caused, in part, by dephosphorylation of two regulatory amino acids of p34cdc2 (Thr-14 and Tyr-15). We show here that Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by preventing the activation of the p34cdc2/cyclin B complex. Vpr expression in cells caused p34cdc2 to remain in the phosphorylated, inactive state, p34cdc2/cyclin B complexes immunoprecipitated from cells expressing Vpr were almost completely inactive in a histone H1 kinase assay. Coexpression of a constitutively active mutant p34cdc2 molecule with Vpr relieved the G2 arrest. These findings strongly suggest that Vpr arrests cells in G2 by preventing the activation of the p34cdc2/cyclin B complex that is required for entry into M phase. In vivo, Vpr might, by preventing p34cdc2 activation, delay or prevent apoptosis of infected cells. This would increase the amount of virus each infected cell produced. PMID:7474080

  16. Overview of Immunodeficiency Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raje, Nikita; Dinakar, Chitra

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The spectrum of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) is expanding. It includes typical disorders that primarily present with defective immunity as well as disorders that predominantly involve other systems and exhibit few features of impaired immunity. The rapidly growing list of new immunodeficiency disorders and treatment modalities makes it imperative for the provider to stay abreast of the latest and best management strategies. We present a brief overview of recent clinical advances in the field of PIDs. PMID:26454309

  17. Induction and Characterization of Immune Responses in Small Animals Using a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE) Replicon System, Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    59 6. Baldinotti, F., D. Matteucci, P. Mazzetti, C. Giannelli, P. Bandecchi, F. Tozzini, and M. Bendinelli. 1994. Serum neutralization of feline ...immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Methods 12:337-42. 9. Beaumont, T., A. van Nuenen, S. Broersen, W...Maggi, A. Leonildi, S. Giannecchini, C. Bergamini, and D. Matteucci. 2001. During readaptation in vivo, a tissue culture-adapted strain of feline

  18. Immunomodulation and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Foster, Aiden P

    2004-04-01

    This article briefly reviews the concepts of immunodeficiency and immunomodulation as they relate to selected skin diseases in the dog and cat. Immunodeficiency states are uncommon and may be associated with a subnormal or down-regulated immune system, including humoral deficiencies, such as IgA, and abnormal lymphocyte or neutrophil function. Establishing a causal relationship between a skin disease and presumed immunodeficient state has been difficult due to the rarity of such conditions, and the limited nature of the techniques used to characterise the immune system response. Severe combined immunodeficiency in dogs is a well characterised primary immunodeficiency state involving lymphocytes; retrovirus infection in cats may lead to an acquired immunodeficient state with some association with certain dermatological conditions although it remains unclear that infection is causally linked with disease. Immunomodulation usually implies stimulating the immune system along a beneficial pathway. Such a therapeutic approach may involve a wide variety of agents, for example intravenous immunoglobulin. There are few randomised controlled trials with veterinary patients that unequivocally demonstrate beneficial responses to immunomodulatory agents. Interferons are cytokines of major interest in human and veterinary medicine for their antiviral, anti-tumour and immunomodulatory effects. The advent of veterinary-licensed products containing recombinant interferon may enable demonstration of the efficacy of interferons for conditions such as canine papillomatosis and feline eosinophilic granuloma complex. Canine pyoderma has been treated with a number of presumed immunomodulatory agents with limited success. With more detailed knowledge of the pathogenesis of pyoderma it may be possible to develop efficacious immunomodulators.

  19. [Revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases].

    PubMed

    Wada, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Revertant somatic mosaicism has been described in an increasing number of genetic disorders including primary immunodeficiency diseases. Both back mutations leading to restoration of wild-type sequences and second-site mutations resulting in compensatory changes have been demonstrated in mosaic individuals. Recent studies identifying revertant somatic mosaicism caused by multiple independent genetic changes further support its frequent occurrence in primary immunodeficiency diseases. Revertant mosaicism acquires a particular clinical relevance because it may lead to selective growth advantage of the corrected cells, resulting in improvement of disease symptoms or atypical clinical presentations. This phenomenon also provides us unique opportunities to evaluate the biological effects of restored gene expression in different cell lineages. Here we review the recent findings of revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases and discuss its clinical implications.

  20. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Chen, Y.S.; Lindburg, K.; Morales, D.

    1987-09-01

    The inactivation of simian rotavirus Sa-11 and human rotavirus type 2 (Wa) by ozone was compared at 4/sup 0/C by using single-particle virus stocks. Although the human strain was clearly more sensitive, both virus types were rapidly inactivated by ozone concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater at all pH levels tested. Comparison of the virucidal activity of ozone with that of chlorine in identical experiments indicated little significant difference in rotavirus-inactivating efficiencies when the disinfectants were used at concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater.

  1. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus matrix protein, p17gag: identification of epitopes exposed at the surfaces of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, F; Huang, H; Revesz, K; Chen, H C; Herz, R; Pinter, A

    1991-09-01

    Eight monoclonal antibodies reactive with the matrix protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), p17gag, were isolated from rats which had been immunized with solubilized HIV-1 lysate. The epitope specificities of these antibodies were determined with a series of synthetic peptides representing overlapping regions of p17. Six of the antibodies were mapped to three distinct regions of p17, while two antibodies (G11g1 and G11h3) reacted only with intact recombinant p17, suggesting that they were directed against conformational or discontinuous epitopes. All the antibodies bound to HIV-infected cells which had been permeabilized with acetone, but only G11g1 and G11h3 reacted with live HIV-infected cells. Specificity studies with diverse virus strains demonstrated that these two antibodies recognized distinct epitopes, one which was group specific for HIV-1, and one which was shared with HIV type 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus. Binding competition studies indicated that these epitopes were proximal in native p17. Despite their reactivity with intact cells, these two antibodies did not possess appreciable virus-neutralizing activity. These results indicate that a form of p17 is expressed on the surfaces of live HIV-infected cells which is accessible to some, but not all, antibodies against p17. These cell surface molecules may play a role in the generation of antibodies against p17gag that are characteristic of early stages of HIV infection, and they may act as natural targets for the immune system and as potential targets for immunotherapy of HIV-infected cells.

  2. Decreasing sensitivity to RANTES (regulated on activation, normally T cell-expressed and -secreted) neutralization of CC chemokine receptor 5-using, non-syncytium-inducing virus variants in the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Koning, Fransje A; Kwa, David; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte; Dekker, Jos; Vingerhoed, Jose; Hiemstra, Harry; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2003-09-15

    In approximately half of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected individuals, the development of CXC chemokine receptor 4-using, syncytium-inducing (SI) virus variants precedes a rapid progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In other individuals, only CC chemokine receptor 5-using (R5), non-SI (NSI) virus variants are present throughout infection. These individuals may be either long-term survivors (LTSs) or rapid progressors. The basis for this variable disease progression in individuals with only R5 virus variants is not yet fully understood. In this study, the beta-chemokine sensitivity of biological HIV-1 clones isolated from 13 individuals who harbored only R5, NSI virus variants (7 LTSs and 6 progressors) was investigated. We found a statistically significant decrease in sensitivity of virus variants to RANTES (regulated on activation, normally T cell-expressed and -secreted) neutralization during the course of progressive infection, but not during follow-up of LTSs. Our data suggest that a role exists for RANTES neutralization sensitivity of HIV-1 in AIDS pathogenesis.

  3. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  4. Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2015-11-01

    The references provided include data from evidence A and B studies based on the relevant populations. Because many primary immunodeficiencies associated with autoimmune diseases are rare, illustrative cases (evidence D) also are referenced. On the basis of level A evidence, immunoglobulin A deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency and is associated with defective mucosal immunity and autoimmune disease. On the basis of strong evidence (level A), Wiskott Aldrich syndrome presents early in life and is associated with autoimmune arthritis and anemia. On the basis of strong evidence in the literature, a number of primary immunodeficiencies are associated with defects in T regulatory cell number and development, cytokine aberrancies, and, as a consequence, production of autoantibodies. On the basis of strong evidence (level A) and case reports (level D), complement deficiency can be associated with autoimmune disease, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus.

  5. Autoimmunity in Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Todoric, Krista; Koontz, Jessica B.; Mattox, Daniel; Tarrant, Teresa K.

    2013-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) comprise a diverse group of clinical disorders with varied genetic defects. Paradoxically, a substantial proportion of PID patients develop autoimmune phenomena in addition to having increased susceptibility to infections from their impaired immunity. Although much of our understanding comes from data gathered through experimental models, there are several well-characterized PID that have improved our knowledge of the pathways that drive autoimmunity. The goals of this review will be to discuss these immunodeficiencies and to review the literature with respect to the proposed mechanisms for autoimmunity within each put forth to date. PMID:23591608

  6. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Ivan K; Shearer, William T

    2015-11-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disorders represent pediatric emergencies due to absence of adaptive immune responses to infections. The conditions result from either intrinsic defects in T-cell development (ie, severe combined immunodeficiency disease [SCID]) or congenital athymia (eg, complete DiGeorge anomaly). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant provides the only clinically approved cure for SCID, although gene therapy research trials are showing significant promise. For greatest survival, patients should undergo transplant before 3.5 months of age and before the onset of infections. Newborn screening programs have yielded successful early identification and treatment of infants with SCID and congenital athymia in the United States.

  7. Interleukin 1 induces expression of the human immunodeficiency virus alone and in synergy with interleukin 6 in chronically infected U1 cells: inhibition of inductive effects by the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Poli, G; Kinter, A L; Fauci, A S

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we have observed that interleukin (IL) 1 alpha or IL-1 beta directly induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the latently infected human promonocytic cell line U1. In addition, IL-1 synergized with IL-6, but not with tumor necrosis factor, in the upregulation of virus expression in U1 cells as measured by accumulation of steady-state mRNAs and production of reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV inductive effect of IL-1 was blocked by transforming growth factor beta, anti-IL-1 antibodies, or monoclonal antibodies directed to the type 1, but not to the type 2, cell surface receptor for IL-1; the latter actually caused enhancement of the IL-1-mediated effect. Unlike tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1 either alone or in combination with IL-6 did not induce activation of the transcription activating factor NF-kappa B above the constitutive levels of unstimulated U1 cells. Finally, the IL-1 receptor antagonist effectively blocked IL-1-mediated direct and synergistic inductive effects on virus production. Thus, IL-1 may be an important mediator of HIV expression, and blocking of IL-1 expression and/or its effects may have a potential therapeutic role in the inhibition of HIV expression in infected individuals. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7506410

  8. Monocyte/macrophage trafficking in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalitis: lessons from human and nonhuman primate studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Bell, Christie; Croul, Sidney; Lewis, Mark; Rappaport, Jay

    2008-08-01

    Here the authors discuss evidence in human and animal models supporting two opposing views regarding the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the central nervous system (CNS): (1) HIV infection in the CNS is a compartmentalized infection, with the virus-infected macrophages entering the CNS early, infecting resident microglia and astrocytes, and achieving a state of latency with evolution toward a fulminant CNS infection late in the course of disease; or alternatively, (2) events in the periphery lead to altered monocyte/macrophage (MPhi) homeostasis, with increased CNS invasion of infected and/or uninfected MPhis. Here the authors have reevaluated evidence presented in the favor of the latter model, with a discussion of phenotypic characteristics distinguishing normal resident microglia with those accumulating in HIV encephalitis (HIVE). CD163 is normally expressed by perivascular MPhi s but not resident microglia in normal CNS of humans and rhesus macaques. In agreement with other studies, the authors demonstrate expression of CD163 by brain MPhi s in HIVE and simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (SIVE). CNS tissues from HIV-sero positive individuals with HIVE or HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) were also examined. In HIVE, the authors further demonstrate colocalization of CD163 and CD16 (Fcgamma III recptor) gene expression, the latter marker associated with HIV infection of monocyte in vivo and permissivity of infection. Indeed, CD163(+) MPhis and microglia are often productively infected in HIVE CNS. In SIV infected rhesus macaques, CD163(+) cells accumulate perivascularly, within nodular lesions and the parenchyma in animals with encephalitis. Likewise, parenchymal microglia and perivascular MPhi s are CD163(+) in HIVE. In contrast to HIVE, CD163(+)perivascular and parenchymal MPhi s in HIV-associated PML were only associated with areas of demyelinating lesions. Interestingly, SIV-infected rhesus macaques

  9. Simian virus 40 late proteins possess lytic properties that render them capable of permeabilizing cellular membranes.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Robert; Rusan, Nasser M; Wilbuer, Anne-Kathrin; Norkin, Leonard C; Wadsworth, Patricia; Hebert, Daniel N

    2006-07-01

    Many nonenveloped viruses have evolved an infectious cycle that culminates in the lysis or permeabilization of the host to enable viral release. How these viruses initiate the lytic event is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the simian virus 40 progeny accumulated at the nuclear envelope prior to the permeabilization of the nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membranes at a time which corresponded with the release of the progeny. The permeabilization of these cellular membranes temporally correlated with late protein expression and was not observed upon the inhibition of their synthesis. To address whether one or more of the late proteins possessed an inherent capacity to induce membrane permeabilization, we examined the permeability of Escherichia coli that separately expressed the late proteins. VP2 and VP3, but not VP1, caused the permeabilization of bacterial membranes. Additionally, VP3 expression resulted in bacterial cell lysis. These findings demonstrate that VP3 possesses an inherent lytic property that is independent of eukaryotic signaling or cell death pathways.

  10. Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) generated by lentivirus vector-mediated delivery of the CCR5{Delta}32 gene despite detectable expression of the HIV-1 co-receptors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qingwen; Marsh, Jon; Cornetta, Kenneth; Alkhatib, Ghalib

    2008-10-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that there are two distinct mechanisms for genetic resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) conferred by the CCR5Delta32 gene: the loss of wild-type CCR5 surface expression and the generation of CCR5Delta32 protein, which interacts with CXCR4. To analyse the protective effects of long-term expression of the CCR5Delta32 protein, recombinant lentiviral vectors were used to deliver the CCR5Delta32 gene into human cell lines and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells that had been immortalized by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Blasticidin S-resistant cell lines expressing the lentivirus-encoded CCR5Delta32 showed a significant reduction in HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion assays. It was shown that CD4(+) T lymphocytes expressing the lentivirus-encoded CCR5Delta32 gene were highly resistant to infection by a primary but not by a laboratory-adapted X4 strain, suggesting different infectivity requirements. In contrast to previous studies that analysed the CCR5Delta32 protective effects in a transient expression system, this study showed that long-term expression of CCR5Delta32 conferred resistance to HIV-1 despite cell-surface expression of the HIV co-receptors. The results suggest an additional unknown mechanism for generating the CCR5Delta32 resistance phenotype and support the hypothesis that the CCR5Delta32 protein acts as an HIV-suppressive factor by altering the stoichiometry of the molecules involved in HIV-1 entry. The lentiviral-CCR5Delta32 vectors offer a method of generating HIV-resistant cells by delivery of the CCR5Delta32 gene that may be useful for stem cell- or T-cell-based gene therapy for HIV-1 infection.

  11. Two Novel Simian Arteriviruses in Captive and Wild Baboons (Papio spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Adam L.; Lauck, Michael; Sibley, Samuel D.; Pecotte, Jerilyn; Rice, Karen; Weny, Geoffrey; Tumukunde, Alex; Hyeroba, David; Greene, Justin; Correll, Michael; Gleicher, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the 1960s, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; Nidovirales, Arteriviridae) has caused highly fatal outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in captive Asian macaque colonies. However, the source(s) of these outbreaks and the natural reservoir(s) of this virus remain obscure. Here we report the identification of two novel, highly divergent simian arteriviruses related to SHFV, Mikumi yellow baboon virus 1 (MYBV-1) and Southwest baboon virus 1 (SWBV-1), in wild and captive baboons, respectively, and demonstrate the recent transmission of SWBV-1 among captive baboons. These findings extend our knowledge of the genetic and geographic diversity of the simian arteriviruses, identify baboons as a natural host of these viruses, and provide further evidence that baboons may have played a role in previous outbreaks of simian hemorrhagic fever in macaques, as has long been suspected. This knowledge should aid in the prevention of disease outbreaks in captive macaques and supports the growing body of evidence that suggests that simian arterivirus infections are common in Old World monkeys of many different species throughout Africa. IMPORTANCE Historically, the emergence of primate viruses both in humans and in other primate species has caused devastating outbreaks of disease. One strategy for preventing the emergence of novel primate pathogens is to identify microbes with the potential for cross-species transmission in their natural state within reservoir species from which they might emerge. Here, we detail the discovery and characterization of two related simian members of the Arteriviridae family that have a history of disease emergence and host switching. Our results expand the phylogenetic and geographic range of the simian arteriviruses and define baboons as a natural host for these viruses. Our findings also identify a potential threat to captive macaque colonies by showing that simian arteriviruses are actively circulating in captive baboons. PMID

  12. Macaque homologs of EBV and KSHV show uniquely different associations with simian AIDS-related lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A Gregory; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Barcy, Serge; Bakke, Angela M; Lewis, Patrick; Tsai, Che-Chung; Murnane, Robert D; Rose, Timothy M

    2012-01-01

    Two gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Lymphocryptovirus genus) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (Rhadinovirus genus) have been implicated in the etiology of AIDS-associated lymphomas. Homologs of these viruses have been identified in macaques and other non-human primates. In order to assess the association of these viruses with non-human primate disease, archived lymphoma samples were screened for the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) homologs of EBV, and macaque rhadinoviruses belonging to the RV1 lineage of KSHV homologs or the more distant RV2 lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses. Viral loads were determined by QPCR and infected cells were identified by immunolabeling for different viral proteins. The lymphomas segregated into three groups. The first group (n = 6) was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of LCV (1-25 genomes/cell) and expressed the B-cell antigens CD20 or BLA.36. A strong EBNA-2 signal was detected in the nuclei of the neoplastic cells in one of the LCV-high lymphomas, indicative of a type III latency stage. None of the lymphomas in this group stained for the LCV viral capsid antigen (VCA) lytic marker. The second group (n = 5) was associated with D-type simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (9-790 genomes/cell) and expressed the CD3 T-cell marker. The third group (n = 3) was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (2-260 genomes/cell) and was negative for both CD20 and CD3. In both the CD3-positive and CD3/CD20-negative lymphomas, the neoplastic cells stained strongly for markers of RV2 lytic replication. None of the lymphomas had detectable levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV), the macaque RV1 homolog of KSHV. Our data suggest etiological roles for both lymphocryptoviruses and RV2 rhadinoviruses in the development of simian AIDS-associated lymphomas and indicate that the

  13. Molecular evidence of simian virus 40 infections in children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butel, J. S.; Arrington, A. S.; Wong, C.; Lednicky, J. A.; Finegold, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies have detected simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA in certain human tumors and normal tissues. The significance of human infections by SV40, which was first discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines used between 1955 and 1963, remains unknown. The occurrence of SV40 infections in unselected hospitalized children was evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analyses were done on archival tissue specimens from patients positive for SV40 neutralizing antibody. SV40 DNA was identified in samples from 4 of 20 children (1 Wilms' tumor, 3 transplanted kidney samples). Sequence variation among SV40 regulatory regions ruled out laboratory contamination of specimens. This study shows the presence of SV40 infections in pediatric patients born after 1982.

  14. Subcellular localization of the simian virus 40 agnoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, S; Khoury, G; Jay, G

    1983-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of the simian virus 40 agnoprotein in infected cells was determined by indirect immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionation followed by indirect immunoprecipitation. The specific antibodies used in these studies were directed against either purified agnoprotein or a synthetic oligopeptide homologous to the N-terminus of the processed protein. Both procedures showed predominant localization of the agnoprotein to the cytosol and to the perinuclear region in association with the outer nuclear membrane. A minor but detectable fraction of the protein was also found in the nucleus. The definition of its subcellular distribution, as well as its high lability in vivo and affinity for nucleic acid, provide a basis for speculation on the function of this gene product. Images PMID:6296448

  15. [Basics of primary immunodeficiencies].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Claudia; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva; Hernández-Martínez, Ana Rosa; Blancas-Galicia, Lizbeth

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, the etiology are the defects in the development or function of the immune system. The principal PID manifestations are the infections in early age, malignancy and diseases of immune dysregulation as autoimmunity and allergy. PIDs are genetics disorders and most of them are inherited as autosomal recessive, also this group of diseases is more prevalent in males and in childhood. The antibody immunodeficiency is the PID more common in adults. The more frequent disorders are the infections in the respiratory tract, abscesses, candidiasis, diarrhea, BCGosis etc. Initial approach included a complete blood count and quantification of immunoglobulins. The delay in diagnosis could be explained due to a perception that the recurrent infections are normal process or think that they are exclusively of childhood. The early diagnosis of PID by primary care physicians is important to opportune treatment and better prognosis.

  16. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  17. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  18. Induction of interferon-stimulated genes by Simian virus 40 T antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, Abhilasha V.; Cantalupo, Paul G.; Sarkar, Saumendra N.; Pipas, James M.

    2010-10-25

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) is a multifunctional oncoprotein essential for productive viral infection and for cellular transformation. We have used microarray analysis to examine the global changes in cellular gene expression induced by wild-type T antigen (TAg{sup wt}) and TAg-mutants in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). The expression profile of approximately 800 cellular genes was altered by TAg{sup wt} and a truncated TAg (TAg{sup N136}), including many genes that influence cell cycle, DNA-replication, transcription, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Unexpectedly, we found a significant number of immune response genes upregulated by TAg{sup wt} including many interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) such as ISG56, OAS, Rsad2, Ifi27 and Mx1. Additionally, we also observed activation of STAT1 by TAg{sup wt}. Our genetic studies using several TAg-mutants reveal an unexplored function of TAg and indicate that the LXCXE motif and p53 binding are required for the upregulation of ISGs.

  19. Characterization of human tracheal epithelial cells transformed by an origin-defective simian virus 40.

    PubMed Central

    Gruenert, D C; Basbaum, C B; Welsh, M J; Li, M; Finkbeiner, W E; Nadel, J A

    1988-01-01

    To facilitate understanding of the mechanisms underlying pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer and cystic fibrosis, we have transformed and characterized cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. Cells were transfected by calcium phosphate precipitation with a plasmid containing a replication-defective simian virus 40 (SV40) genome. Colonies of cells with enhanced growth potential were isolated and analyzed for transformation- and epithelial-specific characteristics. Precrisis cells were observed to express the SV40 large tumor antigen, produce cytokeratins, have microvilli, and form tight junctions. After crisis, cells continued to express the SV40 large tumor antigen as well as epithelial-specific cytokeratins and to display the apical membrane microvilli. Apical membrane Cl channels were opened in postcrisis cells exposed to 50 microM forskolin. These channels showed electrical properties similar to those observed in primary cultures. The postcrisis cells have been in culture for greater than 250 generations and are potentially "immortal." In addition to providing a useful in vitro model for the study of ion transport by human airway epithelial cells, the cells can be used to examine stages of neoplastic progression. Images PMID:2457904

  20. Class I major histocompatibility proteins are an essential component of the simian virus 40 receptor.

    PubMed

    Breau, W C; Atwood, W J; Norkin, L C

    1992-04-01

    The class I molecules encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) present endogenously synthesized antigenic peptide fragments to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We show here that these proteins are an essential component of the cell surface receptor for simian virus 40 (SV40). First, SV40 binding to cells can be blocked by two monoclonal antibodies against class I human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) proteins but not by monoclonal antibodies specific for other cell surface proteins. Second, SV40 does not bind to cells of two different human lymphoblastoid cell lines which do not express surface class I MHC proteins because of genetic defects in the beta 2-microglobulin gene in one line and in the HLA complex in the other. Transfection of these cell lines with cloned genes for beta 2-microglobulin and HLA-B8, respectively, restored expression of their surface class I MHC proteins and resulted in concomitant SV40 binding. Finally, SV40 binds to purified HLA proteins in vitro and selectively binds to class I MHC proteins in a cell surface extract.

  1. Viral latency in blood and saliva of simian foamy virus-infected humans.

    PubMed

    Rua, Rejane; Betsem, Edouard; Gessain, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Simian foamy viruses (SFV) are widespread retroviruses among non-human primates (NHP). SFV actively replicate in the oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans through NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection. We aimed at studying the natural history of SFV infection in human. We have analyzed viral load and gene expression in 14 hunters from Cameroon previously shown to be infected with a gorilla SFV strain. Viral DNA could be detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) targeting the pol-in region, in most samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (7.1 ± 6.0 SFV DNA copies/105 PBMCs) and saliva (2.4 ± 4.3 SFV DNA copies/105 cells) derived from the hunters. However, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT)-qPCR revealed the absence of SFV viral gene expression in both PBMCs and saliva, suggesting that SFV was latent in the human samples. Our study demonstrates that a latent infection can occur in humans and persist for years, both in PBMCs and saliva. Such a scenario may contribute to the putative lack of secondary human-to-human transmissions of SFV.

  2. Nonlytic simian virus 40-specific 100K phosphoprotein is associated with anchorage-independent growth in simian virus 40-transformed and revertant mouse cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S; Verderame, M; Lo, A; Pollack, R

    1981-01-01

    Normal fibroblasts display two distinct growth controls which can be assayed as requirements for serum or for anchorage. Interaction of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts with simian virus 40 (SV40) thus generates four classes of transformed cells. We have examined viral gene expression in these four classes of cell lines. Immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled cell extracts with an antiserum obtained from tumor-bearing hamsters detected the SV40 large T and small t proteins (94,000 molecular weight [94K], 17K) and the nonviral host 54K protein in all cell lines tested. A tumor antigen with an apparent molecular weight of 100,000 was also found in some, but not all, lines. Similar "super T" molecules have been found by others in many rodent transformed lines. We carried out an analysis of the relation of phenotype to relative amounts of these proteins in cell lines of the four classes, using the Spearman rank correlation test. The amount of the 100K T antigen relative to the 94K T antigen or to total viral protein was well correlated with the ability to form colonies in semisolid medium. No significant correlation was found between quantities of labeled 94K T antigen, 54K host antigen, or 17K t antigen and either serum or anchorage independence. Mouse cells transformed with the small t SV40 deletion mutant 884 synthesized a 100K T antigen, suggesting that small t is not required for the production of this protein. The 100K T antigen migrated more slowly than lytic T. Since mixtures of extracts from cells expressing and lacking the 100K T antigen yielded the expected amount of this protein, it is unlikely that the 100K T derives from the 94K protein by a posttranslational modification. Images PMID:6287215

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Serve as Substrates for Multidrug Transporter Proteins MDR1 and MRP1 but Retain Antiviral Efficacy in Cell Lines Expressing These Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Ranga V.; Middlemas, David; Flynn, Pat; Fridland, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs)—saquinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, and indinavir—interact with the ABC-type multidrug transporter proteins MDR1 and MRP1 in CEM T-lymphocytic cell lines. Calcein fluorescence was significantly enhanced in MDR1+ CEM/VBL100 and MRP1+ CEM/VM-1-5 cells incubated in the presence of various HIV PIs and calcein acetoxymethyl ester. HIV PIs also enhanced the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin, a known substrate for MDR1 and MRP1, in both VBL100 and VM-1-5 CEM lines. Saquinavir, ritonavir, and nelfinavir enhanced doxorubicin toxicity in CEM/VBL100 cells by approximately three- to sevenfold. Saquinavir and ritonavir also enhanced doxorubicin toxicity in CEM/VM-1-5 cells. HIV-1 replication was effectively inhibited by the various PIs in all of the cell lines, and the 90% inhibitory concentration for a given compound was comparable between the different cell types. Therefore, overexpression of MDR1 or MRP1 by T lymphocytes is not likely to limit the antiviral efficacy of HIV PI therapy. PMID:9835508

  4. Failed attempts at experimental transplantation and transmission of nocturnally-periodic simian Loa from monkey to man

    PubMed Central

    Duke, BOL

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes unsuccessful attempts to induce a nocturnally-periodic infection with simian Loa in a human volunteer (the author of this paper) by means of 1. Transplanting adult simian Loa worms from a wild drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) to man; and 2. Infecting the same volunteer by sub-cutaneous inoculation with infective larvae of simian Loa from a laboratory-bred, experimentally infected Chrysops silacea. PMID:15283865

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Enhancer-binding Protein 3 Is Essential for the Expression of Asparagine-linked Glycosylation 2 in the Regulation of Osteoblast and Chondrocyte Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Katsuyuki; Maeda, Shingo; Kawamura, Ichiro; Matsuyama, Kanehiro; Shinohara, Naohiro; Yahiro, Yuhei; Nagano, Satoshi; Setoguchi, Takao; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Komiya, Setsuro

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhancer-binding protein 3 (Hivep3) suppresses osteoblast differentiation by inducing proteasomal degradation of the osteogenesis master regulator Runx2. In this study, we tested the possibility of cooperation of Hivep1, Hivep2, and Hivep3 in osteoblast and/or chondrocyte differentiation. Microarray analyses with ST-2 bone stroma cells demonstrated that expression of any known osteochondrogenesis-related genes was not commonly affected by the three Hivep siRNAs. Only Hivep3 siRNA promoted osteoblast differentiation in ST-2 cells, whereas all three siRNAs cooperatively suppressed differentiation in ATDC5 chondrocytes. We further used microarray analysis to identify genes commonly down-regulated in both MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and ST-2 cells upon knockdown of Hivep3 and identified asparagine-linked glycosylation 2 (Alg2), which encodes a mannosyltransferase residing on the endoplasmic reticulum. The Hivep3 siRNA-mediated promotion of osteoblast differentiation was negated by forced Alg2 expression. Alg2 suppressed osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in cultured calvarial bone. Alg2 was immunoprecipitated with Runx2, whereas the combined transfection of Runx2 and Alg2 interfered with Runx2 nuclear localization, which resulted in suppression of Runx2 activity. Chondrocyte differentiation was promoted by Hivep3 overexpression, in concert with increased expression of Creb3l2, whose gene product is the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer crucial for chondrogenesis. Alg2 silencing suppressed Creb3l2 expression and chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells, whereas infection of Alg2-expressing virus promoted chondrocyte maturation in cultured cartilage rudiments. Thus, Alg2, as a downstream mediator of Hivep3, suppresses osteogenesis, whereas it promotes chondrogenesis. To our knowledge, this study is the first to link a mannosyltransferase gene to osteochondrogenesis. PMID:24563464

  6. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  7. Stable Expression of Lentiviral Antigens by Quality-Controlled Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Bryan E.; Asrican, Rose; Lim, So-Yon; Sixsmith, Jaimie D.; Lukose, Regy; Souther, Sommer J. R.; Rayasam, Swati D. G.; Saelens, Joseph W.; Chen, Ching-ju; Seay, Sarah A.; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Magtanong, Leslie; Vermeul, Kim; Pajanirassa, Priyadharshini; Jimenez, Amanda E.; Ng, Tony W.; Tobin, David M.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Larsen, Michelle H.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Haynes, Barton F.; Jacobs, William R.; Lee, Sunhee

    2015-01-01

    The well-established safety profile of the tuberculosis vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), makes it an attractive vehicle for heterologous expression of antigens from clinically relevant pathogens. However, successful generation of recombinant BCG strains possessing consistent insert expression has encountered challenges in stability. Here, we describe a method for the development of large recombinant BCG accession lots which stably express the lentiviral antigens, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag, using selectable leucine auxotrophic complementation. Successful establishment of vaccine stability stems from stringent quality control criteria which not only screen for highly stable complemented BCG ΔleuCD transformants but also thoroughly characterize postproduction quality. These parameters include consistent production of correctly sized antigen, retention of sequence-pure plasmid DNA, freeze-thaw recovery, enumeration of CFU, and assessment of cellular aggregates. Importantly, these quality assurance procedures were indicative of overall vaccine stability, were predictive for successful antigen expression in subsequent passaging both in vitro and in vivo, and correlated with induction of immune responses in murine models. This study has yielded a quality-controlled BCG ΔleuCD vaccine expressing HIV gp120 that retained stable full-length expression after 1024-fold amplification in vitro and following 60 days of growth in mice. A second vaccine lot expressed full-length SIV Gag for >1068-fold amplification in vitro and induced potent antigen-specific T cell populations in vaccinated mice. Production of large, well-defined recombinant BCG ΔleuCD lots can allow confidence that vaccine materials for immunogenicity and protection studies are not negatively affected by instability or differences between freshly grown production batches. PMID:25924766

  8. Learning about Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency From The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Learning About Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) What is ... immunodeficiency From The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Get Email Updates Advancing human health through genomics ...

  9. Directed engineering of a high-expression chimeric transgene as a strategy for gene therapy of hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Doering, Christopher B; Denning, Gabriela; Dooriss, Kerry; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Johnston, Jennifer M; Kerstann, Keith W; McCarty, David A; Spencer, H Trent

    2009-07-01

    Human coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is inefficiently biosynthesized in vitro and has proven difficult to express at therapeutic levels using available clinical gene-transfer technologies. Recently, we showed that a porcine and certain hybrid human/porcine fVIII transgenes demonstrate up to 100-fold greater expression than human fVIII. In this study, we extend these results to describe the use of a humanized, high-expression, hybrid human/porcine fVIII transgene that is 89% identical to human fVIII and was delivered by lentiviral vectors (LVs) to hematopoietic stem cells for gene therapy of hemophilia A. Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-based vectors encoding the fVIII chimera efficiently transduced human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293T cells. Cells transduced with hybrid human/porcine fVIII encoding vectors expressed fVIII at levels 6- to 100-fold greater than cells transduced with vectors encoding human fVIII. Transplantation of transduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells into hemophilia A mice resulted in long-term fVIII expression at therapeutic levels despite <5% genetically modified blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) -derived vector effectively transduced the human hematopoietic cell lines K562, EU1, U.937, and Jurkat as well as the nonhematopoietic cell lines, HEK-293T and HeLa. All cell lines expressed hybrid human/porcine fVIII, albeit at varying levels with the K562 cells expressing the highest level of the hematopoietic cell lines. From these studies, we conclude that humanized high-expression hybrid fVIII transgenes can be utilized in gene therapy applications for hemophilia A to significantly increase fVIII expression levels compared to what has been previously achieved.

  10. Vector-Mediated In Vivo Antibody Expression.

    PubMed

    Schnepp, Bruce C; Johnson, Philip R

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on a novel vaccine strategy known as vector-mediated antibody gene transfer, with a particular focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This strategy provides a solution to the problem of current vaccines that fail to generate neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Antibody gene transfer allows for predetermination of antibody affinity and specificity prior to "immunization" and avoids the need for an active humoral immune response against the HIV envelope protein. This approach uses recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, which have been shown to transduce muscle with high efficiency and direct the long-term expression of a variety of transgenes, to deliver the gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into the muscle. Following rAAV vector gene delivery, the broadly neutralizing antibodies are endogenously synthesized in myofibers and passively distributed to the circulatory system. This is an improvement over classical passive immunization strategies that administer antibody proteins to the host to provide protection from infection. Vector-mediated gene transfer studies in mice and monkeys with anti-HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-neutralizing antibodies demonstrated long-lasting neutralizing activity in serum with complete protection against intravenous challenge with virulent HIV and SIV. These results indicate that existing potent anti-HIV antibodies can be rapidly moved into the clinic. However, this methodology need not be confined to HIV. The general strategy of vector-mediated antibody gene transfer can be applied to other difficult vaccine targets such as hepatitis C virus, malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis.

  11. Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy: severe combined immunodeficient/beige mouse model of adult T-cell lymphoma independent of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 tax expression.

    PubMed

    Richard, V; Lairmore, M D; Green, P L; Feuer, G; Erbe, R S; Albrecht, B; D'Souza, C; Keller, E T; Dai, J; Rosol, T J

    2001-06-01

    The majority of patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) resulting from human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection develop humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). We used an animal model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)/beige mice to study the pathogenesis of HHM. SCID/beige mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with a human ATL line (RV-ATL) and were euthanized 20 to 32 days after inoculation. SCID/beige mice with engrafted RV-ATL cells developed lymphoma in the mesentery, liver, thymus, lungs, and spleen. The lymphomas stained positively for human CD45RO surface receptor and normal mouse lymphocytes stained negatively confirming the human origin of the tumors. The ATL cells were immunohistochemically positive for parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). In addition, PTHrP mRNA was highly expressed in lymphomas when compared to MT-2 cells (HTLV-1-positive cell line). Mice with lymphoma developed severe hypercalcemia. Plasma PTHrP concentrations were markedly increased in mice with hypercalcemia, and correlated with the increase in plasma calcium concentrations. Bone densitometry and histomorphometry in lymphoma-bearing mice revealed significant bone loss because of a marked increase in osteoclastic bone resorption. RV-ATL cells contained 1.5 HTLV-1 proviral copies of the tax gene as determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, tax expression was not detected by Western blot or reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR in RV-ATL cells, which suggests that factors other than Tax are modulators of PTHrP gene expression. The SCID/beige mouse model mimics HHM as it occurs in ATL patients, and will be useful to investigate the regulation of PTHrP expression by ATL cells in vivo.

  12. Genomic and functional analysis of the host response to acute simian varicella infection in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nicole; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Rais, Maham; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is the causative agent of varicella and herpes zoster. Although it is well established that VZV is transmitted via the respiratory route, the host-pathogen interactions during acute VZV infection in the lungs remain poorly understood due to limited access to clinical samples. To address these gaps in our knowledge, we leveraged a nonhuman primate model of VZV infection where rhesus macaques are intrabronchially challenged with the closely related Simian Varicella Virus (SVV). Acute infection is characterized by immune infiltration of the lung airways, a significant up-regulation of genes involved in antiviral-immunity, and a down-regulation of genes involved in lung development. This is followed by a decrease in viral loads and increased expression of genes associated with cell cycle and tissue repair. These data provide the first characterization of the host response required to control varicella virus replication in the lung and provide insight into mechanisms by which VZV infection can cause lung injury in an immune competent host. PMID:27677639

  13. Class I major histocompatibility proteins as cell surface receptors for simian virus 40.

    PubMed

    Atwood, W J; Norkin, L C

    1989-10-01

    Class I major histocompatibility complex proteins appear to be the major cell surface receptors for simian virus 40 (SV40), as implied by the following observations. Adsorption of SV40 to LLC-MK2 rhesus monkey kidney cells specifically inhibited binding of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against class I human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. Conversely, pretreatment of LLC-MK2 cells with anti-HLA MAbs inhibited infection by SV40. The ability of anti-HLA to inhibit infection was greatly reduced when the order of addition of the anti-HLA and the virus was reversed. Infection was also inhibited by preincubating SV40 with purified soluble class I protein. Finally, human lymphoblastoid cells of the Daudi line, which do not express class I major histocompatibility complex proteins, were infected at relatively low levels with SV40 virions. In a control experiment, we found that pretreatment of cells with a MAb specific for the leukocytic-function-associated antigen LFA-3 actually enhanced infection. This finding may also support the premise that class I major histocompatibility complex proteins are receptors for SV40.

  14. Relationship of lymphoid lesions to disease course in mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus type C infection.

    PubMed

    Obert, L A; Hoover, E A

    2000-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection typically has a prolonged and variable disease course in cats, which can limit its usefulness as a model for human immunodeficiency virus infection. A clade C FIV isolate (FIV-C) has been associated with high viral burdens and rapidly progressive disease in cats. FIV-C was transmissible via oral-nasal, vaginal, or rectal mucosal exposure, and infection resulted in one of three disease courses: rapid, conventional/slow, or regressive. The severity of the pathologic changes paralleled the disease course. Thymic depletion was an early lesion and was correlated with detection of FIV RNA in thymocytes by in situ hybridization. The major changes in thymic cell populations were depletion of p55+/S100+ dendritic cells, CD3- cells, CD4+/CD8- cells, and CD4+/CD8+ cells and increases in apoptosis, CD45R+ B cells, and lymphoid follicles. In contrast to thymic depletion, peripheral lymphoid tissues often were hyperplastic. Mucosally transmitted FIV-C is thymotropic and induces a spectrum of lymphoid lesions and disease mirroring that seen with the human and simian immunodeficiency virus infections.

  15. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  16. Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E

    2010-05-01

    Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious agents may result from disruption of normal host barriers or dysregulation of cellular immunity, the latter serving to promote survival of the infectious agent through immune evasion. Such infections may be followed by opportunistic infections with a variety of other microorganisms. Classic infectious causes of immunodeficiency in companion animals are the immunodeficiency retroviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus. Other important causes include canine distemper virus; canine parvovirus 2; feline infectious peritonitis virus; rickettsial organisms that infect leukocytes; Leishmania; and fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus. Considerable research effort has been invested in understanding the mechanisms of pathogen-induced immunosuppression, with the hope that effective therapies may be developed that reverse the immunodeficiencies developed and in turn assist the host to clear persistent or life-threatening infectious diseases.

  17. Early pathogenesis of transmucosal feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Obert, Leslie A; Hoover, Edward A

    2002-06-01

    To identify the early target cells and tissues in transmucosal feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection, cats were exposed to a clade C FIV isolate via the oral-nasal or vaginal mucosa and multiple tissues were examined by virus isolation coculture (VI), DNA PCR, catalyzed tyramide signal-amplified in situ hybridization (TSA-ISH), and immunohistochemistry between days 1 and 12 postinoculation (p.i.). FIV RNA was detected in tonsil and oral or vaginal mucosa as early as 1 day p.i. by TSA-ISH and in retropharyngeal, tracheobronchial, or external iliac lymph nodes and sometimes in spleen or blood mononuclear cells by day 2, indicating that regional and distant spread of virus-infected cells occurred rapidly after mucosal exposure. By day 8, viral RNA, DNA, and culturable virus were uniformly detected in regional and distant tissues, connoting systemic infection. TSA-ISH proved more sensitive than DNA PCR in detecting early FIV-infected cells. In mucosal tissues, the earliest demonstrable FIV-bearing cells were either within or subjacent to the mucosal epithelium or were in germinal centers of regional lymph nodes. The FIV(+) cells were of either of two morphological types, large stellate or small round. Those FIV RNA(+) cells which could be colabeled for a phenotype marker, were labeled for either dendritic-cell-associated protein p55 or T-lymphocyte receptor antigen CD3. These studies indicate that FIV crosses mucous membranes within hours after exposure and rapidly traffics via dendritic and T cells to systemic lymphoid tissues, a pathway similar to that thought to occur in the initial phase of infection by the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.

  18. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  19. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  20. DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts functionally with the RNA polymerase II complex recruited at the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat and plays an important role in HIV gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Shilpi; Ochem, Alex; Tyagi, Mudit

    2011-07-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a nuclear protein kinase that specifically requires association with DNA for its kinase activity, plays important roles in the regulation of different DNA transactions, including transcription, replication and DNA repair, as well as in the maintenance of telomeres. Due to its large size, DNA-PK is also known to facilitate the activities of other factors by providing the docking platform at their site of action. In this study, by running several chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate the parallel distribution of DNA-PK with RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) along the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provirus before and after activation with tumour necrosis factor alpha. The association between DNA-PK and RNAP II is also long-lasting, at least for up to 4 h (the duration analysed in this study). Knockdown of endogenous DNA-PK using specific small hairpin RNAs expressed from lentiviral vectors resulted in significant reduction in HIV gene expression and replication, demonstrating the importance of DNA-PK for HIV gene expression. Sequence analysis of the HIV-1 Tat protein revealed three potential target sites for phosphorylation by DNA-PK and, by using kinase assays, we confirmed that Tat is an effective substrate of DNA-PK. Through peptide mapping, we found that two of these three potential phosphorylation sites are recognized and phosphorylated by DNA-PK. Mutational studies on the DNA-PK target sites of Tat further demonstrated the functional significance of the Tat-DNA-PK interaction. Thus, overall our results clearly demonstrate the functional interaction between DNA-PK and RNAP II during HIV transcription.

  1. Generation of human innate immune responses towards membrane macrophage colony stimulating factor (mM-CSF) expressing U251 glioma cells within immunodeficient (NIH-nu/beige/xid) mice.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Christina; Hoa, Neil; Callahan, Linda L; Schiltz, Patric M; Jahroudi, Reza Alipanah; Zhang, Jian Gang; Wepsic, H Terry; Jadus, Martin R

    2007-06-01

    The response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to cloned human HLA-A2+ U251 glioma cells (U251-2F11/TK) expressing membrane macrophage colony stimulating factor (mM-CSF) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Enriched human monocytes derived from cancer patients produced a respiratory burst following 20min of interaction with mM-CSF expressing U251 glioma cells. This respiratory burst response was not observed in the enriched human monocytes following similar exposure to the viral vector control U251 (U251-VV) cells. Reactive oxygen species such as H(2)O(2) and HOCl produced death of the U251 cells. The U251-2F11/TK cells failed to grow in severely compromised combined immunodeficient (NIH-bg-nu-xidBR) mice that were depleted of murine monocyte/macrophages then reconstituted with human HLA-A2+ PBMC. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced by PBMC, both in vitro and in vivo in response tomM-CSF expressing U251 cells. U251-2F11/TK cells failed to form subcutaneous tumors in macrophage depleted mice reconstituted with human PBMC; whereas, progressive growth of such tumors was observed with the U251-VV cells. U251-2F11/TK tumors formed if the initial inoculums of PBMC were depleted of monocytes. From this work it can be concluded that mM-CSF transduced U251-2F11/TK glioma cells can safely stimulate human innate immune responses in vivo.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease. PMID:23662195

  3. DNA characterization of simian Entamoeba histolytica-like strains to differentiate them from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Takano, Jun-ichiro; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Kato, Miyoko; Narita, Toyoko; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Koji

    2009-10-01

    Two simian Entamoeba histolytica-like strains, EHMfas1 and P19-061405, have been suggested to represent a new species based on genetic characterization. Sequence analyses of the hexokinase, glucose phosphate isomerase, and phosphoglucomutase genes supported the previous findings of isoenzyme analyses demonstrating a new zymodeme pattern. Phylogenetic studies of 18S rDNA, 5.8S rDNA, the chaperonin 60 gene, and the pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase gene showed original clusters of simian E. histolytica-like strains below or near E. histolytica, respectively. Comparative studies of the chitinase and the serine-rich E. histolytica protein genes and locus 1-2 region revealed that most mutated units were shared among the simian E. histolytica-like strains. The similarities of each of the repeating units within the simian E. histolytica-like strains or E. histolytica and the differences of those between the both might be generated by concerted evolution. Our results indicate that EHMfas1 and P19-061405 should be considered to be the same species, despite that they were isolated from different monkey species and different habitats. Simian E. histolytica-like amebas may be endemic to macaque monkeys, as a counterpart to E. histolytica in humans, and should be differentiated from E. histolytica by the revival name Entamoeba nuttalli, as proposed for P19-061405.

  4. Utilization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Infection for Subhuman Primates to Evaluate Experimental Chemotherapy and Vaccines. Determination of the ID50 of Frozen Stock of Two Strains of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Macaca Mulatta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    of challenge to be sent to Henry Jackson Foundation. Additional peripheral blood was collected for CBC and clinical chemistry . Following the virus...CBC, clinical chemistry and blood cultures were also performed. Four months after the challenge, the animals were sche±duled to have axillary lymph node

  5. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Shiaw ); Vaughn, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The inactivation of single-particle stocks of human (type 2, Wa) and simian (SA-11) rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide was investigated. Experiments were conducted at 4{degree}C in a standard phosphate-carbonate buffer. Both virus types were rapidly inactivated, within 20 s under alkaline conditions, when chlorine dioxide concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/liter were used. Similar reductions of 10{sup 5}-fold in infectivity required additional exposure time of 120 s at 0.2 mg/liter for Wa and at 0.5 mg/liter for SA-11, respectively, at pH 6.0. The inactivation of both virus types was moderate a neutral pH, and the sensitivities to chlorine dioxide were similar. The observed enhancement of virucidal efficiency with increasing pH was contrary to earlier findings with chlorine- and ozone-treated rotavirus particles, where efficiencies decreased with increasing alkalinity. Comparison of 99.9% virus inactivation times revealed ozone to be the most effective virucidal agent among these three disinfectants.

  6. Physicochemical stability and inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Z.D.; Birch, C.; Heath, R.; Gust, I.

    1987-04-01

    The effects of various physical and chemical treatments on the stability of a human serotype 1 rotavirus and simian agent 11 (SA11) were compared by using a fluorescence focus assay. The infectivity of both strains was retained after storage at room temperature for 14 days, 4 degree C for 22 days, and -20 degree C for 32 days; lyophilization; and treatment at pH 3 to 11. Both viruses were inactivated at pH 12, as was the human virus at pH 2, although this pH resulted in only partial inactivation of SA11. The human virus also appeared to be more sensitive than SA11 to the action of ether and chloroform. The infectivity of both viruses was lost after UV irradiation for 15 min and after treatment with 8% formaldehyde for 5 min, 70% (vol/vol) ethanol for 30 min, and 2% lysol, 2% phenol, and 1% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ for 1 h each.

  7. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y S; Vaughn, J M

    1990-01-01

    The inactivation of single-particle stocks of human (type 2, Wa) and simian (SA-11) rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide was investigated. Experiments were conducted at 4 degrees C in a standard phosphate-carbonate buffer. Both virus types were rapidly inactivated, within 20 s under alkaline conditions, when chlorine dioxide concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/liter were used. Similar reductions of 10(5)-fold in infectivity required additional exposure time of 120 s at 0.2 mg/liter for Wa and at 0.5 mg/liter for SA-11, respectively, at pH 6.0. The inactivation of both virus types was moderate at neutral pH, and the sensitivities to chlorine dioxide were similar. The observed enhancement of virucidal efficiency with increasing pH was contrary to earlier findings with chlorine- and ozone-treated rotavirus particles, where efficiencies decreased with increasing alkalinity. Comparison of 99.9% virus inactivation times revealed ozone to be the most effective virucidal agent among these three disinfectants. PMID:2160222

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Infects Rhesus Macaque Hepatocytes and Simianized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Scull, Margaret A.; Shi, Chao; de Jong, Ype P.; Gerold, Gisa; Ries, Moritz; von Schaewen, Markus; Donovan, Bridget M.; Labitt, Rachael N.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Gaska, Jenna M.; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Xiao, Jing W.; Flatley, Brenna; Fung, Canny; Chiriboga, Luis; Walker, Christopher M.; Evans, David T.; Rice, Charles M.; Ploss, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    At least 170 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Due to the narrow host range of HCV and restricted use of chimpanzees, there is currently no suitable animal model for HCV pathogenesis studies or the development of a HCV vaccine. To identify cellular determinants of interspecies transmission and establish a novel immunocompetent model system, we examined the ability of HCV to infect hepatocytes from a small non-human primate, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). We show that the rhesus orthologs of critical HCV entry factors support viral glycoprotein-dependent virion uptake. Primary hepatocytes from rhesus macaques are also permissive for HCV RNA replication and particle production, which is enhanced when antiviral signaling is suppressed. We demonstrate that this may be due to the diminished capacity of HCV to antagonize MAVS-dependent innate cellular defenses. To test the ability of HCV to establish persistent replication in vivo, we engrafted primary rhesus macaque hepatocytes into immunocompromised xenorecipients. Inoculation of resulting simian liver chimeric mice with either HCV genotype 1a or 2a resulted in HCV serum viremia for up to 10 weeks. Conclusion: Together, these data indicate that rhesus macaques may be a viable model for HCV and implicate host immunity as a potential species-specific barrier to HCV infection. We conclude that suppression of host immunity or further viral adaptation may allow robust HCV infection in rhesus macaques and creation of a new animal model for studies of HCV pathogenesis, lentivirus coinfection and vaccine development. PMID:25820364

  9. Immunogenicity and efficacy of immunodeficiency virus-like particles pseudotyped with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuate, Seraphin; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Stoiber, Heribert; Nchinda, Godwin; Floto, Anja; Franz, Monika; Sauermann, Ulrike; Bredl, Simon; Deml, Ludwig; Ignatius, Ralf; Norley, Steve; Racz, Paul; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Steinman, Ralph M.; Wagner, Ralf; Uberla, Klaus . E-mail: klaus.ueberla@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

    2006-07-20

    Vaccination with exogenous antigens such as recombinant viral proteins, immunodeficiency virus-derived whole inactivated virus particles, or virus-like particles (VLP) has generally failed to provide sufficient protection in animal models for AIDS. Pseudotyping VLPs with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), which is known to mediate entry into dendritic cells, might allow more efficient stimulation of immune responses. Therefore, we pseudotyped noninfectious immunodeficiency virus-like particles with VSV-G and carried out a preliminary screen of their immunogenicity and vaccination efficacy. Incorporation of VSV-G into HIV-1 VLPs led to hundred-fold higher antibody titers to HIV-1 Gag and enhancement of T cell responses in mice. Repeated vaccination of rhesus monkeys for 65 weeks with VSV-G pseudotyped simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-like particles (VLP[G]) provided initial evidence for efficient suppression of viral load after mucosal challenge with the SIVmac239 virus. Challenge of monkeys after a 28 week vaccination regimen with VLP[G] led to a reduction in peak viremia, but persistent suppression of viral load was not achieved. Due to limitations in the number of animals available for this study, improved efficacy of VSV-G pseudotyped VLPs in nonhuman primates could not be demonstrated. However, mouse experiments revealed that pseudotyping of VLPs with fusion-competent VSV-G clearly improves their immunogenicity. Additional strategies, particularly adjuvants, should be considered to provide greater protection against a challenge with pathogenic immunodeficiency virus.

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 Infects Human Hepatic Stellate Cells and Promotes Collagen I and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression: Implications for the Pathogenesis of HIV/Hepatitis C Virus–Induced Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tuyama, Ana C.; Hong, Feng; Saiman, Yedidya; Wang, Chuansheng; Ozkok, Derya; Mosoian, Arevik; Chen, Ping; Chen, Benjamin K.; Klotman, Mary E.; Bansal, Meena B.

    2010-01-01

    Patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) develop more rapid fibrosis than those infected with HCV only. In HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, fibrosis progression correlates with HIV RNA levels, suggesting a direct role of HIV in liver fibrogenesis. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) and cysteine-X-cysteine receptor 4 (CXCR4), the two major coreceptors required for HIV entry into cells, are expressed on activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the principle fibrogenic cell type in the liver. We therefore examined whether HIV can infect HSCs, explored the potential mechanisms of viral entry, and assessed the impact of infection as reflected by the ability of HSCs to transfer virus to T lymphocytes and elicit a proinflammatory and profibrogenic response. We report that the laboratory-adapted viruses HIV-IIIB (CXCR4-tropic or X4) and HIV-BaL (CCR5-tropic or R5) and primary HIV isolates can infect both a human stellate cell line, LX-2, and primary human HSCs. HIV entry and gene expression in HSCs was confirmed using HIV–green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression viral constructs in the presence or absence of the reverse-transcriptase inhibitor azidothymidine. CD4 expression on a subset of primary HSCs was demonstrated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescence staining. Blocking experiments in the presence of anti-CD4, anti-CXCR4, and anti-CCR5 revealed that HIV entry into HSCs is predominantly CD4/chemokine coreceptor-independent. HIV infection promoted HSC collagen I expression and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Furthermore, infected LX-2 cells were capable of transferring GFP-expressing virus to T lymphocytes in a coculture system. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest a potential role of HIV in liver fibrosis/inflammation mediated through effects on HSCs. The role of early highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation in patients with HIV

  11. Feline immunodeficiency virus latency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication. PMID:23829177

  12. Comprehensive epitope analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome demonstrate broadly directed responses, but no correlation to viral load.

    PubMed

    Addo, M M; Yu, X G; Rathod, A; Cohen, D; Eldridge, R L; Strick, D; Johnston, M N; Corcoran, C; Wurcel, A G; Fitzpatrick, C A; Feeney, M E; Rodriguez, W R; Basgoz, N; Draenert, R; Stone, David R; Brander, C; Goulder, P J R; Rosenberg, E S; Altfeld, M; Walker, B D

    2003-02-01

    Cellular immune responses play a critical role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the breadth of these responses at the single-epitope level has not been comprehensively assessed. We therefore screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 57 individuals at different stages of HIV-1 infection for virus-specific T-cell responses using a matrix of 504 overlapping peptides spanning all expressed HIV-1 proteins in a gamma interferon-enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot) assay. HIV-1-specific T-cell responses were detectable in all study subjects, with a median of 14 individual epitopic regions targeted per person (range, 2 to 42), and all 14 HIV-1 protein subunits were recognized. HIV-1 p24-Gag and Nef contained the highest epitope density and were also the most frequently recognized HIV-1 proteins. The total magnitude of the HIV-1-specific response ranged from 280 to 25,860 spot-forming cells (SFC)/10(6) PBMC (median, 4,245) among all study participants. However, the number of epitopic regions targeted, the protein subunits recognized, and the total magnitude of HIV-1-specific responses varied significantly among the tested individuals, with the strongest and broadest responses detectable in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Neither the breadth nor the magnitude of the total HIV-1-specific CD8+-T-cell responses correlated with plasma viral load. We conclude that a peptide matrix-based Elispot assay allows for rapid, sensitive, specific, and efficient assessment of cellular immune responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome. These data also suggest that the impact of T-cell responses on control of viral replication cannot be explained by the mere quantification of the magnitude and breadth of the CD8+-T-cell response, even if a comprehensive pan-genome screening approach is applied.

  13. Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Anthony P; Leser, George P; Waning, David L; Lamb, Robert A

    2002-04-01

    Enveloped viruses are released from infected cells after coalescence of viral components at cellular membranes and budding of membranes to release particles. For some negative-strand RNA viruses (e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus and Ebola virus), the viral matrix (M) protein contains all of the information needed for budding, since virus-like particles (VLPs) are efficiently released from cells when the M protein is expressed from cDNA. To investigate the requirements for budding of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5), its M protein was expressed in mammalian cells, and it was found that SV5 M protein alone could not induce vesicle budding and was not secreted from cells. Coexpression of M protein with the viral hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) or fusion (F) glycoproteins also failed to result in significant VLP release. It was found that M protein in the form of VLPs was only secreted from cells, with an efficiency comparable to authentic virus budding, when M protein was coexpressed with one of the two glycoproteins, HN or F, together with the nucleocapsid (NP) protein. The VLPs appeared similar morphologically to authentic virions by electron microscopy. CsCl density gradient centrifugation indicated that almost all of the NP protein in the cells had assembled into nucleocapsid-like structures. Deletion of the F and HN cytoplasmic tails indicated an important role of these cytoplasmic tails in VLP budding. Furthermore, truncation of the HN cytoplasmic tail was found to be inhibitory toward budding, since it prevented coexpressed wild-type (wt) F protein from directing VLP budding. Conversely, truncation of the F protein cytoplasmic tail was not inhibitory and did not affect the ability of coexpressed wt HN protein to direct the budding of particles. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple viral components, including assembled nucleocapsids, have important roles in the paramyxovirus budding process.

  14. Production of lymphokine-like factors (cytokines) by simian virus 40-infected and simian virus 40-transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bigazzi, P. E.; Yoshida, T.; Ward, P. A.; Cohen, S.

    1975-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory (MIF-like) activity was demonstrated in the supernatant fluids from primary cultures of African green monkey kidney cells infected with simian virus 40 (SV 40) virus. Kidney cell cultures not infected by virus had no MIF activity. Supernatant fluids from continuous cultures of nontransformed and SV 40-transformed human fibroblasts contained MIF-like activity. Productive infection with SV 40 virus results in the production of a lymphokine-like factor, as previously observed in other virus-cell systems, involving mumps virus and Newcast,le disease virus. However, while infection with these paramyxoviruses causes the production of macrophage and neutrophil chemotactic agents as well as an MIF, SV 40 infection does not induce chemotactic factors. The results reported here, taken in conjunction with previous observations by ourselves and others, suggest that the production of lymphokine-like factors (cytokines) may represent a general biologic phenomenon, and that many, if not all, cell types, when appropriately stimulated, may be capable of such activity. PMID:168779

  15. Live simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine correlate of protection: local antibody production and concentration on the path of virus entry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingsheng; Zeng, Ming; Duan, Lijie; Voss, James E; Smith, Anthony J; Pambuccian, Stefan; Shang, Liang; Wietgrefe, Stephen; Southern, Peter J; Reilly, Cavan S; Skinner, Pamela J; Zupancic, Mary L; Carlis, John V; Piatak, Michael; Waterman, Diane; Reeves, R Keith; Masek-Hammerman, Katherine; Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Alpert, Michael D; Evans, David T; Kohler, Heinz; Müller, Sybille; Robinson, James; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Burton, Dennis R; Johnson, R Paul; Haase, Ashley T

    2014-09-15

    We sought design principles for a vaccine to prevent HIV transmission to women by identifying correlates of protection conferred by a highly effective live attenuated SIV vaccine in the rhesus macaque animal model. We show that SIVmac239Δnef vaccination recruits plasma cells and induces ectopic lymphoid follicle formation beneath the mucosal epithelium in the rhesus macaque female reproductive tract. The plasma cells and ectopic follicles produce IgG Abs reactive with viral envelope glycoprotein gp41 trimers, and these Abs are concentrated on the path of virus entry by the neonatal FcR in cervical reserve epithelium and in vaginal epithelium. This local Ab production and delivery system correlated spatially and temporally with the maturation of local protection against high-dose pathogenic SIV vaginal challenge. Thus, designing vaccines to elicit production and concentration of Abs at mucosal frontlines could aid in the development of an effective vaccine to protect women against HIV-1.

  16. Genetic Imprint of Vaccination on Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmitted Viral Genomes in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Mariana; Verschoor, Ernst; Lai, Rachel P. J.; Hughes, Joseph; Mooj, Petra; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Fitzmaurice, Timothy J.; Landskron, Lisa; Willett, Brian J.; Frost, Simon D. W.; Bogers, Willy M.; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, antigenic and structural changes that occur during HIV-1 infection in response to pre-existing immunity will facilitate current efforts to develop an HIV-1 vaccine. Much is known about HIV-1 variation at the population level but little with regard to specific changes occurring in the envelope glycoprotein within a host in response to immune pressure elicited by antibodies. The aim of this study was to track and map specific early genetic changes occurring in the viral envelope gene following vaccination using a highly controlled viral challenge setting in the SHIV macaque model. We generated 449 full-length env sequences from vaccinees, and 63 from the virus inoculum. Analysis revealed a different pattern in the distribution and frequency of mutations in the regions of the envelope gene targeted by the vaccine as well as different patterns of diversification between animals in the naïve control group and vaccinees. Given the high stringency of the model it is remarkable that we were able to identify genetic changes associated with the vaccination. This work provides insight into the characterization of breakthrough viral populations in less than fully efficacious vaccines and illustrates the value of HIV-1 Env SHIV challenge model in macaques to unravel the mechanisms driving HIV-1 envelope genetic diversity in the presence of vaccine induced-responses. PMID:23967111

  17. Suppressing active replication of a live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine does not abrogate protection from challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, Benjamin; Fiebig, Uwe; Hohn, Oliver; Plesker, Roland; Coulibaly, Cheick; Cichutek, Klaus; Mühlebach, Michael D.; Bannert, Norbert; Kurth, Reinhard; Norley, Stephen

    2016-02-15

    Although safety concerns preclude the use of live attenuated HIV vaccines in humans, they provide a useful system for identifying the elusive correlates of protective immunity in the SIV/macaque animal model. However, a number of pieces of evidence suggest that protection may result from prior occupancy of susceptible target cells by the vaccine virus rather than the immune response. To address this, we developed a Nef-deletion variant of an RT-SHIV whose active replication could be shut off by treatment with RT-inhibitors. Groups of macaques were inoculated with the ∆Nef-RT-SHIV and immune responses allowed to develop before antiretroviral treatment and subsequent challenge with wild-type SIVmac239. Vaccinated animals either resisted infection fully or significantly controlled the subsequent viremia. However, there was no difference between animals undergoing replication of the vaccine virus and those without. This strongly suggests that competition for available target cells does not play a role in protection. - Highlights: • A Nef-deleted RT-SHIV was used as a live attenuated vaccine in macaques. • Vaccine virus replication was shut down to investigate its role in protection. • Ongoing vaccine virus replication did not appear to be necessary for protection. • An analysis of T- and B-cell responses failed to identify a correlate of protection.

  18. Post-translational intracellular trafficking determines the type of immune response elicited by DNA vaccines expressing Gag antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Aaron; West, Kim; Rothman, Alan L; Ennis, Francis A; Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, immune responses induced by Gag DNA vaccines with different designs were evaluated in Balb/C mice. The results demonstrated that the DNA vaccine with the full length wild type gag gene (Wt-Gag) mainly produced Gag antigens intracellularly and induced a higher level of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, as measured by IFN-gamma ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) assays against a dominant CD8+ T cell epitope (AMQMLKETI). In contrast, the addition of a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) leader sequence significantly improved overall Gag protein expression/secretion and Gag-specific antibody responses; however, Gag-specific CMI responses were decreased. The mutation of zinc-finger motif changed Gag protein expression patterns and reduced the ability to generate both CMI and antibody responses against Gag. These findings indicate that the structure and post-translational processing of antigens expressed by DNA vaccines play a critical role in eliciting optimal antibody or CMI responses. PMID:23941868

  19. Post-translational intracellular trafficking determines the type of immune response elicited by DNA vaccines expressing Gag antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Wallace, Aaron; West, Kim; Rothman, Alan L; Ennis, Francis A; Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-10-01

    In the current study, immune responses induced by Gag DNA vaccines with different designs were evaluated in Balb/C mice. The results demonstrated that the DNA vaccine with the full length wild type gag gene (Wt-Gag) mainly produced Gag antigens intracellularly and induced a higher level of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, as measured by IFN-gamma ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) assays against a dominant CD8(+) T cell epitope (AMQMLKETI). In contrast, the addition of a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) leader sequence significantly improved overall Gag protein expression/secretion and Gag-specific antibody responses; however, Gag-specific CMI responses were decreased. The mutation of zinc-finger motif changed Gag protein expression patterns and reduced the ability to generate both CMI and antibody responses against Gag. These findings indicate that the structure and post-translational processing of antigens expressed by DNA vaccines play a critical role in eliciting optimal antibody or CMI responses.

  20. Antiretroviral activity of the aminothiol WR1065 against Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in vitro and Simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV) ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Miriam C; Olivero, Ofelia A; Hardy, Andrew W; Franchini, Genoveffa; Borojerdi, Jennifer P; Walker, Vernon E; Walker, Dale M; Shearer, Gene M

    2009-01-01

    Background WR1065 is the free-thiol metabolite of the cytoprotective aminothiol amifostine, which is used clinically at very high doses to protect patients against toxicity induced by radiation and chemotherapy. In an earlier study we briefly reported that the aminothiol WR1065 also inhibits HIV-1 replication in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human T-cell blasts (TCBs) infected in culture for 2 hr before WR1065 exposure. In this study we expanded the original observations to define the dose-response curve for that inhibition, and address the question of additive effects for the combination of WR1065 plus Zidovudine (AZT). Here we also explored the effect of WR1065 on SIV by examining TCBs taken from macaques with well-established infections several months with SIV. Results TCBs from healthy human donors were infected for 2 hr with HIV-1, and viral replication (p24) was measured after 72 hr of incubation with or without WR1065, AZT, or both drugs. HIV-1 replication, in HIV-1-infected human TCBs, was inhibited by 50% at 13 μM WR1065, a dose at which 80% of the cells were viable. Cell cycle parameters were the same or equivalent at 0, 9.5 and 18.7 μM WR1065, showing no drug-related toxicity. Combination of AZT with WR1065 showed that AZT retained antiretroviral potency in the presence of WR1065. Cultured CD8+ T cell-depleted PHA-stimulated TCBs from Macaca mulatta monkeys chronically infected with SIV were incubated 17 days with WR1065, and viral replication (p27) and cell viability were determined. Complete inhibition (100%) of SIV replication (p27) was observed when TCBs from 3 monkeys were incubated for 17 days with 18.7 μM WR1065. A lower dose, 9.5 μM WR1065, completely inhibited SIV replication in 2 of the 3 monkeys, but cells from the third macaque, with the highest viral titer, only responded at the high WR1065 dose. Conclusion The study demonstrates that WR1065 and the parent drug amifostine, the FDA-approved drug Ethyol, have antiretroviral activity. WR1065 was active against both an acute infection of HIV-1 and a chronic infection of SIV. The data suggest that the non-toxic drug amifostine may be a useful antiretroviral agent given either alone or in combination with other drugs as adjuvant therapy. PMID:19895691

  1. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles by simian virus 40 capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingjuan; Zhang, Zhiping; Gao, Ding; Li, Feng; Wei, Hongping; Liang, Xiaosheng; Cui, Zongqiang; Zhang, Xian-En

    2011-10-01

    Viral capsid-nanoparticle hybrid structures constitute a new type of nanoarchitecture that can be used for various applications. We previously constructed a hybrid structure comprising quantum dots encapsulated by simian virus 40 (SV40) capsids for imaging viral infection pathways. Here, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are encapsulated into SV40 capsids and the effect of particle size and surface ligands (i.e. mPEG and DNA) on AuNP encapsulation is studied. Particle size and surface decoration play complex roles in AuNP encapsulation by SV40 capsids. AuNPs >=15 nm (when coated with mPEG750 rather than mPEG2000), or >=10 nm (when coated with 10T or 50T DNA) can be encapsulated. Encapsulation efficiency increased as the size of the AuNPs increased from 10 to 30 nm. In addition, the electrostatic interactions derived from negatively charged DNA ligands on the AuNP surfaces promote encapsulation when the AuNPs have a small diameter (i.e. 10 nm and 15 nm). Moreover, the SV40 capsid is able to carry mPEG750-modified 15-nm AuNPs into living Vero cells, whereas the mPEG750-modified 15-nm AuNPs alone cannot enter cells. These results will improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle encapsulation in SV40 capsids and enable the construction of new functional hybrid nanostructures for cargo delivery.Viral capsid-nanoparticle hybrid structures constitute a new type of nanoarchitecture that can be used for various applications. We previously constructed a hybrid structure comprising quantum dots encapsulated by simian virus 40 (SV40) capsids for imaging viral infection pathways. Here, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are encapsulated into SV40 capsids and the effect of particle size and surface ligands (i.e. mPEG and DNA) on AuNP encapsulation is studied. Particle size and surface decoration play complex roles in AuNP encapsulation by SV40 capsids. AuNPs >=15 nm (when coated with mPEG750 rather than mPEG2000), or >=10 nm (when coated with 10T or 50T DNA) can be

  2. Association between simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Madden, Charles R.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Finch, Chris J.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma has increased in frequency over the past 30 years, and is a common cancer in HIV-1-infected patients. Although no definite risk factors have emerged, a viral cause has been postulated. Polyomaviruses are known to infect human beings and to induce tumours in laboratory animals. We aimed to identify which one of the three polyomaviruses able to infect human beings (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus) was associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: We analysed systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma from 76 HIV-1-infected and 78 HIV-1-uninfected patients, and non-malignant lymphoid samples from 79 HIV-1-positive and 107 HIV-1-negative patients without tumours; 54 colon and breast carcinoma samples served as cancer controls. We used PCR followed by Southern blot hybridisation and DNA sequence analysis to detect DNAs of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses. FINDINGS: Polyomavirus T antigen sequences, all of which were SV40-specific, were detected in 64 (42%) of 154 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, none of 186 non-malignant lymphoid samples, and none of 54 control cancers. This difference was similar for HIV-1-infected patients and HIV-1-uninfected patients alike. Few tumours were positive for both SV40 and Epstein-Barr virus. Human herpesvirus type 8 was not detected. SV40 sequences were found most frequently in diffuse large B-cell and follicular-type lymphomas. INTERPRETATION: SV40 is significantly associated with some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These results add lymphomas to the types of human cancers associated with SV40.

  3. Genetic Characterization of Simian Foamy Viruses Infecting Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Calattini, Sara; Saib, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses that are widespread among nonhuman primates (NHPs). SFVs actively replicate in their oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans after NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection even decades after primary infection. Very few data on the genetic structure of such SFVs found in humans are available. In the framework of ongoing studies searching for SFV-infected humans in south Cameroon rainforest villages, we studied 38 SFV-infected hunters whose times of infection had presumably been determined. By long-term cocultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with BHK-21 cells, we isolated five new SFV strains and obtained complete genomes of SFV strains from chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes; strains BAD327 and AG15), monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans; strain AG16), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla; strains BAK74 and BAD468). These zoonotic strains share a very high degree of similarity with their NHP counterparts and have a high degree of conservation of the genetic elements important for viral replication. Interestingly, analysis of FV DNA sequences obtained before cultivation revealed variants with deletions in both the U3 region and tas that may correlate with in vivo chronicity in humans. Genomic changes in bet (a premature stop codon) and gag were also observed. To determine if such changes were specific to zoonotic strains, we studied local SFV-infected chimpanzees and found the same genomic changes. Our study reveals that natural polymorphism of SFV strains does exist at both the intersubspecies level (gag, bet) and the intrasubspecies (U3, tas) levels but does not seem to reflect a viral adaptation specific to zoonotic SFV strains. PMID:23015714

  4. Combination recombinant simian or chimpanzee adenoviral vectors for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Lingshu; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Schmidt, Stephen D; Gall, Jason G D; Colloca, Stefano; Seder, Robert A; Mascola, John R; Nabel, Gary J

    2015-12-16

    Recombinant adenoviral vector (rAd)-based vaccines are currently being developed for several infectious diseases and cancer therapy, but pre-existing seroprevalence to such vectors may prevent their use in broad human populations. In this study, we investigated the potential of low seroprevalence non-human primate rAd vectors to stimulate cellular and humoral responses using HIV/SIV Env glycoprotein (gp) as the representative antigen. Mice were immunized with novel simian or chimpanzee rAd (rSAV or rChAd) vectors encoding HIV gp or SIV gp by single immunization or in heterologous prime/boost combinations (DNA/rAd; rAd/rAd; rAd/NYVAC or rAd/rLCM), and adaptive immunity was assessed. Among the rSAV and rChAd tested, rSAV16 or rChAd3 vector alone generated the most potent immune responses. The DNA/rSAV regimen also generated immune responses similar to the DNA/rAd5 regimen. rChAd63/rChAd3 and rChAd3 /NYVAC induced similar or even higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell and IgG responses as compared to rAd28/rAd5, one of the most potent combinations of human rAds. The optimized vaccine regimen stimulated improved cellular immune responses and neutralizing antibodies against HIV compared to the DNA/rAd5 regimen. Based on these results, this type of novel rAd vector and its prime/boost combination regimens represent promising candidates for vaccine development.

  5. Divergent Annexin A1 expression in periphery and gut is associated with systemic immune activation and impaired gut immune response during SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Sena, Angela A S; Glavan, Tiffany; Jiang, Guochun; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; Dandekar, Satya; Goulart, Luiz R

    2016-08-03

    HIV-1 disease progression is paradoxically characterized by systemic chronic immune activation and gut mucosal immune dysfunction, which is not fully defined. Annexin A1 (ANXA1), an inflammation modulator, is a potential link between systemic inflammation and gut immune dysfunction during the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Gene expression of ANXA1 and cytokines were assessed in therapy-naïve rhesus macaques during early and chronic stages of SIV infection and compared with SIV-negative controls. ANXA1 expression was suppressed in the gut but systemically increased during early infection. Conversely, ANXA1 expression increased in both compartments during chronic infection. ANXA1 expression in peripheral blood was positively correlated with HLA-DR+CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell frequencies, and negatively associated with the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and CCR5. In contrast, the gut mucosa presented an anergic cytokine profile in relation to ANXA1 expression. In vitro stimulations with ANXA1 peptide resulted in decreased inflammatory response in PBMC but increased activation of gut lymphocytes. Our findings suggest that ANXA1 signaling is dysfunctional in SIV infection, and may contribute to chronic inflammation in periphery and with immune dysfunction in the gut mucosa. Thus, ANXA1 signaling may be a novel therapeutic target for the resolution of immune dysfunction in HIV infection.

  6. Divergent Annexin A1 expression in periphery and gut is associated with systemic immune activation and impaired gut immune response during SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Angela A. S.; Glavan, Tiffany; Jiang, Guochun; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; Dandekar, Satya; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 disease progression is paradoxically characterized by systemic chronic immune activation and gut mucosal immune dysfunction, which is not fully defined. Annexin A1 (ANXA1), an inflammation modulator, is a potential link between systemic inflammation and gut immune dysfunction during the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Gene expression of ANXA1 and cytokines were assessed in therapy-naïve rhesus macaques during early and chronic stages of SIV infection and compared with SIV-negative controls. ANXA1 expression was suppressed in the gut but systemically increased during early infection. Conversely, ANXA1 expression increased in both compartments during chronic infection. ANXA1 expression in peripheral blood was positively correlated with HLA-DR+CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell frequencies, and negatively associated with the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and CCR5. In contrast, the gut mucosa presented an anergic cytokine profile in relation to ANXA1 expression. In vitro stimulations with ANXA1 peptide resulted in decreased inflammatory response in PBMC but increased activation of gut lymphocytes. Our findings suggest that ANXA1 signaling is dysfunctional in SIV infection, and may contribute to chronic inflammation in periphery and with immune dysfunction in the gut mucosa. Thus, ANXA1 signaling may be a novel therapeutic target for the resolution of immune dysfunction in HIV infection. PMID:27484833

  7. Efficient propagation of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-type JC virus in COS-7-derived cell lines stably expressing Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nukuzuma, Souichi; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kameoka, Masanori; Sugiura, Shigeki; Nukuzuma, Chiyoko; Miyoshi, Isao; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2010-12-01

    The high incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in AIDS patients compared with many other immunosuppressive diseases suggests that HIV-1 infection is strictly related to the activation of JC virus (JCV) propagation. In this report, propagation of PML-type JCV in COS-7-derived cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 Tat (COS-tat cells) has been examined. In COS-tat cells, production of viral particles and replication of genomic DNA were markedly increased compared to COS-7 cells, as judged by HA and real-time PCR analyses. These results demonstrate that COS-tat cells provide a useful model system for studying HIV-1 Tat-mediated propagation of PML-type JCV.

  8. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  9. Central nervous system-derived cells express a kappa B-binding activity that enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription in vitro and facilitates TAR-independent transactivation by Tat.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J P; Pomerantz, R J; Raj, G V; Kashanchi, F; Brady, J N; Amini, S; Khalili, K

    1994-01-01

    The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a potent activator of long terminal repeat-directed transcription. While in most cell types, activation requires interaction of Tat with the unusual transcription element TAR, astrocytic glial cells support TAR-independent transactivation of HIV-1 transcription by Tat. This alternative pathway of Tat activation is mediated by the viral enhancer, a kappa B domain capable of binding the prototypical form of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) present in many cell types, including T lymphocytes. Tat transactivation mediated by the kappa B domain is sufficient to allow replication of TAR-deleted mutant HIV-1 in astrocytes. The present study demonstrates the existence of kappa B-specific binding factors present in human glial astrocytes that differ from prototypical NF-kappa B. The novel astrocyte-derived kappa B-binding activity is retained on an HIV-1 Tat affinity column, while prototypical NF-kappa B from Jurkat T cells is not. In vitro transcription studies demonstrate that astrocyte-derived kappa B-binding factors activate transcription of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat and that this activation is dependent on the kappa B domain. Moreover, TAR-independent transactivation of HIV-1 transcription is reproduced in vitro in an astrocyte factor-dependent manner which correlates with kappa B-binding activity. The importance of the central nervous system-enriched kappa B transcription factor in the regulation of HIV-1 expression is discussed. Images PMID:8189531

  10. A family of serine proteases expressed exclusively in myelo-monocytic cells specifically processes the nuclear factor-kappa B subunit p65 in vitro and may impair human immunodeficiency virus replication in these cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Two groups of U937 promonocytic cells were obtained by limiting dilution cloning which differed strikingly in their ability to support human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replication. "Plus" clones replicated the virus efficiently, whereas "minus" clones did not. We examined these clones for differences in nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B activity which might account for the observed phenomenon. Stimulation of plus clones liberated the classical p50-p65 complex from cytoplasmic pools, whereas minus clones produced an apparently novel, faster- migrating complex, as judged by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. It is surprising that the faster-migrating complex was composed also of p50 and p65. However, the p65 subunit was COOH-terminally truncated, as shown by immunoprecipitation. The truncation resulted from limited proteolysis of p65 during cellular extraction which released particular lysosomal serine proteases, such as elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase 3. These specific proteases are coordinately expressed and were present exclusively in the minus U937 clones, but not in the plus clones, as demonstrated in the case of cathepsin G. In addition, these proteases were detected in certain subclones of THP-1 and HL-60 cells and in primary monocytes, in each case correlating with the truncated from of p65. We demonstrate in vitro cleavage of p65 by purified elastase and cathepsin G. It is possible that particular serine proteases may have inhibiting effects on the replication of HIV-1 in myelo-monocytic cells. The data also demonstrate that special precautions must be taken when making extracts from myelo-monocytic cells. PMID:7931077

  11. Promonocytic U937 subclones expressing CD4 and CXCR4 are resistant to infection with and cell-to-cell fusion by T-cell-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Moriuchi, H; Moriuchi, M; Arthos, J; Hoxie, J; Fauci, A S

    1997-01-01

    Different strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vary markedly in the ability to infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage (M/M) lineage. M/M are generally resistant to infection with T-cell-tropic (T-tropic) strains of HIV-1. Recently, the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were identified as cofactors for fusion/entry of macrophage- and T-tropic strains of HIV-1, respectively. To investigate the mechanisms of resistance of M/M to T-tropic HIV-1 infection, we examined a number of subclones of the U937 promonocytic cell line. We found that certain subclones of U937 (plus clones) could, while others (minus clones) could not, support replication of T-tropic strains of HIV-1. We demonstrate that (i) both minus and plus clones support HIV-1 replication when transfected with an infectious molecular cDNA clone of a T-tropic HIV-1; (ii) minus clones do not, but plus clones do, efficiently support fusion with cells expressing HIV-1 IIIB Env; (iii) both plus and minus clones (with the exception of one clone) express physiologically functional CXCR4 protein as well as CD4 on the cell surface; (iv) introduction of CXCR4 into the CXCR4-negative clone does not restore fusogenicity with or susceptibility to T-tropic HIV-1; and (v) a ligand (stromal cell-derived factor 1) for or a monoclonal antibody (12G5) to CXCR4 does not effectively inhibit HIV-mediated cell-to-cell fusion of U937 cells. These data indicate that resistance to T-tropic HIV-1 infection of U937 minus clones occurs at fusion/ entry events and that expression of functional CXCR4 and CD4 is not a sole determinant for susceptibility to T-tropic HIV-1 infection; furthermore, they suggest that other factors are positively or negatively involved in HIV-mediated cell-to-cell fusion in U937 promonocytic cells. PMID:9371631

  12. Natural OX40L expressed on human T cell leukemia virus type-I-immortalized T cell lines interferes with infection of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells by CCR5-utilizing human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background OX40 ligand (OX40L) co-stimulates and differentiates T cells via ligation of OX40 that is transiently induced on T cells upon activation, resulting in prolonged T cell survival and enhanced cytokine production by T cells. This view has led to the targeting of OX40 as a strategy to boost antigen specific T cells in the context of vaccination. In addition, the ligation of OX40 has also been shown to inhibit infection by CCR5-utilizing (R5) but not CXCR4-utilizing (X4) human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) via enhancement of production of CCR5-binding β-chemokines. It was reasoned that human T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-1) immortalized T cell lines that express high levels of OX40L could serve as an unique source of physiologically functional OX40L. The fact that HTLV-1+ T cell lines simultaneously also express high levels of OX40 suggested a potential limitation. Results Results of our studies showed that HTLV-1+ T cell lines bound exogenous OX40 but not OX40L, indicating that HTLV-1+ T cell lines express an active form of OX40L but an inactive form of OX40. Anti-OX40 non-blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb), but not blocking mAb, stained HTLV-1+ T cell lines, suggesting that the OX40 might be saturated with endogenous OX40L. Functionality of the OX40L was confirmed by the fact that a paraformaldehyde (PFA)-fixed HTLV-1+ T cell lines inhibited the infection of autologous activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with R5 HIV-1 which was reversed by either anti-OX40L blocking mAb or a mixture of neutralizing mAbs against CCR5-binding β-chemokines. Conclusions Altogether, these results demonstrated that autologous T cell lines immortalized by HTLV-1 can be utilized as a conventional source of physiologically functional OX40L. PMID:24238037

  13. Inhibition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus by oligodeoxynucleoside methylphosphonates.

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, P S; Agrawal, S; Civeira, M P; Goodchild, J; Ikeuchi, T; Zamecnik, P C

    1988-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides containing internucleoside methylphosphonate linkages were examined for their ability to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced syncytium formation and virus expression. HIV inhibitory activity was found to be dependent on both chain length and the number of phosphonate residues. Introduction of 18 phosphonate groups in an oligomer of chain length 20 significantly increased HIV inhibitory activity relative to the parent oligonucleotide, whereas 5 such groups showed little or no increase in the HIV inhibition capacity. Methylphosphonate-linked oligomers are more stable to nuclease degradation and hence could be potentially useful in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:3174646

  14. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Simian Foamy Virus Isolate from a Cynomolgus Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Koji; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete proviral genome sequence (DDBJ/ENA/GenBank accession no. LC094267) of a simian foamy virus, SFVmfa/Cy5061, isolated from a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). This proviral genome consists of 12,965 nucleotides and has five open reading frames, gag, pol, env, tas, and bet, as with other foamy viruses. PMID:27908992

  15. Accommodation of pyrimidine dimers during replication of UV-damaged simian virus 40 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Stacks, P C; White, J H; Dixon, K

    1983-01-01

    UV irradiation of simian virus 40-infected cells at fluences between 20 and 60 J/m2, which yield one to three pyrimidine dimers per simian virus 40 genome, leads to a fluence-dependent progressive decrease in simian virus 40 DNA replication as assayed by incorporation of [3H]deoxyribosylthymine into viral DNA. We used a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques to show that this decrease is due to a block in the progression of replicative-intermediate molecules to completed form I molecules, with a concomitant decrease in the entry of molecules into the replicating pool. Despite this UV-induced inhibition of replication, some pyrimidine dimer-containing molecules become fully replicated after UV irradiation. The fraction of completed molecules containing dimers goes up with time such that by 3 h after a UV fluence of 40 J/m2, more than 50% of completed molecules contain pyrimidine dimers. We postulate that the cellular replication machinery can accommodate limited amounts of UV-induced damage and that the progressive decrease in simian virus 40 DNA synthesis after UV irradiation is due to the accumulation in the replication pool of blocked molecules containing levels of damage greater than that which can be tolerated. PMID:6621531

  16. DNA binding site for a factor(s) required to initiate simian virus 40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, M; DePamphilis, M L

    1986-01-01

    Efficient initiation of DNA replication in the absence of nonspecific DNA repair synthesis was obtained by using a modification of the system developed by J.J. Li and T.J. Kelly [(1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 6973-6977]. Circular double-stranded DNA plasmids replicated in extracts of CV-1 cells only when the plasmids contained the cis-acting origin sequence for simian virus 40 DNA replication (ori) and the extract contained simian virus 40 large tumor antigen. Competition between plasmids containing ori and plasmids carrying deletions in and about ori served to identify a sequence that binds the rate-limiting factor(s) required to initiate DNA replication. The minimum binding site (nucleotides 72-5243) encompassed one-half of the simian virus 40 ori sequence that is required for initiation of replication (ori-core) plus the contiguous sequence on the late gene side of ori-core containing G + C-rich repeats that facilitates initiation (ori-auxiliary). This initiation factor binding site was specific for the simian virus 40 ori region, even though it excluded the high-affinity large tumor antigen DNA binding sites. Images PMID:3006062

  17. Binding and Susceptibility to Postentry Restriction Factors in Monkey Cells Are Specified by Distinct Regions of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christopher M.; Song, Byeongwoon; Perron, Michel J.; Yang, Peter C.; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In cells of Old World and some New World monkeys, dominant factors restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections after virus entry. The simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac is less susceptible to these restrictions, a property that is determined largely by the viral capsid protein. For this study, we altered exposed amino acid residues on the surface of the HIV-1 capsid, changing them to the corresponding residues found on the SIVmac capsid. We identified two distinct pathways of escape from early, postentry restriction in monkey cells. One set of mutants that were altered near the base of the cyclophilin A-binding loop of the N-terminal capsid domain or in the interdomain linker exhibited a decreased ability to bind the restricting factor(s). Consistent with the location of this putative factor-binding site, cyclophilin A and the restricting factor(s) cooperated to achieve the postentry block. A second set of mutants that were altered in the ridge formed by helices 3 and 6 of the N-terminal capsid domain efficiently bound the restricting factor(s) but were resistant to the consequences of factor binding. These results imply that binding of the simian restricting factor(s) is not sufficient to mediate the postentry block to HIV-1 and that SIVmac capsids escape the block by decreases in both factor binding and susceptibility to the effects of the factor(s). PMID:15113921

  18. The human immunodeficiency virus-1 nef gene product: a positive factor for viral infection and replication in primary lymphocytes and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Considerable controversy and uncertainty have surrounded the biological function of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 nef gene product. Initial studies suggested that this early, nonstructural viral protein functioned as a negative regulatory factor; thus, it was proposed to play a role in establishing or maintaining viral latency. In contrast, studies in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)mac-infected rhesus monkeys have suggested that Nef is not a negative factor but rather plays a central role in promoting high-level viral replication and is required for viral pathogenesis in vivo. We sought to define a tissue culture system that would approximate the in vivo setting for virus infection in order to assess the role of HIV-1 Nef in viral replication. We show that infection of mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with Nef+ HIV results in enhanced replication as evidenced by earlier gag p24 expression when compared with infections performed with nef mutant viruses. Moreover, when unstimulated freshly isolated PBMC are infected with Nef+ and Nef- viruses and then subsequently activated with mitogen, the Nef-induced difference in viral replication kinetics is even more pronounced, with the Nef- viruses requiring much more time in culture for appreciable growth. A positive effect of Nef on viral replication was also observed in primary macrophages infected with a recombinant of YU-2, a patient- derived molecular clone with macrophage tropism. These positive effects of Nef on viral replication are dependent on the initial multiplicity of infection (MOI), in that infections of unstimulated PBMC at low MOI are most dependent upon intact nef for subsequent viral growth. We now provide evidence that the Nef+ HIV is more infectious than Nef- HIV from both a tissue culture infectious dose analysis, and a single-cell HIV infection assay. In the latter case, we demonstrate that infection with equivalent doses of HIV based on virion-associated gag p

  19. Usage of the coreceptors CCR-5, CCR-3, and CXCR-4 by primary and cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Sol, N; Ferchal, F; Braun, J; Pleskoff, O; Tréboute, C; Ansart, I; Alizon, M

    1997-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4, and possibly CCR-3, are the principal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptors, apparently interacting with HIV-1 envelope, in association with CD4. Cell lines coexpressing CD4 and these chemokine receptors were infected with a panel of seven primary HIV-2 isolates passaged in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and three laboratory HIV-2 strains passaged in T-cell lines. The CCR-5, CCR-3, and CXCR-4 coreceptors could all be used by HIV-2. The ability to use CXCR-4 represents a major difference between HIV-2 and the closely related simian immunodeficiency viruses. Most HIV-2 strains using CCR-5 could also use CCR-3, sometimes with similar efficiencies. As observed for HIV-1, the usage of CCR-5 or CCR-3 was observed principally for HIV-2 strains derived from asymptomatic individuals, while HIV-2 strains derived from AIDS patients used CXCR-4. However, there were several exceptions, and the patterns of coreceptor usage seemed more complex for HIV-2 than for HIV-1. The two T-tropic HIV-2 strains tested used CXCR-4 and not CCR-5, while T-tropic HIV-1 can generally use both. Moreover, among five primary HIV-2 strains all unable to use CXCR-4, three could replicate in CCR-5-negative PBMC, which has not been reported for HIV-1. These observations suggest that the CCR-5 coreceptor is less important for HIV-2 than for HIV-1 and indicate that HIV-2 can use other cell entry pathways and probably other coreceptors. One HIV-2 isolate replicating in normal or CCR-5-negative PBMC failed to infect CXCR-4+ cells or the U87MG-CD4 and sMAGI cell lines, which are permissive to infection by HIV-2 but not by HIV-1. This suggests the existence of several HIV-2-specific coreceptors, which are differentially expressed in cell lines and PBMC. PMID:9343175

  20. Wild-type p53 is not a negative regulator of simian virus 40 DNA replication in infected monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    von der Weth, A; Deppert, W

    1993-01-01

    To analyze the proposed growth-inhibitory function of wild-type p53, we compared simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in primary rhesus monkey kidney (PRK) cells, which express wild-type p53, and in the established rhesus monkey kidney cell line LLC-MK2, which expresses a mutated p53 that does not complex with large T antigen. SV40 DNA replication proceeded identically in both cell types during the course of infection. Endogenously expressed wild-type p53 thus does not negatively modulate SV40 DNA replication in vivo. We suggest that inhibition of SV40 DNA replication by wild-type p53 in in vitro replication assays is due to grossly elevated ratios of p53 to large T antigen, thus depleting the replication-competent free large T antigen in the assay mixtures by complex formation. In contrast, the ratio of p53 to large T antigen in in vivo replication is low, leaving the majority of large T antigen in a free, replication-competent state. Images PMID:8380470

  1. Selective inhibition of human immunodeficiency viruses by racemates and enantiomers of cis-5-fluoro-1-[2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]cytosine.

    PubMed Central

    Schinazi, R F; McMillan, A; Cannon, D; Mathis, R; Lloyd, R M; Peck, A; Sommadossi, J P; St Clair, M; Wilson, J; Furman, P A

    1992-01-01

    2',3'-Dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine (FTC) has been shown to be a potent and selective compound against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in acutely infected primary human lymphocytes. FTC is also active against human immunodeficiency virus type 2, simian immunodeficiency virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus in various cell culture systems, including human monocytes. The antiviral activity can be prevented by 2'-deoxycytidine, but not by other natural nucleosides, suggesting that FTC must be phosphorylated to be active and 2'-deoxycytidine kinase is responsible for the phosphorylation. By using chiral columns or enzymatic techniques, the two enantiomers of FTC were separated. The (-)-beta-enantiomer of FTC was about 20-fold more potent than the (+)-beta-enantiomer against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and was also effective in thymidine kinase-deficient CEM cells. Racemic FTC and its enantiomers were nontoxic to human lymphocytes and other cell lines at concentrations of up to 100 microM. Studies with human bone marrow cells indicated that racemic FTC and its (-)-enantiomer had a median inhibitory concentration of > 30 microM. The (+)-enantiomer was significantly more toxic than the (-)-enantiomer to myeloid progenitor cells. The susceptibilities to FTC of pretherapy isolates in comparison with those of posttherapy 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-resistant viruses in human lymphocytes were not substantially different. Similar results were obtained with well-defined 2',3'-dideoxyinosine- and nevirapine-resistant viruses. (-)-FTC-5'-triphosphate competitively inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase, with an inhibition constant of 2.9 microM, when a poly(I)n.oligo(dC)19-24 template primer was used. These results suggest that further development of the (-)-Beta-enantiomer of FTC is warranted as an antiviral agent for infections caused by human immunodeficiency viruses. Images PMID:1283296

  2. Macaque-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1: breaking out of the host restriction factors

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Akatsuki; Akari, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Macaque monkeys serve as important animal models for understanding the pathogenesis of lentiviral infections. Since human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hardly replicates in macaque cells, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric viruses between HIV-1 and SIV (SHIV) have been used as challenge viruses in this research field. These viruses, however, are genetically distant from HIV-1. Therefore, in order to evaluate the efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs and vaccines in macaques, the development of a macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1mt) having the ability to replicate efficiently in macaques has long been desired. Recent studies have demonstrated that host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 family and TRIM5, impose a strong barrier against HIV-1 replication in macaque cells. By evading these restriction factors, others and we have succeeded in developing an HIV-1mt that is able to replicate in macaques. In this review, we have attempted to shed light on the role of host factors that affect the susceptibility of macaques to HIV-1mt infection, especially by focusing on TRIM5-related factors. PMID:23847610

  3. Functional domains within the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope protein required to enhance virus production.

    PubMed

    Abada, Paolo; Noble, Beth; Cannon, Paula M

    2005-03-01

    Primate lentiviruses code for a protein that stimulates virus production. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the activity is provided by the accessory protein, Vpu, while in HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus it is a property of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Using a group of diverse retroviruses and cell types, we have confirmed the functional equivalence of the two proteins. However, despite these similarities, the two proteins have markedly different functional domains. While the Vpu activity is associated primarily with its membrane-spanning region, we have determined that the HIV-2 Env activity requires both the cytoplasmic tail and ectodomain of the protein, with the membrane-spanning domain being less important. Within the Env cytoplasmic tail, we further defined the necessary sequence as a membrane-proximal tyrosine-based motif. Providing the two Env regions separately as distinct CD8 chimeric proteins did not increase virus release. This suggests that the two domains must be either contained within a single protein or closely associated within a multiprotein oligomer, such as the Env trimer, in order to function. Finally, we observed that wild-type levels of incorporation of the HIV-2 Env into budding viruses were not required for this activity.

  4. Functional Domains within the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Required To Enhance Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Abada, Paolo; Noble, Beth; Cannon, Paula M.

    2005-01-01

    Primate lentiviruses code for a protein that stimulates virus production. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the activity is provided by the accessory protein, Vpu, while in HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus it is a property of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Using a group of diverse retroviruses and cell types, we have confirmed the functional equivalence of the two proteins. However, despite these similarities, the two proteins have markedly different functional domains. While the Vpu activity is associated primarily with its membrane-spanning region, we have determined that the HIV-2 Env activity requires both the cytoplasmic tail and ectodomain of the protein, with the membrane-spanning domain being less important. Within the Env cytoplasmic tail, we further defined the necessary sequence as a membrane-proximal tyrosine-based motif. Providing the two Env regions separately as distinct CD8 chimeric proteins did not increase virus release. This suggests that the two domains must be either contained within a single protein or closely associated within a multiprotein oligomer, such as the Env trimer, in order to fun