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Sample records for expression affect blood

  1. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565

  2. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1β signaling might be of value in terms of controlling

  3. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid affects blood parameters, liver morphology and expression of selected hepatic genes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, A A; Banks, P; Szymczyk, B; Leszczyńska, T; Master, A; Piasna, E; Szczepański, W; Domagała, D; Kopeć, A; Piątkowska, E; Laidler, P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research were to investigate the effect of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched diet on Isa Brown laying hen health status and to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in blood parameters, liver morphology and selected hepatic gene expression. Hens were allocated to the control and experimental group (diet enriched with 0.75% CLA) for a total period of 4 m. At the end of the experiment half of the hens from each group were slaughtered for analyses. The remaining hens were transferred to an organic farm for the next 5 m and fed on the diet without CLA supplementation. The CLA-enriched diet resulted in significant changes in blood and serum parameters; specifically, haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cells (WBC) count were decreased compared to the control. The total cholesterol (TC) was not significantly affected while the triacylglycerol's (TG) concentration was elevated. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly increased in the CLA-supplemented group, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed an increasing tendency. Liver biopsies showed pathological changes classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Additionally, the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acids synthesis (ME1, ACLY, ACC, FASN, SCD1), oxidation (CPT1α, PPARA), detoxification processes (Cytochrome P450, CYP, Flavin-containing monooxygenase, FMO3), oxidative stress (NOX4, XbP1) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα) were elevated. Cessation of CLA supplementation for 5 m of organic farming resulted in normalisation of blood and hepatic parameters to the levels observed in control hens. The results of this study indicate that dietary CLA triggers an integrated stress response in laying hens and activates mechanisms involved in liver detoxification.

  4. How Does Lupus Affect the Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print How lupus affects the blood Lupus Foundation of America September 26, ... be safely treated with blood transfusions? How lupus affects white blood cells Blood test may indicate lupus ...

  5. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (hypertension) Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having more than three drinks ...

  6. MicroRNA-137 Inhibits EFNB2 Expression Affected by a Genetic Variant and Is Expressed Aberrantly in Peripheral Blood of Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanshan; Zhang, Rui; Nie, Fayi; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Congshan; Liu, Meng; Valenzuela, Robert K; Liu, Wanqing; Shi, Yongyong; Ma, Jie

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous and non-coding single-stranded RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides, many of which are evolutionarily conserved. Genome-wide association studies have identified a robust statistical association between the MIR137 gene and schizophrenia in Europeans, which was replicated in the Han Chinese population in a case-control study. In the previous study, we provided evidence for a significant association between the EFNB2 gene and schizophrenia in Han Chinese subjects. In the current study, we utilized computational analysis, vector construction of point mutations, luciferase reporter assays and gene expression assays including RT-qPCR and western blotting methods to investigate miR-137 directly targeting EFNB2 gene and explore the reversal effect of a genetic variant of SNP rs550067317 in the putative seed-pair region of EFNB2 3'-UTR. We also found that miR-137 could be detected in the peripheral blood of a cohort of first-onset schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, and the area under curve was 0.795 (95% confidence interval 0.700-0.890), which is a middle diagnostic value for disease, suggesting that it might be valuable for diagnosing schizophrenia. In summary, this study would improve our understanding of the role of miR-137 in schizophrenia-associated signaling pathways and identify the genetic basis of rs550067317 for schizophrenia. Furthermore, we provided new evidence for the involvement of miR-137 in the etiology and diagnosis of schizophrenia, which might contribute to the discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Decoding Children's Expressions of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Joel A.; Feldman, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Mothers' ability to decode their children's nonverbal expressions of four affects (happiness, sadness, fear, and anger) was contrasted with the decoding ability of a matched group of nonmothers. Results indicate that mothers were accurately able to decode expressions of happiness but had relative difficulty with decoding expressions of sadness,…

  8. Does the method of expression of venous blood affect ischaemia/reperfusion damage in tourniquet use? An experimental study on rabbits.

    PubMed

    Iltar, Serkan; Kılınç, Cem Yalın; Alemdaroğlu, Kadir Bahadır; Ozcan, Selahattin; Aydoğan, Nevres Hürriyet; Sürer, Hatice; Kılınç, Aytün Şadan

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the ischaemia and reperfusion phases of two tourniquet application models (Group 1: expressing the blood by a sterile rubber bandage and Group 2: elevation of the limb for several minutes) using an analysis of ischaemia/reperfusion parameters and blood pH. Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were used. Muscle samples were extracted from the triceps surae; at phase A (baseline: just before tourniquet application), phase B (ischaemia: 3h after tourniquet inflation) and phase C (2h after tourniquet deflation). Nitrite, nitrate, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase, malondyaldehyde were measured in the samples. Blood pH was also measured at each phase. Group 2 had significantly decreased nitrite (p=0.007) and nitrate (p=0.01) levels compared to Group 1 while passing from phase A to phase B. The pH decrease through the phases was significant within Group 1 (p=0.006) and was not significant within Group 2 (p=0.052). Lower levels of NO metabolites nitrate and nitrite, result from tourniquet use with incomplete venous blood expression by elevation. Also, with this technique severe acidosis is less likely to occur than when a tourniquet is used with expression of the venous blood by rubber bandage. These findings may help in the decision of which tourniquet technique is to be used for potentially long operations which may exceed 2h.

  9. Changes in heat shock protein 70 expression and blood characteristics in transported broiler chickens as affected by housing and early age feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqil, A; Zulkifli, I

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of 2 types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression and blood parameters in broiler chickens subjected to road transportation. On d 1, female chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32 degrees C on d 1 and gradually reduced to 23 degrees C by d 21; CH) or in conventional open-sided houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24 degrees C; maximum, 34 degrees C). Equal number of chicks from each housing system were subjected to either ad libitum feeding or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). On d 42, all of the birds were crated and transported for 6 h. Birds raised in OH had smaller increases in heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and plasma corticosterone concentrations than those of CH. Subjecting birds to FR dampened heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and corticosterone reactions to transportation. After 4 h of transportation, the OH birds had greater hsp 70 expression than their CH counterparts. Within the CH, the FR chicks showed higher hsp 70 density than those of the ad libitum-fed group. Except for glucose, housing system had a negligible effect on serum levels of cholesterol, potassium, and chloride. Collectively, the results suggest that the improved tolerance to transport stress in OH and FR chicks could be associated with better hsp 70 expression.

  10. Deficient and excess dietary selenium levels affect growth performance, blood cells apoptosis and liver HSP70 expression in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun-Ru; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wang, Guo-Xia; Wu, Ying-Xia; Xian, Jian-An; Wang, An-Li; Cao, Jun-Ming

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of deficient and excess dietary selenium (Se) on growth, blood cells apoptosis and liver heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). After 8 weeks, yellow catfish (initial weight: 2.12 ± 0.01 g) fed isonitrogenous and isolipid diets containing <0.05 (deficient dietary Se) or 6.5 (excess dietary Se) mg Se/kg displayed a significantly lower weight gain ratio (WGR) than those fed a diet containing 0.23 (normal dietary Se) mg Se/kg. As dietary Se levels increased, liver Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase activity and the hepatosomatic index increased significantly. Plasma glucose concentration was highest in the normal treatment compared with the excess dietary Se treatment. Both deficient and excess dietary Se lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis ratio in blood cells, whereas only excess dietary Se increased their cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) (CF-Ca(2+)) concentration. Excess dietary Se also resulted in the highest level of HSP70 expression, thereby possibly providing a protective mechanism against oxidative stress. These results indicate that both deficient and excess dietary Se restrained the growth of juvenile yellow catfish and caused oxidative stress. The overproduction of ROS may act as a signal molecule mediate apoptosis when dietary Se deficiency. Both ROS and CF-Ca(2+) were recorded when dietary Se excess, suggesting that Ca(2+) may be activated by Se and play a major role during Se-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis.

  11. Periconceptional undernutrition affects in utero methyltransferase expression and steroid hormone concentrations in uterine flushings and blood plasma during the peri-implantation period in domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Franczak, A; Zglejc, K; Waszkiewicz, E; Wojciechowicz, B; Martyniak, M; Sobotka, W; Okrasa, S; Kotwica, G

    2016-08-18

    Female undernutrition during early pregnancy may affect the physiological pattern of genomic DNA methylation. We hypothesised that in utero DNA methylation may be impaired in females fed a restrictive diet in early pregnancy. In this study we evaluated whether poor maternal nutritional status, induced by applying a restricted diet during the peri-conceptional period, may influence: (1) the potential for in utero DNA methylation, expressed as changes in the mRNA expression and protein abundance of methyltransferases: DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3a in the endometrium and the myometrium, (2) the intrauterine microenvironment, measured as oestradiol 17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations in uterine flushings and (3) plasma concentration of E2 and P4 during the peri-implantation period. Our results indicate that maternal peri-conceptional undernutrition affects maintenance and de novo DNA methylation in the endometrium, de novo methylation in the myometrium and a results in a decrease in intrauterine E2 concentration during the peri-implantation period. The intrauterine concentration of P4 and plasma concentrations of E2 and P4 did not change. These findings suggest that undernutrition during the earliest period of pregnancy, and perhaps the pre-pregnancy period, may create changes in epigenetic mechanisms in the uterus and intrauterine milieu of E2 during the peri-implantation period.

  12. Decoding Children's Expressions of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Joel A.; Feldman, Robert S.

    Mothers' ability to decode the emotional expressions of their male and female children was compared to the decoding ability of non-mothers. Happiness, sadness, fear and anger were induced in children in situations that varied in terms of spontaneous and role-played encoding modes. It was hypothesized that mothers would be more accurate decoders of…

  13. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  14. Blood Pressure: Is It Affected by Cold Weather?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your narrowed veins and arteries. In addition to cold weather, blood pressure may also be affected by a sudden change in weather patterns, such as a weather front or a storm. Your body — and blood vessels — ...

  15. Trisomy 12 is seen within a specific subtype of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disease affecting the peripheral blood/bone marrow and co-segregates with elevated expression of CD11a.

    PubMed

    Su'ut, L; O'Connor, S J; Richards, S J; Jones, R A; Roberts, B E; Davies, F E; Fegan, C D; Jack, A S; Morgan, G J

    1998-04-01

    In order to delineate the specific morphological and immunophenotypic features of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders associated with trisomy 12, 172 sequential unselected cases of CD19+CD5+ B-cell disorders, primarily affecting the peripheral blood and bone marrow, were studied. Trisomy 12 was found in 24 cases (13.9%), with all cases morphologically classified as either CLL-PL or CLL-mixed by FAB criteria. Trisomy 12 was not found in any cases of typical CLL. Trisomy 12 cases demonstrated a significant higher expression of CD11a (P<0.0001) and CD20 (P<0.0006) when compared to cases with the equivalent morphology and immunophenotype, but without the chromosomal abnormality. Trisomy 12 cases also demonstrated a higher frequency of FMC7, CD38 expression and moderate to strong surface immunoglobulin staining. However, no correlation was detected between the percentages of trisomy 12 cells and cells expressing CD11a, CD38, FMC7 or sIg mean fluorescent intensity. Cells from trisomy 12 positive cases were sorted according to their CD11a expression using fluorescent activated cell sorting. There was a significant increase in the percentage of trisomy 12 cells within the CD11a+ sorted fraction compared to the unsorted population (P < 0.05), implying that trisomy 12 is associated with increased expression of CD11a. With the highly specific morphological and immunophenotypic features demonstrated by trisomy 12 cases in this study, it is highly likely that these cases constitute a specific group of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

  16. Caffeine: How Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... M.D. References Zhang Z, et al. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: A systematic review and ... 1212. Steffen M, et al. The effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure and the development of hypertension: ...

  17. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  18. Does inbreeding affect gene expression in birds?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Bengt; Naurin, Sara; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    Inbreeding increases homozygosity, exposes genome-wide recessive deleterious alleles and often reduces fitness. The physiological and reproductive consequences of inbreeding may be manifested already during gene regulation, but the degree to which inbreeding influences gene expression is unknown in most organisms, including in birds. To evaluate the pattern of inbreeding-affected gene expression over the genome and in relation to sex, we performed a transcriptome-wide gene expression (10 695 genes) study of brain tissue of 10-day-old inbred and outbred, male and female zebra finches. We found significantly lower gene expression in females compared with males at Z-linked genes, confirming that dosage compensation is incomplete in female birds. However, inbreeding did not affect gene expression at autosomal or sex-linked genes, neither in males nor in females. Analyses of single genes again found a clear sex-biased expression at Z-linked genes, whereas only a single gene was significantly affected by inbreeding. The weak effect of inbreeding on gene expression in zebra finches contrasts to the situation, for example, in Drosophila where inbreeding has been found to influence gene expression more generally and at stress-related genes in particular.

  19. Affective Scaffolds, Expressive Arts, and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Some theorists have argued that elements of the surrounding world play a crucial role in sustaining and amplifying both cognition and emotion. Such insights raise an interesting question about the relationship between cognitive and affective scaffolding: in addition to enabling the realization of specific affective states, can an affective niche also enable the realization of certain cognitive capacities? In order to gain a better understanding of this relationship between affective niches and cognition, I will examine the use of expressive arts in the context of psychotherapy and peacebuilding. In these settings, environmental resources and interpersonal scaffolds not only evoke emotion and encourage the adoption of particular bodily affective styles, but also support the development of capacities for self-awareness and interpersonal understanding. These affective scaffolds play a crucial role in therapy and peacebuilding, in fact, insofar as they facilitate the development of self-knowledge, enhance capacities associated with social cognition, and build positive rapport and trust among participants. I will argue that this is because affectivity is linked to the way that subjects frame and attend to their surroundings. Insofar as the regulation and modification of emotion goes hand in hand with opening up new interpretive frames and establishing new habits of mind, the creation of an affective niche can contribute significantly to various modes of cognition. PMID:27014164

  20. Stability of facial affective expressions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fatouros-Bergman, H; Spang, J; Merten, J; Preisler, G; Werbart, A

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature.

  1. Factors affecting blood sample haemolysis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Ed B G; Potter, David L; Ayling, Ruth M; Higginson, Ian; Bailey, Andrew G; Smith, Jason E

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effect of blood sampling through an intravenous catheter compared with a needle in Emergency Department blood sampling. We undertook a prospective, cross-sectional study in a UK university teaching hospital Emergency Department. A convenience sample of 985 patients who required blood sampling via venepuncture was collected. A total of 844 complete sets of data were analysed. The median age was 63 years, and 57% of patients were male. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of haemolysis in blood samples obtained via a needle compared with samples obtained via an intravenous catheter. Secondary outcome measures defined the effect on sample haemolysis of the side of the patient the sample was obtained from, the anatomical location of sampling, the perceived difficulty in obtaining the sample, the order of sample tubes collected, estimated tourniquet time and bench time. Data were analysed with logistic regression, and expressed as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals; P-values). Blood samples obtained through an intravenous catheter were more likely to be haemolysed than those obtained via a needle, odds ratio 5.63 (95% confidence interval 2.49-12.73; P<0.001). Blood sampling via an intravenous catheter was significantly associated with an increase in the likelihood of sample haemolysis compared with sampling with a needle. Wherever practicable, blood samples should be obtained via a needle in preference to an intravenous catheter. Future research should include both an economic evaluation, and staff and patient satisfaction of separating blood sampling and intravenous catheter placement.

  2. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  3. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  4. Factors affecting Brucella spp. blood cultures positivity in children.

    PubMed

    Apa, Hurşit; Devrim, Ilker; Memur, Seyma; Günay, Ilker; Gülfidan, Gamze; Celegen, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuri; Karaarslan, Utku; Bağ, Ozlem; Işgüder, Rana; Oztürk, Aysel; Inan, Seyhan; Unal, Nurrettin

    2013-03-01

    Brucella infections have a wide spectrum of symptoms especially in children, making the diagnosis a complicated process. The gold standard for the final diagnosis for brucellosis is to identify the Brucella spp. isolated from blood or bone marrow cultures. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the factors affecting the isolation of Brucella spp. from blood cultures. In our study, the ratio of fever, presence of hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In addition, C-reactive protein levels and liver function enzymes were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In our opinion, while evaluating the febrile child with suspected Brucella infection, we highly recommend sampling blood cultures regardless of the history of previous antimicrobial therapy and duration of the symptoms.

  5. Factors affecting banking quality of umbilical cord blood for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyou; Loutfy, Mona R; Mayerhofer, Stephanie; Shuen, Paul

    2011-02-01

    The most important objective for cord blood banks is to store cord blood units of high quality, which is determined by total nucleated cells (TNCs) and CD34+ cells. Determining the factors affecting the stored life-saving cells would be beneficial to the field. A total of 4930 cord blood units were collected between January 2007 and October 2009 and processed using a double extraction technique to sediment red blood cells with variable centrifugation time determined by the formula CT = KL - M, where CT is centrifuge time, K is 7.7227, M is 29.742, and L is ln (volume of cord blood with anticoagulant). The recovery rate of TNCs and other relevant factors affecting banking quality were analyzed. The mean recovery rate of TNCs was 97.7 ± 2.5% with 0.04% (2/4930) units below 80% and 10.8% (532/4930) units below 95%. The TNCs per unit was affected by gestation duration (p < 0.01), sex of infant (p < 0.01), mode of delivery (p < 0.01), collection method (p < 0.01), and ethnicity (p < 0.001). The number of postprocessing CD34+ cells was affected only by sex of the infant (p < 0.05). The viability of nucleated cells after processing was 94.8 ± 4.8% and was affected by the number of hours between collection and processing (p < 0.01). In contrast, the viability of CD34+ cells was 99.5 ± 1.0% (n = 30) when samples with low viability of TNCs were assessed. The results did not reveal a significant correlation (r = 0.07, p = 0.38). The double extraction technique provides a high and consistent recovery of TNCs, which ensures that more life-saving cells will be banked for transplants. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Lifelong inorganic arsenic compounds consumption affected blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Chou, Hsin-Ju; Han, Bor-Chen; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2007-12-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a strong correlation with hypertension. Oxidative stress may be one of the major contributors to arsenic-induced hypertension. To investigate the antioxidative and CYP systems through which inorganic arsenic compounds may contribute to blood pressure elevation in rats, we administered 50ppm arsenic (as arsenite and arsenate) in drinking water to Wistar rats for 200 successive days. Systolic blood pressure was determined every 20 days, and blood samples and tissues were collected at each time point for biological analysis. Compared to the control group, weight gain in the arsenic-exposed animals was slightly but significantly lower, whereas the relative weights of the various tissues was higher. Blood pressure was elevated until day 80 in both arsenic groups followed by a time-dependent change in the antioxidative enzyme system. The hypertensive effect remained until day 200 for arsenite when the change by arsenate was minimized. Patterns of antioxidative enzyme change differed between arsenite and arsenate. However, the most common marker of hypertension, the angiotensin-converting enzyme, showed no significant change in either arsenic group. CYP4A was highly expressed in both arsenic groups, particularly in the arsenite group. These results indicate that low but chronic arsenic exposure might cause elevated blood pressure and antioxidative interference. Furthermore, CYP4A might be more important than ACE in contributing to arsenic-induced hypertension.

  7. Expression of blood group genes by mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Richard; Schnaidt, Martina; Klaffschenkel, Roland A.; Siegel, Georg; Schüle, Michael; Rädlein, Maria Anna; Hermanutz-Klein, Ursula; Ayturan, Miriam; Buadze, Marine; Gassner, Christoph; Danielyan, Lusine; Kluba, Torsten; Northoff, Hinnak; Flegel, Willy A.

    2011-01-01

    Incompatible blood group antigens are highly immunogenic and can cause graft rejections. Focusing on distinct carbohydrate- and protein-based membrane structures, defined by blood group antigens, we investigated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in human serum. The presence of H (CD173), ABO, RhD, RhCE, RhAG, Kell, urea transporter type B (SLC14A1, previously known as JK), and Duffy antigen receptor of chemokines (DARC) was evaluated at the levels of genome, transcriptome and antigen. Fucosyltransferase-1 (FUT1), RHCE, KEL, SLC14A1 (JK) and DARC mRNA were transcribed in MSCs. FUT1 mRNA transcription was lost during differentiation. The mRNA transcription of SLC14A1 (JK) decreased during chondrogenic differentiation, while that of DARC increased during adipogenic differentiation. All MSCs synthesized SLC14A1 (JK) but no DARC protein. However, none of the protein antigens tested occurred on the surface, indicating a lack of associated protein function in the membrane. As A and B antigens are neither expressed nor adsorbed, concerns of ABO compatibility with human serum supplements during culture are alleviated. The H antigen expression by GD2dim+ MSCs identified two distinct MSC subpopulations and enabled their isolation. We hypothesize that GD2dim+H+ MSCs retain a better “stemness”. Because immunogenic blood group antigens are lacking, they cannot affect MSC engraftment in vivo, which is promising for clinical applications. PMID:21418181

  8. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Categorical perception of affective and linguistic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-02-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX discrimination and identification tasks on morphed affective and linguistic facial expression continua. The continua were created by morphing end-point photo exemplars into 11 images, changing linearly from one expression to another in equal steps. For both affective and linguistic expressions, hearing non-signers exhibited better discrimination across category boundaries than within categories for both experiments, thus replicating previous results with affective expressions and demonstrating CP effects for non-canonical facial expressions. Deaf signers, however, showed significant CP effects only for linguistic facial expressions. Subsequent analyses indicated that order of presentation influenced signers' response time performance for affective facial expressions: viewing linguistic facial expressions first slowed response time for affective facial expressions. We conclude that CP effects for affective facial expressions can be influenced by language experience.

  10. Expression Sites of Colligin 2 in Glioma Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Dana; van der Weiden, Marcel; Zheng, PingPin; Nigg, Alex; Luider, Theo M; Kros, Johan M

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study using state-of-the-art proteomic techniques, we identified colligin 2 (HSP47) as a glioma blood vessel-specific protein. In the present study we precisely localized the expression of colligin 2 in the blood vessels of diffusely infiltrating gliomas and relate the expression to the distinct cellular components of the vessels by using multiple immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. We grouped the glioma blood vessels into morphological categories ranging from normal looking capillaries to vessels with hypertrophic and sclerotic changes. The expression patterns of various markers of endothelial and pericytic differentiation were correlated with the position of the cells in the vessels and the expression of colligin 2. We found that colligin 2 is expressed in all categories of glioma blood vessels in cells with endothelial and pericytic lineage. Expression of colligin 2 was also found in cells scattered around blood vessels and in few glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells within the blood vessels. There is overlap in the expression of colligin 2 and the collagens type I and IV for which colligin 2 is a chaperon. We conclude that colligin 2 is expressed in all cellular components of glioma blood vessels and may serve as a general marker for active angiogenesis. PMID:19067716

  11. Oxygen tension affects lubricin expression in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Taku; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Okuno, Hiroshi; Itoi, Eiji

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the effects of oxygen tension on lubricin expression in bovine chondrocytes and cartilage explants and a role for hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α in regulating lubricin expression was investigated using a murine chondroprogenitor cell line, ATDC5, and bovine chondrocytes isolated from superficial and middle/deep zones of femoral cartilage. ATDC5 cells and bovine chondrocytes were cultured in micromass under different oxygen tensions (21%, 5%, and 1%). ATDC5 cells and middle/deep zone chondrocytes that initially had low lubricin expression levels were also cultured with or without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to determine lubricin and chondrogenic marker gene mRNA levels and immunohistochemistry was used to assess lubricin protein expression. Explant cartilage plugs cultured under different oxygen tensions were also subjected to immunohistological analysis for lubricin. HIF-1α gene silencing was achieved by electroporatic transfer into ATDC5 cells. A low oxygen tension reduced lubricin gene expression levels in bovine superficial chondrocytes, TGF-β1-treated middle/deep zone chondrocytes, and TGF-β1-treated ATDC5 cells. Lubricin expression in explant cartilage was also suppressed under hypoxia. HIF-1α gene silencing in ATDC5 cells attenuated the lubricin expression response to the oxygen tension. These results corroborate with previous studies that the oxygen tension regulates lubricin gene expression and suggest that HIF-1α plays an important role in this regulation. The normal distribution of lubricin in articular cartilage may be due to the hypoxic oxygen environment of cartilage as it is an avascular tissue. An oxygen tension gradient may be a key factor for engineering cartilage tissue with a layered morphology.

  12. Facial age affects emotional expression decoding.

    PubMed

    Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Werheid, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces.

  13. Facial age affects emotional expression decoding

    PubMed Central

    Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Werheid, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces. PMID:24550859

  14. Who Expresses Depressive Affect in Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; And Others

    Statistics suggest that the incidence of depression and suicide increase over the course of adolescence. Other research suggests that many indicators of well-being increase over the course of adolescence as well. This study investigated affective development during adolescence and examined the relationship of gender, normative developmental…

  15. Multimodal Indices to Japanese and French Prosodically Expressed Social Affects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilliard, Albert; Shochi, Takaaki; Martin, Jean-Claude; Erickson, Donna; Auberge, Veronique

    2009-01-01

    Whereas several studies have explored the expression of emotions, little is known on how the visual and audio channels are combined during production of what we call the more controlled social affects, for example, "attitudinal" expressions. This article presents a perception study of the audovisual expression of 12 Japanese and 6 French…

  16. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  17. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  18. Dissecting gene expression at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Melanie A.; Bien-Ly, Nga; Daneman, Richard; Watts, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of genome-wide expression data for the blood-brain barrier is an invaluable resource that has recently enabled the discovery of several genes and pathways involved in the development and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, particularly in rodent models. The broad distribution of published data sets represents a viable starting point for the molecular dissection of the blood-brain barrier and will further direct the discovery of novel mechanisms of blood-brain barrier formation and function. Technical advances in purifying brain endothelial cells, the key cell that forms the critical barrier, have allowed for greater specificity in gene expression comparisons with other central nervous system cell types, and more systematic characterizations of the molecular composition of the blood-brain barrier. Nevertheless, our understanding of how the blood-brain barrier changes during aging and disease is underrepresented. Blood-brain barrier data sets from a wider range of experimental paradigms and species, including invertebrates and primates, would be invaluable for investigating the function and evolution of the blood-brain barrier. Newer technologies in gene expression profiling, such as RNA-sequencing, now allow for finer resolution of transcriptomic changes, including isoform specificity and RNA-editing. As our field continues to utilize more advanced expression profiling in its ongoing efforts to elucidate the blood-brain barrier, including in disease and drug delivery, we will continue to see rapid advances in our understanding of the molecular mediators of barrier biology. We predict that the recently published data sets, combined with forthcoming genomic and proteomic blood-brain barrier data sets, will continue to fuel the molecular genetic revolution of blood-brain barrier biology. PMID:25414634

  19. Physiologic Variations in Blood Plasminogen Levels Affect Outcomes after Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism in Mice: A Pathophysiologic Role for Microvascular Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satish; Houng, Aiilyan K.; Wang, Dong; Reed, Guy L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background and Objectives Plasminogen appears to affect brain inflammation, cell movement, fibrinolysis, neuronal excitotoxicity and cell death. However, brain tissue and circulating blood plasminogen may have different roles and, there is large individual variation in blood plasminogen levels. The aim of this study was to determine the integrated effect of blood plasminogen levels on ischemic brain injury. Methods We examined thromboembolic stroke in mice with varying, experimentally-determined, blood plasminogen levels. Ischemic brain injury, blood-brain barrier breakdown, matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and microvascular thrombosis were determined. Results Within the range of normal variation, plasminogen levels were strongly associated with ischemic brain injury (p<0.0001); higher blood plasminogen levels had dose-related, protective effects (p<0.0001). Higher plasminogen levels were associated with increased dissolution of the middle cerebral artery thrombus (p<0.0001). Higher plasminogen levels decreased blood-brain barrier breakdown (p<0.05), matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression (p<0.01) and reduced microvascular thrombosis (p<0.0001) in the ischemic brain. In plasminogen-deficient mice, selective restoration of blood plasminogen levels reversed the harmful effects of plasminogen deficiency on ischemic brain injury. Specific inhibition of thrombin also reversed the effect of plasminogen deficiency on ischemic injury by diminishing microvascular thrombosis, blood-brain barrier breakdown and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. Conclusions Variation in blood plasminogen levels, within the range seen in normal individuals, had marked effects on experimental ischemic brain injury. Higher plasminogen levels protected against ischemic brain injury, decreased blood-brain barrier breakdown, matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and microvascular thrombosis. The protective effects of blood plasminogen appear to be mediated largely through reduction

  20. Language and affective facial expression in children with perinatal stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Philip T.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2015-01-01

    Children with perinatal stroke (PS) provide a unique opportunity to understand developing brain-behavior relations. Previous research has noted distinctive differences in behavioral sequelae between children with PS and adults with acquired stroke: children fare better, presumably due to the plasticity of the developing brain for adaptive reorganization. Whereas we are beginning to understand language development, we know little about another communicative domain, emotional expression. The current study investigates the use and integration of language and facial expression during an interview. As anticipated, the language performance of the five and six year old PS group is comparable to their typically developing (TD) peers, however, their affective profiles are distinctive: those with right hemisphere injury are less expressive with respect to affective language and affective facial expression than either those with left hemisphere injury or TD group. The two distinctive profiles for language and emotional expression in these children suggest gradients of neuroplasticity in the developing brain. PMID:26117314

  1. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  2. Factors affecting Israeli women's decision whether to donate cord blood.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Grinberg, Keren; Galula, Sharon; Biton, Michal

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether Israeli mothers' intention to donate cord blood can be predicted using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A descriptive correlation study, employing the TPB. A questionnaire constructed based on a literature review of research on cord blood donation and on the TPB was administered to 207 Israeli women of childbearing age. Behavioral attitudes (women's total appraisal of cord blood donation), subjective norms (women's perception of the opinion of significant others regarding the specific behavior), and perceived behavioral control (women's total appraisal of their control of the behavior and perceived ease or difficulty of cord blood donation) were found to predict women's intention to donate cord blood. Since behavioral attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control can predict cord blood donations, it is important for the medical and nursing staff to understand and use these concepts if they hope to obtain women's cooperation concerning cord blood donation. Nurses should receive education on the subject of cord blood donation, increasing their awareness. It is possible that this could lead to a rise in such donations in the future. Both mothers and fathers should be consulted about the option of donating cord blood.

  3. Periodontal therapy alters gene expression of peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Papapanou, Panos N; Sedaghatfar, Michael H; Demmer, Ryan T; Wolf, Dana L; Yang, Jun; Roth, Georg A; Celenti, Romanita; Belusko, Paul B; Lalla, Evanthia; Pavlidis, Paul

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the effects of periodontal therapy on gene expression of peripheral blood monocytes. Fifteen patients with periodontitis gave blood samples at four time points: 1 week before periodontal treatment (#1), at treatment initiation (baseline, #2), 6-week (#3) and 10-week post-baseline (#4). At baseline and 10 weeks, periodontal status was recorded and subgingival plaque samples were obtained. Periodontal therapy (periodontal surgery and extractions without adjunctive antibiotics) was completed within 6 weeks. At each time point, serum concentrations of 19 biomarkers were determined. Peripheral blood monocytes were purified, RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, labelled and hybridized with AffymetrixU133Plus2.0 chips. Expression profiles were analysed using linear random-effects models. Further analysis of gene ontology terms summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in a subset of patients. Treatment resulted in a substantial improvement in clinical periodontal status and reduction in the levels of several periodontal pathogens. Expression profiling over time revealed more than 11,000 probe sets differentially expressed at a false discovery rate of <0.05. Approximately 1/3 of the patients showed substantial changes in expression in genes relevant to innate immunity, apoptosis and cell signalling. The data suggest that periodontal therapy may alter monocytic gene expression in a manner consistent with a systemic anti-inflammatory effect.

  4. Periodontal therapy alters gene expression of peripheral blood monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Sedaghatfar, Michael H.; Demmer, Ryan T.; Wolf, Dana L.; Yang, Jun; Roth, Georg A.; Celenti, Romanita; Belusko, Paul B.; Lalla, Evanthia; Pavlidis, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Aims We investigated the effects of periodontal therapy on gene expression of peripheral blood monocytes. Methods Fifteen patients with periodontitis gave blood samples at four time points: 1 week before periodontal treatment (#1), at treatment initiation (baseline, #2), 6-week (#3) and 10-week post-baseline (#4). At baseline and 10 weeks, periodontal status was recorded and subgingival plaque samples were obtained. Periodontal therapy (periodontal surgery and extractions without adjunctive antibiotics) was completed within 6 weeks. At each time point, serum concentrations of 19 biomarkers were determined. Peripheral blood monocytes were purified, RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, labelled and hybridized with AffymetrixU133Plus2.0 chips. Expression profiles were analysed using linear random-effects models. Further analysis of gene ontology terms summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in a subset of patients. Results Treatment resulted in a substantial improvement in clinical periodontal status and reduction in the levels of several periodontal pathogens. Expression profiling over time revealed more than 11,000 probe sets differentially expressed at a false discovery rate of <0.05. Approximately 1/3 of the patients showed substantial changes in expression in genes relevant to innate immunity, apoptosis and cell signalling. Conclusions The data suggest that periodontal therapy may alter monocytic gene expression in a manner consistent with a systemic anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:17716309

  5. How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels?

    MedlinePlus

    ... hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Coronary heart disease (CHD) occurs if plaque builds up in the coronary ... high blood pressure , and overweight or obesity —smoking further ...

  6. Affective Expression and Emotions during Adolescence: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, although a great deal is known about affective relations between mothers and young children and affective expression in marital dyads, relatively little is known about emotional development during adolescence. Briefly discusses the studies presented in this issue that represent an integration of work currently being conducted on affect…

  7. Interferon-inducible gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus

    PubMed Central

    Baechler, Emily C.; Batliwalla, Franak M.; Karypis, George; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Ortmann, Ward A.; Espe, Karl J.; Shark, Katherine B.; Grande, William J.; Hughes, Karis M.; Kapur, Vivek; Gregersen, Peter K.; Behrens, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. We used global gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify distinct patterns of gene expression that distinguish most SLE patients from healthy controls. Strikingly, about half of the patients studied showed dysregulated expression of genes in the IFN pathway. Furthermore, this IFN gene expression “signature” served as a marker for more severe disease involving the kidneys, hematopoetic cells, and/or the central nervous system. These results provide insights into the genetic pathways underlying SLE, and identify a subgroup of patients who may benefit from therapies targeting the IFN pathway. PMID:12604793

  8. Interferon-inducible gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Emily C; Batliwalla, Franak M; Karypis, George; Gaffney, Patrick M; Ortmann, Ward A; Espe, Karl J; Shark, Katherine B; Grande, William J; Hughes, Karis M; Kapur, Vivek; Gregersen, Peter K; Behrens, Timothy W

    2003-03-04

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. We used global gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify distinct patterns of gene expression that distinguish most SLE patients from healthy controls. Strikingly, about half of the patients studied showed dysregulated expression of genes in the IFN pathway. Furthermore, this IFN gene expression "signature" served as a marker for more severe disease involving the kidneys, hematopoetic cells, and/or the central nervous system. These results provide insights into the genetic pathways underlying SLE, and identify a subgroup of patients who may benefit from therapies targeting the IFN pathway.

  9. Gene Expression Signature in Peripheral Blood Detects Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Dov; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Iakoubova, Olga; Tranquilli, Maryann; Albornoz, Gonzalo; Blake, Julie; Mehmet, Necip N.; Ngadimo, Dewi; Poulter, Karen; Chan, Frances; Samaha, Raymond R.; Elefteriades, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is usually asymptomatic and associated with high mortality. Adverse clinical outcome of TAA is preventable by elective surgical repair; however, identifying at-risk individuals is difficult. We hypothesized that gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells may correlate with TAA disease status. Our goal was to identify a distinct gene expression signature in peripheral blood that may identify individuals at risk for TAA. Methods and Findings Whole genome gene expression profiles from 94 peripheral blood samples (collected from 58 individuals with TAA and 36 controls) were analyzed. Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) identified potential signature genes characterizing TAA vs. normal, ascending vs. descending TAA, and sporadic vs. familial TAA. Using a training set containing 36 TAA patients and 25 controls, a 41-gene classification model was constructed for detecting TAA status and an overall accuracy of 78±6% was achieved. Testing this classifier on an independent validation set containing 22 TAA samples and 11 controls yielded an overall classification accuracy of 78%. These 41 classifier genes were further validated by TaqMan® real-time PCR assays. Classification based on the TaqMan® data replicated the microarray results and achieved 80% classification accuracy on the testing set. Conclusions This study identified informative gene expression signatures in peripheral blood cells that can characterize TAA status and subtypes of TAA. Moreover, a 41-gene classifier based on expression signature can identify TAA patients with high accuracy. The transcriptional programs in peripheral blood leading to the identification of these markers also provide insights into the mechanism of development of aortic aneurysms and highlight potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The classifier genes identified in this study, and validated by TaqMan® real-time PCR, define a set of promising potential diagnostic markers

  10. Disease-specific classification using deconvoluted whole blood gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Oh, William K.; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Blood-based biomarker assays have an advantage in being minimally invasive. Diagnostic and prognostic models built on peripheral blood gene expression have been reported for various types of disease. However, most of these studies focused on only one disease type, and failed to address whether the identified gene expression signature is disease-specific or more widely applicable across diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of 46 whole blood gene expression datasets covering a wide range of diseases and physiological conditions. Our analysis uncovered a striking overlap of signature genes shared by multiple diseases, driven by an underlying common pattern of cell component change, specifically an increase in myeloid cells and decrease in lymphocytes. These observations reveal the necessity of building disease-specific classifiers that can distinguish different disease types as well as normal controls, and highlight the importance of cell component change in deriving blood gene expression based models. We developed a new strategy to develop blood-based disease-specific models by leveraging both cell component changes and cell molecular state changes, and demonstrate its superiority using independent datasets. PMID:27596246

  11. Perceptual, categorical, and affective processing of ambiguous smiling facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Manuel G; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-12-01

    Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of the expression (semantic), and valence evaluation (affective). The face stimulus display duration and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) were varied to assess the time course of each process. Results indicated that (a) a smiling mouth was visually more salient than the eyes both in truly happy and blended expressions; (b) a smile led viewers to categorize blended expressions as happy similarly for upright and inverted faces; (c) truly happy, but not blended, expressions primed the affective evaluation of probe scenes 550 ms following face onset; (d) both truly happy and blended expressions primed the detection of a smile in a probe scene by 170 ms post-stimulus; and (e) smile detection and expression categorization had similar processing thresholds and preceded affective evaluation. We conclude that the saliency of single physical features such as the mouth shape makes the smile quickly accessible to the visual system, which initially speeds up expression categorization regardless of congruence with the eyes. Only when the eye expression is later configurally integrated with the mouth, will affective discrimination begin. The present research provides support for serial models of facial expression processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of Normal Variability in Peripheral Blood Gene Expression

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, Catherine; Vernon, Suzanne D.; Karem, Kevin L.; ...

    2002-01-01

    Peripheral blood is representative of many systemic processes and is an ideal sample for expression profiling of diseases that have no known or accessible lesion. Peripheral blood is a complex mixture of cell types and some differences in peripheral blood gene expression may reflect the timing of sample collection rather than an underlying disease process. For this reason, it is important to assess study design factors that may cause variability in gene expression not related to what is being analyzed. Variation in the gene expression of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from three healthy volunteers sampled three times onemore » day each week for one month was examined for 1,176 genes printed on filter arrays. Less than 1% of the genes showed any variation in expression that was related to the time of collection, and none of the changes were noted in more than one individual. These results suggest that observed variation was due to experimental variability.« less

  13. Infants' Perception of Dynamic Affective Expressions: Do Infants Distinguish Specific Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soken, Nelson H.; Pick, Anne D.

    1999-01-01

    A preferential looking procedure was used to investigate 7-month-olds' perception of positive and negative affective facial expressions in which a single vocal expression was concordant or discordant with the videotaped facial expression. Results indicated that 7-month-olds discriminated among happy, interested, angry, and sad expressions.…

  14. Factors affecting postoperative blood loss in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-02-11

    We hypothesized that the influence of cyanotic disease on postoperative blood loss is closely related to age in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of a cyanotic disease is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in children aged 1 to 6 months. Children with cyanotic disease and aged<1 month who received fresh frozen plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass had less postoperative blood loss and higher maximal clot firmness on FIBTEM than cyanotic children from all other groups. Additional studies are needed to define optimal pathophysiology-based management in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

  15. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  16. Blood culture results do not affect treatment in complicated cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Paolo, William F; Poreda, Andrew R; Grant, William; Scordino, David; Wojcik, Susan

    2013-08-01

    Cellulitis, a frequently encountered complaint in the Emergency Department, is typically managed with antibiotics. There is some debate as to whether obtaining blood cultures and knowing their results would change the management of cellulitis, although most authors argue that information from blood cultures does not change the empirical management of uncomplicated cellulitis. However, for complicated cellulitis (as defined by the presence of significant comorbidity), there is considerable disagreement and lack of evidence as to the utility of blood cultures. Our aim was to determine the role of blood cultures in the management of complicated cellulitis. This retrospective chart review assessed the utility of obtaining blood cultures in complicated cellulitis (as defined by active chemotherapy, dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, diabetes, or organ transplantation) vs. a cohort of individuals without medical comorbidity. Six hundred and thirty-nine patients were identified, 314 of which were deemed cases and 325 controls. Within the cases, 29 of 314 returned as positive blood cultures vs. 17 of 325 positive blood culture controls within the cases (p = 0.05; odds ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval 0.99-3.43). A clinically significant change in management (a change in the class of antibiotic) was found in 6 of 314 cases vs. 4 of 325 controls (p = 0.578; odds ratio = 1.5525; 95% confidence interval 0.434-5.5541). Within this cohort of patients with complicated cellulitis, blood cultures rarely changed management from empirical coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. N170 response to facial expressions is modulated by the affective congruency between the emotional expression and preceding affective picture.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Astikainen, Piia

    2013-02-01

    Does contextual affective information influence the processing of facial expressions already at the relatively early stages of face processing? We measured event-related brain potentials to happy and sad facial expressions primed by preceding pictures with affectively positive and negative scenes. The face-sensitive N170 response amplitudes showed a clear affective priming effect: N170 amplitudes to happy faces were larger when presented after positive vs. negative primes, whereas the N170 amplitudes to sad faces were larger when presented after negative vs. positive primes. Priming effects were also observed on later brain responses. The results support an early integration in processing of contextual and facial affective information. The results also provide neurophysiological support for theories suggesting that behavioral affective priming effects are based, at least in part, on facilitation of encoding of incoming affective information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues.

    PubMed

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors' restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target's affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased responsiveness to

  19. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues

    PubMed Central

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one’s emotions in order to meet one’s immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors’ restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors’ emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors’ restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target’s affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased

  20. Factors affecting impairment of blood rheology in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Hitsumoto, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Impairment of blood rheology has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, visible micro channel methods [micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN)] have been developed to clinically evaluate blood rheology. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to clarify the factors important for impairment of blood rheology in obese subjects using MC-FAN. One hundred and fifty-nine obese subjects and 100 non-obese subjects with no history of cardiovascular diseases were enrolled. Blood passage time (BPT) was measured using MC-FAN and relationships between BPT and various clinical parameters were examined. BPT was significantly higher in obese subjects than in non-obese subjects (obesity vs. non-obesity: 62.8 ± 17.9s vs. 54.1 ± 14.6s, p<0.001); however, there were no significant relationships between BPT and body mass index or waist circumference in obese subjects. BPT was significantly related to systolic blood pressure levels (r=0.21; p<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations (r=0.37; p<0.001), a marker of inflammation, and derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites test (r=0.38; p<0.001), a marker of oxidative stress, smoking, and exercise habits in obese subjects. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites test (t=5.2; p<0.001), high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (t=3.6; p<0.01), smoking (t=3.2; p<0.001), and exercise habits (t=-2.4; p<0.05) were independent variables for BPT. Data indicate that inflammation, oxidative stress, and lifestyle choices are more important factors for impairment of blood rheology, which is evaluated by MC-FAN, than the degree of adiposity in obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Melatonin differentially affects vascular blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jonathan S; Sauder, Charity L; Ray, Chester A

    2011-02-01

    Melatonin is synthesized and released into the circulation by the pineal gland in a circadian rhythm. Melatonin has been demonstrated to differentially alter blood flow to assorted vascular beds by the activation of different melatonin receptors in animal models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of melatonin on blood flow to various vascular beds in humans. Renal (Doppler ultrasound), forearm (venous occlusion plethysmography), and cerebral blood flow (transcranial Doppler), arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured in 10 healthy subjects (29±1 yr; 5 men and 5 women) in the supine position for 3 min. The protocol began 45 min after the ingestion of either melatonin (3 mg) or placebo (sucrose). Subjects returned at least 2 days later at the same time of day to repeat the trial after ingesting the other substance. Melatonin did not alter heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Renal blood flow velocity (RBFV) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) were lower during the melatonin trial compared with placebo (RBFV, 40.5±2.9 vs. 45.4±1.5 cm/s; and RVC, 0.47±0.02 vs. 0.54±0.01 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively). In contrast, forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were greater with melatonin compared with placebo (FBF, 2.4±0.2 vs. 1.9±0.1 ml·100 ml(-1)·min(-1); and FVC, 0.029±0.003 vs. 0.023±0.002 arbitrary units, respectively). Melatonin did not alter cerebral blood flow measurements compared with placebo. Additionally, phentolamine (5-mg bolus) after melatonin reversed the decrease in RVC, suggesting that melatonin increases sympathetic outflow to the kidney to mediate renal vasoconstriction. In summary, exogenous melatonin differentially alters vascular blood flow in humans. These data suggest the complex nature of melatonin on the vasculature in humans.

  2. Lead exposure increases blood pressure by increasing angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiandong; Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yiqing; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure can induce increased blood pressure. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain lead-induced hypertension. Changes in angiotensinogen (AGT) expression levels or gene variants may also influence blood pressure. In this study, we hypothesized that AGT expression levels or gene variants contribute to lead-induced hypertension. A preliminary HEK293 cell model experiment was performed to analyze the association between AGT expression and lead exposure. In a population-based study, serum AGT level was measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To further detect the influence of AGT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced hypertension, two SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) were genotyped in a case-control study including 219 lead-exposed subjects and 393 controls. Lead exposure caused an increase in AGT expression level in HEK 293 cell models (P < 0.001) compared to lead-free cells, and individuals exposed to lead had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Lead-exposed individuals had higher serum AGT levels compared to controls (P < 0.001). However, no association was found between AGT gene SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) and lead exposure. Nevertheless, the change in AGT expression level may play an important role in the development of lead-induced hypertension.

  3. Vasovagal syncope and blood donor return: examination of the role of experience and affective expectancies.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Etzel, Erin N; Ciesielski, Bethany G

    2010-03-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with blood donation and vasovagal sensations during blood donation uniquely predict the likelihood of donor return, even when controlling for affective expectancies. Participants presenting at community blood drives indicated how many times they have given blood and provided ratings of expected anxiety, pain, disgust, as well as fear of fainting before giving blood. After donating, participants completed a measure of vasovagal sensations experienced during blood donation. They also rated the pleasantness of the experience and willingness to donate blood in the future. The findings showed that experience with blood donation and vasovagal sensations during blood donation uniquely predicted willingness to donate blood in the future even when controlling for age and negative affective expectancies about giving blood. This finding suggests that vasovagal sensations and experience with blood donation have unique (and perhaps additive) effects on willingness to donate blood in the future, suggesting that behavior modification interventions that directly target these variables could potentially increase donor retention.

  4. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  5. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  6. Linking Positive Affect to Blood Lipids: A Cultural Perspective.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jiah; Miyamoto, Yuri; Rigotti, Attilio; Ryff, Carol D

    2017-10-01

    Higher levels of positive affect have been associated with better physical health. While positive affect is seen as highly desirable among Westerners, East Asians tend to deemphasize positive affect. Using large probability samples of Japanese and U.S. adult populations, the present study examined the relations of positive affect with serum lipid profiles, known to be strongly predictive of risk for cardiovascular disease, and tested whether their associations depend on cultural contexts. As predicted, positive affect was associated with healthier lipid profiles for Americans but not for Japanese. Further analyses showed that this cultural moderation was mediated by body mass index. This study highlights the role of culture in the link between positive emotions and key biological risk factors of cardiovascular disease.

  7. From genetic variability to phenotypic expression of blood group systems.

    PubMed

    Raud, L; Férec, C; Fichou, Y

    2017-06-29

    More than 300 red blood cell (RBC) antigens belonging to 36 blood group systems have been officially reported in humans by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). Phenotypic variability is directly linked to the expression of the 41 blood group genes. The Rh blood group system, which is composed of 54 antigens, is the most complex and polymorphic system. Many rare genetic variants within the RH (RHD and RHCE) genes, involving various mutational mechanisms (single-nucleotide substitutions, short insertions/deletions, rearrangements, large deletions), have been reported in the literature and reference databases. Expression of the variants induces variable clinical outcomes depending on their nature and impact on antigen structure. Their respective molecular and cellular effects remain however poorly studied. Biological resources to conduct this research are also barely available. We have paid a specific attention to three different classes of single-nucleotide substitutions: 1/ splice site variants in the Rh, Kell, Kidd, Junior and Langereis systems by the minigene splicing assay developed locally; 2/ missense variants in the RhD protein and their effect on intermolecular interaction with its protein partner RhAG, intracellular trafficking and plasma membrane integration; and 3/ synonymous variants in the RHD gene. Overall not only this project has fundamental objectives by analyzing the functional effect of variants in order to make genotype-phenotype correlation, but the aim is also to develop/engineer molecular tools and cell models to carry out those studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process.

  9. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process. PMID:27545843

  10. Blood pressure regulation by CD4+ lymphocytes expressing choline acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Peder S.; Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Sobbi, Roozbeh; Cox, Maureen A.; Ahmed, Mohamed N.; Oswald, Michaela; Szekeres, Ferenc; Hanes, William M.; Introini, Andrea; Liu, Shu Fang; Holodick, Nichol E.; Rothstein, Thomas L.; Lövdahl, Cecilia; Chavan, Sangeeta S.; Yang, Huan; Pavlov, Valentin A.; Broliden, Kristina; Andersson, Ulf; Diamond, Betty; Miller, Edmund J.; Arner, Anders; Gregersen, Peter K.; Backx, Peter H.; Mak, Tak W.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    Blood pressure regulation is known to be maintained by a neuro-endocrine circuit, but whether immune cells contribute to blood pressure homeostasis has not been defined. We previously described that CD4+ T lymphocytes that express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which catalyzes the synthesis of the vasorelaxant acetylcholine, relay neural signals1. Here we show that these CD4+ CD44high CD62Llow T helper cells by gene expression are a distinct T cell population defined by ChAT (CD4 TChAT). Mice lacking ChAT expression in CD4+ cells have elevated arterial blood pressure and echocardiographic assessment consistent with increased vascular resistance as compared to littermate controls. Jurkat T cells overexpressing ChAT (JTChAT) decreased blood pressure when infused into mice. Co-incubation of JTChAT increased endothelial cell levels of phosphorylated eNOS, and of nitrates and nitrites in conditioned media, indicating increased release of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide. The isolation and characterization of CD4 TChAT cells will enable analysis of the role of these cells in hypotension and hypertension, and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies by targeting cell-mediated vasorelaxation. PMID:27617738

  11. Olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect glucose uptake and energy metabolism in human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Britta; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Scherr, Michaela; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Kahl, Kai G

    2017-05-01

    The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake. Further measurements comprised mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, GLUT1 protein expression, DNA methylation of GLUT1 promoter region, and proteins involved in downstream glucometabolic processes. We observed a 2-fold increase in glucose uptake after stimulation with aripiprazole. In contrast, olanzapine stimulation decreased glucose uptake by 40%, accompanied by downregulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT1 protein expression increased, GLUT1 mRNA expression decreased, and GLUT1 promoter was hypermethylated with both antipsychotics. Pyruvat-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity decreased with olanzapine only. Our findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect energy metabolism in PBMC. The observed decrease in glucose uptake in olanzapine stimulated PBMC, accompanied by decreased PDH point to a worsening in cellular energy metabolism not compensated by AMKP upregulation. In contrast, aripiprazole stimulation lead to increased glucose uptake, while not affecting PDH complex expression. The observed differences may be involved in the different metabolic profiles observed in aripiprazole and olanzapine treated patients.

  12. Affective State Level Recognition in Naturalistic Facial and Vocal Expressions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hongying; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    Naturalistic affective expressions change at a rate much slower than the typical rate at which video or audio is recorded. This increases the probability that consecutive recorded instants of expressions represent the same affective content. In this paper, we exploit such a relationship to improve the recognition performance of continuous naturalistic affective expressions. Using datasets of naturalistic affective expressions (AVEC 2011 audio and video dataset, PAINFUL video dataset) continuously labeled over time and over different dimensions, we analyze the transitions between levels of those dimensions (e.g., transitions in pain intensity level). We use an information theory approach to show that the transitions occur very slowly and hence suggest modeling them as first-order Markov models. The dimension levels are considered to be the hidden states in the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) framework. Their discrete transition and emission matrices are trained by using the labels provided with the training set. The recognition problem is converted into a best path-finding problem to obtain the best hidden states sequence in HMMs. This is a key difference from previous use of HMMs as classifiers. Modeling of the transitions between dimension levels is integrated in a multistage approach, where the first level performs a mapping between the affective expression features and a soft decision value (e.g., an affective dimension level), and further classification stages are modeled as HMMs that refine that mapping by taking into account the temporal relationships between the output decision labels. The experimental results for each of the unimodal datasets show overall performance to be significantly above that of a standard classification system that does not take into account temporal relationships. In particular, the results on the AVEC 2011 audio dataset outperform all other systems presented at the international competition.

  13. Sweet future: fluctuating blood glucose levels affect future discounting.

    PubMed

    Wang, X T; Dvorak, Robert D

    2010-02-01

    This study explored metabolic mechanisms of future (delay) discounting, a choice phenomenon where people value present goods over future goods. Using fluctuating blood glucose as an index of body-energy budget, optimal discounting should regulate choice among rewards as a function of temporal caloric requirement. We identified this novel link between blood glucose levels measured in the lab and future-discounting rates of participants, who made choices between a "smaller and sooner" reward and a "larger but later" option, with possible actual monetary rewards. A group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained sugar showed a reduced rate of future discounting afterward, when we controlled for sex, age, body mass index, and the taste of the drink. In contrast, a group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained artificial sweetener showed an increased rate of future discounting. Blood glucose levels not only varied as a result of caloric intake but also regulated the rate of future discounting, according to participants' dynamic body-energy budget.

  14. Blood Gene Expression Profiling of Breast Cancer Survivors Experiencing Fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Landmark-Hoyvik, Hege; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Reinertsen, Kristin V.; Edvardsen, Hege; Fossa, Sophie D.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To extend knowledge on the mechanisms and pathways involved in maintenance of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) by performing gene expression profiling of whole blood from breast cancer (BC) survivors with and without fibrosis 3-7 years after end of radiotherapy treatment. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiles from blood were obtained for 254 BC survivors derived from a cohort of survivors, treated with adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer 3-7 years earlier. Analyses of transcriptional differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with fibrosis (n = 31) and BC survivors without fibrosis (n = 223) were performed using R version 2.8.0 and tools from the Bioconductor project. Gene sets extracted through a literature search on fibrosis and breast cancer were subsequently used in gene set enrichment analysis. Results: Substantial differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with and without fibrosis were observed, and 87 differentially expressed genes were identified through linear analysis. Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 signaling was identified as the most significant gene set, showing a down-regulation of most of the core genes, together with up-regulation of a transcriptional activator of the inhibitor of fibrinolysis, Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in the BC survivors with fibrosis. Conclusion: Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 signaling was found down-regulated during the maintenance phase of fibrosis as opposed to the up-regulation reported during the early, initiating phase of fibrosis. Hence, once the fibrotic tissue has developed, the maintenance phase might rather involve a deregulation of fibrinolysis and altered degradation of extracellular matrix components.

  15. Factors Affecting Young Children's Use of Pronouns as Referring Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Aimee L.; Brooks, Patricia; Tomasello, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Two studies investigated factors affecting children's (n=48) choice of pronouns as referring expressions. Findings indicate the children (ages 2-3) did not use pronouns differentially when the adult model them or they witnessed a target event, but did use pronouns differently depending on the immediately preceding discourse of the experimenter.…

  16. Children's Expression of Negative Affect: Reasons and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Janice; Shipman, Kimberly

    1996-01-01

    Examines the influence of socialization figures (parents, friends), emotion type (anger, sadness, physical pain), age, and gender on 66 second-grade and 71 fifth-grade children's reasons for and methods of affect expression. Found that girls reported using verbal means to communicate emotion, whereas boys cited mildly aggressive methods. (MDM)

  17. Quantitative expression of candidate genes affecting eggshell color.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chuanwei; Li, Zesheng; Yang, Ning; Ning, Zhonghua

    2014-05-01

    There are three pigments that affect the color of an eggshell: protoporphyrin, biliverdin and biliverdin-zinc chelate. Protoporphyrin is the main pigment in brown and light-brown eggshells, whereas very little protoporphyrin is found in white eggshells. Eggshell protoporphyrin is derived from the heme formation in birds. Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPOX) and ferrochelatase (FECH) represent rate-limiting enzymes for the heme-biosynthetic pathway. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), feline leukemia virus receptor (FLVCR), and heme-responsive gene-1 (HRG1) serve as primary transporters for both protoporphyrinogen and heme. Finally, four organic anion transporting polypeptide family members (including solute carrier organic anion transporter family, SLCO1C1, SLCO1A2, SLCO1B3 and LOC418189) may affect pigment transport within eggshells. Here we measured gene expression levels in key tissues of egg-producing hens. We analyzed three different types of hens that generated distinct eggshell colors: white, pink or brown. Our data revealed three ways in which eggshell color was genetically influenced. First, high-level expression of CPOX generated more protoporphyrinogen and a brown eggshell color. In contrast, high expression of FECH likely converted more protoporphyrinogen into heme, reduced protoporphyrinogen levels within the eggshell and generated a light color. Second, heme transporters also affected eggshell color. High-level expression of BCRP, HRG1 and FLVCR were associated with brown, white and generally lighter eggshell colors, respectively. Finally, protoporphyrin precipitation also affected eggshell color, as high expression of both SLCO1A2 and SLCO1C1 were associated with brown eggshell color. As such, we have identified seven genes in which expression levels in different tissues were associated with eggshell color. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. AGT and RH blood group polymorphisms affect blood pressure and lipids in Afro-Caribbeans.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M T; Wilson, T W; Nicholson, G A; Grell, G A C; Etienne, C; Grim, C M; Wilson, D; Grim, C E

    2004-05-01

    Population blood pressure variation is most likely due to multiple genes. This is likely the reason why monogenic testing with the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms on chromosome 1 (1q42-43), especially M235T, has met with negative results, especially in those of African descent. The RH blood group system, also on chromosome 1 (1 p36.2-34), has likewise been associated with blood pressure variation in African-Americans and with the rise in blood pressure with age in whites. Using a random sample of the population, we investigated the combined effects of single and combined variation of the AGTN M235T and RH genotypes on blood pressure, lipids, and lipoprotein concentrations in Afro-Caribbeans aged 18-60 years from the island nation of Dominica. In monogenic analysis, AGT M235T was not associated with blood pressure. However, it was associated with HDL (MM 42+/-23, MT 44+/-12, TT 52+/-14 (P=0.002)). RH genotype was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (P=0.006) and Apo-A (P=0.003). These effects remained after adjustment for age, gender, weight, and BMI. In the polygenetic analysis, AGT M235T and RH were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (P=0.037; interaction effects, P=0.068). The association of the AGT M235T with blood pressure across RH blood group haplotypes was then tested. Of the five RH haplotypes available for analysis, the AGT M235T was significantly associated with blood pressure within the "D" haplotype (P=0.01). The RH blood group and gender were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and Apo-A levels (P=0.005 and 0.012, respectively). All interactions were independent of age and weight. In conclusion, we demonstrate a significant association of AGT M235T with blood pressure and cholesterol metabolism in an Afro-Caribbean population in the "genetic context" of the RH blood group system. Further investigation of these interactions may help understand the effects of genetic factors on

  19. Persistent fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus differentially affects maternal blood cell signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Austin, Kathleen J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Han, Hyungchul; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2009-02-02

    The consequences of viral infection during pregnancy include impact on fetal and maternal immune responses and on fetal development. Transplacental infection in cattle with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) during early gestation results in persistently infected (PI) fetuses with life-long viremia and susceptibility to infections. Infection of the fetus during the third trimester or after birth leads to a transient infection cleared by a competent immune system. We hypothesized that ncpBVDV infection and presence of an infected fetus would alter immune response and lead to downregulation of proinflammatory processes in pregnant dams. Naïve pregnant heifers were challenged with ncpBVDV2 on day 75 (PI fetus) and day 175 [transiently infected (TI) fetus] or kept uninfected (healthy control fetus). Maternal blood samples were collected up to day 190 of gestation. Genome-wide microarray analysis of gene expression in maternal peripheral white blood cells, performed on days 160 and 190 of gestation, revealed multiple signal transduction pathways affected by ncpBVDV infection. Acute infection and presence of a TI fetus caused upregulation of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway genes, including dsRNA sensors and IFN-stimulated genes. The presence of a PI fetus caused prolonged downregulation of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling in maternal blood cells. We conclude that: 1) infection with ncpBVDV induces a vigorous type I IFN response, and 2) presence of a PI fetus causes downregulation of important signaling pathways in the blood of the dam, which could have deleterious consequences on fetal development and the immune response.

  20. Differential gene expression associated with inflammation in peripheral blood cells of patients with pneumoconiosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu-jun; Wang, Ping; Jiao, Jie; Han, Lin; Lu, Yu-min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study expression changes in inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood of patients with pneumoconiosis and to explore the possibility of these genes as pneumoconiosis biomarkers. Methods: Peripheral blood samples of patients with pneumoconiosis patients and controls were collected, and total RNA of the blood cells were extracted and reverse transcribed to cDNA. Screenings of deferentially expressed genes associated with inflammation between patients with pneumoconiosis and controls were performed using real-time quantitative PCR array and the expressions of the three most upregulated genes were confirmed by real-time PCR. Results: The expression of 11 genes was significantly altered in patients with pneumoconiosis compared with those of the control. Among these 11 genes, 8 genes were upregulated and 3 were downregulated. Preliminary results indicated that interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA expression in patients with pneumoconiosis was higher than that in controls (P=0.019). The level of IL6 mRNA expression in the patients was higher than that in non-smoking controls, but it was neither affected by type and stage of pneumoconiosis nor by time of contact with dust. Conclusions: IL6 was possibly involved in the development of pneumoconiosis. PMID:27265534

  1. Determinants of ABH expression on human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Laura L W; Kelly, Kathleen; Barton, James; Hwang, Debbie; Koerner, Theodore A W; Olson, John D

    2005-04-15

    Platelets express ABH antigens, which can adversely effect platelet transfusion recovery and survival in ABH-incompatible recipients. To date, there has been no large, comprehensive study comparing specific donor factors with ABH expression on platelet membranes and glycoconjugates. We studied ABH expression in 166 group A apheresis platelet donors by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and thin layer chromatography relative to donor age, sex, A1/A2 subgroup, and Lewis phenotype. Overall, A antigen on platelet membranes, glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids was linked to an A1 red blood cell (RBC) phenotype. Among A1 donors, platelet ABH varied significantly between donors (0%-87%). Intradonor variability, however, was minimal, suggesting that platelet ABH expression is a stable, donor-specific characteristic, with 5% of A1 donors typing as either ABH high- or low-expressers. Group A2 donors, in contrast, possessed a Bombay-like phenotype, lacking both A and H antigens. Unlike RBCs, ABH expression on platelets may be determined primarily by H-glycosyltransferase (FUT1) activity. Identification of A2 and A1 low expressers may increase the availability and selection of crossmatched and HLA-matched platelets. Platelets from group A2 may also be a superior product for patients undergoing A/O major mismatch allogeneic progenitor cell transplantation.

  2. Small mosquitoes, large implications: crowding and starvation affects gene expression and nutrient accumulation in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Price, David P; Schilkey, Faye D; Ulanov, Alexander; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-04-28

    Environmental factors such as temperature, nutrient availability, and larval density determine the outcome of postembryonic development in mosquitoes. Suboptimal temperatures, crowding, and starvation during the larval phase reduce adult mosquito size, nutrient stores and affect vectorial capacity. In this study we compared adult female Aedes aegypti, Rockefeller strain, raised under standard laboratory conditions (Large) with those raised under crowded and nutritionally deprived conditions (Small). To compare the gene expression and nutritional state of the major energy storage and metabolic organ, the fat body, we performed transcriptomics using Illumina based RNA-seq and metabolomics using GC/MS on females before and 24 hours following blood feeding. Analysis of fat body gene expression between the experimental groups revealed a large number of significantly differentially expressed genes. Transcripts related to immunity, reproduction, autophagy, several metabolic pathways; including amino acid degradation and metabolism; and membrane transport were differentially expressed. Metabolite profiling identified 60 metabolites within the fat body to be significantly affected between small and large mosquitoes, with the majority of detected free amino acids at a higher level in small mosquitoes compared to large. Gene expression and metabolites in the adult fat body reflect the individual post-embryonic developmental history of a mosquito larva. These changes affect nutritional storage and utilization, immunity, and reproduction. Therefore, it is apparent that changes in larval environment due to weather conditions, nutrition availability, vector control efforts, and other factors can affect adult vectorial capacity in the field.

  3. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    PubMed

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Olivera La Rosa, Antonio; Munar, Enric

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion) were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms) and extended (SOA = 300 ms) conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.

  4. Affective Priming Using Facial Expressions Modulates Liking for Abstract Art

    PubMed Central

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; Christensen, Julia F.; Nadal, Marcos; Olivera La Rosa, Antonio; Munar, Enric

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion) were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20ms) and extended (SOA = 300ms) conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation. PMID:24260350

  5. Anger expression, age, and blood pressure in modernizing Samoan adults.

    PubMed

    Steele, M S; McGarvey, S T

    1997-01-01

    Relationships among anger expression, age, and blood pressure (BP) were studied in a cross-sectional sample of 593 American and Western Samoan adult men and women, 25 to 55 years of age. Prior studies indicated that anger coping is an important psychosocial domain in modernizing Samoans. Anger expression was assessed using a modified 24-item version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory composed of anger-in, anger-out, and anger-control, along with 4 Samoan culture-specific anger items. Age and sex stratified analyses were performed. Body-mass adjusted BP was regressed on the anger expression subscales and age. In women < or = 40 years of age, anger-out was significantly (p < 0.01) and negatively related to adjusted diastolic BP. Young women from American and Western Samoa who outwardly expressed anger least frequently had higher adjusted diastolic BP. The significant influence of anger expression on BP in young modernizing Samoan women may be because: a) increased stress from the interaction of traditional gender role-related domestic demands and more opportunities for individual socioeconomic activities; and b) the culturally normative pattern of suppressed emotional expression.

  6. HIV and chronic methamphetamine dependence affect cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Ances, Beau M; Vaida, Florin; Cherner, Mariana; Yeh, Melinda J; Liang, Christine L; Gardner, Carly; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J; Buxton, Richard B

    2011-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methamphetamine (METH) dependence are independently associated with neuronal dysfunction. The coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuronal activity is the basis of many task-based functional neuroimaging techniques. We examined the interaction between HIV infection and a previous history of METH dependence on CBF within the lenticular nuclei (LN). Twenty-four HIV-/METH-, eight HIV-/METH+, 24 HIV+/METH-, and 15 HIV+/METH+ participants performed a finger tapping paradigm. A multiple regression analysis of covariance assessed associations and two-way interactions between CBF and HIV serostatus and/or previous history of METH dependence. HIV+ individuals had a trend towards a lower baseline CBF (-10%, p = 0.07) and greater CBF changes for the functional task (+32%, p = 0.01) than HIV- subjects. Individuals with a previous history of METH dependence had a lower baseline CBF (-16%, p = 0.007) and greater CBF changes for a functional task (+33%, p = 0.02). However, no interaction existed between HIV serostatus and previous history of METH dependence for either baseline CBF (p = 0.53) or CBF changes for a functional task (p = 0.10). In addition, CBF and volume in the LN were not correlated. A possible additive relationship could exist between HIV infection and a history of METH dependence on CBF with a previous history of METH dependence having a larger contribution. Abnormalities in CBF could serve as a surrogate measure for assessing the chronic effects of HIV and previous METH dependence on brain function.

  7. l-Ornithine affects peripheral clock gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Takafumi; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Mari; Nakamura, Kaai; Hamaguchi, Yutaro; Ikeda, Yuko; Ishida, Yuko; Wang, Guanying; Shirakawa, Chise; Tanihata, Yoko; Ohara, Kazuaki; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2016-10-05

    The peripheral circadian clock is entrained by factors in the external environment such as scheduled feeding, exercise, and mental and physical stresses. In addition, recent studies in mice demonstrated that some food components have the potential to control the peripheral circadian clock during scheduled feeding, although information about these components remains limited. l-Ornithine is a type of non-protein amino acid that is present in foods and has been reported to have various physiological functions. In human trials, for example, l-ornithine intake improved a subjective index of sleep quality. Here we demonstrate, using an in vivo monitoring system, that repeated oral administration of l-ornithine at an early inactive period in mice induced a phase advance in the rhythm of PER2 expression. By contrast, l-ornithine administration to mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not affect the expression of PER2, indicating that l-ornithine indirectly alters the phase of PER2. l-Ornithine also increased plasma levels of insulin, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 alongside mPer2 expression, suggesting that it exerts its effects probably via insulin secretion. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that l-ornithine affects peripheral clock gene expression and may expand the possibilities of L-ornithine as a health food.

  8. l-Ornithine affects peripheral clock gene expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Takafumi; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Mari; Nakamura, Kaai; Hamaguchi, Yutaro; Ikeda, Yuko; Ishida, Yuko; Wang, Guanying; Shirakawa, Chise; Tanihata, Yoko; Ohara, Kazuaki; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2016-01-01

    The peripheral circadian clock is entrained by factors in the external environment such as scheduled feeding, exercise, and mental and physical stresses. In addition, recent studies in mice demonstrated that some food components have the potential to control the peripheral circadian clock during scheduled feeding, although information about these components remains limited. l-Ornithine is a type of non-protein amino acid that is present in foods and has been reported to have various physiological functions. In human trials, for example, l-ornithine intake improved a subjective index of sleep quality. Here we demonstrate, using an in vivo monitoring system, that repeated oral administration of l-ornithine at an early inactive period in mice induced a phase advance in the rhythm of PER2 expression. By contrast, l-ornithine administration to mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not affect the expression of PER2, indicating that l-ornithine indirectly alters the phase of PER2. l-Ornithine also increased plasma levels of insulin, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 alongside mPer2 expression, suggesting that it exerts its effects probably via insulin secretion. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that l-ornithine affects peripheral clock gene expression and may expand the possibilities of L-ornithine as a health food. PMID:27703199

  9. Magnitude of food overabundance affects expression of daily torpor.

    PubMed

    Eto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rintaroh; Okubo, Yoshinobu; Kashimura, Atsushi; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Morita, Tetsuo

    2015-02-01

    Many small mammal species use torpor as a strategy for reducing energy expenditure in winter. Some rodent hibernators also hoard food to provide reserves of energy, and individuals with large hoards express less torpor than those with smaller reserves. These facts imply that animals can recognize levels of food availability, but where food is very plentiful, it is unclear whether torpor expression is affected by temporal changes in the extent of food overabundance. Moreover, the relationship between daily torpor and excess food availability has not been clearly established. The large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus caches food for use as a winter energy resource and exhibits daily torpor under artificial winter conditions. The present study examined whether individuals exposed to different magnitudes of overabundant food exhibited differences in expression of daily torpor, and secondly whether torpor expression varied in response to changes in the overall quantity of overabundant food. It was observed that while absolute quantities of overabundant food did not appear to affect daily torpor expression, the mice did respond to changes in food availability, even when food remained overabundant. This suggests that the mice respond to fluctuations in food availability, even where these changes do not place any constraint on energy budgets. Thus recognition of changing food availability cannot be a purely physiological response to shortage or plenty, and may contribute to predictions of future energy availability. The expression of torpor was inhibited in response to increasing food availability, and the mice used shallower torpor when food availability increased to superabundance. These findings suggest that daily torpor may be regulated not only physiologically in response to energy constraints but also psychologically, via recognition of food availability. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Structural features affecting variant surface glycoprotein expression in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Böhme, Ulrike; Cross, George A M

    2003-05-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of Trypanosoma brucei is the most abundant GPI-anchored protein expressed on any cell, and is an essential virulence factor. To determine what structural features affect efficient expression of VSG, we made a series of mutations in two VSGs. Inserting 18 amino acids, between the amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, reduced the expression of VSG 221 to about 3% of the wild-type level. When this insertion was combined with deletion of the single carboxy-terminal subdomain, expression was reduced a further three-fold. In VSG 117, which contains two carboxy-terminal subdomains, point mutation of the intervening N-glycosylation site reduced expression about 15-fold. Deleting the most carboxy-terminal subdomain and intervening region, including the N-glycosylation site, reduced expression to 15-20% of wild type VSG, and deletion of both subdomains reduced expression to <1%. Despite their low abundance, all VSG mutants were GPI anchored on the cell surface. Our results suggest that, for a protein to be efficiently displayed on the surface of bloodstream-form T. brucei, it is essential that it contains the conserved structural motifs of a T. brucei VSG. Serum resistance-associated protein (SRA), which confers human infectivity on T. brucei, strongly resembles a VSG deletion mutant. Expression of three epitope-tagged versions of SRA in T. brucei conferred total resistance to human serum. SRA possesses a canonical GPI signal sequence, but we were unable to obtain unequivocal evidence for the presence of a GPI anchor. SRA was not released during osmotic lysis, indicating that it is not GPI anchored on the cell surface.

  11. Identifying a gene expression signature of cluster headache in blood

    PubMed Central

    Eising, Else; Pelzer, Nadine; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S.; Vries, Boukje de; Ferrari, Michel D.; ‘t Hoen, Peter A. C.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Cluster headache is a relatively rare headache disorder, typically characterized by multiple daily, short-lasting attacks of excruciating, unilateral (peri-)orbital or temporal pain associated with autonomic symptoms and restlessness. To better understand the pathophysiology of cluster headache, we used RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways in whole blood of patients with episodic (n = 19) or chronic (n = 20) cluster headache in comparison with headache-free controls (n = 20). Gene expression data were analysed by gene and by module of co-expressed genes with particular attention to previously implicated disease pathways including hypocretin dysregulation. Only moderate gene expression differences were identified and no associations were found with previously reported pathogenic mechanisms. At the level of functional gene sets, associations were observed for genes involved in several brain-related mechanisms such as GABA receptor function and voltage-gated channels. In addition, genes and modules of co-expressed genes showed a role for intracellular signalling cascades, mitochondria and inflammation. Although larger study samples may be required to identify the full range of involved pathways, these results indicate a role for mitochondria, intracellular signalling and inflammation in cluster headache. PMID:28074859

  12. Mice Expressing RHAG and RHD Human Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dominique; da Silva, Nelly; Metral, Sylvain; Cortes, Ulrich; Callebaut, Isabelle; Picot, Julien; Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Anti-RhD prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is highly effective, but as the suppressive mechanism remains uncertain, a mouse model would be of interest. Here we have generated transgenic mice expressing human RhAG and RhD erythrocyte membrane proteins in the presence and, for human RhAG, in the absence, of mouse Rhag. Human RhAG associates with mouse Rh but not mouse Rhag on red blood cells. In Rhag knockout mice transgenic for human RHAG, the mouse Rh protein is “rescued” (re-expressed), and co-immunoprecipitates with human RhAG, indicating the presence of hetero-complexes which associate mouse and human proteins. RhD antigen was expressed from a human RHD gene on a BAC or from RHD cDNA under control of β-globin regulatory elements. RhD was never observed alone, strongly indicative that its expression absolutely depends on the presence of transgenic human RhAG. This first expression of RhD in mice is an important step in the creation of a mouse model of RhD allo-immunisation and HDFN, in conjunction with the Rh-Rhag knockout mice we have developed previously. PMID:24260394

  13. Blood-informative transcripts define nine common axes of peripheral blood gene expression.

    PubMed

    Preininger, Marcela; Arafat, Dalia; Kim, Jinhee; Nath, Artika P; Idaghdour, Youssef; Brigham, Kenneth L; Gibson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel approach to capturing the covariance structure of peripheral blood gene expression that relies on the identification of highly conserved Axes of variation. Starting with a comparison of microarray transcriptome profiles for a new dataset of 189 healthy adult participants in the Emory-Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well-Being (CHDWB) cohort, with a previously published study of 208 adult Moroccans, we identify nine Axes each with between 99 and 1,028 strongly co-regulated transcripts in common. Each axis is enriched for gene ontology categories related to sub-classes of blood and immune function, including T-cell and B-cell physiology and innate, adaptive, and anti-viral responses. Conservation of the Axes is demonstrated in each of five additional population-based gene expression profiling studies, one of which is robustly associated with Body Mass Index in the CHDWB as well as Finnish and Australian cohorts. Furthermore, ten tightly co-regulated genes can be used to define each Axis as "Blood Informative Transcripts" (BITs), generating scores that define an individual with respect to the represented immune activity and blood physiology. We show that environmental factors, including lifestyle differences in Morocco and infection leading to active or latent tuberculosis, significantly impact specific axes, but that there is also significant heritability for the Axis scores. In the context of personalized medicine, reanalysis of the longitudinal profile of one individual during and after infection with two respiratory viruses demonstrates that specific axes also characterize clinical incidents. This mode of analysis suggests the view that, rather than unique subsets of genes marking each class of disease, differential expression reflects movement along the major normal Axes in response to environmental and genetic stimuli.

  14. Blood-Informative Transcripts Define Nine Common Axes of Peripheral Blood Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Preininger, Marcela; Arafat, Dalia; Kim, Jinhee; Nath, Artika P.; Idaghdour, Youssef; Brigham, Kenneth L.; Gibson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel approach to capturing the covariance structure of peripheral blood gene expression that relies on the identification of highly conserved Axes of variation. Starting with a comparison of microarray transcriptome profiles for a new dataset of 189 healthy adult participants in the Emory-Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well-Being (CHDWB) cohort, with a previously published study of 208 adult Moroccans, we identify nine Axes each with between 99 and 1,028 strongly co-regulated transcripts in common. Each axis is enriched for gene ontology categories related to sub-classes of blood and immune function, including T-cell and B-cell physiology and innate, adaptive, and anti-viral responses. Conservation of the Axes is demonstrated in each of five additional population-based gene expression profiling studies, one of which is robustly associated with Body Mass Index in the CHDWB as well as Finnish and Australian cohorts. Furthermore, ten tightly co-regulated genes can be used to define each Axis as “Blood Informative Transcripts” (BITs), generating scores that define an individual with respect to the represented immune activity and blood physiology. We show that environmental factors, including lifestyle differences in Morocco and infection leading to active or latent tuberculosis, significantly impact specific axes, but that there is also significant heritability for the Axis scores. In the context of personalized medicine, reanalysis of the longitudinal profile of one individual during and after infection with two respiratory viruses demonstrates that specific axes also characterize clinical incidents. This mode of analysis suggests the view that, rather than unique subsets of genes marking each class of disease, differential expression reflects movement along the major normal Axes in response to environmental and genetic stimuli. PMID:23516379

  15. Blood iron stores reduction affects lipoprotein status--a potential benefit of blood donation.

    PubMed

    Jadrić, Radivoj; Hasić, Sabaheta; Kiseljaković, Emina; Corić, Jozo; Prnjavorac, Besim; Winterhalter-Jadrić, Mira

    2011-02-01

    To determine the lipoprotein profile of voluntary blood donors, and on the basis of parameters to evaluate the risk of atherosclerosis. The study included voluntary blood donors of both sexes. Participants were divided into two groups. The first group of subjects consisted of men and women in menopause (BD 1). The second group consisted of women in reproductive age (BD 2). Analysis of concentration of lipoproteins was performed by direct determination of total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C. From the total serum cholesterol and concentration of lipoproteins ratios of total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. Significantly higher concentration of LDL-C was obtained in the serum of BD 1, compared to LDL-C in the serum of BD 2, within the reference range. Mean concentration of HDL-C in the serum of BD 2 group was higher than the values measured in the BD group 1, without significant difference. The ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-C showed significantly higher values in the BD 1 group compared with results in the BD 2 group. Significantly higher values in the BD group 1 were observed for the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C. Obtained results showed that all voluntary blood donors had a concentration of individual lipoprotein fractions in a lower risk range for atherosclerosis development. Female voluntary blood donors in reproductive age have a more favorable lipid status in relation to the voluntary blood donors, men and women in menopause, indicating that this population of women is exposed to lower risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  16. Gene Expression Analysis in Human Breast Cancer Associated Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dylan T.; Lechertier, Tanguy; Mitter, Richard; Herbert, John M. J.; Bicknell, Roy; Jones, J. Louise; Li, Ji-Liang; Buffa, Francesca; Harris, Adrian L.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5–72 fold) in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of potentially novel

  17. Gene expression analysis in human breast cancer associated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dylan T; Lechertier, Tanguy; Mitter, Richard; Herbert, John M J; Bicknell, Roy; Jones, J Louise; Li, Ji-Liang; Buffa, Francesca; Harris, Adrian L; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5-72 fold) in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of potentially novel anti

  18. Marker gene tethering by nucleoporins affects gene expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah; Galinha, Carla; Desset, Sophie; Tolmie, Frances; Evans, David; Tatout, Christophe; Graumann, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In non-plant systems, chromatin association with the nuclear periphery affects gene expression, where interactions with nuclear envelope proteins can repress and interactions with nucleoporins can enhance transcription. In plants, both hetero- and euchromatin can localize at the nuclear periphery, but the effect of proximity to the nuclear periphery on gene expression remains largely unknown. This study explores the putative function of Seh1 and Nup50a nucleoporins on gene expression by using the Lac Operator / Lac Repressor (LacI-LacO) system adapted to Arabidopsis thaliana. We used LacO fused to the luciferase reporter gene (LacO:Luc) to investigate whether binding of the LacO:Luc transgene to nucleoporin:LacI protein fusions alters luciferase expression. Two separate nucleoporin-LacI-YFP fusions were introduced into single insert, homozygous LacO:Luc Arabidopsis plants. Homozygous plants carrying LacO:Luc and a single insert of either Seh1-LacI-YFP or Nup50a-LacI-YFP were tested for luciferase activity and compared to plants containing LacO:Luc only. Seh1-LacI-YFP increased, while Nup50a-LacI-YFP decreased luciferase activity. Seh1-LacI-YFP accumulated at the nuclear periphery as expected, while Nup50a-LacI-YFP was nucleoplasmic and was not selected for further study. Protein and RNA levels of luciferase were quantified by western blotting and RT-qPCR, respectively. Increased luciferase activity in LacO:Luc+Seh1-LacI-YFP plants was correlated with increased luciferase protein and RNA levels. This change of luciferase expression was abolished by disruption of LacI-LacO binding by treating with IPTG in young seedlings, rosette leaves and inflorescences. This study suggests that association with the nuclear periphery is involved in the regulation of gene expression in plants.

  19. Spaceflight modulates gene expression in the whole blood of astronauts.

    PubMed

    Barrila, Jennifer; Ott, C Mark; LeBlanc, Carly; Mehta, Satish K; Crabbé, Aurélie; Stafford, Phillip; Pierson, Duane L; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique combination of stressors during spaceflight, which leads to alterations in their physiology and potentially increases their susceptibility to disease, including infectious diseases. To evaluate the potential impact of the spaceflight environment on the regulation of molecular pathways mediating cellular stress responses, we performed a first-of-its-kind pilot study to assess spaceflight-related gene-expression changes in the whole blood of astronauts. Using an array comprised of 234 well-characterized stress-response genes, we profiled transcriptomic changes in six astronauts (four men and two women) from blood preserved before and immediately following the spaceflight. Differentially regulated transcripts included those important for DNA repair, oxidative stress, and protein folding/degradation, including HSP90AB1, HSP27, GPX1, XRCC1, BAG-1, HHR23A, FAP48, and C-FOS. No gender-specific differences or relationship to number of missions flown was observed. This study provides a first assessment of transcriptomic changes occurring in the whole blood of astronauts in response to spaceflight.

  20. Spaceflight modulates gene expression in the whole blood of astronauts

    PubMed Central

    Barrila, Jennifer; Ott, C Mark; LeBlanc, Carly; Mehta, Satish K; Crabbé, Aurélie; Stafford, Phillip; Pierson, Duane L; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique combination of stressors during spaceflight, which leads to alterations in their physiology and potentially increases their susceptibility to disease, including infectious diseases. To evaluate the potential impact of the spaceflight environment on the regulation of molecular pathways mediating cellular stress responses, we performed a first-of-its-kind pilot study to assess spaceflight-related gene-expression changes in the whole blood of astronauts. Using an array comprised of 234 well-characterized stress-response genes, we profiled transcriptomic changes in six astronauts (four men and two women) from blood preserved before and immediately following the spaceflight. Differentially regulated transcripts included those important for DNA repair, oxidative stress, and protein folding/degradation, including HSP90AB1, HSP27, GPX1, XRCC1, BAG-1, HHR23A, FAP48, and C-FOS. No gender-specific differences or relationship to number of missions flown was observed. This study provides a first assessment of transcriptomic changes occurring in the whole blood of astronauts in response to spaceflight. PMID:28725744

  1. [Analysis on establishment and affecting factors of qi stagnation and blood stasis rat model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Jia, Cheng; Chen, Yu; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jiayi

    2012-06-01

    To study on the method for establishing the Qi stagnation and blood stasis rat model and analyze the affecting factors. The orthogonal design was adopted to study the influences of joint stimulations including noise, light, electricity, ice water bath, tail-clamping on model rats. The 'flying spot' method was used to dynamically simulate blood flow velocity in microcirculation. the pressure sensing technology of MOTO was adopted to detect hemorheology-related indicators. And the coagulation method was used to detect blood coagulation-related indicators. Compared with the negative control group, all model groups showed significant reduction in the blood flow velocity in mesenteric microcirculation and increase in the whole blood viscosity at high, medium and low shear rate, the plasma viscosity and the fibrinogen content in four blood coagulation indicators. Noise, light, electricity, tail-clamping, bondage and icewater-bath make significant impact on model rats.

  2. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  3. Implicit motives predict affective responses to emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Rösch, Andreas G; Stanton, Steven J; Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    We explored the influence of implicit motives and activity inhibition (AI) on subjectively experienced affect in response to the presentation of six different facial expressions of emotion (FEEs; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and neutral faces from the NimStim set of facial expressions (Tottenham et al., 2009). Implicit motives and AI were assessed using a Picture Story Exercise (PSE) (Schultheiss et al., 2009b). Ratings of subjectively experienced affect (arousal and valence) were assessed using Self-Assessment Manikins (SAM) (Bradley and Lang, 1994) in a sample of 84 participants. We found that people with either a strong implicit power or achievement motive experienced stronger arousal, while people with a strong affiliation motive experienced less arousal and less pleasurable affect across emotions. Additionally, we obtained significant power motive × AI interactions for arousal ratings in response to FEEs and neutral faces. Participants with a strong power motive and weak AI experienced stronger arousal after the presentation of neutral faces but no additional increase in arousal after the presentation of FEEs. Participants with a strong power motive and strong AI (inhibited power motive) did not feel aroused by neutral faces. However, their arousal increased in response to all FEEs with the exception of happy faces, for which their subjective arousal decreased. These differentiated reaction patterns of individuals with an inhibited power motive suggest that they engage in a more socially adaptive manner of responding to different FEEs. Our findings extend established links between implicit motives and affective processes found at the procedural level to declarative reactions to FEEs. Implications are discussed with respect to dual-process models of motivation and research in motive congruence.

  4. Implicit motives predict affective responses to emotional expressions

    PubMed Central

    Rösch, Andreas G.; Stanton, Steven J.; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the influence of implicit motives and activity inhibition (AI) on subjectively experienced affect in response to the presentation of six different facial expressions of emotion (FEEs; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and neutral faces from the NimStim set of facial expressions (Tottenham et al., 2009). Implicit motives and AI were assessed using a Picture Story Exercise (PSE) (Schultheiss et al., 2009b). Ratings of subjectively experienced affect (arousal and valence) were assessed using Self-Assessment Manikins (SAM) (Bradley and Lang, 1994) in a sample of 84 participants. We found that people with either a strong implicit power or achievement motive experienced stronger arousal, while people with a strong affiliation motive experienced less arousal and less pleasurable affect across emotions. Additionally, we obtained significant power motive × AI interactions for arousal ratings in response to FEEs and neutral faces. Participants with a strong power motive and weak AI experienced stronger arousal after the presentation of neutral faces but no additional increase in arousal after the presentation of FEEs. Participants with a strong power motive and strong AI (inhibited power motive) did not feel aroused by neutral faces. However, their arousal increased in response to all FEEs with the exception of happy faces, for which their subjective arousal decreased. These differentiated reaction patterns of individuals with an inhibited power motive suggest that they engage in a more socially adaptive manner of responding to different FEEs. Our findings extend established links between implicit motives and affective processes found at the procedural level to declarative reactions to FEEs. Implications are discussed with respect to dual-process models of motivation and research in motive congruence. PMID:24421775

  5. Paternal MHC expression on mouse trophoblast affects uterine vascularization and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Madeja, Zofia; Yadi, Hakim; Apps, Richard; Boulenouar, Selma; Roper, Stephen J; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco; Hemberger, Myriam

    2011-03-08

    The mammalian fetus represents a semiallograft within the maternal uterus yet is not rejected. This situation is particularly pronounced in species with a hemochorial type of placentation, such as humans and rodents, where maternal tissues and blood are in direct contact with fetal trophoblast and thus potentially with paternal antigens. The main polymorphic antigens responsible for graft rejection are MHC antigens. In humans the trophoblast cells invading into the decidua have a unique pattern of MHC class I expression characterized by both classical (HLA-C) and nonclassical (HLA-G and HLA-E) molecules. Whether such an unusual MHC repertoire on the surface of trophoblast is a conserved feature between species with hemochorial placentation has not been resolved. Here we demonstrate, using a range of methods, that C57BL/6 mouse trophoblast predominantly expresses only one MHC class I antigen, H2-K, at the cell surface of giant cells but lacks expression of nonclassical MHC molecules. Antigenic disparity between parental MHCs affects trophoblast-induced transformation of the uterine vasculature and, consequently, placental and fetal gowth. Maternal uterine blood vessels were more dilated, allowing for increased blood supply, in certain combinations of maternal and paternal MHC haplotypes, and these allogeneic fetuses and placentas were heavier at term compared with syngeneic controls. Thus, maternal-fetal immune interactions are instrumental to optimize reproductive success. This cross-talk has important implications for human disorders of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

  6. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA1c in both non-diabetic blood donors and blood donors with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this observational study, 23 non-diabetic blood donors and 21 blood donors with type 2 diabetes donated 475 mL whole blood and were followed prospectively for nine weeks. Each week blood samples were collected and analyzed for changes in HbA1c using three secondary reference measurement procedures. Results Twelve non-diabetic blood donors (52.2%) and 10 (58.8%) blood donors with type 2 diabetes had a significant reduction in HbA1c following blood donation (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). All non-diabetic blood donors with a normal ferritin concentration predonation had a significant reduction in HbA1c. In the non-diabetic group the maximum reduction was -11.9%, in the type 2 diabetes group -12.0%. When eligible to donate again, 52.2% of the non-diabetic blood donors and 41.2% of the blood donors with type 2 diabetes had HbA1c concentrations significantly lower compared to their predonation concentration (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes contributing to whole blood donation programs can be at risk of falsely lowered HbA1c. This could lead to a wrong interpretation of their glycemic control by their general practitioner or internist. PMID:28118412

  7. Affective scenes influence fear perception of individual body expressions.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, Charlotte B A; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-02-01

    In natural viewing conditions, different stimulus categories such as people, objects, and natural scenes carry relevant affective information that is usually processed simultaneously. But these different signals may not always have the same affective meaning. Using body-scene compound stimuli, we investigated how the brain processes fearful signals conveyed by either a body in the foreground or scenes in the background and the interaction between foreground body and background scene. The results showed that left and right extrastriate body areas (EBA) responded more to fearful than to neutral bodies. More interestingly, a threatening background scene compared to a neutral one showed increased activity in bilateral EBA and right-posterior parahippocampal place area (PPA) and decreased activity in right retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and left-anterior PPA. The emotional scene effect in EBA was only present when the foreground body was neutral and not when the body posture expressed fear (significant emotion-by-category interaction effect), consistent with behavioral ratings. The results provide evidence for emotional influence of the background scene on the processing of body expressions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hydrophobin gene expression affects hyphal wall composition in Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    van Wetter, M A; Wösten, H A; Sietsma, J H; Wessels, J G

    2000-11-01

    Disruption of the SC3 hydrophobin gene of Schizophyllum commune (DeltaSC3 strain) affected the composition of the cell wall. Compared to a wild-type strain the amount of mucilage (i.e., water-soluble (1-3)beta-glucan with single glucose residues attached by (1-6)beta-linkages) increased considerably, while the amount of alkali-resistant glucan (linked to chitin) decreased. Reintroduction of the SC3 gene or other hydrophobins genes expressed behind the SC3 promotor restored wild-type cell wall composition. However, addition of purified SC3 protein to the medium or growing the DeltaSC3 strain in spent medium of the wild-type strain had no effect. In young cultures of wild-type strains of S.commune, not yet expressing SC3, the amount of mucilage was also relatively high. These data show that hydrophobins not only function at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces, as shown previously, but also affect wall composition.

  9. Blood storage affects the detection of cellular prion protein on peripheral blood leukocytes and circulating dendritic cells in part by promoting platelet satellitism.

    PubMed

    Glier, Hana; Holada, Karel

    2012-06-29

    Flow cytometry represents an attractive approach for developing currently unavailable screening tests for prion diseases. Several studies have reported significant differences in the binding of antibodies directed against cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to blood cells of prion-infected subjects compared with healthy controls. However, flow cytometry data usually show large individual variations in detected PrP(C) levels in both infected and control groups, rendering the interpretation of individual patient data difficult. To determine how pre-analytical variables, such as the choice of anticoagulant, whether or not the blood was stored, and the storage temperature, affect the detection of PrP(C) in blood cells. Blood from healthy donors was collected in EDTA or citrate anticoagulant and processed either immediately or after storage overnight at room temperature or at 4°C. The expression of PrP(C) by T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes and circulating dendritic cells was evaluated using quantitative flow cytometry with the PrP(C) monoclonal antibodies AG4 and AH6. The anticoagulation of blood with citrate resulted in decreased levels of PrP(C) on monocytes but not the other cell types. The storage of blood prior to analysis led to a significant decrease in the levels of PrP(C) on the cells studied, although there were substantial differences between the cell populations. This decrease was more pronounced when using mAb AG4, which targets the N-terminal portion of the PrP(C) molecule, or following storage at room temperature. Moreover, we identified platelet satellitism on leukocytes, especially on monocytes and granulocytes, as an additional factor contributing to the heterogeneity of PrP(C) detection in stored blood. Our study demonstrates that the storage of blood prior to analysis greatly affects the detection of PrP(C) by flow cytometry. To limit the inclusion of storage-generated artifacts, we recommend the processing of blood samples immediately after their

  10. Stromal Claudin14-Heterozygosity, but Not Deletion, Increases Tumour Blood Leakage without Affecting Tumour Growth

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Marianne; Reynolds, Louise E.; Robinson, Stephen D.; Lees, Delphine M.; Parsons, Maddy; Elia, George; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of endothelial cell-cell junctions is vital for the control of blood vessel leakage and is known to be important in the growth and maturation of new blood vessels during angiogenesis. Here we have investigated the role of a tight junction molecule, Claudin14, in tumour blood vessel leakage, angiogenesis and tumour growth. Using syngeneic tumour models our results showed that genetic ablation of Claudin14 was not sufficient to affect tumour blood vessel morphology or function. However, and surprisingly, Claudin14-heterozygous mice displayed several blood vessel-related phenotypes including: disruption of ZO-1-positive cell-cell junctions in tumour blood vessels; abnormal distribution of basement membrane laminin around tumour blood vessels; increased intratumoural leakage and decreased intratumoural hypoxia. Additionally, although total numbers of tumour blood vessels were increased in Claudin14-heterozygous mice, and in VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis ex vivo, the number of lumenated vessels was not changed between genotypes and this correlated with no difference in syngeneic tumour growth between wild-type, Claudin14-heterozygous and Claudin14-null mice. Lastly, Claudin14-heterozygosity, but not complete deficiency, also enhanced endothelial cell proliferation significantly. These data establish a new role for Claudin14 in the regulation of tumour blood vessel integrity and angiogenesis that is evident only after the partial loss of this molecule in Claudin14-heterozyous mice but not in Claudin14-null mice. PMID:23675413

  11. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID

  12. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Legname, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions.

  13. Gene expression in blood of children and adolescents: Mediation between childhood maltreatment and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Spindola, Leticia Maria; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moretti, Patricia Natalia; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Santoro, Marcos Leite; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Gadelha, Ary; Salum, Giovanni; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Mari, Jair Jesus; Brentani, Helena; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Brietzke, Elisa; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Sato, João Ricardo; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Belangero, Sintia Iole

    2017-09-01

    Investigating major depressive disorder (MDD) in childhood and adolescence can help reveal the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to MDD, since early stages of disease have less influence of illness exposure. Thus, we investigated the mRNA expression of 12 genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammation, neurodevelopment and neurotransmission in the blood of children and adolescents with MDD and tested whether a history of childhood maltreatment (CM) affects MDD through gene expression. Whole-blood mRNA levels of 12 genes were compared among 20 children and adolescents with MDD diagnosis (MDD group), 49 participants without MDD diagnosis but with high levels of depressive symptoms (DS group), and 61 healthy controls (HC group). The differentially expressed genes were inserted in a mediation model in which CM, MDD, and gene expression were, respectively, the independent variable, outcome, and intermediary variable. NR3C1, TNF, TNFR1 and IL1B were expressed at significantly lower levels in the MDD group than in the other groups. CM history did not exert a significant direct effect on MDD. However, an indirect effect of the aggregate expression of the 4 genes mediated the relationship between CM and MDD. In the largest study investigating gene expression in children with MDD, we demonstrated that NR3C1, TNF, TNFR1 and IL1B expression levels are related to MDD and conjunctly mediate the effect of CM history on the risk of developing MDD. This supports a role of glucocorticoids and inflammation as potential effectors of environmental stress in MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diazepam affects the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor density and their expression levels in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Caterina; Bolaris, Stamatis; Valcana, Theony; Margarity, Marigoula

    2005-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the occurrence of anxiety and affective disorders; however, the effects following an anxiolytic benzodiazepine treatment, such as diazepam administration, on the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones has not yet been investigated. The effect of diazepam on the in vitro nuclear T3 binding, on the relative expression of the TH receptors (TRs) and on the synaptosomal TH availability were examined in adult rat cerebral hemispheres 24 h after a single intraperitoneal dose (5 mg/kg BW) of this tranquillizer. Although, diazepam did not affect the availability of TH either in blood circulation or in the synaptosomal fraction, it decreased (33%) the nuclear T3 maximal binding density (B(max)). No differences were observed in the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The TRalpha2 variant (non-T3-binding) mRNA levels were increased by 33%, whereas no changes in the relative expression of the T3-binding isoforms of TRs (TRalpha1, TRbeta1) were observed. This study shows that a single intraperitoneal injection of diazepam affects within 24 h, the density of the nuclear TRs and their expression pattern. The latest effect occurs in an isoform-specific manner involving specifically the TRalpha2 mRNA levels in adult rat brain.

  15. Oxalomalate affects the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Irace, Carlo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Maffettone, Carmen; Rossi, Antonietta; Festa, Michela; Iuvone, Teresa; Santamaria, Rita; Sautebin, Lidia; Carnuccio, Rosa; Colonna, Alfredo

    2007-03-13

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an homodimeric enzyme which produces large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in response to inflammatory stimuli. Several factors affect the synthesis and catalytic activity of iNOS. Particularly, dimerization of NOS monomers is promoted by heme, whereas an intracellular depletion of heme and/or L-arginine considerably decreases NOS resistance to proteolysis. In this study, we found that oxalomalate (OMA, oxalomalic acid, alpha-hydroxy-beta-oxalosuccinic acid), an inhibitor of both aconitase and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, inhibited nitrite production and iNOS protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774 macrophages, without affecting iNOS mRNA content. Furthermore, injection of OMA precursors to LPS-stimulated rats also decreased nitrite production and iNOS expression in isolated peritoneal macrophages. Interestingly, alpha-ketoglutarate or succinyl-CoA administration reversed OMA effect on NO production, thus correlating NO biosynthesis with the anabolic capacity of Krebs cycle. When protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide in LPS-activated J774 cells treated with OMA, iNOS protein levels, evaluated by Western blot analysis and (35)S-metabolic labelling, were decreased, suggesting that OMA reduces iNOS biosynthesis and induces an increase in the degradation rate of iNOS protein. Moreover, we showed that OMA inhibits the activity of the iNOS from lung of LPS-treated rats by enzymatic assay. Our results, demonstrating that OMA acts regulating synthesis, catalytic activity and degradation of iNOS, suggest that this compound might have a potential role in reducing the NO overproduction occurring in some pathological conditions.

  16. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Hill, Robert D; Stasolla, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role of hemoglobins during in vitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed by culturing root explants on an initial auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM) followed by a transfer onto a cytokinin-containing shoot induction medium (SIM). While the repression of GLB2 inhibited organogenesis the over-expression of GLB1 or GLB2 enhanced the number of shoots produced in culture, and altered the transcript levels of genes participating in cytokinin perception and signalling. The up-regulation of GLB1 or GLB2 activated CKI1 and AHK3, genes encoding cytokinin receptors and affected the transcript levels of cytokinin responsive regulators (ARRs). The expression of Type-A ARRs (ARR4, 5, 7, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants to cytokinin allowing the 35S::GLB1 and 35S::GLB2 lines to produce shoots at low cytokinin concentrations which did not promote organogenesis in the WT line. These results show that manipulation of hemoglobin can modify shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis and possibly in those systems partially or completely unresponsive to applications of exogenous cytokinins.

  17. Pharmacological and Genetic Modulation of REV-ERB Activity and Expression Affects Orexigenic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Ariadna; Wang, Yongjun; Banerjee, Subhashis; Kameneka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ are transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of the circadian rhythm and various metabolic processes. The circadian rhythm is an endogenous mechanism, which generates entrainable biological changes that follow a 24-hour period. It regulates a number of physiological processes, including sleep/wakeful cycles and feeding behaviors. We recently demonstrated that REV-ERB-specific small molecules affect sleep and anxiety. The orexinergic system also plays a significant role in mammalian physiology and behavior, including the regulation of sleep and food intake. Importantly, orexin genes are expressed in a circadian manner. Given these overlaps in function and circadian expression, we wanted to determine whether the REV-ERBs might regulate orexin. We found that acute in vivo modulation of REV-ERB activity, with the REV-ERB-specific synthetic ligand SR9009, affects the circadian expression of orexinergic genes in mice. Long term dosing with SR9009 also suppresses orexinergic gene expression in mice. Finally, REV-ERBβ-deficient mice present with increased orexinergic transcripts. These data suggest that the REV-ERBs may be involved in the repression of orexinergic gene expression. PMID:26963516

  18. Blood gene expression profiles suggest altered immune function associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wingo, Aliza P.; Gibson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can impair immune function and increase risk for cardiovascular disease or events. Mechanisms underlying the physiological reverberations of anxiety, however, are still elusive. Hence, we aimed to investigate molecular processes mediating effects of anxiety on physical health using blood gene expression profiles of 336 community participants (157 anxious and 179 control). We examined genome-wide differential gene expression in anxiety, as well as associations between nine major modules of co-regulated transcripts in blood gene expression and anxiety. No significant differential expression was observed in women, but 631 genes were differentially expressed between anxious and control men at the false discovery rate of 0.1 after controlling for age, body mass index, race, and batch effect. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that genes with altered expression levels in anxious men were involved in response of various immune cells to vaccination and to acute viral and bacterial infection, and in a metabolic network affecting traits of metabolic syndrome. Further, we found one set of 260 co-regulated genes to be significantly associated with anxiety in men after controlling for the relevant covariates, and demonstrate its equivalence to a component of the stress-related conserved transcriptional response to adversity profile. Taken together, our results suggest potential molecular pathways that can explain negative effects of GAD observed in epidemiological studies. Remarkably, even mild anxiety, which most of our participants had, was associated with observable changes in immune-related gene expression levels. Our findings generate hypotheses and provide incremental insights into molecular mechanisms mediating negative physiological effects of GAD. PMID:25300922

  19. Blood gene expression profiles suggest altered immune function associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Aliza P; Gibson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can impair immune function and increase risk for cardiovascular disease or events. Mechanisms underlying the physiological reverberations of anxiety, however, are still elusive. Hence, we aimed to investigate molecular processes mediating effects of anxiety on physical health using blood gene expression profiles of 336 community participants (157 anxious and 179 control). We examined genome-wide differential gene expression in anxiety, as well as associations between nine major modules of co-regulated transcripts in blood gene expression and anxiety. No significant differential expression was observed in women, but 631 genes were differentially expressed between anxious and control men at the false discovery rate of 0.1 after controlling for age, body mass index, race, and batch effect. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that genes with altered expression levels in anxious men were involved in response of various immune cells to vaccination and to acute viral and bacterial infection, and in a metabolic network affecting traits of metabolic syndrome. Further, we found one set of 260 co-regulated genes to be significantly associated with anxiety in men after controlling for the relevant covariates, and demonstrate its equivalence to a component of the stress-related conserved transcriptional response to adversity profile. Taken together, our results suggest potential molecular pathways that can explain negative effects of GAD observed in epidemiological studies. Remarkably, even mild anxiety, which most of our participants had, was associated with observable changes in immune-related gene expression levels. Our findings generate hypotheses and provide incremental insights into molecular mechanisms mediating negative physiological effects of GAD.

  20. Blood pressure and expression of microRNAs in whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhou; Kresovich, Jacob K.; Zheng, Yinan; Zhong, Jia; Patel, Ruchi; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Dou, Chang; McCracken, John P.; Díaz, Anaité; Motta, Valeria; Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Bian, Shurui; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) is a complex, multifactorial clinical outcome driven by genetic susceptibility, behavioral choices, and environmental factors. Many molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the pathophysiology of high BP even as its prevalence continues to grow worldwide, increasing morbidity and marking it as a major public health concern. To address this, we evaluated miRNA profiling in blood leukocytes as potential biomarkers of BP and BP-related risk factors. Methods The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers examined in 2008. On two days separated by 1–2 weeks, we examined three BP measures: systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measured at both pre- and post-work exams for blood NanoString nCounter miRNA profiles. We used covariate-adjusted linear mixed-effect models to examine associations between BP and increased miRNA expression in both pooled and risk factor-stratified analyses. Results Overall 43 miRNAs were associated with pre-work BP (FDR<0.05). In stratified analyses different but overlapping groups of miRNAs were associated with pre-work BP in truck drivers, high-BMI participants, and usual alcohol drinkers (FDR<0.05). Only four miRNAs were associated with post-work BP (FDR<0.05), in ever smokers. Conclusion Our results suggest that many miRNAs were significantly associated with BP in subgroups exposed to known hypertension risk factors. These findings shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms of BP, and may assist with the development of a miRNA panel for early detection of hypertension. PMID:28278198

  1. Blood pressure and expression of microRNAs in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhou; Joyce, Brian Thomas; Kresovich, Jacob K; Zheng, Yinan; Zhong, Jia; Patel, Ruchi; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Dou, Chang; McCracken, John P; Díaz, Anaité; Motta, Valeria; Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Bian, Shurui; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wang, Sheng; Hou, Lifang

    2017-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a complex, multifactorial clinical outcome driven by genetic susceptibility, behavioral choices, and environmental factors. Many molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the pathophysiology of high BP even as its prevalence continues to grow worldwide, increasing morbidity and marking it as a major public health concern. To address this, we evaluated miRNA profiling in blood leukocytes as potential biomarkers of BP and BP-related risk factors. The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers examined in 2008. On two days separated by 1-2 weeks, we examined three BP measures: systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measured at both pre- and post-work exams for blood NanoString nCounter miRNA profiles. We used covariate-adjusted linear mixed-effect models to examine associations between BP and increased miRNA expression in both pooled and risk factor-stratified analyses. Overall 43 miRNAs were associated with pre-work BP (FDR<0.05). In stratified analyses different but overlapping groups of miRNAs were associated with pre-work BP in truck drivers, high-BMI participants, and usual alcohol drinkers (FDR<0.05). Only four miRNAs were associated with post-work BP (FDR<0.05), in ever smokers. Our results suggest that many miRNAs were significantly associated with BP in subgroups exposed to known hypertension risk factors. These findings shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms of BP, and may assist with the development of a miRNA panel for early detection of hypertension.

  2. Expression of the human blood coagulation protein factor XIIIa in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence of the expression levels from host-vector systems and medium conditions.

    PubMed

    Bröker, M; Bäuml, O; Göttig, A; Ochs, J; Bodenbenner, M; Amann, E

    1991-03-01

    The human blood coagulation protein Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae employing Escherichia coli-yeast shuttle vectors based on a 2-mu plasmid. Several factors affecting high production yield of recombinant FXIIIa were analysed. The use of the regulatable GAL-CYC1 hybrid promoter resulted in higher FXIIIa expression when compared with the constitutive ADCI promoter. Screening for suitable yeast strains for expression of FXIIIa under the transcriptional control of the GAL-CYC1 hybrid promoter revealed a broad spectrum of productivity. No obvious correlation between the expression rate and the genetic markers of the strains could be identified. The medium composition markedly influenced the FXIIIa expression rates. The expression of FXIIIa was strictly regulated by the carbon source. Glucose as the only sugar and energy source repressed the synthesis of FXIIIa, whereas addition of galactose induced FXIIIa expression. Special feeding schemes resulted in a productivity of up to 100 mg FXIIIa/l in shake flasks.

  3. Molecular markers of early Parkinson's disease based on gene expression in blood.

    PubMed

    Scherzer, Clemens R; Eklund, Aron C; Morse, Lee J; Liao, Zhixiang; Locascio, Joseph J; Fefer, Daniel; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Schlossmacher, Michael G; Hauser, Michael A; Vance, Jeffery M; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Standaert, David G; Growdon, John H; Jensen, Roderick V; Gullans, Steven R

    2007-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses relentlessly and affects five million people worldwide. Laboratory tests for PD are critically needed for developing treatments designed to slow or prevent progression of the disease. We performed a transcriptome-wide scan in 105 individuals to interrogate the molecular processes perturbed in cellular blood of patients with early-stage PD. The molecular multigene marker here identified is associated with risk of PD in 66 samples of the training set comprising healthy and disease controls [third tertile cross-validated odds ratio of 5.7 (P for trend 0.005)]. It is further validated in 39 independent test samples [third tertile odds ratio of 5.1 (P for trend 0.04)]. Insights into disease-linked processes detectable in peripheral blood are offered by 22 unique genes differentially expressed in patients with PD versus healthy individuals. These include the co-chaperone ST13, which stabilizes heat-shock protein 70, a modifier of alpha-synuclein misfolding and toxicity. ST13 messenger RNA copies are lower in patients with PD (mean +/- SE 0.59 +/- 0.05) than in controls (0.96 +/- 0.09) (P = 0.002) in two independent populations. Thus, gene expression signals measured in blood can facilitate the development of biomarkers for PD.

  4. Molecular markers of early Parkinson's disease based on gene expression in blood

    PubMed Central

    Scherzer, Clemens R.; Eklund, Aron C.; Morse, Lee J.; Liao, Zhixiang; Locascio, Joseph J.; Fefer, Daniel; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Schlossmacher, Michael G.; Hauser, Michael A.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Standaert, David G.; Growdon, John H.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Gullans, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses relentlessly and affects five million people worldwide. Laboratory tests for PD are critically needed for developing treatments designed to slow or prevent progression of the disease. We performed a transcriptome-wide scan in 105 individuals to interrogate the molecular processes perturbed in cellular blood of patients with early-stage PD. The molecular multigene marker here identified is associated with risk of PD in 66 samples of the training set comprising healthy and disease controls [third tertile cross-validated odds ratio of 5.7 (P for trend 0.005)]. It is further validated in 39 independent test samples [third tertile odds ratio of 5.1 (P for trend 0.04)]. Insights into disease-linked processes detectable in peripheral blood are offered by 22 unique genes differentially expressed in patients with PD versus healthy individuals. These include the cochaperone ST13, which stabilizes heat-shock protein 70, a modifier of α-synuclein misfolding and toxicity. ST13 messenger RNA copies are lower in patients with PD (mean ± SE 0.59 ± 0.05) than in controls (0.96 ± 0.09) (P = 0.002) in two independent populations. Thus, gene expression signals measured in blood can facilitate the development of biomarkers for PD. PMID:17215369

  5. Factors affecting young children's use of pronouns as referring expressions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A L; Brooks, P; Tomasello, M

    2000-12-01

    Most studies of children's use of pronouns have focused either on the morphology of personal pronouns or on the anaphoric use of pronouns by older children. The current two studies investigated factors affecting children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions-in contrast with their use of full nouns and null references. In the first study it was found that 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children did not use pronouns differentially whether the adult (a) modeled a pronoun or a noun for the target object or (b) did or did not witness the target event (although there was evidence that they did notice and take account of the adult's witnessing in other ways). In the second study it was found that children of this same age (a) do not use pronouns to avoid unfamiliar or difficult nouns but (b) do use pronouns differently depending on the immediately preceding discourse of the experimenter (whether they were asked a specific question such as "What did X do?" or a general question such as "What happened?"). In the case of specific questions, children prefer to use a null reference but use some pronouns as well (almost never using full nouns); in the case of the generic questions, children use pronouns even more often (and use nouns more as well). This finding was corroborated by some new analyses of children's use of pronouns in specific discourse situations in previously published studies. These findings suggest that children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions in early language development is influenced more by the immediately preceding discourse than other kinds of factors.

  6. TRPS1 expression promotes angiogenesis and affects VEGFA expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Su, Peng; Jia, Ming; Wu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Hui; Li, Weiwei; Zhou, Gengyin

    2014-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of the malignant process in breast cancer in which vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) plays an important role. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) is a GATA-type transcription factor and is involved in trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1. To investigate the role of TRPS1 in breast cancer angiogenesis, we analyzed the expression of TRPS1 and microvessel density (MVD) marker CD31 by immunohistochemistry in 117 paraffin-embedded breast tissues. TRPS1 expression was positively correlated with CD31. We further investigated whether TRPS1 induces human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and VEGFA expression of breast cancer cells. The over-expression of TRPS1 induced a significant increase in HUVEC migration accompanied by VEGFA up-regulation in transfected cells. In contrast, knockdown of TRPS1 decreased the induction of HUVEC migration and significantly down-regulated VEGFA expression. Furthermore, endogenous TRPS1 was present in the VEGFA promoter, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, this study showed that TRPS1 promotes angiogenesis and affects VEGFA expression in breast cancer.

  7. Regulation of Expressive Behavior as Reflecting Affect Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Carolyn

    Regulated expressiveness (the modification of expressive behavior) is a complex phenomenon. Accomplished basically in four ways, regulated expressiveness has developmental dimensions, motivational precursors, and cognitive antecedents, including perspective-taking ability and the growth of self-awareness. Ability to regulate expressiveness appears…

  8. A Meta-analysis of Gene Expression Signatures of Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian H.; Liu, Chunyu; Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Yao, Chen; Ying, Sai-xia; Courchesne, Paul; Milani, Lili; Raghavachari, Nalini; Wang, Richard; Liu, Poching; Reinmaa, Eva; Dehghan, Abbas; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Singleton, Andrew; Melzer, David; Metspalu, Andres; Carstensen, Maren; Grallert, Harald; Herder, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Roden, Michael; Waldenberger, Melanie; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan B.; Zeller, Tanja; Vasan, Ramachandran; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Munson, Peter J.; Yang, Xia; Prokisch, Holger; Völker, Uwe; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered numerous genetic variants (SNPs) that are associated with blood pressure (BP). Genetic variants may lead to BP changes by acting on intermediate molecular phenotypes such as coded protein sequence or gene expression, which in turn affect BP variability. Therefore, characterizing genes whose expression is associated with BP may reveal cellular processes involved in BP regulation and uncover how transcripts mediate genetic and environmental effects on BP variability. A meta-analysis of results from six studies of global gene expression profiles of BP and hypertension in whole blood was performed in 7017 individuals who were not receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. We identified 34 genes that were differentially expressed in relation to BP (Bonferroni-corrected p<0.05). Among these genes, FOS and PTGS2 have been previously reported to be involved in BP-related processes; the others are novel. The top BP signature genes in aggregate explain 5%–9% of inter-individual variance in BP. Of note, rs3184504 in SH2B3, which was also reported in GWAS to be associated with BP, was found to be a trans regulator of the expression of 6 of the transcripts we found to be associated with BP (FOS, MYADM, PP1R15A, TAGAP, S100A10, and FGBP2). Gene set enrichment analysis suggested that the BP-related global gene expression changes include genes involved in inflammatory response and apoptosis pathways. Our study provides new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying BP regulation, and suggests novel transcriptomic markers for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. PMID:25785607

  9. Expression of STK39 in peripheral blood of hypertension patients and the relationship between its genetic polymorphism and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Yang, M; Liu, J W

    2015-12-09

    This study investigated the STK39 expression in peripheral blood of hypertension patients and the relation between its genetic polymorphism and blood pressure. The observation group comprised of 42 primary hypertension patients admitted to our hospital, and the control group comprised of 30 healthy individuals who underwent physical examination in our hospital during the same period. Fasting venous blood was collected from both groups in the morning to determine the STK39 mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. STK39 gene SNP (rs6433027) was sequenced using PCR and its genetic variation was analyzed. The relationship between STK39 protein level, genetic variation, and diastolic and systolic blood pressure was also analyzed. The observation group showed increased STK39 mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood compared to the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05), suggesting C/T mutation in STK39 gene SNP (rs6433027). Correlation analysis showed positive association between STK39 protein level and diastolic and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05), indicating a positive association between C/T genetic mutation and diastolic and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05). In conclusion, STK39 mRNA and protein express abnormally in primary hypertension patients with genetic variation, which is related to the blood pressure.

  10. Labetalol decreases cerebral perfusion pressure without negatively affecting cerebral blood flow in hypertensive gravidas.

    PubMed

    Belfort, Michael A; Tooke-Miller, Cathy; Allen, John C; Dizon-Townson, Donna; Varner, Michael A

    2002-01-01

    To research the cerebral hemodynamic effects of labetalol in pregnant women with hypertension. Prospective observational study. Tertiary Care Medical Center. Pregnant patients with hypertension. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was used to measure the blood velocity in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of eight pregnant patients with hypertension, before and after the administration of a 200 mg oral dose of labetalol. Five patients had severe preeclampsia, and three had chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. MCA blood velocity and systemic blood pressure were measured simultaneously at the baseline, and at 60 and 180 min after labetalol. Selected cerebral hemodynamic parameters were compared with normative curves. Values outside of the 5th and 95th percentiles were regarded as abnormal. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), resistance area product (RAP), and cerebral flow index (CFI). Patient age, gestational age, and parity were similar to those of the normal women from whom the normative data were obtained. Women with hypertension had higher baseline CPP, MAP, and RAP than normal pregnant women, but their CFI was within the normal range. Labetalol reduced the CPP, as well as the systolic, diastolic, and mean BP significantly at 60 and 180 min without significantly affecting the heart rate, MCA velocities, RAP, or CFI. Labetalol effectively reduces CPP, without affecting cerebral perfusion, primarily by a decrease in systemic blood pressure. This makes it an ideal agent for blood pressure control in severely hypertensive pregnant women.

  11. Renal and vascular glutathione S-transferase mu is not affected by pharmacological intervention to reduce systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Koh-Tan, Han Hui Caline; Graham, Delyth; Hamilton, Carlene A; Nicoll, Gavin; Fields, Laura; McBride, Martin W; Young, Barbara; Dominiczak, Anna F

    2009-08-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated reduced rat glutathione S-transferase mu type 1 (Gstm1) expression in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs), when compared with the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat. This study investigated the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and a diuretic/vasodilator combination on the expression levels of rat Gstm1 and other Gstm isoforms. Antihypertensive treatments of young and mature SHRSPs with an ARB and a diuretic/vasodilator combination improved SBP but did not affect the expression levels of Gstm1. Although Gstm1 is a member of a family of highly homologous genes, with the exception of Gstm2, there was no evidence for compensatory increase in expression of other Gstm isoforms. In contrast, we observed reduced expression of several other Gstm isoforms in untreated SHRSPs. Untreated SHRSPs demonstrated increased renal and vascular oxidative stress, both of which were not significantly affected by the antihypertensive treatments. Untreated SHRSPs scored significantly higher when assessed for renal histopathological damage, and this was improved by antihypertensive treatments. These results suggest that reduced Gstm1 expression in SHRSPs is due to strain-dependent genetic abnormalities, playing a causative role in the development of hypertension, probably through oxidative stress pathway. Renal changes occur as a consequence of increased blood pressure and can be improved when treated with antihypertensive drugs. In silico comparative genome analysis combined with expression studies in rat and human vascular tissue revealed that there are possible four human homologues (GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTM4 and GSTM5) for rat Gstm1.

  12. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling Predicts Therapeutic Response at Six Months in Patients With Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kaiyu; Sawle, Ashley D; Frank, M Barton; Chen, Yanmin; Wallace, Carol A; Jarvis, James N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gene expression profiles identified in peripheral whole blood samples could be used to determine therapeutic outcome in a cohort of children with newly diagnosed polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods Whole blood samples from the Trial of Early Aggressive Therapy (TREAT) in JIA patients were analyzed on Illumina microarrays, and differential gene expression was compared to expression in healthy controls. Microarray results were validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent cohort of samples. Pathway analysis software was used to characterize gene expression profiles. Support vector machines were used to develop predictive models for different patient classes. Results Differential gene expression profiles for rheumatoid factor (RF)–positive and RF-negative patients were remarkably similar. Pathway analysis revealed a broad range of affected pathways, consistent with current mechanistic theories. Modeling showed that the prognosis at 6 months was strongly linked to gene expression at presentation, irrespective of treatment. Conclusion Gene expression is linked to therapeutic outcome, and gene expression in the peripheral blood may be a suitable target for a prognostic test. PMID:24782192

  13. Expression of Toll-like Receptor 9 in nose, peripheral blood and bone marrow during symptomatic allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Mattias; Benson, Mikael; Erjefält, Jonas S; Jansson, Lennart; Uddman, Rolf; Björnsson, Sven; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Adner, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease of the upper airway mucosa that also affects leukocytes in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a receptor for unmethylated CpG dinucleotides found in bacterial and viral DNA. The present study was designed to examine the expression of TLR9 in the nasal mucosa and in leukocytes derived from different cellular compartments during symptomatic allergic rhinitis. Methods The study was based on 32 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and 18 healthy subjects, serving as controls. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and after allergen challenge. Bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid were sampled outside and during pollen season. The expression of TLR9 in tissues and cells was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. Results TLR9 was found in several cell types in the nasal mucosa and in different leukocyte subpopulations derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid. The leukocyte expression was generally higher in bone marrow than in peripheral blood, and not affected by symptomatic allergic rhinitis. Conclusion The widespread expression of TLR9 in the nasal mucosa along with its rich representation in leukocytes in different compartments, demonstrate the possibility for cells involved in allergic airway inflammation to directly interact with bacterial and viral DNA. PMID:17328813

  14. An examination of the variables that affect express saccade generation.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Peter H; Haushofer, Johannes; Kendall, Geoffery

    2004-01-01

    The frequency with which express saccades are generated under a variety of conditions in rhesus monkeys was examined. Increasing the gap time between fixation spot termination and target onset increased express saccade frequency but was progressively less effective in doing so as the number of target positions in the sample was increased. Express saccades were rarely produced when two targets were presented simultaneously and the choice of either of which was rewarded; a temporal asynchrony of only 17 ms between the targets reinstated express saccade generation. Express saccades continued to be generated when the vergence or pursuit systems was coactivated with the saccadic system.

  15. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  16. RETRACTED: Bosentan attenuates cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice without affecting blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Yun-Dai; Li, Min; Zhou, Fei-Hu; Xu, Yong; Wang, Guang-Yi; Li, Tian-De; Xing, You-Hong

    2015-12-01

    At the request of the authors, 'Bosentan attenuates cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice without affecting blood glucose' Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, published ahead of print August 15, 2011 as doi: 10.1177/1470320311417274 has been retracted. This is due to mistakes in the published data at Figure 3. For clarification: this problem came to the attention of Bo Yang only after publication in the journal. Bo Yang immediately brought it to the attention of the Journal.

  17. Static magnetic fields affect capillary flow of red blood cells in striated skin muscle.

    PubMed

    Brix, Gunnar; Strieth, Sebastian; Strelczyk, Donata; Dellian, Marc; Griebel, Jürgen; Eichhorn, Martin E; Andrā, Wilfried; Bellemann, Matthias E

    2008-01-01

    Blood flowing in microvessels is one possible site of action of static magnetic fields (SMFs). We evaluated SMF effects on capillary flow of red blood cells (RBCs) in unanesthetized hamsters, using a skinfold chamber technique for intravital fluorescence microscopy. By this approach, capillary RBC velocities (v(RBC)), capillary diameters (D), arteriolar diameters (D(art)), and functional vessel densities (FVD) were measured in striated skin muscle at different magnetic flux densities. Exposure above a threshold level of about 500 mT resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) reduction of v(RBC) in capillaries as compared to the baseline value. At the maximum field strength of 587 mT, v(RBC) was reduced by more than 40%. Flow reduction was reversible when the field strength was decreased below the threshold level. In contrast, mean values determined at different exposure levels for the parameters D, D(art), and FVD did not vary by more than 5%. Blood flow through capillary networks is affected by strong SMFs directed perpendicular to the vessels. Since the influence of SMFs on blood flow in microvessels directed parallel to the field as well as on collateral blood supply could not be studied, our findings should be carefully interpreted with respect to the setting of safety guidelines.

  18. Age and prior blood feeding of Anopheles gambiae influences their susceptibility and gene expression patterns to ivermectin-containing blood meals.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Jonathan A; Alout, Haoues; Meyers, Jacob I; Stenglein, Mark D; Dabiré, Roch K; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Burton, Timothy A; Kuklinski, Wojtek S; Black, William C; Foy, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    comparing phylogeny to transcriptional patterns revealed that NPCs have rapidly evolved and separate members respond to either blood meals or to ivermectin. We present evidence of increased ivermectin susceptibility in older An. gambiae mosquitoes that had previously bloodfed. Differential expression analysis suggests complex midgut interactions resulting from ivermectin ingestion that likely involve blood meal digestion physiological responses, midgut microflora, and innate immune responses. Thus, the transcription of certain gene families is consistently affected by ivermectin ingestion, and may provide important clues to ivermectin's broad effects on malaria vectors. These findings contribute to the growing understanding of ivermectin's potential as a transmission control tool.

  19. Key Immune Cell Cytokines Affects the Telomere Activity of Cord Blood Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brazvan, Balal; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh; Montazer Saheb, Soheila; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Schmied, Laurent; Soleimani Rad, Jafar; Darabi, Masoud; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Telomere is a nucleoprotein complex at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and its length is regulated by telomerase. The number of DNA repeat sequence (TTAGGG)n is reduced with each cell division in differentiated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SCF (Stem Cell Factor), Flt3 (Fms- Like tyrosine kinase-3), Interleukin-2, 7 and 15 on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in mononuclear and umbilical cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells) during development to lymphoid cells. Methods: The mononuclear cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Paque density gradient. Then cells were cultured for 21 days in the presence of different cytokines. Telomere length and hTERT gene expression were evaluated in freshly isolated cells, 7, 14 and 21 days of culture by real-time PCR. The same condition had been done for CD34+ cells but telomere length and hTERT gene expression were measured at initial and day 21 of the experiment. Results: Highest hTERT gene expression and maximum telomere length were measured at day14 of MNCs in the presence of IL-7 and IL-15. Also, there was a significant correlation between telomere length and telomerase gene expression in MNCs at 14 days in a combination of IL-7 and IL-15 (r = 0.998, p =0.04). In contrast, IL-2 showed no distinct effect on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in cells. Conclusion: Taken together, IL-7 and IL-15 increased telomere length and hTERT gene expression at 14 day of the experiment. In conclusion, it seems likely that cells maintain naïve phenotype due to prolonged exposure of IL-7 and IL-15. PMID:27478776

  20. Gene expression analysis of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymphoblastoid cell lines from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Barb, Jennifer J.; Raghavachari, Nalini; Liu, Poching; Woodhouse, Kimberly A.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Munson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of reports of gene expression analysis from blood-derived RNA sources, there have been few systematic comparisons of various RNA sources in transcriptomic analysis or for biomarker discovery in the context of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As a pilot study of the Systems Approach to Biomarker Research (SABRe) in CVD Initiative, this investigation used Affymetrix Exon arrays to characterize gene expression of three blood-derived RNA sources: lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), whole blood using PAXgene tubes (PAX), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Their performance was compared in relation to identifying transcript associations with sex and CVD risk factors, such as age, high-density lipoprotein, and smoking status, and the differential blood cell count. We also identified a set of exons that vary substantially between participants, but consistently in each RNA source. Such exons are thus stable phenotypes of the participant and may potentially become useful fingerprinting biomarkers. In agreement with previous studies, we found that each of the RNA sources is distinct. Unlike PAX and PBMC, LCL gene expression showed little association with the differential blood count. LCL, however, was able to detect two genes related to smoking status. PAX and PBMC identified Y-chromosome probe sets similarly and slightly better than LCL. PMID:22045913

  1. Fasting and sampling time affect liver gene expression of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y

    2010-05-01

    Several physiological and biological variables are known to affect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α-dependent signaling pathway and plasma biochemical profiles. However, less is known about the effect of these variables on high-fat diet-fed mice. In a 5-week study, C57BL/6 mice were divided into control (C) and high-fat diet-fed (H) groups, whereby before dissection, each group was subdivided into non-fasted (nC and nH) and a 15-h fasted mice (fC and fH) killed in the early light cycle, and a 15-h fasted mice (eC and eH) killed in the late phase of the light cycle. Liver and blood from the vena cava were collected. Non-fasted nC and nH mice have a marginal difference in their body weight gain, whereas significant differences were found for fasted mice. In nH mice, PPAR-α, acyl-CoA oxidase and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein expressions were significantly elevated, in contrast to fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl CoA-desaturase (SCD)-1, and elongase (ELOVL)-6 expressions. Fasn was profoundly induced in fH mice, while decreased sterol regulatory-binding protein-1 and SCD-1 were found only in eH mice. Different from the gene expression profiles, plasma total cholesterol level of the eH mice was higher than controls, whereas nH mice have increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Only glucose level of the fH mice was higher than that observed for controls. Results showed that fasting and sampling time have significantly affected liver gene expression and plasma biochemical indices of the high-fat diet-treated mice. An overlook in these aspects can cause serious discrepancies in the experimental data and their interpretations.

  2. Seasonal tracking of histo-blood group antigen expression and norovirus binding in oyster gastrointestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Engelbrektson, Anna L; Mandrell, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    Noroviruses (NORs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks. Outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of contaminated oysters and generally occur between the months of November and March, when oysters produce the highest levels of glycogen. Oyster glycogen has been proposed as playing a role in NOR accumulation. Recent research indicates that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) function as viral receptors on human gastrointestinal cells. In this study, oyster glycogen was tested to determine whether it contains HBGA-like molecules and whether it plays a role in NOR binding. The correlation between the amount of HBGA expression and NOR binding also was measured. We also tested whether seasonal changes affected HBGA expression and binding of recombinant NORs. The results indicate that recombinant NOR binding is highly correlated with HBGA expression in Virginica (Crassostrea virginica), Pacific (Crassostrea gigas), and Kumamato (Crassostrea sikamea) oysters, but the association does not have a seasonal pattern. No obvious trend in either HBGA expression or recombinant NOR binding by month was noted. A significant increase in recombinant NOR binding was observed in Virginica and Pacific oysters in a season not generally associated with NOR gastroenteritis outbreaks. A significant increase in HBGA expression also was observed for Pacific and Virginica oysters in the same season. Paradoxically, HBGA expression and NOR binding both were higher in oysters produced in the non-NOR gastroenteritis season (April through October) than in those produced in the NOR gastroenteritis season (November through March), suggesting that seasonal NOR gastroenteritis outbreaks are not associated with high levels of HBGA expression or NOR binding.

  3. Hindlimb-unloading suppresses B cell population in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation associated with OPN expression in circulating blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ezura, Yoichi; Nagata, Junji; Nagao, Masashi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Rittling, Susan; Denhardt, David T; Noda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Rodent hindlimb unloading (HU) by tail-suspension is a model to investigate disuse-induced bone loss in vivo. Previously, we have shown that osteopontin (OPN, also known as Spp1) is required for unloading-induced bone loss. However, how unloading affects OPN expression in the body is not fully understood. Here, we examined OPN expression in peripheral blood of mice subjected to HU. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that OPN expression is increased in circulating peripheral blood cells. This HU-induced increase in OPN mRNA expression was specific in circulating peripheral blood cells, as OPN was not increased in the blood cells in bone marrow. HU-induced enhancement in OPN expression in peripheral blood cells was associated with an increase in the fraction of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in the peripheral blood. In contrast, HU decreased the fraction size of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. We further examined if B-lymphogenesis is affected in the mice deficient for osteopontin subjected to HU. In bone marrow, HU decreased the population of the B-lymphocyte lineage cells significantly, whereas it did not alter the population of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. HU also increased the cells in T-lymphocyte lineage in bone marrow. Interestingly, these changes were observed similarly both in OPN-deficient and wild-type mice. These results indicate for the first time that HU increases OPN expression in circulating cells and suppresses bone marrow B-lymphogenesis.

  4. Perceptual, Categorical, and Affective Processing of Ambiguous Smiling Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Fernandez-Martin, Andres; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of…

  5. Perceptual, Categorical, and Affective Processing of Ambiguous Smiling Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Fernandez-Martin, Andres; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of…

  6. Sustained expression of coagulation factor IX by modified cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Megan; Marquez-Curtis, Leah; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; Hortelano, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Hemophilia B patients are subject to frequent and spontaneous bleeding caused by a deficiency of clotting factor IX (FIX). Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been used in cellular therapies as a result of their immunomodulatory properties, the ability to home to sites of injury and their amenability to various ex vivo modifications, including lentiviral-mediated gene transfer. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and differentiated into adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. A lentiviral DNA vector containing the human FIX gene was generated using traditional restriction enzyme digest and ligation techniques to generate viable replication-incompetent lentiviral particles that were used to transduce MSCs. Quantitative measurement of FIX expression was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The over-expression of FIX was sustained in vitro at levels > 4 µg/10(6) cells/24 h and FIX coagulant activity was > 2.5 mIU/10(6) cells/24 h for the 6-week duration of study. Lentiviral modification of cells with a multiplicity of infection of 10 did not adversely affect the potential of cord blood (CB) MSCs to differentiate to adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblastic cells, and the expression of functional FIX was sustained after differentiation and was similar to that in nondifferentiated cells. Modification of human CB MSCs with a lentiviral vector resulted in sustained high FIX expression in vitro after differentiation to adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteoblastic cells. These modified MSCs could have applications in cellular therapies for hemophilia B. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Interpretation of Statistical Data: The Importance of Affective Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queiroz, Tamires; Monteiro, Carlos; Carvalho, Liliane; François, Karen

    In recent years, research on teaching and learning of statistics emphasized that the interpretation of data is a complex process that involves cognitive and technical aspects. However, it is a human activity that involves also contextual and affective aspects. This view is in line with research on affectivity and cognition. While the affective…

  8. CXCR4 expression affects overall survival of HCC patients whereas CXCR7 expression does not

    PubMed Central

    Neve Polimeno, Maria; Ierano, Caterina; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Simona Losito, Nunzia; Napolitano, Maria; Portella, Luigi; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Maria Trotta, Anna; Curley, Steven; Costantini, Susan; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Izzo, Francesco; Scala, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous disease with a poor prognosis and limited markers for predicting patient survival. Because chemokines and chemokine receptors play numerous and integral roles in HCC disease progression, the CXCR4–CXCL12–CXCR7 axis was studied in HCC patients. CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 86 HCC patients (training cohort) and validated in 42 unrelated HCC patients (validation cohort). CXCR4 levels were low in 22.1% of patients, intermediate in 30.2%, and high in 47.7%, whereas CXCR7 levels were low in 9.3% of patients, intermediate in 44.2% and high in 46.5% of the patients in the training cohort. When correlated to patient outcome, only CXCR4 affected overall survival (P=0.03). CXCR4–CXCL12–CXCR7 mRNA levels were examined in 33/86 patients. Interestingly, the common CXCR4–CXCR7 ligand CXCL12 was expressed at significantly lower levels in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal liver (P=0.032). The expression and function of CXCR4 and CXCR7 was also analyzed in several human HCC cell lines. CXCR4 was expressed in Huh7, Hep3B, SNU398, SNU449 and SNU475 cells, whereas CXCR7 was expressed in HepG2, Huh7, SNU449 and SNU475 cells. Huh7, SNU449 and SNU475 cells migrated toward CXCL12, and this migration was inhibited by AMD3100/anti-CXCR4 and by CCX771/anti-CXCR7. Moreover, SNU449 and Huh7 cells exhibited matrix invasion in the presence of CXCL12 and CXCL11, a ligand exclusive to CXCR7. In conclusion, CXCR4 affects the prognosis of HCC patients but CXCR7 does not. Therefore, the CXCR4–CXCL12–CXCR7 axis plays a role in the interaction of HCC with the surrounding normal tissue and represents a suitable therapeutic target. PMID:25363530

  9. CXCR4 expression affects overall survival of HCC patients whereas CXCR7 expression does not.

    PubMed

    Neve Polimeno, Maria; Ierano, Caterina; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Simona Losito, Nunzia; Napolitano, Maria; Portella, Luigi; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Maria Trotta, Anna; Curley, Steven; Costantini, Susan; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Izzo, Francesco; Scala, Stefania

    2015-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous disease with a poor prognosis and limited markers for predicting patient survival. Because chemokines and chemokine receptors play numerous and integral roles in HCC disease progression, the CXCR4-CXCL12-CXCR7 axis was studied in HCC patients. CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 86 HCC patients (training cohort) and validated in 42 unrelated HCC patients (validation cohort). CXCR4 levels were low in 22.1% of patients, intermediate in 30.2%, and high in 47.7%, whereas CXCR7 levels were low in 9.3% of patients, intermediate in 44.2% and high in 46.5% of the patients in the training cohort. When correlated to patient outcome, only CXCR4 affected overall survival (P=0.03). CXCR4-CXCL12-CXCR7 mRNA levels were examined in 33/86 patients. Interestingly, the common CXCR4-CXCR7 ligand CXCL12 was expressed at significantly lower levels in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal liver (P=0.032). The expression and function of CXCR4 and CXCR7 was also analyzed in several human HCC cell lines. CXCR4 was expressed in Huh7, Hep3B, SNU398, SNU449 and SNU475 cells, whereas CXCR7 was expressed in HepG2, Huh7, SNU449 and SNU475 cells. Huh7, SNU449 and SNU475 cells migrated toward CXCL12, and this migration was inhibited by AMD3100/anti-CXCR4 and by CCX771/anti-CXCR7. Moreover, SNU449 and Huh7 cells exhibited matrix invasion in the presence of CXCL12 and CXCL11, a ligand exclusive to CXCR7. In conclusion, CXCR4 affects the prognosis of HCC patients but CXCR7 does not. Therefore, the CXCR4-CXCL12-CXCR7 axis plays a role in the interaction of HCC with the surrounding normal tissue and represents a suitable therapeutic target.

  10. The Enfacement Illusion Is Not Affected by Negative Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Brianna; Cardini, Flavia; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Bertini, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Enfacement is an illusion wherein synchronous visual and tactile inputs update the mental representation of one’s own face to assimilate another person’s face. Emotional facial expressions, serving as communicative signals, may influence enfacement by increasing the observer’s motivation to understand the mental state of the expresser. Fearful expressions, in particular, might increase enfacement because they are valuable for adaptive behavior and more strongly represented in somatosensory cortex than other emotions. In the present study, a face was seen being touched at the same time as the participant’s own face. This face was either neutral, fearful, or angry. Anger was chosen as an emotional control condition for fear because it is similarly negative but induces less somatosensory resonance, and requires additional knowledge (i.e., contextual information and social contingencies) to effectively guide behavior. We hypothesized that seeing a fearful face (but not an angry one) would increase enfacement because of greater somatosensory resonance. Surprisingly, neither fearful nor angry expressions modulated the degree of enfacement relative to neutral expressions. Synchronous interpersonal visuo-tactile stimulation led to assimilation of the other’s face, but this assimilation was not modulated by facial expression processing. This finding suggests that dynamic, multisensory processes of self-face identification operate independently of facial expression processing. PMID:26291532

  11. Altered expression of KLC3 may affect semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kargar- Dastjerdy, Pegah; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Salehi, Mansoor; Falahati, Mojtaba; Izadi, Tayebeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: KLC3 protein as a member of the kinesin light-chain protein family plays an important role in spermatogenesis, during formation of mitochondrial sheath in the mid piece of the sperm tail. Objective: This study for the first time aims to compare the expression of the KLC3 gene between fertile and infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 19 fertile individuals who were selected from embryo-donor volunteers and 57 infertile individuals who had abnormal sperm parameters according to world health organization criteria. Sperm parameters using computer assisted sperm analysis and the quantitative KLC3-gene expression using the real-time PCR method were measured. Results: Our results revealed a significant correlations between sperm concentration with relative expression of KLC3 only in infertile groups (r=0.45, p=0.00). A significant correlation was not found between KLC3 expression and sperm motility; however, the relative expression of KLC3 was significantly higher in asthenozoospermic compared to non-asthenozoospermic individuals. Conclusion: Low expression of KLC3 may result in improper function of midpiece, which has important function in sperm motility. The results of this study show that aberrant expression of KLC3 might be associated with phenomena like oligozoospermia and asthenozoospermia. This article is extracted from student’s thesis. PMID:27141544

  12. Encouraging Expressions Affect the Brain and Alter Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Sel, Alejandra; Casado, Pilar; Jiménez, Laura; Castellanos, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background Very often, encouraging or discouraging expressions are used in competitive contexts, such as sports practice, aiming at provoking an emotional reaction on the listener and, consequently, an effect on subsequent cognition and/or performance. However, the actual efficiency of these expressions has not been tested scientifically. Methodology/Principal Findings To fill this gap, we studied the effects of encouraging, discouraging, and neutral expressions on event-related brain electrical activity during a visual selective attention task in which targets were determined by location, shape, and color. Although the expressions preceded the attentional task, both encouraging and discouraging messages elicited a similar long-lasting brain emotional response present during the visuospatial task. In addition, encouraging expressions were able to alter the customary working pattern of the visual attention system for shape selection in the attended location, increasing the P1 and the SP modulations while simultaneously fading away the SN. Conclusions/Significance This was interpreted as an enhancement of the attentional processes for shape in the attended location after an encouraging expression. It can be stated, therefore, that encouraging expressions, as those used in sport practice, as well as in many other contexts and situations, do seem to be efficient in exerting emotional reactions and measurable effects on cognition. PMID:19536283

  13. The Enfacement Illusion Is Not Affected by Negative Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Beck, Brianna; Cardini, Flavia; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Bertini, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Enfacement is an illusion wherein synchronous visual and tactile inputs update the mental representation of one's own face to assimilate another person's face. Emotional facial expressions, serving as communicative signals, may influence enfacement by increasing the observer's motivation to understand the mental state of the expresser. Fearful expressions, in particular, might increase enfacement because they are valuable for adaptive behavior and more strongly represented in somatosensory cortex than other emotions. In the present study, a face was seen being touched at the same time as the participant's own face. This face was either neutral, fearful, or angry. Anger was chosen as an emotional control condition for fear because it is similarly negative but induces less somatosensory resonance, and requires additional knowledge (i.e., contextual information and social contingencies) to effectively guide behavior. We hypothesized that seeing a fearful face (but not an angry one) would increase enfacement because of greater somatosensory resonance. Surprisingly, neither fearful nor angry expressions modulated the degree of enfacement relative to neutral expressions. Synchronous interpersonal visuo-tactile stimulation led to assimilation of the other's face, but this assimilation was not modulated by facial expression processing. This finding suggests that dynamic, multisensory processes of self-face identification operate independently of facial expression processing.

  14. Judgment of other people's facial expressions of emotions is influenced by their concurrent affective hand movements.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2008-06-01

    We investigated whether emotional information from facial expression and hand movement quality was integrated when identifying the expression of a compound stimulus showing a static facial expression combined with emotionally expressive dynamic manual actions. The emotions (happiness, neutrality, and anger) expressed by the face and hands were either congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, the participants judged whether the stimulus person was happy, neutral, or angry. Judgments were mainly based on the facial expressions, but were affected by manual expressions to some extent. In Experiment 2, the participants were instructed to base their judgment on the facial expression only. An effect of hand movement expressive quality was observed for happy facial expressions. The results conform with the proposal that perception of facial expressions of emotions can be affected by the expressive qualities of hand movements.

  15. Balanced caloric macronutrient composition downregulates immunological gene expression in human blood cells-adipose tissue diverges.

    PubMed

    Brattbakk, Hans-Richard; Arbo, Ingerid; Aagaard, Siv; Lindseth, Inge; de Soysa, Ann Kristin Hjelle; Langaas, Mette; Kulseng, Bård; Lindberg, Fedon; Johansen, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes are conditions characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation, strongly influenced by lifestyle, but the mechanisms that link these characteristics are poorly understood. Our first objective was to investigate if a normocaloric diet with a calorically balanced macronutrient composition influenced immunological gene expression. Findings regarding the suitability of blood as biological material in nutrigenomics and gene expression profiling have been inconclusive. Our second objective was to compare blood and adipose tissue sample quality in terms of adequacy for DNA-microarray analyses, and to determine tissue-specific gene expression patterns. Blood and adipose tissue samples were collected for gene expression profiling from three obese men before, during, and after a 28-day normocaloric diet intervention where each meal contained an approximately equal caloric load of macronutrients. Time series analyses of blood gene expression revealed a cluster of downregulated genes involved in immunological processes. Blood RNA quality and yield were satisfactory, and DNA-microarray analysis reproducibility was similar in blood and adipose tissue. Gene expression correlation between blood and adipose tissue varied according to gene function, and was especially low for genes involved in immunological and metabolic processes. This suggests that diet composition is of importance in inflammatory processes in blood cells. The findings also suggest that a systems biology approach, in which tissues are studied in parallel, should be employed to fully understand the impact of dietary challenges on the human body.

  16. Mapping of QTL affecting incidence of blood and meat inclusions in egg layers.

    PubMed

    Honkatukia, Mervi; Tuiskula-Haavisto, Maria; Ahola, Virpi; Uimari, Pekka; Schmutz, Matthias; Preisinger, Rudolf; Cavero, David; Vennerström, Pia; Arango, Jesus; O'Sullivan, Neil; Fulton, Janet; Vilkki, Johanna

    2011-06-13

    Occurrence of blood and meat inclusions is an internal egg quality defect. Mass candling reveals most of the spots, but because brown eggshell hampers selection in brown chicken lines it has not been possible to eliminate the defect by selection. Estimated frequency of blood and meat inclusions in brown layers is about 18% whereas it is 0.5% in white egg layers. Several factors are known to increase the incidence of this fault: genetic background, low level of vitamin A and/or D, stress or infections, for instance. To study the genetic background of the defect, a mapping population of 1599 F2 hens from a cross of White Rock and Rhode Island Red lines was set up. Our histopathological analyses show that blood spots consist of mainly erythrocytes and that meat spots are accumulations of necrotic material. Linkage analysis of 27 chromosomes with 162 microsatellite markers revealed one significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting blood spot and meat spot frequency. We sequenced a fragment of a candidate gene within the region, ZO-2, coding for a tight junction protein. Nine polymorphisms were detected and two of them were included in fine-mapping and association analysis. Fine-mapping defined the QTL result. To further verify the QTL, association analyses were carried out in two independent commercial breeding lines with the marker MCW241 and surrounding SNPs. Association was found mainly in a 0.8 Mb-wide chromosomal area on GGAZ. There was good agreement between the location of the QTL region on chromosome Z and the association results in the commercial breeds analyzed. Variations found in tight junction protein ZO-2 and microRNA gga-mir-1556 may predispose egg layers to blood and meat spot defects. This paper describes the first results of detailed QTL analyses of the blood and meat spots trait(s) in chickens. © 2011 Honkatukia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  17. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe.

    PubMed

    Brøndum, E; Hasenkam, J M; Secher, N H; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Petersen, K K; Buhl, R; Aalkjaer, C; Baandrup, U; Nygaard, H; Smerup, M; Stegmann, F; Sloth, E; Ostergaard, K H; Nissen, P; Runge, M; Pitsillides, K; Wang, T

    2009-10-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow remained unchanged. Cardiac output was reduced by 30%, CVP decreased to -1 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.01), and jugular flow ceased as the jugular cross-sectional area increased to 3.2 +/- 0.6 cm(2) (P < 0.01), corresponding to accumulation of approximately 1.2 l of blood in the veins. When the head was raised, the jugular veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head is lowered, blood accumulates in the vein, affecting MAP.

  18. rhG-CSF does not affect the phenotype of adult donor peripheral blood NK cells.

    PubMed

    Lassailly, F; Sielleur, I; Blaise, D; Chabannon, C

    2005-01-01

    Considerable evidence in preclinical models as well as in human transplantation now suggests that donor-derived natural killer (NK) cells can contribute to alloimmune recognition of recipient residual tumour cells. This makes the NK cell population an attractive target for in vitro or in vivo manipulations, in order to improve the antitumour effect of allogeneic transplantation. However, conditions in which allogeneic donor cells are collected vary; several reports have emphasised the different phenotypic and functional properties of T cells derived from marrow, cord blood or mobilised peripheral blood grafts; others have demonstrated different clinical outcomes following blood or marrow transplantation after myeloablative conditioning regimens. NK cells have been examined in this setting; the availability of new tools to study the expression of a variety of surface antigens that are involved in the control of NK cell activity offered us an opportunity to extensively characterise the phenotypic properties of NK cells from donors, before and after administration of pharmacological doses of rhG-CSF used for haematopoietic progenitor mobilisation. Our study suggests that rhG-CSF does not reproducibly alter blood NK cell phenotype in normal individuals, and thus that donor-derived cells are fully equipped to exert their potential antitumour effect.

  19. Risk factors affecting blood PCDDs and PCDFs in residents living near an industrial incinerator in Korea.

    PubMed

    Leem, J H; Lee, D S; Kim, J

    2006-10-01

    The contamination sources of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), such as industrial incinerators, can potentially change the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near the incinerators. In this study, we estimated whether the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near an incinerator were affected by its presence and investigated factors that characterize the risk of high exposure to PCDD/DFs in the area. We estimated the blood levels and homologue patterns of PCDD/DFs in a group of 40 residents living within 5 km of an industrial incinerator and in a group of 20 residents living 20 km away from an incinerator. We cannot assert that the operation of incinerator facilities was only cause of increased PCDD/DFs in these residents; however, the operation of incinerator facilities in agricultural areas increased PCDD/DF exposure to individuals. The group living next to the industrial incinerator especially represented the typical isomer pattern in which the proportions of OCDDs were lower and those of PCDFs higher than those in the other groups. The high-risk population with increased blood levels of PCDD/DFs included those who had lived longer in the contaminated area as well as those who frequently ate contaminated foods.

  20. Stress and chewing affect blood flow and oxygen levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Shinjiro; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Honda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Sasaguri, Kenichi; Sato, Sadao; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il

    2012-11-01

    Mastication, including chewing, would be of great importance not only for food intake, but also for the mental, physical and physiological functioning of the body. Our study showed that mastication, especially chewing, suppresses the stress response and was regarded as a biological response to defend against various stresses. Although mastication altered brain function during stress, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The effects of chewing during restraint stress on blood flow and oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) levels in the rat amygdala and hypothalamus were measured using laser Doppler flowmetry and O(2)-selective electrodes. Amygdaloidal and hypothalamic blood flow were not affected by restraint stress, but PO(2) levels were significantly reduced by restraint stress for 180 min compared to unrestrained control rats. The decrease in amygdaloidal and hypothalamic PO(2) levels during restraint stress was reduced after chewing for 30 min. These results suggested that it is possible to evaluate hypothalamic and amygdaloidal blood flow and PO(2) levels in rat brains during restraint stress. Restraint stress reduced cerebral PO(2) levels. In addition, chewing would lead to increased blood flow and to recover cerebral PO(2) levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY OF DIFFERENT BLOOD COMPONENTS IN GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SEPSIS.

    PubMed

    Maslove, David M; Marshall, John C

    2016-03-01

    Most gene expression studies of sepsis have used either whole blood or specific leukocyte fractions as source tissues for RNA. Data regarding the relative utility of these different tissue sources are lacking. To evaluate the utility of different source tissues in studying gene expression in sepsis. We undertook a systematic analysis of sepsis gene expression studies, including both adult and pediatric cohorts. We used clustering methods to partition samples according to gene expression levels, and compared expression cluster labels to clinical diagnoses. We also quantified the strength of cluster formation based on expression data from different tissue sources using average silhouette widths as a measure of cluster cohesiveness. We included 22 separate expression datasets. Whole blood was used as the source tissue in 15 studies, while leukocyte isolates were used in seven studies. Whole blood samples yielded greater specificity for the diagnosis of sepsis than data from leukocyte isolates (94% vs 78%, P = 0.03). Whole blood-derived data also yielded more cohesive clusters (median silhouette widths 0.28 and 0.19 for whole blood and leukocyte isolates respectively, P < 0.01). Our results support the use of whole blood to derive gene expression data in sepsis studies investigating novel diagnostics and subtype discovery. This strategy has a number of practical advantages, and the resulting data also have potential utility in developing molecular classifications of sepsis syndromes.

  2. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  3. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices - How numerical implementation affects the results

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Summary This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed. PMID:26679833

  4. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices--How numerical implementation affects the results.

    PubMed

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed.

  5. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Deng, Alicia C; Spin, Joshua M; Stevenson, David K; Dalman, Ronald L; Tsao, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease.

  6. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J.; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B.; Deng, Alicia C.; Spin, Joshua M.; Stevenson, David K.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Tsao, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease. PMID:26894432

  7. L-propionylcarnitine increases postischemic blood flow but does not affect recovery of energy charge.

    PubMed

    Sassen, L M; Bezstarosti, K; Van der Giessen, W J; Lamers, J M; Verdouw, P D

    1991-07-01

    Effects of pretreatment with L-propionylcarnitine (50 mg/kg, n = 9) or saline (n = 10) were studied in open-chest anesthetized pigs, in which ischemia was induced by decreasing left anterior descending coronary artery blood flow to 20% of baseline. After 60 min of ischemia, myocardium was reperfused for 2 h. In both groups, flow reduction abolished contractile function of the affected myocardium and caused similar decreases in ATP (by 55%) and energy charge [(ATP + 0.5ADP)/(ATP + ADP + AMP); decrease from 0.91 to 0.60], mean arterial blood pressure (by 10-24%), the maximum rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (by 26-32%), and cardiac output (by 20-30%). During reperfusion, "no-reflow" was attenuated by L-propionylcarnitine, because myocardial blood flow returned to 61 and 82% of baseline in the saline- and L-propionylcarnitine-treated animals, respectively. Cardiac output of the saline-treated animals further decreased (to 52% of baseline), and systemic vascular resistance increased from 46 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 9 mmHg.min.l-1, thereby maintaining arterial blood pressure. In L-propionylcarnitine-treated pigs, cardiac output remained at 75% of baseline, and systemic vascular resistance decreased from 42 +/- 3 to 38 +/- 4 mmHg.min.l-1. In both groups, energy charge but not the ATP level of the ischemic-reperfused myocardium tended to recover, whereas the creatine phosphate level showed significantly more recovery in saline-treated animals. We conclude that L-propionylcarnitine partially preserved vascular patency in ischemic-reperfused porcine myocardium but had no immediate effect on "myocardial stunning." Potential markers for long-term recovery were not affected by L-propionylcarnitine.

  8. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  9. Gene Expression Profiling and Heterogeneity of Nonspecific Orbital Inflammation Affecting the Lacrimal Gland.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, James T; Choi, Dongseok; Harrington, Christina A; Wilson, David J; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Sibley, Cailin H; Salek, Sherveen S; Ng, John D; Dailey, Roger A; Steele, Eric A; Hayek, Brent; Craven, Caroline M; Edward, Deepak P; Maktabi, Azza M Y; Al Hussain, Hailah; White, Valerie A; Dolman, Peter J; Czyz, Craig N; Foster, Jill A; Harris, Gerald J; Bee, Youn-Shen; Tse, David T; Alabiad, Chrisfouad R; Dubovy, Sander R; Kazim, Michael; Selva, Dinesh; Yeatts, R Patrick; Korn, Bobby S; Kikkawa, Don O; Silkiss, Rona Z; Sivak-Callcott, Jennifer A; Stauffer, Patrick; Planck, Stephen R

    2017-09-21

    Although a variety of well-characterized diseases, such as sarcoidosis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis, affect the lacrimal gland, many patients with dacryoadenitis are diagnosed as having nonspecific orbital inflammation (NSOI) on the basis of histology and systemic disease evaluation. The ability to further classify the disease in these patients should facilitate selection of effective therapies. To test the a priori hypothesis that gene expression profiles would complement clinical and histopathologic evaluations in identifying well-characterized diseases and in subdividing NSOI into clinically relevant groups. In this cohort study, gene expression levels in biopsy specimens of inflamed and control lacrimal glands were measured with microarrays. Stained sections of the same biopsy specimens were used for evaluation of histopathology. Tissue samples of patients were obtained from oculoplastic surgeons at 7 international centers representing 4 countries (United States, Saudi Arabia, Canada, and Taiwan). Gene expression analysis was done at Oregon Health & Science University. Participants were 48 patients, including 3 with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, 28 with NSOI, 7 with sarcoidosis, 4 with thyroid eye disease, and 6 healthy controls. The study dates were March 2012 to April 2017. The primary outcome was subdivision of biopsy specimens based on gene expression of a published list of approximately 40 differentially expressed transcripts in blood, lacrimal gland, and orbital adipose tissue from patients with sarcoidosis. Stained sections were evaluated for inflammation (none, mild, moderate, or marked), granulomas, nodules, or fibrosis by 2 independent ocular pathologists masked to the clinical diagnosis. Among 48 patients (mean [SD] age, 41.6 [19.0] years; 32 [67%] female), the mclust algorithm segregated the biopsy specimens into 4 subsets, with the differences illustrated by a heat map and multidimensional scaling plots. Most of the sarcoidosis biopsy

  10. Rapid Gene Expression Changes in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes upon Practice of a Comprehensive Yoga Program

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Su; Olafsrud, Solveig Mjelstad; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.; Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common integrative medicine (IM) modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices – SK&P) compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects. PMID:23613970

  11. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    PubMed

    Qu, Su; Olafsrud, Solveig Mjelstad; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common integrative medicine (IM) modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P) compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  12. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with trait positive affect and positive emotional expressivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Qin, Rongcai

    2013-04-01

    The associations among respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), trait positive affect and positive emotional expressivity were investigated in the present study. Physiological data were collected from 98 college students during baseline and fear film-viewing and recovery periods in the lab, and their affectivity data were collected three times (immediately before, 4 months after and 12 months after the physiological data collection) using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Emotional Expressivity Scale. The results showed that trait positive affect was stably associated with baseline RSA independently of trait negative affect. Positive emotional expressivity was also stably associated with baseline RSA independently of negative emotional expressivity. Neither trait affect nor emotional expressivity was associated with RSA reactivity or RSA rebound. These findings suggest that baseline vagal tone might be the parasympathetic correlate of individuals with a positive emotional style. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulatory polymorphisms in CYP2C19 affecting hepatic expression.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Jonathan C; Guo, Yingying; Sadee, Wolfgang; Wang, Danxin

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2C19 is responsible for the metabolism of many drugs, including the activation of clopidogrel. The allele CYP2C19*17 is associated with ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotypes by increasing gene transcription. This study tests to what extent CYP2C19*17 enhances CYP2C19 expression in human liver and whether additional regulatory variants contribute to variation in CYP2C19 expression. CYP2C19 mRNA was measured with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), enzyme activity as metabolic velocity with S-mephenytoin as the substrate and allelic mRNA expression ratio with SNaPshot in human livers. CYP2C19 transcribed exons and a 4kb promoter region were sequenced using IonTorrent PGM or Sanger sequencing and screened for polymorphisms associated with total hepatic CYP2C19 mRNA, enzyme activity and allelic mRNA ratios. Livers heterozygote and homozygous for CYP2C19*17 had mRNA levels 1.8-fold (p=0.028) and 2.9-fold (p=0.006), respectively, above homozygous reference allele livers. CYP2C19*17 heterozygotes were also associated with increased allelic mRNA expression (allelic ratio ~1.8-fold, SD±0.6, p<0.005), whereas CYP2C19 enzyme activity was elevated 2.3-fold, with borderline significance (p=0.06) in CYP2C19*17 carriers. One liver sample of African ancestry displayed a 2-fold allelic expression ratio, and another sample, a ~12-fold increase in metabolic velocity. Neither case was accounted for by *17, which indicates the presence of additional regulatory variants. Our findings confirm *17 as a regulatory polymorphism enhancing hepatic CYP2C19 expression 2-fold with potential to compensate for the loss of function allele CYP2C19*2. Additional regulatory factors may also enhance CYP2C19 expression in African American populations.

  14. Haemopexin affects iron distribution and ferritin expression in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Noemi; Tonoli, Elisabetta; Logrand, Federica; Fiorito, Veronica; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Vercelli, Alessandro; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    Haemopexin (Hx) is an acute phase plasma glycoprotein, mainly produced by the liver and released into plasma where it binds heme with high affinity and delivers it to the liver. This system provides protection against free heme-mediated oxidative stress, limits access by pathogens to heme and contributes to iron homeostasis by recycling heme iron. Hx protein has been found in the sciatic nerve, skeletal muscle, retina, brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recently, a comparative proteomic analysis has shown an increase of Hx in CSF from patients with Alzheimer’s disease, thus suggesting its involvement in heme detoxification in brain. Here, we report that Hx is synthesised in brain by the ventricular ependymal cells. To verify whether Hx is involved in heme scavenging in brain, and consequently, in the control of iron level, iron deposits and ferritin expression were analysed in cerebral regions known for iron accumulation. We show a twofold increase in the number of iron-loaded oligodendrocytes in the basal ganglia and thalamus of Hx-null mice compared to wild-type controls. Interestingly, there was no increase in H- and L-ferritin expression in these regions. This condition is common to several human neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease in which iron loading is not associated with an adequate increase in ferritin expression. However, a strong reduction in the number of ferritin-positive cells was observed in the cerebral cortex of Hx-null animals. Consistent with increased iron deposits and inadequate ferritin expression, malondialdehyde level and Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase-1 expression were higher in the brain of Hx-null mice than in that of wild-type controls. These data demonstrate that Hx plays an important role in controlling iron distribution within brain, thus suggesting its involvement in iron-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19120692

  15. Brief Exercises Affect Gene Expression in Circulating Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Cai, F; Ge, J; Yin, L

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to give a systematic hypothesis on the functions of exercise on circulating monocytes by identifying a discrete set of genes in circulating monocytes that were altered by exercise. The microarray expression profile of GSE51835 was downloaded from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using limma and affy packages in R language. Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed for DEGs, followed by the construction of co-expression network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The top 10 nodes in PPI network were screened, and subnetwork was constructed for the key genes identification. Totally, 35 DEGs, including 2 upregulated genes and 33 downregulated genes, were identified. The enriched GO terms were mainly linked to immune response and defence response, and the enriched KEGG pathways were mainly associated with natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and graft-versus-host disease. Dual-specificity phosphatase 2 (DUSP2) was identified as a key node in the co-expression network. In the PPI network, CD247 module (CD247), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), granzyme B (GZMB) and perforin 1 (PRF1) were identified as key nodes. An important interaction, GZMB/PRF1, was detected. Five key genes, including DUSP2, CD247, CXCR4, GZMB and PRF1, and an interaction of GZMB/PRF1, were significant factors in the immune processes of circulating monocytes, which might be regulated by brief exercises, leading to the enhancement of immune function. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  16. Blood Lactate Response to the CF Express Step Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-18

    hypertension and migraine headaches. Beta - blockers cause a moderate decrease in blood pressure, a pro- nounced reduction in heart rate, and a slight...antihypertensive therapy with beta - blockers : submaximal exercise capa- city and metabolic effects during exercise. Int. J. Sport. Med. 8:342-347. 26

  17. Finger stick blood collection for gene expression profiling and storage of tempus blood RNA tubes

    PubMed Central

    Rinchai, Darawan; Anguiano, Esperanza; Nguyen, Phuong; Chaussabel, Damien

    2017-01-01

    With this report we aim to make available a standard operating procedure (SOP) developed for RNA stabilization of small blood volumes collected via a finger stick. The anticipation that this procedure may be improved through peer-review and/or readers public comments is another element motivating the publication of this SOP. Procuring blood samples from human subjects can, among other uses, enable assessment of the immune status of an individual subject via the profiling of RNA abundance using technologies such as real time PCR, NanoString, microarrays or RNA-sequencing. It is often desirable to minimize blood volumes and employ methods that are the least invasive and can be practically implemented outside of clinical settings. Finger stick blood samples are increasingly used for measurement of levels of pharmacological drugs and biological analytes. It is a simple and convenient procedure amenable for instance to field use or self-collection at home using a blood sample collection kit. Such methodologies should also enable the procurement of blood samples at high frequency for health or disease monitoring applications. PMID:28357036

  18. Models of Disability in Children's Pretend Play: Measurement of Cognitive Representations and Affective Expression Using the Affect in Play Scale.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefano; Meloni, Fabio; Catarinella, Antonio; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Play is a natural mode of children's expression and constitutes a fundamental aspect of their life. Cognitive, affective, and social aspects can be assessed through play, considered as a "window" to observe a child's functioning. According to Russ's model, cognitive and affective components and their reciprocal connections can be assessed through the Affect in Play Scale (APS). The aim of the present study was to investigate children's representations of the three main models of disability (medical, social, and biopsychosocial) and how these models affected cognitive and affective components of children's play. Sixty-three children, aged 6-10 years, were assessed by means of the APS. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two APS task orders: the standard APS task followed by the modified APS task (including a wheelchair toy), or vice versa. The standard and modified APS sessions were coded according to the APS system. The modified APS sessions were also coded for the model of disability expressed by children. A one-way ANOVA conducted on the APS affective and cognitive indexes revealed an effect of condition on the affective components of play and no effect on cognitive components and variety of affect as assessed by the APS. In addition, when children are involved in pretend play from which concepts of disability emerge, these concepts are almost exclusively related to the medical model of disability. Results suggested implications for intervention with children in educational contexts that aim to teach children about disability.

  19. Selenium affects the expression of GPx4 and catalase in the liver of chicken.

    PubMed

    Zoidis, E; Pappas, A C; Georgiou, C A; Komaitis, Epsilon; Feggeros, K

    2010-03-01

    A total of 128 chickens (Gallus gallus, broilers) were used to investigate the effect of organic selenium (Se) in expression of catalase (CAT) and phospholipid hydroperoxidase 4 (GPx4) genes. There were 4 replicates of 4 dietary treatments: T1 (basal diet with no added Se), T2 (T1 with 0.15 ppm Se added), T3 (T1 with 0.3 ppm Se) and T4 (T1 with 3.0 ppm Se). At 4th and 6th week, 2 chickens per replicate pen were sacrificed for whole blood and liver sample collections. Samples were analyzed for total Se by ICP-MS and gene expression by RT-PCR. Dietary supplementation with organic Se (Se-yeast) readily elevated its concentration in the tissues. GPx4 mRNA levels, pooled for both ages, of chickens fed T3 and T4 diets were significantly reduced compared to those fed diet T1 by 47% and 77% respectively, while that of T2 did not differ. Liver CAT mRNA levels at 4th week were significantly decreased as Se supplementation increased, while at 6th week, were not significantly affected by Se. The study showed that liver GPx4 mRNA levels could be down-regulated by excess of Se. It is possible that reserves built by excess of Se meet antioxidant requirements and no additional GPx4 transcription is necessary. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells alter their gene expression when challenged with endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wens, B; De Boever, P; Verbeke, M; Hollanders, K; Schoeters, G

    2013-01-07

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potential to interfere with the hormonal system and may negatively influence human health. Microarray analysis was used in this study to investigate differential gene expression in human peripheral blood cells (PBMCs) after in vitro exposure to EDCs. PBMCs, isolated from blood samples of four male and four female healthy individuals, were exposed in vitro for 18h to either a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126, 1μM), a non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB153, 10μM), a brominated flame retardant (BDE47, 10μM), a perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFOA, 10μM) or bisphenol (BPA, 10μM). ANOVA analysis revealed a significant change in the expression of 862 genes as a result of EDC exposure. The gender of the donors did not affect gene expression. Hierarchical cluster analysis created three groups and clustered: (1) PCB126-exposed samples, (2) PCB153 and BDE47, (3) PFOA and BPA. The number of differentially expressed genes varied per compound and ranged from 60 to 192 when using fold change and multiplicity corrected p-value as filtering criteria. Exposure to PCB126 induced the AhR signaling pathway. BDE47 and PCB153 are known to disrupt thyroid metabolism and exposure influenced the expression of the nuclear receptors PPARγ and ESR2, respectively. BPA and PFOA did not induce significant changes in the expression of known nuclear receptors. Overall, each compound produced a unique gene expression signature affecting pathways and GO processes linked to metabolism and inflammation. Twenty-nine genes were significantly altered in expression under all experimental conditions. Six of these genes (HSD11B2, MMP11, ADIPOQ, CEL, DUSP9 and TUB) could be associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, microarray analysis identified that PBMCs altered their gene expression response in vitro when challenged with EDCs. Our screening approach has identified a number of gene candidates that warrant further

  1. Peripheral blood gene expression profiles linked to monoamine metabolite levels in cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Luykx, J J; Olde Loohuis, L M; Neeleman, M; Strengman, E; Bakker, S C; Lentjes, E; Borgdorff, P; van Dongen, E P A; Bruins, P; Kahn, R S; Horvath, S; de Jong, S; Ophoff, R A

    2016-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier separates circulating blood from the central nervous system (CNS). The scope of this barrier is not fully understood which limits our ability to relate biological measurements from peripheral to central phenotypes. For example, it is unknown to what extent gene expression levels in peripheral blood are reflective of CNS metabolism. In this study, we examine links between central monoamine metabolite levels and whole-blood gene expression to better understand the connection between peripheral systems and the CNS. To that end, we correlated the prime monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with whole-genome gene expression microarray data from blood (N=240 human subjects). We additionally applied gene-enrichment analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) to identify modules of co-expressed genes in blood that may be involved with monoamine metabolite levels in CSF. Transcript levels of two genes were significantly associated with CSF serotonin metabolite levels after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing: THAP7 (P=2.8 × 10−8, β=0.08) and DDX6 (P=2.9 × 10−7, β=0.07). Differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched for genes expressed in the brain tissue (P=6.0 × 10−52). WGCNA revealed significant correlations between serotonin metabolism and hub genes with known functions in serotonin metabolism, for example, HTR2A and COMT. We conclude that gene expression levels in whole blood are associated with monoamine metabolite levels in the human CSF. Our results, including the strong enrichment of brain-expressed genes, illustrate that gene expression profiles in peripheral blood can be relevant for quantitative metabolic phenotypes in the CNS. PMID:27959337

  2. Data-driven asthma endotypes defined from blood biomarker and gene expression data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma is complicated by its mechanistically distinct subtypes (endotypes) driven by genetic susceptibility and modulating environmental factors. Clinical biomarkers and blood gene expression were collected from a stratified, cross-section...

  3. Data-driven asthma endotypes defined from blood biomarker and gene expression data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma is complicated by its mechanistically distinct subtypes (endotypes) driven by genetic susceptibility and modulating environmental factors. Clinical biomarkers and blood gene expression were collected from a stratified, cross-section...

  4. Severe Traumatic Head Injury Affects Systemic Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J; Rosenberger, Laura H; Walters, Dustin M; Hedrick, Traci L; Swenson, Brian R; Young, Jeffrey S; Dossett, Lesly A; May, Addison K; Sawyer, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Background The neuroimmunologic effect of traumatic head injury remains ill-defined. This study aimed to characterize systemic cytokine profiles among traumatically injured patients to assess the effect of traumatic head injury on the systemic inflammatory response. Study Design Over five years, 1,022 patients were evaluated from a multi-institutional trauma immunomodulatory database (TIMD). Patients were stratified by presence of severe head injury (SHI, Head ISS ≥ 4, n=335) versus non-severe head injury (NHI, Head ISS ≤ 3, n=687). Systemic cytokine expression was quantified by ELISA within 72 hours of admission. Patient factors, outcomes, and cytokine profiles were compared by univariate analyses. Results SHI patients were more severely injured with higher mortality despite similar ICU infection and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) rates. Expression of early pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 (p<0.001) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p=0.02), were higher among NHI patients, while expression of immunomodulatory cytokines, interferon-γ (p=0.01) and IL-12 (p=0.003), was higher in SHI patients. High TNF-α levels in NHI patients were associated with mortality (p=0.01), increased mechanical ventilation (p=0.02), and development of VAP (p=0.01). Alternatively, among SHI patients, high IL-2 levels were associated with survival, decreased mechanical ventilation, and absence of VAP. Conclusions The presence of severe traumatic head injury significantly alters systemic cytokine expression and exerts an immunomodulatory effect. Early recognition of these profiles may allow for targeted intervention to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:22342787

  5. Encoding Conditions Affect Recognition of Vocally Expressed Emotions Across Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Jürgens, Rebecca; Drolet, Matthis; Pirow, Ralph; Scheiner, Elisabeth; Fischer, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Although the expression of emotions in humans is considered to be largely universal, cultural effects contribute to both emotion expression and recognition. To disentangle the interplay between these factors, play-acted and authentic (non-instructed) vocal expressions of emotions were used, on the assumption that cultural effects may contribute differentially to the recognition of staged and spontaneous emotions. Speech tokens depicting four emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear) were obtained from German radio archives and re-enacted by professional actors, and presented to 120 participants from Germany, Romania, and Indonesia. Participants in all three countries were poor at distinguishing between play-acted and spontaneous emotional utterances (58.73% correct on average with only marginal cultural differences). Nevertheless, authenticity influenced emotion recognition: across cultures, anger was recognized more accurately when play-acted (z = 15.06, p < 0.001) and sadness when authentic (z = 6.63, p < 0.001), replicating previous findings from German populations. German subjects revealed a slight advantage in recognizing emotions, indicating a moderate in-group advantage. There was no difference between Romanian and Indonesian subjects in the overall emotion recognition. Differential cultural effects became particularly apparent in terms of differential biases in emotion attribution. While all participants labeled play-acted expressions as anger more frequently than expected, German participants exhibited a further bias toward choosing anger for spontaneous stimuli. In contrast to the German sample, Romanian and Indonesian participants were biased toward choosing sadness. These results support the view that emotion recognition rests on a complex interaction of human universals and cultural specificities. Whether and in which way the observed biases are linked to cultural differences in self-construal remains an issue for further investigation. PMID

  6. Caesium-affected gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sahr, Tobias; Voigt, Gabriele; Paretzke, Herwig G; Schramel, Peter; Ernst, Dieter

    2005-03-01

    * Excessive caesium can be toxic to plants. Here we investigated Cs uptake and caesium-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. * Accumulation was measured in plants grown for 5 wk on agar supplemented with nontoxic and up to toxic levels of Cs. Caesium-induced gene expression was studied by suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH) and RT-PCR. * Caesium accumulated in leaf rosettes dependent upon the external concentration in the growth media, whereas the potassium concentration decreased in rosettes. At a concentration of 850 microM, Cs plants showed reduced development, and withered with an increase in concentration to 1 mM Cs. SSH resulted in the isolation of 73 clones that were differentially expressed at a Cs concentration of 150 microM. Most of the genes identified belong to groups of genes encoding proteins in stress defence, detoxification, transport, homeostasis and general metabolism, and proteins controlling transcription and translation. * The present study identified a number of marker genes for Cs in Arabidopsis grown under nontoxic Cs concentrations, indicating that Cs acts as an abiotic stress factor.

  7. Does Osmotic Stress Affect Natural Product Expression in Fungi?

    PubMed

    Overy, David; Correa, Hebelin; Roullier, Catherine; Chi, Wei-Chiung; Pang, Ka-Lai; Rateb, Mostafa; Ebel, Rainer; Shang, Zhuo; Capon, Rob; Bills, Gerald; Kerr, Russell

    2017-08-13

    The discovery of new natural products from fungi isolated from the marine environment has increased dramatically over the last few decades, leading to the identification of over 1000 new metabolites. However, most of the reported marine-derived species appear to be terrestrial in origin yet at the same time, facultatively halo- or osmotolerant. An unanswered question regarding the apparent chemical productivity of marine-derived fungi is whether the common practice of fermenting strains in seawater contributes to enhanced secondary metabolism? To answer this question, a terrestrial isolate of Aspergillus aculeatus was fermented in osmotic and saline stress conditions in parallel across multiple sites. The ex-type strain of A. aculeatus was obtained from three different culture collections. Site-to-site variations in metabolite expression were observed, suggesting that subculturing of the same strain and subtle variations in experimental protocols can have pronounced effects upon metabolite expression. Replicated experiments at individual sites indicated that secondary metabolite production was divergent between osmotic and saline treatments. Titers of some metabolites increased or decreased in response to increasing osmolite (salt or glycerol) concentrations. Furthermore, in some cases, the expression of some secondary metabolites in relation to osmotic and saline stress was attributed to specific sources of the ex-type strains.

  8. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  9. The Induced Affect Response: 10-Week-Old Infants' Responses to Three Emotion Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette M.; Lelwica, Mary

    1987-01-01

    When mothers of 12 infants 10 weeks of age displayed noncontingent, practiced facial and vocal expressions of joy, anger, and sadness, infants responded differently to each expression. Infants' matching responses to maternal affects were only part of complex but predictable behavioral patterns that indicate meaningful affect states and possibly…

  10. Experimenter Affective Expression and Gaze Following in 7-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flom, Ross; Pick, Anne D.

    2005-01-01

    The study of gaze following in infants younger than 12 months of age has emphasized the effects of gesture, type of target, and its position or placement. This experiment extends this literature by examining the effects of adults' affective expression on 7-month-olds' gaze following. The effects of 3 affective expressions--happy, sad, and…

  11. Experimenter Affective Expression and Gaze Following in 7-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flom, Ross; Pick, Anne D.

    2005-01-01

    The study of gaze following in infants younger than 12 months of age has emphasized the effects of gesture, type of target, and its position or placement. This experiment extends this literature by examining the effects of adults' affective expression on 7-month-olds' gaze following. The effects of 3 affective expressions--happy, sad, and…

  12. Urbanicity Affects Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Reactivity to a Speech Stressor in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Armstead, Cheryl A.; Anderson, Norman B.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Hébert, James R.; Muna, Walinjom F. T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the interactive influence of urbanicity on cardiovascular reactivity to speech stressors among 103 urban and 93 rural Cameroonians. Method Heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure (HR, SBP, and DBP) changes from baseline were assessed during a speech preparation period, speech stressor task, and post-speech recovery period. Results After adjusting for income, age, BMI, and sex, urban subjects showed greater diastolic reactivity to the pre-speech and speech conditions than to recovery. Urban subjects also showed greater reactivity to the speech stressor than to other conditions. Urban subjects showed greater HR reactivity to the speech stressor. Rural subjects showed greater diastolic reactivity to the pre-speech and speech stressor and less recovery. Conclusion Urbanicity affects blood pressure and heart rate differently for urban and rural Cameroonians. It also affects recovery from stressors. More exploration into the influence of urbanization on hypertension risk factors in developing countries is warranted. (Ethn Dis. 2010;20:251–256) PMID:20828098

  13. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  14. Systemic blood loss affects NF-kappa B regulatory mechanisms in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Moine, P; Shenkar, R; Kaneko, D; Le Tulzo, Y; Abraham, E

    1997-07-01

    The nuclear regulatory factor (NF)-kappa B is activated in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In experimental models of acute lung injury, activation of NF-kappa B contributes to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in the lungs. Because of the important role that NF-kappa B activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kappa B counterregulatory mechanisms in lung mononuclear cells, using a murine model in which inflammatory lung injury develops after blood loss. Sustained activation of NF-kappa B was present in lung mononuclear cells over the 4-h period after blood loss. The activation of NF-kappa B after hemorrhage was accompanied by alterations in levels of the NF-kappa B regulatory proteins I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3. Cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha were increased and nuclear Bcl-3 was decreased during the first hour after blood loss, but, by 4 h posthemorrhage, cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha levels were decreased and nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were increased. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity in otherwise unmanipulated unhemorrhaged mice resulted in increased levels of I kappa B alpha and decreased amounts of Bcl-3 in nuclear extracts from lung mononuclear cells. No changes in the levels of nuclear I kappa B alpha or Bcl-3 occurred after hemorrhage when xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited. These results demonstrate that blood loss, at least partly through xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanisms, produces alterations in the levels of both I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3 in lung mononuclear cell populations. The effects of hemorrhage on proteins that regulate activation of NF-kappa B may contribute to the frequent development of inflammatory lung injury in this setting.

  15. Coagulation is more affected by quick than slow bleeding in patients with massive blood loss.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Yang, Dejuan; Zheng, Dongyou

    2017-03-01

    Profuse blood loss affects blood coagulation to various degrees. However, whether bleeding speed affects coagulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bleeding speed on coagulation function. A total of 141 patients in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of our hospital were evaluated between January 2007 and February 2014. There are two groups of patients, those who received decortication for chronic encapsulated empyema were called the slow-bleeding group, and those who received thoracoscopic upper lobectomy were called the fast bleeding group; each group was further subdivided into three: group A, 1000 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 1500 ml; group B, 1500 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 1700 ml; group C, 1700 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 2000 ml. Then, coagulation function was assessed in all patients before and during surgery and at 1, 2, and 24 h after surgery, measuring prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets. Bleeding duration was overtly longer in the slow-bleeding group than that in quick bleeding individuals (2.3 ± 0.25 h vs. 0.41 ± 0.13 h, P < 0.001). Fibrinogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets strikingly decreased, whereas prothrombin time and APTT values significantly increased with bleeding amounts in both quick and slow-bleeding groups. Interestingly, compared with slow-bleeding patients, coagulation indices at each time point and bleeding amounts had significant differences in the quick bleeding group.Increased consumption of coagulation factors in quick bleeding may have greater impact on coagulation function.

  16. Arsenic affects inflammatory cytokine expression in Gallus gallus brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; He, Ying; Guo, Ying; Li, Siwen; Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Jingyu; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-06-05

    The heavy metal arsenic is widely distributed in nature and posses a serious threat to organism's health. However, little is known about the arsenic-induced inflammatory response in the brain tissues of birds and the relationship and mechanism of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of dietary arsenic on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the brains of Gallus gallus. Seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were divided into a control group, a low arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-treated (7.5 mg/kg) group, a middle As2O3-treated (15 mg/kg) group, and a high As2O3-treated (30 mg/kg) group. Arsenic exposure caused obvious ultrastructural changes. The mRNA levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGEs), in chicken brain tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem and myelencephalon) on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively, were measured by real-time PCR. The protein expression of iNOS was detected by western blot. The results showed that after being treated with As2O3, the levels of inflammatory-related factor NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chicken brain tissues increased (P < 0.05). Arsenic exposure in the chickens triggered host defence and induced an inflammatory response by regulating the expression of inflammatory-related genes in the cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem and myelencephalon. These data form a foundation for further research on arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in Gallus gallus.

  17. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Bianchi, Patrizia; De Bellis, Alberto; Soligo, Marzia; Rocco, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal nerve growth factor administration in both nostrils for 1 day or for 3 consecutive weeks. We found an increased content of nerve growth factor and enhanced expression of nerve growth factor receptor in the spinal cord 24 hours after a single intranasal administration of nerve growth factor in healthy rats, while daily treatment for 3 weeks in a model of spinal cord injury improved the deficits in locomotor behaviour and increased spinal content of both nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. These outcomes suggest that the intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. They also suggest exploiting the possible therapeutic role of intranasally delivered nerve growth factor for the neuroprotection of damaged spinal nerve cells. PMID:25206755

  18. Adult and cord blood endothelial progenitor cells have different gene expression profiles and immunogenic potential

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzolo, Eugenia R.; Capodimonti, Sara; Martini, Maurizio; Iachininoto, Maria G.; Bianchi, Maria; Cocomazzi, Alessandra; Zini, Gina; Leone, Giuseppe; Larocca, Luigi M.; Teofili, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) are endowed with vascular regenerative ability in vivo and in vitro. In this study we compared the genotypic profile and the immunogenic potential of adult and cord blood ECFC, in order to explore the feasibility of using them as a cell therapy product. Materials and methods ECFC were obtained from cord blood samples not suitable for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and from adult healthy blood donors after informed consent. Genotypes were analysed by commercially available microarray assays and results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. HLA antigen expression was evaluated by flow-cytometry. Immunogenic capacity was investigated by evaluating the activation of allogeneic lymphocytes and monocytes in co-cultures with ECFC. Results Microarray assays revealed that the genetic profile of cord blood and adult ECFC differed in about 20% of examined genes. We found that cord blood ECFC were characterised by lower pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic gene expression as compared to adult ECFC. Furthermore, whereas cord blood and adult ECFCs expressed similar amount of HLA molecules both at baseline and after incubation with γ-interferon, cord blood ECFC elicited a weaker expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Finally, we observed no differences in the amount of HLA antigens expressed among cord blood ECFC, adult ECFC and mesenchymal cells. Conclusions Our observations suggest that cord blood ECFC have a lower pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic profile than adult ECFC. These preliminary data offer level-headed evidence to use cord blood ECFC as a cell therapy product in vascular diseases. PMID:23867184

  19. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Simone; Chepelev, Iouri; Janson, Esther; Strengman, Eric; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Ophoff, Roel A

    2012-09-06

    Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner.

  20. Mutations Affecting Expression of the rosy Locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chong Sung; Curtis, Daniel; McCarron, Margaret; Love, Carol; Gray, Mark; Bender, Welcome; Chovnick, Arthur

    1987-01-01

    The rosy locus in Drosophila melanogaster codes for the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). Previous studies defined a "control element" near the 5' end of the gene, where variant sites affected the amount of rosy mRNA and protein produced. We have determined the DNA sequence of this region from both genomic and cDNA clones, and from the ry+10 underproducer strain. This variant strain had many sequence differences, so that the site of the regulatory change could not be fixed. A mutagenesis was also undertaken to isolate new regulatory mutations. We induced 376 new mutations with 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) and screened them to isolate those that reduced the amount of XDH protein produced, but did not change the properties of the enzyme. Genetic mapping was used to find mutations located near the 5' end of the gene. DNA from each of seven mutants was cloned and sequenced through the 5' region. Mutant base changes were identified in all seven; they appear to affect splicing and translation of the rosy mRNA. In a related study (T. P. Keith et al. 1987), the genomic and cDNA sequences are extended through the 3' end of the gene; the combined sequences define the processing pattern of the rosy transcript and predict the amino acid sequence of XDH. PMID:3036645

  1. Affective Expressions of Toddlers with and without Down Syndrome in a Social Referencing Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knieps, Linda J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Affective expressions of 11 toddlers with Down's syndrome and 11 toddlers with no disabilities were compared during participation with a parent in a social referencing procedure. Although expressions of both toddler groups were equally labile and intense, only toddlers without Down's syndrome tended to match their parents' expressions. (Author/DB)

  2. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  3. Transpirational demand affects aquaporin expression in poplar roots.

    PubMed

    Laur, Joan; Hacke, Uwe G

    2013-05-01

    Isohydric plants tend to maintain a water potential homeostasis primarily by controlling water loss via stomatal conductance. However, there is accumulating evidence that plants can also modulate water uptake in a dynamic manner. The dynamics of water uptake are influenced by aquaporin-mediated changes in root hydraulics. Most studies in this area have been conducted on herbaceous plants, and less is known about responses of woody plants. Here a study was conducted to determine how roots of hybrid poplar plants (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides) respond to a step change in transpirational demand. The main objective was to measure the expression of selected aquaporin genes and to assess how transcriptional responses correspond to changes in root water flow (Q R) and other parameters of water relations. A subset of plants was grown in shade and was subsequently exposed to a 5-fold increase in light level. Another group of plants was grown at ~95% relative humidity (RH) and was then subjected to lower RH while the light level remained unchanged. Both plant groups experienced a transient drop in stem water potentials. At 28h after the increase in transpirational demand, water potentials recovered. This recovery was associated with changes in the expression of PIP1 and PIP2 subfamily genes and an increase in Q R. Stomata of plants growing at high RH were larger and showed incomplete closure after application of abscisic acid. Since stomatal conductance remained high and unchanged in these plants, it is suggested that the recovery in water potential in these plants was largely driven by the increase in Q R.

  4. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  5. Sleep deprivation affects inflammatory marker expression in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase inflammatory markers in rat sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inflammation is a condition associated with pathologies such as obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated changes in the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in different depots of white adipose tissue in rats. We also assessed lipid profiles and serum levels of corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin after 96 hours of sleep deprivation. Methods The study consisted of two groups: a control (C) group and a paradoxical sleep deprivation by 96 h (PSD) group. Ten rats were randomly assigned to either the control group (C) or the PSD. Mesenteric (MEAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissue, liver and serum were collected following completion of the PSD protocol. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were analysed in MEAT and RPAT, and leptin, adiponectin, glucose, corticosterone and lipid profile levels were analysed in serum. Results IL-6 levels were elevated in RPAT but remained unchanged in MEAT after PSD. IL-10 protein concentration was not altered in either depot, and TNF-α levels decreased in MEAT. Glucose, triglycerides (TG), VLDL and leptin decreased in serum after 96 hours of PSD; adiponectin was not altered and corticosterone was increased. Conclusion PSD decreased fat mass and may modulate the cytokine content in different depots of adipose tissue. The inflammatory response was diminished in both depots of adipose tissue, with increased IL-6 levels in RPAT and decreased TNF-α protein concentrations in MEAT and increased levels of corticosterone in serum. PMID:21034496

  6. Perceptual and affective mechanisms in facial expression recognition: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-09-01

    Facial expressions of emotion involve a physical component of morphological changes in a face and an affective component conveying information about the expresser's internal feelings. It remains unresolved how much recognition and discrimination of expressions rely on the perception of morphological patterns or the processing of affective content. This review of research on the role of visual and emotional factors in expression recognition reached three major conclusions. First, behavioral, neurophysiological, and computational measures indicate that basic expressions are reliably recognized and discriminated from one another, albeit the effect may be inflated by the use of prototypical expression stimuli and forced-choice responses. Second, affective content along the dimensions of valence and arousal is extracted early from facial expressions, although this coarse affective representation contributes minimally to categorical recognition of specific expressions. Third, the physical configuration and visual saliency of facial features contribute significantly to expression recognition, with "emotionless" computational models being able to reproduce some of the basic phenomena demonstrated in human observers. We conclude that facial expression recognition, as it has been investigated in conventional laboratory tasks, depends to a greater extent on perceptual than affective information and mechanisms.

  7. Higher whole-blood selenium is associated with improved immune responses in footrot-affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We reported previously that sheep affected with footrot (FR) have lower whole-blood selenium (WB-Se) concentrations and that parenteral Se-supplementation in conjunction with routine control practices accelerates recovery from FR. The purpose of this follow-up study was to investigate the mechanisms by which Se facilitates recovery from FR. Sheep affected with FR (n = 38) were injected monthly for 15 months with either 5 mg Se (FR-Se) or saline (FR-Sal), whereas 19 healthy sheep received no treatment. Adaptive immune function was evaluated after 3 months of Se supplementation by immunizing all sheep with a novel protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test to KLH were used to assess humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Innate immunity was evaluated after 3 months of Se supplementation by measuring intradermal responses to histamine 30 min after injection compared to KLH and saline, and after 15 months of Se supplementation by isolating neutrophils and measuring their bacterial killing ability and relative abundance of mRNA for genes associated with neutrophil migration. Compared to healthy sheep, immune responses to a novel protein were suppressed in FR-affected sheep with smaller decreases in FR-affected sheep that received Se or had WB-Se concentrations above 250 ng/mL at the time of the immune assays. Neutrophil function was suppressed in FR-affected sheep, but was not changed by Se supplementation or WB-Se status. Sheep FR is associated with depressed immune responses to a novel protein, which may be partly restored by improving WB-Se status (> 250 ng/mL). PMID:21896161

  8. Warming-Up Affects Performance and Lactate Distribution between Plasma and Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Zinner, Christoph; Yue, Zengyuan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Warming-up (WU) is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU); 2. extensive WU (EWU); 3. intensive WU (IWU). Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB), plasma ([LA]plasma) and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC). Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU) and +60 Watt (IWU) higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a “higher preloading” with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility. Key points Warm-up significantly improves performance during 30

  9. Expression of blood group antigens on red cell microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, R T; Dumaswala, U J; Greenwalt, T J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether epitopes of the A, B, D, Fya, M, N, S, s, and K blood group antigens are present on microvesicle membranes shed by red cells during storage. Vesicles were isolated from outdated units of blood having and lacking the specified antigens. Diluted antisera were absorbed with fixed quantities of vesicles from red cells with the test antigen and red cells lacking that antigen (controls). The adsorbed and unadsorbed antisera were titrated and scored by using panel cells from persons known to be heterozygous for all the non-AB antigens. The mean titration scores following adsorption with the vesicles from A, B, D, M+N-, M-N+, S+s-, S-s+, and Fy(a+b-) units were appreciably lower than the control scores (0, 0, 3, 2, 2, 0, 4, and 4 vs. 19, 23, 34, 13, 12, 16, 18, and 29, respectively), which indicated the presence of these epitopes on the membrane of shed vesicles. The results following adsorption with K:1,2 vesicles were equivocal.

  10. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  11. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields do not affect DNA damage and gene expression profiles of yeast and human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Luceri, Cristina; De Filippo, Carlotta; Giovannelli, Lisa; Blangiardo, Marta; Cavalieri, Duccio; Aglietti, Filippo; Pampaloni, Monica; Andreuccetti, Daniele; Pieri, Lapo; Bambi, Franco; Biggeri, Annibale; Dolara, Piero

    2005-09-01

    We studied the effects of extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on peripheral human blood lymphocytes and DBY747 Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Graded exposure to 50 Hz magnetic flux density was obtained with a Helmholtz coil system set at 1, 10 or 100 microT for 18 h. The effects of EMFs on DNA damage were studied with the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) in lymphocytes. Gene expression profiles of EMF-exposed human and yeast cells were evaluated with DNA microarrays containing 13,971 and 6,212 oligonucleotides, respectively. After exposure to the EMF, we did not observe an increase in the amount of strand breaks or oxidated DNA bases relative to controls or a variation in gene expression profiles. The results suggest that extremely low-frequency EMFs do not induce DNA damage or affect gene expression in these two different eukaryotic cell systems.

  12. Modulation of GLO1 Expression Affects Malignant Properties of Cells.

    PubMed

    Hutschenreuther, Antje; Bigl, Marina; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Debebe, Tewodros; Gaunitz, Frank; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2016-12-18

    The energy metabolism of most tumor cells relies on aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) characterized by an increased glycolytic flux that is accompanied by the increased formation of the cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MGO). Consequently, the rate of detoxification of this reactive glycolytic byproduct needs to be increased in order to prevent deleterious effects to the cells. This is brought about by an increased expression of glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) that is the rate-limiting enzyme of the MGO-detoxifying glyoxalase system. Here, we overexpressed GLO1 in HEK 293 cells and silenced it in MCF-7 cells using shRNA. Tumor-related properties of wild type and transformed cells were compared and key glycolytic enzyme activities assessed. Furthermore, the cells were subjected to hypoxic conditions to analyze the impact on cell proliferation and enzyme activities. Our results demonstrate that knockdown of GLO1 in the cancer cells significantly reduced tumor-associated properties such as migration and proliferation, whereas no functional alterations where found by overexpression of GLO1 in HEK 293 cells. In contrast, hypoxia caused inhibition of cell growth of all cells except of those overexpressing GLO1. Altogether, we conclude that GLO1 on one hand is crucial to maintaining tumor characteristics of malignant cells, and, on the other hand, supports malignant transformation of cells in a hypoxic environment when overexpressed.

  13. Modulation of GLO1 Expression Affects Malignant Properties of Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hutschenreuther, Antje; Bigl, Marina; Hemdan, Nasr Y. A.; Debebe, Tewodros; Gaunitz, Frank; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The energy metabolism of most tumor cells relies on aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) characterized by an increased glycolytic flux that is accompanied by the increased formation of the cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MGO). Consequently, the rate of detoxification of this reactive glycolytic byproduct needs to be increased in order to prevent deleterious effects to the cells. This is brought about by an increased expression of glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) that is the rate-limiting enzyme of the MGO-detoxifying glyoxalase system. Here, we overexpressed GLO1 in HEK 293 cells and silenced it in MCF-7 cells using shRNA. Tumor-related properties of wild type and transformed cells were compared and key glycolytic enzyme activities assessed. Furthermore, the cells were subjected to hypoxic conditions to analyze the impact on cell proliferation and enzyme activities. Our results demonstrate that knockdown of GLO1 in the cancer cells significantly reduced tumor-associated properties such as migration and proliferation, whereas no functional alterations where found by overexpression of GLO1 in HEK 293 cells. In contrast, hypoxia caused inhibition of cell growth of all cells except of those overexpressing GLO1. Altogether, we conclude that GLO1 on one hand is crucial to maintaining tumor characteristics of malignant cells, and, on the other hand, supports malignant transformation of cells in a hypoxic environment when overexpressed. PMID:27999356

  14. SMIM1 variants rs1175550 and rs143702418 independently modulate Vel blood group antigen expression

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Mikael K.; Jöud, Magnus; Ajore, Ram; Vege, Sunitha; Ljungdahl, Klara W.; Westhoff, Connie M.; Olsson, Martin L.; Storry, Jill R.; Nilsson, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The Vel blood group antigen is expressed on the red blood cells of most individuals. Recently, we described that homozygosity for inactivating mutations in SMIM1 defines the rare Vel-negative phenotype. Still, Vel-positive individuals show great variability in Vel antigen expression, creating a risk for Vel blood typing errors and transfusion reactions. We fine-mapped the regulatory region located in SMIM1 intron 2 in Swedish blood donors, and observed a strong correlation between expression and rs1175550 as well as with a previously unreported tri-nucleotide insertion (rs143702418; C > CGCA). While the two variants are tightly linked in Caucasians, we separated their effects in African Americans, and found that rs1175550G and to a lesser extent rs143702418C independently increase SMIM1 and Vel antigen expression. Gel shift and luciferase assays indicate that both variants are transcriptionally active, and we identified binding of the transcription factor TAL1 as a potential mediator of the increased expression associated with rs1175550G. Our results provide insight into the regulatory logic of Vel antigen expression, and extend the set of markers for genetic Vel blood group typing. PMID:28084402

  15. Launch Conditions Might Affect the Formation of Blood Vessel in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. K.; Unsworth, B. R.; Sychev, B. R.; Guryeva, T. S.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Piert, S. J.; Lagel, K. E.; Dubrovin, L. C.; Jahns, G. C.; Boda, K.; hide

    1998-01-01

    AS 2 part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryos exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the conditions experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development of the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis In CAMS of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory Incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during Incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development or the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease In blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of Incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent Incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogenesis In the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  16. Launch conditions might affect the formation of blood vessels in the quail chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Henry, M K; Unsworth, B R; Sychev, V; Guryeva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Piert, S J; Lagel, K E; Dubrovin, L C; Jahns, G C; Boda, K; Sabo, V; Samet, M M; Lelkes, P I

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryo exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the condition experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development or the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis in CAMs of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development of the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease in blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogensis in the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  17. An evaluation of some factors affecting the detection of blood group antibodies by automated methods.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, J; Nordhagen, R

    1975-01-01

    Some factors affecting the sensitivity of the automated methods for blood group antibody detection have been evaluated. The experiments revealed influencing differences between various albumin preparations. In the BMC method, one lot of albumin permitted no significant antibody detection. In the LISP technique, a plateau of maximum Polybrene activity was found. The beginning of this plateau depended on both the albumin preparation and the Polybrene lot. In the BMC method, methyl cellulose gave optimal sensitivity within a concentration range of 0.3 to 0.5 per cent. The stability of test cells stored in ACD at 4 C was studied. All test cells could be used safely up to two weeks. Cells from different donors showed variable reactivity after three weeks.

  18. Classification accuracy of algorithms for blood chemistry data for three aquaculture-affected marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Coz-Rakovac, R; Topic Popovic, N; Smuc, T; Strunjak-Perovic, I; Jadan, M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was determination and discrimination of biochemical data among three aquaculture-affected marine fish species (sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax; sea bream, Sparus aurata L., and mullet, Mugil spp.) based on machine-learning methods. The approach relying on machine-learning methods gives more usable classification solutions and provides better insight into the collected data. So far, these new methods have been applied to the problem of discrimination of blood chemistry data with respect to season and feed of a single species. This is the first time these classification algorithms have been used as a framework for rapid differentiation among three fish species. Among the machine-learning methods used, decision trees provided the clearest model, which correctly classified 210 samples or 85.71%, and incorrectly classified 35 samples or 14.29% and clearly identified three investigated species from their biochemical traits.

  19. Odors generated from the Maillard reaction affect autonomic nervous activity and decrease blood pressure through the olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lanxi; Ohata, Motoko; Owashi, Chisato; Nagai, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Issei; Arihara, Keizo

    2017-07-12

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. This study identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 5-methyl-2-pyrazinemethanol (MPM) decreased SBP significantly. The earliest decrease in blood pressure was observed 5 min after exposure to DMHF. Application of zinc sulfate to the nasal cavity eliminated the effect. Furthermore, gastric vagal (parasympathetic) nerve activity was elevated and renal sympathetic nerve activity was lowered after exposure to DMHF. It is indicated that DMHF affects blood pressure through the olfactory system, and the mechanism for the effect of DMHF on blood pressure involves the autonomic nervous system. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium.

  1. Extent of differential allelic expression of candidate breast cancer genes is similar in blood and breast.

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana-Teresa; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Lee, Alvin J X; O'Reilly, Martin; Jones, Linda; Caldas, Carlos; Ponder, Bruce A J

    2009-01-01

    Normal gene expression variation is thought to play a central role in inter-individual variation and susceptibility to disease. Regulatory polymorphisms in cis-acting elements result in the unequal expression of alleles. Differential allelic expression (DAE) in heterozygote individuals could be used to develop a new approach to discover regulatory breast cancer susceptibility loci. As access to large numbers of fresh breast tissue to perform such studies is difficult, a suitable surrogate test tissue must be identified for future studies. We measured differential allelic expression of 12 candidate genes possibly related to breast cancer susceptibility (BRCA1, BRCA2, C1qA, CCND3, EMSY, GPX1, GPX4, MLH3, MTHFR, NBS1, TP53 and TRXR2) in breast tissue (n = 40) and fresh blood (n = 170) of healthy individuals and EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells (n = 19). Differential allelic expression ratios were determined by Taqman assay. Ratio distributions were compared using t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test, for mean ratios and variances respectively. We show that differential allelic expression is common among these 12 candidate genes and is comparable between breast and blood (fresh and transformed lymphoblasts) in a significant proportion of them. We found that eight out of nine genes with DAE in breast and fresh blood were comparable, as were 10 out of 11 genes between breast and transformed lymphoblasts. Our findings support the use of differential allelic expression in blood as a surrogate for breast tissue in future studies on predisposition to breast cancer.

  2. Genome-wide expression analysis of peripheral blood identifies candidate biomarkers for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Medved, Vesna; Terzic, Janos; Krainc, Dimitri

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression in blood of patients with newly-diagnosed schizophrenia during their first psychotic episode and subsequent remission. Whole blood samples were obtained from 32 untreated patients presenting with their first psychotic episode suggestive of schizophrenia and 32 age- and gender-matched controls. Using Affymetrix micoarrays, we identified significantly altered expression of 180 gene probes in psychotic patients compared to controls. A subset of four significantly changed genes was further confirmed with QRT-PCR. The following genes were significantly altered in patients: glucose transporter, SLC2A3 (p<0.001) and actin assembly factor DAAM2 (p<0.001) were increased, whereas translation, zinc metallopeptidase, neurolysin 1 and myosin C were significantly decreased (p<0.05). Expression of these candidate markers was also analyzed in a longitudinal study (12-24 months) in 12 patients who achieved full remission. Interestingly, expression of DAAM2 returned to control levels in patients who were in remission after their first psychotic episode, suggesting that its expression correlates with diseases progression and/or response to treatment. In summary, we identified changes of gene expression from peripheral blood which might help discriminate patients with schizophrenia from controls. While these results are promising, especially for DAAM2 whose polymorphic variants have been found significantly associated with schizophrenia, it will be important to analyze larger cohorts of patients in order to firmly establish changes in gene expression as blood markers of schizophrenia.

  3. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of adaptive pretend play on affective expression and imagination of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty participating in role-pretending activities. The concept of adaptive play makes play accessible by modifying play materials for different needs or treatment goals for children with CP. This study examines the affective expressions and imagination in children with CP as a function of ordinary versus adaptive pretend play. The Affect in Play Scale-Brief Rating measured the affective expression and imagination for 29 children with CP and 29 typically developing children (mean age=7.34 years). Two groups of children were observed while playing with a standard set of ordinary toys for ten times and with a standard procedure of adaptive pretend play for ten times. The results show significantly different affective expressions and imagination between the two groups. Typically developing children displayed much more affective expression and imagination. However, a more positive influence of affective expression and imagination occurred in children with CP than in typically developing children. In repeated measures analysis, the frequency of positive affective expression and imagination of children with CP was higher when pretending with adaptive toys. Adaptive pretend play can promote more role-pretending behaviors and a sense of environmental control during the manipulating process for children with CP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sirt1 expression is associated with CD31 expression in blood cells from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryo; Mizuno, Shiro; Kadowaki, Maiko; Shiozaki, Kohei; Akai, Masaya; Nakagawa, Ken; Oikawa, Taku; Iguchi, Masaharu; Osanai, Kazuhiro; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Voelkel, Norbert F; Toga, Hirohisa

    2016-10-27

    Cigarette smoke induced oxidative stress has been shown to reduce silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) levels in lung tissue from smokers and patients with COPD patients. Sirt1 is known to inhibit endothelial senescence and may play a protective role in vascular cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized into circulation under various pathophysiological conditions, and are thought to play an important role in tissue repair in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Therefore, Sirt1 and EPC-associated mRNAs were measured in blood samples from patients with COPD and from cultured CD34(+) progenitor cells to examine whether these genes are associated with COPD development. This study included 358 patients with a smoking history of more than 10 pack-years. RNA was extracted from blood samples and from CD34(+) progenitor cells treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE), followed by assessment of CD31, CD34, Sirt1 mRNA, miR-34a, and miR-126-3p expression by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD31, CD34, Sirt1 mRNAs, and miR-126-3p decreased and that of miR-34a increased in moderate COPD compared with that in control smokers. However, no significant differences in these genes were observed in blood cells from patients with severe COPD compared with those in control smokers. CSE significantly decreased Sirt1 and increased miR-34a expression in cultured progenitor cells. Sirt1 expression in blood cells from patients with COPD could be a biomarker for disease stability in patients with moderate COPD. MiR-34a may participate in apoptosis and/or senescence of EPCs in smokers. Decreased expression of CD31, CD34, and miR-126-3p potentially represents decreased numbers of EPCs in blood cell from patients with COPD.

  6. The relation of expression recognition and affective experience in facial expression processing: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guangheng; Lu, Shenglan

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship of expression recognition and affective experience during facial expression processing by event-related potentials (ERP). Facial expressions used in the present study can be divided into three categories: positive (happy), neutral (neutral), and negative (angry). Participants were asked to finish two kinds of facial recognition tasks: one was easy, and the other was difficult. In the easy task, significant main effects were found for different valence conditions, meaning that emotions were evoked effectively when participants recognized the expressions in facial expression processing. However, no difference was found in the difficult task, meaning that even if participants had identified the expressions correctly, no relevant emotion was evoked during the process. The findings suggest that emotional experience was not simultaneous with expression identification in facial expression processing, and the affective experience process could be suppressed in challenging cognitive tasks. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the level of cognitive load when using facial expressions as emotion-eliciting materials in emotion studies; otherwise, the emotion may not be evoked effectively. PMID:22110330

  7. Microarray characterization of gene expression changes in blood during acute ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of the civil aviation safety program to define the adverse effects of ethanol on flying performance, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human whole blood samples from a five-time point study of subjects administered ethanol orally, followed by breathalyzer analysis, to monitor blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to discover significant gene expression changes in response to the ethanol exposure. Methods Subjects were administered either orange juice or orange juice with ethanol. Blood samples were taken based on BAC and total RNA was isolated from PaxGene™ blood tubes. The amplified cDNA was used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses to evaluate differential gene expression. Microarray data was analyzed in a pipeline fashion to summarize and normalize and the results evaluated for relative expression across time points with multiple methods. Candidate genes showing distinctive expression patterns in response to ethanol were clustered by pattern and further analyzed for related function, pathway membership and common transcription factor binding within and across clusters. RT-qPCR was used with representative genes to confirm relative transcript levels across time to those detected in microarrays. Results Microarray analysis of samples representing 0%, 0.04%, 0.08%, return to 0.04%, and 0.02% wt/vol BAC showed that changes in gene expression could be detected across the time course. The expression changes were verified by qRT-PCR. The candidate genes of interest (GOI) identified from the microarray analysis and clustered by expression pattern across the five BAC points showed seven coordinately expressed groups. Analysis showed function-based networks, shared transcription factor binding sites and signaling pathways for members of the clusters. These include hematological functions, innate immunity and inflammation functions, metabolic functions expected of ethanol metabolism, and pancreatic

  8. DDE and PCB 153 independently induce aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Salgado-Bustamante, Mariana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Hernandez-Castro, Berenice; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that compounds inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance AhR expression. The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to determine if two pro-inflammatory compounds, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexa-chlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), independently affect AhR gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and (2) if affected, to determine whether the mechanism involved was due to AhR activation or to a pro-inflammatory effect of the chemicals. PBMC isolated from healthy individuals were incubated in the presence of DDE (10 µg/ml) and PCB 153 (20 ng/ml) over time and AhR and CYP1A1 expression was assessed with a real-time PCR technique. The results indicated there was over-expression of the AhR mRNA in PBMC when the cells were treated with DDE and PCB 153. No changes in expression levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were found. Importantly, when the cells were exposed to DDE and PCB 153 in the presence of an antagonist of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the over-expression of AhR was abolished; as expected, the expression of CYP1A1 was unaffected. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated for the first time an increment of AhR expression "in vitro" in PBMC treated with two pro-inflammatory environmental pollutants, DDE and PCB153. Moreover, the over-expression of AhR was dependent of TNFα induced by DDE and PCB 153 and was independent of AhR activation.

  9. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  10. GAD1 Gene Expression in Blood of Patients with First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Jie Yin; Nurjono, Milawaty; Teo, Stephanie Ruth; Lee, Tih-Shih; Lee, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, has often been studied in relation to its role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), derived from two genes, GAD1 and GAD2. GAD1 is expressed as both GAD67 and GAD25 mRNA transcripts with the former reported to have a lower expression level in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and latter was reported to be predominantly expressed fetally, suggesting a role in developmental process. In this study, GAD67 and GAD25 mRNA levels were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in peripheral blood of subjects with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and from healthy controls. We observed low GAD25 and GAD67 gene expression levels in human peripheral blood. There was no difference in GAD25 and GAD67 gene expression level, and GAD25/GAD67 ratio between patients with FEP and healthy controls. PANSS negative symptoms were associated with levels of GAD25 mRNA transcripts in patients with FEP. While the current study provides information on GAD25 and GAD67 mRNA transcript levels in whole blood of FEP patients, further correlation and validation work between brain regions, cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood expression profiling are required to provide a better understanding of GAD25 and GAD67. PMID:28122016

  11. Modeling a linkage between blood transcriptional expression and activity in brain regions to infer the phenotype of schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, El Chérif; Guillemot, Vincent; Comte, Magali; Tenenhaus, Arthur; Zendjidjian, Xavier Yves; Cancel, Aida; Belzeaux, Raoul; Sauvanaud, Florence; Blin, Olivier; Frouin, Vincent; Fakra, Eric

    2017-09-07

    Hundreds of genetic loci participate to schizophrenia liability. It is also known that impaired cerebral connectivity is directly related to the cognitive and affective disturbances in schizophrenia. How genetic susceptibility and brain neural networks interact to specify a pathological phenotype in schizophrenia remains elusive. Imaging genetics, highlighting brain variations, has proven effective to establish links between vulnerability loci and associated clinical traits. As previous imaging genetics works in schizophrenia have essentially focused on structural DNA variants, these findings could be blurred by epigenetic mechanisms taking place during gene expression. We explored the meaningful links between genetic data from peripheral blood tissues on one hand, and regional brain reactivity to emotion task assayed by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging on the other hand, in schizophrenia patients and matched healthy volunteers. We applied Sparse Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis to identify joint signals between two blocks of variables: (i) the transcriptional expression of 33 candidate genes, and (ii) the blood oxygen level-dependent activity in 16 region of interest. Results suggested that peripheral transcriptional expression is related to brain imaging variations through a sequential pathway, ending with the schizophrenia phenotype. Generalization of such an approach to larger data sets should thus help in outlining the pathways involved in psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. SEARCHING FOR LINKS TO AID DIAGNOSIS: Researchers explore links between the expression of genes associated with schizophrenia in blood cells and variations in brain activity during emotion processing. El Chérif Ibrahim and Eric Fakra at Aix-Marseille Université, France, and colleagues have developed a method to relate the expression levels of 33 schizophrenia susceptibility genes in blood cells and functional magnetic resonance imaging

  12. The Change of Expression Configuration Affects Identity-Dependent Expression Aftereffect but Not Identity-Independent Expression Aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Song, Miao; Shinomori, Keizo; Qian, Qian; Yin, Jun; Zeng, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of expression configuration on cross-identity expression aftereffect. The expression configuration refers to the spatial arrangement of facial features in a face for conveying an emotion, e.g., an open-mouth smile vs. a closed-mouth smile. In the first of two experiments, the expression aftereffect is measured using a cross-identity/cross-expression configuration factorial design. The facial identities of test faces were the same or different from the adaptor, while orthogonally, the expression configurations of those facial identities were also the same or different. The results show that the change of expression configuration impaired the expression aftereffect when the facial identities of adaptor and tests were the same; however, the impairment effect disappears when facial identities were different, indicating the identity-independent expression representation is more robust to the change of the expression configuration in comparison with the identity-dependent expression representation. In the second experiment, we used schematic line faces as adaptors and real faces as tests to minimize the similarity between the adaptor and tests, which is expected to exclude the contribution from the identity-dependent expression representation to expression aftereffect. The second experiment yields a similar result as the identity-independent expression aftereffect observed in Experiment 1. The findings indicate the different neural sensitivities to expression configuration for identity-dependent and identity-independent expression systems.

  13. Gene expression alterations related to mania and psychosis in peripheral blood of patients with a first episode of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gouvea, E S; Ota, V K; Noto, C; Santoro, M L; Spindola, L M; Moretti, P N; Carvalho, C M; Xavier, G; Rios, A C; Sato, J R; Hayashi, M A F; Brietzke, E; Gadelha, A; Bressan, R A; Cordeiro, Q; Belangero, S I

    2016-01-01

    Psychotic disorders affect ~3% of the general population and are among the most severe forms of mental diseases. In early stages of psychosis, clinical aspects may be difficult to distinguish from one another. Undifferentiated psychopathology at the first-episode of psychosis (FEP) highlights the need for biomarkers that can improve and refine differential diagnosis. We investigated gene expression differences between patients with FEP–schizophrenia spectrum (SCZ; N=53) or FEP–Mania (BD; N=16) and healthy controls (N=73). We also verified whether gene expression was correlated to severity of psychotic, manic, depressive symptoms and/or functional impairment. All participants were antipsychotic-naive. After the psychiatric interview, blood samples were collected and the expression of 12 psychotic-disorder-related genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR. AKT1 and DICER1 expression levels were higher in BD patients compared with that in SCZ patients and healthy controls, suggesting that expression of these genes is associated more specifically to manic features. Furthermore, MBP and NDEL1 expression levels were higher in SCZ and BD patients than in healthy controls, indicating that these genes are psychosis related (independent of diagnosis). No correlation was found between gene expression and severity of symptoms or functional impairment. Our findings suggest that genes related to neurodevelopment are altered in psychotic disorders, and some might support the differential diagnosis between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with a potential impact on the treatment of these disorders. PMID:27701407

  14. Expressions of irisin and urotensin II and their relationships with blood pressure in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Xie, Qian; Tang, Chao-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are to observe irisin and urotensin II (UII) levels in serum and placenta in normal pregnant and preeclamptic women and investigate the relationship between expressions irisin and UII, and their association with blood pressure. A total of 67 pregnant subjects were recruited, including 31 healthy and 36 preeclamptic pregnant women. Serum irisin and UII concentrations were measured. Expressions of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) (irisin precursor) and UII in placenta specimens were performed. There was no significant difference of serum irisin levels between severe preeclamptic (SPE)) patients, mild preeclamptic (MPE) patients and normal controls, while serum UII was significantly higher in preeclamptic women than normal pregnancy. There was no relationship between serum UII and irisin levels. In patients with preeclampsia, serum irisin was negatively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure(r = -0.350, P = 0.004, r = -0.307, P = 0.011), while serum UII was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.291, P = 0.031). Serum irisin, UII, urinary protein level, BMI and serum creatinine were the independent determinants of blood pressure in preeclampsia by multiple regression analysis. Protein expression of FNDC5 and UII was upregulated in placenta of patients with SPE and positively correlated with systolic blood pressure and urinary protein level. We firstly verify that serum irisin and placental irisin precursor expressions have differently correlated with blood pressure. Expressions of irisin and urotensin II have relationships with blood pressure in patients with preeclampsia.

  15. Peripheral Blood Gene Expression as a Novel Genomic Biomarker in Complicated Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweiss, Nadera J.; Chen, Edward S.; Moller, David R.; Knox, Kenneth S.; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Wade, Michael S.; Noth, Imre; Machado, Roberto F.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous syndrome invariably affecting the lung, typically spontaneously remits but in ∼20% of cases progresses with severe lung dysfunction or cardiac and neurologic involvement (complicated sarcoidosis). Unfortunately, current biomarkers fail to distinguish patients with remitting (uncomplicated) sarcoidosis from other fibrotic lung disorders, and fail to identify individuals at risk for complicated sarcoidosis. We utilized genome-wide peripheral blood gene expression analysis to identify a 20-gene sarcoidosis biomarker signature distinguishing sarcoidosis (n = 39) from healthy controls (n = 35, 86% classification accuracy) and which served as a molecular signature for complicated sarcoidosis (n = 17). As aberrancies in T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, JAK-STAT (JS) signaling, and cytokine-cytokine receptor (CCR) signaling are implicated in sarcoidosis pathogenesis, a 31-gene signature comprised of T cell signaling pathway genes associated with sarcoidosis (TCR/JS/CCR) was compared to the unbiased 20-gene biomarker signature but proved inferior in prediction accuracy in distinguishing complicated from uncomplicated sarcoidosis. Additional validation strategies included significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in signature genes with sarcoidosis susceptibility and severity (unbiased signature genes - CX3CR1, FKBP1A, NOG, RBM12B, SENS3, TSHZ2; T cell/JAK-STAT pathway genes such as AKT3, CBLB, DLG1, IFNG, IL2RA, IL7R, ITK, JUN, MALT1, NFATC2, PLCG1, SPRED1). In summary, this validated peripheral blood molecular gene signature appears to be a valuable biomarker in identifying cases with sarcoidoisis and predicting risk for complicated sarcoidosis. PMID:22984568

  16. Recipient inflammation affects the frequency and magnitude of immunization to transfused red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Desmarets, Maxime; Deshpande, Seema S; Chadwick, Traci E; Hillyer, Christopher D; Roback, John D; Zimring, James C

    2006-09-01

    Most alloantigens on transfused red blood cells (RBCs) are weakly immunogenic, with only a 2 to 6 percent overall immunization rate even in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Although recipient genetics may contribute to responder and/or nonresponder status, in most cases HLA type does not predict humoral response to RBC antigens. In contrast, rates of alloimmunization do correspond to the underlying disease status of transfusion recipients, suggesting that acquired host factors may play an important role. In this context, it was hypothesized that the inflammatory status of a transfusion recipient would influence immunization to transfused RBCs. A novel murine model for alloimmunization to RBC antigens was developed with the mHEL mouse, which expresses hen egg lysozyme (HEL) as a model blood group antigen. Leukoreduced mHEL RBCs were transfused into wild-type recipient mice, and anti-HEL responses were monitored. To test the stated hypothesis, some recipient animals were injected with polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a synthetic double-stranded RNA molecule that induces viral-like inflammation. Similar to the immunogenicity of most RBC antigens in humans, transfusion of mHEL RBCs into uninflamed mice was only a weak immunogen. In contrast, poly(I:C)-treated mice had a significant increase in both the frequency and the magnitude of alloimmunization to the mHEL antigen. These findings demonstrate that recipient inflammation with poly(I:C) significantly enhances humoral immunization to transfused alloantigens in a murine model. Moreover, these data suggest that the inflammatory status of human transfusion recipients may regulate the immunogenicity of transfused RBCs.

  17. Effect of tissue fixatives on the immunohistochemical expression of ABH blood group isoantigens.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sumita; Ololade, Omiyosoye; Adegboyega, Patrick A

    2002-09-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of ABH blood group isoantigens has been shown to be a useful ancillary technique for resolving problems associated with specimen mix-ups in the daily practice of surgical pathology. However, the effects of different fixatives on the expression of these antigens in paraffin-embedded tissues are not known. Therefore, the effects of seven different fixatives on the immunohistochemical expression of ABH blood group isoantigens were studied in tissues from several organs. The following fixatives were used: acetone, 70% ethanol, B5, Bouin, Carnoy, methanol, and 10% formalin. After fixation for 6, 12, and 72 hours, the tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin, and immunohistochemistry was performed on 4 microm-thick tissue sections using monoclonal antibodies to blood group isoantigens (A, B, and H) and the avidin-biotin detection method. Also, immunostaining was performed on step tissue sections with and without antigen retrieval using citrate buffer at pH 6.0. The expression of the blood group isoantigens was concordant with the blood group of the patient in all the cases studied, irrespective of the fixative and time of fixation. However, in the absence of antigen retrieval, the intensity of the staining reaction was diminished. These results showed that irrespective of the fixative used, immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tissue sections with ABH blood group antibodies is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for sorting out interpretative problems of tissue contaminants (floaters) and specimen mix-ups in surgical pathology.

  18. The effects of exposure to dynamic expressions of affect on 5-month-olds' memory.

    PubMed

    Flom, Ross; Janis, Rebecca B; Garcia, Darren J; Kirwan, C Brock

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of adults' communicated affect on 5-month-olds' visual recognition memory. Five-month-olds were exposed to a dynamic and bimodal happy, angry, or neutral affective (face-voice) expression while familiarized to a novel geometric image. After familiarization to the geometric image and exposure to the affective expression, 5-month-olds received either a 5-min or 1-day retention interval. Following the 5-min retention interval, infants exposed to the happy affective expressions showed a reliable preference for a novel geometric image compared to the recently familiarized image. Infants exposed to the neutral or angry affective expression failed to show a reliable preference following a 5-min delay. Following the 1-day retention interval, however, infants exposed to the neutral expression showed a reliable preference for the novel geometric image. These results are the first to demonstrate that 5-month-olds' visual recognition memory is affected by the presentation of affective information at the time of encoding.

  19. Blood cell count in antipsychotic-naive patients with non-affective psychosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Casanovas, Marta; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Oliveira, Cristina; Meseguer, Ana; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Bioque, Miquel; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Bernardo, Miquel

    2017-08-08

    Schizophrenia is a complex medical entity with a reduced life expectancy, mostly due to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases compared to the general population. An unbalanced immune response and a pro-inflammatory state might underlie this process. In treated patients, abnormal white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte and neutrophil count suggests atypical immune response related to clinical variables. We aimed to test the hypothesis that newly diagnosed naïve patients with non-affective psychosis would show abnormal blood cell count values after controlling for potential confounding factors compared to matched controls. Seventy-five patients were compared with 80 controls matched for age, gender, body mass index and smoking. Analyses were conducted before and after controlling for smoking. Patients and controls displayed similar mean values (×10(3) /μL [SD]) for WBC count 7.02 [2.2] vs 6.50 [1.7] (P = .159), neutrophil count 4.25 [1.8] vs 3.84 [1.3] (P = .110) and monocyte count 0.43 [0.2] vs 0.40 [0.1] (P = .326). After controlling for smoking, 38 non-smoking patients showed a higher WBC and neutrophil count compared with 49 matched controls. Respective means of 7.01 [2.2] vs 5.97 [1.4] (P = .011) for WBC and 4.24 [1.9] vs 3.51 [1.2] (P = .028) for neutrophil count. Monocyte count showed an increased mean value 0.43 [0.2] vs 0.36 [0.1] with a trend towards signification (P = .063). These results suggest that abnormal immune response is present before the effects of medication and other confounders had taken place. Increased immune parameters might underlie the high ratio of medical co-morbidities described in schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-01-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. PMID:24948155

  1. Altered gene expression in blood and sputum in COPD frequent exacerbators in the ECLIPSE cohort.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dave; Fox, Steven M; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Bates, Stewart; Riley, John H; Celli, Bartolome

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are defined as frequent exacerbators suffer with 2 or more exacerbations every year. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype are poorly understood. We investigated gene expression profile patterns associated with frequent exacerbations in sputum and blood cells in a well-characterised cohort. Samples from subjects from the ECLIPSE COPD cohort were used; sputum and blood samples from 138 subjects were used for microarray gene expression analysis, while blood samples from 438 subjects were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Using microarray, 150 genes were differentially expressed in blood (>±1.5 fold change, p≤0.01) between frequent compared to non-exacerbators. In sputum cells, only 6 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially regulated genes in blood included downregulation of those involved in lymphocyte signalling and upregulation of pro-apoptotic signalling genes. Multivariate analysis of the microarray data followed by confirmatory PCR analysis identified 3 genes that predicted frequent exacerbations; B3GNT, LAF4 and ARHGEF10. The sensitivity and specificity of these 3 genes to predict the frequent exacerbator phenotype was 88% and 33% respectively. There are alterations in systemic immune function associated with frequent exacerbations; down-regulation of lymphocyte function and a shift towards pro-apoptosis mechanisms are apparent in patients with frequent exacerbations.

  2. NF-kappaB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin suppresses osteoclastogenesis and expression of NFATc1 in mouse arthritis without affecting expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin or macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Machiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Komano, Yukiko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of NF-kappaB is known to be effective in reducing both inflammation and bone destruction in animal models of arthritis. Our previous study demonstrated that a small cell-permeable NF-kappaB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), suppresses expression of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorates mouse arthritis. It remained unclear, however, whether DHMEQ directly affects osteoclast precursor cells to suppress their differentiation to mature osteoclasts in vivo. The effect of DHMEQ on human osteoclastogenesis also remained elusive. In the present study, we therefore examined the effect of DHMEQ on osteoclastogenesis using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, and using culture systems of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and of osteoclast precursor cells from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. DHMEQ significantly suppressed formation of osteoclasts in arthritic joints, and also suppressed expression of NFATc1 along the inner surfaces of bone lacunae and the eroded bone surface, while serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not affected by the treatment. DHMEQ also did not suppress spontaneous expression of RANKL nor of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in culture of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These results suggest that DHMEQ suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vivo, through downregulation of NFATc1 expression, without significantly affecting expression of upstream molecules of the RANKL/receptor activator of NF-kappaB/osteoprotegerin cascade, at least in our experimental condition. Furthermore, in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, differentiation and activation of human osteoclasts were also suppressed by DHMEQ, suggesting the possibility of future application of NF-kappaB inhibitors to rheumatoid arthritis

  3. Facial Expression of Affect in Children with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, L.; Moss, J.; Jutley, J.; Cornish, K.; Oliver, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) have been reported to show comparatively high levels of flat and negative affect but there have been no empirical evaluations. In this study, we use an objective measure of facial expression to compare affect in CdLS with that seen in Cri du Chat syndrome (CDC) and a group of…

  4. Facial Expression of Affect in Children with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, L.; Moss, J.; Jutley, J.; Cornish, K.; Oliver, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) have been reported to show comparatively high levels of flat and negative affect but there have been no empirical evaluations. In this study, we use an objective measure of facial expression to compare affect in CdLS with that seen in Cri du Chat syndrome (CDC) and a group of…

  5. Host-Based Peripheral Blood Gene Expression Analysis for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Zachary E; Tsalik, Ephraim L; Woods, Christopher W; McClain, Micah T

    2017-02-01

    Emerging pandemic infectious threats, inappropriate antibacterial use contributing to multidrug resistance, and increased morbidity and mortality from diagnostic delays all contribute to a need for improved diagnostics in the field of infectious diseases. Historically, diagnosis of infectious diseases has relied on pathogen detection; however, a novel concept to improve diagnostics in infectious diseases relies instead on the detection of changes in patterns of gene expression in circulating white blood cells in response to infection. Alterations in peripheral blood gene expression in the infected state are robust and reproducible, yielding diagnostic and prognostic information to help facilitate patient treatment decisions.

  6. Modular Analysis of Peripheral Blood Gene Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Captures Reproducible Gene Expression Changes in TNF Responders

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Michaela; Curran, Mark; Lamberth, Sarah; Townsend, Robert; Hamilton, Jennifer D.; Chernoff, David N.; Carulli, John; Townsend, Michael; Weinblatt, Michael; Kern, Marlena; Pond, Cassandra; Lee, Annette; Gregersen, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish whether the analysis of whole blood gene expression can be useful in predicting or monitoring response to anti-TNF therapy in RA. Methods Whole blood RNA (PAXgene) was obtained at baseline and 14 weeks on three independent cohorts with a combined total of 250 patients with rheumatoid arthritis beginning anti-TNF therapy. We employed an approach to gene expression analysis that is based on gene expression “modules”. Results Good and Moderate Responders by EULAR criteria exhibited highly significant and consistent changes in multiple gene expression modules using a hyper geometric analysis after 14 weeks of therapy. Strikingly, non responders exhibited very little change in any modules, despite exposure to TNF blockade. These patterns of change were highly consistent across all three cohorts, indicating that immunological changes after TNF treatment are specific to the combination of both drug exposure and responder status. In contrast, modular patterns of gene expression did not exhibit consistent differences between responders and non-responders at baseline in the three cohorts. Conclusions These data provide evidence that using gene expression modules related to inflammatory disease may provide a valuable method for objective monitoring of the response of RA patients who are treated with TNF inhibitors. PMID:25371395

  7. Increased inspiratory resistance affects the dynamic relationship between blood pressure changes and subarachnoid space width oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Wolf, Jacek; Swierblewska, Ewa; Kunicka, Katarzyna; Mazur, Kamila; Gruszecki, Marcin; Winklewski, Pawel J.; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Bieniaszewski, Leszek; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Respiration is known to affect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement. We hypothesised that increased inspiratory resistance would affect the dynamic relationship between blood pressure (BP) changes and subarachnoid space width (SAS) oscillations. Methods Experiments were performed in a group of 20 healthy volunteers undergoing controlled intermittent Mueller Manoeuvres (the key characteristic of the procedure is that a studied person is subjected to a controlled, increased inspiratory resistance which results in marked potentiation of the intrathoracic negative pressure). BP and heart rate (HR) were measured using continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography; oxyhaemoglobin saturation with an ear-clip sensor; end-tidal CO2 with a gas analyser; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), pulsatility and resistive indices with Doppler ultrasound. Changes in SAS were recorded with a new method i.e. near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the BP and SAS oscillations coupling. Results Initiating Mueller manoeuvres evoked cardiac SAS component decline (-17.8%, P<0.001), systolic BP, diastolic BP and HR increase (+6.3%, P<0.001; 6.7%, P<0.001 and +2.3%, P<0.05, respectively). By the end of Mueller manoeuvres, cardiac SAS component and HR did not change (+2.3% and 0.0%, respectively; both not statistically significant), but systolic and diastolic BP was elevated (+12.6% and +8.9%, respectively; both P<0.001). With reference to baseline values there was an evident decrease in wavelet coherence between BP and SAS oscillations at cardiac frequency in the first half of the Mueller manoeuvres (-32.3%, P<0.05 for left hemisphere and -46.0%, P<0.01 for right hemisphere) which was followed by subsequent normalization at end of the procedure (+3.1% for left hemisphere and +23.1% for right hemisphere; both not statistically significant). Conclusions Increased inspiratory resistance is associated with

  8. Increased inspiratory resistance affects the dynamic relationship between blood pressure changes and subarachnoid space width oscillations.

    PubMed

    Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Wolf, Jacek; Swierblewska, Ewa; Kunicka, Katarzyna; Mazur, Kamila; Gruszecki, Marcin; Winklewski, Pawel J; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Bieniaszewski, Leszek; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Respiration is known to affect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement. We hypothesised that increased inspiratory resistance would affect the dynamic relationship between blood pressure (BP) changes and subarachnoid space width (SAS) oscillations. Experiments were performed in a group of 20 healthy volunteers undergoing controlled intermittent Mueller Manoeuvres (the key characteristic of the procedure is that a studied person is subjected to a controlled, increased inspiratory resistance which results in marked potentiation of the intrathoracic negative pressure). BP and heart rate (HR) were measured using continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography; oxyhaemoglobin saturation with an ear-clip sensor; end-tidal CO2 with a gas analyser; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), pulsatility and resistive indices with Doppler ultrasound. Changes in SAS were recorded with a new method i.e. near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the BP and SAS oscillations coupling. Initiating Mueller manoeuvres evoked cardiac SAS component decline (-17.8%, P<0.001), systolic BP, diastolic BP and HR increase (+6.3%, P<0.001; 6.7%, P<0.001 and +2.3%, P<0.05, respectively). By the end of Mueller manoeuvres, cardiac SAS component and HR did not change (+2.3% and 0.0%, respectively; both not statistically significant), but systolic and diastolic BP was elevated (+12.6% and +8.9%, respectively; both P<0.001). With reference to baseline values there was an evident decrease in wavelet coherence between BP and SAS oscillations at cardiac frequency in the first half of the Mueller manoeuvres (-32.3%, P<0.05 for left hemisphere and -46.0%, P<0.01 for right hemisphere) which was followed by subsequent normalization at end of the procedure (+3.1% for left hemisphere and +23.1% for right hemisphere; both not statistically significant). Increased inspiratory resistance is associated with swings in the cardiac contribution to the dynamic

  9. Gene expression profiling of blood in ruptured intracranial aneurysms: in search of biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Pera, Joanna; Korostynski, Michal; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Dzbek, Jaroslaw; Krzyszkowski, Tadeusz; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Moskala, Marek; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Slowik, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the systemic response to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RAs) are not fully understood. We investigated whether the analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood could provide clinically relevant information regarding the biologic consequences of SAH. Transcriptomics were performed using Illumina HumanHT-12v4 microarrays for 43 RA patients and 18 controls (C). Differentially expressed transcripts were analyzed for overrepresented functional groups and blood cell type-specific gene expression. The set of differentially expressed transcripts was validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent group of subjects (15 RA patients and 14 C). There were 135 differentially expressed genes (false discovery rate ⩽1%, absolute fold change ⩾1.7): the abundant levels of 78 mRNAs increased and 57 mRNAs decreased. Among RA patients, transcripts specific to T lymphocyte subpopulations were downregulated, whereas those related to monocytes and neutrophils were upregulated. Expression profiles of a set of 16 genes and lymphocyte-to-monocyte-and-neutrophil gene expression ratios distinguished RA patients from C. These results indicate that SAH from RAs strongly influences the transcription profiles of blood cells. A specific pattern of these changes suggests suppression in lymphocyte response and enhancements in monocyte and neutrophil activities. This is probably related to the immunodepression observed in SAH. PMID:23512133

  10. Expression of membrane receptor for tumour necrosis factor on human blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zola, H; Flego, L; Weedon, H

    1993-08-01

    Using a monoclonal antibody against the human p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-I) combined with a high-sensitivity immunofluorescence flow cytometric procedure, a proportion of peripheral blood lymphocytes can be shown to express TNFR-I constitutively. Approximately 50% of peripheral blood lymphocytes consisting mostly of CD4 cells and including most CD45R0-positive cells, express TNFR-I. Receptor expression is increased by a variety of activation signals. Only a minority (up to 30%) of tonsil B cells express measurable levels of TNFR-I. The tonsil B cells which express TNFR-I include both cells with a germinal centre cell phenotype and cells with the phenotype of the follicular mantle zone. Activation of B cells with anti-immunoglobulin, alone or in combination with interleukin-4 or interleukin-2, increases receptor expression, particularly in cells with the phenotype of mantle zone cells. The functional significance of constitutive expression of TNFR by blood and tissue lymphocytes is discussed.

  11. Biomarker for Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Expression of SMN in Peripheral Blood of SMA Patients and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Czech, Christian; Tang, Wakana; Bugawan, Teodorica; Mano, Calvin; Horn, Carsten; Iglesias, Victor Alejandro; Fröhner, Stefanie; Zaworski, Phillip G.; Paushkin, Sergey; Chen, Karen; Kremer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by a functional deletion of SMN1 on Chromosome 5, which leads to a progressive loss of motor function in affected patients. SMA patients have at least one copy of a similar gene, SMN2, which produces functional SMN protein, although in reduced quantities. The severity of SMA is variable, partially due to differences in SMN2 copy numbers. Here, we report the results of a biomarker study characterizing SMA patients of varying disease severity. SMN copy number, mRNA and Protein levels in whole blood of patients were measured and compared against a cohort of healthy controls. The results show differential regulation of expression of SMN2 in peripheral blood between patients and healthy subjects. PMID:26468953

  12. Comparison of gene expression profiles of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shohei; Okutani, Mie; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare gene expression patterns of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. ANIMALS 10 multiparous sows. PROCEDURES Cytotoxic and CD4-CD8 double-positive T cells were separated from porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. Total RNA was extracted. The cDNA prepared from RNA was amplified, labeled, fragmented, and competitively hybridized to DNA microarray slides. The DNA microarray data were validated by use of a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay, and expression of the genes FOS, NFKBI, IFNG, CXCR6, CCR5, ITGB2, CCR7, and SELL was assessed. Finally, DNA microarray data were validated at the protein level by use of flow cytometry via expression of c-Fos and integrin β-2. RESULTS Evaluation of gene expression profiles indicated that in contrast to results for peripheral blood, numerous cell-signaling pathways might be activated in colostrum. Profile analysis also revealed that FOS and NFKBI (genes of transcription factors) were involved in most cell-signaling pathways and that expression of these genes was significantly higher in colostral T cells than in peripheral blood T cells. Furthermore, CCR7 and SELL (genes of T-cell differentiation markers) in colostral T cells had expression patterns extremely similar to those found in effector or effector memory T cells. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE All or most of the T cells in colostrum had an effector-like phenotype and thus were more activated than those in peripheral blood. This gene expression profile would enable T cells to migrate to mammary glands, be secreted in colostrum, and likely contribute to passive immunity provided by sows to newborn pigs.

  13. The MNS glycophorin variant GP.Mur affects differential erythroid expression of Rh/RhAG transcripts.

    PubMed

    Hsu, K; Kuo, M-S; Yao, C-C; Cheng, H-C; Lin, H-J; Chan, Y-S; Lin, M

    2017-08-24

    The band 3 macrocomplex (also known as the ankyrin-associated complex) on the red cell membrane comprises two interacting subcomplexes: a band 3/glycophorin A subcomplex, and a Rh/RhAG subcomplex. Glycophorin B (GPB) is a component of the Rh/RhAG subcomplex that is also structurally associated with glycophorin A (GPA). Expression of glycophorin B-A-B hybrid GP.Mur enhances band 3 expression and is associated with lower levels of Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) and Rh polypeptides. The goal of this study was to determine whether GP.Mur influenced erythroid Rh/RhAG expression at the transcript level. GP.Mur was serologically determined in healthy participants from Taitung County, Taiwan. RNA was extracted from the reticulocyte-enriched fraction of peripheral blood, followed by reverse transcription and quantitative PCR for RhAG, RhD and RhCcEe. Quantification by real-time PCR revealed significantly fewer RhAG and RhCcEe transcripts in the reticulocytes from subjects with homozygous GYP*Mur. Independent from GYP.Mur, both RhAG and RhD transcript levels were threefold or higher than that of RhCcEe. Also, in GYP.Mur and the control samples alike, direct quantitative associations were observed between the transcript levels of RhAG and RhD, but not between that of RhAG and RhCcEe. Erythroid RhD and RhCcEe were differentially expressed at the transcript levels, which could be related to their different degrees of interaction or sensitivity to RhAG. Further, the reduction or absence of glycophorin B in GYP.Mur erythroid cells affected transcript expressions of RhAG and RhCcEe. Thus, GPB and GP.Mur differentially influenced Rh/RhAG expressions prior to protein translation. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Laparotomy in Mice Induces Blood Cell Expression of Inflammatory and Stress Genes

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Fumiko; Mobbs, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Surgical trauma induces immune and stress responses although its effects on postsurgical inflammatory and stress gene expression remain poorly characterized. This study sought to improve current scientific knowledge by investigating the effects of laparotomy on mouse blood cell inflammatory and stress gene expression. Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2% isoflurane or 2% isoflurane with laparotomy and sacrificed 4 h postintervention. Blood was collected and blood cell expression of 158 genes central to inflammatory and stress responses was assayed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays. Mice subjected to isoflurane with laparotomy, compared with mice receiving isoflurane alone, had >2-fold upregulation of genes in inflammation (Osm, IL1rn, IL1b, and Csf1), oxidative stress (Hmox1), heat shock (Hspa1b), growth arrest (Cdkn1a), and DNA repair (Ugt1a2). These genes demonstrated similar expression patterns by Pearson correlation and cluster analysis. Thus, laparotomy induces coordinated, postsurgical blood cell expression of unique inflammatory and stress genes whose roles in influencing surgical outcomes need further investigation. PMID:25406893

  15. Affect-specific activation of shared networks for perception and execution of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Tilo; Pohl, Anna; Krach, Sören; Thimm, Markus; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Anders, Silke; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown overlapping neural activations for observation and execution or imitation of emotional facial expressions. These shared representations have been assumed to provide indirect evidence for a human mirror neuron system, which is suggested to be a prerequisite of action comprehension. We aimed at clarifying whether shared representations in and beyond human mirror areas are specifically activated by affective facial expressions or whether they are activated by facial expressions independent of the emotional meaning. During neuroimaging, participants observed and executed happy and non-emotional facial expressions. Shared representations were revealed for happy facial expressions in the pars opercularis, the precentral gyrus, in the superior temporal gyrus/medial temporal gyrus (MTG), in the pre-supplementary motor area and in the right amygdala. All areas showed less pronounced activation in the non-emotional condition. When directly compared, significant stronger neural responses emerged for happy facial expressions in the pre-supplementary motor area and in the MTG than for non-emotional stimuli. We assume that activation of shared representations depends on the affect and (social) relevance of the facial expression. The pre-supplementary motor area is a core-shared representation-structure supporting observation and execution of affective contagious facial expressions and might have a modulatory role during the preparation of executing happy facial expressions.

  16. Affect-specific activation of shared networks for perception and execution of facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Tilo; Krach, Sören; Thimm, Markus; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Anders, Silke; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown overlapping neural activations for observation and execution or imitation of emotional facial expressions. These shared representations have been assumed to provide indirect evidence for a human mirror neuron system, which is suggested to be a prerequisite of action comprehension. We aimed at clarifying whether shared representations in and beyond human mirror areas are specifically activated by affective facial expressions or whether they are activated by facial expressions independent of the emotional meaning. During neuroimaging, participants observed and executed happy and non-emotional facial expressions. Shared representations were revealed for happy facial expressions in the pars opercularis, the precentral gyrus, in the superior temporal gyrus/medial temporal gyrus (MTG), in the pre-supplementary motor area and in the right amygdala. All areas showed less pronounced activation in the non-emotional condition. When directly compared, significant stronger neural responses emerged for happy facial expressions in the pre-supplementary motor area and in the MTG than for non-emotional stimuli. We assume that activation of shared representations depends on the affect and (social) relevance of the facial expression. The pre-supplementary motor area is a core-shared representation-structure supporting observation and execution of affective contagious facial expressions and might have a modulatory role during the preparation of executing happy facial expressions. PMID:22275167

  17. In vitro anticholinergic drugs affect CD8+ peripheral blood T-cells apoptosis in COPD.

    PubMed

    Profita, Mirella; Riccobono, Loredana; Montalbano, Angela Marina; Bonanno, Anna; Ferraro, Maria; Albano, Giusy Daniela; Gerbino, Stefania; Casarosa, Paola; Pieper, Michael Paul; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Novel pharmacological strategies are aimed at the resolution of systemic inflammation in COPD potentiating peripheral blood T-cell (PBT-cell) apoptosis. Although muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) M(3) and choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) participate in the airway inflammation of COPD, their role in PBT-cell apoptosis remains unexplained. We evaluated in PBT-cells from COPD patients, smoker (S) and control (C) subjects: (1) apoptosis (by annexin V binding), (2) mAChR M(3) and ChAT expression, acetylcholine (ACh)-binding; (3) choline levels in serum and PBT-cells extracts. We tested the effects of Tiotropium (Spiriva(®)) and hemicholinium-3 (HCh-3) on apoptosis, NFκB pathway, caspases 3 and 8 activity and choline levels, in PBT-cells from COPD patients. We showed that: (1) apoptosis, mAChR M(3) and ChAT expression and the CD3+ and CD8+ ACh-binding are increased in PBT-cells from COPD patients when compared to C subjects, while CD4+/CD8+ ratio of ACh-binding to PBT cells was reduced in COPD; (2) choline levels are higher in serum and PBT-cells extracts from COPD patients than in S and C; (3) Tiotropium and HCh-3 reduced CD4+ and increased CD8+ apoptosis via caspases 3 and 8 activities and via IκB mediated mechanisms in COPD patients. This study suggests the involvement of non-neuronal components of cholinergic system in the regulation of PBT-cell apoptosis in COPD and demonstrates that Tiotropium regulates CD4+ and CD8+ PBT-cell apoptosis. It provides novel putative pharmacological targets for the resolution of systemic inflammation in COPD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned.

  19. MicroRNA-155 negatively affects blood-brain barrier function during neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel Alejandro; Wu, Dongsheng; Pryce, Gareth; Simpson, Julie E; Reijerkerk, Arie; King-Robson, Josh; Kay, Oliver; de Vries, Helga E; Hirst, Mark C; Sharrack, Basil; Baker, David; Male, David Kingsley; Michael, Gregory J; Romero, Ignacio Andres

    2014-06-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a hallmark of neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neurovascular dysfunction during BBB breakdown remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of pathogenic responses, although their role in central nervous system (CNS) microvascular disorders is largely unknown. We have identified miR-155 as a critical miRNA in neuroinflammation at the BBB. miR-155 is expressed at the neurovascular unit of individuals with MS and of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In mice, loss of miR-155 reduced CNS extravasation of systemic tracers, both in EAE and in an acute systemic inflammation model induced by lipopolysaccharide. In cultured human brain endothelium, miR-155 was strongly and rapidly upregulated by inflammatory cytokines. miR-155 up-regulation mimicked cytokine-induced alterations in junctional organization and permeability, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-155 partially prevented a cytokine-induced increase in permeability. Furthermore, miR-155 modulated brain endothelial barrier function by targeting not only cell-cell complex molecules such as annexin-2 and claudin-1, but also focal adhesion components such as DOCK-1 and syntenin-1. We propose that brain endothelial miR-155 is a negative regulator of BBB function that may constitute a novel therapeutic target for CNS neuroinflammatory disorders. © FASEB.

  20. HLA-G Expression on Blasts and Tolerogenic Cells in Patients Affected by Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tomasoni, Daniela; Ciceri, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) contributes to cancer cell immune escape from host antitumor responses. The clinical relevance of HLA-G in several malignancies has been reported. However, the role of HLA-G expression and functions in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is still controversial. Our group identified a subset of tolerogenic dendritic cells, DC-10 that express HLA-G and secrete IL-10. DC-10 are present in the peripheral blood and are essential in promoting and maintaining tolerance via the induction of adaptive T regulatory (Treg) cells. We investigated HLA-G expression on blasts and the presence of HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of AML patients at diagnosis. Moreover, we explored the possible influence of the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of HLA-G, which has been associated with HLA-G expression, on AML susceptibility. Results showed that HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells are highly represented in AML patients with HLA-G positive blasts. None of the HLA-G variation sites evaluated was associated with AML susceptibility. This is the first report describing HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4+ T cells in AML patients, suggesting that they may represent a strategy by which leukemic cells escape the host's immune system. Further studies on larger populations are required to verify our findings. PMID:24741612

  1. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone affect the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to mycobacterial antigens during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mahuad, C; Bay, M L; Farroni, M A; Bozza, V; Del Rey, A; Besedovsky, H; Bottasso, O A

    2004-12-01

    The effect of cortisol and/or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the immune response to antigens obtained from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients at various stages of lung tuberculosis (TB) and from healthy control people (HCo). The results obtained show for the first time that addition of cortisol within concentrations of physiological range can inhibit the mycobacterial antigen-driven proliferation of cells from HCo and TB patients and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), indicating that endogenous levels of cortisol may contribute to the decreased lymphoid cell response to mycobacterium antigens observed in TB patients. DHEA did not affect lymphoid cell proliferation, IFN-gamma production and the cortisol-mediated inhibitory effects. Interestingly, we found that DHEA, but not cortisol, suppressed the in vitro transforming growth factor-beta production by lymphoid cells from TB patients with an advanced disease, which is indicative of a selective direct effect of this hormone.

  2. Systematic Functional Dissection of Common Genetic Variation Affecting Red Blood Cell Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Nandakumar, Satish K.; Wang, Li; Giani, Felix C.; Zhang, Xiaolan; Rogov, Peter; Melnikov, Alexandre; McDonel, Patrick; Do, Ron; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of associations between common genetic variants and human disease phenotypes, but the majority of these variants are non-coding, often requiring genetic fine-mapping, epigenomic profiling, and individual reporter assays to delineate potential causal variants. We employ a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to simultaneous screen 2756 variants in strong linkage-disequilibrium with 75 sentinel variants associated with red blood cell traits. We show that this assay identifies elements with endogenous erythroid regulatory activity. Across 23 sentinel variants, we conservatively identified 32 MPRA functional variants (MFVs). We demonstrate endogenous enhancer activity across 3 MFVs that predominantly affect the transcription of SMIM1, RBM38, and CD164 using targeted genome editing. Functional follow up of RBM38 delineates a key role for this gene in the alternative splicing program occurring during terminal erythropoiesis. Finally, we provide evidence for how common GWAS-nominated variants can disrupt cell-type specific transcriptional regulatory pathways. PMID:27259154

  3. Systematic Functional Dissection of Common Genetic Variation Affecting Red Blood Cell Traits.

    PubMed

    Ulirsch, Jacob C; Nandakumar, Satish K; Wang, Li; Giani, Felix C; Zhang, Xiaolan; Rogov, Peter; Melnikov, Alexandre; McDonel, Patrick; Do, Ron; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-06-02

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of associations between common genetic variants and human disease phenotypes, but the majority of these variants are non-coding, often requiring genetic fine-mapping, epigenomic profiling, and individual reporter assays to delineate potential causal variants. We employ a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to simultaneously screen 2,756 variants in strong linkage disequilibrium with 75 sentinel variants associated with red blood cell traits. We show that this assay identifies elements with endogenous erythroid regulatory activity. Across 23 sentinel variants, we conservatively identified 32 MPRA functional variants (MFVs). We used targeted genome editing to demonstrate endogenous enhancer activity across 3 MFVs that predominantly affect the transcription of SMIM1, RBM38, and CD164. Functional follow-up of RBM38 delineates a key role for this gene in the alternative splicing program occurring during terminal erythropoiesis. Finally, we provide evidence for how common GWAS-nominated variants can disrupt cell-type-specific transcriptional regulatory pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Migratory behavior of birds affects their coevolutionary relationship with blood parasites.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Tania; Thomas, Gavin H; Hellgren, Olof; Owens, Ian P F

    2012-03-01

    Host traits, such as migratory behavior, could facilitate the dispersal of disease-causing parasites, potentially leading to the transfer of infections both across geographic areas and between host species. There is, however, little quantitative information on whether variation in such host attributes does indeed affect the evolutionary outcome of host-parasite associations. Here, we employ Leucocytozoon blood parasites of birds, a group of parasites closely related to avian malaria, to study host-parasite coevolution in relation to host behavior using a phylogenetic comparative approach. We reconstruct the molecular phylogenies of both the hosts and parasites and use cophylogenetic tools to assess whether each host-parasite association contributes significantly to the overall congruence between the two phylogenies. We find evidence for a significant fit between host and parasite phylogenies in this system, but show that this is due only to associations between nonmigrant parasites and their hosts. We also show that migrant bird species harbor a greater genetic diversity of parasites compared with nonmigrant species. Taken together, these results suggest that the migratory habits of birds could influence their coevolutionary relationship with their parasites, and that consideration of host traits is important in predicting the outcome of coevolutionary interactions.

  5. Impact of negative affectivity and trait forgiveness on aortic blood pressure and coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; May, Ross W; Koutnik, Andrew P; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that negative affectivity (NA) may have a direct adverse effect on coronary circulation, whereas forgiveness may provide cardioprotection. This study examined whether NA and forgiveness were independently related to aortic hemodynamics and the subendocardial viability index (SVI), a marker of coronary perfusion. A sample of 131 adults (M = 21.11 years, SD = 2.52) were evaluated for NA (depression, anxiety, and anger symptoms) and forgiveness (Tendency to Forgive Scale; TTF). Aortic hemodynamic parameters via applanation tonometry were assessed at rest and during sympathostimulation (cold pressor test; CPT). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of resting values showed that NA was related to higher aortic blood pressure (ABP) and lower SVI. After controlling for demographics and for NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with decreased ABP, but increased SVI. CPT changes from baseline indicated that, after controlling for demographics and NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with SVI. Results indicate that NA significantly predicts ABP and decreased SVI. Conversely, forgiveness seems to provide cardioprotection by evoking decreased ABP while improving SVI. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. mRNA Blood Expression Patterns In New Onset Idiopathic Pediatric Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Hansel M; Horn, Paul S; Holland, Katherine; Collins, James; Hershey, Andrew D; Glauser, Tracy A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Determine if blood mRNA expression patterns in children with newly diagnosed untreated idiopathic epilepsy are different than those in healthy controls. Determine the differential expression patterns between epilepsy subjects with generalized onset or partial onset seizures compared to healthy controls. Methods Whole blood was obtained from otherwise healthy pediatric subjects with newly diagnosed untreated idiopathic epilepsy along with healthy pediatric controls. mRNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix HGU 133 2.0+ microarrays. Analysis was performed using Genespring. Differentially expressed gene lists resulted from comparison of i) epilepsy and control groups and ii) seizure type subgroups with controls.. Tissue expression and gene ontology analysis was performed using DAVID. Key findings Thirty-seven epilepsy patients and 28 controls were included. Overall, 575 genes were differentially expressed in subjects with epilepsy compared to controls. The generalized seizure subgroup versus control (GvC) gene list and the partial seizure subgroup versus control (PvC) gene list were different (p < 0.05). Tissue expression analysis identified almost half of the genes in GvC and PvC as brain based. Functional group analysis identified several biologically relevant pathways. In GvC, these included mitochondria and lymphocyte activation. In PvC, apoptosis, inflammatory defense and cell motion pathways were identified. Significance A unique, biologically meaningful mRNA expression pattern is detectable in whole blood of pediatric subjects with new onset and untreated epilepsy. This analysis finds many similar pathways to those identified in brain studies examining lesional intractable epilepsy. Blood mRNA expression patterns show promise as a target for biomarker development in pediatric epilepsy. PMID:23167847

  7. Reversible Demyelination, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown, and Pronounced Neutrophil Recruitment Induced by Chronic IL-1 Expression in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Carina C.; Depino, Amaicha M.; Prada, Federico; Muraro, Nara; Campbell, Sandra; Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Perry, V. Hugh; Anthony, Daniel C.; Pitossi, Fernando J.

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1) expression is associated with a spectrum of neuroinflammatory processes related to chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The single-bolus microinjection of IL-1 into the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma gives rise to delayed and localized neutrophil recruitment, transient blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, but no overt damage to CNS integrity. However, acute microinjections of IL-1 do not mimic the chronic IL-1 expression, which is a feature of many CNS diseases. To investigate the response of the CNS to chronic IL-1 expression, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing IL-1 into the striatum. At the peak of IL-1 expression (days 8 and 14 post-injection), there was a marked recruitment of neutrophils, vasodilatation, and breakdown of the BBB. Microglia and astrocyte activation was evident during the first 14 days post-injection. At days 8 and 14, extensive demyelination was observed but the number of neurons was not affected by any treatment. Finally, at 30 days, signs of inflammation were no longer present, there was evidence of tissue reorganization, the BBB was intact, and the process of remyelination was noticeable. In summary, our data show that chronic expression of IL-1, in contrast to its acute delivery, can reversibly damage CNS integrity and implicates this cytokine or downstream components as major mediators of demyelination in chronic inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. PMID:15509551

  8. Blood vessels expressing CD90 in human and rat brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Akihiro; Tanaka, Junya; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Kohno, Shohei; Ohue, Shiro; Umakoshi, Akihiro; Gotoh, Katsuhiro; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2016-04-01

    Blood vessels in brain tumors, particularly glioblastomas, have been shown to express CD90. CD90(+) cells in and around blood vessels in cancers including brain tumors have been identified as endothelial cells, cancer stem cells, fibroblasts or pericytes. In this study, we aimed to determine the nature or type(s) of cells that express CD90 in human brain tumors as well as an experimental rat glioma model by double immunofluorescence staining. The majority of CD90(+) cells in human glioblastoma tissue expressed CD31, CD34 and von Willebrand factor, suggesting that they were endothelial cells. Vasculatures in a metastatic brain tumor and meningioma also expressed CD90. CD90(+) cells often formed glomeruloid structures, typical of angiogenesis in malignant tumors, not only in glioblastoma but also in metastatic tumors. Some cells in the middle and outer layers of the vasculatures expressed CD90. Similar results were obtained in the rat glioma model. There were cells expressing both α-smooth muscle actin and CD90 in the middle layer of blood vessels, indicating that smooth muscle cells and/or pericytes may express CD90. CD90(+) vasculatures were surrounded by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Thus, in addition to endothelial cells, some other types of cells, such as smooth muscle cells, pericytes and fibroblasts constituting the vasculature walls in brain tumors expressed CD90. Because CD90 has been shown to interact with integrins expressed by circulating monocytes, CD90 might be involved in angiogenesis through recruitment and functional regulation of TAMs in tumors. CD90(+) vasculatures may also interact with tumor cells through interactions with integrins. Because CD90 was not expressed by vasculatures in normal brain tissue, it might be a possible therapeutic target to suppress angiogenesis and tumor growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  9. Blood-Gene Expression Reveals Reduced Circadian Rhythmicity in Individuals Resistant to Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Arnardottir, Erna S.; Nikonova, Elena V.; Shockley, Keith R.; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A.; Anafi, Ron C.; Tanis, Keith Q.; Maislin, Greg; Stone, David J.; Renger, John J.; Winrow, Christopher J.; Pack, Allan I.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To address whether changes in gene expression in blood cells with sleep loss are different in individuals resistant and sensitive to sleep deprivation. Design: Blood draws every 4 h during a 3-day study: 24-h normal baseline, 38 h of continuous wakefulness and subsequent recovery sleep, for a total of 19 time-points per subject, with every 2-h psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) assessment when awake. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen subjects who were previously identified as behaviorally resistant (n = 7) or sensitive (n = 7) to sleep deprivation by PVT. Intervention: Thirty-eight hours of continuous wakefulness. Measurements and Results: We found 4,481 unique genes with a significant 24-h diurnal rhythm during a normal sleep-wake cycle in blood (false discovery rate [FDR] < 5%). Biological pathways were enriched for biosynthetic processes during sleep. After accounting for circadian effects, two genes (SREBF1 and CPT1A, both involved in lipid metabolism) exhibited small, but significant, linear changes in expression with the duration of sleep deprivation (FDR < 5%). The main change with sleep deprivation was a reduction in the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of expression of normally cycling probe sets. This reduction was noticeably higher in behaviorally resistant subjects than sensitive subjects, at any given P value. Furthermore, blood cell type enrichment analysis showed that the expression pattern difference between sensitive and resistant subjects is mainly found in cells of myeloid origin, such as monocytes. Conclusion: Individual differences in behavioral effects of sleep deprivation are associated with differences in diurnal amplitude of gene expression for genes that show circadian rhythmicity. Citation: Arnardottir ES, Nikonova EV, Shockley KR, Podtelezhnikov AA, Anafi RC, Tanis KQ, Maislin G, Stone DJ, Renger JJ, Winrow CJ, Pack AI. Blood-gene expression reveals reduced circadian rhythmicity in individuals resistant to

  10. Blood group ABO and Lewis antigens in bladder tumors: correlation between glycosyltransferase activity and antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Orntoft, T F; Wolf, H

    1988-01-01

    Pronounced changes in the expression of ABO and Lewis antigens have been observed in transitional cell carcinomas compared with normal urothelium. These changes are associated with changes in the activity of blood-group gene-encoded glycosyltransferases. This paper describes the correlation between blood-group antigen expression and the activity of glycosyltransferases in transitional cell carcinomas. Examined individuals were A1A2BO, Lewis, and secretor typed by the use of blood and saliva. The activity of alpha-2-, and alpha-4-L-fucosyltransferases as well as the alpha-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase were determined as p-moles of labelled sugar incorporated by Lacto-N-biose I and 2'-fucosyllactose, respectively, per 100,000 carcinoma cells. In 3 non-secretors whose erythrocytes types as Le(a+b-), the alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase activity was similar to that in 3 secretors, and the Leb antigen could be demonstrated to be present by monoclonal antibodies, both by immunohistological and immunochemical means. In 11 tumors from A individuals, the A1-transferase was severely reduced in 9 individuals who showed a loss of A antigen expression, and present in 2 individuals with A antigen expression in cytoplasmic vesicles. In conclusion, we demonstrate a good correlation between individual glycosyltransferase activity and expression of blood group Leb and loss of expression of blood group A in transitional cell carcinomas. Immunostaining of neutral glycolipids separated by TLC showed the Leb-active glycolipids to be simple hexa-saccharides in both secretors and non-secretors.

  11. Deletion of Rictor in brain and fat alters peripheral clock gene expression and increases blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Drägert, Katja; Bhattacharya, Indranil; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Seebeck, Petra; Azzi, Abdelhalim; Brown, Steven A; Georgiopoulou, Stavroula; Held, Ulrike; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Arras, Margarete; Humar, Rok; Hall, Michael N; Battegay, Edouard; Haas, Elvira

    2015-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) contains the essential protein RICTOR and is activated by growth factors. mTORC2 in adipose tissue contributes to the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. In the perivascular adipose tissue, mTORC2 ensures normal vascular reactivity by controlling expression of inflammatory molecules. To assess whether RICTOR/mTORC2 contributes to blood pressure regulation, we applied a radiotelemetry approach in control and Rictor knockout (Rictor(aP2KO)) mice generated using adipocyte protein-2 gene promoter-driven CRE recombinase expression to delete Rictor. The 24-hour mean arterial pressure was increased in Rictor(aP2KO) mice, and the physiological decline in mean arterial pressure during the dark period was impaired. In parallel, heart rate and locomotor activity were elevated during the dark period with a pattern similar to blood pressure changes. This phenotype was associated with mild cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased cardiac natriuretic peptides, and their receptor expression in adipocytes. Moreover, clock gene expression was reduced or phase-shifted in perivascular adipose tissue. No differences in clock gene expression were observed in the master clock suprachiasmatic nucleus, although Rictor gene expression was also lower in brain of Rictor(aP2KO) mice. Thus, this study highlights the importance of RICTOR/mTORC2 for interactions between vasculature, adipocytes, and brain to tune physiological outcomes, such as blood pressure and locomotor activity.

  12. Changes in winter depression phenotype correlate with white blood cell gene expression profiles: a combined metagene and gene ontology approach.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Fokko J; Terpstra, Peter; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V; Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, D A; te Meerman, Gerard; Nolen, Willem A; Schoevers, Robert A; Meesters, Ybe

    2015-04-03

    In the present study we evaluate the feasibility of gene expression in white blood cells as a peripheral marker for winter depression. Sixteen patients with winter type seasonal affective disorder were included in the study. Blood was taken by venous puncture at three time points; in winter prior and following bright light therapy and in summer. RNA was isolated, converted into cRNA, amplified and hybridized on Illumina® gene expression arrays. The raw optical array data were quantile normalized and thereafter analyzed using a metagene approach, based on previously published Affymetrix gene array data. The raw data were also subjected to a secondary analysis focusing on circadian genes and genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission. Differences between the conditions were analyzed, using analysis of variance on the principal components of the metagene score matrix. After correction for multiple testing no statistically significant differences were found. Another approach uses the correlation between metagene factor weights and the actual expression values, averaged over conditions. When comparing the correlations of winter vs. summer and bright light therapy vs. summer significant changes for several metagenes were found. Subsequent gene ontology analyses (DAVID and GeneTrail) of 5 major metagenes suggest an interaction between brain and white blood cells. The hypothesis driven analysis with a smaller group of genes failed to demonstrate any significant effects. The results from the combined metagene and gene ontology analyses support the idea of communication between brain and white blood cells. Future studies will need a much larger sample size to obtain information at the level of single genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased expression of blood mononuclear cell nitric oxide synthase type 2 in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    St Clair, E W; Wilkinson, W E; Lang, T; Sanders, L; Misukonis, M A; Gilkeson, G S; Pisetsky, D S; Granger, D I; Weinberg, J B

    1996-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important inflammatory mediator in nonhuman animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether blood mononuclear cells from patients with active RA (as compared to control subjects) have higher levels of NO synthase type 2 (NOS2) and produce more NO in vitro. Leukocytes from 25 RA patients and 20 normal subjects were examined. Arthritis activity was assessed by tender and swollen joint counts, duration of morning stiffness, patient assessment of pain, physician and patient global assessment of disease activity, the modified Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, and by blood levels of acute phase reactants. Blood mononuclear cell NOS enzyme activity/antigen content and nitrite/nitrate formation in vitro were measured. Blood mononuclear cells from RA patients had increased NOS activity and increased NOS2 antigen content as compared to those from normal subjects, and responded to interferon-gamma with increased NOS expression and nitrite/nitrate production in vitro. NOS activity of freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells correlated significantly with disease activity, as assessed by render and swollen joint counts. Our results demonstrate that patients with RA have systemic activation for NOS2 expression, and that the degree of activation correlates with disease activity. Increased NOS2 expression and NO generation may be important in the pathogenesis of RA.

  14. Timing of adding blood to prime affects inflammatory response to neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Benjamin S; Jordan, James E; Lane, Magan R; DiPasquale, Vanessa M; Graf, Lori P; Ootaki, Yoshio; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2016-07-08

    Complications from systemic inflammation are reported in neonates following exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. Although the use of asanguinous primes can reduce these complications, in neonates, this can result in significant haemodilution, requiring addition of blood. This study investigates whether the addition of blood after institution of bypass alters the inflammatory response compared with a blood prime. Neonatal swine were randomised into four groups: blood prime, blood after bypass but before cooling, blood after cooling but before low flow, and blood after re-warming. All groups were placed on central bypass, cooled, underwent low flow, and then re-warmed for a total bypass time of 2 hours. Although haematocrit values between groups varied throughout bypass, all groups ended with a similar value. Although they spent time with a lower haematocrit, asanguinous prime groups did not have elevated lactate levels at the end of bypass compared with blood prime. Asanguinous primes released less tumour necrosis factor α than blood primes (p=0.023). Asanguinous primes with blood added on bypass produced less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α (p=0.006, 0.019). Animals receiving blood while cool also showed less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α production than those that received blood warm (p=0.026, 0.033). Asanguinous primes exhibited less oedema than blood primes, with the least body weight gain noted in the end cool group (p=0.011). This study suggests that using an asanguinous prime for neonates being cooled to deep hypothermia is practical, and the later addition of blood reduces inflammation.

  15. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. Results In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Conclusions Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:22950410

  16. The in vitro culture characteristics and requirements for expression of receptors for IgM on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, M G; Golub, S H

    1980-01-01

    The in vitro culture characteristics and requirements for expression of receptors for the Fc portion of IgM (Fcmu) on peripheral blood lymphocytes was investigated. Significant numbers of Fcmu receptors cells are not detected until after 11 hr of in vitro culture. This was demonstrated not to be the result of shedding in vivo bound IgM thus unblocking the Fcmu receptors after culturing but rather an increased number of Fcmu receptors on cultures cells, presumable because of de novo synthesis. It was also shown that the Fcmu and Fc gamma receptors are not mutually exclusive in that a small population of PBL exhibit both Fcmu and Fc gamma receptors and that Fcmu negative cells may become Fcmu positive cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that fetal bovine serum and human blood group AB serum which are known to affect differentially various in vitro cell mediated functions also differentially affect Fcmu receptor expression and are capable of modulating the Fcmu receptor levels. These observations demonstrate the diverse and dynamic nature of the Fcmu receptor. PMID:7389194

  17. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (...

  18. PYGM expression analysis in white blood cells: a complementary tool for diagnosing McArdle disease?

    PubMed

    de Luna, Noemí; Brull, Astrid; Lucia, Alejandro; Santalla, Alfredo; Garatachea, Nuria; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L; Pinós, Tomàs

    2014-12-01

    McArdle disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase, resulting in exercise intolerance from childhood and acute crises of early fatigue and contractures. In severe cases, these manifestations can be accompanied by rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and fatal renal failure. Diagnosis of McArdle disease is based on clinical diagnostic tests, together with an absence of myophosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies and genetic analysis of the myophosphorylase-encoding gene, PYGM. The recently reported association between myophosphorylase and Rac1 GTPase in a T lymphocyte cell line prompted us to study myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells (WBCs) from 20 healthy donors and 30 McArdle patients by flow cytometry using a fluorescent-labeled PYGM antibody. We found that T lymphocytes expressed myophosphorylase in healthy donors, but expression was significantly lower in McArdle patients (p<0.001). PYGM mRNA levels were also lower in white blood cells from McArdle patients. Nevertheless, in 13% of patients (who were either heterozygotes or homozygotes for the most common PYGM pathogenic mutation among Caucasians (p.R50X)), the percentage of myophosphorylase-positive white blood cells was not different compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that analysis of myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells might be a useful, less-invasive, complementary test for diagnosing McArdle disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures of Infants and Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Winn, Mary; Chandler, Sharon D.; Collins, Melanie; Lopez, Linda; Weinfeld, Melanie; Carter, Cindy; Schork, Nicholas; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with…

  20. Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures of Infants and Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Winn, Mary; Chandler, Sharon D.; Collins, Melanie; Lopez, Linda; Weinfeld, Melanie; Carter, Cindy; Schork, Nicholas; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with…

  1. Expression analysis of psychological stress-associated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kyoko; Saito, Toshiro; Ohta, Masayuki; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Kawai, Kaori; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    In this study, we have developed a microarray including 1467 cDNAs that were selected to specifically measure stress response in peripheral blood leukocytes. Venous blood was collected from 10 graduate students 2 h before and 2 or 24 h after an open presentation for their Ph.D. The mRNA levels in leukocytes were compared with those prepared 4 weeks before the presentation. Hierarchical cluster showed that distinct groups of genes uniformly changed their expression values in response to the stress. Bayesian t test identified significantly up-regulated 49 genes and down-regulated 21 genes. Most of them are categorized into cytokines, cytokine receptors, growth- or apoptosis-related molecules, and heat shock proteins, suggesting that stressful life events trigger acute responses in leukocytes. Our results suggest that gene expression profile in peripheral blood leukocytes may be a potentially useful method for the assessment of complex stress responses.

  2. FOS Expression in Blood as a LDL-Independent Marker of Statin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Sung, Ho Joong; Jawed, Sarah I.; Brenneman, Cynthia L.; Rao, Yesoda N.; Sher, Salman; Facio, Flavia M.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Sachdev, Vandana; Hwang, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The expression of FOS, a gene critical for monocyte and macrophage function, can be inhibited by statins through the disruption of a cholesterol independent signaling pathway. In this pilot study, we hypothesized that blood FOS mRNA levels will be sensitive to statin treatment independent of LDL cholesterol levels. Methods Three cohorts at increased risk of or with cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied. Blood FOS mRNA levels were measured before and after statin treatment or in patients under stable treatment. Results Statin treatment for three months significantly reduced blood FOS mRNA and LDL cholesterol levels. However, in subjects with similar LDL levels achieved by different doses of long term statin treatment, there was an inverse relationship between statin dose and FOS expression. Conclusions FOS mRNA levels appear to be a sensitive marker of statin treatment that is dissociated from cholesterol levels. PMID:20619839

  3. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  4. Facial expressions of emotions: recognition accuracy and affective reactions during late childhood.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Giacomo; Agnoli, Sergio; Baldaro, Bruno; Bitti, Pio E Ricci; Surcinelli, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the development of recognition ability and affective reactions to emotional facial expressions in a large sample of school-aged children (n = 504, ages 8-11 years of age). Specifically, the study aimed to investigate if changes in the emotion recognition ability and the affective reactions associated with the viewing of facial expressions occur during late childhood. Moreover, because small but robust gender differences during late-childhood have been proposed, the effects of gender on the development of emotion recognition and affective responses were examined. The results showed an overall increase in emotional face recognition ability from 8 to 11 years of age, particularly for neutral and sad expressions. However, the increase in sadness recognition was primarily due to the development of this recognition in boys. Moreover, our results indicate different developmental trends in males and females regarding the recognition of disgust. Last, developmental changes in affective reactions to emotional facial expressions were found. Whereas recognition ability increased over the developmental time period studied, affective reactions elicited by facial expressions were characterized by a decrease in arousal over the course of late childhood.

  5. Lactation-Related MicroRNA Expression in Microvesicles of Human Umbilical Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Wang, De-jing; Wang, Chen-meiyi; Wang, Yi-ting; Qiao, Hai; Fang, Liao-qiong; Wang, Zhi-biao

    2016-01-01

    Background The complex process by which lactation is initiated upon neonate delivery remains incompletely understood. Microvesicles (MVs) can transmit microRNAs (miRNAs) into recipient cells to influence cell function, and recent studies have identified miRNAs essential for mammary gland development and lactation. This study aimed to investigate the expression of lactation-related miRNAs in MVs isolated from human umbilical cord blood immediately after delivery. Material/Methods Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 70 healthy pregnant women, and MVs were isolated through differential centrifugation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Lactation-related miRNAs were screened using bioinformatics tools for miRNA target prediction, gene ontology, and signaling pathway analyses. miRNA PCR arrays were used for miRNA expression analysis, and the results were validated by real-time PCR. Upon exposure of HBL-100 human mammary epithelial cells to MVs, MV uptake was examined by fluorescence confocal microscopy and β-casein secretion was detected by ELISA. Results Spherical MVs extracted from umbilical cord blood expressed CD63 and had an average diameter of 167.0±77.1 nm. We profiled 337 miRNAs in human umbilical cord blood MVs and found that 85 were related to lactation by bioinformatics analysis. The 25 most differentially expressed lactation-related miRNAs were validated by real-time PCR. MV uptake by HBL-100 cells was after 4 h in culture, and significantly increased secretion of β-casein was observed after 96 h from cells exposed to MVs (P<0.05). Conclusions Umbilical cord blood MVs contain many lactation-related miRNAs and can induce β-casein production by HBL-100 cells in vitro. Thus, umbilical cord blood MVs may mediate secretion of β-casein through miRNAs, thereby playing an important role in fetal-maternal crosstalk. PMID:27885249

  6. Lactation-Related MicroRNA Expression in Microvesicles of Human Umbilical Cord Blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Jing; Wang, Chen-Meiyi; Wang, Yi-Ting; Qiao, Hai; Fang, Liao-Qiong; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2016-11-24

    BACKGROUND The complex process by which lactation is initiated upon neonate delivery remains incompletely understood. Microvesicles (MVs) can transmit microRNAs (miRNAs) into recipient cells to influence cell function, and recent studies have identified miRNAs essential for mammary gland development and lactation. This study aimed to investigate the expression of lactation-related miRNAs in MVs isolated from human umbilical cord blood immediately after delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 70 healthy pregnant women, and MVs were isolated through differential centrifugation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Lactation-related miRNAs were screened using bioinformatics tools for miRNA target prediction, gene ontology, and signaling pathway analyses. miRNA PCR arrays were used for miRNA expression analysis, and the results were validated by real-time PCR. Upon exposure of HBL-100 human mammary epithelial cells to MVs, MV uptake was examined by fluorescence confocal microscopy and b-casein secretion was detected by ELISA. RESULTS Spherical MVs extracted from umbilical cord blood expressed CD63 and had an average diameter of 167.0±77.1 nm. We profiled 337 miRNAs in human umbilical cord blood MVs and found that 85 were related to lactation by bioinformatics analysis. The 25 most differentially expressed lactation-related miRNAs were validated by real-time PCR. MV uptake by HBL-100 cells was after 4 h in culture, and significantly increased secretion of β-casein was observed after 96 h from cells exposed to MVs (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Umbilical cord blood MVs contain many lactation-related miRNAs and can induce β-casein production by HBL-100 cells in vitro. Thus, umbilical cord blood MVs may mediate secretion of β-casein through miRNAs, thereby playing an important role in fetal-maternal crosstalk.

  7. Correlation between low FAT1 expression and early affected muscle in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mariot, Virginie; Roche, Stephane; Hourdé, Christophe; Portilho, Debora; Sacconi, Sabrina; Puppo, Francesca; Duguez, Stephanie; Rameau, Philippe; Caruso, Nathalie; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Desnuelle, Claude; Bessières, Bettina; Collardeau, Sophie; Feasson, Leonard; Maisonobe, Thierry; Magdinier, Frederique; Helmbacher, Françoise; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Dumonceaux, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is linked to either contraction of D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4 or to mutations in the SMCHD1 gene, both of which result in the aberrant expression of the transcription factor DUX4. However, it is still difficult to correlate these genotypes with the phenotypes observed in patients. Because we have recently shown that mice with disrupted Fat1 functions exhibit FSHD-like phenotypes, we have investigated the expression of the human FAT1 gene in FSHD. We first analyzed FAT1 expression in FSHD adult muscles and determined whether FAT1 expression was driven by DUX4. We next determined FAT1 expression levels in 64 muscles isolated from 16 control fetuses. These data were further complemented with analysis of Fat1 expression in developing mouse embryos. We demonstrated that FAT1 expression is independent of DUX4. Moreover, we observed that (1) in control fetal human biopsies or in developing mouse embryos, FAT1 is expressed at lower levels in muscles that are affected at early stages of FSHD progression than in muscles that are affected later or are nonaffected; and (2) in adult muscle biopsies, FAT1 expression is lower in FSHD muscles compared to control muscles. We propose a revised model for FSHD in which FAT1 levels might play a role in determining which muscles will exhibit early and late disease onset, whereas DUX4 may worsen the muscle phenotype. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  8. From specificity to sensitivity: affective states modulate visual working memory for emotional expressive faces

    PubMed Central

    Maran, Thomas; Sachse, Pierre; Furtner, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that visual working memory (VWM) preferentially remembers angry looking faces. However, the meaning of facial actions is construed in relation to context. To date, there are no studies investigating the role of perceiver-based context when processing emotional cues in VWM. To explore the influence of affective context on VWM for faces, we conducted two experiments using both a VWM task for emotionally expressive faces and a mood induction procedure. Affective context was manipulated by unpleasant (Experiment 1) and pleasant (Experiment 2) IAPS pictures in order to induce an affect high in motivational intensity (defensive or appetitive, respectively) compared to a low arousal control condition. Results indicated specifically increased sensitivity of VWM for angry looking faces in the neutral condition. Enhanced VWM for angry faces was prevented by inducing affects of high motivational intensity. In both experiments, affective states led to a switch from specific enhancement of angry expressions in VWM to an equally sensitive representation of all emotional expressions. Our findings demonstrate that emotional expressions are of different behavioral relevance for the receiver depending on the affective context, supporting a functional organization of VWM along with flexible resource allocation. In VWM, stimulus processing adjusts to situational requirements and transitions from a specifically prioritizing default mode in predictable environments to a sensitive, hypervigilant mode in exposure to emotional events. PMID:26379609

  9. From specificity to sensitivity: affective states modulate visual working memory for emotional expressive faces.

    PubMed

    Maran, Thomas; Sachse, Pierre; Furtner, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that visual working memory (VWM) preferentially remembers angry looking faces. However, the meaning of facial actions is construed in relation to context. To date, there are no studies investigating the role of perceiver-based context when processing emotional cues in VWM. To explore the influence of affective context on VWM for faces, we conducted two experiments using both a VWM task for emotionally expressive faces and a mood induction procedure. Affective context was manipulated by unpleasant (Experiment 1) and pleasant (Experiment 2) IAPS pictures in order to induce an affect high in motivational intensity (defensive or appetitive, respectively) compared to a low arousal control condition. Results indicated specifically increased sensitivity of VWM for angry looking faces in the neutral condition. Enhanced VWM for angry faces was prevented by inducing affects of high motivational intensity. In both experiments, affective states led to a switch from specific enhancement of angry expressions in VWM to an equally sensitive representation of all emotional expressions. Our findings demonstrate that emotional expressions are of different behavioral relevance for the receiver depending on the affective context, supporting a functional organization of VWM along with flexible resource allocation. In VWM, stimulus processing adjusts to situational requirements and transitions from a specifically prioritizing default mode in predictable environments to a sensitive, hypervigilant mode in exposure to emotional events.

  10. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    PubMed

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs onwards.

  12. Uncovering the relationships between military community health and affects expressed in social media

    DOE PAGES

    Volkova, Svitlana; Charles, Lauren E.; Harrison, Josh; ...

    2017-06-08

    Military populations present a small, unique community whose mental and physical health impacts the security of the nation. Recent literature has explored social media's ability to enhance disease surveillance and characterize distinct communities with encouraging results. We present a novel analysis of the relationships between influenza-like illnesses (ILI) clinical data and affects (i.e., emotions and sentiments) extracted from social media around military facilities. Our analyses examine (1) differences in affects expressed by military and control populations, (2) affect changes over time by users, (3) differences in affects expressed during high and low ILI seasons, and (4) correlations and cross-correlations betweenmore » ILI clinical visits and affects from an unprecedented scale –171M geo-tagged tweets across 31 global geolocations. Key findings include: Military and control populations dier in the way they express affects in social media over space and time. Control populations express more positive and less negative sentiments and less sadness, fear, disgust, and anger emotions than military. However, affects expressed in social media by both populations within the same area correlate similarly with ILI visits to military health facilities. We have identified potential responsible co-factors leading to location variability, e.g., region or state locale, military service type and/or the ratio of military to civilian populations. For most locations, ILI proportions positively correlate with sadness and neutral sentiment, which are the affects most often expressed during high ILI season. The ILI proportions negatively correlate with fear, disgust, surprise, and positive sentiment. These results are similar to the low ILI season where anger, surprise, and positive sentiment are highest. Finally, cross-correlation analysis shows that most affects lead ILI clinical visits, i.e. are predictive of ILI data, with affect-ILI leading intervals dependent on geo

  13. Osmotic stress at the barley root affects expression of circadian clock genes in the shoot.

    PubMed

    Habte, Ermias; Müller, Lukas M; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2014-06-01

    The circadian clock is an important timing system that controls physiological responses to abiotic stresses in plants. However, there is little information on the effects of the clock on stress adaptation in important crops, like barley. In addition, we do not know how osmotic stress perceived at the roots affect the shoot circadian clock. Barley genotypes, carrying natural variation at the photoperiod response and clock genes Ppd-H1 and HvELF3, were grown under control and osmotic stress conditions to record changes in the diurnal expression of clock and stress-response genes and in physiological traits. Variation at HvELF3 affected the expression phase and shape of clock and stress-response genes, while variation at Ppd-H1 only affected the expression levels of stress genes. Osmotic stress up-regulated expression of clock and stress-response genes and advanced their expression peaks. Clock genes controlled the expression of stress-response genes, but had minor effects on gas exchange and leaf transpiration. This study demonstrated that osmotic stress at the barley root altered clock gene expression in the shoot and acted as a spatial input signal into the clock. Unlike in Arabidopsis, barley primary assimilation was less controlled by the clock and more responsive to environmental perturbations, such as osmotic stress.

  14. Classification of complex information: inference of co-occurring affective states from their expressions in speech.

    PubMed

    Sobol-Shikler, Tal; Robinson, Peter

    2010-07-01

    We present a classification algorithm for inferring affective states (emotions, mental states, attitudes, and the like) from their nonverbal expressions in speech. It is based on the observations that affective states can occur simultaneously and different sets of vocal features, such as intonation and speech rate, distinguish between nonverbal expressions of different affective states. The input to the inference system was a large set of vocal features and metrics that were extracted from each utterance. The classification algorithm conducted independent pairwise comparisons between nine affective-state groups. The classifier used various subsets of metrics of the vocal features and various classification algorithms for different pairs of affective-state groups. Average classification accuracy of the 36 pairwise machines was 75 percent, using 10-fold cross validation. The comparison results were consolidated into a single ranked list of the nine affective-state groups. This list was the output of the system and represented the inferred combination of co-occurring affective states for the analyzed utterance. The inference accuracy of the combined machine was 83 percent. The system automatically characterized over 500 affective state concepts from the Mind Reading database. The inference of co-occurring affective states was validated by comparing the inferred combinations to the lexical definitions of the labels of the analyzed sentences. The distinguishing capabilities of the system were comparable to human performance.

  15. Hospital blood inventory practice: the factors affecting stock level and wastage.

    PubMed

    Perera, G; Hyam, C; Taylor, C; Chapman, J F

    2009-04-01

    To analyse the Issuable Stock Index (days worth of stock) and wastage in relation to data continuously collected by the Blood Stocks Management Scheme (BSMS) with aspects of blood inventory management practice determined by the 2006 hospital inventory practice survey (IPS). The BSMS collects blood inventory data from hospitals and blood services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Data sets were constructed from information obtained from the 2006 IPS, which included questions on the crossmatch reservation period, methods for calculating the blood order and stock share relationships between hospitals. Two of the Scheme's measures that can indicate a hospital's blood inventory management performance were used to present blood stock and wastage data in a comparable format. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test. The results showed significantly lower inventory and wastage in hospitals which used a 24-h reservation period compared with 48 h (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively), and for hospitals that used their computer for calculating the blood order compared with those that used a 'visual review' (P = 0.02 and P < or = 0.001, respectively). A strong correlation co-efficient (0.61) was found for a relationship between a hospital's stock level and wastage. The study showed that differences in stock management practice between hospitals are associated with significant differences in stock levels and wastage of blood. The paper identifies examples of best practice.

  16. Expression of oncogenic BARD1 isoforms affects colon cancer progression and correlates with clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-Q; Pilyugin, M; Kuester, D; Leoni, V P; Li, L; Casula, G; Zorcolo, L; Schneider-Stock, R; Atzori, L; Irminger-Finger, I

    2012-08-07

    Colon cancer predisposition is associated with mutations in BRCA1. BRCA1 protein stability depends on binding to BARD1. In different cancers, expression of differentially spliced BARD1 isoforms is correlated with poor prognosis and decreased patient survival. We therefore suspected a role of BARD1 isoforms in colon cancer. We performed immunohistochemistry in 168 colorectal cancers, using four antibodies directed against differentially expressed regions of BARD1. We determined structure and relative expression of BARD1 mRNA isoforms in 40 tumour and paired normal peri-tumour tissues. BARD1 expression was correlated with clinical outcome. BARD1 isoforms were expressed in 98% of cases and not correlated with BRCA1. BARD1 mRNA isoforms were upregulated in all tumours as compared with paired normal peri-tumour tissues. Non-correlated expression and localisation of different epitopes suggested insignificant expression of full-length (FL) BARD1. Expression of N- and C-terminal epitopes correlated with increased survival, but expression of epitopes mapping to the middle of BARD1 correlated with decreased survival. Middle epitopes are present in oncogenic BARD1 isoforms, which have pro-proliferative functions. Correlated upregulation of only N- and C-terminal epitopes reflects the expression of isoforms BARD1δ and BARD1φ. Our results suggest that BARD1 isoforms, but not FL BARD1, are expressed in colon cancer and affect its progression and clinical outcome.

  17. EPCR expression marks UM171-expanded CD34(+) cord blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fares, Iman; Chagraoui, Jalila; Lehnertz, Bernhard; MacRae, Tara; Mayotte, Nadine; Tomellini, Elisa; Aubert, Léo; Roux, Philippe P; Sauvageau, Guy

    2017-06-22

    A small subset of human cord blood CD34(+) cells express endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR/CD201/PROCR) when exposed to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal agonist UM171. In this article, we show that EPCR-positive UM171-treated cells, as opposed to EPCR-negative cells, exhibit robust multilineage repopulation and serial reconstitution ability in immunocompromised mice. In contrast to other stem cell markers, such as CD38, EPCR expression is maintained when cells are introduced in culture, irrespective of UM171 treatment. Although engineered overexpression of EPCR fails to reproduce the effects of UM171 on HSC activity, its expression is required for the repopulating activity of human HSCs. Altogether, our results indicate that EPCR is a reliable and cell culture-compatible marker of UM171-expanded human cord blood HSCs. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. The alterations of CD11A expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes/monocytes and CD62L expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes in Graves' disease and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kretowski, A; Myśliwiec, J; Kinalska, I

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the alterations of function and/or level of adhesion molecules play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as Graves' disease or type 1 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 alpha (LFA-1 alpha, CD11a) and L-selectin (CD62L) molecules on peripheral mononuclear cells in Graves disease and type 1 diabetes in comparison to healthy controls, since they were shown to play an important role in lymphocytes and/or monocytes migration into the organs affected by immune process and are suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Graves disease and type 1 diabetes. The percentages of monocytes/lymphocytes expressing LFA-1 alpha antigen and lymphocytes expressing L-selectin antigen and the fluorescence intensity of the studied molecules were measured by flow cytometry. At the onset of both autoimmune diseases the percentage of highly CD11a positive lymphocytes and the mean fluorescence intensity were statistically higher than in the healthy controls and patients with Graves' disease after thyreostatic therapy. The fluorescence intensity of LFA-1 alpha on monocytes was also increased in type 1 diabetic patients, but not in Graves' disease. The analysis of CD62L antigen expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed decreased percentages of L-selectin positive cells in patients with Graves' disease (before and after treatment) and insulin-dependent diabetes in comparison to the controls. Our study suggests that the alterations of the expression of CD11a and/or CD62L molecules on peripheral blood lymphocytes could be the markers of ongoing autoimmune process in Graves disease and type 1 diabetes.

  19. Interspecies systems biology uncovers metabolites affecting C. elegans gene expression and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emma; MacNeil, Lesley T; Ritter, Ashlyn D; Yilmaz, L Safak; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2014-02-13

    Diet greatly influences gene expression and physiology. In mammals, elucidating the effects and mechanisms of individual nutrients is challenging due to the complexity of both the animal and its diet. Here, we used an interspecies systems biology approach with Caenorhabditis elegans and two of its bacterial diets, Escherichia coli and Comamonas aquatica, to identify metabolites that affect the animal's gene expression and physiology. We identify vitamin B12 as the major dilutable metabolite provided by Comamonas aq. that regulates gene expression, accelerates development, and reduces fertility but does not affect lifespan. We find that vitamin B12 has a dual role in the animal: it affects development and fertility via the methionine/S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) cycle and breaks down the short-chain fatty acid propionic acid, preventing its toxic buildup. Our interspecies systems biology approach provides a paradigm for understanding complex interactions between diet and physiology.

  20. No effect of inversion on attentional and affective processing of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Price, Sarah M; Tellegen, Cassandra L

    2009-04-01

    The decrease in recognition performance after face inversion has been taken to suggest that faces are processed holistically. Three experiments, 1 with schematic and 2 with photographic faces, were conducted to assess whether face inversion also affected visual search for and implicit evaluation of facial expressions of emotion. The 3 visual search experiments yielded the same differences in detection speed between different facial expressions of emotion for upright and inverted faces. Threat superiority effects, faster detection of angry than of happy faces among neutral background faces, were evident in 2 experiments. Face inversion did not affect explicit or implicit evaluation of face stimuli as assessed with verbal ratings and affective priming. Happy faces were evaluated as more positive than angry, sad, or fearful/scheming ones regardless of orientation. Taken together these results seem to suggest that the processing of facial expressions of emotion is not impaired if holistic processing is disrupted. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Radiation-Induced Micro-RNA Expression Changes in Peripheral Blood Cells of Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Templin, Thomas; Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A.; Young, Erik F.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Smilenov, Lubomir B.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding small RNAs that regulate gene expression, are involved in numerous physiologic processes in normal and malignant cells. Our in vivo study measured miRNA and gene expression changes in human blood cells in response to ionizing radiation, to develop miRNA signatures that can be used as biomarkers for radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Blood from 8 radiotherapy patients in complete remission 1 or 2 was collected immediately before and 4 hours after total body irradiation with 1.25 Gy x-rays. Both miRNA and gene expression changes were measured by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction and microarray hybridization, respectively. Hierarchic clustering, multidimensional scaling, class prediction, and gene ontology analysis were performed to investigate the potential of miRNAs to serve as radiation biomarkers and to elucidate their likely physiologic roles in the radiation response. Results: The expression levels of 45 miRNAs were statistically significantly upregulated 4 hours after irradiation with 1.25 Gy x-rays, 27 of them in every patient. Nonirradiated and irradiated samples form separate clusters in hierarchic clustering and multidimensional scaling. Out of 223 differentially expressed genes, 37 were both downregulated and predicted targets of the upregulated miRNAs. Paired and unpaired miRNA-based classifiers that we developed can predict the class membership of a sample with unknown irradiation status, with accuracies of 100% when all 45 upregulated miRNAs are included. Both miRNA control of and gene involvement in biologic processes such as hemopoiesis and the immune response are increased after irradiation, whereas metabolic processes are underrepresented among all differentially expressed genes and the genes controlled by miRNAs. Conclusions: Exposure to ionizing radiation leads to the upregulation of the expression of a considerable proportion of the human miRNAome of peripheral blood cells

  2. Dissecting Daily and Circadian Expression Rhythms of Clock-Controlled Genes in Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Lech, Karolina; Ackermann, Katrin; Revell, Victoria L; Lao, Oscar; Skene, Debra J; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    The identification and investigation of novel clock-controlled genes (CCGs) has been conducted thus far mainly in model organisms such as nocturnal rodents, with limited information in humans. Here, we aimed to characterize daily and circadian expression rhythms of CCGs in human peripheral blood during a sleep/sleep deprivation (S/SD) study and a constant routine (CR) study. Blood expression levels of 9 candidate CCGs (SREBF1, TRIB1, USF1, THRA1, SIRT1, STAT3, CAPRIN1, MKNK2, and ROCK2), were measured across 48 h in 12 participants in the S/SD study and across 33 h in 12 participants in the CR study. Statistically significant rhythms in expression were observed for STAT3, SREBF1, TRIB1, and THRA1 in samples from both the S/SD and the CR studies, indicating that their rhythmicity is driven by the endogenous clock. The MKNK2 gene was significantly rhythmic in the S/SD but not the CR study, which implies its exogenously driven rhythmic expression. In addition, we confirmed the circadian expression of PER1, PER3, and REV-ERBα in the CR study samples, while BMAL1 and HSPA1B were not significantly rhythmic in the CR samples; all 5 genes previously showed significant expression in the S/SD study samples. Overall, our results demonstrate that rhythmic expression patterns of clock and selected clock-controlled genes in human blood cells are in part determined by exogenous factors (sleep and fasting state) and in part by the endogenous circadian timing system. Knowledge of the exogenous and endogenous regulation of gene expression rhythms is needed prior to the selection of potential candidate marker genes for future applications in medical and forensic settings. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. STUDIES IN RESUSCITATION: I. THE GENERAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING RESUSCITATION, AND THE RESUSCITATION OF THE BLOOD AND OF THE HEART

    PubMed Central

    Pike, F. H.; Guthrie, C. C.; Stewart, G. N.

    1908-01-01

    Our results may be briefly summarized: 1. Blood, when defibrinated, soon loses its power to maintain the activity of the higher nervous centers, and its nutritive properties for all tissues quickly diminish. 2. Artificial fluids, as a substitute for blood, are not satisfactory. 3. The proper oxygenation of the blood is an indispensable adjunct in the resuscitation of an animal. 4. The heart usually continues to beat for some minutes after it ceases to affect a mercury manometer, and resuscitation of it within this period by extra-thoracic massage and artificial respiration is sometimes successful. 5. Resuscitation of the heart by direct massage is the most certain method at our command. 6. A proper blood-pressure is an indispensable condition for the continued normal activity of the heart. 7. Anæsthetics, hemorrhage and induced currents applied to the heart render resuscitation more difficult than asphyxia alone. PMID:19867138

  4. Whole blood gene expression profile associated with spontaneous preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Heng, Yujing Jan; Pennell, Craig Edward; Chua, Hon Nian; Perkins, Jonathan Edward; Lye, Stephen James

    2014-01-01

    Threatened preterm labor (TPTL) is defined as persistent premature uterine contractions between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation and is the most common condition that requires hospitalization during pregnancy. Most of these TPTL women continue their pregnancies to term while only an estimated 5% will deliver a premature baby within ten days. The aim of this work was to study differential whole blood gene expression associated with spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) within 48 hours of hospital admission. Peripheral blood was collected at point of hospital admission from 154 women with TPTL before any medical treatment. Microarrays were utilized to investigate differential whole blood gene expression between TPTL women who did (n = 48) or did not have a sPTB (n = 106) within 48 hours of admission. Total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (35% and 41% respectively) in women who had sPTB than women who did not deliver within 48 hours (p<0.001). Fetal fibronectin (fFN) test was performed on 62 women. There was no difference in the urine, vaginal and placental microbiology and histopathology reports between the two groups of women. There were 469 significant differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05); 28 differentially expressed genes were chosen for microarray validation using qRT-PCR and 20 out of 28 genes were successfully validated (p<0.05). An optimal random forest classifier model to predict sPTB was achieved using the top nine differentially expressed genes coupled with peripheral clinical blood data (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 75.5%). These differentially expressed genes may further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of sPTB and pave the way for future systems biology studies to predict sPTB.

  5. Enhanced tissue factor expression by blood eosinophils from patients with hypereosinophilia: a possible link with thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cugno, Massimo; Marzano, Angelo V; Lorini, Maurizio; Carbonelli, Vincenzo; Tedeschi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Thrombotic risk is increased in eosinophil-mediated disorders, and several hypotheses have been proposed to link eosinophilia and thrombosis. In particular, eosinophils have been described as source of tissue factor (TF), the main initiator of blood coagulation; however, this aspect is still controversial. This study was aimed to evaluate whether TF expression varies in eosinophils isolated from normal subjects and patients with different hypereosinophilic conditions. Eosinophils were immunologically purified from peripheral blood samples of 9 patients with different hypereosinophilic conditions and 9 normal subjects. Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to test eosinophil TF expression. For comparison, TF expression was evaluated in monocytes from blood donors and in human endothelial (ECV304) and fibroblast (IMR90) cell lines. Western blot analysis revealed a major band of 47,000 corresponding to native TF in homogenates of purified eosinophils with a higher intensity in the 9 patients than in the 9 controls (p<0.0001). According to RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct), TF gene expression was higher in eosinophils from patients than in those from controls, median (range) 35.10 (19.45-36.50) vs 37.17 (35.33-37.87) (p = 0.002), and was particularly abundant in one patient with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome and ischemic heart attacks (Ct: 19.45). TF gene expression was moderate in monocytes, Ct: 31.32 (29.82-33.49) and abundant in endothelial cells, Ct: 28.70 (27.79-29.57) and fibroblasts, Ct: 22.77 (19.22-25.05). Our results indicate that human blood eosinophils contain variable amounts of TF. The higher TF expression in patients with hypereosinophilic disorders may contribute to increase the thrombotic risk.

  6. Inhalation of ultrafine particles alters blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules in humans.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Mark W; Stewart, Judith C; Oberdörster, Günter; Morrow, Paul E; Chalupa, David; Pietropaoli, Anthony P; Frasier, Lauren M; Speers, Donna M; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li-Shan; Utell, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm) may contribute to the respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with particulate air pollution. We tested the hypothesis that inhalation of carbon UFPs has vascular effects in healthy and asthmatic subjects, detectable as alterations in blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules. Healthy subjects inhaled filtered air and freshly generated elemental carbon particles (count median diameter approximately 25nm, geometric standard deviation approximately 1.6), for 2 hr, in three separate protocols: 10 microg/m3 at rest, 10 and 25 microg/m3 with exercise, and 50 microg/m3 with exercise. In a fourth protocol, subjects with asthma inhaled air and 10 microg/m3 UFPs with exercise. Peripheral venous blood was obtained before and at intervals after exposure, and leukocyte expression of surface markers was quantitated using multiparameter flow cytometry. In healthy subjects, particle exposure with exercise reduced expression of adhesion molecules CD54 and CD18 on monocytes and CD18 and CD49d on granulocytes. There were also concentration-related reductions in blood monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils and increased lymphocyte expression of the activation marker CD25. In subjects with asthma, exposure with exercise to 10 microg/m3 UFPs reduced expression of CD11b on monocytes and eosinophils and CD54 on granulocytes. Particle exposure also reduced the percentage of CD4+ T cells, basophils, and eosinophils. Inhalation of elemental carbon UFPs alters peripheral blood leukocyte distribution and expression of adhesion molecules, in a pattern consistent with increased retention of leukocytes in the pulmonary vascular bed.

  7. Peripheral Blood MCEMP1 Gene Expression as a Biomarker for Stroke Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Raman, Kripa; O'Donnell, Martin J; Czlonkowska, Anna; Duarte, Yan Carlos; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Sharma, Mike; Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Skowronska, Marta; Yusuf, Salim; Paré, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    A limitation when making early decisions on stroke management is the lack of rapid diagnostic and prognostic testing. Our study sought to identify peripheral blood RNA biomarkers associated with stroke. The secondary aims were to assess the discriminative capacity of RNA biomarkers for primary stroke type and stroke prognosis at 1-month. Whole-blood gene expression profiling was conducted on the discovery cohort: 129 first-time stroke cases that had blood sampling within 5 days of symptom onset and 170 control participants with no history of stroke. Through multiple regression analysis, we determined that expression of the gene MCEMP1 had the strongest association with stroke of 11 181 genes tested. MCEMP1 increased by 2.4-fold in stroke when compared with controls (95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.8; P=8.2×10(-22)). In addition, expression was elevated in intracerebral hemorrhage when compared with ischemic stroke cases (P=3.9×10(-4)). MCEMP1 was also highest soon after symptom onset and had no association with stroke risk factors. Furthermore, MCEMP1 expression independently improved discrimination of 1-month outcome. Indeed, discrimination models for disability and mortality that included MCEMP1 expression, baseline modified Rankin Scale score, and primary stroke type improved discrimination when compared with a model without MCEMP1 (disability Net Reclassification Index, 0.76; P=3.0×10(-6) and mortality Net Reclassification Index, 1.3; P=1.1×10(-9)). Significant associations with MCEMP1 were confirmed in an independent validation cohort of 28 stroke cases and 34 controls. This study demonstrates that peripheral blood expression of MCEMP1 may have utility for stroke diagnosis and as a prognostic biomarker of stroke outcome at 1-month. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-10-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring.

  9. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    PubMed Central

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring. PMID:27731423

  10. An exonic missense mutation c.28G>A is associated with weak B blood group by affecting RNA splicing of the ABO gene.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaohong; Qian, Chengrui; Wu, Wenman; Lei, Hang; Ding, Qiulan; Zou, Wei; Xiang, Dong; Wang, Xuefeng

    2017-09-01

    The amino acid substitutions caused by ABO gene mutations are usually predicted to impact glycosyltransferase's function or its biosynthesis. Here we report an ABO exonic missense mutation that affects B-antigen expression by decreasing the mRNA level of the ABO gene rather than the amino acid change. Serologic studies including plasma total GTB transfer capacity were performed. The exon sequences of the ABO gene were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. B(310) cDNA with c.28G>A (p.G10R) mutation was expressed in HeLa cells and total GTB transfer capacity in cell supernatant was measured. Flow cytometry was performed on these HeLa cells after transfection, and agglutination of Hela-Bweak cells was also examined. The mRNA of the ABO gene was analyzed by direct sequencing and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A minigene construct was prepared to evaluate the potential of splicing. While plasma total GTB transfer capacity was undetectable in this B3 -like individual, the relative percentage of antigen-expressing cells and mean fluorescence index of the Bweak red blood cells (RBCs) were 19 and 14% of normal B RBCs, respectively. There was no significant difference of total GTB transfer capacity in cell supernatant and B-antigen expression on cell surfaces between HeLa cells transfected with B(310) cDNA and B cDNA. The mRNA expression level of B(310) in peripheral whole blood was significantly reduced. The amount of splicing is significantly lower in c.28G>A construct compared to that in wild-type construct after transfection in K562 cells. ABO c.28G>A mutation may cause B3 -like subgroup by affecting RNA splicing of the ABO gene. © 2017 AABB.

  11. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  12. Long-lasting effects of subliminal affective priming from facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru; Paller, Ken A

    2009-12-01

    Unconscious processing of stimuli with emotional content can bias affective judgments. Is this subliminal affective priming merely a transient phenomenon manifested in fleeting perceptual changes, or are long-lasting effects also induced? To address this question, we investigated memory for surprise faces 24 h after they had been shown with 30-ms fearful, happy, or neutral faces. Surprise faces subliminally primed by happy faces were initially rated as more positive, and were later remembered better, than those primed by fearful or neutral faces. Participants likely to have processed primes supraliminally did not respond differentially as a function of expression. These results converge with findings showing memory advantages with happy expressions, though here the expressions were displayed on the face of a different person, perceived subliminally, and not present at test. We conclude that behavioral biases induced by masked emotional expressions are not ephemeral, but rather can last at least 24 h.

  13. The Blood Group A Genotype Determines the Level of Expression of the Blood Group A on Platelets But Not the Anti-B Isotiter

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Barbara; Eichelberger, Beate; Jungbauer, Christof; Panzer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The extent of expression of the blood group A on platelets is controversial. Further, the relation between platelets' blood group A expression and the titers of isoagglutinins has not been thoroughly investigated, so far. Methods We evaluated the relation between the genotype with platelets' blood group A and H expression estimated by flow cytometry and the titers of isoagglutinins. Results The A expression varied between genotypes and within genotypes. However, the expression in A1 was stronger than in all other genotypes (p < 0.0001). An overlap of expression levels was apparent between homozygous A1A1 and heterozygous A1 individuals. Still, The A1A1 genotype is associated with a particularly high antigen expression (p = 0.009). Platelets' A expression in A2 versus blood group O donors was also significant (p = 0.007), but there was again an overlap of expression. The secretor status had only little influence on the expression (p = 0.18). Also, isoagglutinin titers were not associated with genotypes. Conclusion: To distinguish between A1 and A2 donors may reduce incompatible platelet transfusions and therefore be favorable on platelet transfusion increment. Clinical data are needed to support this notion. PMID:26733767

  14. Vasovagal Syncope and Blood Donor Return: Examination of the Role of Experience and Affective Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Etzel, Erin N.; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with…

  15. Vasovagal Syncope and Blood Donor Return: Examination of the Role of Experience and Affective Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Etzel, Erin N.; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with…

  16. Decoding the Regulatory Network for Blood Development from Single-Cell Gene Expression Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Haghverdi, Laleh; Lilly, Andrew J.; Tanaka, Yosuke; Wilkinson, Adam C.; Buettner, Florian; Macaulay, Iain C.; Jawaid, Wajid; Diamanti, Evangelia; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Piterman, Nir; Kouskoff, Valerie; Theis, Fabian J.; Fisher, Jasmin; Göttgens, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the use of diffusion maps and network synthesis from state transition graphs to better understand developmental pathways from single cell gene expression profiling. We map the progression of mesoderm towards blood in the mouse by single-cell expression analysis of 3,934 cells, capturing cells with blood-forming potential at four sequential developmental stages. By adapting the diffusion plot methodology for dimensionality reduction to single-cell data, we reconstruct the developmental journey to blood at single-cell resolution. Using transitions between individual cellular states as input, we develop a single-cell network synthesis toolkit to generate a computationally executable transcriptional regulatory network model that recapitulates blood development. Model predictions were validated by showing that Sox7 inhibits primitive erythropoiesis, and that Sox and Hox factors control early expression of Erg. We therefore demonstrate that single-cell analysis of a developing organ coupled with computational approaches can reveal the transcriptional programs that control organogenesis. PMID:25664528

  17. Changes in Blood Parameters and Coagulation-Related Gene Expression in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Urasoko, Yoshinaka; He, Xi Jun; Ebata, Tomonori; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Junichi; Mochizuki, Masahiro; Ikeya, Masamichi

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined changes in maternal blood parameters, particularly those related to blood coagulation, as well as alterations in blood coagulation-related gene expression in the liver during gestation in rats. Fibrinogen concentration and platelet count increased as pregnancy progressed whereas prothrombin time and overall activity of vitamin-K–dependent coagulation factors decreased before delivery, suggesting a physiologic response to prevent prolonged bleeding at parturition. Conversely, compared with values for nonpregnant rats, activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged before delivery and antithrombin time was significantly higher during fetal organogenesis and thereafter, indicating a mechanism to prevent the development of deep tissue thrombosis in dams. DNA microarray analysis revealed no differences in coagulation-related gene expression in the liver on gestation day 13 between pregnant and nonpregnant rats, whereas the gene expression of various fibrinogen-related factors, coagulation factors II and X, and the anticoagulation factor-related factor leuserpin 2 were increased on gestational day 19. In addition, changes similar to those reported previously in pregnant rats were confirmed. The data obtained from the present study can be used as background data for effective evaluation of reproductive toxicology in rats, and they suggest that the rat is a useful animal model for investigating the mechanisms of disorders in the blood coagulation system that can occur during late pregnancy in women. PMID:19476716

  18. Effects of red grape juice polyphenols in NADPH oxidase subunit expression in human neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Alberto; de la Peña, Gema; Sánchez-Martín, Carolina C; Teresa Guerra, M; Bartolomé, Begoña; Lasunción, Miguel A

    2009-10-01

    The NADPH oxidase enzyme system is the main source of superoxide anions in phagocytic and vascular cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide generation has been found to be abnormally enhanced in several chronic diseases. Evidence is accumulating that polyphenols may have the potential to improve cardiovascular health, although the mechanism is not fully established. Consumption of concentrated red grape juice, rich in polyphenols, has been recently shown to reduce NADPH oxidase activity in circulating neutrophils from human subjects. In the present work we studied whether red grape juice polyphenols affected NADPH oxidase subunit expression at the transcription level. For this, we used human neutrophils and mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, HL-60-derived neutrophils and the endothelial cell line EA.hy926.Superoxide production was measured with 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate or lucigenin, mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blot. Each experiment was performed at least three times. In all cell types tested, red grape juice, dealcoholised red wine and pure polyphenols decreased superoxide anion production. Red grape juice and dealcoholised red wine selectively reduced p47phox, p22phox and gp91phox expression at both mRNA and protein levels, without affecting the expression of p67phox. Pure polyphenols, particularly quercetin, also reduced NADPH oxidase subunit expression, especially p47phox, in all cell types tested. The present results showing that red grape juice polyphenols reduce superoxide anion production provide an alternative mechanism by which consumption of grape derivatives may account for a reduction of oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular and/or inflammatory diseases related to NADPH oxidase superoxide overproduction.

  19. Influence of some coccidiostatics on blood carotenoids and fatty acids in coccidiosis affected chicken.

    PubMed

    Suteu, E; Constantinescu, V; Tămas, V; Kandar, L; Ciurdaru, V

    1981-01-01

    Blood and liver carotenoids and A-vitamin and blood fatty acid modifications were observed in Eimeria tenella infested chicken. 125 chicken were alloted in 5 groups: 3 infested groups were given Amprol, Suldrazin and Clopindol respectively, in their diet. A control group was infested, a second one non-infested. Biochemical examinations were performed 10 days following treatment when chicken were slaughtered and samples collected. In control groups and in Amprol and Clopindol treated groups were seen significant decreases of liver and blood carotenoids; blood and liver A-vitamin levels were higher in Amprol treated chicken; in Suldrazin treated group no significant modifications could be shown as compared to the non-infested controls. Blood fatty acid levels were higher (43.5-47.8%) in the four infested groups and lower in the non-infested controls (39.4%). Non-saturated fatty acid levels varied within 51 and 56.4% in infested groups.

  20. Genetic analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression levels in whole blood of healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The predominant model for regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation is an inverse association in which increased methylation results in decreased gene expression levels. However, recent studies suggest that the relationship between genetic variation, DNA methylation and expression is more complex. Results Systems genetic approaches for examining relationships between gene expression and methylation array data were used to find both negative and positive associations between these levels. A weighted correlation network analysis revealed that i) both transcriptome and methylome are organized in modules, ii) co-expression modules are generally not preserved in the methylation data and vice-versa, and iii) highly significant correlations exist between co-expression and co-methylation modules, suggesting the existence of factors that affect expression and methylation of different modules (i.e., trans effects at the level of modules). We observed that methylation probes associated with expression in cis were more likely to be located outside CpG islands, whereas specificity for CpG island shores was present when methylation, associated with expression, was under local genetic control. A structural equation model based analysis found strong support in particular for a traditional causal model in which gene expression is regulated by genetic variation via DNA methylation instead of gene expression affecting DNA methylation levels. Conclusions Our results provide new insights into the complex mechanisms between genetic markers, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. We find strong support for the classical model of genetic variants regulating methylation, which in turn regulates gene expression. Moreover we show that, although the methylation and expression modules differ, they are highly correlated. PMID:23157493

  1. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation induced changes in the expression of circulatory miRNA in bovine follicular fluid and blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Noferesti, Sina Seifi; Sohel, Md Mahmodul Hasan; Hoelker, Michael; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Rings, Franca; Neuhoff, Christiane; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2015-12-09

    Despite its role in increasing the number of offspring during the lifetime of an individual animal, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) may have detrimental effects on oocyte development, embryo quality and endometrial receptivity. Circulating miRNAs in bio-fluids have been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions including cancers. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of COH on the level of extracellular miRNAs in bovine follicular fluid and blood plasma and elucidate their mode of circulation and potential molecular mechanisms to be affected in the reproductive tract. Twelve simmental heifers were estrous synchronized and six of them were hyperstimulated using FSH. Follicular fluid samples from experimental animals were collected using ovum pick up technique at day 0 of the estrous cycle and blood samples were collected at day 0, 3 and 7 of post ovulation. The expression profile of circulatory miRNAs in follicular fluid and blood plasma were performed using the human miRCURY LNA™ Universal RT miRNA PCR array system. A comparative threshold cycle method was used to determine the relative abundance of the miRNAs. A total of 504 and 402 miRNAs were detected in both bovine follicular fluid and blood plasma, respectively. Of these 57 and 21 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in follicular fluid and blood plasma, respectively derived from hyperstimulated versus unstimulated heifers. Bioinformatics analysis of those circulating miRNAs indicated that their potential target genes are involved in several pathways including TGF-beta signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer and Oocyte meiosis. Moreover, detail analysis of the mode of circulation of some candidates showed that most of the miRNA were found to be detected in both exosomal and Ago2 protein complex fraction of both follicular fluid and blood plasma. Our data provide the consequence of hyperstimulation induced changes of extracellular miRNAs in

  2. Nuclear receptors expression chart in peripheral blood mononuclear cells identifies patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Simona; Vacca, Michele; Graziano, Giusi; D'Orazio, Andria; Cariello, Marica; Martelli, Nicola; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Salvia, Roberto; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Belfiore, Anna; Pellegrini, Fabio; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear receptors are a class of 48 ligand-activated transcription factors identified as key players of metabolic and developmental processes. Most of these receptors are potential targets for pharmacological strategies in the Metabolic Syndrome. In the present study, we analyzed changes in the mRNA expression of nuclear receptors in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Metabolic Syndrome, in order to identify novel biomarkers of disease and candidate targets for putative therapeutical approaches. We enrolled thirty healthy controls (14 M:16 F) and thirty naïve patients (16 M: 14 F; >3 criteria for Metabolic Syndrome upon Adult Treatment Panel III) without organ damage. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed the expression patterns of nuclear receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. 33/48 nuclear receptors were expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In patients with Metabolic Syndrome, we found a significant down-regulation of the entire PPAR, NR4A and RAR families, together with a repression of RXRα, VDR, and Rev-Erbα. Furthermore, we performed a novel statistical analysis with classification trees, which allowed us to depict a predictive core of nuclear receptor expression patterns characterizing subjects with Metabolic Syndrome. Random Forest Analysis identified NOR1 and PPARδ, which were both reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and specifically in CD14(+) cells (mostly monocytes), as classifiers of Metabolic Syndrome, with high specificity and sensitivity. Our results point to the use of PPAR and NR4A mRNA levels in the overall peripheral blood mononuclear cells as biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome and bona fide putative targets of pharmacological therapy. © 2013.

  3. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm), osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1) and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS) of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA) required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi. PMID:27525653

  4. Assessing the Impact of Lithium Chloride on the Expression of P-Glycoprotein at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stephanie A; Pan, Yijun; Short, Jennifer L; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2017-01-16

    In addition to extruding drugs from the brain, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) facilitates the brain-to-blood clearance of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and is down-regulated in Alzheimer's disease. Studies suggest that the mood-stabilizing drug lithium exerts a protective effect against Alzheimer's disease. Although the mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully understood, evidence suggests that lithium chloride (LiCl) increases P-gp expression in vitro, albeit at concentrations substantially outside the therapeutic window. Therefore, we investigated the effects of pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of LiCl on P-gp expression using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Swiss outbred mice administered LiCl (300 mg/kg/day, 21 days) showed no change in brain microvascular P-gp protein expression. Furthermore, P-gp transcript and protein levels were unaltered by LiCl (1.25-5 mM, 24 h) in human immortalized brain endothelial cells, while both gene and protein expression were significantly enhanced by the P-gp up-regulator, SR12813 by 1.5-fold and 2.0-fold, respectively. P-gp efflux function was also unaffected by LiCl in vitro, by measuring accumulation of the fluorescent P-gp substrate rhodamine-123. This suggests therefore that LiCl is unlikely to affect the BBB efflux of Aβ or other P-gp substrates at pharmacologically-relevant concentrations, suggesting that the Aβ-lowering effects of LiCl are unrelated to elevated BBB P-gp expression.

  5. Expression of CXCR4 in cord blood-derived CD133+ cells treated with platelet micro-particles.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Farzaneh; Oodi, Arezoo; Nikougoftar Zarif, Mahin; Amani, Maryam; Amirizadeh, Naser

    2016-11-01

    Platelet micro-particles (MPs) contain CXCR4 markers and are able to transfer them into hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, effect of platelet MPs (PMPs) on the expression levels of CXCR4 and CD34 markers in these cells was examined. Isolated CD 133+ cells cultivated for 5 d in the stem span medium and PMPs. Fold increase of CD34+ cells in the presence of 5 and 10 g/ml of PMPs was increased significantly. CXCR4+ cell percent in the presence of 10 g/ml PMPs compared with control cells (63.8 ± 6.4) was increased (P < 0.05). PMPs were no affect on clonogenicity of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Cord blood CD133+ cells are able to maintain long-term hematopoiesis and to differentiate to hematopoietic lineages. CXCR4 over expression is involved in homing and successful transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow. PMPs contain CXCR4 markers and are able to transfer them into hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, considering the importance of CD133+ cells as primitive HSCs, the effect of PMPs on the expression levels of CXCR4 and CD34 markers in these cells was examined. Cord blood CD133+ cells were isolated by MACS. Isolated cells were divided into three groups: (i) control cells, (ii) cells treated with 5 μg/ml PMPs, (iii) cells treated with 10 μg/ml PMPs. Cells were cultivated for 5 d in the stem span medium. Expression of CD 133, CD34, and CXCR4 surface marker was analyzed by flow cytometry. Total cell numbers were counted by hemocytometer and clonogenicity were measured by colony assay. PMPs were no effect on CD133+ cells proliferation, but fold increase of CD34+ cells in the presence of 5 and 10 g/ml of PMPs was increased significantly. CXCR4+ cell percent in the presence of 10 g/ml PMPs compared with control cells (63.8 ± 6.4) was increased (P < 0.05). PMPs were no affect on clonogenicity of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Exposure of CD133+ cells isolated from cord blood to PMPs with 10

  6. Common disease signatures from gene expression analysis in Huntington's disease human blood and brain.

    PubMed

    Mina, Eleni; van Roon-Mom, Willeke; Hettne, Kristina; van Zwet, Erik; Goeman, Jelle; Neri, Christian; A C 't Hoen, Peter; Mons, Barend; Roos, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating brain disorder with no effective treatment or cure available. The scarcity of brain tissue makes it hard to study changes in the brain and impossible to perform longitudinal studies. However, peripheral pathology in HD suggests that it is possible to study the disease using peripheral tissue as a monitoring tool for disease progression and/or efficacy of novel therapies. In this study, we investigated if blood can be used to monitor disease severity and progression in brain. Since previous attempts using only gene expression proved unsuccessful, we compared blood and brain Huntington's disease signatures in a functional context. Microarray HD gene expression profiles from three brain regions were compared to the transcriptome of HD blood generated by next generation sequencing. The comparison was performed with a combination of weighted gene co-expression network analysis and literature based functional analysis (Concept Profile Analysis). Uniquely, our comparison of blood and brain datasets was not based on (the very limited) gene overlap but on the similarity between the gene annotations in four different semantic categories: "biological process", "cellular component", "molecular function" and "disease or syndrome". We identified signatures in HD blood reflecting a broad pathophysiological spectrum, including alterations in the immune response, sphingolipid biosynthetic processes, lipid transport, cell signaling, protein modification, spliceosome, RNA splicing, vesicle transport, cell signaling and synaptic transmission. Part of this spectrum was reminiscent of the brain pathology. The HD signatures in caudate nucleus and BA4 exhibited the highest similarity with blood, irrespective of the category of semantic annotations used. BA9 exhibited an intermediate similarity, while cerebellum had the least similarity. We present two signatures that were shared between blood and brain: immune response and spinocerebellar ataxias

  7. Cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs with mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulou, A; Guazzetti, S; Borghetti, P; De Angelis, E; Quintavalla, C

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). In humans with CHF, increased production and high plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-8 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) have been associated with disease progression and a negative prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether differences in cytokine blood mRNA expression exist between clinically healthy dogs and dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD); to determine if the expression was related to the severity of MMVD, and to detect any correlations with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodelling. Twenty-three dogs with MMVD of varying severity and six clinically healthy dogs were included in the study. Whole blood samples were obtained for measurement of mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1, TNF-α by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). There were statistically significant differences between clinically healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD for IL-8 and TGF-β1 gene expression. IL-8 expression increased with increasing MMVD severity and TGF-β1 expression was higher in asymptomatic dogs with echocardiographic signs of cardiac remodelling (American College Veterinary Internal Medicine class B2) than in all other groups. These results could suggest the involvement of these cytokines at different stages of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary investigation of gene expression profiles in peripheral blood lymphocytes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Nikola A; Weidenhofer, Judith; Scott, Rodney J; Schall, Ulrich; Todd, Juanita; Michie, Patricia T; Tooney, Paul A

    2006-02-28

    Schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder that is phenomenologically characterised by a combination of negative, positive, and cognitive symptoms with variable expression in the course of illness. Here, we investigated differential gene expression in relation to age to address the heterogeneity of this disorder We used 6000 gene cDNA microarrays to generate gene expression profiles from peripheral blood lymphocytes from 14 individuals with schizophrenia and 14 non-psychiatric controls. Genes showing altered expression were identified and 18 genes with brain-related functions were altered, 4 of which, endothelial differentiation gene 2 (Edg-2), ezrin-radixin-moesin phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), Myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 (TNFR2), were confirmed by relative real-time PCR. Dendrograms were constructed using genes that showed significantly different expression (p<0.05) between groups based on median split of age dividing the matched pairs into distinct subclasses. Our findings suggest that distinct gene expression profiles in peripheral blood lymphocytes associated with schizophrenia phenotypes may provide a first step towards the biological classification of schizophrenia subtypes. The validity of this approach may lead to better methods of defining this enigmatic disease.

  9. [Individual changes of gene expression in the interferon system in human blood cells due to amixin and cycloferon].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, T M; Uryvaev, L V; Tazulakhova, E B; Ershov, F I; Malyshenkova, I K; Didkovskiĭ, N A

    2005-01-01

    The action of amixin and cycloferon on the expression of genes in the systems of interferon (IF) and cell apoptosis (CA) was studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in human blood microsamples before and after the administration of the drugs. Individual changes were determined in the transcription activity of genes of IF (alpha, beta, gamma), enzymes 2',5' oligoadenylatesynthetase (OAS), RNSase L, dsRNA-dependent proteinkinase (dsPK) and of CA effectors (FasAg, bcl-2, gamma-actin) registered dynamically in 24 h and 48 h. The activity parameters of IF genes were compared with the results of biological titration of IF activity in blood samples in vivo and in vitro. A pronounced ability of cycloferon to stimulate selectively the activity of genes of human IF, type I (beta IF--by 100 times and alpha IF--by 10 times), without affecting essentially the activity of other genes in blood cells, was detected. Amixin was found to inhibit the titration of genes with high activity levels. (alpha-, beta-IF, RNAases L, bcl-2 and gamma-actin). The antiviral and IF-induced properties of the drug are explained to a great extent by the apoptotic effect (activation of genes Fas, gamma-IF, OAS and affected transcription of gene bcl-2). A positive correlation was observed between the processes of activation of IF-genes transcription and the production of the total circulating IF. Antagonistic relations between type I and II IFs in human blood cells were shown.

  10. Peripheral blood mammaglobin gene expression for diagnosis and prediction of metastasis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Wafaa M; Moussa, Heba S; Essa, Enas S; Kandil, Samia H; Kamel, Azza M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the value of peripheral blood mammaglobin (MG) gene expression for diagnosis and prediction of metastasis in breast cancer patients. MG expression was detected by nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in the peripheral blood of 46 females (32 breast cancer, 12 benign breast lesions, 2 no breast abnormalities). In total 28 breast cancer patients were followed up through a period of 34 months for the development of metastasis. MG expression was detected in 16/32 (50%) breast cancer patients but not in patients with benign lesions or healthy participants. Five patients had metastasis at diagnosis. During the 34 months of follow up, five more MG-positive patients showed metastatic lesions and none of the MG negative patients who were followed up developed metastasis. The study suggests blood MG expression is a specific molecular marker for detection of occult mammary carcinoma cells of patients with operable breast cancer. It might be of value as a predictor of subsequent metastasis. Large-scale studies and longer follow-up periods are needed. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Whole Blood Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Differences between Dapulian and Landrace Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dandan; Li, Chuanhao; Wang, Yandong

    2016-01-01

    There is little genomic information regarding gene expression differences at the whole blood transcriptome level of different pig breeds at the neonatal stage. To solve this, we characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the whole blood of Dapulian (DPL) and Landrace piglets using RNA-seq (RNA-sequencing) technology. In this study, 83 DEGs were identified between the two breeds. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses identified immune response and metabolism as the most commonly enriched terms and pathways in the DEGs. Genes related to immunity and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in the DPL piglets, while genes related to body growth were more highly expressed in the Landrace piglets. Additionally, the DPL piglets had twofold more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alternative splicing (AS) than the Landrace piglets. These results expand our knowledge of the genes transcribed in the piglet whole blood of two breeds and provide a basis for future research of the molecular mechanisms underlying the piglet differences. PMID:28105431

  12. Whole Blood Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Differences between Dapulian and Landrace Piglets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiaqing; Yang, Dandan; Chen, Wei; Li, Chuanhao; Wang, Yandong; Zeng, Yongqing; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    There is little genomic information regarding gene expression differences at the whole blood transcriptome level of different pig breeds at the neonatal stage. To solve this, we characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the whole blood of Dapulian (DPL) and Landrace piglets using RNA-seq (RNA-sequencing) technology. In this study, 83 DEGs were identified between the two breeds. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses identified immune response and metabolism as the most commonly enriched terms and pathways in the DEGs. Genes related to immunity and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in the DPL piglets, while genes related to body growth were more highly expressed in the Landrace piglets. Additionally, the DPL piglets had twofold more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alternative splicing (AS) than the Landrace piglets. These results expand our knowledge of the genes transcribed in the piglet whole blood of two breeds and provide a basis for future research of the molecular mechanisms underlying the piglet differences.

  13. RANK Expression and Osteoclastogenesis in Human Monocytes in Peripheral Blood from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) appears as inflammation of synovial tissue and joint destruction. Receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) is a member of the TNF receptor superfamily and a receptor for the RANK ligand (RANKL). In this study, we examined the expression of RANKhigh and CCR6 on CD14+ monocytes from patients with RA and healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from both the RA patients and the healthy volunteers. Osteoclastogenesis from monocytes was induced by RANKL and M-CSF in vitro. To study the expression of RANKhigh and CCR6 on CD14+ monocytes, two-color flow cytometry was performed. Levels of expression of RANK on monocytes were significantly correlated with the level of osteoclastogenesis in the healthy volunteers. The expression of RANKhigh on CD14+ monocyte in RA patients without treatment was elevated and that in those receiving treatment was decreased. In addition, the high-level expression of RANK on CD14+ monocytes was correlated with the high-level expression of CCR6 in healthy volunteers. Monocytes expressing both RANK and CCR6 differentiate into osteoclasts. The expression of CD14+RANKhigh in untreated RA patients was elevated. RANK and CCR6 expressed on monocytes may be novel targets for the regulation of bone resorption in RA and osteoporosis. PMID:27822475

  14. Does whey protein supplementation affect blood pressure in hypoalbuminemic peritoneal dialysis patients?

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kamal; Hassan, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Hypertension and hypoalbuminemia are common risk factors for cardiovascular complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Data are limited regarding the effects of whey protein consumption on blood pressure in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine if whey protein supplementation for 12 weeks to hypoalbuminemic PD patients affects their blood pressure. Patients and methods This prospective randomized study included 36 stable PD patients with serum albumin levels <3.8 g/dL. During 12 weeks, 18 patients were instructed to consume 1.2 g/kg/day of protein and an additional whey protein supplement at a dose of 25% of the instructed daily protein (whey protein group). Eighteen patients were instructed to consume protein in the amount of 1.2 g/kg/day and an additional 25%, without whey protein supplementation (control group). Results Compared to the control group, in the whey protein group, serum albumin levels, oncotic pressure, and dialysate ultrafiltration significantly increased (3.55±0.14 to 4.08±0.15 g/dL, P<0.001; 21.81±2.03 to 24.06±1.54 mmHg, P<0.001; 927.8±120.3 to 1,125.0±125.1 mL/day, P<0.001; respectively) and were significantly higher after 12 weeks (4.08±0.15 vs 3.41±0.49 g/dL, P<0.001; 24.06±1.54 vs 22.71±1.77 mmHg, P=0.010; 1,125.0±125.1 vs 930.6±352.8 mL/day, P=0.017; respectively) in the whey protein group compared to the control group. Fluid overload, the extracellular to intracellular ratio and mean arterial pressure (MAP) significantly decreased (2.46±1.08 to 1.52±0.33, P<0.001; 1.080±0.142 to 0.954±0.124, P<0.001; 102.6±3.80 to 99.83±3.85, P=0.018; respectively) and were significantly lower in the whey protein group after 12 weeks (1.52±0.33 vs 2.23±0.73, P<0.001, 0.954±0.124 vs 1.048±0.111, P=0.002; 99.83±3.85 vs 102.8±3.93, P=0.018; respectively). Conclusion Whey protein supplementation for 12 weeks decreased MAP in hypoalbuminemic PD patients. PMID:28860783

  15. Blood-gene expression reveals reduced circadian rhythmicity in individuals resistant to sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Arnardottir, Erna S; Nikonova, Elena V; Shockley, Keith R; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Anafi, Ron C; Tanis, Keith Q; Maislin, Greg; Stone, David J; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Pack, Allan I

    2014-10-01

    To address whether changes in gene expression in blood cells with sleep loss are different in individuals resistant and sensitive to sleep deprivation. Blood draws every 4 h during a 3-day study: 24-h normal baseline, 38 h of continuous wakefulness and subsequent recovery sleep, for a total of 19 time-points per subject, with every 2-h psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) assessment when awake. Sleep laboratory. Fourteen subjects who were previously identified as behaviorally resistant (n = 7) or sensitive (n = 7) to sleep deprivation by PVT. Thirty-eight hours of continuous wakefulness. We found 4,481 unique genes with a significant 24-h diurnal rhythm during a normal sleep-wake cycle in blood (false discovery rate [FDR] < 5%). Biological pathways were enriched for biosynthetic processes during sleep. After accounting for circadian effects, two genes (SREBF1 and CPT1A, both involved in lipid metabolism) exhibited small, but significant, linear changes in expression with the duration of sleep deprivation (FDR < 5%). The main change with sleep deprivation was a reduction in the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of expression of normally cycling probe sets. This reduction was noticeably higher in behaviorally resistant subjects than sensitive subjects, at any given P value. Furthermore, blood cell type enrichment analysis showed that the expression pattern difference between sensitive and resistant subjects is mainly found in cells of myeloid origin, such as monocytes. Individual differences in behavioral effects of sleep deprivation are associated with differences in diurnal amplitude of gene expression for genes that show circadian rhythmicity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Expression profiling associates blood and brain glucocorticoid receptor signaling with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Cohen, Hagit; Cai, Guiqing; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Delineating the molecular basis of individual differences in the stress response is critical to understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, 7 d after predator-scent-stress (PSS) exposure, male and female rats were classified into vulnerable (i.e., “PTSD-like”) and resilient (i.e., minimally affected) phenotypes on the basis of their performance on a variety of behavioral measures. Genome-wide expression profiling in blood and two limbic brain regions (amygdala and hippocampus), followed by quantitative PCR validation, was performed in these two groups of animals, as well as in an unexposed control group. Differentially expressed genes were identified in blood and brain associated with PSS-exposure and with distinct behavioral profiles postexposure. There was a small but significant between-tissue overlap (4–21%) for the genes associated with exposure-related individual differences, indicating convergent gene expression in both sexes. To uncover convergent signaling pathways across tissue and sex, upstream activated/deactivated transcription factors were first predicted for each tissue and then the respective pathways were identified. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling was the only convergent pathway associated with individual differences when using the most stringent statistical threshold. Corticosterone treatment 1 h after PSS-exposure prevented anxiety and hyperarousal 7 d later in both sexes, confirming the GR involvement in the PSS behavioral response. In conclusion, genes and pathways associated with extreme differences in the traumatic stress behavioral response can be distinguished from those associated with trauma exposure. Blood-based biomarkers can predict aspects of brain signaling. GR signaling is a convergent signaling pathway, associated with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes. PMID:25114262

  17. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults.

    PubMed

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat

    2014-01-01

    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development-The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions-angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted-and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  18. QUANTIFYING ATYPICALITY IN AFFECTIVE FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS.

    PubMed

    Metallinou, Angeliki; Grossman, Ruth B; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2013-01-01

    We focus on the analysis, quantification and visualization of atypicality in affective facial expressions of children with High Functioning Autism (HFA). We examine facial Motion Capture data from typically developing (TD) children and children with HFA, using various statistical methods, including Functional Data Analysis, in order to quantify atypical expression characteristics and uncover patterns of expression evolution in the two populations. Our results show that children with HFA display higher asynchrony of motion between facial regions, more rough facial and head motion, and a larger range of facial region motion. Overall, subjects with HFA consistently display a wider variability in the expressive facial gestures that they employ. Our analysis demonstrates the utility of computational approaches for understanding behavioral data and brings new insights into the autism domain regarding the atypicality that is often associated with facial expressions of subjects with HFA.

  19. DNA demethylation induced by 5-azacytidine does not affect fragile X expression.

    PubMed Central

    Glover, T W; Coyle-Morris, J; Pearce-Birge, L; Berger, C; Gemmill, R M

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the role of DNA demethylation in fragile X expression. Fragile X positive lymphoblastoid cells were treated with 5-azacytidine and harvested for analysis of fragile X expression both directly following treatment and after a recovery period in the absence of the drug. The effectiveness of 5-azacytidine treatment in inducing DNA demethylation was concurrently monitored by analysis of methylation changes at random autosomal loci in isolated DNA from treated cells. Under conditions where 5-azacytidine was found to inhibit fragile X expression, no DNA demethylation was observed. At the time when demethylation did occur, fragile X expression was not affected. These results strongly indicate that DNA demethylation is not involved in fragile X expression. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2420174

  20. WNT signaling affects gene expression in the ventral diencephalon and pituitary gland growth

    PubMed Central

    Potok, Mary Anne; Cha, Kelly B.; Hunt, Andrea; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Leitges, Michael; Kispert, Andreas; Camper, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the role of WNT signaling in pituitary development by characterizing the pituitary phenotype of three WNT knockout mice and assessing the expression of WNT pathway components. Wnt5a mutants have expanded domains of Fgf10 and BMP expression in the ventral diencephalon and a reduced domain of LHX3 expression in Rathke's pouch. Wnt4 mutants have mildly reduced cell differentiation, reduced POU1F1 expression, and mild anterior lobe hypoplasia. Wnt4, Wnt5a double mutants exhibit an additive pituitary phenotype of dysmorphology and mild hypoplasia. Wnt6 mutants have no obvious pituitary phenotype. We surveyed WNT expression and identified transcripts for numerous Wnts, Frizzleds and downstream pathway members in the pituitary and ventral diencephalon. These findings support the emerging model that WNT signaling affects the pituitary gland via effects on ventral diencephalon signaling, and suggest additional Wnt genes that are worthy of functional studies. PMID:18351662

  1. Blood lactate concentrations are mildly affected by mobile gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Scharhag-Rosenberger, F; Wochatz, M; Otto, C; Cassel, M; Mayer, F; Scharhag, J

    2014-06-01

    We sought to investigate the effects of wearing a mobile respiratory gas analysis system during a treadmill test on blood lactate (bLa) concentrations and commonly applied bLa thresholds. A total of 16 recreational athletes (31±3 years, VO2max: 58±6 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)) performed one multistage treadmill test with and one without gas exchange measurements (GEM and noGEM). The whole bLa curve, the lactate threshold (LT), the individual anaerobic thresholds according to Stegmann (IATSt) and Dickhuth (IATDi), and a fixed bLa concentration of 4 mmol ∙ l(-1) (OBLA) were evaluated. The bLa curve was shifted slightly leftward in GEM compared to noGEM (P<0.05), whereas the heart rate response was not different between conditions (P=0.89). There was no difference between GEM and noGEM for LT (2.61±0.34 vs. 2.64±0.39 m · s(-1), P=0.49) and IATSt (3.47±0.42 vs. 3.55±0.47 m · s(-1), P=0.12). However, IATDi (3.57±0.39 vs. 3.66±0.44 m · s(-1), P<0.01) and OBLA (3.85±0.46 vs. 3.96±0.47 m · s(-1), P<0.01) occurred at slower running velocities in GEM. The bLa response to treadmill tests is mildly affected by wearing a mobile gas analysis system. This also applies to bLa thresholds located at higher exercise intensities. While the magnitude of the effects is of little importance for recreational athletes, it might be relevant for elite athletes and scientific studies.

  2. Expression and hypoxic regulation of hif1alpha and hif2alpha during early blood and endothelial cell differentiation in chick.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kanako; Nagai, Hiroki; Sheng, Guojun

    2007-08-01

    HIF1 and HIF2 are major mediators for hypoxia sensing and response. Their roles in early differentiation of two key cell types involved in oxygen supply in amniotes, the primitive blood cells and endothelial cells, are unclear. We show that, in pre-circulation avian embryos, hif1alpha and hif2alpha are expressed in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, respectively. hif2alpha, first identified as epas1, is not present in endothelial cells at any pre-circulation stage under either normoxia or hypoxia conditions. Differentiating blood cells express low levels of hif2alpha under normoxia, but show a strong and rapid upregulation under hypoxia. Blood cell differentiation, however, is not affected under either hypoxia or hyperoxia conditions.

  3. Priming effects on the N400 in the affective priming paradigm with facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Luis; Dieguez-Risco, Teresa; Méndez-Bértolo, Constantino; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A

    2013-06-01

    We studied the effect of facial expression primes on the evaluation of target words through a variant of the affective priming paradigm. In order to make the affective valence of the faces irrelevant to the task, the participants were assigned a double prime-target task in which they were unpredictably asked either to identify the gender of the face or to evaluate whether the word was pleasant or unpleasant. Behavioral and electrophysiological (event-related potential, or ERP) indices of affective priming were analyzed. Temporal and spatial versions of principal components analyses were used to detect and quantify those ERP components associated with affective priming. Although no significant behavioral priming was observed, electrophysiological indices showed a reverse priming effect, in the sense that the amplitude of the N400 was higher in response to congruent than to incongruent negative words. Moreover, a late positive potential (LPP), peaking around 700 ms, was sensitive to affective valence but not to prime-target congruency. This pattern of results is consistent with previous accounts of ERP effects in the affective priming paradigm that have linked the LPP with evaluative priming and the N400 with semantic priming. Our proposed explanation of the N400 priming effects obtained in the present study is based on two assumptions: a double check of affective stimuli in terms of valence and specific emotion content, and the differential specificities of facial expressions of positive and negative emotions.

  4. Experimental results of affective valence and arousal to avatar's facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jeonghun; Jang, Hee Jeong; Kim, Kwang Uk; Kim, Jae Hun; Park, Sung Hyouk; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, In Y; Kim, Sun I

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to propose a method of presenting dynamic facial expressions to experimental subjects, in order to investigate human perception of avatar's facial expressions of different levels of emotional intensity. The investigation concerned how perception varies according to the strength of facial expression, as well as according to an avatar's gender. To accomplish these goals, we generated a male and a female virtual avatar with five levels of intensity of happiness and anger using a morphing technique. We then recruited 16 normal healthy subjects and measured each subject's emotional reaction by scoring affective arousal and valence after showing them the avatar's face. Through this study, we were able to investigate human perceptual characteristics evoked by male and female avatars' graduated facial expressions of happiness and anger. In addition, we were able to identify that a virtual avatar's facial expression could affect human emotion in different ways according to the avatar's gender and the intensity of its facial expressions. However, we could also see that virtual faces have some limitations because they are not real, so subjects recognized the expressions well, but were not influenced to the same extent. Although a virtual avatar has some limitations in conveying its emotion using facial expressions, this study is significant in that it shows that a new potential exists to use or manipulate emotional intensity by controlling a virtual avatar's facial expression linearly using a morphing technique. Therefore, it is predicted that this technique may be used for assessing emotional characteristics of humans, and may be of particular benefit for work with people with emotional disorders through a presentation of dynamic expression of various emotional intensities.

  5. Increased cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia is not affected by lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus

    SciTech Connect

    Harik, S.I.; Prado, R.; Busto, R.; Ginsberg, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the putative noradrenergic innervation of intraparenchymal cerebral blood vessels from the nucleus locus ceruleus mediates the vasodilatory response to hypercapnia, regional cerebral blood flow was measured by iodo-(/sup 14/C)antipyrine autoradiography in awake and restrained rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus and in unlesioned control rats. Hypercapnia, induced by the inhalation of 5% or 8% CO/sub 2/ in air for 8 minutes caused a 2 to 5-fold increase in regional cerebral blood flow. However, despite a marked reduction of about 90% in cortical norepinephrine levels ipsilateral to the lesion, blood flow to the frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum increased to the same extent in ipsilateral and contralateral regions. Thus, lesion of the locus ceruleus and the resultant depletion of endogenous cortical and hippocampal norepinephrine, does not influence the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia.

  6. Temperature stress affects the expression of immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is affected by a fungal disease called chalkbrood. In several species of bees, chalkbrood is more likely to occur in larvae kept at 25-30 C than at 35 C. We found that both high and low temperature stress increased the expression of immune response g...

  7. Problem-Solving Skills and Affective Expressions as Predictors of Change in Marital Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew D.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Davila, Joanne; Lawrence, Erika; Rogge, Ronald D.; Karney, Benjamin R.; Sullivan, Kieran T.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2005-01-01

    Specific skills and affective expressions coded from the problem-solving interactions of 172 newlywed couples were examined in relation to 8-wave, 4-year trajectories of marital satisfaction. Effects varied as a function of whether husbands' versus wives' topics were under discussion and whether husbands' versus wives' satisfaction was predicted,…

  8. Effectiveness of Adaptive Pretend Play on Affective Expression and Imagination of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty participating in role-pretending activities. The concept of adaptive play makes play accessible by modifying play materials for different needs or treatment goals for children with CP. This study examines the affective expressions and imagination in children with CP as a function of…

  9. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  10. Happy babies, chatty toddlers: infant positive affect facilitates early expressive, but not receptive language.

    PubMed

    Laake, Lauren M; Bridgett, David J

    2014-02-01

    Eighty-three mother-infant dyads participated in this study. Positive affect (PA) broadly, along with fine-grained aspects of PA, was measured at 10 months of age. Language was measured at 14 months. Infant PA predicted expressive, but not receptive, language. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Happy Babies, Chatty Toddlers: Infant Positive Affect Facilitates Early Expressive, but not Receptive Language

    PubMed Central

    Laake, Lauren M.; Bridgett, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Eighty-three mother-infant dyads participated in this study. Positive affect (PA) broadly, along with fine-grained aspects of PA, was measured at 10 months of age. Language was measured at 14 months. Infant PA predicted expressive, but not receptive, language. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24441013

  12. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  13. Effectiveness of Adaptive Pretend Play on Affective Expression and Imagination of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty participating in role-pretending activities. The concept of adaptive play makes play accessible by modifying play materials for different needs or treatment goals for children with CP. This study examines the affective expressions and imagination in children with CP as a function of…

  14. How Does Natural Environment Affect American and Japanese Ways of Expressing Themselves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    1982-01-01

    An essay compares Japanese and American language, reflecting on the fundamental culture-based differences between methods of communication in Japan and the United States. Japanese and Americans have different systems of logic and thought, attitudes, and ways of expressing themselves, all of which are affected by their respective background…

  15. Alterations of membrane protein expression in red blood cells of Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Várady, György; Szabó, Edit; Fehér, Ágnes; Németh, Adrienn; Zámbó, Boglárka; Pákáski, Magdolna; Janka, Zoltán; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2015-09-01

    Preventive measures, prognosis, or selected therapy in multifactorial maladies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), require the application of a wide range of diagnostic assays. There is a large unmet need for relatively simple, blood-based biomarkers in this regard. We have recently developed a rapid and reliable flow cytometry and antibody-based method for the quantitative measurement of various red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins from a drop of blood. Here, we document that the RBC expression of certain membrane proteins, especially that of the GLUT1 transporter and the insulin receptor (INSR), is significantly higher in AD patients than in age-matched healthy subjects. The observed differences may reflect long-term metabolic alterations relevant in the development of AD. These findings may pave the way for a diagnostic application of RBC membrane proteins as relatively stable and easily accessible personalized biomarkers in AD.

  16. Gene Expression Differences in Peripheral Blood of Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Distinct Progression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, Lilach; Lobo, Patrícia P.; Mestre, Tiago; Coelho, Miguel; Rosa, Mário M.; Gonçalves, Nilza; Wales, Pauline; Mendes, Tiago; Gerhardt, Ellen; Fahlbusch, Christiane; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Bonin, Michael; Miltenberger-Miltényi, Gabriel; Borovecki, Fran; Soreq, Hermona; Ferreira, Joaquim J.; F. Outeiro, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of neurodegenerative disorders is clinically challenging due to the inexistence of established biomarkers for predicting disease progression. Here, we performed an exploratory cross-sectional, case-control study aimed at determining whether gene expression differences in peripheral blood may be used as a signature of Parkinson’s disease (PD) progression, thereby shedding light into potential molecular mechanisms underlying disease development. We compared transcriptional profiles in the blood from 34 PD patients who developed postural instability within ten years with those of 33 patients who did not develop postural instability within this time frame. Our study identified >200 differentially expressed genes between the two groups. The expression of several of the genes identified was previously found deregulated in animal models of PD and in PD patients. Relevant genes were selected for validation by real-time PCR in a subset of patients. The genes validated were linked to nucleic acid metabolism, mitochondria, immune response and intracellular-transport. Interestingly, we also found deregulation of these genes in a dopaminergic cell model of PD, a simple paradigm that can now be used to further dissect the role of these molecular players on dopaminergic cell loss. Altogether, our study provides preliminary evidence that expression changes in specific groups of genes and pathways, detected in peripheral blood samples, may be correlated with differential PD progression. Our exploratory study suggests that peripheral gene expression profiling may prove valuable for assisting in prediction of PD prognosis, and identifies novel culprits possibly involved in dopaminergic cell death. Given the exploratory nature of our study, further investigations using independent, well-characterized cohorts will be essential in order to validate our candidates as predictors of PD prognosis and to definitively confirm the value of gene expression analysis in aiding

  17. Gene expression changes in blood RNA after swimming in a chlorinated pool.

    PubMed

    Salas, Lucas A; Font-Ribera, Laia; Bustamante, Mariona; Sumoy, Lauro; Grimalt, Joan O; Bonnin, Sarah; Aguilar, Maria; Mattlin, Heidi; Hummel, Manuela; Ferrer, Anna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects in humans, but their biological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated short-term changes in blood gene expression of adult recreational swimmers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Volunteers swam 40min in an indoor chlorinated pool. Blood samples were drawn and four THM (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were measured in exhaled breath before and after swimming. Intensity of physical activity was measured as metabolic equivalents (METs). Gene expression in whole blood mRNA was evaluated using IlluminaHumanHT-12v3 Expression-BeadChip. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship between gene expression changes and THM exposure. Thirty-seven before-after pairs were analyzed. The median increase from baseline to after swimming were: 0.7 to 2.3 for MET, and 1.4 to 7.1μg/m(3) for exhaled total THM (sum of the four THM). Exhaled THM increased on average 0.94μg/m(3) per 1 MET. While 1643 probes were differentially expressed post-exposure. Of them, 189 were also associated with exhaled levels of individual/total THM or MET after False Discovery Rate. The observed associations with the exhaled THM were low to moderate (Log-fold change range: -0.17 to 0.15). In conclusion, we identified short-term gene expression changes associated with swimming in a pool that were minor in magnitude and their biological meaning was unspecific. The high collinearity between exhaled THM levels and intensity of physical activity precluded mutually adjusted models with both covariates. These exploratory results should be validated in future studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Induction of Human Blood Group A Antigen Expression on Mouse Cells, Using Lentiviral Gene Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohu; Lang, Haili; Zhou, Xianpei; Zhang, Li; Yin, Rong; Maciejko, Jessica; Giannitsos, Vasiliki; Motyka, Bruce; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The ABO histo-blood group system is the most important antigen system in transplantation medicine, yet no small animal model of the ABO system exists. To determine the feasibility of developing a murine model, we previously subcloned the human α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (H-transferase, EC 2.4.1.69) cDNA and the human α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (A-transferase, EC 2.4.1.40) cDNA into lentiviral vectors to study their ability to induce human histo-blood group A antigen expression on mouse cells. Herein we investigated the optimal conditions for human A and H antigen expression in murine cells. We determined that transduction of a bicistronic lentiviral vector (LvEF1-AH-trs) resulted in the expression of A antigen in a mouse endothelial cell line. We also studied the in vivo utility of this vector to induce human A antigen expression in mouse liver. After intrahepatic injection of LvEF1-AH-trs, A antigen expression was observed on hepatocytes as detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. In human group A erythrocyte-sensitized mice, A antigen expression in the liver was associated with tissue damage, and deposition of antibody and complement. These results suggest that this gene transfer strategy can be used to simulate the human ABO blood group system in a murine model. This model will facilitate progress in the development of interventions for ABO-incompatible transplantation and transfusion scenarios, which are difficult to develop in clinical or large animal settings. PMID:20163247

  19. Expression Profiling of Solute Carrier Gene Families at the Blood-CSF Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Horace T. B.; Dahlin, Amber; Wang, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) is a highly vascularized tissue in the brain ventricles and acts as the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB). A main function of the CP is to secrete CSF, which is accomplished by active transport of small ions and water from the blood side to the CSF side. The CP also supplies the brain with certain nutrients, hormones, and metal ions, while removing metabolites and xenobiotics from the CSF. Numerous membrane transporters are expressed in the CP in order to facilitate the solute exchange between the blood and the CSF. The solute carrier (SLC) superfamily represents a major class of transporters in the CP that constitutes the molecular mechanisms for CP function. Recently, we systematically and quantitatively examined Slc gene expression in 20 anatomically comprehensive brain areas in the adult mouse brain using high-quality in situ hybridization data generated by the Allen Brain Atlas. Here we focus our analysis on Slc gene expression at the BCSFB using previously obtained data. Of the 252 Slc genes present in the mouse brain, 202 Slc genes were found at detectable levels in the CP. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the CP Slc gene expression pattern is substantially different from the other 19 analyzed brain regions. The majority of the Slc genes in the CP are expressed at low to moderate levels, whereas 28 Slc genes are present in the CP at the highest levels. These highly expressed Slc genes encode transporters involved in CSF secretion, energy production, and transport of nutrients, hormones, neurotransmitters, sulfate, and metal ions. In this review, the functional characteristics and potential importance of these Slc transporters in the CP are discussed, with particular emphasis on their localization and physiological functions at the BCSFB. PMID:22936914

  20. The effects of perceived discrimination on ambulatory blood pressure and affective responses to interpersonal stress modeled over 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Smart Richman, Laura; Pek, Jolynn; Pascoe, Elizabeth; Bauer, Daniel J

    2010-07-01

    This research examined the impact of perceived discrimination on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and daily level affect during social interaction. For 24 hrs, adult Black and White participants wore an ABP monitor and completed palm pilot diary entries about their social interactions. Mean level and time-trend trajectories of blood pressure and heart rate were examined as well as mean level measures of positive and negative affect after stressful and nonstressful social interactions. Analyses showed that, after controlling for important covariates, perceived discrimination predicted the slopes of both wake and nocturnal ABP responses, with those who reported more discrimination having steeper daytime trajectories for systolic and diastolic blood pressure and less nighttime dipping in heart rate over time as compared to those who had reported relatively infrequent discrimination. High levels of perceived discrimination were also related to positive and negative affective responses after stressful encounters. These results suggest that, regardless of race, perceived discrimination is related to cardiovascular and affective responses that may increase vulnerability to pathogenic processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Post-Weaning Diet Affects Faecal Microbial Composition but Not Selected Adipose Gene Expression in the Cat (Felis catus)

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Kittelmann, Sandra; Young, Wayne; Kerr, Katherine R.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Roy, Nicole C.; Thomas, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled (“Diet A”; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned (“Diet B”; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment). Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18) and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24) and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (P<0.05) in composition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (P<0.05) abundance of Firmicutes (77% vs 52% of total reads) and Actinobacteria (0.8% vs 0.2% of total reads), and decreased (P<0.05) abundance of Fusobacteria (1.6% vs 18.4% of total reads) were observed for kittens fed the Diet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (P<0.05) the expression levels of INRS, LEPT, PAI-1 and tended to increase GLUT1, while the expression levels of IRS-1 in blood increased in kittens fed Diet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest. PMID:24312255

  2. Task difficulty and response complexity modulate affective priming by emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Federica; Campoy, Guillermo; Castillo, Alejandro; Inuggi, Alberto; Fuentes, Luis J

    2014-05-01

    In this study we used an affective priming task to address the issue of whether the processing of emotional facial expressions occurs automatically independent of attention or attentional resources. Participants had to attend to the emotion expression of the prime face, or to a nonemotional feature of the prime face, the glasses. When participants attended to glasses (emotion unattended), they had to report whether the face wore glasses or not (the glasses easy condition) or whether the glasses were rounded or squared (the shape difficult condition). Affective priming, measured on valence decisions on target words, was mainly defined as interference from incongruent rather than facilitation from congruent trials. Significant priming effects were observed just in the emotion and glasses tasks but not in the shape task. When the key-response mapping increased in complexity, taxing working memory load, affective priming effects were reduced equally for the three types of tasks. Thus, attentional load and working memory load affected additively to the observed reduction in affective priming. These results cast some doubts on the automaticity of processing emotional facial expressions.

  3. AP-2α-dependent regulation of Bcl-2/Bax expression affects apoptosis in the trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Jia, Liting; Cui, Shihong; Shi, Ying; Chang, Aimin; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhan

    2012-12-01

    Enhanced apoptosis of the cytotrophoblast in early pregnancy is associated with a high risk of preeclampsia. We and others have previously reported that the transcriptional factor, activator protein AP-2α, suppressed trophoblast migration and invasion. However, it is not clear whether AP-2α affects apoptosis in trophoblast cells and whether it regulates expression of apoptosis-related factors Bcl-2 and Bax. We analyzed the expression of AP-2α, Bcl-2 and Bax in placental tissues in severe preeclamptic pregnancies and normotensive pregnancies using immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. Further, apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric analysis in the human trophoblastic cell line, BeWo cells, in which AP-2α expression was transiently overexpressed or down-regulated by siRNA. There was significantly higher expression of AP-2α and Bax, but lower expression of Bcl-2 in severe preeclampsia placentas as compared to the control placentas. Overexpression of AP-2α in BeWo cells led to an increased rate of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was decreased when AP-2α expression was reduced. Furthermore, overexpression of AP-2α increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression, whereas down-regulation of AP-2α expression resulted in a decrease in Bax expression and an increase in Bcl-2 expression. AP-2α regulates expression of Bcl-2 and Bax and apoptosis in BeWo cells. These results suggest that AP-2α-mediated regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax regulation influences apoptosis which in turn leads to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  4. Identification and Characterization of Three Genes That Affect Expression of Adh2 in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Karnitz, L.; Morrison, M.; Young, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    Using a new selection protocol we have identified and preliminarily characterized three new loci (ADR7, ADR8 and ADR9) which affect ADH2 (alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme II) expression. Mutants were selected which activate ADH2 expression in the presence of an over-expressed, normally inactive ADR1 allele. The mutants had very similar phenotypes with the exception that one was temperature sensitive for growth. In the absence of any ADR1 allele, the mutants allowed ADH2 to partially escape glucose repression. However, unlike wildtype strains deleted for ADR1, the mutants were able to efficiently derepress ADH2. The mutations allowed a small escape from glucose repression for secreted invertase, but had no effect on the glucose repression of isocitrate lyase or malate dehydrogenase. The mutations were shown to be nonallelic to a wide variety of previously characterized mutations, including mutations that affect other glucose-repressed enzymes. PMID:1427033

  5. Hypothyroidism affects D2 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D2 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-03-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age-matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a peripheral D2 receptor agonist), increased oxygen consumption and body temperature in awake air-exposed hypothyroid female hamsters and stimulated their ventilation before and following exposure to hypoxia. Carmoxirole depressed frequency of breathing in euthyroid hamsters prior to, during and following hypoxia exposures and stimulated it in the hypothyroid hamsters following hypoxia. Although hypothyroidism did not affect expression of D2 receptors, it influenced central D2 modulation of breathing in a disparate manner relative to euthyroid hamsters.

  6. Hypothyroidism Affects D2 Receptor-mediated Breathing without altering D2 Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Evelyn H.; Rio, Rodrigo Del; Schultz, Harold D.

    2015-01-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age- matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a peripheral D2 receptor agonist), increased oxygen consumption and body temperature in awake air-exposed hypothyroid female hamsters and stimulated their ventilation before and following exposure to hypoxia. Carmoxirole depressed frequency of breathing in euthyroid hamsters prior to, during and following hypoxia exposures and stimulated it in the hypothyroid hamsters following hypoxia. Although hypothyroidism did not affect expression of D2 receptors, it influenced central D2 modulation of breathing in a disparate manner relative to euthyroid hamsters. PMID:24434437

  7. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB) or saline (CT) i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB) expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression. PMID:20504316

  8. Predicting Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Blood-based Gene Expression Signatures and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Il Bin; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify a transcriptomic signature that could be used to classify subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to controls on the basis of blood gene expression profiles. The gene expression profiles could ultimately be used as diagnostic biomarkers for ASD. Methods We used the published microarray data (GSE26415) from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included 21 young adults with ASD and 21 age- and sex-matched unaffected controls. Nineteen differentially expressed probes were identified from a training dataset (n=26, 13 ASD cases and 13 controls) using the limma package in R language (adjusted p value <0.05) and were further analyzed in a test dataset (n=16, 8 ASD cases and 8 controls) using machine learning algorithms. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that subjects with ASD were relatively well-discriminated from controls. Based on the support vector machine and K-nearest neighbors analysis, validation of 19-DE probes with a test dataset resulted in an overall class prediction accuracy of 93.8% as well as a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusion The results of our exploratory study suggest that the gene expression profiles identified from the peripheral blood samples of young adults with ASD can be used to identify a biological signature for ASD. Further study using a larger cohort and more homogeneous datasets is required to improve the diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28138110

  9. New expression profiles of voltage-gated ion channels in arteries exposed to high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robert H; Rusch, Nancy J

    2002-01-01

    The diameters of small arteries and arterioles are tightly regulated by the dynamic interaction between Ca(2+) and K(+) channels in the vascular smooth muscle cells. Calcium influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels induces vasoconstriction, whereas the opening of K(+) channels mediates hyperpolarization, inactivation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, and vasodilation. Three types of voltage-sensitive ion channels have been highly implicated in the regulation of resting vascular tone. These include the L-type Ca(2+) (Ca(L)) channels, voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels, and high-conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels. Recently, abnormal expression profiles of these ion channels have been identified as part of the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and other vasospastic diseases. An increasing number of studies suggest that high blood pressure may trigger cellular signaling cascades that dynamically alter the expression profile of arterial ion channels to further modify vascular tone. This article will briefly review the properties of Ca(L), K(V), and BK(Ca) channels, present evidence that their expression profile is altered during systemic hypertension, and suggest potential mechanisms by which the signal of elevated blood pressure may result in altered ion channel expression. A final section will discuss emerging concepts and opportunities for the development of new vasoactive drugs, which may rely on targeting disease-specific changes in ion channel expression as a mechanism to lower vascular tone during hypertensive diseases.

  10. Cell-type specific gene expression profiles of leukocytes in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Chana; Diehn, Maximilian; Alizadeh, Ash A; Brown, Patrick O

    2006-01-01

    Background Blood is a complex tissue comprising numerous cell types with distinct functions and corresponding gene expression profiles. We attempted to define the cell type specific gene expression patterns for the major constituent cells of blood, including B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, lymphocytes and granulocytes. We did this by comparing the global gene expression profiles of purified B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, granulocytes, and lymphocytes using cDNA microarrays. Results Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that similar cell populations from different donors share common gene expression profiles. Supervised analyses identified gene expression signatures for B-cells (427 genes), T-cells (222 genes), CD8+ T-cells (23 genes), granulocytes (411 genes), and lymphocytes (67 genes). No statistically significant gene expression signature was identified for CD4+ cells. Genes encoding cell surface proteins were disproportionately represented among the genes that distinguished among the lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocytes were distinguishable from granulocytes based on their higher levels of expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, while granulocytes exhibited characteristic expression of various cell surface and inflammatory proteins. Conclusion The genes comprising the cell-type specific signatures encompassed many of the genes already known to be involved in cell-type specific processes, and provided clues that may prove useful in discovering the functions of many still unannotated genes. The most prominent feature of the cell type signature genes was the enrichment of genes encoding cell surface proteins, perhaps reflecting the importance of specialized systems for sensing the environment to the physiology of resting leukocytes. PMID:16704732

  11. Dendritic Cell Subtypes from Lymph Nodes and Blood Show Contrasted Gene Expression Programs upon Bluetongue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ruscanu, Suzana; Jouneau, Luc; Urien, Céline; Bourge, Mickael; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Moroldo, Marco; Loup, Benoit; Dalod, Marc; Elhmouzi-Younes, Jamila; Bevilacqua, Claudia; Hope, Jayne; Vitour, Damien; Zientara, Stéphan; Meyer, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Human and animal hemorrhagic viruses initially target dendritic cells (DCs). It has been proposed, but not documented, that both plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional DCs (cDCs) may participate in the cytokine storm encountered in these infections. In order to evaluate the contribution of DCs in hemorrhagic virus pathogenesis, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis during infection by Bluetongue virus (BTV), a double-stranded RNA virus that induces hemorrhagic fever in sheep and initially infects cDCs. Both pDCs and cDCs accumulated in regional lymph nodes and spleen during BTV infection. The gene response profiles were performed at the onset of the disease and markedly differed with the DC subtypes and their lymphoid organ location. An integrative knowledge-based analysis revealed that blood pDCs displayed a gene signature related to activation of systemic inflammation and permeability of vasculature. In contrast, the gene profile of pDCs and cDCs in lymph nodes was oriented to inhibition of inflammation, whereas spleen cDCs did not show a clear functional orientation. These analyses indicate that tissue location and DC subtype affect the functional gene expression program induced by BTV and suggest the involvement of blood pDCs in the inflammation and plasma leakage/hemorrhage during BTV infection in the real natural host of the virus. These findings open the avenue to target DCs for therapeutic interventions in viral hemorrhagic diseases. PMID:23785206

  12. Dendritic cell subtypes from lymph nodes and blood show contrasted gene expression programs upon Bluetongue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ruscanu, Suzana; Jouneau, Luc; Urien, Céline; Bourge, Mickael; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Moroldo, Marco; Loup, Benoit; Dalod, Marc; Elhmouzi-Younes, Jamila; Bevilacqua, Claudia; Hope, Jayne; Vitour, Damien; Zientara, Stéphan; Meyer, Gilles; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2013-08-01

    Human and animal hemorrhagic viruses initially target dendritic cells (DCs). It has been proposed, but not documented, that both plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional DCs (cDCs) may participate in the cytokine storm encountered in these infections. In order to evaluate the contribution of DCs in hemorrhagic virus pathogenesis, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis during infection by Bluetongue virus (BTV), a double-stranded RNA virus that induces hemorrhagic fever in sheep and initially infects cDCs. Both pDCs and cDCs accumulated in regional lymph nodes and spleen during BTV infection. The gene response profiles were performed at the onset of the disease and markedly differed with the DC subtypes and their lymphoid organ location. An integrative knowledge-based analysis revealed that blood pDCs displayed a gene signature related to activation of systemic inflammation and permeability of vasculature. In contrast, the gene profile of pDCs and cDCs in lymph nodes was oriented to inhibition of inflammation, whereas spleen cDCs did not show a clear functional orientation. These analyses indicate that tissue location and DC subtype affect the functional gene expression program induced by BTV and suggest the involvement of blood pDCs in the inflammation and plasma leakage/hemorrhage during BTV infection in the real natural host of the virus. These findings open the avenue to target DCs for therapeutic interventions in viral hemorrhagic diseases.

  13. Advanced sleep schedules affect circadian gene expression in young adults with delayed sleep schedules.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Fu, Alan; Hoffman, Aaron E; Figueiro, Mariana G; Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Rea, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    Human circadian rhythms are regulated by the interplay between circadian genes and environmental stimuli. The influence of altered sleep-wake schedules or light on human circadian gene expression patterns is not well characterized. Twenty-one young adults were asked to keep to their usual sleep schedules and two blood samples were drawn at the end of the first week from each subject based on estimated time of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO); the first sample was obtained one and a half hours before the estimated DLMO and the second three hours later, at one and a half hours after the estimated DLMO. During the second week, participants were randomized into two groups, one that received a one hour blue-light (λmax=470 nm) exposure in the morning and one that received a comparable morning dim-light exposure. Two blood samples were obtained at the same clock times as the previous week at the end of the second week. We measured the expression of 10 circadian genes in response to sleep-wake schedule advancement and morning blue-light stimulation in the peripheral blood of 21 participants during a two-week field study. We found that nine of the 10 circadian genes showed significant expression changes from the first to the second week for participants in both the blue-light and dim-light groups, likely reflecting significant advances in circadian phase. This wholesale change in circadian gene expression may reflect considerable advances in circadian phase (i.e., advance in DLMO) from the first to the second week resulting from the advanced, daily personal light exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced sleep schedules affect circadian gene expression in young adults with delayed sleep schedules

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Fu, Alan; Hoffman, Aaron E.; Figueiro, Mariana G.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Rea, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human circadian rhythms are regulated by the interplay between circadian genes and environmental stimuli. The influence of altered sleep/wake schedules or light on human circadian gene expression patterns is not well characterized. Methods Twenty-one participants were asked to keep to their usual sleep schedules and two blood samples were drawn at the end of the first week for each subject based upon estimated time of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO); the first sample was obtained one and a half hours before the estimated DLMO and the second three hours later, at one and a half hours after the estimated DLMO. During the second week, participants were randomized into two groups, one that received a one hour “blue” light (λmax = 470 nm) exposure in the morning and one that received a comparable morning “dim” light exposure. Two blood samples were obtained at the same clock times as previous week at the end of the second week. Results We measured the expression of 10 circadian genes in response to sleep/wake schedule advancement and morning “blue” light stimulation in the peripheral blood of 21 young adults during a two week field study. We found that nine of the 10 circadian genes showed significant expression changes from the first to the second week for participants in both the “blue” and “dim” light groups, likely reflecting significant advances in circadian time. Conclusions This wholesale change in circadian clock gene expression may reflect significant advances in circadian time (i.e., advance in DLMO) from the first to the second week resulting from the advanced, daily personal light exposures. PMID:23562184

  15. Who I am depends on how I feel: the role of affect in the expression of culture.

    PubMed

    Ashton-James, Claire E; Maddux, William W; Galinsky, Adam D; Chartrand, Tanya L

    2009-03-01

    We present a novel role of affect in the expression of culture. Four experiments tested whether individuals' affective states moderate the expression of culturally normative cognitions and behaviors. We consistently found that value expressions, self-construals, and behaviors were less consistent with cultural norms when individuals were experiencing positive rather than negative affect. Positive affect allowed individuals to explore novel thoughts and behaviors that departed from cultural constraints, whereas negative affect bound people to cultural norms. As a result, when Westerners experienced positive rather than negative affect, they valued self-expression less, showed a greater preference for objects that reflected conformity, viewed the self in more interdependent terms, and sat closer to other people. East Asians showed the reverse pattern for each of these measures, valuing and expressing individuality and independence more when experiencing positive than when experiencing negative affect. The results suggest that affect serves an important functional purpose of attuning individuals more or less closely to their cultural heritage.

  16. Chemical factors affecting the interpretation of blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of methemoglobinemia caused by fire gases on blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims. Twenty-two fire victims with postmortem intervals of 8-48 h were involved. Blood cyanide concentrations at the time of death (C(0)) were estimated using the formula: C(0)=Ce(0.046 t) (C=blood cyanide concentration detected at autopsy, 0.046=first-order rate constant of cyanide disappearing from blood in corpses, and t=postmortem interval). Total (free and combined with cyanide) methemoglobin (MetHb) content was used to estimate the maximum capacity of MetHb for combining cyanide. Blood cyanide concentrations at the time of death were very high (5.32-6.47 mg/l) in five victims. Three showed high saturation (54.7-63.0%) of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and elevated total MetHb contents (2.6-5.0%). MetHb at these levels is capable of scavenging up to 8.6-11.4 mg/l of blood cyanide. Thus, blood cyanide might have been completely combined with MetHb at the time of their death. In the remaining two victims, CO-Hb saturation was not high (30.9 and 37.9%) and no free MetHb was detected. As a result they may have exhibited severe toxic effects of cyanide at the time of their death. Our results indicate that MetHb contents and CO-Hb saturation should be determined to evaluate the toxic effects of cyanide in fire victims.

  17. Does hormone therapy affect blood pressure changes in the Diabetes Prevention Program?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Golden, Sherita H.; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Mather, Kieren J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether blood pressure reductions differ by estrogen use among overweight glucose-intolerant women. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of postmenopausal Diabetes Prevention Program participants who used oral estrogen with or without progestogen at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (n=324) vs. those who did not use at either time point (n=382). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes were examined by randomization arm (intensive lifestyle change (ILS), metformin 850 mg twice daily, or placebo). Associations between changes in blood pressure with changes in sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were also examined. Results Estrogen users and non-users had similar prevalences of baseline hypertension (33% vs. 34%, p=0.82) and use of blood pressure medications at baseline (p=0.25) and follow-up (p=0.10). Estrogen users and non-users randomized to ILS had similar decreases in SBP (-3.3 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.45) and DBP (-3.1 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.16). Among estrogen users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in SBP (p=0.016) and DBP (p=0.009) vs. placebo. Among non-users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in DBP (p=0.001) vs. placebo, but declines in SBP were not significant (p=0.11). Metformin was not associated with blood pressure reductions vs. placebo regardless of estrogen therapy. Blood pressure changes were not associated with changes in sex hormones regardless of estrogen therapy. Conclusions Among overweight women with dysglycemia, the magnitude of blood pressure reductions after ILS was unrelated to postmenopausal estrogen use. PMID:23942251

  18. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge.

    PubMed

    Suess, Franziska; Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Abiotic stresses affecting water balance induce phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase expression in roots of wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    González, María-Cruz; Sánchez, Rosario; Cejudo, Francisco J

    2003-04-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) plays an important role in CO(2) fixation in C4 and CAM plants. In C3 plants, PEPC is widely expressed in most organs; however, its function is not yet clearly established. With the aim of providing clues on the function of PEPC in C3 plants, we have analyzed its pattern of expression in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Roots showed almost double the level of PEPC activity of shoots. Further analysis of PEPC expression in roots by in situ localization techniques showed a high accumulation of PEPC transcripts and polypeptides in meristematic cells, whereas in the rest of the root PEPC localized preferentially to the vascular tissue. Treatment with NaCl and LiCl induced PEPC expression in roots. Similarly, other abiotic stresses affecting water status, such as drought or cold, induced PEPC expression. Induction was root-specific except for the cold treatment, which also induced PEPC in shoots, although to a lesser extent. In contrast, hypoxia, which does not affect water balance, did not promote any induction of PEPC expression. These results suggest an important role for this enzyme in the adaptation of plants to environmental changes.

  20. Expression and function of COX isoforms in renal medulla: evidence for regulation of salt sensitivity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenling; Zhang, Hui; Hillas, Elaine; Kohan, Donald E; Miller, R Lance; Nelson, Raoul D; Honeggar, Matthew; Yang, Tianxin

    2006-02-01

    Expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, but not COX-1, in the renal medulla is stimulated by chronic salt loading; yet the functional implication of this phenomenon is incompletely understood. The present study examined the cellular localization and antihypertensive function of high-salt-induced COX-2 expression in the renal medulla, with a parallel assessment of the function of COX-1. COX-2 protein expression in response to high-salt loading, assessed by immunostaining, was found predominantly in inner medullary interstitial cells, whereas COX-1 protein was abundant in collecting duct (CD) and inner medullary interstitial cells and was not affected by high salt. We compared mRNA expressions of COX-1 and COX-2 in CD vs. non-CD cells isolated from aquaporin 2-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. A low level of COX-2 mRNA, but a high level of COX-1 mRNA, as determined by real-time RT-PCR, was detected in CD compared with non-CD segments. During high-salt intake, chronic infusions of the COX-2 blocker NS-398 and the COX-1 blocker SC-560 into the renal medulla of Sprague-Dawley rats for 5 days induced approximately 30- and 15-mmHg increases in mean arterial pressure, respectively. During similar high-salt intake, COX-1 knockout mice exhibited a gradual, but significant, increase in systolic blood pressure that was associated with a marked suppression of urinary PGE2 excretion. Therefore, we conclude that the two COX isoforms in the renal medulla play a similar role in the stabilization of arterial blood pressure during salt loading.

  1. Microfluidic module for blood cell separation for gene expression radiobiological assays

    PubMed Central

    Brengues, Muriel; Gu, Jian; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques have improved discovery of biomarkers associated with radiation exposure. Gene expression techniques have been demonstrated as effective tools for biodosimetry, and different assay platforms with different chemistries are now available. One of the main challenges is to integrate the sample preparation processing of these assays into microfluidic platforms to be fully automated for point-of-care medical countermeasures in the case of a radiological event. Most of these assays follow the same workflow processing that comprises first the collection of blood samples followed by cellular and molecular sample preparation. The sample preparation is based on the specific reagents of the assay system and depends also on the different subsets of cells population and the type of biomarkers of interest. In this article, the authors present a module for isolation of white blood cells from peripheral blood as a prerequisite for automation of gene expression assays on a microfluidic cartridge. For each sample condition, the gene expression platform can be adapted to suit the requirements of the selected assay chemistry. PMID:25877531

  2. Full-length dysferlin expression driven by engineered human dystrophic blood derived CD133+ stem cells.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Mirella; Navarro, Claire; Sitzia, Clementina; Farini, Andrea; Montani, Erica; Wein, Nicolas; Razini, Paola; Beley, Cyriaque; Cassinelli, Letizia; Parolini, Daniele; Belicchi, Marzia; Parazzoli, Dario; Garcia, Luis; Torrente, Yvan

    2013-12-01

    The protein dysferlin is abundantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles, where its main function is membrane repair. Mutations in the dysferlin gene are involved in two autosomal recessive muscular dystrophies: Miyoshi myopathy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. Development of effective therapies remains a great challenge. Strategies to repair the dysferlin gene by skipping mutated exons, using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs), may be suitable only for a subset of mutations, while cell and gene therapy can be extended to all mutations. AON-treated blood-derived CD133+ stem cells isolated from patients with Miyoshi myopathy led to partial dysferlin reconstitution in vitro but failed to express dysferlin after intramuscular transplantation into scid/blAJ dysferlin null mice. We thus extended these experiments producing the full-length dysferlin mediated by a lentiviral vector in blood-derived CD133+ stem cells isolated from the same patients. Transplantation of engineered blood-derived CD133+ stem cells into scid/blAJ mice resulted in sufficient dysferlin expression to correct functional deficits in skeletal muscle membrane repair. Our data suggest for the first time that lentivirus-mediated delivery of full-length dysferlin in stem cells isolated from Miyoshi myopathy patients could represent an alternative therapeutic approach for treatment of dysferlinopathies.

  3. COPD subtypes identified by network-based clustering of blood gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yale; Glass, Kimberly; Liu, Yang-Yu; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Bowler, Russ; Dy, Jennifer; Cho, Michael; Castaldi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common smoking-related diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), results from a dysregulated, multi-tissue inflammatory response to cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that systemic inflammatory signals in genome-wide blood gene expression can identify clinically important COPD-related disease subtypes, and we leveraged pre-existing gene interaction networks to guide unsupervised clustering of blood microarray expression data. Using network-informed non-negative matrix factorization, we analyzed genome-wide blood gene expression from 229 former smokers in the ECLIPSE Study, and we identified novel, clinically relevant molecular subtypes of COPD. These network-informed clusters were more stable and more strongly associated with measures of lung structure and function than clusters derived from a network-naïve approach, and they were associated with subtype-specific enrichment for inflammatory and protein catabolic pathways. These clusters were successfully reproduced in an independent sample of 135 smokers from the COPDGene Study. PMID:26773458

  4. Cytokine expression in cord blood cells of children of healthy and allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Hrdý, J; Zanvit, P; Novotná, O; Kocourková, I; Zižka, J; Prokešová, L

    2010-09-01

    To determine some early signs connected with the increased risk of future allergy development, gene expression and production of selected cytokines were tested in children of allergic mothers and compared with newborns of healthy mothers. Expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β and EGF was tested in cord blood cells using real-time PCR and production of these cytokines was evaluated in cord sera by ELISA. Gene expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and TGF-β was decreased and that of IL-10, IL-13 and EGF increased in children of allergic mothers in comparison with those of healthy mothers. Significant differences in sera of healthy and allergic groups were only in IL-10 and EGF. Different relationship among serum cytokine levels reflects the fact that the cytokines are not produced only by blood cells. Significantly decreased production of EGF in newborns of allergic mothers could negatively influence maturation of mucosal membranes of these children and support thus their easier allergization. Allergic phenotype pointing to the bias to T(H)2 response and to possibly impaired intestine maturation was apparent already on the level of cord blood and could serve as a predictive sign of increased allergy risk.

  5. Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures of Autistic Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Winn, Mary; Chandler, Sharon D.; Collins, Melanie; Lopez, Linda; Weinfeld, Melanie; Carter, Cindy; Schork, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Objective Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD-risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with autism have yet emerged. Method Using a community-based, prospective, longitudinal method, we identified 60 infants and toddlers at-risk for ASDs (autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorder), 34 at-risk for language delay (LD), 17 at-risk for global developmental delay (DD), and 68 typically developing (TD) comparison children. Diagnoses were confirmed via longitudinal follow-up. Each child's mRNA expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by microarray. Results Potential ASD biomarkers were discovered in one half of the sample and used to build a classifier with high diagnostic accuracy in the remaining half of the sample. Conclusions The mRNA expression abnormalities reliably observed in PBMCs, which are safely and easily assayed in babies, offer the first potential peripheral blood-based early biomarker panel of risk for autism in infants and toddlers. Future work should verify these biomarkers and evaluate if they may also serve as indirect indices of deviant molecular neural mechanisms in autism. PMID:22917206

  6. SREBP-1c expression in Schwann cells is affected by diabetes and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    de Preux, Anne-Sophie; Goosen, Katinka; Zhang, Weixian; Sima, Anders A F; Shimano, Hitoshi; Ouwens, D Margriet; Diamant, Michaela; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Rozing, Jan; Lemke, Greg; Beckmann, Jacques S; Smit, August B; Verheijen, Mark H G; Chrast, Roman

    2007-08-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that the sterol response element binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and SREBP-2, which are the key regulators of storage lipid and cholesterol metabolism respectively, are highly expressed in Schwann cells of adult peripheral nerves. In order to evaluate the role of Schwann cell SREBPs in myelination and functioning of peripheral nerves we have determined their expression during development, after fasting and refeeding, and in a rodent model of diabetes. Our results show that SREBP-1c and SREBP-2, unlike SREBP-1a, are the major forms of SREBPs present in peripheral nerves. The expression profile of SREBP-2 follows the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, while SREBP-1c is co-expressed with genes involved in storage lipid metabolism. In addition, the expression of SREBP-1c in the endoneurial compartment of peripheral nerves depends on nutritional status and is disturbed in type 1 diabetes. In line with this, insulin elevates the expression of SREBP-1c in primary cultured Schwann cells by activating the SREBP-1c promoter. Taken together, these findings reveal that SREBP-1c expression in Schwann cells responds to metabolic stimuli including insulin and that this response is affected in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This suggests that disturbed SREBP-1c regulated lipid metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  7. Differential expression of intracellular and extracellular CB(2) cannabinoid receptor protein by human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Julie T; Harui, Airi; Kiertscher, Sylvia M; Roth, Jeffrey D; Roth, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    mRNA encoding for the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor is expressed by many subsets of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), but little is known about the resulting protein expression and function. Employing clones from the A549 and 293T cell lines that were constructed to express both full-length human CB(2) and GFP, we developed a flow cytometry assay for characterizing CB(2) protein expression. A monoclonal antibody directed against human CB(2) selectively stained the surface of transduced but not parental cell lines. When cells were fixed and permeabilized, imaging flow cytometry identified large stores of intracellular protein. Total cellular staining for CB(2) corresponded closely with the level of GFP expression. When exposed to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, CB(2)-expressing cells internalized cell surface CB(2) receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Applying these approaches to human PBL, CB(2) protein was identified on the surface of human B cells but not on T cells or monocytes. In contrast, when PBL were fixed and permeabilized, intracellular CB(2) expression was readily detected in all three subsets by both conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Similar to the protein expression pattern observed in fixed and permeabilized PBL, purified B cells, T cells, and monocytes expressed relatively equal levels of CB(2) mRNA by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our findings confirm that human PBL express CB(2) protein but that its distribution is predominantly intracellular with only B cells expressing CB(2) protein at the extracellular membrane. The differential role of intracellular and extracellular CB(2) receptors in mediating ligand signaling and immune function remains to be determined.

  8. Dragon's Blood extract has antithrombotic properties, affecting platelet aggregation functions and anticoagulation activities.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Li, Yu-Juan; Li, Yan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Schlappi, Michael; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2011-05-17

    Dragon's Blood from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen (Yunnan, China), as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, was shown to have certain antithrombotic effects. A new preparation process was used to extract effective components from Dragon's Blood. A 95% ethanol extract A (EA) and a precipitate B (PB) fraction were obtained and compared. Reliability of the preparation process was validated by pharmacodynamic experiments. A rat/mouse thrombosis and blood stasis model was developed for this study, and EA and PB effects on thrombosis, platelet functions and blood coagulation activities were analyzed. It was observed that the EA fraction had significantly better inhibitory effects than the PB fraction on thrombosis (p<0.05), platelet aggregation function (p<0.01) and anticoagulation activity (p<0.05-0.01). The results obtained here showed that EA fraction from Dragon's Blood contained pharmacologically effective compounds with antithrombotic effects, partially improving platelet function and anticoagulation activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy increases maternal blood lead levels affecting neonate birth weight.

    PubMed

    Chelchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Jablonka-Salach, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Joanna; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Bulska, Ewa; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effect of lead exposure from cigarette smoke on fetal growth, blood lead concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 150 healthy pregnant women. Mean lead concentrations in plasma and whole blood were significantly higher in the smoking group compared with the nonsmoking group in each trimester of pregnancy (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed the highest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day for serum lead concentration (β = 0.238; p < 0.05), while in whole blood, it was duration of smoking before conception (β = 0.297; p < 0.001). Birth weight of the smoking mothers' infants was significantly lower (mean ± SEM, 3,192 ± 50.8 and 3,569 ± 49.6 g, respectively; p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with lead levels in plasma (r = -0.38; p < 0.001) and in whole blood (r = -0.27; p < 0.001). Therefore, it is suggested that smoking during pregnancy increases lead concentrations in maternal blood. Fetal exposure to low doses of lead in utero may be a serious risk factor causing lower birth weight.

  10. In Utero Activation of Fetal Memory T Cells Alters Host Regulatory Gene Expression and Affects HIV Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Kevin; Malhotra, Indu; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric; Dent, Arlene; King, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    In utero priming to malaria antigens renders cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) more susceptible to productive HIV infection in vitro in the absence of exogenous stimulation. This provides a unique model to better understand mechanisms affecting lymphocyte susceptibility to HIV infection in vivo. Effector memory CD3+CD4+ T cells (TEM) were the exclusive initial targets of HIV with rapid spread to central memory cells. HIV susceptibility correlated with increased expression of CD25 and HLA-DR on TEM. Virus entered all samples equally, however gag/pol RNA was only detected in HIV susceptible samples, suggesting regulation of proviral gene transcription. Targeted analysis of human genes in memory T cells showed greater expression of IFNG, NFATc1, IRF1, FOS, and PPIA and decreased expression YY1 and TFCP2 in HIV susceptible samples. Thus fetal priming to exogenous antigens enhances specific proviral gene transcription pathways in effector memory cells that may increase risk of vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:22280894

  11. Factors affecting the blood concentration of ionized magnesium in patients in the acute phase of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Kenji; Tachibana, Hideaki; Suzuki, Tomomi; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    2004-11-01

    Magnesium is physiologically active in its free state (Mg2+). In the present study, we attempted to clarify factors affecting blood concentrations of Mg2+ in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (AMI). Subjects were 84 consecutive patients with AMI. Blood samples were collected at the time of admission, 24h after admission, and 1 week after admission, to measure blood concentration of Mg2+ and noradrenaline (NA). Furthermore, to assess daily Mg intake the hardness of local drinking water was determined, and a survey was conducted regarding dietary preferences and habits. Based on the results of this survey, the patients were defined as having a low Mg intake (L Group) or not. In addition, based on chronological shifts in blood Mg2+ concentrations, subjects were divided into the following four groups: Normal group, blood concentration of Mg2+ within normal range at all measurement points; Early recovery group, low at time of admission, but normalized on the next day; Delayed recovery group, low at time of admission, but normalized 1 week after admission; and Unrecovered group, below normal range at all measurement points. The mean blood Mg2+ concentration on admission was 0.52 +/- 0.06 mmol/l, significantly lower than the normal range (P < 0.05). A negative correlation between blood Mg2+ and NA concentrations on admission was observed (r = 0.49, P < 0.005). As a result, blood Mg2+ concentrations were normalized in 94% of subjects by 1 week after admission. Mean blood Mg2+ concentration on admission in the L Group was 0.47 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, significantly lower than that found in other subjects (0.52 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Eighty percent of the patients classified into the Unrecovered group belonged to the L Group. These findings suggest that lower blood concentrations of Mg2+ and higher plasma NA levels may be a result of serious AMI. However, chronic Mg intake deficiency may play a partial role in patients whose blood concentrations of Mg2+ remain low for

  12. The human SHIP gene is differentially expressed in cell lineages of the bone marrow and blood.

    PubMed

    Geier, S J; Algate, P A; Carlberg, K; Flowers, D; Friedman, C; Trask, B; Rohrschneider, L R

    1997-03-15

    The macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor and several other hematopoietic growth factor receptors induce the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 145- to 150-kD protein in murine cells. We have previously cloned a cDNA for the murine 150-kD protein, SHIP, and found that it encodes a unique signaling intermediate that binds the SHC PTB domain through at least one tyrosine phosphorylated (NPXY) site in the carboxyl-terminal region. SHIP also contains several potential SH3 domain-binding sites, an SH2 domain for binding other tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, and an enzymatic activity that removes the phosphate from the 5 position of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-phosphate or from inositol 1,3,4,5-phosphate. SHIP has a negative effect on cell growth and therefore loss or modification may have profound effects on hematopoietic cell development. In this study, we have cloned a cDNA for human SHIP and examined mRNA and protein expression of SHIP and related species in bone marrow and blood cells. Flow cytometry indicates that at least 74% of immature CD34+ cells express SHIP cross-reacting protein species, whereas within the more mature population of CD33+ cells, only 10% of cells have similar expression. The majority of T cells react positively with the anti-SHIP antibodies, but significantly fewer B cells are positive. Immunoblotting detects up to seven different cross-reacting SHIP species, with peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting primarily a 100-kD protein and a CD34+ acute myeloblastic leukemia expressing mainly 130-kD and 145-kD forms of SHIP. Overall, these results indicate that there is an enormous diversity in the size of SHIP or SHIP-related mRNA and protein species. Furthermore, the expression of these protein species changes according to both the developmental stage and differentiated lineage of the mature blood cell.

  13. Factors affecting radioactive microsphere measurement of blood flow in pregnant guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.; Sparks, J.W.; Makowski, E.L.

    1986-10-01

    Comparative blood flow studies were performed in pregnant guinea pigs using radioactive microspheres to test the effects of different sphere sizes on blood flow measurements and the relationship between flows obtained intraoperatively and those performed after 5 days of recovery from anesthesia and surgery. We observed that 1.5% of the cardiac output was shunted through the microcirculation of the carcass, gut, skin and endomyometrium when 15 mu microspheres were used. Intraoperative measurements of heart rate, cardiac output and placental blood flow are significantly lower than measurements made after 5 days recovery. These reductions were ameliorated with the addition of a continuous infusion of isoproterenol and the deletion of atropine from the anesthetic.

  14. Antibiotics in ingested human blood affect the mosquito microbiota and capacity to transmit malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Rodgers, Faye H.; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé S.; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Cohuet, Anna; Christophides, George K.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria reduction is most efficiently achieved by vector control whereby human populations at high risk of contracting and transmitting the disease are protected from mosquito bites. Here, we identify the presence of antibiotics in the blood of malaria-infected people as a new risk of increasing disease transmission. We show that antibiotics in ingested blood enhance the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to malaria infection by disturbing their gut microbiota. This effect is confirmed in a semi-natural setting by feeding mosquitoes with blood of children naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibiotic exposure additionally increases mosquito survival and fecundity, which are known to augment vectorial capacity. These findings suggest that malaria transmission may be exacerbated in areas of high antibiotic usage, and that regions targeted by mass drug administration programs against communicable diseases may necessitate increased vector control. PMID:25562286

  15. Skin blood flow differentially affects near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume at rest and during dynamic leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Ruddock, Alan D; Saxton, John M

    2010-11-01

    The impact of skin blood flow changes on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) and blood volume has not been fully established. We measured SmO(2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) responses of the right vastus lateralis during rest and dynamic knee extension exercise in ten young, healthy males. The protocol was repeated four times: twice without thigh heating for reliability, and twice with different grades of thigh heating for assessing the impact of cutaneous vasodilation on SmO(2) and Δ[tHb]. The reliability of our SmO(2) and [tHb] measurements was good. Thigh heating at 37 and 42°C caused marked increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during rest and exercise (P < 0.001 between each condition), and small increases in SmO(2) during rest (from 69 ± 8% to 71 ± 7% and 73 ± 6%, respectively; P < 0.05 between each condition), but not during exercise (e.g. 1 min exercise: 51 ± 11% vs. 51 ± 11% and 52 ± 11%, respectively; P > 0.05 at all time points). In contrast, heating-induced increases in %CVC(peak) were accompanied by increases in [tHb] at rest and during exercise and a decrease in Δ[tHb] during exercise (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that NIRS-derived measures of SmO(2) and blood volume are differentially affected by skin blood flow at rest and during exercise. The findings from this study should be considered in NIRS experiments where skin blood flow can change markedly (e.g. high-intensity and/or prolonged exercise).

  16. How do target predictability and precueing affect the production of express saccades in monkeys?

    PubMed

    Schiller, Peter H; Haushofer, Johannes; Kendall, Geoffery

    2004-04-01

    The extent to which target predictability and precueing affect express saccade generation was determined in Rhesus monkeys. Target predictability, as manipulated by the probability with which targets appeared at various locations, had a strong influence on express saccade generation. Pre-cueing the location of the appearance of an impending single target with an identical stimulus was effective in increasing express saccade generation when there was a gap of 50-150 ms between fixation spot termination and target onset. However, precueing was not effective when the gap time was set to 0 ms in the single target task, when several simultaneous targets appeared requiring a visual discrimination to be made using an oddity task, or when the precue was not identical to the target. These findings indicate that express saccades are facilitated by a restricted set of conditions that increase the predictability of target location and identity.

  17. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat

    2014-01-01

    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development—The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions—angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted—and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants. PMID:25610415

  18. Sex differences in the perception of affective facial expressions: do men really lack emotional sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Montagne, Barbara; Kessels, Roy P C; Frigerio, Elisa; de Haan, Edward H F; Perrett, David I

    2005-06-01

    There is evidence that men and women display differences in both cognitive and affective functions. Recent studies have examined the processing of emotions in males and females. However, the findings are inconclusive, possibly the result of methodological differences. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of emotional facial expressions in men and women. Video clips of neutral faces, gradually morphing into full-blown expressions were used. By doing this, we were able to examine both the accuracy and the sensitivity in labelling emotional facial expressions. Furthermore, all participants completed an anxiety and a depression rating scale. Research participants were 40 female students and 28 male students. Results revealed that men were less accurate, as well as less sensitive in labelling facial expressions. Thus, men show an overall worse performance compared to women on a task measuring the processing of emotional faces. This result is discussed in relation to recent findings.

  19. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  20. Factors affecting transfusion requirement after hip fracture: Can we reduce the need for blood?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sagar J.; Wood, Kristi S.; Marsh, Jackie; Bryant, Dianne; Abdo, Hussein; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Sanders, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hip fractures are common injuries that result in blood loss and frequently require the transfusion of blood products. We sought to identify risk factors leading to increased blood transfusion in patients presenting with hip fractures, especially those factors that are modifiable. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who had fixation of their hip fractures between October 2005 and February 2010. The need for transfusion was correlated with potential risk factors, including age, sex, preoperative hemoglobin, fracture type, fixation method and more. Results A total of 835 patients had fixation of their hip fractures during the study period; 631 met the inclusion criteria and 249 of them (39.5%) were transfused. We found an association between need for blood transfusion and female sex (p = 0.018), lower preoperative hemoglobin (p < 0.001), fracture type (p < 0.001) and fixation method (p < 0.001). Compared with femoral neck fractures, there was a 2.37 times greater risk of blood transfusion in patients with intertrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001) and a 4.03 times greater risk in those with subtrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001). Dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation decreased the risk of transfusion by about half compared with intramedullary nail or hemiarthroplasty. We found no association with age, delay to operation (p = 0.17) or duration of surgery (p = 0.30). Conclusion The only modifiable risk factor identified was fixation method. When considering blood transfusion requirements in isolation, we suggest a potential benefit in using a DHS for intertrochanteric and femoral neck fractures amenable to DHS fixation. PMID:25265109

  1. Does tropicamide affect choroidal blood flow in humans? a laser Doppler flowmetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, Nithiyanantham; Riva, Charles E.; Rovati, Luigi; Cellini, Mauro; Gizzi, Corrado; Strobbe, Ernesto; Campos, Emilio C.

    2012-03-01

    The measurement of blood flow in the ocular fundus is of scientific and clinical interest. Investigating ocular blood flow in the choroid may be important to understand the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases, such as glaucoma or agerelated macular degeneration (AMD). Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was applied to measure relative velocity, volume and flux of red blood cells in the tissues of human eye. Its main application lies in the possibility of assessing alterations in blood flow early in the course of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of pupil dilatation with one drop of 1% tropicamide on blood flow in the foveal region of the choroid of the human fundus. The blood flow parameters were measured in 24 eyes during 30 minutes (one measurement in every 3 minutes) after the application of the drop. Since the Doppler parameters depend on the scattering geometry, which may change as the pupil dilates; an artificial pupil of 4mm in diameter was placed directly in front the eye. Following the administration of tropicamide the mean pupil diameter was increased from 3.29 mm to 8.25 mm (P<0.0001, Paired student t-test). In comparison to the baseline values, the data shows no significant increases were observed in velocity, volume, and flow with 4 mm artificial pupil (0.2%, 1.3%, 0.8% respectively) and a statistically significant increases were observed without artificial pupil (10.7%, 13.9%, 12.8% respectively) following the application of tropicamide.

  2. Increased expression of the interleukin 1 receptor on blood neutrophils of humans with the sepsis syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, M B; Cousart, S; Neal, S; McCall, C E

    1991-01-01

    Because of the potential importance of interleukin 1 (IL-1) in modulating inflammation and the observations that human blood neutrophils (PMN) express IL-1 receptors (IL-1R) and synthesize IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, we studied the IL-1R on blood PMN from a group of patients with the sepsis syndrome. We report a marked enhancement in the sites per cell of IL-1R expressed on sepsis-PMN of 25 consecutively studied patients compared to 20 controls (patient mean = 9,329 +/- 2,212 SE; control mean = 716 +/- 42 SE, respectively). There was no demonstrable difference in the Kd of IL-1R on sepsis-PMN (approximately 1 nM) as determined by saturation curves of 125I-IL-1 alpha binding and the IL-1R on sepsis-PMN had an apparent Mr approximately 68,000, a value like that of normal PMN. Cytofluorographic analysis indicated that the sepsis-PMN phenotype is a single homogeneous population with respect to IL-1R expression. In contrast, expression of the membrane complement receptor CR3 is not increased on sepsis-PMN. Similar increases in expression of IL-1R were not observed in various other inflammatory processes, including acute disseminated inflammation and organ failure not caused by infection, acute infection without organ failure, and immunopathologies such as active systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Enhanced expression of IL-1R was not related simply to the state of myeloid stimulation. Increased expression of IL-1R on normal PMN was induced in vitro by incubating cells with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage/colony-stimulating factor for 18 h and this response was inhibited by cycloheximide, suggesting the possibility that de novo synthesis of IL-1R might occur in PMN during the sepsis syndrome. Images PMID:1834697

  3. Accessibility of blood affects the attractiveness of cattle to horn flies.

    PubMed

    Breijo, M; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Pedrana, G; Alonzo, P; Meikle, A

    2014-03-01

    The burden of infestation of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), differs among bovines within the same herd. We hypothesized that these differences might be related to the epidermal thickness of the cattle and the blood intake capacity of the fly. Results showed that dark animals carried more flies and had a thinner epidermis than light-coloured animals, which was consistent with the greater haemoglobin content found in flies caught on darker cattle. Similarly, epidermal thickness increased with body weight, whereas haemoglobin content decreased. Overall, we suggest that accessibility of blood is a factor that partially explains cattle attractiveness to flies.

  4. When emotions are expressed figuratively: Psycholinguistic and Affective Norms of 619 Idioms for German (PANIG).

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Cacciari, Cristina; Kucharski, Michael; Beck, Luna; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-03-01

    Despite flourishing research on the relationship between emotion and literal language, and despite the pervasiveness of figurative expressions in communication, the role of figurative language in conveying affect has been underinvestigated. This study provides affective and psycholinguistic norms for 619 German idiomatic expressions and explores the relationships between affective and psycholinguistic idiom properties. German native speakers rated each idiom for emotional valence, arousal, familiarity, semantic transparency, figurativeness, and concreteness. They also described the figurative meaning of each idiom and rated how confident they were about the attributed meaning. The results showed that idioms rated high in valence were also rated high in arousal. Negative idioms were rated as more arousing than positive ones, in line with results from single words. Furthermore, arousal correlated positively with figurativeness (supporting the idea that figurative expressions are more emotionally engaging than literal expressions) and with concreteness and semantic transparency. This suggests that idioms may convey a more direct reference to sensory representations, mediated by the meanings of their constituting words. Arousal correlated positively with familiarity. In addition, positive idioms were rated as more familiar than negative idioms. Finally, idioms without a literal counterpart were rated as more emotionally valenced and arousing than idioms with a literal counterpart. Although the meanings of ambiguous idioms were less correctly defined than those of unambiguous idioms, ambiguous idioms were rated as more concrete than unambiguous ones. We also discuss the relationships between the various psycholinguistic variables characterizing idioms, with reference to the literature on idiom structure and processing.

  5. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335

  6. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  7. Modifications in low-density lipoprotein receptor expression affects Cyclosporin A cellular uptake and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Leon, Carlos; Jia, Jessica; Qiu, Guosong; Hill, John S; Wasan, Kishor M

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of modulating the expression of the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) in human embryonic kidney (293T) cells on Cyclosporin A (CsA) cellular uptake and CsA-mediated cytotoxicity. LDLr expression was modulated using RNA interference (RNAi) and an LDLr overexpression plasmid. One of the small-interfering RNA (siRNA) constructs, LDLr-792, showed a 60% decrease in LDLr protein expression. The downregulation effect was specific as transfection with an annexin V (AxV) siRNA construct did not decrease LDLr expression levels. AxV and ABCA1 expression levels were not affected in the cells transfected with LDLr-792 (LDLr(LOW) cells) compared to the controls. At a functional level, fluorescent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (DiI-LDL) internalization in the LDLr(LOW) cells was decreased (30%) compared to control cells. We tested the dose-dependent cytotoxicity induced by CsA using a respiration assay. We found a decrease in CsA-mediated cytotoxicity in the range of CsA doses studied (1-10 microg/mL) in the LDLr(LOW) cells compared to the pSHAG-transfected cells, reaching a statistical significance at 10 microg/mL CsA. At higher CsA doses we found a significant decrease in LDLr expression. When the control and LDLr(LOW) cells were treated with another cytotoxic drug, gentamycin, there was no difference in the cell viability, suggesting that this effect is specific for CsA. We confirmed the association of LDLr expression levels with CsA uptake by overexpressing the LDLr. The LDLr overexpressing cells showed an enhanced uptake of radiolabelled CsA. Taken together these results suggest that CsA internalization and cytotoxicity are affected by the LDL receptor expression levels.

  8. The CJIE1 prophage of Campylobacter jejuni affects protein expression in growth media with and without bile salts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of Campylobacter jejuni temperate bacteriophages has increasingly been associated with specific biological effects. It has recently been demonstrated that the presence of the prophage CJIE1 is associated with increased adherence and invasion of C. jejuni isolates in cell culture assays. Results Quantitative comparative proteomics experiments were undertaken using three closely related isolates with CJIE1 and one isolate without CJIE1 to determine whether there was a corresponding difference in protein expression levels. Initial experiments indicated that about 2% of the total proteins characterized were expressed at different levels in isolates with or without the prophage. Some of these proteins regulated by the presence of CJIE1 were associated with virulence or regulatory functions. Additional experiments were conducted using C. jejuni isolates with and without CJIE1 grown on four different media: Mueller Hinton (MH) media containing blood; MH media containing 0.1% sodium deoxycholate, which is thought to result in increased expression of virulence proteins; MH media containing 2.5% Oxgall; and MHwithout additives. These experiments provided further evidence that CJIE1 affected protein expression, including virulence-associated proteins. They also demonstrated a general bile response involving a majority of the proteome and clearly showed the induction of almost all proteins known to be involved with iron acquisition. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD000798, PXD000799, PXD000800, and PXD000801. Conclusion The presence of the CJIE1 prophage was associated with differences in protein expression levels under different conditions. Further work is required to determine what genes are involved in causing this phenomenon. PMID:24641125

  9. Comparative in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide to study TNFalpha gene expression in fresh whole blood, fresh and frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiwang; Bruns, Anke H; Donnelly, Helen K; Wunderink, Richard G

    2010-05-31

    In vitro stimulation with fresh and frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or fresh whole blood has been widely used in animal studies and clinical trials to study the immunological features of a number of human diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in response to stimulation of fresh PBMCs, frozen PBMCs, and fresh whole blood by change of TNFalpha gene expression levels after 4-hour in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results demonstrate that TNFalpha gene expression significantly increases in both fresh PBMCs and fresh whole blood when 1 microg/ml or 10 microg/ml LPS was used but only after stimulation with 10 microg/ml LPS in frozen PBMCs. Mean fold change of TNFalpha gene expression levels after 1 microg/ml LPS stimulation was significantly higher using fresh whole blood (51.01+/-7.91) as compared to fresh PBMCs (8.92+/-2.16) or frozen PBMCs (3.04+/-0.55) (pexpression in the frozen PBMCs. Our results strongly suggest that fresh whole blood is the best choice for in vitro stimulation studies.

  10. Suppression of Oral Sweet Taste Sensation with Gymnema sylvestre Affects Postprandial Gastrointestinal Blood Flow and Gastric Emptying in Humans.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kohei; Miyamoto, Kanae; Fujimoto, Masaki; Endo, Masako Yamaoka; Aso-Someya, Nami; Kobayashi, Toshio; Hayashi, Naoyuki; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2017-05-01

    An oral sweet taste sensation (OSTS) exaggerates digestive activation transiently, but whether it has a role after swallowing a meal is not known. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) can inhibit the OSTS in humans. We explored the effect of the OSTS of glucose intake on gastrointestinal blood flow, gastric emptying, blood-glucose, and plasma-insulin responses during the postprandial phase. Eight participants ingested 200 g (50 g × 4 times) of 15% glucose solution containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate after rinsing with 25 mL of 2.5% roasted green tea (control) or 2.5% GS solution. During each protocol, gastrointestinal blood flow and gastric emptying were measured by ultrasonography and 13C-sodium acetate breath test, respectively. Decreased subjective sweet taste intensity was observed in all participants in the GS group. The time to attain a peak value of blood flow in the celiac artery and gastric emptying were delayed in the GS group compared with the control group. At the initial phase after glucose intake, blood-glucose and plasma-insulin responses were lower in the GS group than those for the control group. These results suggest that the OSTS itself has a substantial role in controlling postprandial gastrointestinal activities, which may affect subsequent glycemic metabolism. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Does the Presence of Blood in the Catheter or the Degree of Difficulty of Embryo Transfer Affect Live Birth?

    PubMed

    Plowden, Torie C; Hill, Micah J; Miles, Shana M; Hoyt, Benjamin; Yauger, Belinda; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Chason, Rebecca J

    2016-09-21

    The technique used for embryo transfer (ET) can affect implantation. Prior research that evaluated the effect of postprocedural blood of the transfer catheter tip have yielded mixed results, and it is unclear whether this is actually a marker of difficulty of the transfer. Our objective was to estimate the effect of blood at the time of ET and the difficulty of ET on live birth rates (LBR). This retrospective cohort study utilized generalized estimating equations (GEEs) with nesting for repeated cycles for all analyses. Univariate modeling was performed and a final multivariate (adjusted) GEE model accounted for all significant confounders. Embryo transfers were subjectively graded (easy, medium, or hard) by a physician at the time of transfer. The presence of blood at ET was associated with more difficult ETs, retained embryos, and presence of mucous in the catheter. In the univariate analysis, ET with blood was not associated with live birth, while the degree of difficulty for ET had a negative impact on LBR. In the final multivariate GEE model, which accounts for repeated cycles from a patient, the only factors associated with an increased LBR were the degree of difficulty of the ET, female age, and blastocyst transfer. After controlling for confounding variables, the presence of blood in the transfer catheter was not associated with the likelihood of pregnancy and thus was not an independent predictor of cycle outcome. This indicates that the difficulty of the transfer itself was a strong negative predictor of pregnancy.

  12. Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood cells: new insights into Ewing sarcoma biology and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Przybyl, Joanna; Kozak, Katarzyna; Kosela, Hanna; Falkowski, Slawomir; Switaj, Tomasz; Lugowska, Iwona; Szumera-Cieckiewicz, Anna; Ptaszynski, Konrad; Grygalewicz, Beata; Chechlinska, Magdalena; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Siedlecki, Janusz A; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a group of highly aggressive small round cell tumors of bone or soft tissue with high metastatic potential and low cure rate. ES tumors are associated with a rapid osteolysis and necrosis. The currently accepted clinical prognostic parameters do not accurately predict survival of high-risk patients. Moreover, neither the subtype of EWS-FLI1/ERG in the tumor, nor the detection of fusion transcripts in the peripheral blood (PB) samples, has prognostic value in ES patients. We evaluated the prevalence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in 34 adult ES patients. Since CTCs were confirmed in only small subset of patients, we further explored the expression profiles of PB leukocytes using a panel of genes associated with immune system status and increased tumor invasiveness. Moreover, we analyzed the alterations of the routine blood tests in the examined cohort of patients and correlated our findings with the clinical outcome. A uniform decrease in ZAP70 expression in PB cells among all ES patients, as compared to healthy individuals, was observed. Monocytosis and the abnormal expression of CDH2 and CDT2 genes in the PB cells significantly correlated with poor prognosis in ES patients. Our study supports the previously proposed hypothesis of systemic nature of ES. Based on the PB cell expression profiles, we propose a mechanism by which immune system may be involved in intensification of osteoclastogenesis and disease progression in ES patients. Moreover, we demonstrate the prognostic value of molecular PB testing at the time of routine histopathological diagnosis.

  13. Aging alters mRNA expression of amyloid transporter genes at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Doreen; Miller, Miles C; Messier, Arthur A; Gonzalez, Liliana; Silverberg, Gerald D

    2017-09-01

    Decreased clearance of potentially toxic metabolites, due to aging changes, likely plays a significant role in the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and other macromolecules in the brain of the elderly and in the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aging is the single most important risk factor for AD development. Aβ transport receptor proteins expressed at the blood-brain barrier are significantly altered with age: the efflux transporters lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein are reduced, whereas the influx transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products is increased. These receptors play an important role in maintaining brain biochemical homeostasis. We now report that, in a rat model of aging, gene transcription is altered in aging, as measured by Aβ receptor gene messenger RNA (mRNA) at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 36 months. Gene mRNA expression from isolated cerebral microvessels was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein mRNA were significantly reduced in aging, and receptor for advanced glycation end products was increased, in parallel with the changes seen in receptor protein expression. Transcriptional changes appear to play a role in aging alterations in blood-brain barrier receptor expression and Aβ accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow. ... the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells. Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors , ...

  15. Type of Renal Replacement Therapy (Hemodialysis versus Peritoneal Dialysis) Does Not Affect Cytokine Gene Expression or Clinical Parameters of Renal Transplant Candidates.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Dorota; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Chudoba, Paweł; Mazanowska, Oktawia; Banasik, Mirosław; Żabinska, Marcelina; Boratyńska, Maria; Lepiesza, Agnieszka; Korta, Krzysztof; Gomółkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Klinger, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Patients with renal failure suffer from immune disturbances, caused by uremic toxins and influenced by dialysis treatment. The aim of the present study was to reveal whether type of dialysis modality (hemodialysis, HD, versus peritoneal dialysis, PD) differentially affects the immunocompetence, particularly the expression of genes involved in the immune response. 87 renal transplant candidates (66 HD, 21 PD) were included in the study. The peripheral blood RNA samples were obtained with the PAXgene Blood system just before transplantation. The gene expression of CASP3, FAS, TP53, FOXP3, IFNG, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL17, IL18, LCN2, TGFB1, and TNF was assessed with real-time PCR on custom-designed low density arrays (TaqMan). Gene expression data were analyzed in relation to pretransplant clinical parameters. The mean expression of examined genes showed no significant differences between PD and HD with the exception of FAS, expression of which was 30% higher in PD patients compared to the HD group. There was nonsignificantly higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the PD group. The clinical inflammatory parameters (CRP, albumin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin levels) did not differ between the groups. Type of renal replacement therapy exerts no differential effect on cytokine gene expression or inflammatory clinical parameters.

  16. DPEP1, expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, affects cancer cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Hiromi; Saigusa, Susumu; Yokoe, Takeshi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-02-01

    We investigated changes in the gene expression profile in colon cancer in order to identify gene markers that may be useful in the management of this disease. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project was used to detect differences in gene expression between normal and cancer tissue. The overexpression of dipeptidase-1 (DPEP1) in cancer tissue was confirmed in a sample of 76 patients by real-time PCR. To identify the function of DPEP1, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inactivate this gene in the colon cancer cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize the pattern of DPEP1 expression in colon cancer. DPEP1 expression in cancer was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. However, DPEP1 expression decreased with pathological differentiation, lymph-node and distant metastasis. Patients with tumors with decreased DPEP1 expression showed a poorer prognosis, and this was also true of patients with tumors who are treated with curative intent. RNAi-mediated DPEP1 reduction in the colon cancer cell line did not result in cell proliferation or apoptosis, but was associated with an increased invasive ability. DPEP1 protein was observed on the apical side of the cancer cells, and is expressed in the early stages of carcinogenesis, even in adenomas of both sporadic colorectal cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis patients. DPEP1 expression in normal colonic mucosa is very low, but it is highly expressed in colorectal adenoma and cancer specimens and is negatively correlated with parameters of pathological aggressiveness and poor prognosis. DPEP1 is expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and affects cancer cell invasiveness.

  17. Heparanase Overexpression Reduces Hepcidin Expression, Affects Iron Homeostasis and Alters the Response to Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Asperti, Michela; Stuemler, Tanja; Poli, Maura; Gryzik, Magdalena; Lifshitz, Lena; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G.; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of systemic iron availability that acts by controlling the degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. It is expressed mainly in the liver and regulated by iron, inflammation, erythropoiesis and hypoxia. The various agents that control its expression act mainly via the BMP6/SMAD signaling pathway. Among them are exogenous heparins, which are strong hepcidin repressors with a mechanism of action not fully understood but that may involve the competition with the structurally similar endogenous Heparan Sulfates (HS). To verify this hypothesis, we analyzed how the overexpression of heparanase, the HS degrading enzyme, modified hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis in hepatic cell lines and in transgenic mice. The results showed that transient and stable overexpression of heparanase in HepG2 cells caused a reduction of hepcidin expression and of SMAD5 phosphorylation. Interestingly, the clones showed also altered level of TfR1 and ferritin, indices of a modified iron homeostasis. The heparanase transgenic mice showed a low level of liver hepcidin, an increase of serum and liver iron with a decrease in spleen iron content. The hepcidin expression remained surprisingly low even after treatment with the inflammatory LPS. The finding that modification of HS structure mediated by heparanase overexpression affects hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis supports the hypothesis that HS participate in the mechanisms controlling hepcidin expression. PMID:27711215

  18. Affective blindsight in the intact brain: neural interhemispheric summation for unseen fearful expressions.

    PubMed

    Tamietto, Marco; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-02-12

    The emotional valence of facial expressions can be reliably discriminated even in the absence of conscious visual experience by patients with lesions to the primary visual cortex (affective blindsight). Prior studies in one such patient (GY) also showed that this non-conscious perception can influence conscious recognition of normally seen emotional faces. Here we report a similar online interaction across hemispheres between conscious and non-conscious perception of emotions in normal observers. Fearful and happy facial expressions were presented either unilaterally (to the left or right visual field) or simultaneously to both visual fields. In bilateral displays, conscious perception of one face in a pair was prevented by backward masking after 20 ms, while the opposite expression remained normally visible. The results showed a bidirectional influence of non-conscious fear processing over conscious recognition of happy as well as fearful expressions. Consciously perceived fearful faces were more readily recognized when they were paired with invisible emotionally congruent fearful expressions in the opposite field, as compared to the single presentation of the same unmasked faces. On the other hand, recognition of unmasked happy faces was delayed by the simultaneous presence of a masked fearful face. No such effect was reported for masked happy expressions. These findings show that non-conscious processing of fear may modulate ongoing conscious evaluation of facial expressions via neural interhemispheric summation even in the intact brain.

  19. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  20. A comparative immunohistochemical and immunophenotypical study on lymphocytes expression in patients affected by oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Guido; Viviano, Massimo; Chisci, Elettra; Chisci, Glauco; Picciotti, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disease of uncertain aetiology. OLP has many manifestations: reticular, erosive, atrophic, plaque like, papular, bullous, with unique etiopathogenetic working. The purpose of this study is to find a link between different clinical types of lichen and the alterations of lymphocytes on peripheral blood and oral mucosa. A total of 21 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients was 53.82 years, between 31 and 78 years. OLP Diagnosis was afterwards confirmed by histopathology. Selected patients underwent to clinical evaluation, lesion characterization, incisional biopsy, samples histological analysis, peripheral blood collection. Blood specimens were submitted to cell count determination with differential, characterization of populations and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations using monoclonal antibodies in flow cytometry. Referring to the clinical presentation of lesions, patients were divided in two groups: red lesions (RL) and white lesions (WL) and compared with an age-matched control group. The results of the immunophenotypic study showed correlation between WL and the expression of CD19 lymphocytes (r = 0.693, P = 0.0005). The results of immunohistochemical study performed on histological specimens showed a significant correlation between RL group and expression of all lymphocyte tested (CD3 r = 0.722 P = 0.0002, CD4 r = 0.579 P = 0.0060, CD56 r = 0.513 P = 0.0173, CD8 r = 0.548 P = 0.0102). We assume there is the responsibility of the expression of lymphocytes, not only type but also as quantity, in determining RL or WL manifestation of OLP. Circulating lymphocytes may have a role, too. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Connexin-deficiency affects expression levels of glial glutamate transporters within the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Unger, Tina; Bette, Stefanie; Zhang, Jiong; Theis, Martin; Engele, Jürgen

    2012-01-06

    The glial glutamate transporter subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate transporter expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network controlling glial glutamate transport in health and disease still remains incomplete. In studies with cultured cortical astrocytes, we previously obtained evidence that glial glutamate transporter expression is also affected by gap junctions/connexins. To assess whether gap junctions would likewise control the in vivo expression of glial glutamate transporters, we have now assessed their expression levels in brains of conditional Cx43 knockout mice, total Cx30 knockouts, as well as Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts. We found that either knocking out Cx30, Cx43, or both increases GLT-1/EAAT-2 protein levels in the cerebral cortex to a similar extent. By contrast, GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels maximally increased in cerebral cortices of Cx30/Cx43 double knockouts, implying that gap junctions differentially affect the expression of GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1. Quantitative PCR analysis further revealed that increases in glial glutamate transporter expression are brought about by transcriptional and translational/posttranslational processes. Moreover, GLT-1/EAAT-2- and GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels remained unchanged in the hippocampi of Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts when compared to Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating brain region-specific effects of gap junctions on glial glutamate transport. Since astrocytic gap junction coupling is affected in various forms of brain injuries, our findings point to gap junctions/connexins as important regulators of glial glutamate turnover in the diseased cerebral cortex.

  2. Leucine metabolism regulates TRI6 expression and affects deoxynivalenol production and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Narayanan, Swara; Walkowiak, Sean; Wang, Li; Joshi, Manisha; Rocheleau, Hélène; Ouellet, Thérèse; Harris, Linda J

    2015-11-01

    TRI6 is a positive regulator of the trichothecene gene cluster and the production of trichothecene mycotoxins [deoxynivalenol (DON)] and acetylated forms such as 15-Acetyl-DON) in the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. As a global transcriptional regulator, TRI6 expression is modulated by nitrogen-limiting conditions, sources of nitrogen and carbon, pH and light. However, the mechanism by which these diverse environmental factors affect TRI6 expression remains underexplored. In our effort to understand how nutrients affect TRI6 regulation, comparative digital expression profiling was performed with a wild-type F. graminearum and a Δtri6 mutant strain, grown in nutrient-rich conditions. Analysis showed that TRI6 negatively regulates genes of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolic pathway. Feeding studies with deletion mutants of MCC, encoding methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase, one of the key enzymes of leucine metabolism, showed that addition of leucine specifically down-regulated TRI6 expression and reduced 15-ADON accumulation. Constitutive expression of TRI6 in the Δmcc mutant strain restored 15-ADON production. A combination of cellophane breach assays and pathogenicity experiments on wheat demonstrated that disrupting the leucine metabolic pathway significantly reduced disease. These findings suggest a complex interaction between one of the primary metabolic pathways with a global regulator of mycotoxin biosynthesis and virulence in F. graminearum.

  3. Dopamine Transporter Gene Variant Affecting Expression in Human Brain is Associated with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pinsonneault, Julia K; Han, Dawn D; Burdick, Katherine E; Kataki, Maria; Bertolino, Alessandro; Malhotra, Anil K; Gu, Howard H; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The gene encoding the dopamine transporter (DAT) has been implicated in CNS disorders, but the responsible polymorphisms remain uncertain. To search for regulatory polymorphisms, we measured allelic DAT mRNA expression in substantia nigra of human autopsy brain tissues, using two marker SNPs (rs6347 in exon 9 and rs27072 in the 3′-UTR). Allelic mRNA expression imbalance (AEI), an indicator of cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms, was observed in all tissues heterozygous for either of the two marker SNPs. SNP scanning of the DAT locus with AEI ratios as the phenotype, followed by in vitro molecular genetics studies, demonstrated that rs27072 C>T affects mRNA expression and translation. Expression of the minor T allele was dynamically regulated in transfected cell cultures, possibly involving microRNA interactions. Both rs6347 and rs3836790 (intron8 5/6 VNTR) also seemed to affect DAT expression, but not the commonly tested 9/10 VNTR in the 3′UTR (rs28363170). All four polymorphisms (rs6347, intron8 5/6 VNTR, rs27072 and 3′UTR 9/10 VNTR) were genotyped in clinical cohorts, representing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and controls. Only rs27072 was significantly associated with bipolar disorder (OR=2.1, p=0.03). This result was replicated in a second bipolar/control population (OR=1.65, p=0.01), supporting a critical role for DAT regulation in bipolar disorder. PMID:21525861

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction affects hippocampal dual specificity phosphatase 5 gene expression and epigenetic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Xingrao; McKnight, Robert A.; Caprau, Diana; O'Grady, Shannon; Fu, Qi; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W.; Albertine, Kurt H.

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) predisposes humans toward hippocampal morbidities, such as impaired learning and memory. Hippocampal dual specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5) may be involved in these morbidities because DUSP5 regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation (Erk). In the rat, IUGR causes postnatal changes in hippocampal gene expression and epigenetic characteristics. However, the impact of IUGR upon hippocampal DUSP5 expression and epigenetic characteristics is not known. We therefore hypothesized that IUGR affects hippocampal 1) DUSP5 expression, DNA CpG methylation, and histone code, and 2) erk1/2 phosphorylation in a well-characterized rat model of IUGR. We found that IUGR significantly decreased DUSP5 expression in the day of life (DOL) 0 and 21 male rat, while decreasing only DUSP5 protein levels in the DOL21 female rat. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analyses localized the changes in DUSP5 mRNA and protein, many of which occurred in the dentate gyrus. IUGR also caused sex-specific differences in DNA CpG methylation and histone code in two sites of the hippocampal DUSP5 gene, a 5′-flanking specificity protein-1 (SP1) site and exon 2. Finally, when IUGR decreased DUSP5 protein levels, Erk phosphorylation increased. We conclude that IUGR affects hippocampal DUSP5 expression and epigenetic characteristics in a sex-specific manner. PMID:21828247

  5. RADIATION-INDUCED MICRO-RNA EXPRESSION CHANGES IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS OF RADIOTHERAPY PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Templin, Thomas; Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A.; Young, Erik F.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Smilenov, Lubomir B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding small RNAs that regulate gene expression, are involved in numerous physiologic processes in normal and malignant cells. Our in vivo study measured miRNA and gene expression changes in human blood cells in response to ionizing radiation, to develop miRNA signatures that can be used as biomarkers for radiation exposure. Methods and Materials Blood from 8 radiotherapy patients in complete remission 1 or 2 was collected immediately before and 4 hours after total body irradiation with 1.25 Gy x-rays. Both miRNA and gene expression changes were measured by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction and microarray hybridization, respectively. Hierarchic clustering, multidimensional scaling, class prediction, and gene ontology analysis were performed to investigate the potential of miRNAs to serve as radiation biomarkers and to elucidate their likely physiologic roles in the radiation response. Results The expression levels of 45 miRNAs were statistically significantly upregulated 4 hours after irradiation with 1.25 Gy x-rays, 27 of them in every patient. Nonirradiated and irradiated samples form separate clusters in hierarchic clustering and multidimensional scaling. Out of 223 differentially expressed genes, 37 were both down-regulated and predicted targets of the upregulated miRNAs. Paired and unpaired miRNA-based classifiers that we developed can predict the class membership of a sample with unknown irradiation status, with accuracies of 100% when all 45 upregulated miRNAs are included. Both miRNA control of and gene involvement in biologic processes such as hemopoiesis and the immune response are increased after irradiation, whereas metabolic processes are underrepresented among all differentially expressed genes and the genes controlled by miRNAs. Conclusions Exposure to ionizing radiation leads to the upregulation of the expression of a considerable proportion of the human miRNAome of peripheral blood cells

  6. Decoding of affective facial expressions in the context of emotional situations.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Meinhardt, Jörg; Hajak, Göran

    2008-09-01

    The ability to recognize other persons' affective states and to link these with aspects of the current situation arises early in development and is precursor functions of a Theory of Mind (ToM). Until now, studies investigated either the processing of affective faces or affective pictures. In the present study, we tried to realize a scenario more similar to every day situations. We employed fMRI and used a picture matching task to explore the neural correlates associated with the integration and decoding of facial affective expressions in the context of affective situations. In the emotion condition, the participants judged an emotional facial expression with respect to the content of an emotional picture. In the two other conditions, participants indicated colour matches on the background of either affective or scrambled pictures. In contrast to colour matching on scrambled pictures, colour matching on emotional pictures resulted in longer reaction times and increased activation of the bilateral fusiform and occipital gyrus. These results indicated that, although task irrelevant, participants may attend to the emotional background of the pictures. The emotion task was associated with higher reaction times and with activation of the bilateral fusiform and occipital gyrus. Additionally, emotion attribution induced left amygdala activity. Possibly, attention processes and amygdala projections modulated the activation found in the occipital and fusiform areas. Furthermore, the involvement of the amygdala in the ToM precursor ability to link facial expressions with an emotional situation may indicate that the amygdala is involved in the development of stable ToM abilities.

  7. Heavy metal and trace element concentrations in blood and follicular fluid affect ART outcome.

    PubMed

    Tolunay, Harun Egemen; Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Ateş, Can; Türksoy, Vugar Ali; Ecemiş, Tolga; Atabekoğlu, Cem Somer; Özmen, Batuhan; Berker, Bülent; Sönmezer, Murat

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effects of heavy metal and trace element concentrations in blood and follicular fluid on assisted reproductive technology cycle outcome. A prospective study was conducted between January 2012 and July 2012 in a university hospital infertility clinic. One hundred and one patients with unexplained infertility who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection using GnRH-antagonist protocol were recruited. Concentrations of four toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, As) and three trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe) were measured both in blood and follicular fluid specimens. Patients were evaluated in two groups; the study group consisted of patients with ongoing pregnancy (n=20) and the reference group consisted of patients experienced assisted reproductive technology failure, miscarriage or biochemical pregnancy (n=81). Demographics and cycle parameters were comparable between the groups except for median number of day 3 Grade A embryos. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between blood Pb levels and number of MII oocytes, implantation, clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates. Results of the log binomial regression revealed 2.2% lower risk for ongoing pregnancy for each 1μg/dL higher blood Pb concentration while holding the other variables in the model constant (RR 0.978; 95% CI 0.956-0.998; P=.041). Also, the results revealed 71.9% lower risk for ongoing pregnancy for each 1μg/dL higher follicular fluid Cu concentration while holding the other variables in the model constant (RR 0.288; 95% CI 0.085-0.92; P=.039). Blood concentrations of Pb and follicular fluid concentrations of Cu seem to have significant impacts on assisted reproductive technology cycle outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A survey of affect recognition methods: audio, visual, and spontaneous expressions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhihong; Pantic, Maja; Roisman, Glenn I; Huang, Thomas S

    2009-01-01

    Automated analysis of human affective behavior has attracted increasing attention from researchers in psychology, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, and related disciplines. However, the existing methods typically handle only deliberately displayed and exaggerated expressions of prototypical emotions despite the fact that deliberate behaviour differs in visual appearance, audio profile, and timing from spontaneously occurring behaviour. To address this problem, efforts to develop algorithms that can process naturally occurring human affective behaviour have recently emerged. Moreover, an increasing number of efforts are reported toward multimodal fusion for human affect analysis including audiovisual fusion, linguistic and paralinguistic fusion, and multi-cue visual fusion based on facial expressions, head movements, and body gestures. This paper introduces and surveys these recent advances. We first discuss human emotion perception from a psychological perspective. Next we examine available approaches to solving the problem of machine understanding of human affective behavior, and discuss important issues like the collection and availability of training and test data. We finally outline some of the scientific and engineering challenges to advancing human affect sensing technology.

  9. Transcriptional interference by RNA polymerase III affects expression of the Polr3e gene

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, Meghdad; Praz, Viviane; Cousin, Pascal; Hernandez, Nouria

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping gene arrangements can potentially contribute to gene expression regulation. A mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR) nested in antisense orientation within the first intron of the Polr3e gene, encoding an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) subunit, is conserved in mammals and highly occupied by Pol III. Using a fluorescence assay, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the MIR in mouse embryonic stem cells, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that the MIR affects Polr3e expression through transcriptional interference. Our study reveals a mechanism by which a Pol II gene can be regulated at the transcription elongation level by transcription of an embedded antisense Pol III gene. PMID:28289142

  10. Transcriptional interference by RNA polymerase III affects expression of the Polr3e gene.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Meghdad; Praz, Viviane; Cousin, Pascal; Hernandez, Nouria

    2017-02-15

    Overlapping gene arrangements can potentially contribute to gene expression regulation. A mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR) nested in antisense orientation within the first intron of the Polr3e gene, encoding an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) subunit, is conserved in mammals and highly occupied by Pol III. Using a fluorescence assay, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the MIR in mouse embryonic stem cells, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that the MIR affects Polr3e expression through transcriptional interference. Our study reveals a mechanism by which a Pol II gene can be regulated at the transcription elongation level by transcription of an embedded antisense Pol III gene.

  11. Through the eyes of a child: preschoolers' identification of emotional expressions from the child affective facial expression (CAFE) set.

    PubMed

    LoBue, Vanessa; Baker, Lewis; Thrasher, Cat

    2017-08-10

    Researchers have been interested in the perception of human emotional expressions for decades. Importantly, most empirical work in this domain has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing for various emotional expressions. Recently, the Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set was introduced to the scientific community, featuring a large validated set of photographs of preschool aged children posing for seven different emotional expressions. Although the CAFE set was extensively validated using adult participants, the set was designed for use with children. It is therefore necessary to verify that adult validation applies to child performance. In the current study, we examined 3- to 4-year-olds' identification of a subset of children's faces in the CAFE set, and compared it to adult ratings cited in previous research. Our results demonstrate an exceptionally strong relationship between adult ratings of the CAFE photos and children's ratings, suggesting that the adult validation of the set can be applied to preschool-aged participants. The results are discussed in terms of methodological implications for the use of the CAFE set with children, and theoretical implications for using the set to study the development of emotion perception in early childhood.

  12. Gene expression patterns in peripheral blood leukocytes in patients with recurrent ciguatera fish poisoning: Preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Ungaro, Ricardo F; Baker, Henry V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Robertson, Alison; Abbott, Margaret; Roberts, Sparkle M; Grattan, Lynn M; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) is a common clinical syndrome in areas where there is dependence on tropical reef fish for food. A subset of patients develops recurrent and, in some instances, chronic symptoms, which may result in substantial disability. To identify possible biomarkers for recurrent/chronic disease, and to explore correlations with immune gene expression, peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression in 10 ciguatera patients (7 recurrent and 3 acute) from the U.S. Virgin Islands, and 5 unexposed Florida controls were evaluated. Significant differences in gene expression were noted when comparing ciguatera patients and controls; however, it was not possible to differentiate between patients with acute and recurrent disease, possibly due to the small sample sizes involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene Expression Patterns in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes in Patients with Recurrent Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Preliminary Studies.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Ungaro, Ricardo F; Baker, Henry V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Robertson, Alison; Abbott, Margaret; Roberts, Sparkle M; Grattan, Lynn M; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) is a common clinical syndrome in areas where there is dependence on tropical reef fish for food. A subset of patients develops recurrent and, in some instances, chronic symptoms, which may result in substantial disability. To identify possible biomarkers for recurrent/chronic disease, and to explore correlations with immune gene expression, peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression in 10 ciguatera patients (7 recurrent, 3 acute) from the U.S. Virgin Islands, and 5 unexposed Florida controls were evaluated. Significant differences in gene expression were noted when comparing ciguatera patients and controls; however, it was not possible to differentiate between patients with acute and recurrent disease, possibly due to the small sample sizes involved.

  14. Patterns of leucocyte common antigen expression in peripheral blood T cell populations.

    PubMed

    Visser, L; Lai, R; Poppema, S

    1993-10-01

    The restricted forms of CD45 are differentially expressed on lymphocyte subsets in different maturation stages and with different functional activities. The best-known examples are the expression of CD45RA on naive and CD45RO on memory T cells. Multicolor flow cytometry allows for the analysis of lymphocyte subsets with respect to the expression of the various CD45R isoforms (RA, RB, RO). Here we report on the distribution of these isoforms in normal peripheral blood T cells, including the CD4, CD8, and CD56 subsets. The results indicate the presence of a number of consistent patterns within these subsets, which can be linked to populations with well-defined functional activities, and also identify several transitional stages and hitherto undefined subsets.

  15. Ectopic lymphokine gene expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, C.A.; Kang, Joonsoo; Hozumi, Nobumichi Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario )

    1992-02-01

    An animal model to study the effects of ectopic expression of cytokines involved in cell growth and differentiation has been established. Retrovirus vectors containing the human interleukin 6 cDNA were used to produce high titer virus-producing lines. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) were successfully infected with the retrovirus and engrafted into severe combined immunodeficient mice. The majority of the animals were engrafted with hPBLs, as determined by the presence of human glucose phosphate isomerase. Furthermore, six of seven mice engrafted with hPBLs infected with high titer virus and detectable hPBLs present in the spleen expressed the retroviral human interleukin 6 gene. Importantly, human interleukin 6 protein was expressed at physiologically significant levels in these mice. These results demonstrate that models for human disease and immunotherapy involving retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into human cells can be developed in mice.

  16. Gene-environment interplay in affect and dementia: emotional modulation of cognitive expression in personal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Palomo, T; Beninger, R J; Kostrzewa, R M; Archer, T

    2004-01-01

    A multitude of factors, that either singly, interactively, or sequentially influence the gene-environment interplay in affective and dementia states, include several phases of neurodevelopmental liability in both humans and laboratory animals. Genetic vulnerability for both affective disorders and dementia describes a scenario distinguished by progressive need for concern, particularly in view of the interplay between these areas of ill-health. The contribution of emotional and cognitive expression to personal outcomes, e.g., as a function of affective personality type, a state-dependent analysis of personality characteristics, appears to pervade both the individual's experience of social and physical environments and the performance of cognitive tasks. The role of the endocannabinoids in mental health may offer insights for the psychopharmacology of both cognition and affect. Maladaptive emotional reactions and a defective cognitive ability will contribution to unsatisfactory/maladaptive coping strategies, in turn, leading to further complications of an affective and dysfunctional nature, eventually with a clinical psychopathological outcome. These considerations impinge upon critical issues concerning predisposition and vulnerability. Classical eye-blink conditioning provides a highly established procedure for assessment of defective physiology in models of Alzheimer's dementia. In order to develop a consideration of the array of situations presenting the variation of outcome due to type of affective personality, the role of fear and anxiety and stress in affective states influencing cognition are examined and the critical role of brain circuits mediating emotions influencing cognitive outcomes is discussed.

  17. Peripheral blood gene expression signature differentiates children with autism from unaffected siblings

    PubMed Central

    Kong, SW; Shimizu-Motohashi, Y; Campbell, MG; Lee, IH; Collins, CD; Brewster, SJ; Holm, IA; Rappaport, L

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders with high heritability, yet a majority of genetic contribution to pathophysiology is not known. Siblings of individuals with ASD are at increased risk for ASD and autistic traits, but the genetic contribution for simplex families is estimated to be less when compared to multiplex families. To explore the genomic (dis-) similarity between proband and unaffected sibling in simplex families, we used genome-wide gene expression profiles of blood from 20 proband-unaffected sibling pairs and 18 unrelated control individuals. The global gene expression profiles of unaffected siblings were more similar to those from probands as they shared genetic and environmental background. One hundred eighty nine genes were significantly differentially expressed between proband-sib pairs (nominal p-value < 0.01) after controlling for age, sex, and family effects. Probands and siblings were distinguished into two groups by cluster analysis with these genes. Overall, unaffected siblings were equally distant from the centroid of probands and from that of unrelated controls with the differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, 5 of 20 siblings had gene expression profiles that were more similar to unrelated controls than to their matched probands. In summary, we found a set of genes that distinguished probands from the unaffected siblings, and a subgroup of unaffected siblings who were more similar to probands. The pathways that characterized probands compared to siblings using peripheral blood gene expression profiles were the up-regulation of ribosomal, spliceosomal, and mitochondrial pathways, and the down-regulation of neuroreceptor-ligand, immune response and calcium signaling pathways. Further integrative study with structural genetic variations such as de novo mutations, rare variants, and copy number variations would clarify whether these transcriptomic changes are structural or environmental

  18. Effect of age and affection status on blood pressure, serum potassium and stature in familial hyperkalaemia and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Farfel, Alon; Mayan, Haim; Melnikov, Semyon; Holtzman, Eliezer J; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Farfel, Zvi

    2011-05-01

    The rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder familial hyperkalemia and hypertension which is caused by mutations in WNK4 kinase, is characterized by childhood hyperkalemia and hypercalciuria, and appearance of hypertension in the third to fourth decade. Accompanying short stature is often described. We determined height, blood pressure and blood and urinary biochemical parameters in members of a very large family of FHHt with the WNK4 Q565E mutation. The family has 57 members, 30 of whom (including 14 children) are affected. Prehypertension occurred in 7/11 affected and 1/10 unaffected children (P = 0.024). Serum potassium (SK) was ~0.5 mmol/L higher in affected children vs adults [5.98 ± 0.42 vs 5.46 ± 0.40 mmol/L, respectively (P < 0.0001)] (33 samples from 11 children and 36 samples from eight adults). SK of ≥ 6.0 mmol/L occurred in 16/33 children's samples and in 3/36 adults' samples (P = 0.0003). Hyperkalaemia in children is currently untreated. Children also had more severe hyperchloraemia and hypercalciuria. The family contains four large subfamilies, and each includes 8-10 siblings. In one subfamily, height Z-score was lower in affected vs unaffected subjects [- 2.69 ± 0.36 vs -1.05 ± 0.16, respectively (P < 0.0001)]. In the other three subfamilies, no such difference was found. Short stature is not part of FHHt with the WNK4 Q565E mutation. Children affected with FHHt have a high prevalence of prehypertension, and their hyperkalaemia is more severe than that of affected adults. Children may have a more severe defect in the basic mechanism that produces hyperkalaemia. We suggest that, in affected adults, the attenuation of hyperkalaemia and appearance of hypertension may be the result of a late rise in the activity