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Sample records for expression signatures diagnose

  1. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  2. Digital gene expression signatures for maize development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patt...

  3. Digital gene expression signatures for maize development.

    PubMed

    Eveland, Andrea L; Satoh-Nagasawa, Namiko; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Meyer, Sandra; Beatty, Mary; Sakai, Hajime; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, David

    2010-11-01

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect the determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patterns, an important agronomic trait. In this work, we developed and tested a framework for analysis of tag-based, digital gene expression profiles using Illumina's high-throughput sequencing technology and the newly assembled B73 maize reference genome. We also used a mutation in the RA3 gene to identify putative expression signatures specific to stem cell fate in axillary meristem determinacy. The RA3 gene encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and may act at the interface between developmental and metabolic processes. Deep sequencing of digital gene expression libraries, representing three biological replicate ear samples from wild-type and ra3 plants, generated 27 million 20- to 21-nucleotide reads with frequencies spanning 4 orders of magnitude. Unique sequence tags were anchored to 3'-ends of individual transcripts by DpnII and NlaIII digests, which were multiplexed during sequencing. We mapped 86% of nonredundant signature tags to the maize genome, which associated with 37,117 gene models and unannotated regions of expression. In total, 66% of genes were detected by at least nine reads in immature maize ears. We used comparative genomics to leverage existing information from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) in functional analyses of differentially expressed maize genes. Results from this study provide a basis for the analysis of short-read expression data in maize and resolved specific expression signatures that will help define mechanisms of action for the RA3 gene.

  4. Three plasma metabolite signatures for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Tan, Guangguo; Liu, Ping; Li, Huijie; Tang, Lulu; Huang, Lan; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal condition, occurring at altitudes greater than 3,000 m and affecting rapidly ascending, non-acclimatized healthy individuals. However, the lack of biomarkers for this disease still constitutes a bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to study plasma metabolite profiling from 57 HAPE and 57 control subjects. 14 differential plasma metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups from discovery set (35 HAPE subjects and 35 healthy controls) were identified. Furthermore, 3 of the 14 metabolites (C8-ceramide, sphingosine and glutamine) were selected as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for HAPE using metabolic pathway impact analysis. The feasibility of using the combination of these three biomarkers for HAPE was evaluated, where the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.981 and 0.942 in the discovery set and the validation set (22 HAPE subjects and 22 healthy controls), respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that this composite plasma metabolite signature may be used in HAPE diagnosis, especially after further investigation and verification with larger samples.

  5. Three plasma metabolite signatures for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Tan, Guangguo; Liu, Ping; Li, Huijie; Tang, Lulu; Huang, Lan; Ren, Qian

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal condition, occurring at altitudes greater than 3,000 m and affecting rapidly ascending, non-acclimatized healthy individuals. However, the lack of biomarkers for this disease still constitutes a bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to study plasma metabolite profiling from 57 HAPE and 57 control subjects. 14 differential plasma metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups from discovery set (35 HAPE subjects and 35 healthy controls) were identified. Furthermore, 3 of the 14 metabolites (C8-ceramide, sphingosine and glutamine) were selected as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for HAPE using metabolic pathway impact analysis. The feasibility of using the combination of these three biomarkers for HAPE was evaluated, where the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.981 and 0.942 in the discovery set and the validation set (22 HAPE subjects and 22 healthy controls), respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that this composite plasma metabolite signature may be used in HAPE diagnosis, especially after further investigation and verification with larger samples. PMID:26459926

  6. Hereditary family signature of facial expression

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Gili; Katzir, Gadi; Peleg, Ofer; Kamara, Michal; Brodsky, Leonid; Hel-Or, Hagit; Keren, Daniel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2006-01-01

    Although facial expressions of emotion are universal, individual differences create a facial expression “signature” for each person; but, is there a unique family facial expression signature? Only a few family studies on the heredity of facial expressions have been performed, none of which compared the gestalt of movements in various emotional states; they compared only a few movements in one or two emotional states. No studies, to our knowledge, have compared movements of congenitally blind subjects with their relatives to our knowledge. Using two types of analyses, we show a correlation between movements of congenitally blind subjects with those of their relatives in think-concentrate, sadness, anger, disgust, joy, and surprise and provide evidence for a unique family facial expression signature. In the analysis “in-out family test,” a particular movement was compared each time across subjects. Results show that the frequency of occurrence of a movement of a congenitally blind subject in his family is significantly higher than that outside of his family in think-concentrate, sadness, and anger. In the analysis “the classification test,” in which congenitally blind subjects were classified to their families according to the gestalt of movements, results show 80% correct classification over the entire interview and 75% in anger. Analysis of the movements' frequencies in anger revealed a correlation between the movements' frequencies of congenitally blind individuals and those of their relatives. This study anticipates discovering genes that influence facial expressions, understanding their evolutionary significance, and elucidating repair mechanisms for syndromes lacking facial expression, such as autism. PMID:17043232

  7. Identifying regulatory mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis using locus expression signature analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjee; de Ridder, Jeroen; Kool, Jaap; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Bussemaker, Harmen J

    2014-04-15

    Retroviral insertional mutagenesis is a powerful tool for identifying putative cancer genes in mice. To uncover the regulatory mechanisms by which common insertion loci affect downstream processes, we supplemented genotyping data with genome-wide mRNA expression profiling data for 97 tumors induced by retroviral insertional mutagenesis. We developed locus expression signature analysis, an algorithm to construct and interpret the differential gene expression signature associated with each common insertion locus. Comparing locus expression signatures to promoter affinity profiles allowed us to build a detailed map of transcription factors whose protein-level regulatory activity is modulated by a particular locus. We also predicted a large set of drugs that might mitigate the effect of the insertion on tumorigenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential of a locus-specific signature approach for identifying mammalian regulatory mechanisms in a cancer context.

  8. Gene expression signatures for colorectal cancer microsatellite status and HNPCC

    PubMed Central

    Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P; Dyrskjøt, L; Salovaara, R; Arango, D; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, K; Sørensen, F B; Christensen, L L; Buhl, L; Mecklin, J-P; Järvinen, H; Thykjaer, T; Wikman, F P; Bech-Knudsen, F; Juhola, M; Nupponen, N N; Laurberg, S; Andersen, C L; Aaltonen, L A; Ørntoft, T F

    2005-01-01

    The majority of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancers are sporadic, but a subset belongs to the syndrome hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Microsatellite instability is caused by dysfunction of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that leads to a mutator phenotype, and MSI is correlated to prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Gene expression signatures as predictive markers are being developed for many cancers, and the identification of a signature for MMR deficiency would be of interest both clinically and biologically. To address this issue, we profiled the gene expression of 101 stage II and III colorectal cancers (34 MSI, 67 microsatellite stable (MSS)) using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. From these data, we constructed a nine-gene signature capable of separating the mismatch repair proficient and deficient tumours. Subsequently, we demonstrated the robustness of the signature by transferring it to a real-time RT-PCR platform. Using this platform, the signature was validated on an independent test set consisting of 47 tumours (10 MSI, 37 MSS), of which 45 were correctly classified. In a second step, we constructed a signature capable of separating MMR-deficient tumours into sporadic MSI and HNPCC cases, and validated this by a mathematical cross-validation approach. The demonstration that this two-step classification approach can identify MSI as well as HNPCC cases merits further gene expression studies to identify prognostic signatures. PMID:15956967

  9. Gene-expression signature of vascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez, Beatriz; Hoshida, Yujin; Villanueva, Augusto; Toffanin, Sara; Cabellos, Laia; Thung, Swan; Mandeli, John; Sia, Daniela; April, Craig; Fan, Jian-Bing; Lachenmayer, Anja; Savic, Radoslav; Roayaie, Sasan; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Bruix, Jordi; Schwartz, Myron; Friedman, Scott L.; Llovet, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Vascular invasion is a major predictor of tumor recurrence after surgical treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While macroscopic vascular invasion can be detected by radiological techniques, pre-operative detection of microscopic vascular invasion, which complicates 30–40% of patients with early tumors, remains elusive. Methods A total of 214 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent resection were included in the study. By using genome-wide gene-expression profiling of 79 hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma samples (training set), a gene-expression signature associated with vascular invasion was defined. The signature was validated in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from an independent set of 135 patients with various etiologies. Results A 35-gene signature of vascular invasion was defined in the training set, predicting vascular invasion with an accuracy of 69%. The signature was independently associated with the presence of vascular invasion (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.48–7.71, p = 0.003) along with tumor size (diameter greater than 3 cm, OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.17–6.05, p = 0.02). In the validation set, the signature discarded the presence of vascular invasion with a negative predictive value of 0.77, and significantly improved the diagnostic power of tumor size alone (p = 0.045). Conclusions The assessment of a gene-expression signature obtained from resected biopsied tumor specimens improved the diagnosis of vascular invasion beyond clinical variable-based prediction. The signature may aid in candidate selection for liver transplantation, and guide the design of clinical trials with experimental adjuvant therapies. PMID:21703203

  10. Genomic signatures of germline gene expression.

    PubMed

    McVicker, Graham; Green, Phil

    2010-11-01

    Transcribed regions in the human genome differ from adjacent intergenic regions in transposable element density, crossover rates, and asymmetric substitution and sequence composition patterns. We tested whether these differences reflect selection or are instead a byproduct of germline transcription, using publicly available gene expression data from a variety of germline and somatic tissues. Crossover rate shows a strong negative correlation with gene expression in meiotic tissues, suggesting that crossover is inhibited by transcription. Strand-biased composition (G+T content) and A → G versus T → C substitution asymmetry are both positively correlated with germline gene expression. We find no evidence for a strand bias in allele frequency data, implying that the substitution asymmetry reflects a mutation rather than a fixation bias. The density of transposable elements is positively correlated with germline expression, suggesting that such elements preferentially insert into regions that are actively transcribed. For each of the features examined, our analyses favor a nonselective explanation for the observed trends and point to the role of germline gene expression in shaping the mammalian genome.

  11. Gene Expression Signature in Endemic Osteoarthritis by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi; Ning, Yujie; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Fangfang; Tan, Wuhong; Lei, Yanxia; Wu, Cuiyan; Zheng, Jingjing; Wang, Sen; Yu, Hanjie; Li, Zheng; Lammi, Mikko J.; Guo, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) is an endemic osteochondropathy with an unknown pathogenesis. Diagnosis of KBD is effective only in advanced cases, which eliminates the possibility of early treatment and leads to an inevitable exacerbation of symptoms. Therefore, we aim to identify an accurate blood-based gene signature for the detection of KBD. Previously published gene expression profile data on cartilage and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from adults with KBD were compared to select potential target genes. Microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate the expression of the target genes in a cohort of 100 KBD patients and 100 healthy controls. A gene expression signature was identified using a training set, which was subsequently validated using an independent test set with a minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) algorithm and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Fifty unique genes were differentially expressed between KBD patients and healthy controls. A 20-gene signature was identified that distinguished between KBD patients and controls with 90% accuracy, 85% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This study identified a 20-gene signature that accurately distinguishes between patients with KBD and controls using peripheral blood samples. These results promote the further development of blood-based genetic biomarkers for detection of KBD. PMID:25997002

  12. Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon's plastic life cycle.

    PubMed

    Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Letcher, Benjamin H; Hofmann, Hans A

    2009-09-15

    How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated-at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction-in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators.

  13. Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon's plastic life cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated-at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction-in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene Expression Signature in Peripheral Blood Detects Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Dov; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Iakoubova, Olga; Tranquilli, Maryann; Albornoz, Gonzalo; Blake, Julie; Mehmet, Necip N.; Ngadimo, Dewi; Poulter, Karen; Chan, Frances; Samaha, Raymond R.; Elefteriades, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is usually asymptomatic and associated with high mortality. Adverse clinical outcome of TAA is preventable by elective surgical repair; however, identifying at-risk individuals is difficult. We hypothesized that gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells may correlate with TAA disease status. Our goal was to identify a distinct gene expression signature in peripheral blood that may identify individuals at risk for TAA. Methods and Findings Whole genome gene expression profiles from 94 peripheral blood samples (collected from 58 individuals with TAA and 36 controls) were analyzed. Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) identified potential signature genes characterizing TAA vs. normal, ascending vs. descending TAA, and sporadic vs. familial TAA. Using a training set containing 36 TAA patients and 25 controls, a 41-gene classification model was constructed for detecting TAA status and an overall accuracy of 78±6% was achieved. Testing this classifier on an independent validation set containing 22 TAA samples and 11 controls yielded an overall classification accuracy of 78%. These 41 classifier genes were further validated by TaqMan® real-time PCR assays. Classification based on the TaqMan® data replicated the microarray results and achieved 80% classification accuracy on the testing set. Conclusions This study identified informative gene expression signatures in peripheral blood cells that can characterize TAA status and subtypes of TAA. Moreover, a 41-gene classifier based on expression signature can identify TAA patients with high accuracy. The transcriptional programs in peripheral blood leading to the identification of these markers also provide insights into the mechanism of development of aortic aneurysms and highlight potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The classifier genes identified in this study, and validated by TaqMan® real-time PCR, define a set of promising potential diagnostic markers

  15. Cancer gene expression signatures - the rise and fall?

    PubMed

    Chibon, Frederic

    2013-05-01

    A 'gene expression signature' can be defined as a single or a combined gene expression alteration with validated specificity in terms of diagnosis, prognosis or prediction of therapeutic response. Since the publication of the first signature in the late 90s, high-throughput gene expression analysis has revolutionised genetics over the last 15 years. The scientific community has used this new technology to find responses to these fundamental questions; from understanding tumour biology, to prediction of progression, and treatments to which it will respond. Nevertheless, legitimate excitement about the attractiveness of molecular technologies and the promise of discovery-based research should not overlook adherence to the rules of evidence, otherwise it may result in claims that are not meaningful and lead to disappointment. This review will thus focus on the approaches developed to answer these three fundamental questions and the results evidenced both at biological and clinical level. On looking at this huge amount of data that have become increasingly minute, and at times contradictory, we discuss how gene expression signature improve our understanding of cancer biology, our ability to predict progression and response, and finally, our capacity to treat cancers more efficiently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A prognostic gene expression signature in infratentorial ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khalida; Armstrong, Terri S; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Raghunathan, Aditya; Ellison, David; Gilbertson, Richard; Vaillant, Brian; Goldman, Stewart; Packer, Roger J; Fouladi, Maryam; Pollack, Ian; Mikkelsen, Tom; Prados, Michael; Omuro, Antonio; Soffietti, Riccardo; Ledoux, Alicia; Wilson, Charmaine; Long, Lihong; Gilbert, Mark R; Aldape, Ken

    2012-05-01

    Patients with ependymoma exhibit a wide range of clinical outcomes that are currently unexplained by clinical or histological factors. Little is known regarding molecular biomarkers that could predict clinical behavior. Since recent data suggest that these tumors display biological characteristics according to their location (cerebral vs. infratentorial vs. spinal cord), rather than explore a broad spectrum of ependymoma, we focused on molecular alterations in ependymomas arising in the infratentorial compartment. Unsupervised clustering of available gene expression microarray data revealed two major subgroups of infratentorial ependymoma. Group 1 tumors over expressed genes that were associated with mesenchyme, Group 2 tumors showed no distinct gene ontologies. To assess the prognostic significance of these gene expression subgroups, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on genes defining the subgroups in a training set. This resulted in a 10-gene prognostic signature. Multivariate analysis showed that the 10-gene signature was an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after adjusting for clinical factors. Evaluation of an external dataset describing subgroups of infratentorial ependymomas showed concordance of subgroup definition, including validation of the mesenchymal subclass. Importantly, the 10-gene signature was validated as a predictor of recurrence-free survival in this dataset. Taken together, the results indicate a link between clinical outcome and biologically identified subsets of infratentorial ependymoma and offer the potential for prognostic testing to estimate clinical aggressiveness in these tumors.

  17. Conserved Expression Signatures between Medaka and Human Pigment Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, Manfred; Kneitz, Susanne; Wilde, Brigitta; Wagner, Toni; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Spaink, Herman P.; Meierjohann, Svenja

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations in gene expression are a hallmark of cancer cells. Differential tumor-specific transcript levels of single genes or whole sets of genes may be critical for the neoplastic phenotype and important for therapeutic considerations or useful as biomarkers. As an approach to filter out such relevant expression differences from the plethora of changes noted in global expression profiling studies, we searched for changes of gene expression levels that are conserved. Transcriptomes from massive parallel sequencing of different types of melanoma from medaka were generated and compared to microarray datasets from zebrafish and human melanoma. This revealed molecular conservation at various levels between fish models and human tumors providing a useful strategy for identifying expression signatures strongly associated with disease phenotypes and uncovering new melanoma molecules. PMID:22693581

  18. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor-operated devices

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H D; Eissenberg, D M

    1986-09-30

    A motor current noise signature analysis method for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in inaccessible or hostile environments. 6 figs.

  19. Differentially Expressed Genes and Signature Pathways of Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jennifer S.; von Lersner, Ariana K.; Robbins, Charles J.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2015-01-01

    Genomic technologies including microarrays and next-generation sequencing have enabled the generation of molecular signatures of prostate cancer. Lists of differentially expressed genes between malignant and non-malignant states are thought to be fertile sources of putative prostate cancer biomarkers. However such lists of differentially expressed genes can be highly variable for multiple reasons. As such, looking at differential expression in the context of gene sets and pathways has been more robust. Using next-generation genome sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, differential gene expression between age- and stage- matched human prostate tumors and non-malignant samples was assessed and used to craft a pathway signature of prostate cancer. Up- and down-regulated genes were assigned to pathways composed of curated groups of related genes from multiple databases. The significance of these pathways was then evaluated according to the number of differentially expressed genes found in the pathway and their position within the pathway using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis. The “transforming growth factor-beta signaling” and “Ran regulation of mitotic spindle formation” pathways were strongly associated with prostate cancer. Several other significant pathways confirm reported findings from microarray data that suggest actin cytoskeleton regulation, cell cycle, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and calcium signaling are also altered in prostate cancer. Thus we have demonstrated feasibility of pathway analysis and identified an underexplored area (Ran) for investigation in prostate cancer pathogenesis. PMID:26683658

  20. GESearch: An Interactive GUI Tool for Identifying Gene Expression Signature.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ning; Yin, Hengfu; Liu, Jingjing; Dai, Xiaogang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-01-01

    The huge amount of gene expression data generated by microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies present challenges to exploit their biological meanings. When searching for the coexpression genes, the data mining process is largely affected by selection of algorithms. Thus, it is highly desirable to provide multiple options of algorithms in the user-friendly analytical toolkit to explore the gene expression signatures. For this purpose, we developed GESearch, an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit, which is written in MATLAB and supports a variety of gene expression data files. This analytical toolkit provides four models, including the mean, the regression, the delegate, and the ensemble models, to identify the coexpression genes, and enables the users to filter data and to select gene expression patterns by browsing the display window or by importing knowledge-based genes. Subsequently, the utility of this analytical toolkit is demonstrated by analyzing two sets of real-life microarray datasets from cell-cycle experiments. Overall, we have developed an interactive GUI toolkit that allows for choosing multiple algorithms for analyzing the gene expression signatures.

  1. Molecular subsets in the gene expression signatures of scleroderma skin.

    PubMed

    Milano, Ausra; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Sargent, Jennifer L; George, Lacy K; McCalmont, Timothy H; Connolly, M Kari; Whitfield, Michael L

    2008-07-16

    Scleroderma is a clinically heterogeneous disease with a complex phenotype. The disease is characterized by vascular dysfunction, tissue fibrosis, internal organ dysfunction, and immune dysfunction resulting in autoantibody production. We analyzed the genome-wide patterns of gene expression with DNA microarrays in skin biopsies from distinct scleroderma subsets including 17 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc), 7 patients with SSc with limited scleroderma (lSSc), 3 patients with morphea, and 6 healthy controls. 61 skin biopsies were analyzed in a total of 75 microarray hybridizations. Analysis by hierarchical clustering demonstrates nearly identical patterns of gene expression in 17 out of 22 of the forearm and back skin pairs of SSc patients. Using this property of the gene expression, we selected a set of 'intrinsic' genes and analyzed the inherent data-driven groupings. Distinct patterns of gene expression separate patients with dSSc from those with lSSc and both are easily distinguished from normal controls. Our data show three distinct patient groups among the patients with dSSc and two groups among patients with lSSc. Each group can be distinguished by unique gene expression signatures indicative of proliferating cells, immune infiltrates and a fibrotic program. The intrinsic groups are statistically significant (p<0.001) and each has been mapped to clinical covariates of modified Rodnan skin score, interstitial lung disease, gastrointestinal involvement, digital ulcers, Raynaud's phenomenon and disease duration. We report a 177-gene signature that is associated with severity of skin disease in dSSc. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of skin biopsies demonstrates that the heterogeneity in scleroderma can be measured quantitatively with DNA microarrays. The diversity in gene expression demonstrates multiple distinct gene expression programs in the skin of patients with scleroderma.

  2. Molecular Subsets in the Gene Expression Signatures of Scleroderma Skin

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Ausra; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Sargent, Jennifer L.; George, Lacy K.; McCalmont, Timothy H.; Connolly, M. Kari; Whitfield, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Scleroderma is a clinically heterogeneous disease with a complex phenotype. The disease is characterized by vascular dysfunction, tissue fibrosis, internal organ dysfunction, and immune dysfunction resulting in autoantibody production. Methodology and Findings We analyzed the genome-wide patterns of gene expression with DNA microarrays in skin biopsies from distinct scleroderma subsets including 17 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc), 7 patients with SSc with limited scleroderma (lSSc), 3 patients with morphea, and 6 healthy controls. 61 skin biopsies were analyzed in a total of 75 microarray hybridizations. Analysis by hierarchical clustering demonstrates nearly identical patterns of gene expression in 17 out of 22 of the forearm and back skin pairs of SSc patients. Using this property of the gene expression, we selected a set of ‘intrinsic’ genes and analyzed the inherent data-driven groupings. Distinct patterns of gene expression separate patients with dSSc from those with lSSc and both are easily distinguished from normal controls. Our data show three distinct patient groups among the patients with dSSc and two groups among patients with lSSc. Each group can be distinguished by unique gene expression signatures indicative of proliferating cells, immune infiltrates and a fibrotic program. The intrinsic groups are statistically significant (p<0.001) and each has been mapped to clinical covariates of modified Rodnan skin score, interstitial lung disease, gastrointestinal involvement, digital ulcers, Raynaud's phenomenon and disease duration. We report a 177-gene signature that is associated with severity of skin disease in dSSc. Conclusions and Significance Genome-wide gene expression profiling of skin biopsies demonstrates that the heterogeneity in scleroderma can be measured quantitatively with DNA microarrays. The diversity in gene expression demonstrates multiple distinct gene expression programs in the skin of

  3. Molecular classification of prostate cancer using curated expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Markert, Elke K; Mizuno, Hideaki; Vazquez, Alexei; Levine, Arnold J

    2011-12-27

    High Gleason score is currently the best prognostic indicator for poor prognosis in prostate cancer. However, a significant number of patients with low Gleason scores develop aggressive disease as well. In an effort to understand molecular signatures associated with poor outcome in prostate cancer, we analyzed a microarray dataset characterizing 281 prostate cancers from a Swedish watchful-waiting cohort. Patients were classified on the basis of their mRNA microarray signature profiles indicating embryonic stem cell expression patterns (stemness), inactivation of the tumor suppressors p53 and PTEN, activation of several oncogenic pathways, and the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. Unsupervised clustering identified a subset of tumors manifesting stem-like signatures together with p53 and PTEN inactivation, which had very poor survival outcome, a second group with intermediate survival outcome, characterized by the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, and three groups with benign outcome. The stratification was validated on a second independent dataset of 150 tumor and metastatic samples from a clinical cohort at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. This classification is independent of Gleason score and therefore provides useful unique molecular profiles for prostate cancer prognosis, helping to predict poor outcome in patients with low or average Gleason scores.

  4. A gene expression signature for recent onset rheumatoid arthritis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, N; Sokka, T; Seehorn, C; Kraft, B; Maas, K; Moore, J; Aune, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: In previous studies the presence of a distinct gene expression pattern has been shown in peripheral blood cells from patients with autoimmune disease. Objective: To determine whether other specific signatures might be used to identify subsets of these autoimmune diseases and whether gene expression patterns in early disease might identify pathogenetic factors. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were acquired from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and analysed by microarrays containing over 4300 named human genes. Patients with RA for <2 years were compared with subjects with longstanding RA (average duration 10 years) and with patients with other immune or autoimmune diagnoses. Results: Cluster analyses permitted separation of the patients with early RA (ERA) from those with longstanding disease. Comparison with other patient groups suggested that the ERA signature showed some overlap with that seen in the normal immune response to viral antigen as well as with a subset of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Conclusions: The ERA signature may reflect, in part, a response to an unknown infectious agent. Furthermore, shared features with some lupus patients suggest that common aetiological factors and pathogenetic pathways may be involved in these two autoimmune disorders. PMID:15479887

  5. A gene expression signature that defines breast cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Seebach, Jeff; Field, Lori A; Heckman, Caroline; Kane, Jennifer; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Love, Brad; Shriver, Craig D

    2009-01-01

    The most important predictor of prognosis in breast cancer is lymph node status, yet little is known about molecular changes associated with lymph node metastasis. Here, gene expression analysis was performed on primary breast (PBT) and corresponding metastatic lymph node (MLN) tumors to identify molecular signatures associated with nodal metastasis. RNA was isolated after laser microdissection from frozen PBT and MLN from 20 patients with positive lymph nodes and hybridized to the microarray chips. Differential expression was determined using Mann-Whitney testing; Bonferroni corrected P values of 0.05 and 0.001 were calculated. Results were validated using TaqMan assays. Fifty-one genes were differentially expressed (P < 1 x 10(-5), less than twofold differences) between the PBT and paired MLN; 13 with significantly higher expression in the MLN and 38 in the PBT. qRT-PCR validated the differential expression of 40/51 genes. Of the 40 validated genes, NTS and PAX5 were found to have >100-fold higher expression in MLT while COL11A1, KRT14, MMP13, TAC1 and WNT2 had >100-fold higher expression in PBT. Gene expression differences between PBT and MLN suggests that expression of a unique set of genes is required for successful lymph node colonization. Genes expressed at higher levels in PBT are involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix, enabling cells with metastatic potential to disseminate, while genes expressed at higher levels in metastases are involved in transcription, signal transduction and immune response, providing cells with proliferation and survival advantages. These data improve our understanding of the biological processes involved in successful metastatis and provide new targets to arrest tumor cell dissemination and metastatic colonization.

  6. Diagnose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Wolfgang

    Die Zunahme der Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug, die Nutzung von Software zur Steuerung des Fahrzeugs und die erhöhte Komplexität moderner Einspritzsysteme stellen hohe Anforderungen an das Diagnosekonzept, die Überwachung im Fahrbetrieb (On-Board-Diagnose) und die Werkstattdiagnose (Bild 1). Basis der Werkstattdiagnose ist die geführte Fehlersuche, die verschiedene Möglichkeiten von Onboard- und Offboard-Prüfmethoden und Prüfgeräten verknüpft. Im Zuge der Verschärfung der Abgasgesetzgebung und der Forderung nach laufender Überwachung hat auch der Gesetzgeber die On-Board-Diagnose als Hilfsmittel zur Abgasüberwachung erkannt und eine herstellerunabhängige Standardisierung geschaffen. Dieses zusätzlich installierte System wird OBD-System (On Board Diagnostic System) genannt.

  7. Extraction and analysis of signatures from the Gene Expression Omnibus by the crowd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.; Fernandez, Nicolas F.; Gundersen, Gregory W.; Rouillard, Andrew D.; Jenkins, Sherry L.; Feldmann, Axel S.; Hu, Kevin S.; McDermott, Michael G.; Duan, Qiaonan; Clark, Neil R.; Jones, Matthew R.; Kou, Yan; Goff, Troy; Woodland, Holly; Amaral, Fabio M. R.; Szeto, Gregory L.; Fuchs, Oliver; Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia M.; Sharma, Shvetank; Schwartz, Uwe; Bausela, Xabier Bengoetxea; Szymkiewicz, Maciej; Maroulis, Vasileios; Salykin, Anton; Barra, Carolina M.; Kruth, Candice D.; Bongio, Nicholas J.; Mathur, Vaibhav; Todoric, Radmila D.; Rubin, Udi E.; Malatras, Apostolos; Fulp, Carl T.; Galindo, John A.; Motiejunaite, Ruta; Jüschke, Christoph; Dishuck, Philip C.; Lahl, Katharina; Jafari, Mohieddin; Aibar, Sara; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Steenhuizen, Linda H.; Allison, Lindsey R.; Gamallo, Pablo; de Andres Segura, Fernando; Dae Devlin, Tyler; Pérez-García, Vicente; Ma'Ayan, Avi

    2016-09-01

    Gene expression data are accumulating exponentially in public repositories. Reanalysis and integration of themed collections from these studies may provide new insights, but requires further human curation. Here we report a crowdsourcing project to annotate and reanalyse a large number of gene expression profiles from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Through a massive open online course on Coursera, over 70 participants from over 25 countries identify and annotate 2,460 single-gene perturbation signatures, 839 disease versus normal signatures, and 906 drug perturbation signatures. All these signatures are unique and are manually validated for quality. Global analysis of these signatures confirms known associations and identifies novel associations between genes, diseases and drugs. The manually curated signatures are used as a training set to develop classifiers for extracting similar signatures from the entire GEO repository. We develop a web portal to serve these signatures for query, download and visualization.

  8. Extraction and analysis of signatures from the Gene Expression Omnibus by the crowd

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.; Fernandez, Nicolas F.; Gundersen, Gregory W.; Rouillard, Andrew D.; Jenkins, Sherry L.; Feldmann, Axel S.; Hu, Kevin S.; McDermott, Michael G.; Duan, Qiaonan; Clark, Neil R.; Jones, Matthew R.; Kou, Yan; Goff, Troy; Woodland, Holly; Amaral, Fabio M R.; Szeto, Gregory L.; Fuchs, Oliver; Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia M.; Sharma, Shvetank; Schwartz, Uwe; Bausela, Xabier Bengoetxea; Szymkiewicz, Maciej; Maroulis, Vasileios; Salykin, Anton; Barra, Carolina M.; Kruth, Candice D.; Bongio, Nicholas J.; Mathur, Vaibhav; Todoric, Radmila D; Rubin, Udi E.; Malatras, Apostolos; Fulp, Carl T.; Galindo, John A.; Motiejunaite, Ruta; Jüschke, Christoph; Dishuck, Philip C.; Lahl, Katharina; Jafari, Mohieddin; Aibar, Sara; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Steenhuizen, Linda H.; Allison, Lindsey R.; Gamallo, Pablo; de Andres Segura, Fernando; Dae Devlin, Tyler; Pérez-García, Vicente; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression data are accumulating exponentially in public repositories. Reanalysis and integration of themed collections from these studies may provide new insights, but requires further human curation. Here we report a crowdsourcing project to annotate and reanalyse a large number of gene expression profiles from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Through a massive open online course on Coursera, over 70 participants from over 25 countries identify and annotate 2,460 single-gene perturbation signatures, 839 disease versus normal signatures, and 906 drug perturbation signatures. All these signatures are unique and are manually validated for quality. Global analysis of these signatures confirms known associations and identifies novel associations between genes, diseases and drugs. The manually curated signatures are used as a training set to develop classifiers for extracting similar signatures from the entire GEO repository. We develop a web portal to serve these signatures for query, download and visualization. PMID:27667448

  9. A microRNA expression signature for clinical response in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Torres, Abraham; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Cantú de Leon, David; Cerna-Cortés, Jorge F; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Nearly 50% of patients who are diagnosed with locally advanced cervical cancer have an unfavorable pathological response to conventional treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers in cervical cancer; however, their role in identifying patients who do not respond to conventional treatment remains poorly investigated. Here, we identify a set of miRNAs that can be used as molecular markers to predict the pathological response in locally advanced cervical cancer patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy treatment. Forty-one patients diagnosed with locally advanced cervical cancer were invited to participate in this study and enrolled after they signed an informed consent. Two patient cohorts were randomized for miRNA expression profiling, a discovery cohort (n=10) and a validation cohort (n=31); profiling was performed by means of a miScript miRNA PCR Array. After a median clinical follow-up of 45months, statistical analysis was performed to identify miRNAs that could discriminate non-responders from complete pathological responders to conventional treatment. miRNA expression profiling identified 101 miRNAs that showed significant differences between non-responders and complete pathological responders (p<0.05). Seven differentially expressed miRNAs were selected, and their expression patterns were confirmed in the validation phase; thus, miR-31-3p, -3676, -125a-5p, -100-5p, -125b-5p, and -200a-5p and miR-342 were significantly associated with clinical response. Expression of this miRNA signature above the median level was a significant predictor of non-response to standard treatment (p<0.001). These seven validated miRNA signatures could be used as molecular biomarkers of chemo- and radio-resistance in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A microRNA expression signature predicts meningioma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Feng; Zhou, Guangxin; Wang, Suinuan; Shi, Yimin; Peng, Ya; Shao, Naiyuan; Guan, Wei; Qu, Hongtao; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Changchun; Wang, Rong; Wu, Sujia; Xia, Xiwei; Yang, Yilin

    2013-01-01

    The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer. In our study, we examined the miRNA expression profile of meningiomas, which is a common type of benign intracranial tumor derived from the protective meninges membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. To define a typical human meningioma miRNA profile, the expression of 200 miRNAs in a training sample set were screened using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, and then significantly altered miRNAs were validated in a secondary independent sample set. Kaplan-Meier and univariate/multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to assess whether miRNA expression could predict the recurrence of meningioma after tumor resection. After a two-phase selection and validation process, 14 miRNAs were found to exhibit significantly different expression profiles in meningioma samples compared to normal adjacent tissue (NAT) samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis indicated that the 14-miRNA profile differed between tumor and NAT samples. Downregulation of miR-29c-3p and miR-219-5p were found to be associated with advanced clinical stages of meningioma. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that high expression of miR-190a and low expression of miR-29c-3p and miR-219-5p correlated significantly with higher recurrence rates in meningioma patients. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that miR-190a expression level is an important prognostic predictor that is independent of other clinicopathological factors. Our results suggest that the use of miRNA profiling has significant potential as an effective diagnostic and prognostic marker in defining the expression signature of meningiomas and in predicting postsurgical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  11. Using radiative signatures to diagnose the cause of warming during the 2013-2014 Californian drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Sebastian; Yin, Dongqin; Roderick, Michael L.

    2017-10-01

    California recently experienced among the worst droughts of the last century, with exceptional precipitation deficits and co-occurring record high temperatures. The dry conditions caused severe water shortages in one of the economically most important agricultural regions of the US. It has recently been hypothesized that anthropogenic warming is increasing the likelihood of such extreme droughts in California, or more specifically, that warmer temperatures from the enhanced greenhouse effect intensify drought conditions. However, separating the cause and effect is difficult because the dry conditions lead to a reduction in evaporative cooling that contributes to the warming. Here we investigate and compare the forcing of long-term greenhouse-induced warming with the short-term warming during the 2013-2014 Californian drought. We use the concept of radiative signatures to investigate the source of the radiative perturbation during the drought, relate the signatures to expected changes due to anthropogenic warming, and assess the cause of warming based on observed changes in the surface energy balance compared to the period 2001-2012. We found that the recent meteorological drought based on precipitation deficits was characterised by an increase in incoming shortwave radiation coupled with a decline in incoming longwave radiation, which contributed to record warm temperatures. In contrast, climate models project that anthropogenic warming is accompanied by little change in incoming shortwave but a large increase in incoming longwave radiation. The warming during the drought was associated with increased incoming shortwave radiation in combination with reduced evaporative cooling from water deficits, which enhanced surface temperatures and sensible heat transfer to the atmosphere. Our analyses demonstrate that radiative signatures are a powerful tool to differentiate the source of perturbations in the surface energy balance at monthly to seasonal time scales.

  12. MicroRNA Expression Signature in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis, characterized by narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart, has become the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) signature in degenerative AS. Through microarray analysis, we identified the miRNA expression signature in the tissue samples from healthy individuals (n = 4) and patients with degenerative AS (n = 4). Six miRNAs (hsa-miR-193a-3p, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, hsa-miR-505-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-99b-3p, and hsa-miR-200b-3p) were overexpressed and 14 (hsa-miR-3663-3p, hsa-miR-513a-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, hsa-miR-1972, hsa-miR-718, hsa-miR-3138, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-575, hsa-miR-301a-3p, hsa-miR-636, hsa-miR-34a-3p, hsa-miR-21-3p, and hsa-miR-516a-5p) were downregulated in aortic tissue from AS patients. GeneSpring 13.1 was used to identify potential human miRNA target genes by comparing a 3-way comparison of predictions from TargetScan, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with AS. Twenty miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between patients with AS samples and normal controls and identified potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways associated with this morbidity. This study describes the miRNA expression signature in degenerative AS and provides an improved understanding of the molecular pathobiology of this disease. PMID:27579316

  13. MicroRNA Expression Signature in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hui; Kong, Xiangqing

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis, characterized by narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart, has become the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) signature in degenerative AS. Through microarray analysis, we identified the miRNA expression signature in the tissue samples from healthy individuals (n = 4) and patients with degenerative AS (n = 4). Six miRNAs (hsa-miR-193a-3p, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, hsa-miR-505-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-99b-3p, and hsa-miR-200b-3p) were overexpressed and 14 (hsa-miR-3663-3p, hsa-miR-513a-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, hsa-miR-1972, hsa-miR-718, hsa-miR-3138, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-575, hsa-miR-301a-3p, hsa-miR-636, hsa-miR-34a-3p, hsa-miR-21-3p, and hsa-miR-516a-5p) were downregulated in aortic tissue from AS patients. GeneSpring 13.1 was used to identify potential human miRNA target genes by comparing a 3-way comparison of predictions from TargetScan, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with AS. Twenty miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between patients with AS samples and normal controls and identified potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways associated with this morbidity. This study describes the miRNA expression signature in degenerative AS and provides an improved understanding of the molecular pathobiology of this disease.

  14. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T; Barkan, Ariel L; Saltiel, Alan R; Chandler, William F; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly.

  15. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T.; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly. PMID:26087292

  16. Using Radiative Signatures to Diagnose the Cause of Warming Associated with the Californian Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Yin, D.; Roderick, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    California recently experienced among the worst droughts of the last century, with unprecedented precipitation deficits and record high temperatures. The dry conditions caused severe water shortages in one of the economically most important agricultural regions of the US, particularly in the Central Valley. It has been hypothesized that anthropogenic warming is increasing the likelihood of such extreme droughts in California, or more specifically, that these drought conditions are a consequence of warmer temperatures from the enhanced greenhouse effect. Process studies suggest, however, that increased temperatures during droughts are mostly a consequence of reduced evaporative cooling resulting from the reduction in precipitation. Here we use surface radiation components from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy Systems (CERES), climatic data and direct flux tower measurements to investigate the cause of warming associated with the recent Californian Drought. Based on radiative signatures and surface energy balance we show that the warmer temperatures were not associated with an enhanced greenhouse effect by anthropogenic warming. The radiative signature showed decreased longwave downward radiation during the water years 2013-2014 compared to the decadal mean of 2001-2012. Instead, increased solar downward radiation in combination with reduced evaporative cooling from water deficits enhanced surface temperatures and sensible heat transfer to the atmosphere. We conclude that the drought was not directly associated with warming by increased longwave downward radiation, and that there is no simple relation between warmer surface temperatures and drought.

  17. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  18. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  19. Common and specific signatures of gene expression and protein-protein interactions in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Tuller, T; Atar, S; Ruppin, E; Gurevich, M; Achiron, A

    2013-03-01

    different subsignaling pathways. Analyses of the expression levels of dozens of genes and the protein-protein interactions among them demonstrated that CD and UC have relatively similar gene expression signatures, whereas the gene expression signatures of T1D and JRA relatively differ from the signatures of the other autoimmune diseases. These diseases are the only ones activated via the Fcɛ pathway. The relevant genes and pathways reported in this study are discussed at length, and may be helpful in the diagnoses and understanding of autoimmunity and/or specific autoimmune diseases.

  20. Three serum metabolite signatures for diagnosing low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Guangguo; Wang, Haibo; Yuan, Jianlin; Qin, Weijun; Dong, Xin; Wu, Hong; Meng, Ping

    2017-01-01

    To address the shortcomings of cystoscopy and urine cytology for detecting and grading bladder cancer (BC), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses was employed as an alternative method for the diagnosis of BC. A series of differential serum metabolites were further identified for low-grade(LG) and high-grade(HG) BC patients, suggesting metabolic dysfunction in malignant proliferation, immune escape, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion of cancer cells in BC patients. In total, three serum metabolites including inosine, acetyl-N-formyl-5-methoxykynurenamine and PS(O-18:0/0:0) were selected by binary logistic regression analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test based on their combined use for HG BC showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.961 in the discovery set and 0.950 in the validation set when compared to LG BC. Likewise, this composite biomarker panel can also differentiate LG BC from healthy controls with the AUC of 0.993 and 0.991 in the discovery and validation set, respectively. This finding suggested that this composite serum metabolite signature was a promising and less invasive classifier for probing and grading BC, which deserved to be further investigated in larger samples. PMID:28382976

  1. Multiclass cancer diagnosis using tumor gene expression signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaswamy, S.; Tamayo, P.; Rifkin, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Yeang, C. -H.; Angelo, M.; Ladd, C.; Reich, M.; Latulippe, E.; Mesirov, J. P.; Poggio, T.; Gerald, W.; Loda, M.; Lander, E. S.; Golub, T. R.

    2001-12-11

    The optimal treatment of patients with cancer depends on establishing accurate diagnoses by using a complex combination of clinical and histopathological data. In some instances, this task is difficult or impossible because of atypical clinical presentation or histopathology. To determine whether the diagnosis of multiple common adult malignancies could be achieved purely by molecular classification, we subjected 218 tumor samples, spanning 14 common tumor types, and 90 normal tissue samples to oligonucleotide microarray gene expression analysis. The expression levels of 16,063 genes and expressed sequence tags were used to evaluate the accuracy of a multiclass classifier based on a support vector machine algorithm. Overall classification accuracy was 78%, far exceeding the accuracy of random classification (9%). Poorly differentiated cancers resulted in low-confidence predictions and could not be accurately classified according to their tissue of origin, indicating that they are molecularly distinct entities with dramatically different gene expression patterns compared with their well differentiated counterparts. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate, multiclass molecular cancer classification and suggest a strategy for future clinical implementation of molecular cancer diagnostics.

  2. Multiclass cancer diagnosis using tumor gene expression signatures

    DOE PAGES

    Ramaswamy, S.; Tamayo, P.; Rifkin, R.; ...

    2001-12-11

    The optimal treatment of patients with cancer depends on establishing accurate diagnoses by using a complex combination of clinical and histopathological data. In some instances, this task is difficult or impossible because of atypical clinical presentation or histopathology. To determine whether the diagnosis of multiple common adult malignancies could be achieved purely by molecular classification, we subjected 218 tumor samples, spanning 14 common tumor types, and 90 normal tissue samples to oligonucleotide microarray gene expression analysis. The expression levels of 16,063 genes and expressed sequence tags were used to evaluate the accuracy of a multiclass classifier based on a supportmore » vector machine algorithm. Overall classification accuracy was 78%, far exceeding the accuracy of random classification (9%). Poorly differentiated cancers resulted in low-confidence predictions and could not be accurately classified according to their tissue of origin, indicating that they are molecularly distinct entities with dramatically different gene expression patterns compared with their well differentiated counterparts. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate, multiclass molecular cancer classification and suggest a strategy for future clinical implementation of molecular cancer diagnostics.« less

  3. A Gene Expression Signature for Chemoradiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Spitzner, Melanie; Emons, Georg; Kramer, Frank; Gaedcke, Jochen; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Scharf, Jens-Gerd; Burfeind, Peter; Becker, Heinz; Beissbarth, Tim; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Ried, Thomas; Grade, Marian

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The standard treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancers comprises preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy followed by standardized surgery. However, tumor response to multimodal treatment has varied greatly, ranging from complete resistance to complete pathologic regression. The prediction of the response is, therefore, an important clinical need. Methods and Materials: To establish in vitro models for studying the molecular basis of this heterogeneous tumor response, we exposed 12 colorectal cancer cell lines to 3 {mu}M of 5-fluorouracil and 2 Gy of radiation. The differences in treatment sensitivity were then correlated with the pretherapeutic gene expression profiles of these cell lines. Results: We observed a heterogeneous response, with surviving fractions ranging from 0.28 to 0.81, closely recapitulating clinical reality. Using a linear model analysis, we identified 4,796 features whose expression levels correlated significantly with the sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy (Q <.05), including many genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway or cell cycle genes. These data have suggested a potential relevance of the insulin and Wnt signaling pathways for treatment response, and we identified STAT3, RASSF1, DOK3, and ERBB2 as potential therapeutic targets. The microarray measurements were independently validated for a subset of these genes using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Conclusion: We are the first to report a gene expression signature for the in vitro chemoradiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells. We anticipate that this analysis will unveil molecular biomarkers predictive of the response of rectal cancers to chemoradiotherapy and enable the identification of genes that could serve as targets to sensitize a priori resistant primary tumors.

  4. Brain Gene Expression Signatures From Cerebrospinal Fluid Exosome RNA Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, S. B.; Stevens, B.; Calvillo, E.; Tang, R.; Gutierrez Flores, B.; Hu, L.; Skog, J.; Bershad, E.

    2016-01-01

    While the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome observations have focused on ocular symptoms, spaceflight has been also associated with a number of other performance and neurologic signs, such as headaches, cognitive changes, vertigo, nausea, sleep/circadian disruption and mood alterations, which, albeit likely multifactorial, can also result from elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). We therefore hypothesize that these various symptoms are caused by disturbances in the neurophysiology of the brain structures and are correlated with molecular markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as indicators of neurophysiological changes. Exosomes are 30-200 nm microvesicles shed into all biofluids, including blood, urine, and CSF, carrying a highly rich source of intact protein and RNA cargo. Exosomes have been identified in human CSF, and their proteome and RNA pool is a potential new reservoir for biomarker discovery in neurological disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in brain gene expression via exosome analysis in patients suffering from ICP elevation of varied severity (idiopathic intracranial hypertension -IIH), a condition which shares some of the neuroophthalmological features of VIIP, as a first step toward obtaining evidence suggesting that cognitive function and ICP levels can be correlated with biomarkers in the CSF. Our preliminary work, reported last year, validated the exosomal technology applicable to CSF analysis and demonstrated that it was possible to obtain gene expression evidence of inflammation processes in traumatic brain injury patients. We are now recruiting patients with suspected IIH requiring lumbar puncture at Baylor College of Medicine. Both CSF (5 ml) and human plasma (10 ml) are being collected in order to compare the pattern of differentially expressed genes observed in CSF and in blood. Since blood is much more accessible than CSF, we would like to determine whether plasma biomarkers for

  5. An endometrial gene expression signature accurately predicts recurrent implantation failure after IVF

    PubMed Central

    Koot, Yvonne E. M.; van Hooff, Sander R.; Boomsma, Carolien M.; van Leenen, Dik; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J. A.; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Holstege, Frank C. P.; Macklon, Nick S.

    2016-01-01

    The primary limiting factor for effective IVF treatment is successful embryo implantation. Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is a condition whereby couples fail to achieve pregnancy despite consecutive embryo transfers. Here we describe the collection of gene expression profiles from mid-luteal phase endometrial biopsies (n = 115) from women experiencing RIF and healthy controls. Using a signature discovery set (n = 81) we identify a signature containing 303 genes predictive of RIF. Independent validation in 34 samples shows that the gene signature predicts RIF with 100% positive predictive value (PPV). The strength of the RIF associated expression signature also stratifies RIF patients into distinct groups with different subsequent implantation success rates. Exploration of the expression changes suggests that RIF is primarily associated with reduced cellular proliferation. The gene signature will be of value in counselling and guiding further treatment of women who fail to conceive upon IVF and suggests new avenues for developing intervention. PMID:26797113

  6. Characteristics and Validation Techniques for PCA-Based Gene-Expression Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Eric A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Many gene-expression signatures exist for describing the biological state of profiled tumors. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can be used to summarize a gene signature into a single score. Our hypothesis is that gene signatures can be validated when applied to new datasets, using inherent properties of PCA. Results. This validation is based on four key concepts. Coherence: elements of a gene signature should be correlated beyond chance. Uniqueness: the general direction of the data being examined can drive most of the observed signal. Robustness: if a gene signature is designed to measure a single biological effect, then this signal should be sufficiently strong and distinct compared to other signals within the signature. Transferability: the derived PCA gene signature score should describe the same biology in the target dataset as it does in the training dataset. Conclusions. The proposed validation procedure ensures that PCA-based gene signatures perform as expected when applied to datasets other than those that the signatures were trained upon. Complex signatures, describing multiple independent biological components, are also easily identified. PMID:28265563

  7. A host-based RT-PCR gene expression signature to identify acute respiratory viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zaas, Aimee K; Burke, Thomas; Chen, Minhua; McClain, Micah; Nicholson, Bradly; Veldman, Timothy; Tsalik, Ephraim L; Fowler, Vance; Rivers, Emanuel P; Otero, Ronny; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Voora, Deepak; Lucas, Joseph; Hero, Alfred O; Carin, Lawrence; Woods, Christopher W; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2013-09-18

    Improved ways to diagnose acute respiratory viral infections could decrease inappropriate antibacterial use and serve as a vital triage mechanism in the event of a potential viral pandemic. Measurement of the host response to infection is an alternative to pathogen-based diagnostic testing and may improve diagnostic accuracy. We have developed a host-based assay with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) platform for classifying respiratory viral infection. We developed the assay using two cohorts experimentally infected with influenza A H3N2/Wisconsin or influenza A H1N1/Brisbane, and validated the assay in a sample of adults presenting to the emergency department with fever (n = 102) and in healthy volunteers (n = 41). Peripheral blood RNA samples were obtained from individuals who underwent experimental viral challenge or who presented to the emergency department and had microbiologically proven viral respiratory infection or systemic bacterial infection. The selected gene set on the RT-PCR TLDA assay classified participants with experimentally induced influenza H3N2 and H1N1 infection with 100 and 87% accuracy, respectively. We validated this host gene expression signature in a cohort of 102 individuals arriving at the emergency department. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR test was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI), 72 to 98%], and the specificity was 94% (95% CI, 86 to 99%). These results show that RT-PCR-based detection of a host gene expression signature can classify individuals with respiratory viral infection and sets the stage for prospective evaluation of this diagnostic approach in a clinical setting.

  8. Gene expression-based prognostic signatures in lung cancer: ready for clinical use?

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Jyothi; Simon, Richard

    2010-04-07

    A substantial number of studies have reported the development of gene expression-based prognostic signatures for lung cancer. The ultimate aim of such studies should be the development of well-validated clinically useful prognostic signatures that improve therapeutic decision making beyond current practice standards. We critically reviewed published studies reporting the development of gene expression-based prognostic signatures for non-small cell lung cancer to assess the progress made toward this objective. Studies published between January 1, 2002, and February 28, 2009, were identified through a PubMed search. Following hand-screening of abstracts of the identified articles, 16 were selected as relevant. Those publications were evaluated in detail for appropriateness of the study design, statistical validation of the prognostic signature on independent datasets, presentation of results in an unbiased manner, and demonstration of medical utility for the new signature beyond that obtained using existing treatment guidelines. Based on this review, we found little evidence that any of the reported gene expression signatures are ready for clinical application. We also found serious problems in the design and analysis of many of the studies. We suggest a set of guidelines to aid the design, analysis, and evaluation of prognostic signature studies. These guidelines emphasize the importance of focused study planning to address specific medically important questions and the use of unbiased analysis methods to evaluate whether the resulting signatures provide evidence of medical utility beyond standard of care-based prognostic factors.

  9. Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression Exposure to many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals can cause adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes, such as cancer, have been linked to mol...

  10. Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression Exposure to many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals can cause adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes, such as cancer, have been linked to mol...

  11. A gene expression signature for RSV: clinical implications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Peter J M

    2013-11-01

    Peter Openshaw discusses the challenges in advancing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) treatments and the implications of a study by Mejias and colleagues using a newly identified gene signature for diagnosis and prediction of RSV severity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  12. Prognostic stratification improvement by integrating ID1/ID3/IGJ gene expression signature and immunophenotypic profile in adult patients with B-ALL.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rodriguez, Nataly; Combita, Alba L; Enciso, Leonardo J; Raney, Lauren F; Pinzon, Paula L; Lozano, Olga C; Campos, Alba M; Peñaloza, Niyireth; Solano, Julio; Herrera, Maria V; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Quijano, Sandra

    2017-02-28

    Survival of adults with B-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia requires accurate risk stratification of patients in order to provide the appropriate therapy. Contemporary techniques, using clinical and cytogenetic variables are incomplete for prognosis prediction. To improve the classification of adult patients diagnosed with B-ALL into prognosis groups, two strategies were examined and combined: the expression of the ID1/ID3/IGJ gene signature by RT-PCR and the immunophenotypic profile of 19 markers proposed in the EuroFlow protocol by Flow Cytometry in bone marrow samples. Both techniques were correlated to stratify patients into prognostic groups. An inverse relationship between survival and expression of the three-genes signature was observed and an immunophenotypic profile associated with clinical outcome was identified. Markers CD10 and CD20 were correlated with simultaneous overexpression of ID1, ID3 and IGJ. Patients with simultaneous expression of the poor prognosis gene signature and overexpression of CD10 or CD20, had worse Event Free Survival and Overall Survival than patients who had either the poor prognosis gene expression signature or only CD20 or CD10 overexpressed. By utilizing the combined evaluation of these two immunophenotypic markers along with the poor prognosis gene expression signature, the risk stratification can be significantly strengthened. Further studies including a large number of patients are needed to confirm these findings.

  13. An Expression Signature as an Aid to the Histologic Classification of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Girard, Luc; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Behrens, Carmen; Thompson, Debrah M; Botros, Ihab W; Tang, Hao; Xie, Yang; Rekhtman, Natasha; Travis, William D; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Minna, John D; Gazdar, Adi F

    2016-10-01

    Most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are now diagnosed from small specimens, and classification using standard pathology methods can be difficult. This is of clinical relevance as many therapy regimens and clinical trials are histology dependent. The purpose of this study was to develop an mRNA expression signature as an adjunct test for routine histopathologic classification of NSCLCs. A microarray dataset of resected adenocarcinomas (ADC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) was used as the learning set for an ADC-SCC signature. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung RNAseq dataset was used for validation. Another microarray dataset of ADCs and matched nonmalignant lung was used as the learning set for a tumor versus nonmalignant signature. The classifiers were selected as the most differentially expressed genes and sample classification was determined by a nearest distance approach. We developed a 62-gene expression signature that contained many genes used in immunostains for NSCLC typing. It includes 42 genes that distinguish ADC from SCC and 20 genes differentiating nonmalignant lung from lung cancer. Testing of the TCGA and other public datasets resulted in high prediction accuracies (93%-95%). In addition, a prediction score was derived that correlates both with histologic grading and prognosis. We developed a practical version of the Classifier using the HTG EdgeSeq nuclease protection-based technology in combination with next-generation sequencing that can be applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and small biopsies. Our RNA classifier provides an objective, quantitative method to aid in the pathologic diagnosis of lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 22(19); 4880-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Clinical Value of Prognosis Gene Expression Signatures in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, David; Riccadonna, Samantha; Solé, Xavier; Crous-Bou, Marta; Guinó, Elisabet; Sanjuan, Xavier; Biondo, Sebastiano; Soriano, Antonio; Jurman, Giuseppe; Capella, Gabriel; Furlanello, Cesare; Moreno, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The traditional staging system is inadequate to identify those patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) at high risk of recurrence or with stage III CRC at low risk. A number of gene expression signatures to predict CRC prognosis have been proposed, but none is routinely used in the clinic. The aim of this work was to assess the prediction ability and potential clinical usefulness of these signatures in a series of independent datasets. Methods A literature review identified 31 gene expression signatures that used gene expression data to predict prognosis in CRC tissue. The search was based on the PubMed database and was restricted to papers published from January 2004 to December 2011. Eleven CRC gene expression datasets with outcome information were identified and downloaded from public repositories. Random Forest classifier was used to build predictors from the gene lists. Matthews correlation coefficient was chosen as a measure of classification accuracy and its associated p-value was used to assess association with prognosis. For clinical usefulness evaluation, positive and negative post-tests probabilities were computed in stage II and III samples. Results Five gene signatures showed significant association with prognosis and provided reasonable prediction accuracy in their own training datasets. Nevertheless, all signatures showed low reproducibility in independent data. Stratified analyses by stage or microsatellite instability status showed significant association but limited discrimination ability, especially in stage II tumors. From a clinical perspective, the most predictive signatures showed a minor but significant improvement over the classical staging system. Conclusions The published signatures show low prediction accuracy but moderate clinical usefulness. Although gene expression data may inform prognosis, better strategies for signature validation are needed to encourage their widespread use in the clinic. PMID:23145004

  15. Cancer-cell intrinsic gene expression signatures overcome intratumoural heterogeneity bias in colorectal cancer patient classification

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Philip D.; Alderdice, Matthew; O'Reilly, Paul G.; Roddy, Aideen C.; McCorry, Amy M. B.; Richman, Susan; Maughan, Tim; McDade, Simon S.; Johnston, Patrick G.; Longley, Daniel B.; Kay, Elaine; McArt, Darragh G.; Lawler, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Stromal-derived intratumoural heterogeneity (ITH) has been shown to undermine molecular stratification of patients into appropriate prognostic/predictive subgroups. Here, using several clinically relevant colorectal cancer (CRC) gene expression signatures, we assessed the susceptibility of these signatures to the confounding effects of ITH using gene expression microarray data obtained from multiple tumour regions of a cohort of 24 patients, including central tumour, the tumour invasive front and lymph node metastasis. Sample clustering alongside correlative assessment revealed variation in the ability of each signature to cluster samples according to patient-of-origin rather than region-of-origin within the multi-region dataset. Signatures focused on cancer-cell intrinsic gene expression were found to produce more clinically useful, patient-centred classifiers, as exemplified by the CRC intrinsic signature (CRIS), which robustly clustered samples by patient-of-origin rather than region-of-origin. These findings highlight the potential of cancer-cell intrinsic signatures to reliably stratify CRC patients by minimising the confounding effects of stromal-derived ITH. PMID:28561046

  16. 76 FR 62000 - Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... 111 Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature AGENCY: Postal Service TM... States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) throughout various sections to modify the policy for filing claims for domestic Express Mail refunds from 90 days to 30 days after the date of mailing, and...

  17. An Integrated mRNA and microRNA Expression Signature for Glioblastoma Multiforme Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Bing, Zhitong; Su, Yanlin; Deng, Defeng; Peng, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Although patients with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have grave prognosis, significant variability in patient outcome is observed. The objective of this study is to identify a molecular signature for GBM prognosis. We subjected 355 mRNA and microRNA expression profiles to elastic net-regulated Cox regression for identification of an integrated RNA signature for GBM prognosis. A prognostic index (PI) was generated for patient stratification. Survival comparison was conducted by Kaplan-Meier method and a general multivariate Cox regression procedure was applied to evaluate the independence of the PI. The abilities and efficiencies of signatures to predict GBM patient outcome was assessed and compared by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC). An integrated RNA prognostic signature consisted by 4 protective mRNAs, 12 risky mRNAs, and 1 risky microRNA was identified. Decreased survival was associated with being in the high-risk group (hazard ratio = 2.864, P<0.0001). The prognostic value of the integrated signature was validated in five independent GBM expression datasets (n = 201, hazard ratio = 2.453, P<0.0001). The PI outperformed the known clinical factors, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only prognostic signatures for GBM prognosis (area under the ROC curve for the integrated RNA, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only signatures were 0.828, 0.742, and 0.757 at 3 years of overall survival, respectively, P<0.0001 by permutation test). We describe the first, to our knowledge, robust transcriptome-based integrated RNA signature that improves the current GBM prognosis based on clinical variables, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only signatures. PMID:24871302

  18. Host gene expression classifiers diagnose acute respiratory illness etiology

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Marshall; Burke, Thomas; Ko, Emily R.; McClain, Micah T.; Hudson, Lori L.; Mazur, Anna; Freeman, Debra H.; Veldman, Tim; Langley, Raymond J.; Quackenbush, Eugenia B.; Glickman, Seth W.; Cairns, Charles B.; Jaehne, Anja K.; Rivers, Emanuel P.; Otero, Ronny M.; Zaas, Aimee K.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Lucas, Joseph; Fowler, Vance G.; Carin, Lawrence; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Woods, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections caused by bacterial or viral pathogens are among the most common reasons for seeking medical care. Despite improvements in pathogen-based diagnostics, most patients receive inappropriate antibiotics. Host response biomarkers offer an alternative diagnostic approach to direct antimicrobial use. This observational, cohort study determined whether host gene expression patterns discriminate non-infectious from infectious illness, and bacterial from viral causes of acute respiratory infection in the acute care setting. Peripheral whole blood gene expression from 273 subjects with community-onset acute respiratory infection (ARI) or non-infectious illness as well as 44 healthy controls was measured using microarrays. Sparse logistic regression was used to develop classifiers for bacterial ARI (71 probes), viral ARI (33 probes), or a non-infectious cause of illness (26 probes). Overall accuracy was 87% (238/273 concordant with clinical adjudication), which was more accurate than procalcitonin (78%, p<0.03) and three published classifiers of bacterial vs. viral infection (78-83%). The classifiers developed here externally validated in five publicly available datasets (AUC 0.90-0.99). A sixth publically available dataset included twenty-five patients with co-identification of bacterial and viral pathogens. Applying the ARI classifiers defined four distinct groups: a host response to bacterial ARI; viral ARI; co-infection; and neither a bacterial nor viral response. These findings create an opportunity to develop and utilize host gene expression classifiers as diagnostic platforms to combat inappropriate antibiotic use and emerging antibiotic resistance. PMID:26791949

  19. Oxidative stress/reactive metabolite gene expression signature in rat liver detects idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Angelique; Nie, Alex; Brandon Parker, J.; Sawant, Sharmilee; Piechta, Leigh-Anne; Kelley, Michael F. Mark Kao, L.; Jim Proctor, S.; Verheyen, Geert; Johnson, Mark D.; Lord, Peter G.; McMillian, Michael K.

    2014-03-15

    Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-treated rats from more recent experiments were examined for statistical fit to the OS/RM signature. Of all 97 drugs examined, in addition to the nine drugs noted above, 19 more were identified as OS/RM-producing compounds—chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyproterone acetate, dantrolene, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, isoniazid, ketoconazole, methapyrilene, naltrexone, nifedipine, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, coumarin, ritonavir, amitriptyline, valproic acid, enalapril, and chloramphenicol. Importantly, all of the OS/RM drugs listed above have been linked to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, excepting chloramphenicol, which does not have a package label for hepatotoxicity, but does have a black box warning for idiosyncratic bone marrow suppression. Most of these drugs are not acutely toxic in the rat. The OS/RM signature should be useful to avoid idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of drug candidates. - Highlights: • 28 of 97 drugs gave a positive OS/RM gene expression signature in rat liver. • The specificity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 98%. • The sensitivity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 75%. • The signature can help eliminate hepatotoxicants from drug development.

  20. A trichostatin A expression signature identified by TempO-Seq targeted whole transcriptome profiling.

    PubMed

    Yeakley, Joanne M; Shepard, Peter J; Goyena, Diana E; VanSteenhouse, Harper C; McComb, Joel D; Seligmann, Bruce E

    2017-01-01

    The use of gene expression signatures to classify compounds, identify efficacy or toxicity, and differentiate close analogs relies on the sensitivity of the method to identify modulated genes. We used a novel ligation-based targeted whole transcriptome expression profiling assay, TempO-Seq®, to determine whether previously unreported compound-responsive genes could be identified and incorporated into a broad but specific compound signature. TempO-Seq exhibits 99.6% specificity, single cell sensitivity, and excellent correlation with fold differences measured by RNA-Seq (R2 = 0.9) for 20,629 targets. Unlike many expression assays, TempO-Seq does not require RNA purification, cDNA synthesis, or capture of targeted RNA, and lacks a 3' end bias. To investigate the sensitivity of the TempO-Seq assay to identify significantly modulated compound-responsive genes, we derived whole transcriptome profiles from MCF-7 cells treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) and identified more than 9,000 differentially expressed genes. The TSA profile for MCF-7 cells overlapped those for HL-60 and PC-3 cells in the Connectivity Map (cMAP) database, suggesting a common TSA-specific expression profile independent of baseline gene expression. A 43-gene cell-independent TSA signature was extracted from cMAP and confirmed in TempO-Seq MCF-7 data. Additional genes that were not previously reported to be TSA responsive in the cMAP database were also identified. TSA treatment of 5 cell types revealed 1,136 differentially expressed genes in common, including 785 genes not previously reported to be TSA responsive. We conclude that TSA induces a specific expression signature that is consistent across widely different cell types, that this signature contains genes not previously associated with TSA responses, and that TempO-Seq provides the sensitive differential expression detection needed to define such compound-specific, cell-independent, changes in expression.

  1. Gene Expression Deconvolution for Uncovering Molecular Signatures in Response to Therapy in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Alan M.; Yeung, Rae S. M.; Morris, Quaid

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression-based signatures help identify pathways relevant to diseases and treatments, but are challenging to construct when there is a diversity of disease mechanisms and treatments in patients with complex diseases. To overcome this challenge, we present a new application of an in silico gene expression deconvolution method, ISOpure-S1, and apply it to identify a common gene expression signature corresponding to response to treatment in 33 juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Using pre- and post-treatment gene expression profiles only, we found a gene expression signature that significantly correlated with a reduction in the number of joints with active arthritis, a measure of clinical outcome (Spearman rho = 0.44, p = 0.040, Bonferroni correction). This signature may be associated with a decrease in T-cells, monocytes, neutrophils and platelets. The products of most differentially expressed genes include known biomarkers for JIA such as major histocompatibility complexes and interleukins, as well as novel biomarkers including α-defensins. This method is readily applicable to expression datasets of other complex diseases to uncover shared mechanistic patterns in heterogeneous samples. PMID:27244050

  2. GeneSigDB: a manually curated database and resource for analysis of gene expression signatures

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Aedín C.; Schröder, Markus S.; Sultana, Razvan; Picard, Shaita C.; Martinelli, Enzo N.; Kelly, Caroline; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Kapushesky, Misha; St Pierre, Anne-Alyssa; Flahive, William; Picard, Kermshlise C.; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Papenhausen, Gerald; O'Connor, Niall; Correll, Mick; Quackenbush, John

    2012-01-01

    GeneSigDB (http://www.genesigdb.org or http://compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/genesigdb/) is a database of gene signatures that have been extracted and manually curated from the published literature. It provides a standardized resource of published prognostic, diagnostic and other gene signatures of cancer and related disease to the community so they can compare the predictive power of gene signatures or use these in gene set enrichment analysis. Since GeneSigDB release 1.0, we have expanded from 575 to 3515 gene signatures, which were collected and transcribed from 1604 published articles largely focused on gene expression in cancer, stem cells, immune cells, development and lung disease. We have made substantial upgrades to the GeneSigDB website to improve accessibility and usability, including adding a tag cloud browse function, facetted navigation and a ‘basket’ feature to store genes or gene signatures of interest. Users can analyze GeneSigDB gene signatures, or upload their own gene list, to identify gene signatures with significant gene overlap and results can be viewed on a dynamic editable heatmap that can be downloaded as a publication quality image. All data in GeneSigDB can be downloaded in numerous formats including .gmt file format for gene set enrichment analysis or as a R/Bioconductor data file. GeneSigDB is available from http://www.genesigdb.org. PMID:22110038

  3. Use of mRNA expression signatures to discover small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Christopher M.; Ebert, Scott M.; Dyle, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Here, we discuss a recently developed experimental strategy for discovering small molecules with potential to prevent and treat skeletal muscle atrophy. Recent findings Muscle atrophy involves and requires widespread changes in skeletal muscle gene expression, which generate complex but measurable patterns of positive and negative changes in skeletal muscle mRNA levels (a.k.a. mRNA expression signatures of muscle atrophy). Many bioactive small molecules generate their own characteristic mRNA expression signatures, and by identifying small molecules whose signatures approximate mirror images of muscle atrophy signatures, one may identify small molecules with potential to prevent and/or reverse muscle atrophy. Unlike a conventional drug discovery approach, this strategy does not rely on a predefined molecular target but rather exploits the complexity of muscle atrophy to identify small molecules that counter the entire spectrum of pathological changes in atrophic muscle. We discuss how this strategy has been used to identify two natural compounds, ursolic acid and tomatidine, that reduce muscle atrophy and improve skeletal muscle function. Summary Discovery strategies based on mRNA expression signatures can elucidate new approaches for preserving and restoring muscle mass and function. PMID:25807353

  4. Peripheral Blood Cell Gene Expression Diagnostic for Identifying Symptomatic Transthyretin Amyloidosis Patients: Male and Female Specific Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Sunil M.; Novais, Marta; Whisenant, Thomas; Gelbart, Terri; Buxbaum, Joel N.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Coelho, Teresa; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloid diseases remains challenging because of variable disease penetrance. Currently, patients must have an amyloid positive tissue biopsy to be eligible for disease-modifying therapies. Endomyocardial biopsies are typically amyloid positive when cardiomyopathy is suspected, but this disease manifestation is generally diagnosed late. Early diagnosis is often difficult because patients exhibit apparent symptoms of polyneuropathy, but have a negative amyloid biopsy. Thus, there is a pressing need for an additional early diagnostic strategy for TTR-aggregation-associated polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Methods and Findings: Global peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiles from 263 tafamidis-treated and untreated V30M Familiar Amyloid Neuropathy patients, asymptomatic V30M carriers, and healthy, age- and sex-matched controls without TTR mutations were used to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic patients. We demonstrate that blood cell gene expression patterns reveal sex-independent, as well as male- and female-specific inflammatory signatures in symptomatic FAP patients, but not in asymptomatic carriers. These signatures differentiated symptomatic patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers with >80% accuracy. There was a global downregulation of the eIF2 pathway and its associated genes in all symptomatic FAP patients. We also demonstrated that the molecular scores based on these signatures significantly trended toward normalized values in an independent cohort of 46 FAP patients after only 3 months of tafamidis treatment. Conclusions: This study identifies novel molecular signatures that differentiate symptomatic FAP patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers as well as affected males and females. We envision using this approach, initially in parallel with amyloid biopsies, to identify individuals who are asymptomatic gene carriers that may convert to FAP patients. Upon further validation

  5. Characterising Cytokine Gene Expression Signatures in Patients with Severe Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Grealy, Robert; White, Mary; Stordeur, Patrick; Kelleher, Dermot; Doherty, Derek G.; McManus, Ross; Ryan, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Severe sepsis in humans may be related to an underlying profound immune suppressive state. We investigated the link between gene expression of immune regulatory cytokines and the range of illness severity in patients with infection and severe sepsis. Methods. A prospective observational study included 54 ICU patients with severe sepsis, 53 patients with infection without organ failure, and 20 healthy controls. Gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Infection differed from health by decreased expression of the IL2, and IL23 and greater expression of IL10 and IL27. Severe sepsis differed from infection by having decreased IL7, IL23, IFNγ, and TNFα gene expression. An algorithm utilising mRNA copy number for TNFα, IFNγ, IL7, IL10, and IL23 accurately distinguished sepsis from severe sepsis with a receiver operator characteristic value of 0.88. Gene expression was similar with gram-positive and gram-negative infection and was similar following medical and surgical severe sepsis. Severity of organ failure was associated with serum IL6 protein levels but not with any index of cytokine gene expression in PBMCs. Conclusions. Immune regulatory cytokine gene expression in PBMC provides a robust method of modelling patients' response to infection. PMID:23935244

  6. Germline genes hypomethylation and expression define a molecular signature in peripheral blood of ICF patients: implications for diagnosis and etiology.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Guillaume; Walton, Emma L; Sterlin, Delphine; Hédouin, Sabrine; Nitta, Hirohisa; Ito, Yuya; Fouyssac, Fanny; Mégarbané, André; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Picard, Capucine; Francastel, Claire

    2014-04-17

    Immunodeficiency Centromeric Instability and Facial anomalies (ICF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by reduction in serum immunoglobulins with severe recurrent infections, facial dysmorphism, and more variable symptoms including mental retardation. ICF is directly related to a genomic methylation defect that mainly affects juxtacentromeric heterochromatin regions of certain chromosomes, leading to chromosomal rearrangements that constitute a hallmark of this syndrome upon cytogenetic testing. Mutations in the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, the protein ZBTB24 of unknown function, or loci that remain to be identified, lie at its origin. Despite unifying features, common or distinguishing molecular signatures are still missing for this disease. We used the molecular signature that we identified in a mouse model for ICF1 to establish transcriptional biomarkers to facilitate diagnosis and understanding of etiology of the disease. We assayed the expression and methylation status of a set of genes whose expression is normally restricted to germ cells, directly in whole blood samples and epithelial cells of ICF patients. We report that DNA hypomethylation and expression of MAEL and SYCE1 represent robust biomarkers, easily testable directly from uncultured cells to diagnose the most prevalent sub-type of the syndrome. In addition, we identified the first unifying molecular signatures for ICF patients. Of importance, we validated the use of our biomarkers to diagnose a baby born to a family with a sick child. Finally, our analysis revealed unsuspected complex molecular signatures in two ICF patients suggestive of a novel genetic etiology for the disease. Early diagnosis of ICF syndrome is crucial since early immunoglobulin supplementation can improve the course of disease. However, ICF is probably underdiagnosed, especially in patients that present with incomplete phenotype or born to families with no affected relatives. The specific and robust

  7. Germline genes hypomethylation and expression define a molecular signature in peripheral blood of ICF patients: implications for diagnosis and etiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunodeficiency Centromeric Instability and Facial anomalies (ICF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by reduction in serum immunoglobulins with severe recurrent infections, facial dysmorphism, and more variable symptoms including mental retardation. ICF is directly related to a genomic methylation defect that mainly affects juxtacentromeric heterochromatin regions of certain chromosomes, leading to chromosomal rearrangements that constitute a hallmark of this syndrome upon cytogenetic testing. Mutations in the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B, the protein ZBTB24 of unknown function, or loci that remain to be identified, lie at its origin. Despite unifying features, common or distinguishing molecular signatures are still missing for this disease. Method We used the molecular signature that we identified in a mouse model for ICF1 to establish transcriptional biomarkers to facilitate diagnosis and understanding of etiology of the disease. We assayed the expression and methylation status of a set of genes whose expression is normally restricted to germ cells, directly in whole blood samples and epithelial cells of ICF patients. Results We report that DNA hypomethylation and expression of MAEL and SYCE1 represent robust biomarkers, easily testable directly from uncultured cells to diagnose the most prevalent sub-type of the syndrome. In addition, we identified the first unifying molecular signatures for ICF patients. Of importance, we validated the use of our biomarkers to diagnose a baby born to a family with a sick child. Finally, our analysis revealed unsuspected complex molecular signatures in two ICF patients suggestive of a novel genetic etiology for the disease. Conclusions Early diagnosis of ICF syndrome is crucial since early immunoglobulin supplementation can improve the course of disease. However, ICF is probably underdiagnosed, especially in patients that present with incomplete phenotype or born to families with no affected

  8. A gene expression signature that can predict the recurrence of tamoxifen-treated primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chanrion, Maïa; Negre, Vincent; Fontaine, Hélène; Salvetat, Nicolas; Bibeau, Frédéric; Grogan, Gaëtan Mac; Mauriac, Louis; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Molina, Franck; Theillet, Charles; Darbon, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Identification of a molecular signature predicting the relapse of tamoxifen-treated primary breast cancers should help the therapeutical management of ER-positive cancers. Experimental Design A series of 132 primary tumors from patients who received adjuvant tamoxifen were analysed for expression profiles at the whole genome level by 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. A supervised analysis was performed to identify an expression signature. Results We defined a 36-gene signature that classified correctly 78% of patients with relapse and 80% of relapse-free patients (79% accuracy). Using 23 independent tumors, we confirmed the accuracy of the signature (78%), whose relevance was further demonstrated by using published microarray data from 60 tamoxifen-treated patients (63% accuracy). Univariate analysis using the validation set of 83 tumors demonstrated that the 36-gene classifier was more efficient to predict disease-free survival than the traditional histo-pathological prognostic factors and as effective as the Nottingham Prognostic Index or the “Adjuvant!“ software. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the molecular signature was the only independent prognostic factor. Comparison with several already published signatures demonstated that the 36-gene signature was among the best to classify tumors from both training and validation sets. Kaplan-Meier analyses emphasized its prognostic power both on the whole cohort of patients and on a subgroup with an intermediate risk of recurrence as defined by the St Gallen criteria. Conclusion This study identifies a molecular signature specifying a subgroup of patients who do not gain benefits from tamoxifen treatment. These patients may therefore be eligible for alternative endocrine therapies and/or chemotherapy. PMID:18347175

  9. A gene expression signature that can predict the recurrence of tamoxifen-treated primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chanrion, Maïa; Negre, Vincent; Fontaine, Hélène; Salvetat, Nicolas; Bibeau, Frédéric; Mac Grogan, Gaëtan; Mauriac, Louis; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Molina, Franck; Theillet, Charles; Darbon, Jean-Marie

    2008-03-15

    The identification of a molecular signature predicting the relapse of tamoxifen-treated primary breast cancers should help the therapeutic management of estrogen receptor-positive cancers. A series of 132 primary tumors from patients who received adjuvant tamoxifen were analyzed for expression profiles at the whole-genome level by 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. A supervised analysis was done to identify an expression signature. We defined a 36-gene signature that correctly classified 78% of patients with relapse and 80% of relapse-free patients (79% accuracy). Using 23 independent tumors, we confirmed the accuracy of the signature (78%) whose relevance was further shown by using published microarray data from 60 tamoxifen-treated patients (63% accuracy). Univariate analysis using the validation set of 83 tumors showed that the 36-gene classifier is more efficient in predicting disease-free survival than the traditional histopathologic prognostic factors and is as effective as the Nottingham Prognostic Index or the "Adjuvant!" software. Multivariate analysis showed that the molecular signature is the only independent prognostic factor. A comparison with several already published signatures demonstrated that the 36-gene signature is among the best to classify tumors from both training and validation sets. Kaplan-Meier analyses emphasized its prognostic power both on the whole cohort of patients and on a subgroup with an intermediate risk of recurrence as defined by the St. Gallen criteria. This study identifies a molecular signature specifying a subgroup of patients who do not gain benefits from tamoxifen treatment. These patients may therefore be eligible for alternative endocrine therapies and/or chemotherapy.

  10. A simple and robust method for connecting small-molecule drugs using gene-expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Dong; Gant, Timothy W

    2008-06-02

    Interaction of a drug or chemical with a biological system can result in a gene-expression profile or signature characteristic of the event. Using a suitably robust algorithm these signatures can potentially be used to connect molecules with similar pharmacological or toxicological properties by gene expression profile. Lamb et al first proposed the Connectivity Map [Lamb et al (2006), Science 313, 1929-1935] to make successful connections among small molecules, genes, and diseases using genomic signatures. Here we have built on the principles of the Connectivity Map to present a simpler and more robust method for the construction of reference gene-expression profiles and for the connection scoring scheme, which importantly allows the valuation of statistical significance of all the connections observed. We tested the new method with two randomly generated gene signatures and three experimentally derived gene signatures (for HDAC inhibitors, estrogens, and immunosuppressive drugs, respectively). Our testing with this method indicates that it achieves a higher level of specificity and sensitivity and so advances the original method. The method presented here not only offers more principled statistical procedures for testing connections, but more importantly it provides effective safeguard against false connections at the same time achieving increased sensitivity. With its robust performance, the method has potential use in the drug development pipeline for the early recognition of pharmacological and toxicological properties in chemicals and new drug candidates, and also more broadly in other 'omics sciences.

  11. Polycomb repressive complex 2 epigenomic signature defines age-associated hypermethylation and gene expression changes

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G

    2015-01-01

    Although age-associated gene expression and methylation changes have been reported throughout the literature, the unifying epigenomic principles of aging remain poorly understood. Recent explosion in availability and resolution of functional/regulatory genome annotation data (epigenomic data), such as that provided by the ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects, provides an opportunity for the identification of epigenomic mechanisms potentially altered by age-associated differentially methylated regions (aDMRs) and regulatory signatures in the promoters of age-associated genes (aGENs). In this study we found that aDMRs and aGENs identified in multiple independent studies share a common Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 signature marked by EZH2, SUZ12, CTCF binding sites, repressive H3K27me3, and activating H3K4me1 histone modification marks, and a “poised promoter” chromatin state. This signature is depleted in RNA Polymerase II-associated transcription factor binding sites, activating H3K79me2, H3K36me3, H3K27ac marks, and an “active promoter” chromatin state. The PRC2 signature was shown to be generally stable across cell types. When considering the directionality of methylation changes, we found the PRC2 signature to be associated with aDMRs hypermethylated with age, while hypomethylated aDMRs were associated with enhancers. In contrast, aGENs were associated with the PRC2 signature independently of the directionality of gene expression changes. In this study we demonstrate that the PRC2 signature is the common epigenomic context of genomic regions associated with hypermethylation and gene expression changes in aging. PMID:25880792

  12. Expression Signatures of Long Noncoding RNAs in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Liang; Yu, Bin; Zhuang, Qian-yu; Wang, Yi-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involving the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR. Results. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768) were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS. PMID:26421281

  13. Identifying a gene expression signature of cluster headache in blood

    PubMed Central

    Eising, Else; Pelzer, Nadine; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S.; Vries, Boukje de; Ferrari, Michel D.; ‘t Hoen, Peter A. C.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Cluster headache is a relatively rare headache disorder, typically characterized by multiple daily, short-lasting attacks of excruciating, unilateral (peri-)orbital or temporal pain associated with autonomic symptoms and restlessness. To better understand the pathophysiology of cluster headache, we used RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways in whole blood of patients with episodic (n = 19) or chronic (n = 20) cluster headache in comparison with headache-free controls (n = 20). Gene expression data were analysed by gene and by module of co-expressed genes with particular attention to previously implicated disease pathways including hypocretin dysregulation. Only moderate gene expression differences were identified and no associations were found with previously reported pathogenic mechanisms. At the level of functional gene sets, associations were observed for genes involved in several brain-related mechanisms such as GABA receptor function and voltage-gated channels. In addition, genes and modules of co-expressed genes showed a role for intracellular signalling cascades, mitochondria and inflammation. Although larger study samples may be required to identify the full range of involved pathways, these results indicate a role for mitochondria, intracellular signalling and inflammation in cluster headache. PMID:28074859

  14. mRNA Expression Signature of Gleason Grade Predicts Lethal Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Penney, Kathryn L.; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Fall, Katja; Pawitan, Yudi; Hoshida, Yujin; Kraft, Peter; Stark, Jennifer R.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Perner, Sven; Finn, Stephen; Calza, Stefano; Flavin, Richard; Freedman, Matthew L.; Setlur, Sunita; Sesso, Howard D.; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Martin, Neil; Kantoff, Philip W.; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Adami, Hans-Olov; Rubin, Mark A.; Loda, Massimo; Golub, Todd R.; Andrén, Ove; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Prostate-specific antigen screening has led to enormous overtreatment of prostate cancer because of the inability to distinguish potentially lethal disease at diagnosis. We reasoned that by identifying an mRNA signature of Gleason grade, the best predictor of prognosis, we could improve prediction of lethal disease among men with moderate Gleason 7 tumors, the most common grade, and the most indeterminate in terms of prognosis. Patients and Methods Using the complementary DNA–mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation assay, we measured the mRNA expression of 6,100 genes in prostate tumor tissue in the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort (n = 358) and Physicians' Health Study (PHS; n = 109). We developed an mRNA signature of Gleason grade comparing individuals with Gleason ≤ 6 to those with Gleason ≥ 8 tumors and applied the model among patients with Gleason 7 to discriminate lethal cases. Results We built a 157-gene signature using the Swedish data that predicted Gleason with low misclassification (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91); when this signature was tested in the PHS, the discriminatory ability remained high (AUC = 0.94). In men with Gleason 7 tumors, who were excluded from the model building, the signature significantly improved the prediction of lethal disease beyond knowing whether the Gleason score was 4 + 3 or 3 + 4 (P = .006). Conclusion Our expression signature and the genes identified may improve our understanding of the de-differentiation process of prostate tumors. Additionally, the signature may have clinical applications among men with Gleason 7, by further estimating their risk of lethal prostate cancer and thereby guiding therapy decisions to improve outcomes and reduce overtreatment. PMID:21537050

  15. A micro-RNA expression signature for human NAFLD progression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Xiong, Yanhua; Sheng, Quanghu; Zhao, Shilin; Wattacheril, Julia; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes disease conditions deteriorating from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis (CIR) to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). From a molecular and biochemical perspective, our understanding of the etiology of this disease is limited by the broad spectrum of disease presentations, the lack of a thorough understanding of the factors contributing to disease susceptibility, and ethical concerns related to repeat sampling of the liver. To better understand the factors associated with disease progression, we investigated by next-generation RNA sequencing the altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in liver biopsies of class III obese subjects (body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2)) biopsied at the time of elective bariatric surgery. Clinical characteristics and unbiased RNA expression profiles for 233 miRs, 313 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and 392 miscellaneous small RNAs (snoRNAs, snRNAs, rRNAs) were compared among 36 liver biopsy specimens stratified by disease severity. The abundances of 3 miRNAs that were found to be differentially regulated (miR-301a-3p and miR-34a-5p increased and miR-375 decreased) with disease progression were validated by RT-PCR. No tRNAs or miscellaneous RNAs were found to be associated with disease severity. Similar patterns of increased miR-301a and decreased miR-375 expression were observed in 134 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples deposited in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Our analytical results suggest that NAFLD severity is associated with a specific pattern of altered hepatic microRNA expression that may drive the hallmark of this disorder: altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The three identified miRNAs can potentially be used as biomarkers to access the severity of NAFLD. The persistence of this miRNA expression pattern in an external validation cohort of HCC samples suggests that specific microRNA expression patterns may permit and

  16. An Epigenetic Signature for Monoallelic Olfactory Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Magklara, Angeliki; Yen, Angela; Colquitt, Bradley M.; Clowney, E. Josephine; Allen, William; Markenscoff-Papadimitriou, Eirene; Evans, Zoe A.; Kheradpour, Pouya; Mountoufaris, George; Carey, Catriona; Barnea, Gilad; Kellis, Manolis; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Constitutive heterochromatin is traditionally viewed as the static form of heterochromatin that silences pericentromeric and telomeric repeats in a cell cycle and differentiation independent manner. Here, we show that in the mouse olfactory epithelium, olfactory receptor (OR) genes are marked, in a highly dynamic fashion, with the molecular hallmarks of constitutive heterochromatin, H3K9me3 and H4K20me3. The cell-type and developmentally dependent deposition of these marks along the OR clusters is, most likely, reversed during the process of OR choice to allow for monogenic and monoallelic OR expression. In contrast to the current view of OR choice, our data suggest that OR silencing takes place before OR expression, indicating that it is not the product of an OR-elicited feedback signal. This suggests a new role for chromatin-mediated silencing as the molecular foundation upon which singular and stochastic selection can be applied. PMID:21529909

  17. Integrative analysis of lung development-cancer expression associations reveals the roles of signatures with inverse expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlong; Li, Chunquan; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Shang, Desi; Yang, Xinmiao; Han, Junwei; Sun, Zeguo; Li, Yixue; Li, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have focused on exploring the associations between organ development and malignant tumors; however, the clinical relevance of the development signatures was inadequately addressed in lung cancer. In this study, we explored the associations between lung development and lung cancer progression by analyzing a total of two development and seven cancer datasets. We identified representative expression patterns (continuously up- and down-regulated) from development and cancer profiles, and inverse pattern associations were observed at both the gene and functional levels. Furthermore, we dissected the biological processes dominating the associations, and found that proliferation and immunity were respectively involved in the two inverse development-cancer expression patterns. Through sub-pathway analysis of the signatures with inverse expression patterns, we finally identified a 13-gene risk signature from the cell cycle sub-pathway, and evaluated its predictive performance for lung cancer patient clinical outcome using independent cohorts. Our findings indicated that the integrative analysis of development and cancer expression patterns provided a framework for identifying effective molecular signatures for clinical utility.

  18. The in vivo Gene Expression Signature of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun-Soo; Muller, Florian L.; Perez, Viviana; Qi, Wenbo; Liang, Huiyun; Xi, Liang; Fu, Chunxiao; Doyle, Erin; Hickey, Morgen; Cornell, John; Epstein, Charles J.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan

    2008-01-01

    How higher organisms respond to elevated oxidative stress in vivo is poorly understood. Therefore, we measured oxidative stress parameters and gene expression alterations (Affymetrix arrays) in the liver caused by elevated reactive oxygen species induced in vivo by diquat or by genetic ablation of the major antioxidant enzymes, CuZn-Superoxide Dismutase (Sod1) and Glutathione Peroxidase-1 (Gpx1). Diquat (50 mg/kg) treatment resulted in a significant increase in oxidative damage within 3 to 6 hours in wild type mice without any lethality. In contrast, treating Sod1−/− or Gpx1−/− mice with a similar concentration of diquat resulted in a significant increase in oxidative damage within an hour of treatment and was lethal, i.e., these mice are extremely sensitive to the oxidative stress generated by diquat. The expression response to elevated oxidative stress in vivo does not involve an upregulation of classical antioxidant genes, though long-term oxidative stress in the Sod1−/− mice leads to a significant upregulation of thiol antioxidants (e.g., Mt1, Srxn1, Gclc, Txnrd1), which appears to be mediated by the redox-sensitive transcription factor, Nrf2. The main finding of our study is that the common response to elevated oxidative stress, with diquat treatment in wild type, Gpx1−/−, Sod1−/− mice and in untreated Sod1−/− mice, is an upregulation of p53 target genes (p21, Gdf15, Plk3, Atf3, Trp53inp1, Ddit4, Gadd45a, Btg2, Ndrg1). A retrospective comparison with previous studies shows that induction of these p53-target genes is a conserved expression response to oxidative stress, in vivo and in vitro, in different species and different cells/organs. PMID:18445702

  19. Gene Expression Signature-Based Screening Identifies New Broadly Effective Influenza A Antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Josset, Laurence; Textoris, Julien; Loriod, Béatrice; Ferraris, Olivier; Moules, Vincent; Lina, Bruno; N'Guyen, Catherine; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Classical antiviral therapies target viral proteins and are consequently subject to resistance. To counteract this limitation, alternative strategies have been developed that target cellular factors. We hypothesized that such an approach could also be useful to identify broad-spectrum antivirals. The influenza A virus was used as a model for its viral diversity and because of the need to develop therapies against unpredictable viruses as recently underlined by the H1N1 pandemic. We proposed to identify a gene-expression signature associated with infection by different influenza A virus subtypes which would allow the identification of potential antiviral drugs with a broad anti-influenza spectrum of activity. We analyzed the cellular gene expression response to infection with five different human and avian influenza A virus strains and identified 300 genes as differentially expressed between infected and non-infected samples. The most 20 dysregulated genes were used to screen the connectivity map, a database of drug-associated gene expression profiles. Candidate antivirals were then identified by their inverse correlation to the query signature. We hypothesized that such molecules would induce an unfavorable cellular environment for influenza virus replication. Eight potential antivirals including ribavirin were identified and their effects were tested in vitro on five influenza A strains. Six of the molecules inhibited influenza viral growth. The new pandemic H1N1 virus, which was not used to define the gene expression signature of infection, was inhibited by five out of the eight identified molecules, demonstrating that this strategy could contribute to identifying new broad anti-influenza agents acting on cellular gene expression. The identified infection signature genes, the expression of which are modified upon infection, could encode cellular proteins involved in the viral life cycle. This is the first study showing that gene expression-based screening can be

  20. Digital Gene Expression Signatures for Maize Development1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Eveland, Andrea L.; Satoh-Nagasawa, Namiko; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Meyer, Sandra; Beatty, Mary; Sakai, Hajime; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, David

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect the determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patterns, an important agronomic trait. In this work, we developed and tested a framework for analysis of tag-based, digital gene expression profiles using Illumina’s high-throughput sequencing technology and the newly assembled B73 maize reference genome. We also used a mutation in the RA3 gene to identify putative expression signatures specific to stem cell fate in axillary meristem determinacy. The RA3 gene encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and may act at the interface between developmental and metabolic processes. Deep sequencing of digital gene expression libraries, representing three biological replicate ear samples from wild-type and ra3 plants, generated 27 million 20- to 21-nucleotide reads with frequencies spanning 4 orders of magnitude. Unique sequence tags were anchored to 3′-ends of individual transcripts by DpnII and NlaIII digests, which were multiplexed during sequencing. We mapped 86% of nonredundant signature tags to the maize genome, which associated with 37,117 gene models and unannotated regions of expression. In total, 66% of genes were detected by at least nine reads in immature maize ears. We used comparative genomics to leverage existing information from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) in functional analyses of differentially expressed maize genes. Results from this study provide a basis for the analysis of short-read expression data in maize and resolved specific expression signatures that will help define mechanisms of action for the RA3 gene. PMID:20833728

  1. A novel gene expression signature for bone metastasis in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Savci-Heijink, C Dilara; Halfwerk, Hans; Koster, Jan; van de Vijver, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Metastatic cancer remains the leading cause of death for patients with breast cancer. To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of distant metastases to specific sites is therefore important and of potential clinical value. From 157 primary breast tumours of the patients with known metastatic disease, gene expression profiling data were generated and correlated to metastatic behaviour including site-specific metastasis, metastasis pattern and survival outcomes. We analysed gene expression signatures specifically associated with the development of bone metastases. As a validation cohort, we used a published dataset of 376 breast carcinomas for which gene expression data and site-specific metastasis information were available. 80.5 % of luminal-type tumours developed bone metastasis as opposed to 41.7 % of basal and 55.6 % of HER2-like tumours. A novel 15-gene signature identified 82.4 % of the tumours with bone metastasis, 85.2 % of the tumours which had bone metastasis as first site of metastasis and 100 % of the ones with bone metastasis only (p 9.99e-09), in the training set. In the independent dataset, 81.2 % of the positive tested tumours had known metastatic disease to the bone (p 4.28e-10). This 15-gene signature showed much better correlation with the development of bone metastases than previously identified signatures and was predictive in both ER-positive as well as in ER-negative tumours. Multivariate analyses revealed that together with the molecular subtype, our 15-gene expression signature was significantly correlated to bone metastasis status (p <0.001, 95 % CI 3.86-48.02 in the training set; p 0.001, 95 % CI 1.54-5.00 in the independent set). The 15 genes, APOPEC3B, ATL2, BBS1, C6orf61, C6orf167, MMS22L, KCNS1, MFAP3L, NIP7, NUP155, PALM2, PH-4, PGD5, SFT2D2 and STEAP3, encoded mainly membrane-bound molecules with molecular function of protein binding. The expression levels of the up-regulated genes (NAT1, BBS1 and PH-4) were

  2. Functional correlations of pathogenesis-driven gene expression signatures in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Maertzdorf, Jeroen; Ota, Martin; Repsilber, Dirk; Mollenkopf, Hans J; Weiner, January; Hill, Philip C; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major health threat and its control depends on improved measures of prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Biosignatures can play a significant role in the development of novel intervention measures against TB and blood transcriptional profiling is increasingly exploited for their rational design. Such profiles also reveal fundamental biological mechanisms associated with the pathology of the disease. We have compared whole blood gene expression in TB patients, as well as in healthy infected and uninfected individuals in a cohort in The Gambia, West Africa and validated previously identified signatures showing high similarities of expression profiles among different cohorts. In this study, we applied a unique combination of classical gene expression analysis with pathway and functional association analysis integrated with intra-individual expression correlations. These analyses were employed for identification of new disease-associated gene signatures, identifying a network of Fc gamma receptor 1 signaling with correlating transcriptional activity as hallmark of gene expression in TB. Remarkable similarities to characteristic signatures in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were observed. Functional gene clusters of immunoregulatory interactions involving the JAK-STAT pathway; sensing of microbial patterns by Toll-like receptors and IFN-signaling provide detailed insights into the dysregulation of critical immune processes in TB, involving active expression of both pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory systems. We conclude that transcriptomics (i) provides a robust system for identification and validation of biosignatures for TB and (ii) application of integrated analysis tools yields novel insights into functional networks underlying TB pathogenesis.

  3. Interferon-inducible gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Emily C; Batliwalla, Franak M; Karypis, George; Gaffney, Patrick M; Ortmann, Ward A; Espe, Karl J; Shark, Katherine B; Grande, William J; Hughes, Karis M; Kapur, Vivek; Gregersen, Peter K; Behrens, Timothy W

    2003-03-04

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. We used global gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify distinct patterns of gene expression that distinguish most SLE patients from healthy controls. Strikingly, about half of the patients studied showed dysregulated expression of genes in the IFN pathway. Furthermore, this IFN gene expression "signature" served as a marker for more severe disease involving the kidneys, hematopoetic cells, and/or the central nervous system. These results provide insights into the genetic pathways underlying SLE, and identify a subgroup of patients who may benefit from therapies targeting the IFN pathway.

  4. Inferring pathway crosstalk networks using gene set co-expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Gu, Jin; Yuan, Jun; Tao, Ran; Li, Yanda; Li, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Constructing molecular interaction networks in cells is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of biological processes. Except for single gene analysis, several gene set-based methods have been proposed to infer pathway crosstalk by analyzing large-scale gene expression data. But most of them take all pathway genes as a whole to infer the crosstalk. Biological evidence suggests that the pathway crosstalk usually occurs between some subsets rather than the whole sets of pathway genes. In this study, we propose a novel method, sGSCA (signature-based gene set co-expression analysis) which can use the co-expression correlations between subsets of pathway genes to infer the pathway crosstalk networks. The method applies sparse canonical correlation analysis (sCCA) to measure the pathway level co-expression and simultaneously obtain the subsets or signature genes that contribute to the co-expression of pathways. On simulated datasets, sGSCA can efficiently detect pathway crosstalk and the corresponding highly correlated signature genes. We applied sGSCA to two cancer gene expression datasets (one for hepatocellular cancer and the other for lung cancer). In the inferred networks, we found several important pathway crosstalks related to the cancers. The identified signature genes also show high enrichment for the cancer related genes. sGSCA can infer pathway crosstalk networks using large-scale gene expression data, and should be a useful tool for systematically studying the molecular mechanisms of complex diseases on both pathway and gene levels at the same time.

  5. A composite gene expression signature optimizes prediction of colorectal cancer metastasis and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Michael J.; Yang, Mingli; Missiaglia, Edoardo; Delorenzi, Mauro; Soneson, Charlotte; Yue, Binglin; Nebozhyn, Michael V.; Loboda, Andrey; Bloom, Gregory; Yeatman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We previously found that an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-based gene expression signature was highly correlated to the first principal component (PC1) of 326 colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors and was prognostic. This study was designed to improve these signatures for better prediction of metastasis and outcome. Experimental Design 468 CRC tumors including all stages (I–IV) and metastatic lesions were used to develop a new prognostic score (ΔPC1.EMT) by subtracting the EMT signature score from its correlated PC1 signature score. The score was validated on six other independent datasets with total 3697 tumors. Results ΔPC1.EMT was found to be far more predictive of metastasis and outcome than its parent scores. It performed well in Stages I–III, amongst MSI subtypes, and across multiple mutation-based subclasses, demonstrating a refined capacity to predict distant metastatic potential in tumors even with a “good” prognosis. For example, in the PETACC-3 clinical trial dataset it predicted worse overall survival in an adjusted multivariable model for Stage III patients (HR by IQR=1.50, 95%CI=1.25–1.81, P=0.000016, N=644). The improved performance of ΔPC1.EMT was related to its propensity of identifying epithelial-like subpopulations as well as mesenchymal-like subpopulations. Biologically, the signature was correlated positively with RAS signaling but negatively with mitochondrial metabolism. ΔPC1.EMT was a “best of assessed” prognostic score when compared to ten other known prognostic signatures. Conclusion The study developed a prognostic signature score with a propensity of detecting non-EMT features, including epithelial cancer stem cell-related properties, thereby improving its potential to predict metastasis and poorer outcome in Stages I-III patients. PMID:26446941

  6. Expression profiling elucidates a molecular gene signature for pulmonary hypertension in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Sunit; Zhou, Tong; Javaid, Kamran; Abbasi, Taimur; Casanova, Nancy; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Wade, Michael S.; Noth, Imre; Sweiss, Nadera J.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH), when it complicates sarcoidosis, carries a poor prognosis, in part because it is difficult to detect early in patients with worsening respiratory symptoms. Pathogenesis of sarcoidosis occurs via incompletely characterized mechanisms that are distinct from the mechanisms of pulmonary vascular remodeling well known to occur in conjunction with other chronic lung diseases. To address the need for a biomarker to aid in early detection as well as the gap in knowledge regarding the mechanisms of PH in sarcoidosis, we used genome-wide peripheral blood gene expression analysis and identified an 18-gene signature capable of distinguishing sarcoidosis patients with PH (n = 8), sarcoidosis patients without PH (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 45). The discriminative accuracy of this 18-gene signature was 100% in separating sarcoidosis patients with PH from those without it. If validated in a large replicate cohort, this signature could potentially be used as a diagnostic molecular biomarker for sarcoidosis-associated PH. PMID:28090288

  7. Derivation of cancer diagnostic and prognostic signatures from gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Goodison, Steve; Sun, Yijun; Urquidi, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The ability to compare genome-wide expression profiles in human tissue samples has the potential to add an invaluable molecular pathology aspect to the detection and evaluation of multiple diseases. Applications include initial diagnosis, evaluation of disease subtype, monitoring of response to therapy and the prediction of disease recurrence. The derivation of molecular signatures that can predict tumor recurrence in breast cancer has been a particularly intense area of investigation and a number of studies have shown that molecular signatures can outperform currently used clinicopathologic factors in predicting relapse in this disease. However, many of these predictive models have been derived using relatively simple computational algorithms and whether these models are at a stage of development worthy of large-cohort clinical trial validation is currently a subject of debate. In this review, we focus on the derivation of optimal molecular signatures from high-dimensional data and discuss some of the expected future developments in the field. PMID:21083217

  8. A Comprehensive Gene Expression Meta-analysis Identifies Novel Immune Signatures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Afroz, Sumbul; Giddaluru, Jeevan; Vishwakarma, Sandeep; Naz, Saima; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Khan, Nooruddin

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a symmetric polyarticular arthritis, has long been feared as one of the most disabling forms of arthritis. Identification of gene signatures associated with RA onset and progression would lead toward development of novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. This study was undertaken to identify unique gene signatures of RA patients through large-scale meta-profiling of a diverse collection of gene expression data sets. We carried out a meta-analysis of 8 publicly available RA patients’ (107 RA patients and 76 healthy controls) gene expression data sets and further validated a few meta-signatures in RA patients through quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We identified a robust meta-profile comprising 33 differentially expressed genes, which were consistently and significantly expressed across all the data sets. Our meta-analysis unearthed upregulation of a few novel gene signatures including PLCG2, HLA-DOB, HLA-F, EIF4E2, and CYFIP2, which were validated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples of RA patients. Further, functional and pathway enrichment analysis reveals perturbation of several meta-genes involved in signaling pathways pertaining to inflammation, antigen presentation, hypoxia, and apoptosis during RA. Additionally, PLCG2 (phospholipase Cγ2) popped out as a novel meta-gene involved in most of the pathways relevant to RA including inflammasome activation, platelet aggregation, and activation, thereby suggesting PLCG2 as a potential therapeutic target for controlling excessive inflammation during RA. In conclusion, these findings highlight the utility of meta-analysis approach in identifying novel gene signatures that might provide mechanistic insights into disease onset, progression and possibly lead toward the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic interventions against RA. PMID:28210261

  9. A Comprehensive Gene Expression Meta-analysis Identifies Novel Immune Signatures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Sumbul; Giddaluru, Jeevan; Vishwakarma, Sandeep; Naz, Saima; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Khan, Nooruddin

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a symmetric polyarticular arthritis, has long been feared as one of the most disabling forms of arthritis. Identification of gene signatures associated with RA onset and progression would lead toward development of novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. This study was undertaken to identify unique gene signatures of RA patients through large-scale meta-profiling of a diverse collection of gene expression data sets. We carried out a meta-analysis of 8 publicly available RA patients' (107 RA patients and 76 healthy controls) gene expression data sets and further validated a few meta-signatures in RA patients through quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We identified a robust meta-profile comprising 33 differentially expressed genes, which were consistently and significantly expressed across all the data sets. Our meta-analysis unearthed upregulation of a few novel gene signatures including PLCG2, HLA-DOB, HLA-F, EIF4E2, and CYFIP2, which were validated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples of RA patients. Further, functional and pathway enrichment analysis reveals perturbation of several meta-genes involved in signaling pathways pertaining to inflammation, antigen presentation, hypoxia, and apoptosis during RA. Additionally, PLCG2 (phospholipase Cγ2) popped out as a novel meta-gene involved in most of the pathways relevant to RA including inflammasome activation, platelet aggregation, and activation, thereby suggesting PLCG2 as a potential therapeutic target for controlling excessive inflammation during RA. In conclusion, these findings highlight the utility of meta-analysis approach in identifying novel gene signatures that might provide mechanistic insights into disease onset, progression and possibly lead toward the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic interventions against RA.

  10. Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon’s plastic life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2009-01-01

    How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated - at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction - in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators. PMID:19401203

  11. Long noncoding RNA expression signature to predict platinum-based chemotherapeutic sensitivity of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Zeng, Ying; Zhou, Cheng-Fang; Wang, Ying; Li, Xi; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2017-12-01

    Dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are potential markers of several tumor prognoses. This study aimed to develop a lncRNA expression signature that can predict chemotherapeutic sensitivity for patients with advanced stage and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGS-OvCa) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The lncRNA expression profiles of 258 HGS-OvCa patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed. Results revealed that an eight-lncRNA signature was significantly associated with chemosensitivity in the multivariate logistic regression model, which can accurately predict the chemosensitivity of patients [Area under curve (AUC) = 0.83]. The association of a chemosensitivity predictor with molecular subtypes indicated the excellent prognosis performance of this marker in differentiated, mesenchymal, and immunoreactive subtypes (AUC > 0.8). The significant correlation between ZFAS1 expression and chemosensitivity was confirmed in 233 HGS-OvCa patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus datasets (GSE9891, GSE63885, and GSE51373). In vitro experiments demonstrated that the ZFAS1 expression was upregulated by cisplatin in A2008, HeyA8, and HeyC2 cell lines. This finding suggested that ZFAS1 may participate in platinum resistance. Therefore, the evaluation of the eight-lncRNA signature may be clinically implicated in the selection of platinum-resistant HGS-OvCa patients. The role of ZFAS1 in platinum resistance should be further investigated.

  12. Protein Expression Signatures for Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-mediated Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Matthew V.; Manning, H. Charles; Coffey, Robert J.; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of cellular signaling networks typically involves targeted measurements of phosphorylated protein intermediates. However, phosphoproteomic analyses usually require affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides and can be complicated by artifactual changes in phosphorylation caused by uncontrolled preanalytical variables, particularly in the analysis of tissue specimens. We asked whether changes in protein expression, which are more stable and easily analyzed, could reflect network stimulation and inhibition. We employed this approach to analyze stimulation and inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by EGF and selective EGFR inhibitors. Shotgun analysis of proteomes from proliferating A431 cells, EGF-stimulated cells, and cells co-treated with the EGFR inhibitors cetuximab or gefitinib identified groups of differentially expressed proteins. Comparisons of these protein groups identified 13 proteins whose EGF-induced expression changes were reversed by both EGFR inhibitors. Targeted multiple reaction monitoring analysis verified differential expression of 12 of these proteins, which comprise a candidate EGFR inhibition signature. We then tested these 12 proteins by multiple reaction monitoring analysis in three other models: 1) a comparison of DiFi (EGFR inhibitor-sensitive) and HCT116 (EGFR-insensitive) cell lines, 2) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse xenograft DiFi and HCT116 tumors, and 3) in tissue biopsies from a patient with the gastric hyperproliferative disorder Ménétrier's disease who was treated with cetuximab. Of the proteins in the candidate signature, a core group, including c-Jun, Jagged-1, and Claudin 4, were decreased by EGFR inhibitors in all three models. Although the goal of these studies was not to validate a clinically useful EGFR inhibition signature, the results confirm the hypothesis that clinically used EGFR inhibitors generate characteristic protein expression changes. This work further outlines a prototypical

  13. Gene expression profiling of CD34+ cells identifies a molecular signature of chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, C; Li, L; Haak, M; Brors, B; Frank, O; Giehl, M; Fabarius, A; Schatz, M; Weisser, A; Lorentz, C; Gretz, N; Hehlmann, R; Hochhaus, A; Seifarth, W

    2006-06-01

    Despite recent success in the treatment of early-stage disease, blastic phase (BP) of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) that is characterized by rapid expansion of therapy-refractory and differentiation-arrested blasts, remains a therapeutic challenge. The development of resistance upon continuous administration of imatinib mesylate is associated with poor prognosis pointing to the need for alternative therapeutic strategies and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression. To identify transcriptional signatures that may explain pathological characteristics and aggressive behavior of BP blasts, we performed comparative gene expression profiling on CD34+ Ph+ cells purified from patients with untreated newly diagnosed chronic phase CML (CP, n=11) and from patients in BP (n=9) using Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays. Supervised microarray data analysis revealed 114 differentially expressed genes (P<10(-4)), 34 genes displaying more than two-fold transcriptional changes when comparing CP and BP groups. While 24 of these genes were downregulated, 10 genes, especially suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (SOCS2), CAMPATH-1 antigen (CD52), and four human leukocyte antigen-related genes were strongly overexpressed in BP. Expression of selected genes was validated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Our data suggest the existence of a common gene expression profile of CML-BP and provide new insight into the molecular phenotype of blasts associated with disease progression and high malignancy.

  14. Minimising Immunohistochemical False Negative ER Classification Using a Complementary 23 Gene Expression Signature of ER Status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron C.; Juul, Nicolai; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Workman, Christopher T.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Background Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold[1], [2]. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance with clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes whose expression was both strongly bimodal, mimicking ESR expression status, and highly expressed in breast epithelial cell lines, to derive a 23-gene ER expression signature-based classifier. We assessed our classifiers in seven published breast cancer cohorts by comparing the gene expression-based ER status to IHC-based ER status as a predictor of clinical outcome in both untreated and tamoxifen treated cohorts. In untreated breast cancer cohorts, the 23 gene signature-based ER status provided significantly improved prognostic power compared to IHC-based ER status (P = 0.006). In tamoxifen-treated cohorts, the 23 gene ER expression signature predicted clinical outcome (HR = 2.20, P = 0.00035). These complementary ER signature-based strategies estimated that

  15. An independent validation of a gene expression signature to differentiate malignant melanoma from benign melanocytic nevi

    PubMed Central

    Flake, Darl D.; Busam, Klaus; Cockerell, Clay; Helm, Klaus; McNiff, Jennifer; Reed, Jon; Tschen, Jaime; Kim, Jinah; Barnhill, Raymond; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Prieto, Victor G.; Nelson, Jonathan; Kimbrell, Hillary; Kolquist, Kathryn A.; Brown, Krystal L.; Warf, M. Bryan; Roa, Benjamin B.; Wenstrup, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, a 23‐gene signature was developed to produce a melanoma diagnostic score capable of differentiating malignant and benign melanocytic lesions. The primary objective of this study was to independently assess the ability of the gene signature to differentiate melanoma from benign nevi in clinically relevant lesions. METHODS A set of 1400 melanocytic lesions was selected from samples prospectively submitted for gene expression testing at a clinical laboratory. Each sample was tested and subjected to an independent histopathologic evaluation by 3 experienced dermatopathologists. A primary diagnosis (benign or malignant) was assigned to each sample, and diagnostic concordance among the 3 dermatopathologists was required for inclusion in analyses. The sensitivity and specificity of the score in differentiating benign and malignant melanocytic lesions were calculated to assess the association between the score and the pathologic diagnosis. RESULTS The gene expression signature differentiated benign nevi from malignant melanoma with a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 92.5%. CONCLUSIONS These results reflect the performance of the gene signature in a diverse array of samples encountered in routine clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:617–628. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27768230

  16. Gene expression signatures but not cell cycle checkpoint functions distinguish AT carriers from normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liwen; Simpson, Dennis A.; Innes, Cynthia L.; Chou, Jeff; Bushel, Pierre R.; Paules, Richard S.; Kaufmann, William K.

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM). AT carriers with one mutant ATM allele are usually not severely affected although they carry an increased risk of developing cancer. There has not been an easy and reliable diagnostic method to identify AT carriers. Cell cycle checkpoint functions upon ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and gene expression signatures were analyzed in the current study to test for differential responses in human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different ATM genotypes. While both dose- and time-dependent G1 and G2 checkpoint functions were highly attenuated in ATM−/− cell lines, these functions were preserved in ATM+/− cell lines equivalent to ATM+/+ cell lines. However, gene expression signatures at both baseline (consisting of 203 probes) and post-IR treatment (consisting of 126 probes) were able to distinguish ATM+/− cell lines from ATM+/+ and ATM−/− cell lines. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis of the genes in the baseline signature indicate that ATM function-related categories, DNA metabolism, cell cycle, cell death control, and the p53 signaling pathway, were overrepresented. The same analyses of the genes in the IR-responsive signature revealed that biological categories including response to DNA damage stimulus, p53 signaling, and cell cycle pathways were overrepresented, which again confirmed involvement of ATM functions. The results indicate that AT carriers who have unaffected G1 and G2 checkpoint functions can be distinguished from normal individuals and AT patients by expression signatures of genes related to ATM functions. PMID:23943852

  17. Identification of Gene-Expression Signatures and Protein Markers for Breast Cancer Grading and Staging.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fang; Zhang, Chi; Du, Wei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The grade of a cancer is a measure of the cancer's malignancy level, and the stage of a cancer refers to the size and the extent that the cancer has spread. Here we present a computational method for prediction of gene signatures and blood/urine protein markers for breast cancer grades and stages based on RNA-seq data, which are retrieved from the TCGA breast cancer dataset and cover 111 pairs of disease and matching adjacent noncancerous tissues with pathologists-assigned stages and grades. By applying a differential expression and an SVM-based classification approach, we found that 324 and 227 genes in cancer have their expression levels consistently up-regulated vs. their matching controls in a grade- and stage-dependent manner, respectively. By using these genes, we predicted a 9-gene panel as a gene signature for distinguishing poorly differentiated from moderately and well differentiated breast cancers, and a 19-gene panel as a gene signature for discriminating between the moderately and well differentiated breast cancers. Similarly, a 30-gene panel and a 21-gene panel are predicted as gene signatures for distinguishing advanced stage (stages III-IV) from early stage (stages I-II) cancer samples and for distinguishing stage II from stage I samples, respectively. We expect these gene panels can be used as gene-expression signatures for cancer grade and stage classification. In addition, of the 324 grade-dependent genes, 188 and 66 encode proteins that are predicted to be blood-secretory and urine-excretory, respectively; and of the 227 stage-dependent genes, 123 and 51 encode proteins predicted to be blood-secretory and urine-excretory, respectively. We anticipate that some combinations of these blood and urine proteins could serve as markers for monitoring breast cancer at specific grades and stages through blood and urine tests.

  18. Identification of Gene-Expression Signatures and Protein Markers for Breast Cancer Grading and Staging

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Fang; Zhang, Chi; Du, Wei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The grade of a cancer is a measure of the cancer's malignancy level, and the stage of a cancer refers to the size and the extent that the cancer has spread. Here we present a computational method for prediction of gene signatures and blood/urine protein markers for breast cancer grades and stages based on RNA-seq data, which are retrieved from the TCGA breast cancer dataset and cover 111 pairs of disease and matching adjacent noncancerous tissues with pathologists-assigned stages and grades. By applying a differential expression and an SVM-based classification approach, we found that 324 and 227 genes in cancer have their expression levels consistently up-regulated vs. their matching controls in a grade- and stage-dependent manner, respectively. By using these genes, we predicted a 9-gene panel as a gene signature for distinguishing poorly differentiated from moderately and well differentiated breast cancers, and a 19-gene panel as a gene signature for discriminating between the moderately and well differentiated breast cancers. Similarly, a 30-gene panel and a 21-gene panel are predicted as gene signatures for distinguishing advanced stage (stages III-IV) from early stage (stages I-II) cancer samples and for distinguishing stage II from stage I samples, respectively. We expect these gene panels can be used as gene-expression signatures for cancer grade and stage classification. In addition, of the 324 grade-dependent genes, 188 and 66 encode proteins that are predicted to be blood-secretory and urine-excretory, respectively; and of the 227 stage-dependent genes, 123 and 51 encode proteins predicted to be blood-secretory and urine-excretory, respectively. We anticipate that some combinations of these blood and urine proteins could serve as markers for monitoring breast cancer at specific grades and stages through blood and urine tests. PMID:26375396

  19. Intraindividual genome expression analysis reveals a specific molecular signature of psoriasis and eczema.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Maria; Knapp, Bettina; Garzorz, Natalie; Mattii, Martina; Pullabhatla, Venu; Pennino, Davide; Andres, Christian; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Cavani, Andrea; Theis, Fabian J; Ring, Johannes; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Eyerich, Stefanie; Eyerich, Kilian

    2014-07-09

    Previous attempts to gain insight into the pathogenesis of psoriasis and eczema by comparing their molecular signatures were hampered by the high interindividual variability of those complex diseases. In patients affected by both psoriasis and nonatopic or atopic eczema simultaneously (n = 24), an intraindividual comparison of the molecular signatures of psoriasis and eczema identified genes and signaling pathways regulated in common and exclusive for each disease across all patients. Psoriasis-specific genes were important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism, epidermal differentiation, as well as immune mediators of T helper 17 (TH17) responses, interleukin-10 (IL-10) family cytokines, and IL-36. Genes in eczema related to epidermal barrier, reduced innate immunity, increased IL-6, and a TH2 signature. Within eczema subtypes, a mutually exclusive regulation of epidermal differentiation genes was observed. Furthermore, only contact eczema was driven by inflammasome activation, apoptosis, and cellular adhesion. On the basis of this comprehensive picture of the pathogenesis of psoriasis and eczema, a disease classifier consisting of NOS2 and CCL27 was created. In an independent cohort of eczema (n = 28) and psoriasis patients (n = 25), respectively, this classifier diagnosed all patients correctly and also identified initially misdiagnosed or clinically undifferentiated patients.

  20. Expression signatures of long non-coding RNAs in early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bingjie; Liu, Huailei; Wang, Ruke; Xu, Shancai; Liu, Yaohua; Wang, Kaikai; Hou, Xu; Shen, Chen; Wu, Jianing; Chen, Xin; Wu, Pei; Zhang, Guang; Ji, Zhiyong; Wang, Hongyu; Xiao, Yao; Han, Jianyi; Shi, Huaizhang; Zhao, Shiguang

    2015-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of mortality in stroke patients. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have important functions in brain disease, however their expression profiles in SAH remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression signatures of LncRNAs and mRNAs in early brain injury (EBI) following SAH in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into an SAH group and a sham operation group. The expression signatures of the LncRNAs and mRNAs in the temporal lobe cortex were investigated using a rat LncRNAs array following experimental SAH. The results revealed that there were 144 downregulated and 64 upregulated LncRNAs and 181 downregulated and 221 upregulated mRNAs following SAH. Additionally, two upregulated (BC092207, MRuc008hvl) and three downregulated (XR_006756, MRAK038897, MRAK017168) LncRNAs were confirmed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The differentially expressed mRNAs were further analyzed using the Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. The pathway analysis results provided by the KEGG database indicated that eight pathways associated with inflammation were involved in EBI following SAH. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the expression profiles of the LncRNAs and mRNAs were significantly different between the SAH-induced EBI group and the sham operation group. These differently expressed LncRNAs may be important in EBI following SAH.

  1. Distinct microRNA expression signatures in human right atrial and ventricular myocardium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Xiaohan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Yijiang

    2012-12-01

    Human atrial and ventricular myocardium has distinct structure and physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the central players in the regulation of gene expression, participating in many physiological processes. A comprehensive knowledge of miRNA expression in the human heart is essential for the understanding of myocardial function. The aim of this study was to compare the miRNA signature in human right atrial and ventricular myocardium. Agilent human miRNA arrays were used to indicate the miRNA expression signatures of the right atrial (n = 8) and ventricular (n = 9) myocardium of healthy individuals. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs) were used to validate the array results. DIANA-mirPath was used to incorporate the miRNAs into pathways. MiRNA arrays showed that 169 miRNAs were expressed at different levels in human right atrial and ventricular myocardium. The unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis based on the 169 dysregulated miRNAs showed that miRNA expression categorized two well-defined clusters that corresponded to human right atrial and ventricular myocardium. The qRT-PCR results correlated well with the microarray data. Bioinformatic analysis indicated the potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways. This study indicates that distinct miRNA expression signatures in human right atrial and ventricular myocardium. The findings provide a novel understanding of the molecular differences between human atrial and ventricular myocardium and may establish a framework for an anatomically detailed evaluation of cardiac function regulation.

  2. A microRNA signature in circulating exosomes is superior to exosomal glypican-1 levels for diagnosing pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xianyin; Wang, Mu; McElyea, Samantha Deitz; Sherman, Stuart; House, Michael; Korc, Murray

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly malignancy that often presents clinically at an advanced stage and that may be confused with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Conversely, CP may be misdiagnosed as PDAC leading to unwarranted pancreas resection. Therefore, early PDAC diagnosis and clear differentiation between PDAC and CP are crucial for improved care. Exosomes are circulating microvesicles whose components can serve as cancer biomarkers. We compared exosomal glypican-1 (GPC1) and microRNA levels in normal control subjects and in patients with PDAC and CP. We report that exosomal GPC1 is not diagnostic for PDAC, whereas high exosomal levels of microRNA-10b, (miR-10b), miR-21, miR-30c, and miR-181a and low miR-let7a readily differentiate PDAC from normal control and CP samples. By contrast with GPC1, elevated exosomal miR levels decreased to normal values within 24 h following PDAC resection. All 29 PDAC cases exhibited significantly elevated exosomal miR-10b and miR-30c levels, whereas 8 cases had normal or slightly increased CA 19-9 levels. Thus, our exosomal miR signature is superior to exosomal GPC1 or plasma CA 19-9 levels in establishing a diagnosis of PDAC and differentiating between PDAC and CP.

  3. Common disease signatures from gene expression analysis in Huntington's disease human blood and brain.

    PubMed

    Mina, Eleni; van Roon-Mom, Willeke; Hettne, Kristina; van Zwet, Erik; Goeman, Jelle; Neri, Christian; A C 't Hoen, Peter; Mons, Barend; Roos, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating brain disorder with no effective treatment or cure available. The scarcity of brain tissue makes it hard to study changes in the brain and impossible to perform longitudinal studies. However, peripheral pathology in HD suggests that it is possible to study the disease using peripheral tissue as a monitoring tool for disease progression and/or efficacy of novel therapies. In this study, we investigated if blood can be used to monitor disease severity and progression in brain. Since previous attempts using only gene expression proved unsuccessful, we compared blood and brain Huntington's disease signatures in a functional context. Microarray HD gene expression profiles from three brain regions were compared to the transcriptome of HD blood generated by next generation sequencing. The comparison was performed with a combination of weighted gene co-expression network analysis and literature based functional analysis (Concept Profile Analysis). Uniquely, our comparison of blood and brain datasets was not based on (the very limited) gene overlap but on the similarity between the gene annotations in four different semantic categories: "biological process", "cellular component", "molecular function" and "disease or syndrome". We identified signatures in HD blood reflecting a broad pathophysiological spectrum, including alterations in the immune response, sphingolipid biosynthetic processes, lipid transport, cell signaling, protein modification, spliceosome, RNA splicing, vesicle transport, cell signaling and synaptic transmission. Part of this spectrum was reminiscent of the brain pathology. The HD signatures in caudate nucleus and BA4 exhibited the highest similarity with blood, irrespective of the category of semantic annotations used. BA9 exhibited an intermediate similarity, while cerebellum had the least similarity. We present two signatures that were shared between blood and brain: immune response and spinocerebellar ataxias

  4. Translating a gene expression signature for multiple myeloma prognosis into a robust high-throughput assay for clinical use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Widespread adoption of genomic technologies in the management of heterogeneous indications, including Multiple Myeloma, has been hindered by concern over variation between published gene expression signatures, difficulty in physician interpretation and the challenge of obtaining sufficient genetic material from limited patient specimens. Methods Since 2006, the 70-gene prognostic signature, developed by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has been applied to over 4,700 patients in studies performed in 4 countries and described in 17 peer-reviewed publications. Analysis of control sample and quality control data compiled over a 12-month period was performed. Results Over a 12 month period, the 70-gene prognosis score (range 0–100) of our multiple myeloma cell-line control sample had a standard deviation of 2.72 and a coefficient of variance of 0.03. The whole-genome microarray profile used to calculate a patient’s GEP70 score can be generated with as little as 15 ng of total RNA; approximately 30,000 CD-138+ plasma cells. Results from each GEP70 analysis are presented as either low (70-gene score <45.2) or high (≥45.2) risk for relapse (newly diagnosed setting) or shorter overall survival (relapse setting). A personalized and outcome-annotated gene expression heat map is provided to assist in the clinical interpretation of the result. Conclusions The 70-gene assay, commercialized under the name ‘MyPRS®’ (Myeloma Prognostic Risk Score) and performed in Signal Genetics’ CLIA-certified high throughput flow-cytometry and molecular profiling laboratory is a reproducible and standardized method of multiple myeloma prognostication. PMID:24885236

  5. Translational signatures and mRNA levels are highly correlated in human stably expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Line, Sergio R P; Liu, Xiaoming; de Souza, Ana Paula; Yu, Fuli

    2013-04-19

    Gene expression is one of the most relevant biological processes of living cells. Due to the relative small population sizes, it is predicted that human gene sequences are not strongly influenced by selection towards expression efficiency. One of the major problems in estimating to what extent gene characteristics can be selected to maximize expression efficiency is the wide variation that exists in RNA and protein levels among physiological states and different tissues. Analyses of datasets of stably expressed genes (i.e. with consistent expression between physiological states and tissues) would provide more accurate and reliable measurements of associations between variations of a specific gene characteristic and expression, and how distinct gene features work to optimize gene expression. Using a dataset of human genes with consistent expression between physiological states we selected gene sequence signatures related to translation that can predict about 42% of mRNA variation. The prediction can be increased to 51% when selecting genes that are stably expressed in more than 1 tissue. These genes are enriched for translation and ribosome biosynthesis processes and have higher translation efficiency scores, smaller coding sequences and 3' UTR sizes and lower folding energies when compared to other datasets. Additionally, the amino acid frequencies weighted by expression showed higher correlations with isoacceptor tRNA gene copy number, and smaller absolute correlation values with biosynthetic costs. Our results indicate that human gene sequence characteristics related to transcription and translation processes can co-evolve in an integrated manner in order to optimize gene expression.

  6. A 16 Yin Yang gene expression ratio signature for ER+/node- breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wayne; Jia, Gaofeng; Cai, Nianguang; Huang, Shujun; Davie, James R; Pitz, Marshall; Banerji, Shantanu; Murphy, Leigh

    2017-03-15

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women. It is a complex and heterogeneous disease with different clinical outcomes. Stratifying patients into subgroups with different outcomes could help guide clinical decision making. In this study, we used two opposing groups of genes, Yin and Yang, to develop a prognostic expression ratio signature. Using the METABRIC cohort we identified a16-gene signature capable of stratifying breast cancer patients into four risk levels with intention that low-risk patients would not undergo adjuvant systemic therapy, intermediate-low-risk patients will be treated with hormonal therapy only, and intermediate-high- and high-risk groups will be treated by chemotherapy in addition to the hormonal therapy. The 16-gene signature for four risk level stratifications of breast cancer patients has been validated using 14 independent datasets. Notably, the low-risk group (n = 51) of 205 estrogen receptor-positive and node negative (ER+/node-) patients from three different datasets who had not had any systemic adjuvant therapy had 100% 15-year disease-specific survival rate. The Concordance Index of YMR for ER+/node negative patients is close to the commercially available signatures. However, YMR showed more significance (HR = 3.7, p = 8.7e-12) in stratifying ER+/node- subgroup than OncotypeDx (HR = 2.7, p = 1.3e-7), MammaPrint (HR = 2.5, p = 5.8e-7), rorS (HR = 2.4, p = 1.4e-6), and NPI (HR = 2.6, p = 1.2e-6). YMR signature may be developed as a clinical tool to select a subgroup of low-risk ER+/node- patients who do not require any adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT). © 2016 UICC.

  7. Computational analysis of expression of human embryonic stem cell-associated signatures in tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cancer stem cell model has been proposed based on the linkage between human embryonic stem cells and human cancer cells. However, the evidences supporting the cancer stem cell model remain to be collected. In this study, we extensively examined the expression of human embryonic stem cell-associated signatures including core genes, transcription factors, pathways and microRNAs in various cancers using the computational biology approach. Results We used the class comparison analysis and survival analysis algorithms to identify differentially expressed genes and their associated transcription factors, pathways and microRNAs among normal vs. tumor or good prognosis vs. poor prognosis phenotypes classes based on numerous human cancer gene expression data. We found that most of the human embryonic stem cell- associated signatures were frequently identified in the analysis, suggesting a strong linkage between human embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Conclusions The present study revealed the close linkage between the human embryonic stem cell associated gene expression profiles and cancer-associated gene expression profiles, and therefore offered an indirect support for the cancer stem cell theory. However, many interest issues remain to be addressed further. PMID:22041030

  8. Immune signatures and disorder-specific patterns in a cross-disorder gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Simone; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Patel, Hamel; Lee, Sanghyuck; Dempster, David; Curtis, Charles; Paya-Cano, Jose; Murphy, Declan; Wilson, C. Ellie; Horder, Jamie; Mendez, M. Andreina; Asherson, Philip; Rivera, Margarita; Costello, Helen; Maltezos, Stefanos; Whitwell, Susannah; Pitts, Mark; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L.; Bolton, Patrick; Curran, Sarah; McGuffin, Peter; Dobson, Richard; Breen, Gerome

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies point to overlap between neuropsychiatric disorders in symptomatology and genetic aetiology. Aims To systematically investigate genomics overlap between childhood and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Analysis of whole-genome blood gene expression and genetic risk scores of 318 individuals. Participants included individuals affected with adult ADHD (n = 93), childhood ADHD (n = 17), MDD (n = 63), ASD (n = 51), childhood dual diagnosis of ADHD–ASD (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 78). Results Weighted gene co-expression analysis results reveal disorder-specific signatures for childhood ADHD and MDD, and also highlight two immune-related gene co-expression modules correlating inversely with MDD and adult ADHD disease status. We find no significant relationship between polygenic risk scores and gene expression signatures. Conclusions Our results reveal disorder overlap and specificity at the genetic and gene expression level. They suggest new pathways contributing to distinct pathophysiology in psychiatric disorders and shed light on potential shared genomic risk factors. PMID:27151072

  9. Predicting Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Blood-based Gene Expression Signatures and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Il Bin; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify a transcriptomic signature that could be used to classify subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to controls on the basis of blood gene expression profiles. The gene expression profiles could ultimately be used as diagnostic biomarkers for ASD. Methods We used the published microarray data (GSE26415) from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included 21 young adults with ASD and 21 age- and sex-matched unaffected controls. Nineteen differentially expressed probes were identified from a training dataset (n=26, 13 ASD cases and 13 controls) using the limma package in R language (adjusted p value <0.05) and were further analyzed in a test dataset (n=16, 8 ASD cases and 8 controls) using machine learning algorithms. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that subjects with ASD were relatively well-discriminated from controls. Based on the support vector machine and K-nearest neighbors analysis, validation of 19-DE probes with a test dataset resulted in an overall class prediction accuracy of 93.8% as well as a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusion The results of our exploratory study suggest that the gene expression profiles identified from the peripheral blood samples of young adults with ASD can be used to identify a biological signature for ASD. Further study using a larger cohort and more homogeneous datasets is required to improve the diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28138110

  10. A Cell Type-Specific Expression Signature Predicts Haploinsufficient Autism-Susceptibility Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaolin; Shen, Yufeng

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have identified many genes with rare de novo mutations in autism, but a limited number of these have been conclusively established as disease-susceptibility genes due to the lack of recurrence and confounding background mutations. Such extreme genetic heterogeneity severely limits recurrence-based statistical power even in studies with a large sample size. Here, we use cell-type specific expression profiles to differentiate mutations in autism patients from those in unaffected siblings. We report a gene expression signature in different neuronal cell types shared by genes with likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations in autism cases. This signature reflects haploinsufficiency of risk genes enriched in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators, with the strongest positive associations with specific types of neurons in different brain regions, including cortical neurons, cerebellar granule cells, and striatal medium spiny neurons. When used to prioritize genes with a single LGD mutation in cases, a D-score derived from the signature achieved a precision of 40% as compared with the 15% baseline with a minimal loss in sensitivity. An ensemble model combining D-score with mutation intolerance metrics from Exome Aggregation Consortium further improved the precision to 60%, resulting in 117 high-priority candidates. These prioritized lists can facilitate identification of additional autism-susceptibility genes.

  11. Aberrant expression of splicing factors in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Huang, Bo; Xiao, Yun; Xiong, Huo-Mei; Li, Jing; Feng, Dan-Qin; Chen, Xi-Min; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of blood cancer in adults. Emerging evidence is establishing a connection between AML and aberrant alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, which may result from aberrant expression of splicing factors, the mediators of splicing reactions. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we measured mRNA expression of 7 splicing factors belonging to the serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein family, SRSF1 (SF2/ASF), SRSF2 (SC35), SRSF3 (SRp20), SRSF4 (SRp75), SRSF5 (SRp40), SRSF6 (SRp55), and SRSF7 (9G8), and 1 non-SR factor, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 26 patients with newly diagnosed AML and 26 healthy controls. In addition, the relationship between splicing factors and the mRNA splicing patterns of the caspase-8 gene (CASP8) was investigated. Compared to healthy controls, the expression of splicing factors was obviously aberrant in newly diagnosed AML patients. The expression of SRSF1, SRSF3 and SRSF4 mRNAs was significantly decreased. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between several splicing factors and caspase-8 pre-mRNA splicing in AML patients, but not in control subjects. These data suggest that aberrant expression of splicing factors in AML may potentially connect with abnormal expression of oncogenes and be useful for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of AML. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Next-generation sequencing of microRNAs uncovers expression signatures in polarized macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Bradley, Edward J; Willemsen, Antonius M; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Baas, Frank; Kootstra, Neeltje A

    2014-02-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at a posttranscriptional level and play a crucial role in the development of cells of the immune system. Macrophages are essential for generating inflammatory reactions upon tissue damage and encountering of invading pathogens, yet modulation of their immune responses is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Macrophages can present different phenotypes, depending on the cytokine environment they encounter in the affected tissues. In this study, we have identified expression signatures of miRNAs that are differentially regulated during maturation of monocytes and polarization of macrophages by cytokines. We present a comprehensive characterization of miRNA expression in human monocytes and M1, M2a, and M2c polarized macrophages, using next-generation sequencing. Furthermore, we show that miRNA expression signatures are closely related to the various immune functions of polarized macrophages and therefore are involved in shaping the diverse phenotypes of these cells. The miRNAs identified here serve as markers for identification of inflammatory macrophages involved in the development of immune responses. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of miRNAs in determining the macrophage function in healthy and diseased tissues.

  13. KIT mutations confer a distinct gene expression signature in core binding factor leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lück, Sonja C; Russ, Annika C; Du, Juan; Gaidzik, Verena; Schlenk, Richard F; Pollack, Jonathan R; Döhner, Konstanze; Döhner, Hartmut; Bullinger, Lars

    2010-03-01

    Core binding factor (CBF) leukaemias, characterized by either inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(8;21)(q22;q22), constitute acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) subgroups with favourable prognosis. However, 40-50% of patients relapse, emphasizing the need for risk-adapted treatment approaches. In this regard, studying secondary genetic aberrations, such as mutations of the KIT gene, is of great interest, particularly as they can be targeted by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). However, so far little is known about the biology underlying KIT-mutated CBF leukaemias. We analysed gene expression profiles of 83 CBF AML cases with known KIT mutation status in order to gain novel insights in KIT-mutated CBF pathogenesis. KIT-mutated cases were characterized by deregulation of genes belonging to the NFkB signalling complex suggesting impaired control of apoptosis. Notably, a subgroup of KIT wildtype cases was also characterized by the KIT mutation signature due to yet unknown aberrations. Our data suggest that this CBF leukaemia subgroup might profit from TKI therapy, however, the relevance of the KIT mutation-associated signature remains to be validated prior to clinical implementation. Nevertheless, the existence of such a signature supports the notion of relevant biological differences in CBF leukaemia and might serve as diagnostic tool in the future.

  14. Semantic Signature: Comparative Interpretation of Gene Expression on a Semantic Space.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihun; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Ju Han

    2016-01-01

    Background. Interpretation of microarray data remains challenging because biological meaning should be extracted from enormous numeric matrices and be presented explicitly. Moreover, huge public repositories of microarray dataset are ready to be exploited for comparative analysis. This study aimed to provide a platform where essential implication of a microarray experiment could be visually expressed and various microarray datasets could be intuitively compared. Results. On the semantic space, gene sets from Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) were plotted as landmarks and their relative distances were calculated by Lin's semantic similarity measure. By formal concept analysis, a microarray dataset was transformed into a concept lattice with gene clusters as objects and Gene Ontology terms as attributes. Concepts of a lattice were located on the semantic space reflecting semantic distance from landmarks and edges between concepts were drawn; consequently, a specific geographic pattern could be observed from a microarray dataset. We termed a distinctive geography shared by microarray datasets of the same category as "semantic signature." Conclusions. "Semantic space," a map of biological entities, could serve as a universal platform for comparative microarray analysis. When microarray data were displayed on the semantic space as concept lattices, "semantic signature," characteristic geography for a microarray experiment, could be discovered.

  15. Next generation sequencing-based expression profiling identifies signatures from benign stromal proliferations that define stromal components of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiangqian; Zhu, Shirley X; Brunner, Alayne L; van de Rijn, Matt; West, Robert B

    2013-12-17

    Multiple studies have shown that the tumor microenvironment (TME) of carcinomas can play an important role in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of cancer. Here we test the hypothesis that specific benign fibrous soft tissue tumor gene expression profiles may represent distinct stromal fibroblastic reaction types that occur in different breast cancers. The discovered stromal profiles could classify breast cancer based on the type of stromal reaction patterns in the TME. Next generation sequencing-based gene expression profiling (3SEQ) was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples of 10 types of fibrous soft tissue tumors. We determined the extent to which these signatures could identify distinct subsets of breast cancers in four publicly available breast cancer datasets. A total of 53 fibrous tumors were sequenced by 3SEQ with an average of 29 million reads per sample. Both the gene signatures derived from elastofibroma (EF) and fibroma of tendon sheath (FOTS) demonstrated robust outcome results for survival in the four breast cancer datasets. The breast cancers positive for the EF signature (20-33% of the cohort) demonstrated significantly better outcome for survival. In contrast, the FOTS signature-positive breast cancers (11-35% of the cohort) had a worse outcome. We defined and validated two new stromal signatures in breast cancer (EF and FOTS), which are significantly associated with prognosis. Our group has previously identified novel cancer stromal gene expression signatures associated with outcome differences in breast cancer by gene expression profiling of three soft tissue tumors, desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF), solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), and tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT/CSF1), as surrogates for stromal expression patterns. By combining the stromal signatures of EF and FOTS, with our previously identified DTF and TGCT/CSF1 signatures we can now characterize clinically relevant stromal expression profiles in the TME

  16. Ontology based molecular signatures for immune cell types via gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Terrence F; Vasilevsky, Nicole A; Mungall, Christopher J; Dougall, David S; Haendel, Melissa A; Blake, Judith A; Diehl, Alexander D

    2013-08-30

    New technologies are focusing on characterizing cell types to better understand their heterogeneity. With large volumes of cellular data being generated, innovative methods are needed to structure the resulting data analyses. Here, we describe an 'Ontologically BAsed Molecular Signature' (OBAMS) method that identifies novel cellular biomarkers and infers biological functions as characteristics of particular cell types. This method finds molecular signatures for immune cell types based on mapping biological samples to the Cell Ontology (CL) and navigating the space of all possible pairwise comparisons between cell types to find genes whose expression is core to a particular cell type's identity. We illustrate this ontological approach by evaluating expression data available from the Immunological Genome project (IGP) to identify unique biomarkers of mature B cell subtypes. We find that using OBAMS, candidate biomarkers can be identified at every strata of cellular identity from broad classifications to very granular. Furthermore, we show that Gene Ontology can be used to cluster cell types by shared biological processes in order to find candidate genes responsible for somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells. Moreover, through in silico experiments based on this approach, we have identified genes sets that represent genes overexpressed in germinal center B cells and identify genes uniquely expressed in these B cells compared to other B cell types. This work demonstrates the utility of incorporating structured ontological knowledge into biological data analysis - providing a new method for defining novel biomarkers and providing an opportunity for new biological insights.

  17. A common molecular signature in ASD gene expression: following Root 66 to autism.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Beltran, L; Esteban, F J; Wall, D P

    2016-01-05

    Several gene expression experiments on autism spectrum disorders have been conducted using both blood and brain tissue. Individually, these studies have advanced our understanding of the molecular systems involved in the molecular pathology of autism and have formed the bases of ongoing work to build autism biomarkers. In this study, we conducted an integrated systems biology analysis of 9 independent gene expression experiments covering 657 autism, 9 mental retardation and developmental delay and 566 control samples to determine if a common signature exists and to test whether regulatory patterns in the brain relevant to autism can also be detected in blood. We constructed a matrix of differentially expressed genes from these experiments and used a Jaccard coefficient to create a gene-based phylogeny, validated by bootstrap. As expected, experiments and tissue types clustered together with high statistical confidence. However, we discovered a statistically significant subgrouping of 3 blood and 2 brain data sets from 3 different experiments rooted by a highly correlated regulatory pattern of 66 genes. This Root 66 appeared to be non-random and of potential etiologic relevance to autism, given their enriched roles in neurological processes key for normal brain growth and function, learning and memory, neurodegeneration, social behavior and cognition. Our results suggest that there is a detectable autism signature in the blood that may be a molecular echo of autism-related dysregulation in the brain.

  18. An immune-inflammation gene expression signature in prostate tumors of smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ming; Tang, Wei; Luo, Jun; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Stagliano, Katherine E.; Gillespie, John W.; Hudson, Robert S.; Terunuma, Atsushi; Shoe, Jennifer L.; Haines, Diana C.; Yfantis, Harris G.; Han, Misop; Martin, Damali N.; Jordan, Symone V.; Borin, James F.; Naslund, Michael J.; Alexander, Richard B.; Stephens, Robert M.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Lee, Dong H.; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Hurwitz, Arthur A.; Ambs, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Smokers develop metastatic prostate cancer more frequently than nonsmokers, suggesting that a tobacco-derived factor is driving metastatic progression. To identify smoking-induced alterations in human prostate cancer, we analyzed gene and protein expression patterns in tumors collected from current, past, and never smokers. By this route, we elucidated a distinct pattern of molecular alterations characterized by an immune and inflammation signature in tumors from current smokers that were either attenuated or absent in past and never smokers. Specifically, this signature included elevated immunoglobulin expression by tumor-infiltrating B cells, NF-κB activation, and increased chemokine expression. In an alternate approach to characterize smoking-induced oncogenic alterations, we also explored the effects of nicotine in human prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer-prone TRAMP mice. These investigations showed that nicotine increased glutamine consumption and invasiveness of cancer cells in vitro and accelerated metastatic progression in tumor-bearing TRAMP mice. Overall, our findings suggested that nicotine was sufficient to induce a phenotype resembling the epidemiology of smoking-associated prostate cancer progression, illuminating a novel candidate driver underlying metastatic prostate cancer in current smokers. PMID:26719530

  19. An Immune-Inflammation Gene Expression Signature in Prostate Tumors of Smokers.

    PubMed

    Prueitt, Robyn L; Wallace, Tiffany A; Glynn, Sharon A; Yi, Ming; Tang, Wei; Luo, Jun; Dorsey, Tiffany H; Stagliano, Katherine E; Gillespie, John W; Hudson, Robert S; Terunuma, Atsushi; Shoe, Jennifer L; Haines, Diana C; Yfantis, Harris G; Han, Misop; Martin, Damali N; Jordan, Symone V; Borin, James F; Naslund, Michael J; Alexander, Richard B; Stephens, Robert M; Loffredo, Christopher A; Lee, Dong H; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Hurwitz, Arthur A; Ambs, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Smokers develop metastatic prostate cancer more frequently than nonsmokers, suggesting that a tobacco-derived factor is driving metastatic progression. To identify smoking-induced alterations in human prostate cancer, we analyzed gene and protein expression patterns in tumors collected from current, past, and never smokers. By this route, we elucidated a distinct pattern of molecular alterations characterized by an immune and inflammation signature in tumors from current smokers that were either attenuated or absent in past and never smokers. Specifically, this signature included elevated immunoglobulin expression by tumor-infiltrating B cells, NF-κB activation, and increased chemokine expression. In an alternate approach to characterize smoking-induced oncogenic alterations, we also explored the effects of nicotine in human prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer-prone TRAMP mice. These investigations showed that nicotine increased glutamine consumption and invasiveness of cancer cells in vitro and accelerated metastatic progression in tumor-bearing TRAMP mice. Overall, our findings suggest that nicotine is sufficient to induce a phenotype resembling the epidemiology of smoking-associated prostate cancer progression, illuminating a novel candidate driver underlying metastatic prostate cancer in current smokers. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies IRF4-Associated Molecular Signatures in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Yao, Zhi Q.; Moorman, Jonathan P.; Xu, Yanji; Ning, Shunbin

    2014-01-01

    The lymphocyte-specific transcription factor Interferon (IFN) Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is implicated in certain types of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its interactions with these malignancies are largely unknown. In this study, we have first profiled molecular signatures associated with IRF4 expression in associated cancers, by analyzing existing gene expression profiling datasets. Our results show that IRF4 is overexpressed in melanoma, in addition to previously reported contexts including leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma, and that IRF4 is associated with a unique gene expression pattern in each context. A pool of important genes involved in B-cell development, oncogenesis, cell cycle regulation, and cell death including BATF, LIMD1, CFLAR, PIM2, and CCND2 are common signatures associated with IRF4 in non-Hodgkin B cell lymphomas. We confirmed the correlation of IRF4 with LIMD1 and CFLAR in a panel of cell lines derived from lymphomas. Moreover, we profiled the IRF4 transcriptome in the context of EBV latent infection, and confirmed several genes including IFI27, IFI44, GBP1, and ARHGAP18, as well as CFLAR as novel targets for IRF4. These results provide valuable information for understanding the IRF4 regulatory network, and improve our knowledge of the unique roles of IRF4 in different hematological malignancies. PMID:25207815

  1. An Orthologous Epigenetic Gene Expression Signature Derived from Differentiating Embryonic Stem Cells Identifies Regulators of Cardiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Busser, Brian W; Lin, Yongshun; Yang, Yanqin; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Guokai; Michelson, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Here we used predictive gene expression signatures within a multi-species framework to identify the genes that underlie cardiac cell fate decisions in differentiating embryonic stem cells. We show that the overlapping orthologous mouse and human genes are the most accurate candidate cardiogenic genes as these genes identified the most conserved developmental pathways that characterize the cardiac lineage. An RNAi-based screen of the candidate genes in Drosophila uncovered numerous novel cardiogenic genes. shRNA knockdown combined with transcriptome profiling of the newly-identified transcription factors zinc finger protein 503 and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 and the well-known cardiac regulatory factor NK2 homeobox 5 revealed that zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 activates terminal differentiation genes required for cardiomyocyte structure and function whereas zinc finger protein 503 and NK2 homeobox 5 are required for specification of the cardiac lineage. We further demonstrated that an essential role of NK2 homeobox 5 and zinc finger protein 503 in specification of the cardiac lineage is the repression of gene expression programs characteristic of alternative cell fates. Collectively, these results show that orthologous gene expression signatures can be used to identify conserved cardiogenic pathways.

  2. Expression of Von Hippel – Lindau (VHL) gene mutation in diagnosed cases of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Humera; Kehar, Shahnaz Imdad; Ali, Shahzad; Tariq, Naila

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the expression of Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene in diagnosed cases of renal cell carcinoma. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in department of Pathology, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi, from January 2007 to December 2012. Paraffin embedded blocks of 30 cases of radical nephrectomy specimens diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma including CCRCC 21 (70%) CCPRCC, 3 (10%), PRCC 2 (6.79%), hybrid tumor 4 (13.3%), chromophobe tumor (0%) processed for VHL gene expression on Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results: All the 30 cases previously diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma were processed on PCR, VHL gene mutations were seen in 20 (95.23%) of CCRCC while a single case was negative for VHL mutations. All CCPRCC were negative for VHL mutation. Among the hybrid tumor 03 cases with foci of clear cells show VHL mutation while a single case showing combination of clear cells and chromophobe cells was negative for mutation. Both the cases of PRCC were positive for mutation. Exon 3 mutation at base pair 194 seen in 8 (32%) cases and Exon 2 mutation at base pair 150-159 seen in 17 (68%) cases. None of the cases showed Exon 1 mutation. Conclusion: The present study shows that majority of CCRCC showed VHL mutation including the hybrid tumor with clear cell component in our population. PMID:25097537

  3. Targeted proteomics identifies proteomic signatures in liquid-biopsies of the endometrium to diagnose endometrial cancer and assist in the prediction of the optimal surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Elena; Lesur, Antoine; Devis, Laura; Cabrera, Silvia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Hirschfeld, Marc; Asberger, Jasmin; van Oostrum, Jan; Casares de Cal, María de Los Ángeles; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Reventos, Jaume; Domon, Bruno; Colas, Eva; Gil-Moreno, Antonio

    2017-08-08

    Endometrial cancer (EC) diagnosis relies on the observation of tumor cells in endometrial biopsies obtained by aspiration i.e., uterine aspirates), but it is associated with 22% undiagnosed patients and up to 50% of incorrectly assigned EC histotype and grade. We aimed to identify biomarker signatures in the fluid fraction of these biopsies to overcome these limitations. The levels of 52 proteins were measured in the fluid fraction of uterine aspirates from 116 patients by LC-PRM, the latest generation of targeted mass-spectrometry acquisition. A logistic regression model was used to assess the power of protein panels to differentiate between EC and non-EC patients and between EC histological subtypes. The robustness of the panels was assessed by the "leave-one-out" cross-validation procedure performed within the same cohort of patients and an independent cohort of 38 patients. The levels of 28 proteins were significantly higher in EC patients (n=69) compared to controls (n=47). The combination of MMP9 and KPYM exhibited 94% sensitivity and 87% specificity for detecting EC cases. This panel perfectly complemented the standard diagnosis, achieving 100% of correct diagnosis in this dataset. Nine proteins were significantly increased in endometrioid EC (n=49) compared to serous EC (n=20). The combination of CTNB1, XPO2 and CAPG achieved 95% sensitivity and 96% specificity for the discrimination of these subtypes.  We developed two uterine aspirate-based signatures to diagnose EC and classify tumors in the most prevalent histological subtypes. This will improve diagnosis and assist in the prediction of the optimal surgical treatment. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Identification of Aging-Associated Gene Expression Signatures That Precede Intestinal Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Okuchi, Yoshihisa; Imajo, Masamichi; Mizuno, Rei; Kamioka, Yuji; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Taketo, Makoto Mark; Nagayama, Satoshi; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Aging-associated alterations of cellular functions have been implicated in various disorders including cancers. Due to difficulties in identifying aging cells in living tissues, most studies have focused on aging-associated changes in whole tissues or certain cell pools. Thus, it remains unclear what kinds of alterations accumulate in each cell during aging. While analyzing several mouse lines expressing fluorescent proteins (FPs), we found that expression of FPs is gradually silenced in the intestinal epithelium during aging in units of single crypt composed of clonal stem cell progeny. The cells with low FP expression retained the wild-type Apc allele and the tissues composed of them did not exhibit any histological abnormality. Notably, the silencing of FPs was also observed in intestinal adenomas and the surrounding normal mucosae of Apc-mutant mice, and mediated by DNA methylation of the upstream promoter. Our genome-wide analysis then showed that the silencing of FPs reflects specific gene expression alterations during aging, and that these alterations occur in not only mouse adenomas but also human sporadic and hereditary (familial adenomatous polyposis) adenomas. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation, which suppresses adenoma development in Apc-mutant mice, reverted the aging-associated silencing of FPs and gene expression alterations. These results identify aging-associated gene expression signatures that are heterogeneously induced by DNA methylation and precede intestinal tumorigenesis triggered by Apc inactivation, and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of the signature genes could be a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of intestinal tumors. PMID:27589228

  5. MARQ: an online tool to mine GEO for experiments with similar or opposite gene expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Miguel; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Arroyo, Javier; Botías, Pedro; García, Raul; Carazo, Jose M; Tirado, Francisco; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Carmona-Saez, Pedro

    2010-07-01

    The enormous amount of data available in public gene expression repositories such as Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) offers an inestimable resource to explore gene expression programs across several organisms and conditions. This information can be used to discover experiments that induce similar or opposite gene expression patterns to a given query, which in turn may lead to the discovery of new relationships among diseases, drugs or pathways, as well as the generation of new hypotheses. In this work, we present MARQ, a web-based application that allows researchers to compare a query set of genes, e.g. a set of over- and under-expressed genes, against a signature database built from GEO datasets for different organisms and platforms. MARQ offers an easy-to-use and integrated environment to mine GEO, in order to identify conditions that induce similar or opposite gene expression patterns to a given experimental condition. MARQ also includes additional functionalities for the exploration of the results, including a meta-analysis pipeline to find genes that are differentially expressed across different experiments. The application is freely available at http://marq.dacya.ucm.es.

  6. MicroRNA Expression Signature Is Altered in the Cardiac Remodeling Induced by High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Elaine Castilho; França, Gustavo Starvaggi; Lino, Caroline Antunes; Koyama, Fernanda Christtanini; Moreira, Luana do Nascimento; Alexandre, Juliana Gomes; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M; Galante, Pedro Alexandre Favoretto; Diniz, Gabriela Placoná

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the control of cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial function. In addition, several reports have demonstrated that high fat (HF) diet induces cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. In the current study, we investigated the effect of diets containing different percentages of fat on the cardiac miRNA expression signature. To address this question, male C57Bl/6 mice were fed with a low fat (LF) diet or two HF diets, containing 45 kcal% fat (HF45%) and 60 kcal% fat (HF60%) for 10 and 20 weeks. HF60% diet promoted an increase on body weight, fasting glycemia, insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and induced glucose intolerance. HF feeding promoted cardiac remodeling, as evidenced by increased cardiomyocyte transverse diameter and interstitial fibrosis. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that HF feeding induced distinct miRNA expression patterns in the heart. HF45% diet for 10 and 20 weeks changed the abundance of 64 and 26 miRNAs in the heart, respectively. On the other hand, HF60% diet for 10 and 20 weeks altered the abundance of 27 and 88 miRNAs in the heart, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that insulin signaling pathway was overrepresented in response to HF diet. An inverse correlation was observed between cardiac levels of GLUT4 and miRNA-29c. Similarly, we found an inverse correlation between expression of GSK3β and the expression of miRNA-21a-3p, miRNA-29c-3p, miRNA-144-3p, and miRNA-195a-3p. In addition, miRNA-1 overexpression prevented cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Taken together, our results revealed differentially expressed miRNA signatures in the heart in response to different HF diets. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1771-1783, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A hemocyte gene expression signature correlated with predictive capacity of oysters to survive Vibrio infections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The complex balance between environmental and host factors is an important determinant of susceptibility to infection. Disturbances of this equilibrium may result in multifactorial diseases as illustrated by the summer mortality syndrome, a worldwide and complex phenomenon that affects the oysters, Crassostrea gigas. The summer mortality syndrome reveals a physiological intolerance making this oyster species susceptible to diseases. Exploration of genetic basis governing the oyster resistance or susceptibility to infections is thus a major goal for understanding field mortality events. In this context, we used high-throughput genomic approaches to identify genetic traits that may characterize inherent survival capacities in C. gigas. Results Using digital gene expression (DGE), we analyzed the transcriptomes of hemocytes (immunocompetent cells) of oysters able or not able to survive infections by Vibrio species shown to be involved in summer mortalities. Hemocytes were nonlethally collected from oysters before Vibrio experimental infection, and two DGE libraries were generated from individuals that survived or did not survive. Exploration of DGE data and microfluidic qPCR analyses at individual level showed an extraordinary polymorphism in gene expressions, but also a set of hemocyte-expressed genes whose basal mRNA levels discriminate oyster capacity to survive infections by the pathogenic V. splendidus LGP32. Finally, we identified a signature of 14 genes that predicted oyster survival capacity. Their expressions are likely driven by distinct transcriptional regulation processes associated or not associated to gene copy number variation (CNV). Conclusions We provide here for the first time in oyster a gene expression survival signature that represents a useful tool for understanding mortality events and for assessing genetic traits of interest for disease resistance selection programs. PMID:22708697

  8. Embryonic stem cell gene expression signatures in the canine mammary tumor: a bioinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    Canine breast cancer was considered as an ideal model of comparative oncology for the human breast cancer, as there is significant overlap between biological and clinical characteristics of the human and canine breast cancer. We attempt to clarify expression profile of the embryonic stem cell (ES) gene signatures in canine breast cancer. Using microarray datasets (GSE22516 and GSE20718), expression of the three major ES gene signatures (modules or gene-sets), including Myc, ESC-like, and PRC modules, was primarily analyzed through Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) method in tumor and healthy datasets. For confirmation of the primary results, an additional 13 ES gene-sets which were categorized into four groups including ES expressed (ES exp1 and ES exp2), NOS targets (Nanog targets, Oct4 targets, Sox2 targets, NOS targets, and NOS TFs), Polycomb targets (Suz12 targets, Eed targets, H3K27 bound, and PRC2 targets), and Myc targets (Myc targets1, and Myc targets2) were tested in the tumor and healthy datasets. Our results revealed that there is a valuable overlap between canine and human breast cancer ES gene-sets expression profile, where Myc and ESC-like modules were up-regulated and PRC module was down-regulated in metastatic canine mammary gland tumors. Further analysis of the secondary gene-sets indicated overexpression of the ES expressed, NOS targets (Nanog targets, Oct4 targets, Sox2 targets, and NOS targets), and Myc targets and underexpression of the Polycomb targets in metastatic canine breast cancer.

  9. Gene expression signatures in chronic and aggressive periodontitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Papapanou, Panos N; Abron, Armin; Verbitsky, Miguel; Picolos, Doros; Yang, Jun; Qin, Jie; Fine, James B; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-06-01

    This pilot study examined gene expression signatures in pathological gingival tissues of subjects with chronic or aggressive periodontitis, and explored whether new subclasses of periodontitis can be identified based on gene expression profiles. A total of 14 patients, seven with chronic and seven with aggressive periodontitis, were examined with respect to clinical periodontal status, composition of subgingival bacterial plaque assessed by checkerboard hybridizations, and levels of serum IgG antibodies to periodontal bacteria assayed by checkerboard immunoblotting. In addition, at least two pathological pockets/patient were biopsied, processed for RNA extraction, amplification and labeling, and used to study gene expression using Affymetrix U-133 A arrays. Based on a total of 35 microarrays, no significantly different gene expression profiles appeared to emerge between chronic and aggressive periodontitis. However, a de novo grouping of the 14 subjects into two fairly robust clusters was possible based on similarities in gene expression. These two groups had similar clinical periodontal status and subgingival bacterial profiles, but differed significantly with respect to serum IgG levels against the important periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis and Campylobacter rectus. These early data point to the usefulness of gene expression profiling techniques in the identification of subclasses of periodontitis with common pathobiology.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression signatures in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-hui; Fu, Sheng-bo; Xiao, Hua-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is an extremely diverse and complex disease that results from various genetic and epigenetic changes such as DNA copy-number variations, mutations, and aberrant mRNA and/or protein expression caused by abnormal transcriptional regulation. The expression profiles of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are closely related to cancer progression stages. In the past few decades, DNA microarray and next-generation sequencing techniques have been widely applied to identify miRNA and mRNA signatures for cancers on a genome-wide scale and have provided meaningful insights into cancer diagnosis, prognosis and personalized medicine. In this review, we summarize the progress in genome-wide analysis of miRNAs and mRNAs as cancer biomarkers, highlighting their diagnostic and prognostic roles. PMID:26299954

  11. Visualization and analysis for multidimensional gene expressions signature of cigarette smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changbo; Xiao, Zhao; Zhang, Tianlun; Cui, Jin; Pang, Chenming

    2011-11-01

    Biologists often use gene chip to get massive experimental data in the field of bioscience and chemical sciences. Facing a large amount of experimental data, researchers often need to find out a few interesting data or simple regulations. This paper presents a set of methods to visualize and analyze the data for gene expression signatures of people who smoke. We use the latest research data from National Center for Biotechnology Information. Totally, there are more than 400 thousand expressions data. Using these data, we can use parallel coordinates method to visualize the different gene expressions between smokers and nonsmokers and we can distinguish non-smokers, former smokers and current smokers by using the different colors. It can be easy to find out which gene is more important during the lung cancer angiogenesis in the smoking people. In another way, we can use a hierarchical model to visualize the inner relation of different genes. The location of the nodes shows different expression moment and the distance to the root shows the sequence of the expression. We can use the ring layout to represent all the nodes, and connect the different nodes which are related with color lines. Combined with the parallel coordinates method, the visualization result show the important genes and some inner relation obviously, which is useful for examination and prevention of lung cancer.

  12. An atlas of human gene expression from massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS)

    PubMed Central

    Jongeneel, C. Victor; Delorenzi, Mauro; Iseli, Christian; Zhou, Daixing; Haudenschild, Christian D.; Khrebtukova, Irina; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Stevenson, Brian J.; Strausberg, Robert L.; Simpson, Andrew J.G.; Vasicek, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    We have used massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) to sample the transcriptomes of 32 normal human tissues to an unprecedented depth, thus documenting the patterns of expression of almost 20,000 genes with high sensitivity and specificity. The data confirm the widely held belief that differences in gene expression between cell and tissue types are largely determined by transcripts derived from a limited number of tissue-specific genes, rather than by combinations of more promiscuously expressed genes. Expression of a little more than half of all known human genes seems to account for both the common requirements and the specific functions of the tissues sampled. A classification of tissues based on patterns of gene expression largely reproduces classifications based on anatomical and biochemical properties. The unbiased sampling of the human transcriptome achieved by MPSS supports the idea that most human genes have been mapped, if not functionally characterized. This data set should prove useful for the identification of tissue-specific genes, for the study of global changes induced by pathological conditions, and for the definition of a minimal set of genes necessary for basic cell maintenance. The data are available on the Web at http://mpss.licr.org and http://sgb.lynxgen.com. PMID:15998913

  13. Effector CD4+ T cell expression signatures and immune-mediated disease associated genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ferguson, John; Ng, Sok Meng; Hui, Ken; Goh, Gerald; Lin, Aiping; Esplugues, Enric; Flavell, Richard A; Abraham, Clara; Zhao, Hongyu; Cho, Judy H

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in immune-mediated diseases have identified over 150 associated genomic loci. Many of these loci play a role in T cell responses, and regulation of T cell differentiation plays a critical role in immune-mediated diseases; however, the relationship between implicated disease loci and T cell differentiation is incompletely understood. To further address this relationship, we examined differential gene expression in naïve human CD4+ T cells, as well as in in vitro differentiated Th1, memory Th17-negative and Th17-enriched CD4+ T cells subsets using microarray and RNASeq. We observed a marked enrichment for increased expression in memory CD4+ compared to naïve CD4+ T cells of genes contained among immune-mediated disease loci. Within memory T cells, expression of disease-associated genes was typically increased in Th17-enriched compared to Th17-negative cells. Utilizing RNASeq and promoter methylation studies, we identified a differential regulation pattern for genes solely expressed in Th17 cells (IL17A and CCL20) compared to genes expressed in both Th17 and Th1 cells (IL23R and IL12RB2), where high levels of promoter methylation are correlated to near zero RNASeq levels for IL17A and CCL20. These findings have implications for human Th17 celI plasticity and for the regulation of Th17-Th1 expression signatures. Importantly, utilizing RNASeq we found an abundant isoform of IL23R terminating before the transmembrane domain that was enriched in Th17 cells. In addition to molecular resolution, we find that RNASeq provides significantly improved power to define differential gene expression and identify alternative gene variants relative to microarray analysis. The comprehensive integration of differential gene expression between cell subsets with disease-association signals, and functional pathways provides insight into disease pathogenesis.

  14. Comparison of galectin expression signatures in rejected and accepted murine corneal allografts.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Satoshi; Chen, Wei-Sheng; Cao, Zhiyi; Kenyon, Kenneth R; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Omoto, Masashiro; Hamrah, Pedram; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2015-06-01

    Although members of the galectin family of carbohydrate-binding proteins are thought to play a role in the immune response and regulation of allograft survival, little is known about the galectin expression signature in failed corneal grafts. The aim of this study was to compare the galectin expression pattern in accepted and rejected murine corneal allografts. Using BALB/c mice as recipients and C57BL/6 mice as donors, a total of 57 transplants were successfully performed. One week after transplantation, the grafts were scored for opacity by slit-lamp microscopy. Opacity scores of 3+ or greater on postoperative week 4 were considered rejected. Grafted corneas were harvested on postoperative week 4, and their galectin expressions were analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. As determined by the Western blot analyses, galectins-1, 3, 7, 8 and 9 were expressed in normal corneas. Although in both accepted and rejected grafts, expression levels of the 5 lectins were upregulated compared with normal corneas, there were distinct differences in the expression levels of galectins-8 and 9 between accepted and rejected grafts, as both the Western blot and immunofluorescence staining revealed that galectin-8 is upregulated, whereas galectin-9 is downregulated in the rejected grafts compared with the accepted grafts. Our findings that corneal allograft rejection is associated with increased galectin-8 expression and reduced galectin-9 expression, support the hypothesis that galectin-8 may reduce graft survival, whereas galectin-9 may promote graft survival. As a potential therapeutic intervention, inhibition of galectin-8 and/or treatment with exogenous galectin-9 may enhance corneal allograft survival rates.

  15. Comparison of galectin expression signatures in rejected and accepted murine corneal allografts

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Kenneth R; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Omoto, Masashiro; Hamrah, Pedram; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although members of the galectin family of carbohydrate-binding proteins are thought to play a role in the immune response and regulation of allograft survival, little is known about the galectin expression signature in failed corneal grafts. The goal of this study is to compare the galectin expression pattern in accepted and rejected murine corneal allografts. Method Using BALB/c mice as recipients and C57BL/6 mice as donors, a total of 57 transplants were successfully performed. One week after transplantation, the grafts were scored for opacity by slit-lamp microscopy. Opacity scores of 3+ or greater on postoperative week 4 were considered rejected. Grafted corneas were harvested on postoperative week 4, and their galectin expression was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Result As determined by Western blot analyses, galectins-1, -3, -7, -8 and -9 were expressed in normal corneas. Although in both accepted and rejected grafts, expression levels of the five lectins were upregulated compared to normal corneas, there were distinct differences in the expression levels of galectins-8 and -9 between accepted and rejected grafts, as both Western blot and immunofluorescence staining revealed galectin-8 is upregulated, whereas galectin-9 is downregulated in rejected grafts compared to accepted grafts. Conclusion Our findings that corneal allograft rejection is associated with an increased galectin-8 expression and a reduced galectin-9 expression, support the hypothesis that galectin-8 may reduce graft survival, whereas galectin-9 may promote graft survival. As a potential therapeutic intervention, inhibition of galectin-8 and/or treatment with exogenous galectin-9 may enhance corneal allograft survival rates. PMID:25961492

  16. Genetic and epigenetic regulation and expression signatures of glutathione S-transferases in developing mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Cui, Julia Yue; Choudhuri, Supratim; Knight, Tamara R; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-07-01

    The hepatic glutathione S-transferases (Gsts) are critical phase II enzymes in protecting cellular macromolecules against electrophiles and oxidative stress. Little is known about the ontogeny of Gsts and the underlying regulatory mechanisms during liver development. Therefore, in this study, the ontogeny and the regulatory mechanisms of 19 known Gst isoforms were investigated in mouse liver from 2 days before birth to postnatal day 45. With the exception of Gstm5 and MGst2 that showed a progressive decline in postnatal messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, most other Gst isoforms showed a progressive increase in postnatal mRNA expression. Two-way hierarchical clustering revealed three distinct expression patterns of these Gsts isoforms: perinatal, adolescent, and adult enriched. The expression signatures of certain Gst isoforms showed positive association with the ontogeny of critical xenobiotic-sensing transcription factors, including aryl hydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor-2. Specifically, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with the next generation sequencing technology (ChIP-Seq) revealed direct PXR-binding sites to the Gsta, Gstm, Gstt, and Gstp polycistron clusters as well as to the Mgst1 gene locus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip analysis demonstrated that DNA methylation and histone H3K27-trimethylation (H3K27me3), two-gene expression-suppressing epigenetic marks, were consistently low around the Gstz1 gene locus. In contrast, enrichment of histone H3K4-dimethylation (H3K4me2), a hallmark for gene activation, increased 60% around the Gstz1 gene locus from prenatal to the young adult period. Regression analysis revealed a strong correlation between the enrichment of H3K4me2 and Gstz1 mRNA expression (r = 0.76). In conclusion, this study characterized three distinct ontogenic expression signatures of the 19 Gst isoforms

  17. Detection of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected African Adults Using Whole Blood RNA Expression Signatures: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Suzanne T.; Bangani, Nonzwakazi; Banwell, Claire M.; Brent, Andrew J.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Eley, Brian; Heyderman, Robert S.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Kern, Florian; Langford, Paul R.; Ling, Ling; Mendelson, Marc; Ottenhoff, Tom H.; Zgambo, Femia; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background A major impediment to tuberculosis control in Africa is the difficulty in diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB), particularly in the context of HIV infection. We hypothesized that a unique host blood RNA transcriptional signature would distinguish TB from other diseases (OD) in HIV-infected and -uninfected patients, and that this could be the basis of a simple diagnostic test. Methods and Findings Adult case-control cohorts were established in South Africa and Malawi of HIV-infected or -uninfected individuals consisting of 584 patients with either TB (confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis [M.TB] from sputum or tissue sample in a patient under investigation for TB), OD (i.e., TB was considered in the differential diagnosis but then excluded), or healthy individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). Individuals were randomized into training (80%) and test (20%) cohorts. Blood transcriptional profiles were assessed and minimal sets of significantly differentially expressed transcripts distinguishing TB from LTBI and OD were identified in the training cohort. A 27 transcript signature distinguished TB from LTBI and a 44 transcript signature distinguished TB from OD. To evaluate our signatures, we used a novel computational method to calculate a disease risk score (DRS) for each patient. The classification based on this score was first evaluated in the test cohort, and then validated in an independent publically available dataset (GSE19491). In our test cohort, the DRS classified TB from LTBI (sensitivity 95%, 95% CI [87–100]; specificity 90%, 95% CI [80–97]) and TB from OD (sensitivity 93%, 95% CI [83–100]; specificity 88%, 95% CI [74–97]). In the independent validation cohort, TB patients were distinguished both from LTBI individuals (sensitivity 95%, 95% CI [85–100]; specificity 94%, 95% CI [84–100]) and OD patients (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI [100–100]; specificity 96%, 95% CI [93–100]). Limitations of our study include the use of

  18. Airway basal cells of healthy smokers express an embryonic stem cell signature relevant to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaykhiev, Renat; Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K; Hackett, Neil R; Leung, Roland; Moore, Malcolm A S; Sima, Camelia S; Chao, Ion Wa; Downey, Robert J; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G

    2013-09-01

    Activation of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) signature genes has been observed in various epithelial cancers. In this study, we found that the hESC signature is selectively induced in the airway basal stem/progenitor cell population of healthy smokers (BC-S), with a pattern similar to that activated in all major types of human lung cancer. We further identified a subset of 6 BC-S hESC genes, whose coherent overexpression in lung adenocarcinoma (AdCa) was associated with reduced lung function, poorer differentiation grade, more advanced tumor stage, remarkably shorter survival, and higher frequency of TP53 mutations. BC-S shared with hESC and a considerable subset of lung carcinomas a common TP53 inactivation molecular pattern which strongly correlated with the BC-S hESC gene expression. These data provide transcriptome-based evidence that smoking-induced reprogramming of airway BC toward the hESC-like phenotype might represent a common early molecular event in the development of aggressive lung carcinomas in humans.

  19. Unsupervised Extraction of Stable Expression Signatures from Public Compendia with an Ensemble of Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie; Doing, Georgia; Lewis, Kimberley A; Price, Courtney E; Chen, Kathleen M; Cady, Kyle C; Perchuk, Barret; Laub, Michael T; Hogan, Deborah A; Greene, Casey S

    2017-07-26

    Cross-experiment comparisons in public data compendia are challenged by unmatched conditions and technical noise. The ADAGE method, which performs unsupervised integration with denoising autoencoder neural networks, can identify biological patterns, but because ADAGE models, like many neural networks, are over-parameterized, different ADAGE models perform equally well. To enhance model robustness and better build signatures consistent with biological pathways, we developed an ensemble ADAGE (eADAGE) that integrated stable signatures across models. We applied eADAGE to a compendium of Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene expression profiling experiments performed in 78 media. eADAGE revealed a phosphate starvation response controlled by PhoB in media with moderate phosphate and predicted that a second stimulus provided by the sensor kinase, KinB, is required for this PhoB activation. We validated this relationship using both targeted and unbiased genetic approaches. eADAGE, which captures stable biological patterns, enables cross-experiment comparisons that can highlight measured but undiscovered relationships. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. RNA Sequencing Reveals that Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection Mimics Hypoxia Gene Expression Signature

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Coralie; Davis, David A.; Tekeste, Shewit S.; Reczko, Martin; Pezzella, Francesco; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2017-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes several tumors and hyperproliferative disorders. Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) activate latent and lytic KSHV genes, and several KSHV proteins increase the cellular levels of HIF. Here, we used RNA sequencing, qRT-PCR, Taqman assays, and pathway analysis to explore the miRNA and mRNA response of uninfected and KSHV-infected cells to hypoxia, to compare this with the genetic changes seen in chronic latent KSHV infection, and to explore the degree to which hypoxia and KSHV infection interact in modulating mRNA and miRNA expression. We found that the gene expression signatures for KSHV infection and hypoxia have a 34% overlap. Moreover, there were considerable similarities between the genes up-regulated by hypoxia in uninfected (SLK) and in KSHV-infected (SLKK) cells. hsa-miR-210, a HIF-target known to have pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic properties, was significantly up-regulated by both KSHV infection and hypoxia using Taqman assays. Interestingly, expression of KSHV-encoded miRNAs was not affected by hypoxia. These results demonstrate that KSHV harnesses a part of the hypoxic cellular response and that a substantial portion of hypoxia-induced changes in cellular gene expression are induced by KSHV infection. Therefore, targeting hypoxic pathways may be a useful way to develop therapeutic strategies for KSHV-related diseases. PMID:28046107

  1. Gene-expression signatures differ between different clinical forms of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nestheide, Shawnagay V.; Barnes, Michael G.; Villanueva, Joyce; Zhang, Kejian; Grom, Alexei A.; Filipovich, Alexandra H.

    2013-01-01

    We performed gene-expression profiling of PBMCs obtained from patients with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) to screen for biologic correlates with the genetic and/or clinical forms of this disease. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of 167 differentially expressed probe sets, representing 143 genes, identified 3 groups of patients corresponding to the genetic forms and clinical presentations of the disease. Two clusters of up- and down-regulated genes separated patients with perforin-deficient FHL from those with unidentified genetic cause(s) of the disease. The clusterscomprised genes involved in defense/immune responses, apoptosis, zinc homeostasis, and systemic inflammation. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering partitioned patients with unknown genetic cause(s) of FHL into 2 well-distinguished subgroups. Patterns of up- and down-regulated genes separated patients with “late-onset” and “relapsing” forms of FHL from patients with an “early onset and rapidly evolving” form of the disease. A cluster was identified in patients with “late onset and relapsing” form of FHL related to B- and T-cell differentiation/survival, T-cell activation, and vesicular transport. The resulting data suggest that unique gene-expression signatures can distinguish between genetic and clinical subtypes of FHL. These differentially expressed genes may represent biomarkers that can be used as predictors of disease progression. PMID:23264592

  2. RNA Sequencing Reveals that Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection Mimics Hypoxia Gene Expression Signature.

    PubMed

    Viollet, Coralie; Davis, David A; Tekeste, Shewit S; Reczko, Martin; Ziegelbauer, Joseph M; Pezzella, Francesco; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Yarchoan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes several tumors and hyperproliferative disorders. Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) activate latent and lytic KSHV genes, and several KSHV proteins increase the cellular levels of HIF. Here, we used RNA sequencing, qRT-PCR, Taqman assays, and pathway analysis to explore the miRNA and mRNA response of uninfected and KSHV-infected cells to hypoxia, to compare this with the genetic changes seen in chronic latent KSHV infection, and to explore the degree to which hypoxia and KSHV infection interact in modulating mRNA and miRNA expression. We found that the gene expression signatures for KSHV infection and hypoxia have a 34% overlap. Moreover, there were considerable similarities between the genes up-regulated by hypoxia in uninfected (SLK) and in KSHV-infected (SLKK) cells. hsa-miR-210, a HIF-target known to have pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic properties, was significantly up-regulated by both KSHV infection and hypoxia using Taqman assays. Interestingly, expression of KSHV-encoded miRNAs was not affected by hypoxia. These results demonstrate that KSHV harnesses a part of the hypoxic cellular response and that a substantial portion of hypoxia-induced changes in cellular gene expression are induced by KSHV infection. Therefore, targeting hypoxic pathways may be a useful way to develop therapeutic strategies for KSHV-related diseases.

  3. Gene Expression Music Algorithm-Based Characterization of the Ewing Sarcoma Stem Cell Signature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Gene Expression Music Algorithm (GEMusicA) is a method for the transformation of DNA microarray data into melodies that can be used for the characterization of differentially expressed genes. Using this method we compared gene expression profiles from endothelial cells (EC), hematopoietic stem cells, neuronal stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and defined a set of genes that can discriminate between the different stem cell types. We analyzed the behavior of public microarray data sets from Ewing sarcoma (“Ewing family tumors,” EFT) cell lines and biopsies in GEMusicA after prefiltering DNA microarray data for the probe sets from the stem cell signature. Our results demonstrate that individual Ewing sarcoma cell lines have a high similarity to ESC or EC. Ewing sarcoma cell lines with inhibited Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWSR1-FLI1) oncogene retained the similarity to ESC and EC. However, correlation coefficients between GEMusicA-processed expression data between EFT and ESC decreased whereas correlation coefficients between EFT and EC as well as between EFT and MSC increased after knockdown of EWSR1-FLI1. Our data support the concept of EFT being derived from cells with features of embryonic and endothelial cells. PMID:27446218

  4. PYGM expression analysis in white blood cells: a complementary tool for diagnosing McArdle disease?

    PubMed

    de Luna, Noemí; Brull, Astrid; Lucia, Alejandro; Santalla, Alfredo; Garatachea, Nuria; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L; Pinós, Tomàs

    2014-12-01

    McArdle disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase, resulting in exercise intolerance from childhood and acute crises of early fatigue and contractures. In severe cases, these manifestations can be accompanied by rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and fatal renal failure. Diagnosis of McArdle disease is based on clinical diagnostic tests, together with an absence of myophosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies and genetic analysis of the myophosphorylase-encoding gene, PYGM. The recently reported association between myophosphorylase and Rac1 GTPase in a T lymphocyte cell line prompted us to study myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells (WBCs) from 20 healthy donors and 30 McArdle patients by flow cytometry using a fluorescent-labeled PYGM antibody. We found that T lymphocytes expressed myophosphorylase in healthy donors, but expression was significantly lower in McArdle patients (p<0.001). PYGM mRNA levels were also lower in white blood cells from McArdle patients. Nevertheless, in 13% of patients (who were either heterozygotes or homozygotes for the most common PYGM pathogenic mutation among Caucasians (p.R50X)), the percentage of myophosphorylase-positive white blood cells was not different compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that analysis of myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells might be a useful, less-invasive, complementary test for diagnosing McArdle disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptome-Level Signatures in Gene Expression and Gene Expression Variability during Bacterial Adaptive Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Keesha E.; Otoupal, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious public health concern, as strains emerge that demonstrate resistance to almost all available treatments. One factor that contributes to the crisis is the adaptive ability of bacteria, which exhibit remarkable phenotypic and gene expression heterogeneity in order to gain a survival advantage in damaging environments. This high degree of variability in gene expression across biological populations makes it a challenging task to identify key regulators of bacterial adaptation. Here, we research the regulation of adaptive resistance by investigating transcriptome profiles of Escherichia coli upon adaptation to disparate toxins, including antibiotics and biofuels. We locate potential target genes via conventional gene expression analysis as well as using a new analysis technique examining differential gene expression variability. By investigating trends across the diverse adaptation conditions, we identify a focused set of genes with conserved behavior, including those involved in cell motility, metabolism, membrane structure, and transport, and several genes of unknown function. To validate the biological relevance of the observed changes, we synthetically perturb gene expression using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-dCas9. Manipulation of select genes in combination with antibiotic treatment promotes adaptive resistance as demonstrated by an increased degree of antibiotic tolerance and heterogeneity in MICs. We study the mechanisms by which identified genes influence adaptation and find that select differentially variable genes have the potential to impact metabolic rates, mutation rates, and motility. Overall, this work provides evidence for a complex nongenetic response, encompassing shifts in gene expression and gene expression variability, which underlies adaptive resistance. IMPORTANCE Even initially sensitive bacteria can rapidly thwart antibiotic treatment

  6. Transcriptome-Level Signatures in Gene Expression and Gene Expression Variability during Bacterial Adaptive Evolution.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Keesha E; Otoupal, Peter B; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious public health concern, as strains emerge that demonstrate resistance to almost all available treatments. One factor that contributes to the crisis is the adaptive ability of bacteria, which exhibit remarkable phenotypic and gene expression heterogeneity in order to gain a survival advantage in damaging environments. This high degree of variability in gene expression across biological populations makes it a challenging task to identify key regulators of bacterial adaptation. Here, we research the regulation of adaptive resistance by investigating transcriptome profiles of Escherichia coli upon adaptation to disparate toxins, including antibiotics and biofuels. We locate potential target genes via conventional gene expression analysis as well as using a new analysis technique examining differential gene expression variability. By investigating trends across the diverse adaptation conditions, we identify a focused set of genes with conserved behavior, including those involved in cell motility, metabolism, membrane structure, and transport, and several genes of unknown function. To validate the biological relevance of the observed changes, we synthetically perturb gene expression using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-dCas9. Manipulation of select genes in combination with antibiotic treatment promotes adaptive resistance as demonstrated by an increased degree of antibiotic tolerance and heterogeneity in MICs. We study the mechanisms by which identified genes influence adaptation and find that select differentially variable genes have the potential to impact metabolic rates, mutation rates, and motility. Overall, this work provides evidence for a complex nongenetic response, encompassing shifts in gene expression and gene expression variability, which underlies adaptive resistance. IMPORTANCE Even initially sensitive bacteria can rapidly thwart antibiotic treatment through stress

  7. A gene expression inflammatory signature specifically predicts multiple myeloma evolution and patients survival

    PubMed Central

    Botta, C; Di Martino, M T; Ciliberto, D; Cucè, M; Correale, P; Rossi, M; Tagliaferri, P; Tassone, P

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is closely dependent on cross-talk between malignant plasma cells and cellular components of the inflammatory/immunosuppressive bone marrow milieu, which promotes disease progression, drug resistance, neo-angiogenesis, bone destruction and immune-impairment. We investigated the relevance of inflammatory genes in predicting disease evolution and patient survival. A bioinformatics study by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis on gene expression profiling dataset of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering and symptomatic-MM, identified inflammatory and cytokine/chemokine pathways as the most progressively affected during disease evolution. We then selected 20 candidate genes involved in B-cell inflammation and we investigated their role in predicting clinical outcome, through univariate and multivariate analyses (log-rank test, logistic regression and Cox-regression model). We defined an 8-genes signature (IL8, IL10, IL17A, CCL3, CCL5, VEGFA, EBI3 and NOS2) identifying each condition (MGUS/smoldering/symptomatic-MM) with 84% accuracy. Moreover, six genes (IFNG, IL2, LTA, CCL2, VEGFA, CCL3) were found independently correlated with patients' survival. Patients whose MM cells expressed high levels of Th1 cytokines (IFNG/LTA/IL2/CCL2) and low levels of CCL3 and VEGFA, experienced the longest survival. On these six genes, we built a prognostic risk score that was validated in three additional independent datasets. In this study, we provide proof-of-concept that inflammation has a critical role in MM patient progression and survival. The inflammatory-gene prognostic signature validated in different datasets clearly indicates novel opportunities for personalized anti-MM treatment. PMID:27983725

  8. Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Signatures Defining the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition during Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Gröger, Christian J.; Grubinger, Markus; Waldhör, Thomas; Vierlinger, Klemens; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) represents a crucial event during cancer progression and dissemination. EMT is the conversion of carcinoma cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype that associates with a higher cell motility as well as enhanced chemoresistance and cancer stemness. Notably, EMT has been increasingly recognized as an early event of metastasis. Numerous gene expression studies (GES) have been conducted to obtain transcriptome signatures and marker genes to understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying EMT. Yet, no meta-analysis considering the multitude of GES of EMT has been performed to comprehensively elaborate the core genes in this process. Here we report the meta-analysis of 18 independent and published GES of EMT which focused on different cell types and treatment modalities. Computational analysis revealed clustering of GES according to the type of treatment rather than to cell type. GES of EMT induced via transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α treatment yielded uniformly defined clusters while GES of models with alternative EMT induction clustered in a more complex fashion. In addition, we identified those up- and downregulated genes which were shared between the multitude of GES. This core gene list includes well known EMT markers as well as novel genes so far not described in this process. Furthermore, several genes of the EMT-core gene list significantly correlated with impaired pathological complete response in breast cancer patients. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides a comprehensive survey of available EMT expression signatures and shows fundamental insights into the mechanisms that are governing carcinoma progression. PMID:23251436

  9. Glycan-related gene expression signatures in breast cancer subtypes; relation to survival.

    PubMed

    Potapenko, Ivan O; Lüders, Torben; Russnes, Hege G; Helland, Åslaug; Sørlie, Therese; Kristensen, Vessela N; Nord, Silje; Lingjærde, Ole C; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Haakensen, Vilde D

    2015-04-01

    Alterations in glycan structures are early signs of malignancy and have recently been proposed to be in part a driving force behind malignant transformation. Here, we explore whether differences in expression of genes related to the process of glycosylation exist between breast carcinoma subtypes - and look for their association to clinical parameters. Five expression datasets of 454 invasive breast carcinomas, 31 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 79 non-malignant breast tissue samples were analysed. Results were validated in 1960 breast carcinomas. 419 genes encoding glycosylation-related proteins were selected. The DCIS samples appeared expression-wise similar to carcinomas, showing altered gene expression related to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and N-glycans when compared to non-malignant samples. In-situ lesions with different aggressiveness potentials demonstrated changes in glycosaminoglycan sulfation and adhesion proteins. Subtype-specific expression patterns revealed down-regulation of genes encoding glycan-binding proteins in the luminal A and B subtypes. Clustering basal-like samples using a consensus list of genes differentially expressed across discovery datasets produced two clusters with significantly differing prognosis in the validation dataset. Finally, our analyses suggest that glycolipids may play an important role in carcinogenesis of breast tumors - as demonstrated by association of B3GNT5 and UGCG genes to patient survival. In conclusion, most glycan-specific changes occur early in the carcinogenic process. We have identified glycan-related alterations specific to breast cancer subtypes including a prognostic signature for two basal-like subgroups. Future research in this area may potentially lead to markers for better prognostication and treatment stratification of breast cancer patients.

  10. A Meta-analysis of Gene Expression Signatures of Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian H.; Liu, Chunyu; Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Yao, Chen; Ying, Sai-xia; Courchesne, Paul; Milani, Lili; Raghavachari, Nalini; Wang, Richard; Liu, Poching; Reinmaa, Eva; Dehghan, Abbas; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Singleton, Andrew; Melzer, David; Metspalu, Andres; Carstensen, Maren; Grallert, Harald; Herder, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Roden, Michael; Waldenberger, Melanie; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan B.; Zeller, Tanja; Vasan, Ramachandran; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Munson, Peter J.; Yang, Xia; Prokisch, Holger; Völker, Uwe; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered numerous genetic variants (SNPs) that are associated with blood pressure (BP). Genetic variants may lead to BP changes by acting on intermediate molecular phenotypes such as coded protein sequence or gene expression, which in turn affect BP variability. Therefore, characterizing genes whose expression is associated with BP may reveal cellular processes involved in BP regulation and uncover how transcripts mediate genetic and environmental effects on BP variability. A meta-analysis of results from six studies of global gene expression profiles of BP and hypertension in whole blood was performed in 7017 individuals who were not receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. We identified 34 genes that were differentially expressed in relation to BP (Bonferroni-corrected p<0.05). Among these genes, FOS and PTGS2 have been previously reported to be involved in BP-related processes; the others are novel. The top BP signature genes in aggregate explain 5%–9% of inter-individual variance in BP. Of note, rs3184504 in SH2B3, which was also reported in GWAS to be associated with BP, was found to be a trans regulator of the expression of 6 of the transcripts we found to be associated with BP (FOS, MYADM, PP1R15A, TAGAP, S100A10, and FGBP2). Gene set enrichment analysis suggested that the BP-related global gene expression changes include genes involved in inflammatory response and apoptosis pathways. Our study provides new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying BP regulation, and suggests novel transcriptomic markers for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. PMID:25785607

  11. Aging-dependent alterations in gene expression and a mitochondrial signature of responsiveness to human influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Juilee; Mohanty, Subhasis; West, A Phillip; Joshi, Samit R; Ueda, Ikuyo; Wilson, Jean; Meng, Hailong; Blevins, Tamara P; Tsang, Sui; Trentalange, Mark; Siconolfi, Barbara; Park, Koonam; Gill, Thomas M; Belshe, Robert B; Kaech, Susan M; Shadel, Gerald S; Kleinstein, Steven H; Shaw, Albert C

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate gene expression pathways underlying age-associated impairment in influenza vaccine response, we screened young (age 21-30) and older (age≥65) adults receiving influenza vaccine in two consecutive seasons and identified those with strong or absent response to vaccine, including a subset of older adults meeting criteria for frailty. PBMCs obtained prior to vaccination (Day 0) and at day 2 or 4, day 7 and day 28 post-vaccine were subjected to gene expression microarray analysis. We defined a response signature and also detected induction of a type I interferon response at day 2 and a plasma cell signature at day 7 post-vaccine in young responders. The response signature was dysregulated in older adults, with the plasma cell signature induced at day 2, and was never induced in frail subjects (who were all non-responders). We also identified a mitochondrial signature in young vaccine responders containing genes mediating mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation that was consistent in two different vaccine seasons and verified by analyses of mitochondrial content and protein expression. These results represent the first genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of age-associated dynamics following influenza vaccination, and implicate changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and function as a critical factor in human vaccine responsiveness.

  12. Expression profiling feline peripheral blood monocytes identifies a transcriptional signature associated with type two diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Caroline A; Sedhom, Mamdouh; Reeve-Johnson, Mia; Mallyon, John; Irvine, Katharine M

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease of cats and is similar to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans, especially with respect to the role of obesity-induced insulin resistance, glucose toxicity, decreased number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic amyloid deposition. Cats have thus been proposed as a valuable translational model of T2D. In humans, inflammation associated with adipose tissue is believed to be central to T2D development, and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) are important in the inflammatory cascade which leads to insulin resistance and β-cell failure. PBM may thus provide a useful window to study the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in cats, however feline monocytes are poorly characterised. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Feline 1.0ST array to profile peripheral blood monocytes from 3 domestic cats with T2D and 3 cats with normal glucose tolerance. Feline monocytes were enriched for genes expressed in human monocytes, and, despite heterogeneous gene expression, we identified a T2D-associated expression signature associated with cell cycle perturbations, DNA repair and the unfolded protein response, oxidative phosphorylation and inflammatory responses. Our data provide novel insights into the feline monocyte transcriptome, and support the hypothesis that inflammatory monocytes contribute to T2D pathogenesis in cats as well as in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A chemokine gene expression signature derived from meta-analysis predicts the pathogenicity of viral respiratory infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During respiratory viral infections host injury occurs due in part to inappropriate host responses. In this study we sought to uncover the host transcriptional responses underlying differences between high- and low-pathogenic infections. Results From a compendium of 12 studies that included responses to influenza A subtype H5N1, reconstructed 1918 influenza A virus, and SARS coronavirus, we used meta-analysis to derive multiple gene expression signatures. We compared these signatures by their capacity to segregate biological conditions by pathogenicity and predict pathogenicity in a test data set. The highest-performing signature was expressed as a continuum in low-, medium-, and high-pathogenicity samples, suggesting a direct, analog relationship between expression and pathogenicity. This signature comprised 57 genes including a subnetwork of chemokines, implicating dysregulated cell recruitment in injury. Conclusions Highly pathogenic viruses elicit expression of many of the same key genes as lower pathogenic viruses but to a higher degree. This increased degree of expression may result in the uncontrolled co-localization of inflammatory cell types and lead to irreversible host damage. PMID:22189154

  14. Gene Expression Signatures of Energetic Acclimatisation in the Reef Building Coral Acropora millepora

    PubMed Central

    Andreakis, Nikos; Ulstrup, Karin E.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms by which natural populations cope with environmental stress is paramount to predict their persistence in the face of escalating anthropogenic impacts. Reef-building corals are increasingly exposed to local and global stressors that alter nutritional status causing reduced fitness and mortality, however, these responses can vary considerably across species and populations. Methodology/Principal Findings We compare the expression of 22 coral host genes in individuals from an inshore and an offshore reef location using quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) over the course of 26 days following translocation into a shaded, filtered seawater environment. Declines in lipid content and PSII activity of the algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium ITS-1 type C2) over the course of the experiment indicated that heterotrophic uptake and photosynthesis were limited, creating nutritional deprivation conditions. Regulation of coral host genes involved in metabolism, CO2 transport and oxidative stress could be detected already after five days, whereas PSII activity took twice as long to respond. Opposing expression trajectories of Tgl, which releases fatty acids from the triacylglycerol storage, and Dgat1, which catalyses the formation of triglycerides, indicate that the decline in lipid content can be attributed, at least in part, by mobilisation of triacylglycerol stores. Corals from the inshore location had initially higher lipid content and showed consistently elevated expression levels of two genes involved in metabolism (aldehyde dehydrogenase) and calcification (carbonic anhydrase). Conclusions/Significance Coral host gene expression adjusts rapidly upon change in nutritional conditions, and therefore can serve as an early signature of imminent coral stress. Consistent gene expression differences between populations indicate that corals acclimatize and/or adapt to local environments. Our results set the stage for analysis of

  15. Gene Expression Signature Analysis Identifies Vorinostat as a Candidate Therapy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woonyoung; Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, KyoungHyun; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Mills, Gordon B.; Cho, Jae Yong

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer–specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A) whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern. Conclusions/Significance We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment. PMID:21931799

  16. Gene expression signatures in tree shrew choroid in response to three myopiagenic conditions

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Frost, Michael R.; Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined gene expression in tree shrew choroid in response to three different myopiagenic conditions: minus lens (ML) wear, form deprivation (FD), and continuous darkness (DK). Four groups of tree shrews (n = 7 per group) were used. Starting 24 days after normal eye opening (days of visual experience [DVE]), the ML group wore a monocular −5 D lens for 2 days. The FD group wore a monocular translucent diffuser for 2 days. The DK group experienced continuous darkness binocularly for 11 days, starting at 17 DVE. An age-matched normal group was examined at 26 DVE. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the relative (treated eye vs. control eye) differences in mRNA levels in the choroid for 77 candidate genes. Small myopic changes were observed in the treated eyes (relative to the control eyes) of the ML group (−1.0 ± 0.2 D; mean ± SEM) and FD group (−1.9 ± 0.2 D). A larger myopia developed in the DK group (−4.4 ± 1.0 D) relative to Normal eyes (both groups, mean of right and left eyes). In the ML group, 28 genes showed significant differential mRNA expression; eighteen were down-regulated. A very similar pattern occurred in the FD group; twenty-seven of the same genes were similarly regulated, along with five additional genes. Fewer expression differences in the DK group were significant compared to normal or the control eyes of the ML and FD groups, but the pattern was similar to that of the ML and FD differential expression patterns. These data suggest that, at the level of the choroid, the gene expression signatures produced by “GO” emmetropization signals are highly similar despite the different visual conditions. PMID:25072854

  17. Gene expression signatures of energetic acclimatisation in the reef building coral Acropora millepora.

    PubMed

    Bay, Line K; Guérécheau, Aurélie; Andreakis, Nikos; Ulstrup, Karin E; Matz, Mikhail V

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which natural populations cope with environmental stress is paramount to predict their persistence in the face of escalating anthropogenic impacts. Reef-building corals are increasingly exposed to local and global stressors that alter nutritional status causing reduced fitness and mortality, however, these responses can vary considerably across species and populations. We compare the expression of 22 coral host genes in individuals from an inshore and an offshore reef location using quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) over the course of 26 days following translocation into a shaded, filtered seawater environment. Declines in lipid content and PSII activity of the algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium ITS-1 type C2) over the course of the experiment indicated that heterotrophic uptake and photosynthesis were limited, creating nutritional deprivation conditions. Regulation of coral host genes involved in metabolism, CO2 transport and oxidative stress could be detected already after five days, whereas PSII activity took twice as long to respond. Opposing expression trajectories of Tgl, which releases fatty acids from the triacylglycerol storage, and Dgat1, which catalyses the formation of triglycerides, indicate that the decline in lipid content can be attributed, at least in part, by mobilisation of triacylglycerol stores. Corals from the inshore location had initially higher lipid content and showed consistently elevated expression levels of two genes involved in metabolism (aldehyde dehydrogenase) and calcification (carbonic anhydrase). Coral host gene expression adjusts rapidly upon change in nutritional conditions, and therefore can serve as an early signature of imminent coral stress. Consistent gene expression differences between populations indicate that corals acclimatize and/or adapt to local environments. Our results set the stage for analysis of these processes in natural coral populations, to better understand the

  18. A gene expression signature that can predict green tea exposure and chemopreventive efficacy of lung cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Yao, Ruisheng; Yan, Ying; Wang, Yian; Hara, Yukihiko; Lubet, Ronald A; You, Ming

    2006-02-15

    Green tea has been shown to be a potent chemopreventive agent against lung tumorigenesis in animal models. Previously, we found that treatment of A/J mice with either green tea (0.6% in water) or a defined green tea catechin extract (polyphenon E; 2.0 g/kg in diet) inhibited lung tumor tumorigenesis. Here, we described expression profiling of lung tissues derived from these studies to determine the gene expression signature that can predict the exposure and efficacy of green tea in mice. We first profiled global gene expressions in normal lungs versus lung tumors to determine genes which might be associated with the tumorigenic process (TUM genes). Gene expression in control tumors and green tea-treated tumors (either green tea or polyphenon E) were compared to determine those TUM genes whose expression levels in green tea-treated tumors returned to levels seen in normal lungs. We established a 17-gene expression profile specific for exposure to effective doses of either green tea or polyphenon E. This gene expression signature was altered both in normal lungs and lung adenomas when mice were exposed to green tea or polyphenon E. These experiments identified patterns of gene expressions that both offer clues for green tea's potential mechanisms of action and provide a molecular signature specific for green tea exposure.

  19. Importance of Correlation between Gene Expression Levels: Application to the Type I Interferon Signature in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Reynier, Frédéric; Petit, Fabien; Paye, Malick; Turrel-Davin, Fanny; Imbert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Hot, Arnaud; Mougin, Bruno; Miossec, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background The analysis of gene expression data shows that many genes display similarity in their expression profiles suggesting some co-regulation. Here, we investigated the co-expression patterns in gene expression data and proposed a correlation-based research method to stratify individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Using blood from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we investigated the gene expression profiles from whole blood using Affymetrix microarray technology. Co-expressed genes were analyzed by a biclustering method, followed by gene ontology analysis of the relevant biclusters. Taking the type I interferon (IFN) pathway as an example, a classification algorithm was developed from the 102 RA patients and extended to 10 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and 100 healthy volunteers to further characterize individuals. We developed a correlation-based algorithm referred to as Classification Algorithm Based on a Biological Signature (CABS), an alternative to other approaches focused specifically on the expression levels. This algorithm applied to the expression of 35 IFN-related genes showed that the IFN signature presented a heterogeneous expression between RA, SLE and healthy controls which could reflect the level of global IFN signature activation. Moreover, the monitoring of the IFN-related genes during the anti-TNF treatment identified changes in type I IFN gene activity induced in RA patients. Conclusions In conclusion, we have proposed an original method to analyze genes sharing an expression pattern and a biological function showing that the activation levels of a biological signature could be characterized by its overall state of correlation. PMID:22043277

  20. Gene expression signatures in tree shrew choroid during lens-induced myopia and recovery

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Frost, Michael R.; Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2014-01-01

    ), 4 genes were significantly down-regulated and 18 genes were significantly up-regulated. Thirteen genes showed bi-directional regulation in GO vs. STOP. The pattern of differential gene expression in STOP was very different from that in GO or in STAY. Significant regulation was observed in genes involved in signaling as well as extracellular matrix turnover. These data support an active role for the choroid in the signaling cascade from retina to sclera. Distinctly different treated eye vs. control eye mRNA signatures are present in the choroid in the GO, STAY, and STOP conditions. The STAY signature, present after full compensation has occurred and the GO visual stimulus is no longer present, may participate in maintaining an elongated globe. The 13 genes with bi-directional expression differences in GO and STOP responded in a sign of defocus-dependent manner. Taken together, these data further suggest that a network of choroidal gene expression changes generate the signal that alters scleral fibroblast gene expression and axial elongation rate. PMID:24742494

  1. MicroRNA Expression Signatures During Malignant Progression From Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ajay; Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Wang, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase and poor survival of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have led to significant efforts to promote early detection. Given that the premalignant lesion of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the major known risk factor for EAC, multiple investigators have studied biomarker signatures that can predict malignant progression of BE to EAC. MicroRNAs, a novel class of gene regulators, are small non-coding RNAs and have been associated with carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs are ideal biomarkers because of their remarkable stability in fixed tissues, a common method for collection of clinical specimens, and in blood either within exosomes or as microRNA-protein complexes. Multiple studies show potential of microRNAs as tissue and blood biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of EAC but the results need confirmation in prospective studies. Although head-to-head comparisons are lacking, microRNA panels require less genes than messenger RNA panels for diagnosis of EAC in BE. MicroRNA diagnostic panels will need to be compared for accuracy against global measures of genome instability that were recently shown to be good predictors of progression but require sophisticated analytic techniques. Early studies on blood microRNA panels are promising but have found microRNA markers to be inconsistent among studies. MicroRNA expression in blood is different between various microRNA sub-compartments such as exosomes and microRNA-protein complexes and could affect blood microRNA measurements. Further standardization is needed to yield consistent results. We have summarized the current understanding of the tissue and blood microRNA signatures that may predict the development and progression of EAC.

  2. Lupus anti-ribosomal P autoantibody proteomes express convergent biclonal signatures.

    PubMed

    Al Kindi, M A; Colella, A D; Beroukas, D; Chataway, T K; Gordon, T P

    2016-04-01

    Lupus-specific anti-ribosomal P (anti-Rib-P) autoantibodies have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological complications in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the present study was to determine variable (V)-region signatures of secreted autoantibody proteomes specific for the Rib-P heterocomplex and investigate the molecular basis of the reported cross-reactivity with Sm autoantigen. Anti-Rib-P immunoglobulins (IgGs) were purified from six anti-Rib-P-positive sera by elution from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates coated with either native Rib-P proteins or an 11-amino acid peptide (11-C peptide) representing the conserved COOH-terminal P epitope. Rib-P- and 11-C peptide-specific IgGs were analysed for heavy (H) and light (L) chain clonality and V-region expression using an electrophoretic and de-novo and database-driven mass spectrometric sequencing workflow. Purified anti-Rib-P and anti-SmD IgGs were tested for cross-reactivity on ELISA and their proteome data sets analysed for shared clonotypes. Anti-Rib-P autoantibody proteomes were IgG1 kappa-restricted and comprised two public clonotypes defined by unique H/L chain pairings. The major clonotypic population was specific for the common COOH-terminal epitope, while the second shared the same pairing signature as a recently reported anti-SmD clonotype, accounting for two-way immunoassay cross-reactivity between these lupus autoantibodies. Sequence convergence of anti-Rib-P proteomes suggests common molecular pathways of autoantibody production and identifies stereotyped clonal populations that are thought to play a pathogenic role in neuropsychiatric lupus. Shared clonotypic structures for anti-Rib-P and anti-Sm responses suggest a common B cell clonal origin for subsets of these lupus-specific autoantibodies.

  3. A signature microRNA expression profile for the cellular response to thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Roth, Caleb C.; Ketchum, Norma; Ibey, Bennett L.; Waterworth, Angela; Suarez, Maria; Roach, William P.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, an extensive layer of intra-cellular signals was discovered that was previously undetected by genetic radar. It is now known that this layer consists primarily of a class of short noncoding RNA species that are referred to as microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs regulate protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level, and studies have shown that they are involved in many fundamental cellular processes. In this study, we hypothesized that miRNAs may be involved in cellular stress response mechanisms, and that cells exposed to thermal stress may exhibit a signature miRNA expression profile indicative of their functional involvement in such mechanisms. To test our hypothesis, human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to an established hyperthermic protocol, and the ensuing miRNA expression levels were evaluated 4 hr post-exposure using microRNA microarray gene chips. The microarray data shows that 123 miRNAs were differentially expressed in cells exposed to thermal stress. We collectively refer to these miRNAs as thermalregulated microRNAs (TRMs). Since miRNA research is in its infancy, it is interesting to note that only 27 of the 123 TRMs are currently annotated in the Sanger miRNA registry. Prior to publication, we plan to submit the remaining novel 96 miRNA gene sequences for proper naming. Computational and thermodynamic modeling algorithms were employed to identify putative mRNA targets for the TRMs, and these studies predict that TRMs regulate the mRNA expression of various proteins that are involved in the cellular stress response. Future empirical studies will be conducted to validate these theoretical predictions, and to further examine the specific role that TRMs play in the cellular stress response.

  4. Colon Cancer Cells Gene Expression Signature As Response to 5- Fluorouracil, Oxaliplatin, and Folinic Acid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Negrei, Carolina; Hudita, Ariana; Ginghina, Octav; Galateanu, Bianca; Voicu, Sorina Nicoleta; Stan, Miriana; Costache, Marieta; Fenga, Concettina; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2016-01-01

    5-FU cytotoxicity mechanism has been assigned both to the miss-incorporation of fluoronucleotides into RNA and DNA and to the inhibition of thymidylate synthase. 5-FU is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic drugs, although it has severe side effects that may vary between patients. Pharmacogenetic studies related to 5-FU have been traditionally focused on the rate-limiting catabolic enzyme, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase that breaks 80–85% of 5-FU into its inactive metabolite. Choosing the right dosing scheme and chemotherapy strategy for each individual patient remains challenging for personalized chemotherapy management. In the general effort toward reduction of colorectal cancer mortality, in vitro screening studies play a very important role. To accelerate translation research, increasing interest has been focused on using in vivo-like models such as three-dimensional spheroids. The development of higher throughput assays to quantify phenotypic changes in spheroids is an active research area. Consequently, in this study we used the microarray technology to reveal the HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells gene expression signature as response to 5-FU/OXP/FA treatment in a state of the art 3D culture system. We report here an increased reactive oxygen species production under treatment, correlated with a decrease in cell viability and proliferation potential. With respect to the HT-29 cells gene expression under the treatment with 5-FU/OXP/FA, we found 15.247 genes that were significantly differentially expressed (p < 0.05) with a fold change higher that two-fold. Among these, 7136 genes were upregulated and 8111 genes were downregulated under experimental conditions as compared to untreated cells. The most relevant and statistic significant (p < 0.01) pathways in the experiment are associated with the genes that displayed significant differential expression and are related to intracellular signaling, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cancer. PMID

  5. Characterization and Interlaboratory Comparison of a Gene Expression Signature for Differentiating Genotoxic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Fostel, Jennifer M.; Aruga, Chinami; Bauer, Daniel; Boitier, Eric; Deng, Shibing; Dickinson, Donna; Le Fevre, Anne-Celine; Fornace, Albert J.; Grenet, Olivier; Gu, Yizhong; Hoflack, Jean-Christophe; Shiiyama, Masako; Smith, Roger; Snyder, Ronald D.; Spire, Catherine; Tanaka, Gotaro; Aubrecht, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    The genotoxicity testing battery is highly sensitive for detection of chemical carcinogens. However, it features a low specificity and provides only limited mechanistic information required for risk assessment of positive findings. This is especially important in case of positive findings in the in vitro chromosome damage assays, because chromosome damage may be also induced secondarily to cell death. An increasing body of evidence indicates that toxicogenomic analysis of cellular stress responses provides an insight into mechanisms of action of genotoxicants. To evaluate the utility of such a toxicogenomic analysis we evaluated gene expression profiles of TK6 cells treated with four model genotoxic agents using a targeted high density real-time PCR approach in a multilaboratory project coordinated by the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism-based Risk Assessment. We show that this gene profiling technology produced reproducible data across laboratories allowing us to conclude that expression analysis of a relevant gene set is capable of distinguishing compounds that cause DNA adducts or double strand breaks from those that interfere with mitotic spindle function or that cause chromosome damage as a consequence of cytotoxicity. Furthermore, our data suggest that the gene expression profiles at early time points are most likely to provide information relevant to mechanisms of genotoxic damage and that larger gene expression arrays will likely provide richer information for differentiating molecular mechanisms of action of genotoxicants. Although more compounds need to be tested to identify a robust molecular signature, this study confirms the potential of toxicogenomic analysis for investigation of genotoxic mechanisms. PMID:19465456

  6. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

  7. Stem cells and germ cells: microRNA and gene expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Dyce, Paul William; Toms, Derek; Li, Julang

    2010-04-01

    The study of primordial germ cell development in vivo is hampered by their low numbers and inaccessibility. Recent research has shown the ability of embryonic and adult stem cells to differentiate into primordial germ cells and more mature gametes and this generation of germ cells in vitro may be an attractive model for their study. One of the biggest challenges facing in vitro differentiation of stem cells into primordial germ cells is the lack of markers to clearly distinguish the two. As both cell types originate early in embryonic development they share many pluripotent markers such as OCT4, VASA, FRAGILIS, and NANOG. Genome wide microarray profiling has been used to identify transcriptome patterns unique to primordial germ cells. A more thorough analysis of the temporal and quantitative expression of a panel of genes may be more robust in distinguishing these two cell populations. MicroRNAs, short RNA molecules that have been shown to regulate translation through interactions with mRNA transcripts, have also recently come under investigation for the role they may play in pluripotency. Attempts to elucidate key microRNAs responsible for both stem cell and primordial germ cell characteristics have recently been undertaken. Unique microRNAs, either individually or as global profiles, may also help to distinguish differentiated primordial germ cells from stem cells in vitro. This review will examine gene expression and microRNA signatures in stem cells and germ cells as ways to distinguish these closely related cell types.

  8. Prostate cancer gene expression signature of patients with high body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Sharad, Shashwat; Srivastava, Anjali; Ravulapalli, Suma; Parker, Patrick; Chen, Yongmei; Li, Hua; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Dobi, Albert

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate prostate cancer gene expression signatures associated with elevated body mass index (BMI). Global gene expression profiles of prostate tumor cells and matching normal epithelial cells were compared between patients with features of normal- and high BMI at the time of radical prostatectomy. Knowledge-based analyses revealed an association of high BMI with altered levels of lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis genes, such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1), respectively, in prostate tumor cells. These genes were connected to known pathways of tumorigenesis revealed by the v-maf (musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma) oncogene homolog (MAF), notch receptor ligand, jagged 1 (JAG1), and the alanyl aminopeptidase (ANPEP/CD13) genes. This study highlighted that SCD1, a known target of statins, may play a mechanistic role in the recently noted beneficial effects of statin treatment in reducing biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. An additional finding of our study is that some of the obesity related genes were upregulated in tumor-matched normal cells within the high BMI group, when compared to normal cells within the normal BMI cohort. PMID:21060327

  9. Gene-expression signature of tumor recurrence in patients with stage II and III colon cancer treated with 5'fluoruracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Giráldez, María Dolores; Lozano, Juan José; Cuatrecasas, Míriam; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Maurel, Joan; Mármol, Maribel; Hörndler, Carlos; Ortego, Javier; Alonso, Vicente; Escudero, Pilar; Ramírez, Gina; Petry, Christoph; Lasalvia, Luis; Bohmann, Kerstin; Wirtz, Ralph; Mira, Aurea; Castells, Antoni

    2013-03-01

    Although receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after radical surgery, a disappointing proportion of patients with colorectal cancer will develop tumor recurrence. Probability of relapse is currently predicted from pathological staging, there being a need for additional markers to further select high-risk patients. This study was aimed to identify a gene-expression signature to predict tumor recurrence in patients with Stages II and III colon cancer treated with 5'fluoruracil (5FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Two-hundred and twenty-eight patients diagnosed with Stages II-III colon cancer and treated with surgical resection and 5FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy were included. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples and expression of 27 selected candidate genes was analyzed by RT-qPCR. A tumor recurrence predicting model, including clinico-pathological variables and gene-expression profiling, was developed by Cox regression analysis and validated by bootstrapping. The regression analysis identified tumor stage and S100A2 and S100A10 gene expression as independently associated with tumor recurrence. The risk score derived from this model was able to discriminate two groups with a highly significant different probability of tumor recurrence (HR, 2.75; 95%CI, 1.71-4.39; p = 0.0001), which it was maintained when patients were stratified according to tumor stage. The algorithm was also able to distinguish two groups with different overall survival (HR, 2.68; 95%CI, 1.12-6.42; p = 0.03). Identification of a new gene-expression signature associated with a high probability of tumor recurrence in patients with Stages II and III colon cancer receiving adjuvant 5FU-based chemotherapy, and its combination in a robust, easy-to-use and reliable algorithm may contribute to tailor treatment and surveillance strategies.

  10. Vitamin D receptor expression and associated gene signature in tumour stromal fibroblasts predict clinical outcome in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Mayorga, Gemma; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Barbáchano, Antonio; Fernández-Barral, Asunción; Peña, Cristina; Pisano, David G; Cantero, Ramón; Rojo, Federico; Muñoz, Alberto; Larriba, María Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health concern. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with high CRC incidence and mortality, suggesting a protective effect of vitamin D against this disease. Given the strong influence of tumour stroma on cancer progression, we investigated the potential effects of the active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on CRC stroma. Design Expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and two 1,25(OH)2D3 target genes was analysed in 658 patients with CRC with prolonged clinical follow-up. 1,25(OH)2D3 effects on primary cultures of patient-derived colon normal fibroblasts (NFs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were studied using collagen gel contraction and migration assays and global gene expression analyses. Publicly available data sets (n=877) were used to correlate the 1,25(OH)2D3-associated gene signature in CAFs with CRC outcome. Results High VDR expression in tumour stromal fibroblasts was associated with better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival in CRC, independently of its expression in carcinoma cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the protumoural activation of NFs and CAFs and imposed in CAFs a 1,25(OH)2D3-associated gene signature that correlated with longer OS and disease-free survival in CRC. Furthermore, expression of two genes from the signature, CD82 and S100A4, correlated with stromal VDR expression and clinical outcome in our cohort of patients with CRC. Conclusions 1,25(OH)2D3 has protective effects against CRC through the regulation of stromal fibroblasts. Accordingly, expression of VDR and 1,25(OH)2D3-associated gene signature in stromal fibroblasts predicts a favourable clinical outcome in CRC. Therefore, treatment of patients with CRC with VDR agonists could be explored even in the absence of VDR expression in carcinoma cells. PMID:27053631

  11. Ontology based molecular signatures for immune cell types via gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New technologies are focusing on characterizing cell types to better understand their heterogeneity. With large volumes of cellular data being generated, innovative methods are needed to structure the resulting data analyses. Here, we describe an ‘Ontologically BAsed Molecular Signature’ (OBAMS) method that identifies novel cellular biomarkers and infers biological functions as characteristics of particular cell types. This method finds molecular signatures for immune cell types based on mapping biological samples to the Cell Ontology (CL) and navigating the space of all possible pairwise comparisons between cell types to find genes whose expression is core to a particular cell type’s identity. Results We illustrate this ontological approach by evaluating expression data available from the Immunological Genome project (IGP) to identify unique biomarkers of mature B cell subtypes. We find that using OBAMS, candidate biomarkers can be identified at every strata of cellular identity from broad classifications to very granular. Furthermore, we show that Gene Ontology can be used to cluster cell types by shared biological processes in order to find candidate genes responsible for somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells. Moreover, through in silico experiments based on this approach, we have identified genes sets that represent genes overexpressed in germinal center B cells and identify genes uniquely expressed in these B cells compared to other B cell types. Conclusions This work demonstrates the utility of incorporating structured ontological knowledge into biological data analysis – providing a new method for defining novel biomarkers and providing an opportunity for new biological insights. PMID:24004649

  12. Baseline Gene Expression Signatures in Monocytes from Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Interferon-beta

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Marta F.; Nurtdinov, Ramil N.; Río, Jordi; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background A relatively large proportion of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients do not respond to interferon-beta (IFNb) treatment. In previous studies with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we identified a subgroup of IFNb non-responders that was characterized by a baseline over-expression of type I IFN inducible genes. Additional mechanistic experiments carried out in IFNb non-responders suggested a selective alteration of the type I IFN signaling pathway in the population of blood monocytes. Here, we aimed (i) to investigate whether the type I IFN signaling pathway is up-regulated in isolated monocytes from IFNb non-responders at baseline; and (ii) to search for additional biological pathways in this cell population that may be implicated in the response to IFNb treatment. Methods Twenty RRMS patients classified according to their clinical response to IFNb treatment and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. Monocytes were purified from PBMC obtained before treatment by cell sorting and the gene expression profiling was determined with oligonucleotide microarrays. Results and discussion Purified monocytes from IFNb non-responders were characterized by an over-expression of type I IFN responsive genes, which confirms the type I IFN signature in monocytes suggested from previous studies. Other relevant signaling pathways that were up-regulated in IFNb non-responders were related with the mitochondrial function and processes such as protein synthesis and antigen presentation, and together with the type I IFN signaling pathway, may also be playing roles in the response to IFNb. PMID:23637780

  13. An everyday activity as a treatment for depression: the benefits of expressive writing for people diagnosed with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Krpan, Katherine M; Kross, Ethan; Berman, Marc G; Deldin, Patricia J; Askren, Mary K; Jonides, John

    2013-09-25

    The benefits of expressive writing have been well documented among several populations, but particularly among those who report feelings of dysphoria. It is not known, however, if those diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) would also benefit from expressive writing. Forty people diagnosed with current MDD by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV participated in the study. On day 1 of testing, participants completed a series of questionnaires and cognitive tasks. Participants were then randomly assigned to either an expressive writing condition in which they wrote for 20 min over three consecutive days about their deepest thoughts and feelings surrounding an emotional event (n=20), or to a control condition (n=20) in which they wrote about non-emotional daily events each day. On day 5 of testing, participants completed another series of questionnaires and cognitive measures. These measures were repeated again 4 weeks later. People diagnosed with MDD in the expressive writing condition showed significant decreases in depression scores (Beck Depression Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores) immediately after the experimental manipulation (Day 5). These benefits persisted at the 4-week follow-up. Self-selected sample. This is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of expressive writing among people formally diagnosed with current MDD. These data suggest that expressive writing may be a useful supplement to existing interventions for depression. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An everyday activity as a treatment for depression: The benefits of expressive writing for people diagnosed with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Krpan, Katherine M.; Kross, Ethan; Berman, Marc G.; Deldin, Patricia J.; Askren, Mary K.; Jonides, John

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of expressive writing have been well documented among several populations, but particularly among those who report feelings of dysphoria. It is not known, however, if those diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) would also benefit from expressive writing. Methods Forty people diagnosed with current MDD by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV participated in the study. On day 1 of testing, participants completed a series of questionnaires and cognitive tasks. Participants were then randomly assigned to either an expressive writing condition in which they wrote for 20 min over three consecutive days about their deepest thoughts and feelings surrounding an emotional event (n=20), or to a control condition (n=20) in which they wrote about non-emotional daily events each day. On day 5 of testing, participants completed another series of questionnaires and cognitive measures. These measures were repeated again 4 weeks later. Results People diagnosed with MDD in the expressive writing condition showed significant decreases in depression scores (Beck Depression Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores) immediately after the experimental manipulation (Day 5). These benefits persisted at the 4-week follow-up. Limitations Self-selected sample. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of expressive writing among people formally diagnosed with current MDD. These data suggest that expressive writing may be a useful supplement to existing interventions for depression. PMID:23790815

  15. MicroRNA expression profiling and DNA methylation signature for deregulated microRNA in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Juan; Díaz-Lagares, Angel; Salgado, Rocío; Servitje, Octavio; Climent, Fina; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L; Pérez-Ferriols, Amparo; Garcia-Muret, Maria P; Estrach, Teresa; Garcia, Mar; Nonell, Lara; Esteller, Manel; Pujol, Ramon M; Espinet, Blanca; Gallardo, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs usually regulate gene expression negatively, and aberrant expression has been involved in the development of several types of cancers. Microarray profiling of microRNA expression was performed to define a microRNA signature in a series of mycosis fungoides tumor stage (MFt, n=21) and CD30+ primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (CD30+ cALCL, n=11) samples in comparison with inflammatory dermatoses (ID, n=5). Supervised clustering confirmed a distinctive microRNA profile for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) with respect to ID. A 40 microRNA signature was found in MFt including upregulated onco-microRNAs (miR-146a, miR-142-3p/5p, miR-21, miR-181a/b, and miR-155) and downregulated tumor-suppressor microRNAs (miR-200ab/429 cluster, miR-10b, miR-193b, miR-141/200c, and miR-23b/27b). Regarding CD30+ cALCL, 39 differentially expressed microRNAs were identified. Particularly, overexpression of miR-155, miR-21, or miR-142-3p/5p and downregulation of the miR-141/200c clusters were observed. DNA methylation in microRNA gene promoters, as expression regulatory mechanism for deregulated microRNAs, was analyzed using Infinium 450K array and approximately one-third of the differentially expressed microRNAs showed significant DNA methylation differences. Two different microRNA methylation signatures for MFt and CD30+ cALCL were found. Correlation analysis showed an inverse relationship for microRNA promoter methylation and microRNA expression. These results reveal a subgroup-specific epigenetically regulated microRNA signatures for MFt and CD30+ cALCL patients.

  16. Genefu: an R/Bioconductor package for computation of gene expression-based signatures in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gendoo, Deena M A; Ratanasirigulchai, Natchar; Schröder, Markus S; Paré, Laia; Parker, Joel S; Prat, Aleix; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent cancers among women. Extensive studies into the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancer have produced a plethora of molecular subtype classification and prognosis prediction algorithms, as well as numerous gene expression signatures. However, reimplementation of these algorithms is a tedious but important task to enable comparison of existing signatures and classification models between each other and with new models. Here, we present the genefu R/Bioconductor package, a multi-tiered compendium of bioinformatics algorithms and gene signatures for molecular subtyping and prognostication in breast cancer. The genefu package is available from Bioconductor. http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/devel/bioc/html/genefu.html Source code is also available on Github https://github.com/bhklab/genefu bhaibeka@uhnresearch.ca Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures of Autistic Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Winn, Mary; Chandler, Sharon D.; Collins, Melanie; Lopez, Linda; Weinfeld, Melanie; Carter, Cindy; Schork, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Objective Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD-risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with autism have yet emerged. Method Using a community-based, prospective, longitudinal method, we identified 60 infants and toddlers at-risk for ASDs (autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorder), 34 at-risk for language delay (LD), 17 at-risk for global developmental delay (DD), and 68 typically developing (TD) comparison children. Diagnoses were confirmed via longitudinal follow-up. Each child's mRNA expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by microarray. Results Potential ASD biomarkers were discovered in one half of the sample and used to build a classifier with high diagnostic accuracy in the remaining half of the sample. Conclusions The mRNA expression abnormalities reliably observed in PBMCs, which are safely and easily assayed in babies, offer the first potential peripheral blood-based early biomarker panel of risk for autism in infants and toddlers. Future work should verify these biomarkers and evaluate if they may also serve as indirect indices of deviant molecular neural mechanisms in autism. PMID:22917206

  18. A Five-Gene Expression Signature Predicts Clinical Outcome of Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenna

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma is a common malignant tumor of female genital organs. Treatment is generally less effective as patients are usually diagnosed in the late stage. Therefore, a well-designed prognostic marker provides valuable data for optimizing therapy. In this study, we analyzed 303 samples of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and the corresponding RNA-seq data. We observed the correlation between gene expression and patients' survival and eventually established a risk assessment model of five factors using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. We found that the survival time in high-risk patients was significantly shorter than in low-risk patients in both training and testing sets after Kaplan-Meier analysis. The AUROC value was 0.67 when predicting the survival time in testing set, which indicates a relatively high specificity and sensitivity. The results suggest diagnostic and therapeutic applications of our five-gene model for ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:27478834

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated microRNA expression signature: integrated bioinformatics analysis, experimental validation and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ke-Qing; Lin, Zhuo; Chen, Xiang-Jian; Song, Mei; Wang, Yu-Qun; Cai, Yi-Jing; Yang, Nai-Bing; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles varied greatly among current studies due to different technological platforms and small sample size. Systematic and integrative analysis of published datesets that compared the miRNA expression profiles between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and paired adjacent noncancerous liver tissue was performed to determine candidate HCC associated miRNAs. Moreover, we further validated the confirmed miRNAs in a clinical setting using qRT-PCR and Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. A miRNA integrated-signature of 5 upregulated and 8 downregulated miRNAs was identified from 26 published datesets in HCC using robust rank aggregation method. qRT-PCR demonstrated that miR-93-5p, miR-224-5p, miR-221-3p and miR-21-5p was increased, whereas the expression of miR-214-3p, miR-199a-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-150-5p and miR-145-5p was decreased in the HCC tissues, which was also validated on TCGA dataset. A miRNA based score using LASSO regression model provided a high accuracy for identifying HCC tissue (AUC = 0.982): HCC risk score = 0.180E_miR-221 + 0.0262E_miR-21 - 0.007E_miR-223 - 0.185E_miR-130a. E_miR-n = Log 2 (expression of microRNA n). Furthermore, expression of 5 miRNAs (miR-222, miR-221, miR-21 miR-214 and miR-130a) correlated with pathological tumor grade. Cox regression analysis showed that miR-21 was related with 3-year survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.509, 95%CI: 1.079–2.112, P = 0.016) and 5-year survival (HR: 1.416, 95%CI: 1.057–1.897, P = 0.020). However, none of the deregulated miRNAs was related with microscopic vascular invasion. This study provides a basis for further clinical application of miRNAs in HCC. PMID:26231037

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated microRNA expression signature: integrated bioinformatics analysis, experimental validation and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ke-Qing; Lin, Zhuo; Chen, Xiang-Jian; Song, Mei; Wang, Yu-Qun; Cai, Yi-Jing; Yang, Nai-Bing; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2015-09-22

    microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles varied greatly among current studies due to different technological platforms and small sample size. Systematic and integrative analysis of published datesets that compared the miRNA expression profiles between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and paired adjacent noncancerous liver tissue was performed to determine candidate HCC associated miRNAs. Moreover, we further validated the confirmed miRNAs in a clinical setting using qRT-PCR and Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. A miRNA integrated-signature of 5 upregulated and 8 downregulated miRNAs was identified from 26 published datesets in HCC using robust rank aggregation method. qRT-PCR demonstrated that miR-93-5p, miR-224-5p, miR-221-3p and miR-21-5p was increased, whereas the expression of miR-214-3p, miR-199a-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-150-5p and miR-145-5p was decreased in the HCC tissues, which was also validated on TCGA dataset. A miRNA based score using LASSO regression model provided a high accuracy for identifying HCC tissue (AUC = 0.982): HCC risk score = 0.180E_miR-221 + 0.0262E_miR-21 - 0.007E_miR-223 - 0.185E_miR-130a. E_miR-n = Log 2 (expression of microRNA n). Furthermore, expression of 5 miRNAs (miR-222, miR-221, miR-21 miR-214 and miR-130a) correlated with pathological tumor grade. Cox regression analysis showed that miR-21 was related with 3-year survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.509, 95%CI: 1.079-2.112, P = 0.016) and 5-year survival (HR: 1.416, 95%CI: 1.057-1.897, P = 0.020). However, none of the deregulated miRNAs was related with microscopic vascular invasion. This study provides a basis for further clinical application of miRNAs in HCC.

  1. Interferon gene expression signature in rheumatoid arthritis neutrophils correlates with a good response to TNFi therapy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Helen L; Thomas, Huw B; Moots, Robert J; Edwards, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) of RA neutrophils to identify pre-therapy gene expression signatures that correlate with disease activity or response to TNF inhibitor (TNFi) therapy. Neutrophils were isolated from the venous blood of RA patients (n = 20) pre-TNFi therapy and from healthy controls (n = 6). RNA was poly(A) selected and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Reads were mapped to the human genome (hg19) using TopHat and differential expression analysis was carried out using edgeR (5% false discovery rate). Signalling pathway analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. IFN signalling was confirmed by western blotting for phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. Response to TNFi was measured at 12 weeks using change in the 28-item DAS (DAS28). Pathway analysis with IPA predicted activation of IFN signalling in RA neutrophils, identifying 178 IFN-response genes regulated by IFN-α, IFN-β or IFN-γ (P < 0.01). IPA also predicted activation of STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 transcription factors in RA neutrophils (P < 0.01), which was confirmed by western blotting. Expression of IFN-response genes was heterogeneous and patients could be categorized as IFN-high or IFN-low. Patients in the IFN-high group achieved a better response to TNFi therapy [ΔDAS28, P = 0.05, odds ratio (OR) 1.4 (95% CI 1.005, 1.950)] than patients in the IFN-low group. The level of expression of IFN-response genes (IFN score) predicted a good response [European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria] to TNFi using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (area under the curve 0.76). IFN-response genes are significantly up-regulated in RA neutrophils compared with healthy controls. Higher IFN-response gene expression in RA neutrophils correlates with a good response to TNFi therapy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  2. Increased angiogenesis is associated with a 32-gene expression signature and 6p21 amplification in aggressive endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wik, Elisabeth; Mannelqvist, Monica; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Knutsvik, Gøril; Haldorsen, Ingfrid; Trovik, Jone; Øyan, Anne M.; Kalland, Karl-H.; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Salvesen, Helga B.; Akslen, Lars A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer. The aim of this study was to explore whether microvessel proliferation is associated with gene expression profiles or copy number alterations in endometrial cancer. Methods A prospective series of endometrial carcinomas was studied for angiogenesis markers, gene expression profiles, and gene copy number data. For validation, an independent series of endometrial carcinomas as well as an external cohort of endometrial cancer patients were examined by gene expression microarrays. Results Increased microvessel proliferation (MVP) was associated with aggressive tumor features and reduced survival, and a 32-gene expression signature was found to separate tumors with high versus low MVP. An increased 32-gene signature score was confirmed to associate with high-grade tumor features and reduced survival by independent cohorts. Copy number studies revealed that amplification of the 6p21 region was significantly associated with MVP, a high 32-gene score, as well as reduced survival. Conclusion Increased MVP was significantly associated with aggressive endometrial cancer and reduced survival. Integrated analyses demonstrated significant associations between increased vascular proliferation, amplification of the 6p21 region, VEGF-A mRNA expression, and the 32-gene angiogenesis signature. Our findings indicate amplification of 6p21 as a possible driver of tumor vascular proliferation in endometrial cancer. PMID:25860936

  3. Quantitative analysis of competition in posttranscriptional regulation reveals a novel signature in target expression variation.

    PubMed

    Klironomos, Filippos D; Berg, Johannes

    2013-02-19

    When small RNAs are loaded onto Argonaute proteins they can form the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which mediate RNA interference (RNAi). RISC-formation is dependent on a shared pool of Argonaute proteins and RISC-loading factors, and is susceptible to competition among small RNAs. We present a mathematical model that aims to understand how small RNA competition for RISC-formation affects target gene repression. We discuss that small RNA activity is limited by RISC-formation, RISC-degradation, and the availability of Argonautes. We show that different competition conditions for RISC-loading result in different signatures of RNAi determined also by the amount of RISC-recycling taking place. In particular, we find that the small RNAs, although less efficient at RISC-formation, can perform in the low RISC-recycling range as well as their more effective counterparts. Additionally, we predict that under conditions of low RISC-loading efficiency and high RISC-recycling, the variation in target levels increases linearly with the target transcription rate. Furthermore, we show that RISC-recycling determines the effect that Argonaute scarcity conditions have on target expression variation. Our observations, taken together, offer a framework of predictions that can be used to infer from data the particular characteristics of underlying RNAi activity.

  4. A gene expression signature of confinement in peripheral blood of red wolves (Canis rufus).

    PubMed

    Kennerly, Erin; Ballmann, Anne; Martin, Stanton; Wolfinger, Russ; Gregory, Simon; Stoskopf, Michael; Gibson, Greg

    2008-06-01

    The stresses that animals experience as a result of modification of their ecological circumstances induce physiological changes that leave a signature in profiles of gene expression. We illustrate this concept in a comparison of free range and confined North American red wolves (Canis rufus). Transcription profiling of peripheral blood samples from 13 red wolf individuals in the Alligator River region of North Carolina revealed a strong signal of differentiation. Four hundred eighty-two out of 2980 transcripts detected on Illumina HumanRef8 oligonucleotide bead arrays were found to differentiate free range and confined wolves at a false discovery rate of 12.8% and P < 0.05. Over-representation of genes in focal adhesion, insulin signalling, proteasomal, and tryptophan metabolism pathways suggests the activation of pro-inflammatory and stress responses in confined animals. Consequently, characterization of differential transcript abundance in an accessible tissue such as peripheral blood identifies biomarkers that could be useful in animal management practices and for evaluating the impact of habitat changes on population health, particularly as attention turns to the impact of climate change on physiology and in turn species distributions.

  5. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity. PMID:26472689

  6. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  7. A gene expression signature shared by human mature oocytes and embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Assou, Said; Cerecedo, Doris; Tondeur, Sylvie; Pantesco, Véronique; Hovatta, Outi; Klein, Bernard; Hamamah, Samir; De Vos, John

    2009-01-01

    Background The first week of human pre-embryo development is characterized by the induction of totipotency and then pluripotency. The understanding of this delicate process will have far reaching implication for in vitro fertilization and regenerative medicine. Human mature MII oocytes and embryonic stem (ES) cells are both able to achieve the feat of cell reprogramming towards pluripotency, either by somatic cell nuclear transfer or by cell fusion, respectively. Comparison of the transcriptome of these two cell types may highlight genes that are involved in pluripotency initiation. Results Based on a microarray compendium of 205 samples, we compared the gene expression profile of mature MII oocytes and human ES cells (hESC) to that of somatic tissues. We identified a common oocyte/hESC gene expression profile, which included a strong cell cycle signature, genes associated with pluripotency such as LIN28 and TDGF1, a large chromatin remodelling network (TOP2A, DNMT3B, JARID2, SMARCA5, CBX1, CBX5), 18 different zinc finger transcription factors, including ZNF84, and several still poorly annotated genes such as KLHL7, MRS2, or the Selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SEPHS1). Interestingly, a large set of genes was also found to code for proteins involved in the ubiquitination and proteasome pathway. Upon hESC differentiation into embryoid bodies, the transcription of this pathway declined. In vitro, we observed a selective sensitivity of hESC to the inhibition of the activity of the proteasome. Conclusion These results shed light on the gene networks that are concurrently overexpressed by the two human cell types with somatic cell reprogramming properties. PMID:19128516

  8. Genetic regulatory signatures underlying islet gene expression and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Arushi; Scott, Laura J.; Welch, Ryan P.; Erdos, Michael R.; Chines, Peter S.; Narisu, Narisu; Albanus, Ricardo D’O.; Orchard, Peter; Wolford, Brooke N.; Kursawe, Romy; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Cannon, Maren E.; Didion, John P.; Hensley, John; Kirilusha, Anthony; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Taylor, D. Leland; Watanabe, Richard; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boehnke, Michael; Collins, Francis S.; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Stitzel, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 independent SNPs that modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related traits. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of most of these SNPs remain elusive. Here, we examined genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic profiles in human pancreatic islets to understand the links between genetic variation, chromatin landscape, and gene expression in the context of T2D. We first integrated genome and transcriptome variation across 112 islet samples to produce dense cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) maps. Additional integration with chromatin-state maps for islets and other diverse tissue types revealed that cis-eQTLs for islet-specific genes are specifically and significantly enriched in islet stretch enhancers. High-resolution chromatin accessibility profiling using assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq) in two islet samples enabled us to identify specific transcription factor (TF) footprints embedded in active regulatory elements, which are highly enriched for islet cis-eQTL. Aggregate allelic bias signatures in TF footprints enabled us de novo to reconstruct TF binding affinities genetically, which support the high-quality nature of the TF footprint predictions. Interestingly, we found that T2D GWAS loci were strikingly and specifically enriched in islet Regulatory Factor X (RFX) footprints. Remarkably, within and across independent loci, T2D risk alleles that overlap with RFX footprints uniformly disrupt the RFX motifs at high-information content positions. Together, these results suggest that common regulatory variations have shaped islet TF footprints and the transcriptome and that a confluent RFX regulatory grammar plays a significant role in the genetic component of T2D predisposition. PMID:28193859

  9. Genetic regulatory signatures underlying islet gene expression and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Arushi; Scott, Laura J; Welch, Ryan P; Erdos, Michael R; Chines, Peter S; Narisu, Narisu; Albanus, Ricardo D'O; Orchard, Peter; Wolford, Brooke N; Kursawe, Romy; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Cannon, Maren E; Didion, John P; Hensley, John; Kirilusha, Anthony; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Taylor, D Leland; Watanabe, Richard; Mohlke, Karen L; Boehnke, Michael; Collins, Francis S; Parker, Stephen C J; Stitzel, Michael L

    2017-02-28

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 independent SNPs that modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related traits. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of most of these SNPs remain elusive. Here, we examined genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic profiles in human pancreatic islets to understand the links between genetic variation, chromatin landscape, and gene expression in the context of T2D. We first integrated genome and transcriptome variation across 112 islet samples to produce dense cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) maps. Additional integration with chromatin-state maps for islets and other diverse tissue types revealed that cis-eQTLs for islet-specific genes are specifically and significantly enriched in islet stretch enhancers. High-resolution chromatin accessibility profiling using assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq) in two islet samples enabled us to identify specific transcription factor (TF) footprints embedded in active regulatory elements, which are highly enriched for islet cis-eQTL. Aggregate allelic bias signatures in TF footprints enabled us de novo to reconstruct TF binding affinities genetically, which support the high-quality nature of the TF footprint predictions. Interestingly, we found that T2D GWAS loci were strikingly and specifically enriched in islet Regulatory Factor X (RFX) footprints. Remarkably, within and across independent loci, T2D risk alleles that overlap with RFX footprints uniformly disrupt the RFX motifs at high-information content positions. Together, these results suggest that common regulatory variations have shaped islet TF footprints and the transcriptome and that a confluent RFX regulatory grammar plays a significant role in the genetic component of T2D predisposition.

  10. Gene-Expression Signature Predicts Postoperative Recurrence in Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Pengyuan; Yang, Ping; You, Ming

    2012-01-01

    About 30% stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing resection will recur. Robust prognostic markers are required to better manage therapy options. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a novel gene-expression signature that can predict tumor recurrence of stage I NSCLC patients. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify recurrence-related genes and a partial Cox regression model was used to generate a gene signature of recurrence in the training dataset −142 stage I lung adenocarcinomas without adjunctive therapy from the Director's Challenge Consortium. Four independent validation datasets, including GSE5843, GSE8894, and two other datasets provided by Mayo Clinic and Washington University, were used to assess the prediction accuracy by calculating the correlation between risk score estimated from gene expression and real recurrence-free survival time and AUC of time-dependent ROC analysis. Pathway-based survival analyses were also performed. 104 probesets correlated with recurrence in the training dataset. They are enriched in cell adhesion, apoptosis and regulation of cell proliferation. A 51-gene expression signature was identified to distinguish patients likely to develop tumor recurrence (Dxy = −0.83, P<1e-16) and this signature was validated in four independent datasets with AUC >85%. Multiple pathways including leukocyte transendothelial migration and cell adhesion were highly correlated with recurrence-free survival. The gene signature is highly predictive of recurrence in stage I NSCLC patients, which has important prognostic and therapeutic implications for the future management of these patients. PMID:22292069

  11. Gene-expression signature predicts postoperative recurrence in stage I non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Pengyuan; Yang, Ping; You, Ming

    2012-01-01

    About 30% stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing resection will recur. Robust prognostic markers are required to better manage therapy options. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a novel gene-expression signature that can predict tumor recurrence of stage I NSCLC patients. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify recurrence-related genes and a partial Cox regression model was used to generate a gene signature of recurrence in the training dataset -142 stage I lung adenocarcinomas without adjunctive therapy from the Director's Challenge Consortium. Four independent validation datasets, including GSE5843, GSE8894, and two other datasets provided by Mayo Clinic and Washington University, were used to assess the prediction accuracy by calculating the correlation between risk score estimated from gene expression and real recurrence-free survival time and AUC of time-dependent ROC analysis. Pathway-based survival analyses were also performed. 104 probesets correlated with recurrence in the training dataset. They are enriched in cell adhesion, apoptosis and regulation of cell proliferation. A 51-gene expression signature was identified to distinguish patients likely to develop tumor recurrence (Dxy = -0.83, P<1e-16) and this signature was validated in four independent datasets with AUC >85%. Multiple pathways including leukocyte transendothelial migration and cell adhesion were highly correlated with recurrence-free survival. The gene signature is highly predictive of recurrence in stage I NSCLC patients, which has important prognostic and therapeutic implications for the future management of these patients.

  12. Combining modelling and experimental approaches to explain how calcium signatures are decoded by calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) to produce specific gene expression responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junli; Whalley, Helen J; Knight, Marc R

    2015-10-01

    Experimental data show that Arabidopsis thaliana is able to decode different calcium signatures to produce specific gene expression responses. It is also known that calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) have calmodulin (CaM)-binding domains. Therefore, the gene expression responses regulated by CAMTAs respond to calcium signals. However, little is known about how different calcium signatures are decoded by CAMTAs to produce specific gene expression responses. A dynamic model of Ca(2+) -CaM-CAMTA binding and gene expression responses is developed following thermodynamic and kinetic principles. The model is parameterized using experimental data. Then it is used to analyse how different calcium signatures are decoded by CAMTAs to produce specific gene expression responses. Modelling analysis reveals that: calcium signals in the form of cytosolic calcium concentration elevations are nonlinearly amplified by binding of Ca(2+) , CaM and CAMTAs; amplification of Ca(2+) signals enables calcium signatures to be decoded to give specific CAMTA-regulated gene expression responses; gene expression responses to a calcium signature depend upon its history and accumulate all the information during the lifetime of the calcium signature. Information flow from calcium signatures to CAMTA-regulated gene expression responses has been established by combining experimental data with mathematical modelling.

  13. KRAS driven expression signature has prognostic power superior to mutation status in non‐small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Ádám; Pongor, Lőrinc Sándor; Szabó, András; Santarpia, Mariacarmela

    2016-01-01

    KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic role of KRAS mutation status in NSCLC still remains controversial. We hypothesize that the expression changes of genes affected by KRAS mutation status will have the most prominent effect and could be used as a prognostic signature in lung cancer. We divided NSCLC patients with mutation and RNA‐seq data into KRAS mutated and wild type groups. Mann‐Whitney test was used to identify genes showing altered expression between these cohorts. Mean expression of the top five genes was designated as a “transcriptomic fingerprint” of the mutation. We evaluated the effect of this signature on clinical outcome in 2,437 NSCLC patients using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Mutation of KRAS was most common in adenocarcinoma. Mutation status and KRAS expression were not correlated to prognosis. The transcriptomic fingerprint of KRAS include FOXRED2, KRAS, TOP1, PEX3 and ABL2. The KRAS signature had a high prognostic power. Similar results were achieved when using the second and third set of strongest genes. Moreover, all cutoff values delivered significant prognostic power (p < 0.01). The KRAS signature also remained significant (p < 0.01) in a multivariate analysis including age, gender, smoking history and tumor stage. We generated a “surrogate signature” of KRAS mutation status in NSCLC patients by computationally linking genotype and gene expression. We show that secondary effects of a mutation can have a higher prognostic relevance than the primary genetic alteration itself. PMID:27859136

  14. A New Gene Expression Signature for Triple Negative Breast Cancer Using Frozen Fresh Tissue before Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Santuario-Facio, Sandra Karina; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Perez-Paramo, Yadira Xitlalli; Trevino, Victor; Hernandez-Cabrera, Francisco; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Uscanga-Perales, Grecia; Martinez-Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Martinez-Jacobo, Lizeth; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Juan Francisco; Valero-Gomez, Javier; Vazquez-Guerrero, Ana Lorena; Martinez-Rodriguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Barboza-Quintana, Alvaro; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio

    2017-05-04

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer tumors. Comparisons between TNBC and non-triple negative breast cancer (nTNBC) may help to differentiate key components involved in TNBC neoplasms. The purpose of the study was to analyze the expression profile of TNBC versus nTNBC tumors in a homogeneous population from northeastern Mexico. A prospective study of 50 patients was conducted (25 TNBC and 25 nTNBC). Clinic parameters were equally distributed for TNBC and nTNBC: age at diagnosis (51 vs 47 years, p=0.1), glucose levels (107 mg/dl vs 104 mg/dl, p=0.64), and body mass index (28 vs 29, p=0.14), respectively. Core biopsies were collected for histopathological diagnosis and gene expression analyses. Total RNA was isolated and expression profiling was performed. 40 genes showed differential expression pattern in TNBC tumors. Among these, 9 over-expressed genes (PRKX/PRKY, UGT8, HMGA1, LPIN1, HAPLN3, and ANKRD11), and one under-expressed (ANX9) gene are involved in general metabolism. Based on this biochemical peculiarity, and the over-expression of BCL11A and FOXC1 (involved in tumor growth and metastasis, respectively) we validated by qPCR the expression profile of 7 genes out of the signature. In this report, a new gene signature for TNBC is proposed. To our knowledge, this is the first TNBC signature which describes genes involved in general metabolism. The findings may be pertinent for Mexican patients and require to be evaluated in further ethnic groups and populations.

  15. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

    PubMed Central

    Iandolino, Alberto; Nobuta, Kan; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R; Meyers, Blake C

    2008-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million). Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed evidence of antisense

  16. Identification of high risk anaplastic gliomas by a diagnostic and prognostic signature derived from mRNA expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Bao; Zhu, Ping; Yang, Pei; Cai, Jin-Quan; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Li, Qing-Bin; Bao, Zhao-Shi; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Tao

    2015-11-03

    Anaplastic gliomas are characterized by variable clinical and genetic features, but there are few studies focusing on the substratification of anaplastic gliomas. To identify a more objective and applicable classification of anaplastic gliomas, we analyzed whole genome mRNA expression profiling of four independent datasets. Univariate Cox regression, linear risk score formula and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were applied to derive a gene signature with best prognostic performance. The corresponding clinical and molecular information were further analyzed for interpretation of the different prognosis and the independence of the signature. Gene ontology (GO), Gene Set Variation Analysis (GSVA) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed for functional annotation of the differences. We found a three-gene signature, by applying which, the anaplastic gliomas could be divided into low risk and high risk groups. The two groups showed a high concordance with grade II and grade IV gliomas, respectively. The high risk group was more aggressive and complex. The three-gene signature showed diagnostic and prognostic value in anaplastic gliomas.

  17. From big data to diagnosis and prognosis: gene expression signatures in liver hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-yong; Wen, Dong-yue; Ye, Zhi-hua; Liang, Liang; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Han-lin

    2017-01-01

    Background Liver hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for the overwhelming majority of primary liver cancers and its belated diagnosis and poor prognosis call for novel biomarkers to be discovered, which, in the era of big data, innovative bioinformatics and computational techniques can prove to be highly helpful in. Methods Big data aggregated from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Natural Language Processing were integrated to generate differentially expressed genes. Relevant signaling pathways of differentially expressed genes went through Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Panther pathway enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction network. The pathway ranked high in the enrichment analysis was further investigated, and selected genes with top priority were evaluated and assessed in terms of their diagnostic and prognostic values. Results A list of 389 genes was generated by overlapping genes from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Natural Language Processing. Three pathways demonstrated top priorities, and the one with specific associations with cancers, ‘pathways in cancer,’ was analyzed with its four highlighted genes, namely, BIRC5, E2F1, CCNE1, and CDKN2A, which were validated using Oncomine. The detection pool composed of the four genes presented satisfactory diagnostic power with an outstanding integrated AUC of 0.990 (95% CI [0.982–0.998], P < 0.001, sensitivity: 96.0%, specificity: 96.5%). BIRC5 (P = 0.021) and CCNE1 (P = 0.027) were associated with poor prognosis, while CDKN2A (P = 0.066) and E2F1 (P = 0.088) demonstrated no statistically significant differences. Discussion The study illustrates liver hepatocellular carcinoma gene signatures, related pathways and networks from the perspective of big data, featuring the cancer-specific pathway with priority, ‘pathways in cancer.’ The detection pool of the four highlighted genes, namely BIRC5, E2F1, CCNE1 and CDKN2A, should be further investigated

  18. Validation study of existing gene expression signatures for anti-TNF treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Toonen, Erik J M; Gilissen, Christian; Franke, Barbara; Kievit, Wietske; Eijsbouts, Agnes M; den Broeder, Alfons A; van Reijmersdal, Simon V; Veltman, Joris A; Scheffer, Hans; Radstake, Timothy R D J; van Riel, Piet L C M; Barrera, Pilar; Coenen, Marieke J H

    2012-01-01

    So far, there are no means of identifying rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who will fail to respond to tumour necrosis factor blocking agents (anti-TNF), prior to treatment. We set out to validate eight previously reported gene expression signatures predicting therapy outcome. Genome-wide expression profiling using Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST arrays was performed on RNA isolated from whole blood of 42 RA patients starting treatment with infliximab or adalimumab. Clinical response according to EULAR criteria was determined at week 14 of therapy. Genes that have been reported to be associated with anti-TNF treatment were extracted from our dataset. K-means partition clustering was performed to assess the predictive value of the gene-sets. We performed a hypothesis-driven analysis of the dataset using eight existing gene sets predictive of anti-TNF treatment outcome. The set that performed best reached a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 61%, for classifying the patients in the current study. We successfully validated one of eight previously reported predictive expression profile. This replicated expression signature is a good starting point for developing a prediction model for anti-TNF treatment outcome that can be used in a daily clinical setting. Our results confirm that gene expression profiling prior to treatment is a useful tool to predict anti-TNF (non) response.

  19. Validation Study of Existing Gene Expression Signatures for Anti-TNF Treatment in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Erik J. M.; Gilissen, Christian; Franke, Barbara; Kievit, Wietske; Eijsbouts, Agnes M.; den Broeder, Alfons A.; van Reijmersdal, Simon V.; Veltman, Joris A.; Scheffer, Hans; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; Barrera, Pilar; Coenen, Marieke J. H.

    2012-01-01

    So far, there are no means of identifying rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who will fail to respond to tumour necrosis factor blocking agents (anti-TNF), prior to treatment. We set out to validate eight previously reported gene expression signatures predicting therapy outcome. Genome-wide expression profiling using Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST arrays was performed on RNA isolated from whole blood of 42 RA patients starting treatment with infliximab or adalimumab. Clinical response according to EULAR criteria was determined at week 14 of therapy. Genes that have been reported to be associated with anti-TNF treatment were extracted from our dataset. K-means partition clustering was performed to assess the predictive value of the gene-sets. We performed a hypothesis-driven analysis of the dataset using eight existing gene sets predictive of anti-TNF treatment outcome. The set that performed best reached a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 61%, for classifying the patients in the current study. We successfully validated one of eight previously reported predictive expression profile. This replicated expression signature is a good starting point for developing a prediction model for anti-TNF treatment outcome that can be used in a daily clinical setting. Our results confirm that gene expression profiling prior to treatment is a useful tool to predict anti-TNF (non) response. PMID:22457743

  20. Identifying protective host gene expression signatures within the spleen during West Nile virus infection in the collaborative cross model.

    PubMed

    Green, Richard; Wilkins, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Sekine, Aimee; Ireton, Renee C; Ferris, Martin T; Hendrick, Duncan M; Voss, Kathleen; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Baric, Ralph; Heise, Mark; Gale, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Flaviviruses are hematophagous arthropod-viruses that pose global challenges to human health. Like Zika virus, West Nile Virus (WNV) is a flavivirus for which no approved vaccine exists [1]. The role host genetics play in early detection and response to WNV still remains largely unexplained. In order to capture the impact of genetic variation on innate immune responses, we studied gene expression following WNV infection using the collaborative cross (CC). The CC is a mouse genetics resource composed of hundreds of independently bred, octo-parental recombinant inbred mouse lines [2]. To accurately capture the host immune gene expression signatures of West Nile infection, we used the nanostring platform to evaluate expression in spleen tissue isolated from CC mice infected with WNV over a time course of 4, 7, and 12 days' post-infection [3]. Nanostring is a non-amplification based digital method to quantitate gene expression that uses color-coded molecular barcodes to detect hundreds of transcripts in a sample. Using this approach, we identified unique gene signatures in spleen tissue at days 4, 7, and 12 following WNV infection, which delineated distinct differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic CC lines. We also identified novel immune genes. Data was deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession GSE86000.

  1. No Specific Gene Expression Signature in Human Granulosa and Cumulus Cells for Prediction of Oocyte Fertilisation and Embryo Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Papler, Tanja; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda; Lovrecic, Luca; Kopitar, Andreja Natasa; Maver, Ales

    2015-01-01

    In human IVF procedures objective and reliable biomarkers of oocyte and embryo quality are needed in order to increase the use of single embryo transfer (SET) and thus prevent multiple pregnancies. During folliculogenesis there is an intense bi-directional communication between oocyte and follicular cells. For this reason gene expression profile of follicular cells could be an important indicator and biomarker of oocyte and embryo quality. The objective of this study was to identify gene expression signature(s) in human granulosa (GC) and cumulus (CC) cells predictive of successful embryo implantation and oocyte fertilization. Forty-one patients were included in the study and individual GC and CC samples were collected; oocytes were cultivated separately, allowing a correlation with IVF outcome and elective SET was performed. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays, followed by a quantitative real-time PCR validation. After statistical analysis of microarray data, there were no significantly differentially expressed genes (FDR<0,05) between non-fertilized and fertilized oocytes and non-implanted and implanted embryos in either of the cell type. Furthermore, the results of quantitative real-time PCR were in consent with microarray data as there were no significant differences in gene expression of genes selected for validation. In conclusion, we did not find biomarkers for prediction of oocyte fertilization and embryo implantation in IVF procedures in the present study. PMID:25769026

  2. Gene-expression signature of benign monoclonal gammopathy evident in multiple myeloma is linked to good prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Fenghuang; Barlogie, Bart; Arzoumanian, Varant; Huang, Yongsheng; Williams, David R.; Hollmig, Klaus; Pineda-Roman, Mauricio; Tricot, Guido; van Rhee, Frits; Zangari, Maurizio; Dhodapkar, Madhav; Shaughnessy, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) can progress to multiple myeloma (MM). Although these diseases share many of the same genetic features, it is still unclear whether global gene-expression profiling might identify prior genomic signatures that distinguish them. Through significance analysis of microarrays, 52 genes involved in important pathways related to cancer were differentially expressed in the plasma cells of healthy subjects (normal plasma-cell [NPC]; n = 22) and patients with stringently defined MGUS/smoldering MM (n = 24) and symptomatic MM (n = 351) (P < .001). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of 351 patients with MM, 44 with MGUS (24 + 20), and 16 with MM from MGUS created 2 major cluster branches, one containing 82% of the MGUS patients and the other containing 28% of the MM patients, termed MGUS-like MM (MGUS-L MM). Using the same clustering approach on an independent cohort of 214 patients with MM, 27% were found to be MGUS-L. This molecular signature, despite its association with a lower incidence of complete remission (P = .006), was associated with low-risk clinical and molecular features and superior survival (P < .01). The MGUS-L signature was also seen in plasma cells from 15 of 20 patients surviving more than 10 years after autotransplantation. These data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of plasma-cell dyscrasias. PMID:17023574

  3. Pharmacologic inhibition of RORγt regulates Th17 signature gene expression and suppresses cutaneous inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Skepner, Jill; Ramesh, Radha; Trocha, Mark; Schmidt, Darby; Baloglu, Erkan; Lobera, Mercedes; Carlson, Thaddeus; Hill, Jonathan; Orband-Miller, Lisa A; Barnes, Ashley; Boudjelal, Mohamed; Sundrud, Mark; Ghosh, Shomir; Yang, Jianfei

    2014-03-15

    IL-17-producing CD4(+)Th17 cells, CD8(+)Tc17 cells, and γδ T cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune psoriasis. RORγt is required for the differentiation of Th17 cells and expression of IL-17. In this article, we describe a novel, potent, and selective RORγt inverse agonist (TMP778), and its inactive diastereomer (TMP776). This chemistry, for the first time to our knowledge, provides a unique and powerful set of tools to probe RORγt-dependent functions. TMP778, but not TMP776, blocked human Th17 and Tc17 cell differentiation and also acutely modulated IL-17A production and inflammatory Th17-signature gene expression (Il17a, Il17f, Il22, Il26, Ccr6, and Il23) in mature human Th17 effector/memory T cells. In addition, TMP778, but not TMP776, inhibited IL-17A production in both human and mouse γδ T cells. IL-23-induced IL-17A production was also blocked by TMP778 treatment. In vivo targeting of RORγt in mice via TMP778 administration reduced imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like cutaneous inflammation. Further, TMP778 selectively regulated Th17-signature gene expression in mononuclear cells isolated from both the blood and affected skin of psoriasis patients. In summary, to our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate that RORγt inverse agonists: 1) inhibit Tc17 cell differentiation, as well as IL-17 production by γδ T cells and CD8(+) Tc17 cells; 2) block imiquimod-induced cutaneous inflammation; 3) inhibit Th17 signature gene expression by cells isolated from psoriatic patient samples; and 4) block IL-23-induced IL-17A expression. Thus, RORγt is a tractable drug target for the treatment of cutaneous inflammatory disorders, which may afford additional therapeutic benefit over existing modalities that target only IL-17A.

  4. A New Gene Expression Signature for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Frozen Fresh Tissue before Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Santuario-Facio, Sandra K; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Perez-Paramo, Yadira X; Trevino, Victor; Hernandez-Cabrera, Francisco; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Uscanga-Perales, Grecia; Martinez-Rodriguez, Jorge L; Martinez-Jacobo, Lizeth; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Juan Francisco; Valero-Gomez, Javier; Vazquez-Guerrero, Ana L; Martinez-Rodriguez, Herminia G; Barboza-Quintana, Alvaro; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer tumors. Comparisons between TNBC and non–triple-negative breast cancer (nTNBC) may help to differentiate key components involved in TNBC neoplasms. The purpose of the study was to analyze the expression profile of TNBC versus nTNBC tumors in a homogeneous population from northeastern Mexico. A prospective study of 50 patients (25 TNBC and 25 nTNBC) was conducted. Clinic parameters were equally distributed for TNBC and nTNBC: age at diagnosis (51 versus 47 years, p = 0.1), glucose level (107 mg/dl versus 104 mg/dl, p = 0.64), and body mass index (28 versus 29, p = 0.14). Core biopsies were collected for histopathological diagnosis and gene expression analysis. Total RNA was isolated and expression profiling was performed. Forty genes showed differential expression pattern in TNBC tumors. Among these, nine overexpressed genes (PRKX/PRKY, UGT8, HMGA1, LPIN1, HAPLN3, FAM171A1, BCL141A, FOXC1, and ANKRD11), and one underexpressed gene (ANX9) are involved in general metabolism. Based on this biochemical peculiarity and the overexpression of BCL11A and FOXC1 (involved in tumor growth and metastasis, respectively), we validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction the expression profiles of seven genes out of the signature. In this report, a new gene signature for TNBC is proposed. To our knowledge, this is the first TNBC signature that describes genes involved in general metabolism. The findings may be pertinent for Mexican patients and require evaluation in other ethnic groups and populations. PMID:28474731

  5. A gene expression signature that predicts the therapeutic response of the basal-like breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yiing; Lin, Shin; Watson, Mark; Trinkaus, Kathryn M.; Kuo, Sacha; Naughton, Michael J.; Weilbaecher, Katherine; Fleming, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Several gene expression profiles have been reported to predict breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These studies often consider breast cancer as a homogeneous entity, although higher rates of pathologic complete response (pCR) are known to occur within the basal-like subclass. We postulated that profiles with higher predictive accuracy could be derived from a subset analysis of basal-like tumors in isolation. Using a previously described “intrinsic” signature to differentiate breast tumor subclasses, we identified 50 basal-like tumors from two independent clinical trials associated with gene expression profile data. 24 tumor data sets were derived from a 119-patient neoadjuvant trial at our institution and an additional 26 tumor data sets were identified from a published data set (Hess et al. J Clin Oncol 24:4236–4244, 2006). The combined 50 basal-like tumors were partitioned to form a 37 sample training set with 13 sequestered for validation. Clinical surveillance occurred for a mean of 26 months. We identified a 23-gene profile which predicted pCR in basal-like breast cancers with 92% predictive accuracy in the sequestered validation data set. Furthermore, distinct cluster of patients with high rates of cancer recurrence was observed based on cluster analysis with the 23-gene signature. Disease-free survival analysis of these three clusters revealed significantly reduced survival in the patients of this high recurrence cluster. We identified a 23-gene signature which predicts response of basal-like breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy as well as disease-free survival. This signature is independent of tissue collection method and chemotherapeutic regimen. PMID:19967557

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of four Bacillus clausii strains: proteomic expression signature distinguishes protein profile of the strains.

    PubMed

    Lippolis, Rosa; Gnoni, Antonio; Abbrescia, Anna; Panelli, Damiano; Maiorano, Stefania; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Papa, Sergio; Gaballo, Antonio

    2011-11-18

    A comparative proteomic approach, using two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, has been developed to compare and elucidate the differences among the cellular proteomes of four closely related isogenic O/C, SIN, N/R and T, B. clausii strains during both exponential and stationary phases of growth. Image analysis of the electropherograms reveals a high degree of concordance among the four proteomes, some proteins result, however, differently expressed. The proteins spots exhibiting high different expression level were identified, by mass-spectrometry analysis, as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHA, EC1.2.1.3; ABC0046 isoform) aldehyde dehydrogenase (DHAS, EC 1.2.1.3; ABC0047 isoform) and flagellin-protein of B. clausii KSM-k16. The different expression levels of the two dehydrogenases were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and dehydrogenases enzymatic activity. The different patterns of protein expression can be considered as cell proteome signatures of the different strains.

  7. Longitudinal Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Sustained Differential Gene Expression Signature in Patients Treated for Acute Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Jerome; Soloski, Mark J; Swei, Andrea; Cheadle, Chris; Federman, Scot; Billaud, Jean-Noel; Rebman, Alison W; Kabre, Beniwende; Halpert, Richard; Boorgula, Meher; Aucott, John N; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-02-12

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and approximately 10 to 20% of patients report persistent symptoms lasting months to years despite appropriate treatment with antibiotics. To gain insights into the molecular basis of acute Lyme disease and the ensuing development of post-treatment symptoms, we conducted a longitudinal transcriptome study of 29 Lyme disease patients (and 13 matched controls) enrolled at the time of diagnosis and followed for up to 6 months. The differential gene expression signature of Lyme disease following the acute phase of infection persisted for at least 3 weeks and had fewer than 44% differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in common with other infectious or noninfectious syndromes. Early Lyme disease prior to antibiotic therapy was characterized by marked upregulation of Toll-like receptor signaling but lack of activation of the inflammatory T-cell apoptotic and B-cell developmental pathways seen in other acute infectious syndromes. Six months after completion of therapy, Lyme disease patients were found to have 31 to 60% of their pathways in common with three different immune-mediated chronic diseases. No differential gene expression signature was observed between Lyme disease patients with resolved illness to those with persistent symptoms at 6 months post-treatment. The identification of a sustained differential gene expression signature in Lyme disease suggests that a panel of selected human host-based biomarkers may address the need for sensitive clinical diagnostics during the "window period" of infection prior to the appearance of a detectable antibody response and may also inform the development of new therapeutic targets. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infection in the United States, and some patients report lingering symptoms lasting months to years despite antibiotic treatment. To better understand the role of the human host response in acute Lyme disease and the

  8. Longitudinal Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Sustained Differential Gene Expression Signature in Patients Treated for Acute Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bouquet, Jerome; Soloski, Mark J.; Swei, Andrea; Cheadle, Chris; Federman, Scot; Billaud, Jean-Noel; Rebman, Alison W.; Kabre, Beniwende; Halpert, Richard; Boorgula, Meher

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and approximately 10 to 20% of patients report persistent symptoms lasting months to years despite appropriate treatment with antibiotics. To gain insights into the molecular basis of acute Lyme disease and the ensuing development of post-treatment symptoms, we conducted a longitudinal transcriptome study of 29 Lyme disease patients (and 13 matched controls) enrolled at the time of diagnosis and followed for up to 6 months. The differential gene expression signature of Lyme disease following the acute phase of infection persisted for at least 3 weeks and had fewer than 44% differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in common with other infectious or noninfectious syndromes. Early Lyme disease prior to antibiotic therapy was characterized by marked upregulation of Toll-like receptor signaling but lack of activation of the inflammatory T-cell apoptotic and B-cell developmental pathways seen in other acute infectious syndromes. Six months after completion of therapy, Lyme disease patients were found to have 31 to 60% of their pathways in common with three different immune-mediated chronic diseases. No differential gene expression signature was observed between Lyme disease patients with resolved illness to those with persistent symptoms at 6 months post-treatment. The identification of a sustained differential gene expression signature in Lyme disease suggests that a panel of selected human host-based biomarkers may address the need for sensitive clinical diagnostics during the “window period” of infection prior to the appearance of a detectable antibody response and may also inform the development of new therapeutic targets. PMID:26873097

  9. LINCS Canvas Browser: interactive web app to query, browse and interrogate LINCS L1000 gene expression signatures

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qiaonan; Flynn, Corey; Niepel, Mario; Hafner, Marc; Muhlich, Jeremy L.; Fernandez, Nicolas F.; Rouillard, Andrew D.; Tan, Christopher M.; Chen, Edward Y.; Golub, Todd R.; Sorger, Peter K.; Subramanian, Aravind; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2014-01-01

    For the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project many gene expression signatures using the L1000 technology have been produced. The L1000 technology is a cost-effective method to profile gene expression in large scale. LINCS Canvas Browser (LCB) is an interactive HTML5 web-based software application that facilitates querying, browsing and interrogating many of the currently available LINCS L1000 data. LCB implements two compacted layered canvases, one to visualize clustered L1000 expression data, and the other to display enrichment analysis results using 30 different gene set libraries. Clicking on an experimental condition highlights gene-sets enriched for the differentially expressed genes from the selected experiment. A search interface allows users to input gene lists and query them against over 100 000 conditions to find the top matching experiments. The tool integrates many resources for an unprecedented potential for new discoveries in systems biology and systems pharmacology. The LCB application is available at http://www.maayanlab.net/LINCS/LCB. Customized versions will be made part of the http://lincscloud.org and http://lincs.hms.harvard.edu websites. PMID:24906883

  10. LINCS Canvas Browser: interactive web app to query, browse and interrogate LINCS L1000 gene expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiaonan; Flynn, Corey; Niepel, Mario; Hafner, Marc; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Rouillard, Andrew D; Tan, Christopher M; Chen, Edward Y; Golub, Todd R; Sorger, Peter K; Subramanian, Aravind; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2014-07-01

    For the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project many gene expression signatures using the L1000 technology have been produced. The L1000 technology is a cost-effective method to profile gene expression in large scale. LINCS Canvas Browser (LCB) is an interactive HTML5 web-based software application that facilitates querying, browsing and interrogating many of the currently available LINCS L1000 data. LCB implements two compacted layered canvases, one to visualize clustered L1000 expression data, and the other to display enrichment analysis results using 30 different gene set libraries. Clicking on an experimental condition highlights gene-sets enriched for the differentially expressed genes from the selected experiment. A search interface allows users to input gene lists and query them against over 100 000 conditions to find the top matching experiments. The tool integrates many resources for an unprecedented potential for new discoveries in systems biology and systems pharmacology. The LCB application is available at http://www.maayanlab.net/LINCS/LCB. Customized versions will be made part of the http://lincscloud.org and http://lincs.hms.harvard.edu websites. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Independent confirmation of a prognostic gene-expression signature in adult acute myeloid leukemia with a normal karyotype: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study

    PubMed Central

    Radmacher, Michael D.; Marcucci, Guido; Ruppert, Amy S.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Whitman, Susan P.; Vardiman, James W.; Paschka, Peter; Vukosavljevic, Tamara; Baldus, Claudia D.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and normal karyotype are classified in an intermediate-risk group, albeit this subset is heterogeneous for clinical outcome. A recent complementary DNA microarray study identified a gene-expression signature that—when used to cluster normal karyotype patients—separated them into 2 prognostically relevant subgroups. We sought the first independent validation of the prognostic value of this signature. Using oligonucleotide microarrays to measure gene expression in samples from uniformly treated adults with karyotypically normal AML, we performed cluster analysis based on the previously identified signature. We also developed a well-defined classification rule using the signature to predict outcome for individual patients. Cluster analysis confirmed the prognostic utility of the signature: patient clusters differed in overall (P = .001) and disease-free (P = .001) survival. The signature-based classifier identified groups with differences in overall (P = .02) and disease-free (P = .05) survival. A strong association of the outcome classifier with the prognostically adverse FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3 ITD) potentially explained the prognostic significance of the signature. However, in the subgroup of patients without FLT3 ITD there was a moderate difference in survival for the classifier-derived groups. Our analysis confirms the applicability of the gene-expression profiling strategy for outcome prediction in cytogenetically normal AML. PMID:16670265

  12. Early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis: distinct molecular signatures identified by gene-expression profiling in synovia

    PubMed Central

    Lequerré, Thierry; Bansard, Carine; Vittecoq, Olivier; Derambure, Céline; Hiron, Martine; Daveau, Maryvonne; Tron, François; Ayral, Xavier; Biga, Norman; Auquit-Auckbur, Isabelle; Chiocchia, Gilles; Le Loët, Xavier; Salier, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease and its underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Because previous microarray studies have only focused on long-standing (LS) RA compared to osteoarthritis, we aimed to compare the molecular profiles of early and LS RA versus control synovia. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained by arthroscopy from 15 patients (4 early untreated RA, 4 treated LS RA and 7 controls, who had traumatic or mechanical lesions). Extracted mRNAs were used for large-scale gene-expression profiling. The different gene-expression combinations identified by comparison of profiles of early, LS RA and healthy synovia were linked to the biological processes involved in each situation. Results Three combinations of 719, 116 and 52 transcripts discriminated, respectively, early from LS RA, and early or LS RA from healthy synovia. We identified several gene clusters and distinct molecular signatures specifically expressed during early or LS RA, thereby suggesting the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms during the course of RA. Conclusions Early and LS RA have distinct molecular signatures with different biological processes participating at different times during the course of the disease. These results suggest that better knowledge of the main biological processes involved at a given RA stage might help to choose the most appropriate treatment. PMID:19563633

  13. Identification of Single- and Multiple-Class Specific Signature Genes from Gene Expression Profiles by Group Marker Index

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Shuen; Aguan, Kripamoy; Pal, Nikhil R.; Chung, I-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Informative genes from microarray data can be used to construct prediction model and investigate biological mechanisms. Differentially expressed genes, the main targets of most gene selection methods, can be classified as single- and multiple-class specific signature genes. Here, we present a novel gene selection algorithm based on a Group Marker Index (GMI), which is intuitive, of low-computational complexity, and efficient in identification of both types of genes. Most gene selection methods identify only single-class specific signature genes and cannot identify multiple-class specific signature genes easily. Our algorithm can detect de novo certain conditions of multiple-class specificity of a gene and makes use of a novel non-parametric indicator to assess the discrimination ability between classes. Our method is effective even when the sample size is small as well as when the class sizes are significantly different. To compare the effectiveness and robustness we formulate an intuitive template-based method and use four well-known datasets. We demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms the template-based method in difficult cases with unbalanced distribution. Moreover, the multiple-class specific genes are good biomarkers and play important roles in biological pathways. Our literature survey supports that the proposed method identifies unique multiple-class specific marker genes (not reported earlier to be related to cancer) in the Central Nervous System data. It also discovers unique biomarkers indicating the intrinsic difference between subtypes of lung cancer. We also associate the pathway information with the multiple-class specific signature genes and cross-reference to published studies. We find that the identified genes participate in the pathways directly involved in cancer development in leukemia data. Our method gives a promising way to find genes that can involve in pathways of multiple diseases and hence opens up the possibility of using an existing

  14. Identification of single- and multiple-class specific signature genes from gene expression profiles by group marker index.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Shuen; Aguan, Kripamoy; Pal, Nikhil R; Chung, I-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Informative genes from microarray data can be used to construct prediction model and investigate biological mechanisms. Differentially expressed genes, the main targets of most gene selection methods, can be classified as single- and multiple-class specific signature genes. Here, we present a novel gene selection algorithm based on a Group Marker Index (GMI), which is intuitive, of low-computational complexity, and efficient in identification of both types of genes. Most gene selection methods identify only single-class specific signature genes and cannot identify multiple-class specific signature genes easily. Our algorithm can detect de novo certain conditions of multiple-class specificity of a gene and makes use of a novel non-parametric indicator to assess the discrimination ability between classes. Our method is effective even when the sample size is small as well as when the class sizes are significantly different. To compare the effectiveness and robustness we formulate an intuitive template-based method and use four well-known datasets. We demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms the template-based method in difficult cases with unbalanced distribution. Moreover, the multiple-class specific genes are good biomarkers and play important roles in biological pathways. Our literature survey supports that the proposed method identifies unique multiple-class specific marker genes (not reported earlier to be related to cancer) in the Central Nervous System data. It also discovers unique biomarkers indicating the intrinsic difference between subtypes of lung cancer. We also associate the pathway information with the multiple-class specific signature genes and cross-reference to published studies. We find that the identified genes participate in the pathways directly involved in cancer development in leukemia data. Our method gives a promising way to find genes that can involve in pathways of multiple diseases and hence opens up the possibility of using an existing

  15. Identification of Gene Expression Signatures in the Chicken Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes in Response to Herb Additive Supplementations

    PubMed Central

    Won, Kyeong-Hye; Song, Ki-Duk; Park, Jong-Eun; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Na, Chong-Sam

    2016-01-01

    Anethole and garlic have an immune modulatory effects on avian coccidiosis, and these effects are correlated with gene expression changes in intestinal epithelial lymphocytes (IELs). In this study, we integrated gene expression datasets from two independent experiments and investigated gene expression profile changes by anethole and garlic respectively, and identified gene expression signatures, which are common targets of these herbs as they might be used for the evaluation of the effect of plant herbs on immunity toward avian coccidiosis. We identified 4,382 and 371 genes, which were differentially expressed in IELs of chickens supplemented with garlic and anethole respectively. The gene ontology (GO) term of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from garlic treatment resulted in the biological processes (BPs) related to proteolysis, e.g., “modification-dependent protein catabolic process”, “proteolysis involved in cellular protein catabolic process”, “cellular protein catabolic process”, “protein catabolic process”, and “ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process”. In GO analysis, one BP term, “Proteolysis”, was obtained. Among DEGs, 300 genes were differentially regulated in response to both garlic and anethole, and 234 and 59 genes were either up- or down-regulated in supplementation with both herbs. Pathway analysis resulted in enrichment of the pathways related to digestion such as “Starch and sucrose metabolism” and “Insulin signaling pathway”. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study could contribute to the effective development of evaluation system of plant herbs based on molecular signatures related with their immunological functions in chicken IELs. PMID:26954117

  16. Gene expression profiling by high throughput sequencing to determine signatures for the bovine receptive uterus at early gestation.

    PubMed

    Van Hoeck, Veerle; Scolari, Saara C; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Gonella-Diaza, Angela M; Andrade, Sónia C S; Gasparin, Gustavo R; Coutinho, Luiz L; Binelli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    The uterus plays a central role among the reproductive tissues in the context of early embryo-maternal communication and a successful pregnancy depends on a complex series of endometrial molecular and cellular events. The factors responsible for the initial interaction between maternal and embryonic tissues, leading to the establishment of pregnancy, remain poorly understood. In this context, Illumina's next-generation sequencing technology has been used to discover the uterine transcriptome signature that is favourable for ongoing pregnancy. More specifically, the present report documents on a retrospective in vivo study in which data on pregnancy outcome were linked to uterine gene expression signatures on day 6 (bovine model). Using the RNA-Seq method, 14.654 reference genes were effectively analysed for differential expression between pregnant and non-pregnant uterine tissue. Transcriptome data revealed that 216 genes were differently expressed when comparing uterine tissue from pregnant and non-pregnant cows. All read sequences were deposited in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra). An overview of the gene expression data has been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and is accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE65117. This allows the research community to enhance reproducibility and allows for new discoveries by comparing datasets of signatures linked to receptivity and/or pregnancy success. The resulting information can serve as tool to identify valuable and urgently needed biomarkers for scoring maternal receptivity and even for accurate detection of early pregnancy, which is a matter of cross-species interest. Beyond gene expression analysis as a marker tool, the RNA-Seq information on pregnant uterine tissue can be used to gain novel mechanistic insights, such as by identifying alternative splicing events, allele-specific expression, and rare and novel transcripts that might be involved in

  17. Gene expression profiling by high throughput sequencing to determine signatures for the bovine receptive uterus at early gestation

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoeck, Veerle; Scolari, Saara C.; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Gonella-Diaza, Angela M.; Andrade, Sónia C.S.; Gasparin, Gustavo R.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Binelli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The uterus plays a central role among the reproductive tissues in the context of early embryo-maternal communication and a successful pregnancy depends on a complex series of endometrial molecular and cellular events. The factors responsible for the initial interaction between maternal and embryonic tissues, leading to the establishment of pregnancy, remain poorly understood. In this context, Illumina's next-generation sequencing technology has been used to discover the uterine transcriptome signature that is favourable for ongoing pregnancy. More specifically, the present report documents on a retrospective in vivo study in which data on pregnancy outcome were linked to uterine gene expression signatures on day 6 (bovine model). Using the RNA-Seq method, 14.654 reference genes were effectively analysed for differential expression between pregnant and non-pregnant uterine tissue. Transcriptome data revealed that 216 genes were differently expressed when comparing uterine tissue from pregnant and non-pregnant cows. All read sequences were deposited in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra). An overview of the gene expression data has been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and is accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE65117. This allows the research community to enhance reproducibility and allows for new discoveries by comparing datasets of signatures linked to receptivity and/or pregnancy success. The resulting information can serve as tool to identify valuable and urgently needed biomarkers for scoring maternal receptivity and even for accurate detection of early pregnancy, which is a matter of cross-species interest. Beyond gene expression analysis as a marker tool, the RNA-Seq information on pregnant uterine tissue can be used to gain novel mechanistic insights, such as by identifying alternative splicing events, allele-specific expression, and rare and novel transcripts that might be involved in

  18. Gene expression signature discriminates sporadic from post-radiotherapy-induced thyroid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Catherine; Ugolin, Nicolas; Levalois, Céline; Lacroix, Ludovic; Caillou, Bernard; Bidart, Jean-Michel; Schlumberger, Martin; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Hofman, Paul; Santini, José; Malfoy, Bernard; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Both external and internal exposure to ionizing radiation are strong risk factors for the development of thyroid tumors. Until now, the diagnosis of radiation-induced thyroid tumors has been deduced from a network of arguments taken together with the individual history of radiation exposure. Neither the histological features nor the genetic alterations observed in these tumors have been shown to be specific fingerprints of an exposure to radiation. The aim of our work is to define ionizing radiation-related molecular specificities in a series of secondary thyroid tumors developed in the radiation field of patients treated by radiotherapy. To identify molecular markers that could represent a radiation-induction signature, we compared 25K microarray transcriptome profiles of a learning set of 28 thyroid tumors, which comprised 14 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTA) and 14 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), either sporadic or consecutive to external radiotherapy in childhood. We identified a signature composed of 322 genes which discriminates radiation-induced tumors (FTA and PTC) from their sporadic counterparts. The robustness of this signature was further confirmed by blind case-by-case classification of an independent set of 29 tumors (16 FTA and 13 PTC). After the histology code break by the clinicians, 26/29 tumors were well classified regarding tumor etiology, 1 was undetermined, and 2 were misclassified. Our results help shed light on radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis, since specific molecular pathways are deregulated in radiation-induced tumors. PMID:21148326

  19. A differentially expressed set of microRNAs in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can diagnose CNS malignancies.

    PubMed

    Drusco, Alessandra; Bottoni, Arianna; Laganà, Alessandro; Acunzo, Mario; Fassan, Matteo; Cascione, Luciano; Antenucci, Anna; Kumchala, Prasanthi; Vicentini, Caterina; Gardiman, Marina P; Alder, Hansjuerg; Carosi, Mariantonia A; Ammirati, Mario; Gherardi, Stefano; Luscrì, Marilena; Carapella, Carmine; Zanesi, Nicola; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-08-28

    Central Nervous System malignancies often require stereotactic biopsy or biopsy for differential diagnosis, and for tumor staging and grading. Furthermore, stereotactic biopsy can be non-diagnostic or underestimate grading. Hence, there is a compelling need of new diagnostic biomarkers to avoid such invasive procedures. Several biological markers have been proposed, but they can only identify specific prognostic subtype of Central Nervous System tumors, and none of them has found a standardized clinical application.The aim of the study was to identify a Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature that could differentiate among Central Nervous System malignancies.CSF total RNA of 34 neoplastic and of 14 non-diseased patients was processed by NanoString. Comparison among groups (Normal, Benign, Glioblastoma, Medulloblastoma, Metastasis and Lymphoma) lead to the identification of a microRNA profile that was further confirmed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization.Hsa-miR-451, -711, 935, -223 and -125b were significantly differentially expressed among the above mentioned groups, allowing us to draw an hypothetical diagnostic chart for Central Nervous System malignancies.This is the first study to employ the NanoString technique for Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling. In this article, we demonstrated that Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling mirrors Central Nervous System physiologic or pathologic conditions. Although more cases need to be tested, we identified a diagnostic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature with good perspectives for future diagnostic clinical applications.

  20. Expression of the Cameleon calcium biosensor in fungi reveals distinct Ca(2+) signatures associated with polarized growth, development, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Seon; Czymmek, Kirk J; Patel, Agam; Modla, Shannon; Nohe, Anja; Duncan, Randall; Gilroy, Simon; Kang, Seogchan

    2012-08-01

    Calcium is a universal messenger that translates diverse environmental stimuli and developmental cues into specific cellular and developmental responses. While individual fungal species have evolved complex and often unique biochemical and structural mechanisms to exploit specific ecological niches and to adjust growth and development in response to external stimuli, one universal feature to all is that Ca(2+)-mediated signaling is involved. The lack of a robust method for imaging spatial and temporal dynamics of subcellular Ca(2+) (i.e., "Ca(2+) signature"), readily available in the plant and animal systems, has severely limited studies on how this signaling pathway controls fungal growth, development, and pathogenesis. Here, we report the first successful expression of a FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer)-based Ca(2+) biosensor in fungi. Time-lapse imaging of Magnaporthe oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium graminearum expressing this sensor showed that instead of a continuous gradient, the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](c)) change occurred in a pulsatile manner with no discernable gradient between pulses, and each species exhibited a distinct Ca(2+) signature. Furthermore, occurrence of pulsatile Ca(2+) signatures was age and development dependent, and major [Ca(2+)](c) transients were observed during hyphal branching, septum formation, differentiation into specialized plant infection structures, cell-cell contact and in planta growth. In combination with the sequenced genomes and ease of targeted gene manipulation of these and many other fungal species, the data, materials and methods developed here will help understand the mechanism underpinning Ca(2+)-mediated control of cellular and developmental changes, its role in polarized growth forms and the evolution of Ca(2+) signaling across eukaryotic kingdoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. mRNA Expression Signatures of Human Skeletal Muscle Atrophy Identify a Natural Compound that Increases Muscle Mass

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Suneja, Manish; Ebert, Scott M.; Bongers, Kale S.; Fox, Daniel K.; Malmberg, Sharon E.; Alipour, Fariborz; Shields, Richard K.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks a pharmacologic therapy. To develop a potential therapy, we identified 63 mRNAs that were regulated by fasting in both human and mouse muscle, and 29 mRNAs that were regulated by both fasting and spinal cord injury in human muscle. We used these two unbiased mRNA expression signatures of muscle atrophy to query the Connectivity Map, which singled out ursolic acid as a compound whose signature was opposite to those of atrophy-inducing stresses. A natural compound enriched in apples, ursolic acid reduced muscle atrophy and stimulated muscle hypertrophy in mice. It did so by enhancing skeletal muscle insulin/IGF-I signaling, and inhibiting atrophy-associated skeletal muscle mRNA expression. Importantly, ursolic acid’s effects on muscle were accompanied by reductions in adiposity, fasting blood glucose and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. These findings identify a potential therapy for muscle atrophy and perhaps other metabolic diseases. PMID:21641545

  2. Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals a robust genomic glioblastoma signature associated with copy number driving changes in gene expression.

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, Marie; Etcheverry, Amandine; Aubry, Marc; Saïkali, Stephan; Hamlat, Abderrahmane; Quillien, Veronique; Le Treut, André; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; Mosser, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme shows multiple chromosomal aberrations, the impact of which on gene expression remains unclear. To investigate this relationship and to identify putative initiating genomic events, we integrated a paired copy number and gene expression survey in glioblastoma using whole human genome arrays. Loci of recurrent copy number alterations were combined with gene expression profiles obtained on the same tumor samples. We identified a set of 406 "cis-acting DNA targeted genes" corresponding to genomic aberrations with direct copy-number-driving changes in gene expression, defined as genes with either significantly concordant or correlated changes in DNA copy number and expression. Functional annotation revealed that these genes participate in key processes of cancer cell biology, providing insights into the genetic mechanisms driving glioblastoma. The robustness of the gene selection was validated on an external microarray data set including 81 glioblastomas and 23 non-neoplastic brain samples. The integration of array CGH and gene expression data highlights a robust cis-acting DNA targeted genes signature that may be critical for glioblastoma progression, with two tumor suppressor genes PCDH9 and STARD13 that could be involved in tumor invasiveness and resistance to etoposide.

  3. Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de la Morena, M. Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Dozmorov, Igor M.; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R.; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M. Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3 Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance. PMID:23454892

  4. Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    de la Morena, M Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L; Dozmorov, Igor M; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S C

    2013-04-01

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance.

  5. Dual RNA Sequencing Reveals the Expression of Unique Transcriptomic Signatures in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hwa; Park, Kyoung Sun; Lee, Young Seek; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells become rapidly activated through interactions with pathogens, and the persistent activation of these cells is associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have investigated the transcriptomic signatures in microglia or macrophages using microarray technologies. However, this method has numerous restrictions, such as spatial biases, uneven probe properties, low sensitivity, and dependency on the probes spotted. To overcome this limitation and identify novel transcribed genes in response to LPS, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to determine the novel transcriptomic signatures in BV-2 microglial cells. Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that approximately 263 and 319 genes (≥ 1.5 log2-fold), such as cytokines and chemokines, were strongly induced after 2 and 4 h, respectively, and the induction of several genes with unknown immunological functions was also observed. Importantly, we observed that previously unidentified transcription factors (TFs) (irf1, irf7, and irf9), histone demethylases (kdm4a) and DNA methyltransferases (dnmt3l) were significantly and selectively expressed in BV-2 microglial cells. The gene expression levels, transcription start sites (TSS), isoforms, and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation upon infection with LPS. In addition, gene ontology, molecular networks and pathway analyses identified the top significantly regulated functional classification, canonical pathways and network functions at each activation status. Moreover, we further analyzed differentially expressed genes to identify transcription factor (TF) motifs (−950 to +50 bp of the 5’ upstream promoters) and epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expressions of key inflammatory genes as well as pro-inflammatory mediators in the supernatants were significantly induced in LPS treated primary microglial cells. This

  6. The PAX2-null immunophenotype defines multiple lineages with common expression signatures in benign and neoplastic oviductal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Gang; Bijron, Jonathan G.; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Wang, Xia; Howitt, Brooke E.; Herfs, Michael; Yang, Eric; Hong, Yue; Cornille, Maxence; Wu, Lingyan; Hanamornroongruang, Suchanan; McKeon, Frank D.; Crum, Christopher P.; Xian, Wa

    2014-01-01

    The oviducts contain high grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are γ-H2AXp- and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild type p53, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) are associated with older age and serous cancer; moreover both STINs and SCOUTs share a loss of PAX2 expression (PAX2n). We evaluated PAX2 expression in proliferating adult and embryonic oviductal cells, normal mucosa, SCOUTs, Walthard cell nests (WCNs), STINs and HGSCs, and the expression of genes chosen empirically or from SCOUT expression arrays. Clones generated in vitro from embryonic gynecologic tract and adult fallopian tube were Krt7p/PAX2n/EZH2p and underwent ciliated (PAX2n/EZH2n/FOXJ1p) and basal (Krt7n/EZH2n/Krt5p) differentiation. Similarly non-ciliated cells in normal mucosa were PAX2p but became PAX2n in multilayered epithelium undergoing ciliated or basal (Walthard cell nests or WCN) cell differentiation. PAX2n SCOUTs fell into two groups; Type I were secretory or secretory/ciliated with a “tubal” phenotype and were ALDH1n and β-cateninmem (membraneous only). Type II displayed a columnar to pseudostratified (endometrioid) phenotype, with an EZH2p, ALDH1p, β-cateninnc (nuclear and cytoplasmic), stathminp, LEF1p, RCN1p and RUNX2p expression signature. STINs and HGSCs shared the Type I immunophenotype of PAX2n, ALDH1n, β-cateninmem, but highly expressed EZH2p, LEF1p, RCN1p, and stathminp. This study, for the first time, links PAX2n with proliferating fetal and adult oviductal cells undergoing basal and ciliated differentiation and shows that this expression state is maintained in SCOUTs, STINs and HGSCs. All three entities can demonstrate a consistent perturbation of genes involved in potential tumor suppressor gene silencing (EZH2), transcriptional regulation (LEF1), regulation of differentiation (RUNX2), calcium binding (RCN1) and oncogenesis (stathmin). This shared expression signature between benign and

  7. Microarray analysis of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours reveals characteristic gene expression signatures associated with metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Eisenacher, Martin; Braun, Yvonne; Brachwitz, Kristin; Wai, Daniel H; Dirksen, Uta; Lanvers-Kaminsky, Claudia; Juergens, Heribert; Herrero, David; Stegmaier, Sabine; Koscielniak, Ewa; Eggert, Angelika; Nathrath, Michaela; Gosheger, Georg; Schneider, Dominik T; Bury, Carsten; Diallo-Danebrock, Raihanatou; Ottaviano, Laura; Gabbert, Helmut E; Poremba, Christopher

    2008-03-01

    In Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT), the clinically most adverse prognostic parameters are the presence of tumour metastasis at time of diagnosis and poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To identify genes differentially regulated between metastatic and localised tumours, we analysed 27 ESFT specimens using Affymetrix microarrays. Functional annotation of differentially regulated genes revealed 29 over-represented pathways including PDGF, TP53, NOTCH, and WNT1-signalling. Regression of primary tumours (n=20) induced by polychemotherapy was found to be correlated with the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, apoptosis, ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and PI3 kinase and p53 pathways. These findings could be confirmed by in vitro cytotoxicity assays. A set of 46 marker genes correctly classifies these 20 tumours as responding versus non-responding. We conclude that expression signatures of initial tumour biopsies can help to identify ESFT patients at high risk to develop tumour metastasis or to suffer from a therapy refractory cancer.

  8. Association of a cytarabine chemosensitivity related gene expression signature with survival in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Han; Wen, Lu; Tan, Dan; Xie, Pan; Pang, Feng-mei; Zhou, Hong-hao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhao-qian; Tang, Jie; Li, Xi; Chen, Xiao-ping

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis of cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) varies greatly among patients. Achievement of complete remission (CR) after chemotherapy is indispensable for a better prognosis. To develop a gene signature predicting overall survival (OS) in CN-AML, we performed data mining procedure based on whole genome expression data of both blood cancer cell lines and AML patients from open access database. A gene expression signature including 42 probes was derived. These probes were significantly associated with both cytarabine half maximal inhibitory concentration values in blood cancer cell lines and OS in CN-AML patients. By using cox regression analysis and linear regression analysis, a chemo-sensitive score calculated algorithm based on mRNA expression levels of the 42 probes was established. The scores were associated with OS in both the training sample (p=5.13 × 10−4, HR=2.040, 95% CI: 1.364-3.051) and the validation sample (p=0.002, HR=2.528, 95% CI: 1.393-4.591) of the GSE12417 dataset from Gene Expression Omnibus. In The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) CN-AML patients, higher scores were found to be associated with both worse OS (p=0.013, HR=2.442, 95% CI: 1.205-4.950) and DFS (p=0.015, HR=2.376, 95% CI: 1.181-4.779). Results of gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all the significant GO Terms were correlated with cellular component of mitochondrion. In summary, a novel gene set that could predict prognosis of CN-AML was identified presently, which provided a new way to identify genes impacting AML chemo-sensitivity and prognosis. PMID:27903973

  9. High cereblon expression is associated with better survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide maintenance.

    PubMed

    Broyl, Annemiek; Kuiper, Rowan; van Duin, Mark; van der Holt, Bronno; el Jarari, Laila; Bertsch, Uta; Zweegman, Sonja; Buijs, Arjan; Hose, Dirk; Lokhorst, Henk M; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2013-01-24

    Recently, cereblon (CRBN) expression was found to be essential for the activity of thalidomide and lenalidomide. In the present study, we investigated whether the clinical efficacy of thalidomide in multiple myeloma is associated with CRBN expression in myeloma cells. Patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma were included in the HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial, in which postintensification treatment in 1 arm consisted of daily thalidomide (50 mg) for 2 years. Gene-expression profiling, determined at the start of the trial, was available for 96 patients who started thalidomide maintenance. In this patient set, increase of CRBN gene expression was significantly associated with longerprogression-free survival (P = .005). In contrast, no association between CRBN expression and survival was observed in the arm with bortezomib maintenance. We conclude that CRBN expression may be associated with the clinical efficacy of thalidomide. This trial has been registered at the Nederlands Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl) as NTR213; at the European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT) as 2004-000944-26; and at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) as 64455289.

  10. Prevalence of interferon type I signature in CD14 monocytes of patients with Sjögren's syndrome and association with disease activity and BAFF gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Brkic, Zana; Maria, Naomi I; van Helden-Meeuwsen, Cornelia G; van de Merwe, Joop P; van Daele, Paul L; Dalm, Virgil A; Wildenberg, Manon E; Beumer, Wouter; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Versnel, Marjan A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of upregulation of interferon (IFN) type I inducible genes, the so called ‘IFN type I signature’, in CD14 monocytes in 69 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 44 healthy controls (HC) and correlate it with disease manifestations and expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF). Methods Expression of IFI44L, IFI44, IFIT3, LY6E and MX1 was measured using real time quantitative PCR in monocytes. Expression values were used to calculate IFN type I scores for each subject. pSS patients positive for the IFN type I signature (IFN score≥10) and patients negative for the signature (IFN score<10) were then compared for clinical disease manifestations and BAFF expression. A bioassay using a monocytic cell line was performed to study whether BAFF mRNA expression was inducible by IFN type I activity in serum of patients with pSS. Results An IFN type I signature was present in 55% of patients with pSS compared with 4.5% of HC. Patients with the IFN type I signature showed: (a) higher EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index scores; higher anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-La autoantibodies; higher rheumatoid factor; higher serum IgG; lower C3, lower absolute lymphocyte and neutrophil counts; (b)higher BAFF gene expression in monocytes. In addition, serum of signature-positive patients induced BAFF gene expression in monocytes. Conclusions The monocyte IFN type I signature identifies a subgroup of patients with pSS with a higher clinical disease activity together with higher BAFF mRNA expression. Such patients might benefit from treatment blocking IFN type I production or activity. PMID:22736090

  11. Long non-coding RNA SOX2OT: expression signature, splicing patterns, and emerging roles in pluripotency and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shahryari, Alireza; Jazi, Marie Saghaeian; Samaei, Nader M.; Mowla, Seyed J.

    2015-01-01

    SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT) is a long non-coding RNA which harbors one of the major regulators of pluripotency, SOX2 gene, in its intronic region. SOX2OT gene is mapped to human chromosome 3q26.3 (Chr3q26.3) locus and is extended in a high conserved region of over 700 kb. Little is known about the exact role of SOX2OT; however, recent studies have demonstrated a positive role for it in transcription regulation of SOX2 gene. Similar to SOX2, SOX2OT is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells and down-regulated upon the induction of differentiation. SOX2OT is dynamically regulated during the embryogenesis of vertebrates, and delimited to the brain in adult mice and human. Recently, the disregulation of SOX2OT expression and its concomitant expression with SOX2 have become highlighted in some somatic cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, and breast cancer. Interestingly, SOX2OT is differentially spliced into multiple mRNA-like transcripts in stem and cancer cells. In this review, we are describing the structural and functional features of SOX2OT, with an emphasis on its expression signature, its splicing patterns and its critical function in the regulation of SOX2 expression during development and tumorigenesis. PMID:26136768

  12. A gene expression signature from human breast cancer cells with acquired hormone independence identifies MYC as a mediator of antiestrogen resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Todd W.; Balko, Justin M.; Ghazoui, Zara; Dunbier, Anita; Anderson, Helen; Dowsett, Mitch; González-Angulo, Ana M.; Mills, Gordon B.; Miller, William R.; Wu, Huiyun; Shyr, Yu; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although most patients with estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer initially respond to endocrine therapy, many ultimately develop resistance to antiestrogens. However, mechanisms of antiestrogen resistance and biomarkers predictive of such resistance are underdeveloped. Experimental Design We adapted four ER+ human breast cancer cell lines to grow in an estrogen-depleted medium. A gene signature of estrogen independence was developed by comparing expression profiles of long-term estrogen-deprived (LTED) cells to their parental counterparts. We evaluated the ability of the LTED signature to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor, and disease outcome following adjuvant tamoxifen. We utilized Gene Set Analysis (GSA) of LTED cell gene expression profiles and a loss-of-function approach to identify pathways causally associated with resistance to endocrine therapy. Results The LTED gene expression signature was predictive of high tumor cell proliferation following neoadjuvant therapy with anastrozole and letrozole, each in different patient cohorts. This signature was also predictive of poor recurrence-free survival in two studies of patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. Bioinformatic interrogation of expression profiles in LTED cells revealed a signature of MYC activation. The MYC activation signature and high MYC protein levels were both predictive of poor outcome following tamoxifen therapy. Finally, knockdown of MYC inhibited LTED cell growth. Conclusions A gene expression signature derived from ER+ breast cancer cells with acquired hormone independence predicted tumor response to aromatase inhibitors and associated with clinical markers of resistance to tamoxifen. In some cases, activation of the MYC pathway was associated with this resistance. PMID:21346144

  13. Evaluation of data discretization methods to derive platform independent isoform expression signatures for multi-class tumor subtyping

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Many supervised learning algorithms have been applied in deriving gene signatures for patient stratification from gene expression data. However, transferring the multi-gene signatures from one analytical platform to another without loss of classification accuracy is a major challenge. Here, we compared three unsupervised data discretization methods--Equal-width binning, Equal-frequency binning, and k-means clustering--in accurately classifying the four known subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when the classification algorithms were trained on the isoform-level gene expression profiles from exon-array platform and tested on the corresponding profiles from RNA-seq data. Results We applied an integrated machine learning framework that involves three sequential steps; feature selection, data discretization, and classification. For models trained and tested on exon-array data, the addition of data discretization step led to robust and accurate predictive models with fewer number of variables in the final models. For models trained on exon-array data and tested on RNA-seq data, the addition of data discretization step dramatically improved the classification accuracies with Equal-frequency binning showing the highest improvement with more than 90% accuracies for all the models with features chosen by Random Forest based feature selection. Overall, SVM classifier coupled with Equal-frequency binning achieved the best accuracy (> 95%). Without data discretization, however, only 73.6% accuracy was achieved at most. Conclusions The classification algorithms, trained and tested on data from the same platform, yielded similar accuracies in predicting the four GBM subgroups. However, when dealing with cross-platform data, from exon-array to RNA-seq, the classifiers yielded stable models with highest classification accuracies on data transformed by Equal frequency binning. The approach presented here is generally applicable to other cancer types for

  14. Evaluation of data discretization methods to derive platform independent isoform expression signatures for multi-class tumor subtyping.

    PubMed

    Jung, Segun; Bi, Yingtao; Davuluri, Ramana V

    2015-01-01

    Many supervised learning algorithms have been applied in deriving gene signatures for patient stratification from gene expression data. However, transferring the multi-gene signatures from one analytical platform to another without loss of classification accuracy is a major challenge. Here, we compared three unsupervised data discretization methods--Equal-width binning, Equal-frequency binning, and k-means clustering--in accurately classifying the four known subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when the classification algorithms were trained on the isoform-level gene expression profiles from exon-array platform and tested on the corresponding profiles from RNA-seq data. We applied an integrated machine learning framework that involves three sequential steps; feature selection, data discretization, and classification. For models trained and tested on exon-array data, the addition of data discretization step led to robust and accurate predictive models with fewer number of variables in the final models. For models trained on exon-array data and tested on RNA-seq data, the addition of data discretization step dramatically improved the classification accuracies with Equal-frequency binning showing the highest improvement with more than 90% accuracies for all the models with features chosen by Random Forest based feature selection. Overall, SVM classifier coupled with Equal-frequency binning achieved the best accuracy (> 95%). Without data discretization, however, only 73.6% accuracy was achieved at most. The classification algorithms, trained and tested on data from the same platform, yielded similar accuracies in predicting the four GBM subgroups. However, when dealing with cross-platform data, from exon-array to RNA-seq, the classifiers yielded stable models with highest classification accuracies on data transformed by Equal frequency binning. The approach presented here is generally applicable to other cancer types for classification and identification of

  15. The Correlation-Base-Selection Algorithm for Diagnostic Schizophrenia Based on Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hang; Xie, Ziyang; Yang, Yuwen; Zhao, Yizhen

    2017-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression is often used to diagnose different types of disease. Many studies report remarkable achievements in nervous system disease. Clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia (SCZ) still depends on doctors' experience, which is unreliable and needs to be more objective and quantified. To solve this problem, we collected whole blood gene expression data from four studies, including 152 individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 138 normal controls in different regions. The correlation-based feature selection (CFS, one of the machine learning methods) algorithm was applied in this study, and 103 significantly differentially expressed genes between patients and controls, called “feature genes,” were selected; then, a model for SCZ diagnosis was built. The samples were subdivided into 10 groups, and cross-validation showed that the model we constructed achieved nearly 100% classification accuracy. Mathematical evaluation of the datasets before and after data processing proved the effectiveness of our algorithm. Feature genes were enriched in Parkinson's disease, oxidative phosphorylation, and TGF-beta signaling pathways, which were previously reported to be associated with SCZ. These results suggest that the analysis of gene expression in whole blood by our model could be a useful tool for diagnosing SCZ. PMID:28280741

  16. Interferon-inducible gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus

    PubMed Central

    Baechler, Emily C.; Batliwalla, Franak M.; Karypis, George; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Ortmann, Ward A.; Espe, Karl J.; Shark, Katherine B.; Grande, William J.; Hughes, Karis M.; Kapur, Vivek; Gregersen, Peter K.; Behrens, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. We used global gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify distinct patterns of gene expression that distinguish most SLE patients from healthy controls. Strikingly, about half of the patients studied showed dysregulated expression of genes in the IFN pathway. Furthermore, this IFN gene expression “signature” served as a marker for more severe disease involving the kidneys, hematopoetic cells, and/or the central nervous system. These results provide insights into the genetic pathways underlying SLE, and identify a subgroup of patients who may benefit from therapies targeting the IFN pathway. PMID:12604793

  17. Pax2 expression in simultaneously diagnosed WHO and EIN classification systems.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Amy K; Quick, Charles M; Jeffus, Susanne K

    2015-01-01

    PAX2 has been cited as a technically robust biomarker which nicely delineates precancerous lesions of the endometrium when the endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) classification scheme is used. Its utility in distinguishing between atypical and nonatypical hyperplasia when applied within the 1994 World Health Organization classification system is questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAX2 in a side by side comparison of its staining patterns in a series of endometrial samples that were classified using both systems. A total of 108 precancerous endometrial cases were identified, of which 30 cases were deemed nonhyperplastic by consensus agreement and 11 cases lost the tissue of interest on deeper sections. The remaining 67 cases were categorized according to the 1994 World Health Organization criteria and EIN scheme by 2 gynecologic pathologists. PAX2 staining was scored in lesional tissue as normal or altered (lost, increased, or decreased) compared with nonlesional background. The most common pattern of alteration was complete loss of nuclear PAX2 staining (86.3%) followed by decreased staining (11.3%) and markedly increased staining (2.3%). PAX2 alterations correlated well with EIN diagnoses (33/36, 92%) compared with benign hyperplasia (2/13, 15%) but were less useful when the 1994 World Health Organization classification system was applied (PAX2 alteration in 22/25 (88%) of atypical hyperplasia cases versus 16/25 (64%) of nonatypical hyperplasia cases). Forty-five percent of follow-up hysterectomies with a previous PAX2-altered biopsy case harbored adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, PAX2 may be a helpful adjunct stain and training tool when the features of atypical hyperplasia/EIN are in question.

  18. Epithelial cells captured from ductal carcinoma in situ reveal a gene expression signature associated with progression to invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abuázar, Carolina Sens; de Toledo Osorio, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno; Pinilla, Mabel Gigliola; da Silva, Sabrina Daniela; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Silva, Wilson Araujo; e Ferreira, Elisa Napolitano; Brentani, Helena Paula; Carraro, Dirce Maria

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer biomarkers that can precisely predict the risk of progression of non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions to invasive disease are lacking. The identification of molecular alterations that occur during the invasion process is crucial for the discovery of drivers of transition to invasive disease and, consequently, biomarkers with clinical utility. In this study, we explored differences in gene expression in mammary epithelial cells before and after the morphological manifestation of invasion, i.e., early and late stages, respectively. In the early stage, epithelial cells were captured from both pre-invasive lesions with distinct malignant potential [pure DCIS as well as the in situ component that co-exists with invasive breast carcinoma lesions (DCIS-IBC)]; in the late stage, epithelial cells were captured from the two distinct morphological components of the same sample (in situ and invasive components). Candidate genes were identified using cDNA microarray and rapid subtractive hybridization (RaSH) cDNA libraries and validated by RT-qPCR assay using new samples from each group. These analyses revealed 26 genes, including 20 from the early and 6 from the late stage. The expression profile based on the 20 genes, marked by a preferential decrease in expression level towards invasive phenotype, discriminated the majority of DCIS samples. Thus, this study revealed a gene expression signature with the potential to predict DCIS progression and, consequently, provides opportunities to tailor treatments for DCIS patients. PMID:27708222

  19. Unique Signatures of Long Noncoding RNA Expression in Response to Virus Infection and Altered Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xinxia; Gralinski, Lisa; Armour, Christopher D.; Ferris, Martin T.; Thomas, Matthew J.; Proll, Sean; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit G.; Korth, Marcus J.; Castle, John C.; Biery, Matthew C.; Bouzek, Heather K.; Haynor, David R.; Frieman, Matthew B.; Heise, Mark; Raymond, Christopher K.; Baric, Ralph S.; Katze, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the host response to virus infection typically focus on protein-coding genes. However, non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are transcribed in mammalian cells, and the roles of many of these ncRNAs remain enigmas. Using next-generation sequencing, we performed a whole-transcriptome analysis of the host response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection across four founder mouse strains of the Collaborative Cross. We observed differential expression of approximately 500 annotated, long ncRNAs and 1,000 nonannotated genomic regions during infection. Moreover, studies of a subset of these ncRNAs and genomic regions showed the following. (i) Most were similarly regulated in response to influenza virus infection. (ii) They had distinctive kinetic expression profiles in type I interferon receptor and STAT1 knockout mice during SARS-CoV infection, including unique signatures of ncRNA expression associated with lethal infection. (iii) Over 40% were similarly regulated in vitro in response to both influenza virus infection and interferon treatment. These findings represent the first discovery of the widespread differential expression of long ncRNAs in response to virus infection and suggest that ncRNAs are involved in regulating the host response, including innate immunity. At the same time, virus infection models provide a unique platform for studying the biology and regulation of ncRNAs. PMID:20978541

  20. Transcriptome profiling of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci reveals stage-specific gene expression signatures for thiamethoxam resistance.

    PubMed

    Yang, N; Xie, W; Jones, C M; Bass, C; Jiao, X; Yang, X; Liu, B; Li, R; Zhang, Y

    2013-10-01

    Bemisia tabaci has developed high levels of resistance to many insecticides including the neonicotinoids and there is strong evidence that for some compounds resistance is stage-specific. To investigate the molecular basis of B. tabaci resistance to the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam we used a custom whitefly microarray to compare gene expression in the egg, nymph and adult stages of a thiamethoxam-resistant strain (TH-R) with a susceptible strain (TH-S). Gene ontology and bioinformatic analyses revealed that in all life stages many of the differentially expressed transcripts encoded enzymes involved in metabolic processes and/or metabolism of xenobiotics. Several of these are candidate resistance genes and include the cytochrome P450 CYP6CM1, which has been shown to confer resistance to several neonicotinoids previously, a P450 belonging to the Cytochrome P450s 4 family and a glutathione S-transferase (GST) belonging to the sigma class. Finally several ATP-binding cassette transporters of the ABCG subfamily were highly over-expressed in the adult stage of the TH-R strain and may play a role in resistance by active efflux. Here, we evaluated both common and stage-specific gene expression signatures and identified several candidate resistance genes that may underlie B. tabaci resistance to thiamethoxam.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci reveals stage-specific gene expression signatures for thiamethoxam resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, N; Xie, W; Jones, CM; Bass, C; Jiao, X; Yang, X; Liu, B; Li, R; Zhang, Y

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci has developed high levels of resistance to many insecticides including the neonicotinoids and there is strong evidence that for some compounds resistance is stage-specific. To investigate the molecular basis of B. tabaci resistance to the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam we used a custom whitefly microarray to compare gene expression in the egg, nymph and adult stages of a thiamethoxam-resistant strain (TH-R) with a susceptible strain (TH-S). Gene ontology and bioinformatic analyses revealed that in all life stages many of the differentially expressed transcripts encoded enzymes involved in metabolic processes and/or metabolism of xenobiotics. Several of these are candidate resistance genes and include the cytochrome P450 CYP6CM1, which has been shown to confer resistance to several neonicotinoids previously, a P450 belonging to the Cytochrome P450s 4 family and a glutathione S-transferase (GST) belonging to the sigma class. Finally several ATP-binding cassette transporters of the ABCG subfamily were highly over-expressed in the adult stage of the TH-R strain and may play a role in resistance by active efflux. Here, we evaluated both common and stage-specific gene expression signatures and identified several candidate resistance genes that may underlie B. tabaci resistance to thiamethoxam. PMID:23889345

  2. Comparative genomic expression signatures of signal transduction pathways and targets in paediatric Burkitt lymphoma: a Children's Oncology Group report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Day, Nancy S; Miles, Rodney R; Perkins, Sherrie L; Lim, Megan S; Ayello, Janet; van de Ven, Carmella; Harrison, Lauren; El-Mallawany, Nader K; Goldman, Stanton; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2017-05-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in children and adolescents. Through the introduction of short intensive multi-agent chemoimmunotherapy, survival has improved significantly over the past 30 years. However, this successful approach is limited by significant chemotherapy-induced acute toxicity and risk of developing resistant disease, demonstrating the need to identify less toxic and targeted therapies. We analysed the comparative genomic signature and targetable signalling pathways in paediatric BL (PEBL) samples from the Children's Oncology Group study (ANHL01P1) by genomic profiling and selected genes were confirmed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. These results were compared to PEBL samples from public databases and utilised the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Series (GSE) 10172 and 4475 (n = 16), and 4732 (n = 15). Three hundred and seventy-six genes (approximately 25%) were similarly expressed among three PEBL sample groups. Several target genes in Toll-like receptor signalling, JAK-STAT signalling and MAPK signalling were significantly overexpressed in PEBL. In addition, several tyrosine kinases, including Bruton tyrosine kinase, protein tyrosine phosphatase and histone deacetylase inhibitor were highly expressed in PEBL. These pre-clinical results suggest that specific signal transduction pathways are overly expressed in PEBL and several pathways could serve as potential future therapeutic targets. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Outcome-based profiling of astrocytic tumours identifies prognostic gene expression signatures which link molecular and morphology-based pathology.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Christian; Bergner, Sven; Brodoehl, Stefan; Brodhun, Michael; Ewald, Christian; Kalff, Rolf; Krüger, Jutta; Patt, Stephan; Kiehntopf, Michael; Deufel, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    Astrocytomas are intracranial malignancies for which invasive growth and high motility of tumour cells preclude total resection; the tumours usually recur in a more aggressive and, eventually, lethal form. Clinical outcome is highly variable and the accuracy of morphology-based prognostic statements is limited. In order to identify novel molecular markers for prognosis we obtained expression profiles of: i) tumours associated with particularly long recurrence-free intervals, ii) tumours which led to rapid patient death, and iii) tumour-free control brain. Unsupervised data analysis completely separated the three sample entities indicating a strong impact of the selection criteria on general gene expression. Consequently, significant numbers of specifically expressed genes could be identified for each entity. An extended set of tumours was then investigated by RT-PCR targeting 12 selected genes. Data from these experiments were summarised into a sample-specific index which assigns tumours to high- and low-risk groups as successfully as does morphology-based grading. Moreover, this index directly correlates with definite survival suggesting that integrated gene expression data allow individualised prognostic statements. We also analysed localisation of selected marker transcripts by in situ hybridization. Our finding of cell-specificity for some of these outcome-determining genes relates global expression data to the presence of morphological correlates of tumour behaviour and, thus, provides a link between morphology-based and molecular pathology. Our identification of expression signatures that are associated individually with clinical outcome confirms the prognostic relevance of gene expression data and, thus, represents a step towards eventually implementing molecular diagnosis into clinical practice in neuro-oncology.

  4. Investigation of a common gene expression signature in gastrointestinal cancers using systems biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Kaveh; Hosseinkhan, Nazanin; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Zali, M R

    2017-09-04

    According to GLOBOCAN 2012, the incidence and the mortality rate of colorectal, stomach and liver cancers are the highest among the total gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Here we aimed to find the common genes and pathways that are simultaneously deregulated in these three malignancies using systems biology approaches. Here we conducted a differential expression analysis on high-quality gene expression datasets of gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To address the inter gene correlations that were neglected in differential expression studies, we also applied differential co-expression analysis on the understudied datasets. The common significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the three cancers were used for further regulatory and PPI network construction. In parallel the regulatory roles of miRNAs and lncRNAs in the common DEGs were investigated. 23 common DEGs were detected between GC, CRC and HCC. Two cases of potential feed forward loops were identified in the constructed TF-target regulatory network, indicating the probable cross-talk between biological pathways. The result of a vulnerability test on the common PPI network resulted in the finding of three candidates, the simultaneous targeting of which will disintegrate the main parts of the network. The results of the differential co-expression study led to the identification of respectively 7 and 1 common differentially co-expressed pairs of genes between GC and CRC and between CRC and HCC. The results of the differential expression study introduced new common players in CRC, GC and HCC and provided better insights into the molecular characteristics of these GI malignancies. Moreover, we concluded that differential co-expression studies are an essential complement for differential expression studies that just take single differentially expressed genes into account.

  5. MiRNA expression signatures induced by Marek disease virus infection in chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Emerging evidence suggests that differential miRNA expression is associated with viral infection and cancer. Marek's disease virus infection induces lymphoma in chickens. However, the host...

  6. High expression of ID family and IGJ genes signature as predictor of low induction treatment response and worst survival in adult Hispanic patients with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rodriguez, Nataly; Combita, Alba L; Enciso, Leonardo J; Quijano, Sandra M; Pinzon, Paula L; Lozano, Olga C; Castillo, Juan S; Li, Li; Bareño, Jose; Cardozo, Claudia; Solano, Julio; Herrera, Maria V; Cudris, Jennifer; Zabaleta, Jovanny

    2016-04-05

    B-Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) represents a hematologic malignancy with poor clinical outcome and low survival rates in adult patients. Remission rates in Hispanic population are almost 30% lower and Overall Survival (OS) nearly two years inferior than those reported in other ethnic groups. Only 61% of Colombian adult patients with ALL achieve complete remission (CR), median overall survival is 11.3 months and event-free survival (EFS) is 7.34 months. Identification of prognostic factors is crucial for the application of proper treatment strategies and subsequently for successful outcome. Our goal was to identify a gene expression signature that might correlate with response to therapy and evaluate the utility of these as prognostic tool in hispanic patients. We included 43 adult patients newly diagnosed with B-ALL. We used microarray analysis in order to identify genes that distinguish poor from good response to treatment using differential gene expression analysis. The expression profile was validated by real-time PCR (RT-PCT). We identified 442 differentially expressed genes between responders and non-responders to induction treatment. Hierarchical analysis according to the expression of a 7-gene signature revealed 2 subsets of patients that differed in their clinical characteristics and outcome. Our study suggests that response to induction treatment and clinical outcome of Hispanic patients can be predicted from the onset of the disease and that gene expression profiles can be used to stratify patient risk adequately and accurately. The present study represents the first that shows the gene expression profiling of B-ALL Colombian adults and its relevance for stratification in the early course of disease.

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinases: The Gene Expression Signatures of Head and Neck Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Shinji; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Kudo, Yasusei

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression by promoting motility, invasion and angiogenesis. Studies have shown that MMP expression is increased in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), one of the most common cancers in the world, and contributes to poor outcome. In this review, we examine the expression pattern of MMPs in HNSCC by microarray datasets and summarize the current knowledge of MMPs, specifically MMP-1, -3, -7 -10, -12, -13, 14 and -19, that are highly expressed in HNSCCs and involved cancer invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:24531055

  8. Glutamine synthetase expression as a valuable marker of epilepsy and longer survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Anna; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Todeschini, Alice; Cominelli, Manuela; Medicina, Daniela; Cenzato, Marco; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Magrini, Stefano Maria; Buglione, Michela; Grisanti, Salvatore; Padovani, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an astrocytic enzyme catalyzing the conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine. Its up-regulation has been related to higher tumor proliferation and poor prognosis in extra-cerebral tumors. We have previously reported a GS deficiency in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who also developed epilepsy, which is a favorable prognostic factor in glioma. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of GS expression in patients with GBM with or without epilepsy and its correlation with survival. Methods We conducted a clinical and histopathological study on 83 (52 males) consecutive patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Immunohistochemical expression of GS was scored semi-quantitatively on the basis of cell number, staining intensity, and distribution of immunoreactive cells. Several clinical and neuropathological variables were analyzed in relation to survival and GS expression. Results Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. At the last evaluation, with a median follow-up of 11.5 months (range, 1.5–58 months), 5 patients (6%) were still alive and 78 (94%) were dead. GS expression patterns in neoplastic cells were inversely correlated to the presence of epilepsy (P < .0001 for intensity and P < .009 for homogeneity of GS distribution, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that RPA score, epilepsy, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGM)T status, application of Stupp protocol, and GS intensity pattern had a significant impact on survival. Absent/low intensity of GS expression was significantly associated with a longer survival in both uni- (19 vs 8 months; P < .0005) and multivariate (P = .003) analyses. Conclusions Absent/low-intensity GS expression pattern represents a valuable biomarker of both epilepsy and overall survival in GBM. PMID:23410662

  9. Expression signature as a biomarker for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Volk, Marija; Maver, Aleš; Lovrečić, Luca; Juvan, Peter; Peterlin, Borut

    2013-01-01

    A universal biomarker panel with the potential to predict high-risk pregnancies or adverse pregnancy outcome does not exist. Transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to capture differentially expressed genes (DEG), which can be used as biomarker-diagnostic-predictive tool for various conditions in prenatal setting. In search of biomarker set for predicting high-risk pregnancies, we performed global expression profiling to find DEG in Ts21. Subsequently, we performed targeted validation and diagnostic performance evaluation on a larger group of case and control samples. Initially, transcriptomic profiles of 10 cultivated amniocyte samples with Ts21 and 9 with normal euploid constitution were determined using expression microarrays. Datasets from Ts21 transcriptomic studies from GEO repository were incorporated. DEG were discovered using linear regression modelling and validated using RT-PCR quantification on an independent sample of 16 cases with Ts21 and 32 controls. The classification performance of Ts21 status based on expression profiling was performed using supervised machine learning algorithm and evaluated using a leave-one-out cross validation approach. Global gene expression profiling has revealed significant expression changes between normal and Ts21 samples, which in combination with data from previously performed Ts21 transcriptomic studies, were used to generate a multi-gene biomarker for Ts21, comprising of 9 gene expression profiles. In addition to biomarker's high performance in discriminating samples from global expression profiling, we were also able to show its discriminatory performance on a larger sample set 2, validated using RT-PCR experiment (AUC=0.97), while its performance on data from previously published studies reached discriminatory AUC values of 1.00. Our results show that transcriptomic changes might potentially be used to discriminate trisomy of chromosome 21 in the prenatal setting. As expressional alterations reflect both, causal

  10. Long intergenic non-coding RNA expression signature in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Wagner, Erin K.; Guo, Xingyi; May, Isaac; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; He, Chunyan; Long, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease, characterized by gene deregulation. There is less systematic investigation of the capacity of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) as biomarkers associated with breast cancer pathogenesis or several clinicopathological variables including receptor status and patient survival. We designed a two-stage study, including 1,000 breast tumor RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) as the discovery stage, and RNA-seq data of matched tumor and adjacent normal tissue from 50 breast cancer patients as well as 23 normal breast tissue from healthy women as the replication stage. We identified 83 lincRNAs showing the significant expression changes in breast tumors with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 1% in the discovery dataset. Thirty-seven out of the 83 were validated in the replication dataset. Integrative genomic analyses suggested that the aberrant expression of these 37 lincRNAs was probably related with the expression alteration of several transcription factors (TFs). We observed a differential co-expression pattern between lincRNAs and their neighboring genes. We found that the expression levels of one lincRNA (RP5-1198O20 with Ensembl ID ENSG00000230615) were associated with breast cancer survival with P < 0.05. Our study identifies a set of aberrantly expressed lincRNAs in breast cancer. PMID:27897201

  11. Gene expression signatures of seven individual human embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Skottman, Heli; Mikkola, Milla; Lundin, Karolina; Olsson, Cia; Strömberg, Anne-Marie; Tuuri, Timo; Otonkoski, Timo; Hovatta, Outi; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2005-10-01

    Identification of molecular components that define a pluripotent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) provides the basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the maintenance of pluripotency and induction of differentiation. We compared the gene expression profiles of seven genetically independent hESC lines with those of nonlineage-differentiated cells derived from each line. A total of 8,464 transcripts were expressed in all hESC lines. More than 45% of them have no yet-known biological function, which indicates that a high number of unknown factors contribute to hESC pluripotency. Among these 8,464 transcripts, 280 genes were specific for hESCs and 219 genes were more than twofold differentially expressed in all hESC lines compared with nonlineage-differentiated cells. They represent genes implicated in the maintenance of pluripotency and those involved in early differentiation. The chromosomal distribution of these hESC-enriched genes showed over-representation in chromosome 19 and under-representation in chromosome 18. Although the overall gene expression profiles of the seven hESC lines were markedly similar, each line also had a subset of differentially expressed genes reflecting their genetic variation and possibly preferential differentiation potential. Limited overlap between gene expression profiles illustrates the importance of cross-validation of results between different ESC lines.

  12. Myeloid Dendritic Cells from B6.NZM Sle1/Sle2/Sle3 Lupus-prone Mice express an Interferon Signature that Precedes Disease Onset

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Uma; Varghese, Linda; Bennett, Heather L.; Jog, Neelakshi R.; Shivers, Debra K.; Ning, Yue; Behrens, Edward M.; Caricchio, Roberto; Gallucci, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) show an over-expression of Type I Interferon (IFN) responsive genes called “Interferon Signature”. We found that the B6.NZMSle1/Sle2/Sle3 (Sle1,2,3) lupus-prone mice also express an Interferon Signature compared to non autoimmune C57BL/6 mice. In vitro, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs)(GM-CSF bone marrow-derived BMDCs) from Sle1,2,3 mice constitutively over-expressed IFN responsive genes such as IFNb, Oas-3, Mx-1, ISG-15 and CXCL10, and the members of IFN signaling pathway STAT1, STAT2, and IRF7. The Interferon Signature was similar in Sle1,2,3 BMDCs from young, pre-autoimmune mice and from mice with high titers of autoantibodies, suggesting that the Interferon Signature in mDCs precedes disease onset and it is independent from the autoantibodies. Sle1,2,3 BMDCs hyper-responded to stimulation with IFNa and the TLR7 and TLR9 agonists R848 and CpGs. We propose that this hyper-response is induced by the Interferon Signature and only partially contributes to the Signature, since oligonucleotides inhibitory for TLR7 and TLR9 only partially suppressed the constitutive Interferon Signature and pre-exposure to IFNa induced the same hyper-response in wild type BMDCs than in Sle1,2,3 BMDCs. In vivo, mDCs and with lesser extent T and B cells from young pre-diseased Sle1,2,3 mice also expressed the Interferon Signature, although they lacked the strength that BMDCs showed in vitro. Sle1,2,3 plasmacytoid DCs expressed the Interferon Signature in vitro but not in vivo, suggesting that mDCs may be more relevant before disease onset. We propose that Sle1,2,3 mice are useful tools to study the role of the Interferon Signature in lupus pathogenesis. PMID:22661089

  13. Comprehensive Gene expression meta-analysis and integrated bioinformatic approaches reveal shared signatures between thrombosis and myeloproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Prabhash Kumar; Vijay, Aatira; Sahu, Anita; Ashraf, Mohammad Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), particularly polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET). Despite the attempts to establish a link between them, the shared biological mechanisms are yet to be characterized. An integrated gene expression meta-analysis of five independent publicly available microarray data of the three diseases was conducted to identify shared gene expression signatures and overlapping biological processes. Using INMEX bioinformatic tool, based on combined Effect Size (ES) approaches, we identified a total of 1,157 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (697 overexpressed and 460 underexpressed genes) shared between the three diseases. EnrichR tool’s rich library was used for comprehensive functional enrichment and pathway analysis which revealed “mRNA Splicing” and “SUMO E3 ligases SUMOylate target proteins” among the most enriched terms. Network based meta-analysis identified MYC and FN1 to be the most highly ranked hub genes. Our results reveal that the alterations in biomarkers of the coagulation cascade like F2R, PROS1, SELPLG and ITGB2 were common between the three diseases. Interestingly, the study has generated a novel database of candidate genetic markers, pathways and transcription factors shared between thrombosis and MPDs, which might aid in the development of prognostic therapeutic biomarkers. PMID:27892526

  14. Trophic factor-induced activity 'signature' regulates the functional expression of postsynaptic excitatory acetylcholine receptors required for synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luk, Collin C; Lee, Arthur J; Wijdenes, Pierre; Zaidi, Wali; Leung, Andrew; Wong, Noelle Y; Andrews, Joseph; Syed, Naweed I

    2015-04-01

    Highly coordinated and coincidental patterns of activity-dependent mechanisms ("fire together wire together") are thought to serve as inductive signals during synaptogenesis, enabling neuronal pairing between specific sub-sets of excitatory partners. However, neither the nature of activity triggers, nor the "activity signature" of long-term neuronal firing in developing/regenerating neurons have yet been fully defined. Using a highly tractable model system comprising of identified cholinergic neurons from Lymnaea, we have discovered that intrinsic trophic factors present in the Lymnaea brain-conditioned medium (CM) act as a natural trigger for activity patterns in post- but not the presynaptic neuron. Using microelectrode array recordings, we demonstrate that trophic factors trigger stereotypical activity patterns that include changes in frequency, activity and variance. These parameters were reliable indicators of whether a neuron expressed functional excitatory or inhibitory nAChRs and synapse formation. Surprisingly, we found that the post- but not the presynaptic cell exhibits these changes in activity patterns, and that the functional expression of excitatory nAChRs required neuronal somata, de novo protein synthesis and voltage gated calcium channels. In summary, our data provides novel insights into trophic factor mediated actions on neuronal activity and its specific regulation of nAChR expression.

  15. Expression signatures of the lipid-based Akt inhibitors phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogues (PIAs) in NSCLC cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Liao, Hongling; Delaney, Shannon; Saber, Barbara; Morrow, Betsy; Gills, Joell J.; Hollander, M. Christine; Prendergast, George C.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt contributes to the formation, maintenance, and therapeutic resistance of cancer, which is driving development of compounds that inhibit Akt. Phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogues (PIAs) are analogues of the products of PI3K that inhibit Akt activation, translocation, and the proliferation of a broad spectrum of cancer cell types. To gain insight into the mechanism of PIAs, time-dependent transcriptional profiling of 5 active PIAs and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (LY) was performed in NSCLC cells using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Gene ontology analysis revealed genes involved in apoptosis, wounding response, and angiogenesis were upregulated by PIAs, while genes involved in DNA replication, repair and mitosis were suppressed. Genes that exhibited early differential expression were partitioned into 3 groups; those induced by PIAs only (DUSP1, KLF6, CENTD2, BHLHB2, PREX1), those commonly induced by PIAs and LY (TRIB1, KLF2, RHOB and CDKN1A), and those commonly suppressed by PIAs and LY (IGFBP3, PCNA, PRIM1, MCM3 and HSPA1B). Increased expression of the tumor suppressors RHOB (RhoB), KLF6 (COPEB) and CDKN1A (p21Cip1/Waf1) was validated as an Akt-independent effect that contributed to PIA-induced cytotoxicity. Despite some overlap with LY, active PIAs have a distinct expression signature that contributes to their enhanced cytotoxicity. PMID:21551261

  16. Identification of unique expression signatures and therapeutic targets in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, is characterized by high mortality. Previous work identified important mRNA expression differences between normal and tumor cells; however, to date there are limited ex vivo studies examining expression changes occurring during normal esophageal squamous cell differentiation versus those associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a unique tissue microdissection strategy and microarrays to measure gene expression profiles associated with cell differentiation versus tumorigenesis in twelve cases of patient-matched normal basal squamous epithelial cells (NB), normal differentiated squamous epithelium (ND), and squamous cell cancer. Class comparison and pathway analysis were used to compare NB versus tumor in a search for unique therapeutic targets. Results As a first step towards this goal, gene expression profiles and pathways were evaluated. Overall, ND expression patterns were markedly different from NB and tumor; whereas, tumor and NB were more closely related. Tumor showed a general decrease in differentially expressed genes relative to NB as opposed to ND that exhibited the opposite trend. FSH and IgG networks were most highly dysregulated in normal differentiation and tumorigenesis, respectively. DNA repair pathways were generally elevated in NB and tumor relative to ND indicating involvement in both normal and pathological growth. PDGF signaling pathway and 12 individual genes unique to the tumor/NB comparison were identified as therapeutic targets, and 10 associated ESCC gene-drug pairs were identified. We further examined the protein expression level and the distribution patterns of four genes: ODC1, POSTN, ASPA and IGF2BP3. Ultimately, three genes (ODC1, POSTN, ASPA) were verified to be dysregulated in the same pattern at both the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions These data reveal insight into genes and molecular pathways mediating

  17. Cell-type-specific signatures of microRNAs on target mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Sood, Pranidhi; Krek, Azra; Zavolan, Mihaela; Macino, Giuseppe; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2006-02-21

    Although it is known that the human genome contains hundreds of microRNA (miRNA) genes and that each miRNA can regulate a large number of mRNA targets, the overall effect of miRNAs on mRNA tissue profiles has not been systematically elucidated. Here, we show that predicted human mRNA targets of several highly tissue-specific miRNAs are typically expressed in the same tissue as the miRNA but at significantly lower levels than in tissues where the miRNA is not present. Conversely, highly expressed genes are often enriched in mRNAs that do not have the recognition motifs for the miRNAs expressed in these tissues. Together, our data support the hypothesis that miRNA expression broadly contributes to tissue specificity of mRNA expression in many human tissues. Based on these insights, we apply a computational tool to directly correlate 3' UTR motifs with changes in mRNA levels upon miRNA overexpression or knockdown. We show that this tool can identify functionally important 3' UTR motifs without cross-species comparison.

  18. Different Gene Expression Signatures in Children and Adults with Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Pascual, V; Medrano, L M; López-Palacios, N; Bodas, A; Dema, B; Fernández-Arquero, M; González-Pérez, B; Salazar, I; Núñez, C

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is developed after gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible individuals. It can appear at any time in life, but some differences are commonly observed between individuals with onset early in life or in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the molecular basis underlying those differences. We collected 19 duodenal biopsies of children and adults with CD and compared the expression of 38 selected genes between each other and with the observed in 13 non-CD controls matched by age. A Bayesian methodology was used to analyze the differences of gene expression between groups. We found seven genes with a similarly altered expression in children and adults with CD when compared to controls (C2orf74, CCR6, FASLG, JAK2, IL23A, TAGAP and UBE2L3). Differences were observed in 13 genes: six genes being altered only in adults (IL1RL1, CD28, STAT3, TMEM187, VAMP3 and ZFP36L1) and two only in children (TNFSF18 and ICOSLG); and four genes showing a significantly higher alteration in adults (CCR4, IL6, IL18RAP and PLEK) and one in children (C1orf106). This is the first extensive study comparing gene expression in children and adults with CD. Differences in the expression level of several genes were found between groups, being notorious the higher alteration observed in adults. Further research is needed to evaluate the possible genetic influence underlying these changes and the specific functional consequences of the reported differences.

  19. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 for diagnosing empyema.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Jihad; Goldberg, Elad; Ashkenazi, Shai; Yuhas, Yael; Samra, Zmira; Saute, Milton; Shaked, Hila

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) is upregulated by microbial products in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with pneumonia and bacterial meningitis, respectively. Our goal was to evaluate whether sTREM-1 in pleural fluid can distinguish pleural empyema from postthoracotomy-related pleural effusion and effusions of other etiologies. Patients who presented with pleural effusion were identified through laboratory records. In addition to routine biochemical markers, differential white blood cells, cytology, Gram stain, and pleural fluid culture, pleural fluid sTREM-1 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a commercial kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). Eighty-nine patients were included in the study: 17 with empyema, 7 simple parapneumonic effusion, 18 transudate, 12 postthoracotomy pleural effusion, 22 malignancy, 1 connective tissue disease, and 12 with undetermined effusion. Mean levels of sTREM-1 were significantly higher in empyema than in postthoracotomy pleural effusion (687 +/- 479 pg/mL vs 34 +/- 81 pg/mL, p < 0.0001, respectively) and in effusions of other etiologies (15 +/- 54 pg/mL, p < 0.0001). A cutoff value of 114 pg/mL for pleural sTREM-1 achieved a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 93% in differentiating empyema from pleural effusions of other etiologies. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for pleural effusion sTREM-1 as a predictor for empyema was 0.966. Our findings suggest that sTREM-1 in the pleural fluid can potentially assist clinicians in the differentiation of bacterial from nonbacterial pleural effusion, particularly in postthoracotomy pleural effusion.

  20. Human spontaneous labor without histologic chorioamnionitis is characterized by an acute inflammation gene expression signature

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Ramsi; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Yeon Mee; Mazor, Moshe; Romero, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to identify which biological processes may be involved in normal labor. STUDY DESIGN Transcriptional profiles for chorioamniotic membranes (n=24) and blood (n=20) were generated from patients at term with no labor (TNL) and in labor (TIL). RESULTS Expression of 197 transcripts (P≤0.02) differentiated TIL and TNL chorioamniotic membrane samples. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that TIL samples had increased expression of multiple chemokines and transcripts associated with neutrophil and monocyte recruitment. Microarray results were verified using quantitative real-time RT-PCR with independent samples. Transcriptional profiles from blood RNA revealed no Gene Ontology category enrichment of discriminant probe sets. CONCLUSION Labor induces gene expression changes consistent with localized inflammation, despite the absence of histologically detectable inflammation. PMID:16890549

  1. Peripheral blood gene expression signature differentiates children with autism from unaffected siblings

    PubMed Central

    Kong, SW; Shimizu-Motohashi, Y; Campbell, MG; Lee, IH; Collins, CD; Brewster, SJ; Holm, IA; Rappaport, L

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders with high heritability, yet a majority of genetic contribution to pathophysiology is not known. Siblings of individuals with ASD are at increased risk for ASD and autistic traits, but the genetic contribution for simplex families is estimated to be less when compared to multiplex families. To explore the genomic (dis-) similarity between proband and unaffected sibling in simplex families, we used genome-wide gene expression profiles of blood from 20 proband-unaffected sibling pairs and 18 unrelated control individuals. The global gene expression profiles of unaffected siblings were more similar to those from probands as they shared genetic and environmental background. One hundred eighty nine genes were significantly differentially expressed between proband-sib pairs (nominal p-value < 0.01) after controlling for age, sex, and family effects. Probands and siblings were distinguished into two groups by cluster analysis with these genes. Overall, unaffected siblings were equally distant from the centroid of probands and from that of unrelated controls with the differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, 5 of 20 siblings had gene expression profiles that were more similar to unrelated controls than to their matched probands. In summary, we found a set of genes that distinguished probands from the unaffected siblings, and a subgroup of unaffected siblings who were more similar to probands. The pathways that characterized probands compared to siblings using peripheral blood gene expression profiles were the up-regulation of ribosomal, spliceosomal, and mitochondrial pathways, and the down-regulation of neuroreceptor-ligand, immune response and calcium signaling pathways. Further integrative study with structural genetic variations such as de novo mutations, rare variants, and copy number variations would clarify whether these transcriptomic changes are structural or environmental

  2. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ricardo; Monteiro, Cátia; Catalán, Victoria; Hu, Pingzhao; Cunha, Virgínia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Fraga, Avelino; Príncipe, Paulo; Lobato, Carlos; Lobo, Francisco; Morais, António; Silva, Vitor; Sanches-Magalhães, José; Oliveira, Jorge; Pina, Francisco; Lopes, Carlos; Medeiros, Rui; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-09-25

    Periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW) and prostate cancer patients. Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean) and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia). Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated). Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis), whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH). Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable environment for prostate cancer progression.

  3. Expression signature of microRNA-155 in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection.

    PubMed

    Riad, Sarah Ehab; El-Ekiaby, Nada; Mekky, Radwa Yehia; Ahmed, Rasha; El Din, Mohammad Ahmed Mohey; El-Sayed, Mohammad; Abouelkhair, Mahmoud Mohammad; Salah, Ayman; Zekri, Abdel Rahman; Esmat, Gamal; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2015-01-01

    Hepatits C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) shows low treatment response rates and discrepancies when compared to other genotypes. However, the reason underlying these discrepancies remains unclear due to the limited number of studies on GT4. microRNA-155 (miR-155) is a noteworthy example of a discrepancy in GT4, as it was found to be upregulated in genotypes 1, 2 and 3 HCV infection, but downregulated in GT4-HCV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The present study aimed to investigate the expression of miR-155 in PBMCs, serum and liver tissues of GT4-HCV-infected patients. miR-155 expression was assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in GT4-HCV-infected PBMCs, serum and liver tissues, as well as GT2- and GT4-infected Huh7 cells, and compared to the healthy controls. There was no difference in miR-155 expression observed between naïve GT4-HCV patients and healthy controls in the PBMCs and serum. In HCV-infected liver tissues, however, a significant downregulation was observed. The unique miR-155 expression pattern during GT4 infection was confirmed in the infected Huh7 cell lines when compared to GT2 infection. Clinical data showed a positive correlation between liver transaminases and serum miR-155 expression. In addition, serum miR-155 expression was significantly lower in naïve non-responders (NRs) than naïve sustained virological responders (SVRs), and in post-treatment NRs compared to post-treatment SVRs. In conclusion, miR-155 was not only proven to be a genotype-specific microRNA that is not induced during GT4-HCV infection, but also a good prognostic factor and predictor of response to treatment enabling a non-invasive differentiation between NRs and SVRs during GT4-HCV infection.

  4. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW) and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean) and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia). Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated). Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis), whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH). Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable environment for

  5. Characteristic Changes in Decidual Gene Expression Signature in Spontaneous Term Parturition

    PubMed Central

    El-Azzamy, Haidy; Balogh, Andrea; Romero, Roberto; Xu, Yi; LaJeunesse, Christopher; Plazyo, Olesya; Xu, Zhonghui; Price, Theodore G.; Dong, Zhong; Tarca, Adi L.; Papp, Zoltan; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Chong Jai; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Than, Nandor Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Background The decidua has been implicated in the “terminal pathway” of human term parturition, which is characterized by the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways in gestational tissues. However, the transcriptomic changes in the decidua leading to terminal pathway activation have not been systematically explored. This study aimed to compare the decidual expression of developmental signaling and inflammation-related genes before and after spontaneous term labor in order to reveal their involvement in this process. Methods Chorioamniotic membranes were obtained from normal pregnant women who delivered at term with spontaneous labor (TIL, n = 14) or without labor (TNL, n = 15). Decidual cells were isolated from snap-frozen chorioamniotic membranes with laser microdissection. The expression of 46 genes involved in decidual development, sex steroid and prostaglandin signaling, as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways, was analyzed using high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Chorioamniotic membrane sections were immunostained and then semi-quantified for five proteins, and immunoassays for three chemokines were performed on maternal plasma samples. Results The genes with the highest expression in the decidua at term gestation included insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1), galectin-1 (LGALS1), and progestogen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP); the expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), homeobox A11 (HOXA11), interleukin 1β (IL1B), IL8, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) was higher in TIL than in TNL cases; the expression of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL5, LGALS1, LGALS3, and PAEP was lower in TIL than in TNL cases; immunostaining confirmed qRT-PCR data for IL-8, CCL2, galectin-1, galectin-3, and PAEP; and no correlations between the decidual gene expression and the maternal plasma protein concentrations of CCL2, CCL5, and IL-8 were

  6. Hantaviruses induce cell type- and viral species-specific host microRNA expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Kumar, Mukesh; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms of hantavirus-induced modulation of host cellular immunity remain poorly understood. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of essential regulators of host immune response genes. To ascertain if differential host miRNA expression toward representative hantavirus species correlated with immune response genes, miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in human endothelial cells, macrophages and epithelial cells infected with pathogenic and nonpathogenic rodent- and shrew-borne hantaviruses. Distinct miRNA expression profiles were observed in a cell type- and viral species-specific pattern. A subset of miRNAs, including miR-151-5p and miR-1973, were differentially expressed between Hantaan virus and Prospect Hill virus. Pathway analyses confirmed that the targets of selected miRNAs were associated with inflammatory responses and innate immune receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Our data suggest that differential immune responses following hantavirus infection may be regulated in part by cellular miRNA through dysregulation of genes critical to the inflammatory process.

  7. Gene expression signature in organized and growth arrested mammaryacini predicts good outcome in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Marcia V.; Martin, Katherine J.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Xhaja, Kris; Bosch, Irene; Yaswen, Paul; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-02-08

    To understand how non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) transit from a disorganized proliferating to an organized growth arrested state, and to relate this process to the changes that occur in breast cancer, we studied gene expression changes in non-malignant HMEC grown in three-dimensional cultures, and in a previously published panel of microarray data for 295 breast cancer samples. We hypothesized that the gene expression pattern of organized and growth arrested mammary acini would share similarities with breast tumors with good prognoses. Using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarrays, we analyzed the expression of 22,283 gene transcripts in two HMEC cell lines, 184 (finite life span) and HMT3522 S1 (immortal non-malignant), on successive days post-seeding in a laminin-rich extracellular matrix assay. Both HMECs underwent growth arrest in G0/G1 and differentiated into polarized acini between days 5 and 7. We identified gene expression changes with the same temporal pattern in both lines. We show that genes that are significantly lower in the organized, growth arrested HMEC than in their proliferating counterparts can be used to classify breast cancer patients into poor and good prognosis groups with high accuracy. This study represents a novel unsupervised approach to identifying breast cancer markers that may be of use clinically.

  8. Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures of Infants and Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Winn, Mary; Chandler, Sharon D.; Collins, Melanie; Lopez, Linda; Weinfeld, Melanie; Carter, Cindy; Schork, Nicholas; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with…

  9. Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures of Infants and Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Winn, Mary; Chandler, Sharon D.; Collins, Melanie; Lopez, Linda; Weinfeld, Melanie; Carter, Cindy; Schork, Nicholas; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with…

  10. Different Gene Expression Signatures in Children and Adults with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    López-Palacios, N.; Bodas, A.; Dema, B.; Fernández-Arquero, M.; González-Pérez, B.; Salazar, I.; Núñez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is developed after gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible individuals. It can appear at any time in life, but some differences are commonly observed between individuals with onset early in life or in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the molecular basis underlying those differences. We collected 19 duodenal biopsies of children and adults with CD and compared the expression of 38 selected genes between each other and with the observed in 13 non-CD controls matched by age. A Bayesian methodology was used to analyze the differences of gene expression between groups. We found seven genes with a similarly altered expression in children and adults with CD when compared to controls (C2orf74, CCR6, FASLG, JAK2, IL23A, TAGAP and UBE2L3). Differences were observed in 13 genes: six genes being altered only in adults (IL1RL1, CD28, STAT3, TMEM187, VAMP3 and ZFP36L1) and two only in children (TNFSF18 and ICOSLG); and four genes showing a significantly higher alteration in adults (CCR4, IL6, IL18RAP and PLEK) and one in children (C1orf106). This is the first extensive study comparing gene expression in children and adults with CD. Differences in the expression level of several genes were found between groups, being notorious the higher alteration observed in adults. Further research is needed to evaluate the possible genetic influence underlying these changes and the specific functional consequences of the reported differences. PMID:26859134

  11. Expression signature of microRNA-155 in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection

    PubMed Central

    RIAD, SARAH EHAB; EL-EKIABY, NADA; MEKKY, RADWA YEHIA; AHMED, RASHA; EL DIN, MOHAMMAD AHMED MOHEY; EL-SAYED, MOHAMMAD; ABOUELKHAIR, MAHMOUD MOHAMMAD; SALAH, AYMAN; ZEKRI, ABDEL RAHMAN; ESMAT, GAMAL; ABDELAZIZ, AHMED IHAB

    2015-01-01

    Hepatits C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) shows low treatment response rates and discrepancies when compared to other genotypes. However, the reason underlying these discrepancies remains unclear due to the limited number of studies on GT4. microRNA-155 (miR-155) is a noteworthy example of a discrepancy in GT4, as it was found to be upregulated in genotypes 1, 2 and 3 HCV infection, but downregulated in GT4-HCV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The present study aimed to investigate the expression of miR-155 in PBMCs, serum and liver tissues of GT4-HCV-infected patients. miR-155 expression was assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in GT4-HCV-infected PBMCs, serum and liver tissues, as well as GT2- and GT4-infected Huh7 cells, and compared to the healthy controls. There was no difference in miR-155 expression observed between naïve GT4-HCV patients and healthy controls in the PBMCs and serum. In HCV-infected liver tissues, however, a significant downregulation was observed. The unique miR-155 expression pattern during GT4 infection was confirmed in the infected Huh7 cell lines when compared to GT2 infection. Clinical data showed a positive correlation between liver transaminases and serum miR-155 expression. In addition, serum miR-155 expression was significantly lower in naïve non-responders (NRs) than naïve sustained virological responders (SVRs), and in post-treatment NRs compared to post-treatment SVRs. In conclusion, miR-155 was not only proven to be a genotype-specific microRNA that is not induced during GT4-HCV infection, but also a good prognostic factor and predictor of response to treatment enabling a non-invasive differentiation between NRs and SVRs during GT4-HCV infection. PMID:25469255

  12. Hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is conserved in multiple rat strains and identifies a core gene expression signature induced by pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Collin M; Stoddard, Alexander J; Belka, George K; Dugan, Katherine D; Notarfrancesco, Kathleen L; Moody, Susan E; D'Cruz, Celina M; Chodosh, Lewis A

    2006-06-15

    Women who have their first child early in life have a substantially lower lifetime risk of breast cancer. The mechanism for this is unknown. Similar to humans, rats exhibit parity-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis. To explore the basis for this phenomenon, we identified persistent pregnancy-induced changes in mammary gene expression that are tightly associated with protection against tumorigenesis in multiple inbred rat strains. Four inbred rat strains that exhibit marked differences in their intrinsic susceptibilities to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis were each shown to display significant protection against methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis following treatment with pregnancy levels of estradiol and progesterone. Microarray expression profiling of parous and nulliparous mammary tissue from these four strains yielded a common 70-gene signature. Examination of the genes constituting this signature implicated alterations in transforming growth factor-beta signaling, the extracellular matrix, amphiregulin expression, and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis in pregnancy-induced alterations in breast cancer risk. Notably, related molecular changes have been associated with decreased mammographic density, which itself is strongly associated with decreased breast cancer risk. Our findings show that hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is widely conserved among divergent rat strains and define a gene expression signature that is tightly correlated with reduced mammary tumor susceptibility as a consequence of a normal developmental event. Given the conservation of this signature, these pathways may contribute to pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer.

  13. Bioinformatic identification of prognostic signature defined by copy number alteration and expression of CCNE1 in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bic-Na; Kim, Seon-Kyu; Chu, In-Sun

    2017-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients frequently fail to respond to treatment and experience disease progression because of their clinical and biological diversity. In this study, we identify a prognostic molecular signature for predicting the heterogeneity of NMIBC by using an integrative analysis of copy number and gene expression data. We analyzed the copy number and gene expression profiles of 404 patients with bladder cancer obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium. Of the 14 molecules with significant copy number alterations that were previously reported, 13 were significantly correlated with copy number and expression changes. Prognostic gene sets based on the 13 genes were developed, and their prognostic values were verified in three independent patient cohorts (n=501). Among them, a signature of CCNE1 and its coexpressed genes was significantly associated with disease progression and validated in the independent cohorts. The CCNE1 signature was an independent risk factor based on the result of a multivariate analysis (hazard ratio=6.849, 95% confidence interval=1.613–29.092, P=0.009). Finally, gene network and upstream regulator analyses revealed that NMIBC progression is potentially mediated by CCND1-CCNE1-SP1 pathways. The prognostic molecular signature defined by copy number and expression changes of CCNE1 suggests a novel diagnostic tool for predicting the likelihood of NMIBC progression. PMID:28082741

  14. Protein Sialylation Regulates a Gene Expression Signature that Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Kohnz, Rebecca A; Roberts, Lindsay S; DeTomaso, David; Bideyan, Lara; Yan, Peter; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Goga, Andrei; Yosef, Nir; Nomura, Daniel K

    2016-08-19

    Many mechanisms have been proposed for how heightened aerobic glycolytic metabolism fuels cancer pathogenicity, but there are still many unexplored pathways. Here, we have performed metabolomic profiling to map glucose incorporation into metabolic pathways upon transformation of mammary epithelial cells by 11 commonly mutated human oncogenes. We show that transformation of mammary epithelial cells by oncogenic stimuli commonly shunts glucose-derived carbons into synthesis of sialic acid, a hexosamine pathway metabolite that is converted to CMP-sialic acid by cytidine monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase (CMAS) as a precursor to glycoprotein and glycolipid sialylation. We show that CMAS knockdown leads to elevations in intracellular sialic acid levels, a depletion of cellular sialylation, and alterations in the expression of many cancer-relevant genes to impair breast cancer pathogenicity. Our study reveals the heretofore unrecognized role of sialic acid metabolism and protein sialylation in regulating the expression of genes that maintain breast cancer pathogenicity.

  15. Proteomic analysis of MG132-treated germinating pollen reveals expression signatures associated with proteasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Candida; Bracale, Marcella; Crinelli, Rita; Marconi, Valerio; Campomenosi, Paola; Marsoni, Milena; Scoccianti, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Chemical inhibition of the proteasome has been previously found to effectively impair pollen germination and tube growth in vitro. However, the mediators of these effects at the molecular level are unknown. By performing 2DE proteomic analysis, 24 differentially expressed protein spots, representing 14 unique candidate proteins, were identified in the pollen of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) germinated in the presence of the MG132 proteasome inhibitor. qPCR analysis revealed that 11 of these proteins are not up-regulated at the mRNA level, but are most likely stabilized by proteasome inhibition. These differentially expressed proteins are predicted to function in various pathways including energy and lipid metabolism, cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis/degradation and stress responses. In line with this evidence, the MG132-induced changes in the proteome were accompanied by an increase in ATP and ROS content and by an alteration in fatty acid composition.

  16. Protein Sialylation Regulates a Gene Expression Signature that Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many mechanisms have been proposed for how heightened aerobic glycolytic metabolism fuels cancer pathogenicity, but there are still many unexplored pathways. Here, we have performed metabolomic profiling to map glucose incorporation into metabolic pathways upon transformation of mammary epithelial cells by 11 commonly mutated human oncogenes. We show that transformation of mammary epithelial cells by oncogenic stimuli commonly shunts glucose-derived carbons into synthesis of sialic acid, a hexosamine pathway metabolite that is converted to CMP-sialic acid by cytidine monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase (CMAS) as a precursor to glycoprotein and glycolipid sialylation. We show that CMAS knockdown leads to elevations in intracellular sialic acid levels, a depletion of cellular sialylation, and alterations in the expression of many cancer-relevant genes to impair breast cancer pathogenicity. Our study reveals the heretofore unrecognized role of sialic acid metabolism and protein sialylation in regulating the expression of genes that maintain breast cancer pathogenicity. PMID:27380425

  17. Clinical significance of in vivo cytarabine-induced gene expression signature in AML.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Jatinder K; Pounds, Stanley; Cao, Xueyuan; Crews, Kristine R; Cogle, Christopher R; Bhise, Neha; Raimondi, Susana C; Downing, James R; Baker, Sharyn D; Ribeiro, Raul C; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial remission, ∼60-70% of adult and 30% of pediatric patients experience relapse or refractory AML. Studies so far have identified base line gene expression profiles of pathogenic and prognostic significance in AML; however, the extent of change in gene expression post-initiation of treatment has not been investigated. Exposure of leukemic cells to chemotherapeutic agents such as cytarabine, a mainstay of AML chemotherapy, can trigger adaptive response by influencing leukemic cell transcriptome and, hence, development of resistance or refractory disease. It is, however, challenging to perform such a study due to lack of availability of specimens post-drug treatment. The primary objective of this study was to identify in vivo cytarabine-induced changes in leukemia cell transcriptome and to evaluate their impact on clinical outcome. The results highlight genes relevant to cytarabine resistance and support the concept of targeting cytarabine-induced genes as a means of improving response.

  18. Ketamine and Imipramine Reverse Transcriptional Signatures of Susceptibility and Induce Resilience-Specific Gene Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Vialou, Vincent; Heller, Elizabeth A; Yieh, Lynn; LaBonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J; Shen, Li; Wittenberg, Gayle M; Nestler, Eric J

    2017-02-15

    Examining transcriptional regulation by antidepressants in key neural circuits implicated in depression and understanding the relation to transcriptional mechanisms of susceptibility and natural resilience may help in the search for new therapeutic agents. Given the heterogeneity of treatment response in human populations, examining both treatment response and nonresponse is critical. We compared the effects of a conventional monoamine-based tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, and a rapidly acting, non-monoamine-based antidepressant, ketamine, in mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress, a validated depression model, and used RNA sequencing to analyze transcriptional profiles associated with susceptibility, resilience, and antidepressant response and nonresponse in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and amygdala. We identified similar numbers of responders and nonresponders after ketamine or imipramine treatment. Ketamine induced more expression changes in the hippocampus; imipramine induced more expression changes in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Transcriptional profiles in treatment responders were most similar in the PFC. Nonresponse reflected both the lack of response-associated gene expression changes and unique gene regulation. In responders, both drugs reversed susceptibility-associated transcriptional changes and induced resilience-associated transcription in the PFC. We generated a uniquely large resource of gene expression data in four interconnected limbic brain regions implicated in depression and its treatment with imipramine or ketamine. Our analyses highlight the PFC as a key site of common transcriptional regulation by antidepressant drugs and in both reversing susceptibility- and inducing resilience-associated molecular adaptations. In addition, we found region-specific effects of each drug, suggesting both common and unique effects of imipramine versus ketamine. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological

  19. Heme-related gene expression signatures of meat intakes in lung cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Rotunno, Melissa; Ryan, Brid M; Pesatori, Angela C; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Spitz, Margaret; Caporaso, Neil E; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Lung cancer causes more deaths worldwide than any other cancer. In addition to cigarette smoking, dietary factors may contribute to lung carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including the environment and genetics in lung cancer etiology (EAGLE), have reported increased consumption of red/processed meats to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer. Heme-iron toxicity may link meat intake with cancer. We investigated this hypothesis in meat-related lung carcinogenesis using whole genome expression. We measured genome-wide expression (HG-U133A) in 49 tumor and 42 non-involved fresh frozen lung tissues of 64 adenocarcinoma EAGLE patients. We studied gene expression profiles by high-versus-low meat consumption, with and without adjustment by sex, age, and smoking. Threshold for significance was a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.15. We studied whether the identified genes played a role in heme-iron related processes by means of manually curated literature search and gene ontology-based pathway analysis. We found that gene expression of 232 annotated genes in tumor tissue significantly distinguished lung adenocarcinoma cases who consumed above/below the median intake of fresh red meats (FDR = 0.12). Sixty-three (∼ 28%) of the 232 identified genes (12 expected by chance, P-value < 0.001) were involved in heme binding, absorption, transport, and Wnt signaling pathway (e.g., CYPs, TPO, HPX, HFE, SLCs, and WNTs). We also identified several genes involved in lipid metabolism (e.g., NCR1, TNF, and UCP3) and oxidative stress (e.g., TPO, SGK2, and MTHFR) that may be indirectly related to heme-toxicity. The study's results provide preliminary evidence that heme-iron toxicity might be one underlying mechanism linking fresh red meat intake and lung cancer.

  20. Transcription factor regulation can be accurately predicted from the presence of target gene signatures in microarray gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Essaghir, Ahmed; Toffalini, Federica; Knoops, Laurent; Kallin, Anders; van Helden, Jacques; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    Deciphering transcription factor networks from microarray data remains difficult. This study presents a simple method to infer the regulation of transcription factors from microarray data based on well-characterized target genes. We generated a catalog containing transcription factors associated with 2720 target genes and 6401 experimentally validated regulations. When it was available, a distinction between transcriptional activation and inhibition was included for each regulation. Next, we built a tool (www.tfacts.org) that compares submitted gene lists with target genes in the catalog to detect regulated transcription factors. TFactS was validated with published lists of regulated genes in various models and compared to tools based on in silico promoter analysis. We next analyzed the NCI60 cancer microarray data set and showed the regulation of SOX10, MITF and JUN in melanomas. We then performed microarray experiments comparing gene expression response of human fibroblasts stimulated by different growth factors. TFactS predicted the specific activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription factors by PDGF-BB, which was confirmed experimentally. Our results show that the expression levels of transcription factor target genes constitute a robust signature for transcription factor regulation, and can be efficiently used for microarray data mining. PMID:20215436

  1. Identification of upstream transcription factors (TFs) for expression signature genes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hongyan; Li, Ning; Pan, Yuling; Hao, Jingguang

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy among women with a rising incidence. Our intention was to detect transcription factors (TFs) for deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer. Integrated analysis of gene expression datasets of breast cancer was performed. Then, functional annotation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was conducted, including Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Furthermore, TFs were identified and a global transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. Seven publically available GEO datasets were obtained, and a set of 1196 DEGs were identified (460 up-regulated and 736 down-regulated). Functional annotation results showed that cell cycle was the most significantly enriched pathway, which was consistent with the fact that cell cycle is closely related to various tumors. Fifty-three differentially expressed TFs were identified, and the regulatory networks consisted of 817 TF-target interactions between 46 TFs and 602 DEGs in the context of breast cancer. Top 10 TFs covering the most downstream DEGs were SOX10, NFATC2, ZNF354C, ARID3A, BRCA1, FOXO3, GATA3, ZEB1, HOXA5 and EGR1. The transcriptional regulatory networks could enable a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms of breast cancer pathology and provide an opportunity for the development of potential therapy.

  2. Physical activity-associated gene expression signature in nonhuman primate motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amanda C; Leak, Rehana K; Garbett, Krassimira; Zigmond, Michael J; Cameron, Judy L; Mirnics, Károly

    2012-03-01

    It has been established that weight gain and weight loss are heavily influenced by activity level. In this study, we hypothesized that the motor cortex exhibits a distinct physical activity-associated gene expression profile, which may underlie changes in weight associated with movement. Using DNA microarrays we profiled gene expression in the motor cortex of a group of 14 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with a wide range of stable physical activity levels. We found that neuronal growth factor signaling and nutrient sensing transcripts in the brain were highly correlated with physical activity. A follow-up of AKT3 expression changes (a gene at the apex of neuronal survival and nutrient sensing) revealed increased protein levels of total AKT, phosphorylated AKT, and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), one of AKT's main downstream effectors. In addition, we successfully validated three other genes via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (cereblon (CRBN), origin recognition complex subunit 4-like, and pyruvate dehydrogenase 4 (PDK4)). We conclude that these genes are important in the physical activity-associated pathway in the motor cortex, and may be critical for physical activity-associated changes in body weight and neuroprotection.

  3. NG2 expression in glioblastoma identifies an actively proliferating population with an aggressive molecular signature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mayhani, M. Talal F.; Grenfell, Richard; Narita, Masashi; Piccirillo, Sara; Kenney-Herbert, Emma; Fawcett, James W.; Collins, V. Peter; Ichimura, Koichi; Watts, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of primary brain tumor and a highly malignant and heterogeneous cancer. Current conventional therapies fail to eradicate or curb GBM cell growth. Hence, exploring the cellular and molecular basis of GBM cell growth is vital to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Neuroglia (NG)-2 is a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed by NG2+ progenitors and is strongly linked to cell proliferation in the normal brain. By using NG2 as a biomarker we identify a GBM cell population (GBM NG2+ cells) with robust proliferative, clonogenic, and tumorigenic capacity. We show that a significant proportion (mean 83%) of cells proliferating in the tumor mass express NG2 and that over 50% of GBM NG2+ cells are proliferating. Compared with the GBM NG2− cells from the same tumor, the GBM of NG2+ cells overexpress genes associated with aggressive tumorigenicity, including overexpression of Mitosis and Cell Cycling Module genes (e.g., MELK, CDC, MCM, E2F), which have been previously shown to correlate with poor survival in GBM. We also show that the coexpression pattern of NG2 with other glial progenitor markers in GBM does not recapitulate that described in the normal brain. The expression of NG2 by such an aggressive and actively cycling GBM population combined with its location on the cell surface identifies this cell population as a potential therapeutic target in a subset of patients with GBM. PMID:21798846

  4. Expression of the Bcl-2 apoptotic marker in cats diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease and gastrointestinal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christine M; Smedley, Rebecca C; Saavedra, Paulo Vilar; Kiupel, Matti; Kitchell, Barbara E

    2012-10-01

    Immunolabeling for the critical lymphocyte survival factor, Bcl-2, of intestinal biopsies from cats with histologic evidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma was evaluated to determine if expression differed significantly between these two disease processes. Immunolabeling for Bcl-2 was performed on small intestinal endoscopic or full thickness biopsy sections from 55 cats. Diagnosis of IBD, T-cell lymphoma or B-cell lymphoma was established previously. The percentage of infiltrating lymphocytes that were positively labeled for Bcl-2 was subjectively determined for each case. Eight cats were diagnosed with IBD and 47 cats with lymphoma. A significantly higher percentage of cells were positively immunolabeled for Bcl-2 in cats with GI lymphoma [median (range); 90 (5-95)%] compared with cats with IBD [60 (15-95)%] (P = 0.029). However, the overall degree of positive immunolabeling in both groups tended to be high. This over-expression of Bcl-2 may prove useful as a therapeutic target for IBD and GI lymphoma in cats.

  5. Gene expression signatures defining fundamental biological processes in pluripotent, early, and late differentiated embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, John Antonydas; Doss, Michael Xavier; Winkler, Johannes; Wagh, Vilas; Hescheler, Jürgen; Kolde, Raivo; Vilo, Jaak; Schulz, Herbert; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2012-09-01

    Investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling the in vivo developmental program postembryogenesis is challenging and time consuming. However, the developmental program can be partly recapitulated in vitro by the use of cultured embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Similar to the totipotent cells of the inner cell mass, gene expression and morphological changes in cultured ESCs occur hierarchically during their differentiation, with epiblast cells developing first, followed by germ layers and finally somatic cells. Combination of high throughput -omics technologies with murine ESCs offers an alternative approach for studying developmental processes toward organ-specific cell phenotypes. We have made an attempt to understand differentiation networks controlling embryogenesis in vivo using a time kinetic, by identifying molecules defining fundamental biological processes in the pluripotent state as well as in early and the late differentiation stages of ESCs. Our microarray data of the differentiation of the ESCs clearly demonstrate that the most critical early differentiation processes occur at days 2 and 3 of differentiation. Besides monitoring well-annotated markers pertinent to both self-renewal and potency (capacity to differentiate to different cell lineage), we have identified candidate molecules for relevant signaling pathways. These molecules can be further investigated in gain and loss-of-function studies to elucidate their role for pluripotency and differentiation. As an example, siRNA knockdown of MageB16, a gene highly expressed in the pluripotent state, has proven its influence in inducing differentiation when its function is repressed.

  6. Gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells from medical students exposed to chronic psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Tomoko; Morita, Kyoko; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kensei; Shikishima, Michiyo; Ohta, Masayuki; Saito, Toshiro; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2007-10-01

    To assess response to chronic psychological stress, gene expression profiles in peripheral blood from 18 medical students confronting license examination were analyzed using an original microarray. Total RNA was collected from each subject 9 months before the examination and mixed to be used as a universal control. At that time, most students had normal scores on the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). However, STAI scores were significantly elevated at 2 months and at 2 days before the examination. Pattern of the gene expression profile was more uniform 2 days before than 2 months before the examination. We identified 24 genes that significantly and uniformly changed from the universal control 2 days before the examination. Of the 24 genes, real-time PCR validated changes in mRNA levels of 10 (PLCB2, CSF3R, ARHGEF1, DPYD, CTNNB1, PPP3CA, POLM, IRF3, TP53, and CCNI). The identified genes may be useful to assess chronic psychological stress response.

  7. Towards a tolerance toolkit: Gene expression signatures enabling the emergence of resistant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Keesha; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    Microbial pathogens are able to rapidly acquire tolerance to chemical toxins. Developing next-generation antibiotics that impede the emergence of resistance will help avoid a world-wide health crisis. Conversely, the ability to induce rapid tolerance gains could lead to high-yielding strains for sustainable production of biofuels and commodity chemicals. Achieving these goals requires an understanding of the general mechanisms allowing microbes to become resistant to diverse toxins. We apply top-down and bottom-up methodologies to identify biological network changes leading to adaptation and tolerance. Using a top-down approach, we perform evolution experiments to isolate resistant strains, collect samples for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis, and use the omics data to inform mathematical gene regulatory models. Using a bottom-up approach, we build and test synthetic genetic devices that enable increased or decreased expression of selected genes. Unique patterns in gene expression are identified in cultures actively gaining resistance, especially in pathways known to be involved with stress response, efflux, and mutagenesis. Genes correlated with tolerance could potentially allow the design of resistance-free antibiotics or robust chemical production strains.

  8. AUREA: an open-source software system for accurate and user-friendly identification of relative expression molecular signatures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public databases such as the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus contain extensive and exponentially increasing amounts of high-throughput data that can be applied to molecular phenotype characterization. Collectively, these data can be analyzed for such purposes as disease diagnosis or phenotype classification. One family of algorithms that has proven useful for disease classification is based on relative expression analysis and includes the Top-Scoring Pair (TSP), k-Top-Scoring Pairs (k-TSP), Top-Scoring Triplet (TST) and Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC) algorithms. These relative expression analysis algorithms hold significant advantages for identifying interpretable molecular signatures for disease classification, and have been implemented previously on a variety of computational platforms with varying degrees of usability. To increase the user-base and maximize the utility of these methods, we developed the program AUREA (Adaptive Unified Relative Expression Analyzer)—a cross-platform tool that has a consistent application programming interface (API), an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI), fast running times and automated parameter discovery. Results Herein, we describe AUREA, an efficient, cohesive, and user-friendly open-source software system that comprises a suite of methods for relative expression analysis. AUREA incorporates existing methods, while extending their capabilities and bringing uniformity to their interfaces. We demonstrate that combining these algorithms and adaptively tuning parameters on the training sets makes these algorithms more consistent in their performance and demonstrate the effectiveness of our adaptive parameter tuner by comparing accuracy across diverse datasets. Conclusions We have integrated several relative expression analysis algorithms and provided a unified interface for their implementation while making data acquisition, parameter fixing, data merging, and results analysis ‘point-and-click’ simple

  9. Gene Expression Patterns of Dengue Virus-Infected Children from Nicaragua Reveal a Distinct Signature of Increased Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Loke, P'ng; Hammond, Samantha N.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Kim, Charles C.; Batra, Sajeev; Rocha, Crisanta; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Background Infection with dengue viruses (DENV) leads to a spectrum of disease outcomes. The pathophysiology of severe versus non-severe manifestations of DENV infection may be driven by host responses, which could be reflected in the transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood immune cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted genome-wide microarray analysis of whole blood RNA from 34 DENV-infected children in Nicaragua collected on days 3–6 of illness, with different disease manifestations. Gene expression analysis identified genes that are differentially regulated between clinical subgroups. The most striking transcriptional differences were observed between dengue patients with and without shock, especially in the expression of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins associated with protein biosynthesis. In the dengue hemorrhagic fever patients, one subset of differentially expressed genes encode neutrophil-derived anti-microbial peptides associated with innate immunity. By performing a meta-analysis of our dataset in conjunction with previously published datasets, we confirmed that DENV infection in vivo is associated with large changes to protein and nucleic acid metabolism. Additionally, whereas in vitro infection leads to an increased interferon signature, this was not consistently observed from in vivo patient samples, suggesting that the interferon response in vivo is relatively transient and was no longer observed by days 3–6 of illness. Conclusions/Significance These data highlight important differences between different manifestations of severity during DENV infection as well as identify some commonalities. Compilation of larger datasets in the future across multiple studies, as we have initiated in this report, may well lead to better prediction of disease manifestation via a systems biology approach. PMID:20559541

  10. MicroRNA expression signature and the therapeutic effect of the microRNA-21 antagomir in hypertrophic scarring

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Kai; Yan, Hongbo; Feng, Haifeng; Wang, Tao; Chai, Linlin; Xu, Guozheng

    2017-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HS) area fibroproliferative disorder of the skin, which causes aesthetic and functional impairment. However, the molecular pathogenesis of this disease remains largely unknown and currently no efficient treatment exists. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes, however the role of miRNAs in HS development remains unclear. To investigate the miRNA expression signature of HS, microarray analysis was performed and 152 miRNAs were observed to be differentially expressed in HS tissue compared with normal skin tissues. Of the miRNAs identified, miRNA-21 (miR-21) was significantly increased in HS tissues and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs) as determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. It was also observed that, when miR-21 in HSFBs was blocked through use of an antagomir, the phenotype of fibrotic fibroblasts in vitro was reversed, as demonstrated by growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and suppressed expression of fibrosis-associated genes collagen type I α 1 chain (COL1A1), COL1A2 and fibronectin. Furthermore, miR-21 antagomir administration significantly reduced the severity of HS formation and decreased collagen deposition in a rabbit ear HS model. The total scar area and scar elevation index were calculated and were demonstrated to be significantly decreased in the treatment group compared with control rabbits. These results indicated that the miR-21 antagomir has a therapeutic effect on HS and suggests that targeting miRNAs may be a successful and novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of fibrotic diseases that are difficult to treat with existing methods. PMID:28075443

  11. Transcriptomic Signature of the SHATTERPROOF2 Expression Domain Reveals the Meristematic Nature of Arabidopsis Gynoecial Medial Domain1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Villarino, Gonzalo H.; Hu, Qiwen; Flores-Vergara, Miguel; Sehra, Bhupinder; Brumos, Javier; Stepanova, Anna N.; Sundberg, Eva; Heber, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Plant meristems, like animal stem cell niches, maintain a pool of multipotent, undifferentiated cells that divide and differentiate to give rise to organs. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the carpel margin meristem is a vital meristematic structure that generates ovules from the medial domain of the gynoecium, the female floral reproductive structure. The molecular mechanisms that specify this meristematic region and regulate its organogenic potential are poorly understood. Here, we present a novel approach to analyze the transcriptional signature of the medial domain of the Arabidopsis gynoecium, highlighting the developmental stages that immediately proceed ovule initiation, the earliest stages of seed development. Using a floral synchronization system and a SHATTERPROOF2 (SHP2) domain-specific reporter, paired with FACS and RNA sequencing, we assayed the transcriptome of the gynoecial medial domain with temporal and spatial precision. This analysis reveals a set of genes that are differentially expressed within the SHP2 expression domain, including genes that have been shown previously to function during the development of medial domain-derived structures, including the ovules, thus validating our approach. Global analyses of the transcriptomic data set indicate a similarity of the pSHP2-expressing cell population to previously characterized meristematic domains, further supporting the meristematic nature of this gynoecial tissue. Our method identifies additional genes including novel isoforms, cis-natural antisense transcripts, and a previously unrecognized member of the REPRODUCTIVE MERISTEM family of transcriptional regulators that are potential novel regulators of medial domain development. This data set provides genome-wide transcriptional insight into the development of the carpel margin meristem in Arabidopsis. PMID:26983993

  12. Meta-analysis of gene expression profiles in breast cancer: toward a unified understanding of breast cancer subtyping and prognosis signatures

    PubMed Central

    Wirapati, Pratyaksha; Sotiriou, Christos; Kunkel, Susanne; Farmer, Pierre; Pradervand, Sylvain; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Desmedt, Christine; Ignatiadis, Michail; Sengstag, Thierry; Schütz, Frédéric; Goldstein, Darlene R; Piccart, Martine; Delorenzi, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer subtyping and prognosis have been studied extensively by gene expression profiling, resulting in disparate signatures with little overlap in their constituent genes. Although a previous study demonstrated a prognostic concordance among gene expression signatures, it was limited to only one dataset and did not fully elucidate how the different genes were related to one another nor did it examine the contribution of well-known biological processes of breast cancer tumorigenesis to their prognostic performance. Method To address the above issues and to further validate these initial findings, we performed the largest meta-analysis of publicly available breast cancer gene expression and clinical data, which are comprised of 2,833 breast tumors. Gene coexpression modules of three key biological processes in breast cancer (namely, proliferation, estrogen receptor [ER], and HER2 signaling) were used to dissect the role of constituent genes of nine prognostic signatures. Results Using a meta-analytical approach, we consolidated the signatures associated with ER signaling, ERBB2 amplification, and proliferation. Previously published expression-based nomenclature of breast cancer 'intrinsic' subtypes can be mapped to the three modules, namely, the ER-/HER2- (basal-like), the HER2+ (HER2-like), and the low- and high-proliferation ER+/HER2- subtypes (luminal A and B). We showed that all nine prognostic signatures exhibited a similar prognostic performance in the entire dataset. Their prognostic abilities are due mostly to the detection of proliferation activity. Although ER- status (basal-like) and ERBB2+ expression status correspond to bad outcome, they seem to act through elevated expression of proliferation genes and thus contain only indirect information about prognosis. Clinical variables measuring the extent of tumor progression, such as tumor size and nodal status, still add independent prognostic information to proliferation genes. Conclusion

  13. Signature Gene Expression Profiles Discriminate between Isoniazid-, Thiolactomycin-, and Triclosan-Treated Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Joanna C.; McLaren, Alistair; Lennon, Mark G.; Kelly, Fiona M.; Lukey, Pauline T.; Blakemore, Steve J.; Duncan, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Genomic technologies have the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the drug development process. As part of our tuberculosis drug discovery program, we used DNA microarray technology to profile drug-induced effects in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Expression profiles of M. tuberculosis treated with compounds that inhibit key metabolic pathways are required as references for the assessment of novel antimycobacterial agents. We have studied the response of M. tuberculosis to treatment with the mycolic acid biosynthesis inhibitors isoniazid, thiolactomycin, and triclosan. Thiolactomycin targets the β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthases KasA and KasB, while triclosan inhibits the enoyl-ACP reductase InhA. However, controversy surrounds the precise mode of action of isoniazid, with both InhA and KasA having been proposed as the primary target. We have shown that although the global response profiles of isoniazid and thiolactomycin are more closely related to each other than to that of triclosan, there are differences that distinguish the mode of action of these two drugs. In addition, we have identified two groups of genes, possibly forming efflux and detoxification systems, through which M. tuberculosis may limit the effects of triclosan. We have developed a mathematical model, based on the expression of 21 genes, which is able to perfectly discriminate between isoniazid-, thiolactomycin-, or triclosan-treated M. tuberculosis. This model is likely to prove invaluable as a tool to improve the efficiency of our drug development programs by providing a means to rapidly confirm the mode of action of thiolactomycin analogues or novel InhA inhibitors as well as helping to translate enzyme activity into whole-cell activity. PMID:12936993

  14. Identification of Novel Cholesteatoma-Related Gene Expression Signatures Using Full-Genome Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Klenke, Christin; Janowski, Sebastian; Borck, Daniela; Widera, Darius; Ebmeyer, Jörg; Kalinowski, Jörn; Leichtle, Anke; Hofestädt, Ralf; Upile, Tahwinder; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Sudhoff, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Background Cholesteatoma is a gradually expanding destructive epithelial lesion within the middle ear. It can cause extensive local tissue destruction in the temporal bone and can initially lead to the development of conductive hearing loss via ossicular erosion. As the disease progresses, sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo or facial palsy may occur. Cholesteatoma may promote the spread of infection through the tegmen of the middle ear and cause meningitis or intracranial infections with abscess formation. It must, therefore, be considered as a potentially life-threatening middle ear disease. Methods and Findings In this study, we investigated differentially expressed genes in human cholesteatomas in comparison to regular auditory canal skin using Whole Human Genome Microarrays containing 19,596 human genes. In addition to already described up-regulated mRNAs in cholesteatoma, such as MMP9, DEFB2 and KRT19, we identified 3558 new cholesteatoma-related transcripts. 811 genes appear to be significantly differentially up-regulated in cholesteatoma. 334 genes were down-regulated more than 2-fold. Significantly regulated genes with protein metabolism activity include matrix metalloproteinases as well as PI3, SERPINB3 and SERPINB4. Genes like SPP1, KRT6B, PRPH, SPRR1B and LAMC2 are known as genes with cell growth and/or maintenance activity. Transport activity genes and signal transduction genes are LCN2, GJB2 and CEACAM6. Three cell communication genes were identified; one CDH19 and two from the S100 family. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the expression profile of cholesteatoma is similar to a metastatic tumour and chronically inflamed tissue. Based on the investigated profiles we present novel protein-protein interaction and signal transduction networks, which include cholesteatoma-regulated transcripts and may be of great value for drug targeting and therapy development. PMID:23285167

  15. Gene expression signature for early prediction of late occurring pancytopenia in irradiated baboons.

    PubMed

    Port, Matthias; Hérodin, Francis; Valente, Marco; Drouet, Michel; Lamkowski, Andreas; Majewski, Matthäus; Abend, Michael

    2017-02-24

    Based on gene expression changes measured in the peripheral blood within the first 2 days after irradiation, we predicted a pancytopenia in a baboon model. Eighteen baboons were irradiated with 2.5 or 5 Gy. According to changes in blood cell counts, the surviving baboons (n = 17) exhibited a hematological acute radiation syndrome (HARS) either with or without a pancytopenia. We used a two stage study design where stage I was a whole genome screen (microarrays) for mRNA combined with a qRT-PCR platform for simultaneous detection of 667 miRNAs using a part of the samples. Candidate mRNAs and miRNAs differentially upregulated or downregulated (>2-fold, p < 0.05) during the first 2 days after irradiation were chosen for validation in stage II using the remaining samples and using throughout more sensitive qRT-PCR. We detected about twice as many upregulated (mean 2128) than downregulated genes (mean 789) in baboons developing an HARS either with or without a pancytopenia. From 51 candidate mRNAs altogether, 11 mRNAs were validated using qRT-PCR. These mRNAs showed only significant differences between HARS groups and H0, but not between HARS groups with and without pancytopenia. Six miRNA species (e.g., miR-574-3p, p = 0.009, ROC = 0.94) revealed significant gene expression differences between HARS groups with and without pancytopenia and are known to sensitize irradiated cells. Hence, in particular, the newly identified miRNA species for prediction of pancytopenia will support the medical management decision making.

  16. EP300-ZNF384 fusion gene product up-regulates GATA3 gene expression and induces hematopoietic stem cell gene expression signature in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Akinori; Ishibashi, Takeshi; Terada, Kazuki; Ueno-Yokohata, Hitomi; Saito, Yuya; Fujimura, Junya; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Ohki, Kentaro; Manabe, Atsushi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka

    2017-04-04

    ZNF384-related fusion genes are associated with a distinct subgroup of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias in childhood, with a frequency of approximately 3-4%. We previously identified a novel EP300-ZNF384 fusion gene. Patients with the ZNF384-related fusion gene exhibit a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene expression signature and characteristic immunophenotype with negative or low expression of CD10 and aberrant expression of myeloid antigens, such as CD33 and CD13. However, the molecular basis of this pathogenesis remains completely unknown. In the present study, we examined the biological effects of EP300-ZNF384 expression induced by retrovirus-mediated gene transduction in an REH B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, and observed the acquisition of the HSC gene expression signature and an up-regulation of GATA3 gene expression, as assessed by microarray analysis. In contrast, the gene expression profile induced by wild-type ZNF384 in REH cells was significantly different from that by EP300-ZNF384 expression. Together with the results of reporter assays, which revealed the enhancement of GATA3-promoter activity by EP300-ZNF384 expression, these findings suggest that EP300-ZNF384 mediates GATA3 gene expression and may be involved in the acquisition of the HSC gene expression signature and characteristic immunophenotype in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

  17. Expression signature of lncRNAs and their potential roles in cardiac fibrosis of post-infarct mice

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xuefeng; Song, Xiaotong; Yuan, Wei; Shu, You; Wang, Yuying; Zhao, Xuyun; Gao, Ming; Lu, Renzhong; Luo, Shenjian; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Lihua; Lu, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in cardiac fibrogenesis induced by myocardial infarction (MI). The differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in peri-infarct region of mice 4 weeks after MI were selected for bioinformatic analysis including gene ontology (GO) enrichment, pathway and network analysis. Left ventricular tissue levels of lncRNAs and mRNAs were compared between MI and sham control mice, using a false discovery rate (FDR) of <5%. Out of 55000 lncRNAs detected, 263 were significantly up-regulated and 282 down-regulated. Out of 23000 mRNAs detected, 142 were significantly up-regulated and 67 down-regulated. Among the differentially expressed lncRNAs, 53 were up-regulated by ≥2.0-fold change and 37 down-regulated by ≤0.5-fold change. Nine up-regulated and five down-regulated lncRNAs were randomly selected for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) verification. GO and pathway analyses revealed 173 correlated lncRNA–mRNA pairs for 57 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 20 differentially expressed genes which are related to the development of cardiac fibrosis. We identified TGF-β3 as the top-ranked gene, a critical component of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways in cardiac fibrosis. NONMMUT022554 was identified as the top-ranked lncRNA, positively correlated with six up-regulated genes, which are involved in the extracellular matrix (ECM)–receptor interactions and the phosphoinositid-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt) signalling pathway. Our study has identified the expression signature of lncRNAs in cardiac fibrosis induced by MI and unravelled the possible involvement of the deregulated lncRNAs in cardiac fibrosis and the associated pathological processes. PMID:27129287

  18. Molecular Signature of HPV-Induced Carcinogenesis: pRb, p53 and Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago-Pérez, Águeda; Garaulet, Guillermo; Vázquez-Carballo, Ana; Paramio, Jesús M; García-Escudero, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    The infection by mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with tumor development in cervix and oropharynx. The mechanisms responsible for this oncogenic potential are mainly due to the product activities of two early viral oncogenes: E6 and E7. Although a large number of cellular targets have been described for both oncoproteins, the interaction with tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma protein (pRb) emerged as the key functional activities. E6 degrades tumor suppressor p53, thus inhibiting p53-dependent functions, whereas E7 binds and degrades pRb, allowing the transcription of E2F-dependent genes. Since these two tumor suppressors exert their actions through transcriptional modulation, functional genomics has provided a large body of data that reflects the altered gene expression of HPVinfected cells or tissues. Here we will review the similarities and differences of these findings, and we also compare them with those obtained with transgenic mouse models bearing the deletion of some of the viral oncogene targets. The comparative analysis supports molecular evidences about the role of oncogenes E6 and E7 in the interference with the mentioned cellular functions, and also suggests that the mentioned transgenic mice can be used as models for HPV-associated diseases such as human cervical, oropharynx, and skin carcinomas. PMID:19721808

  19. Molecular Signature of HPV-Induced Carcinogenesis: pRb, p53 and Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Buitrago-Pérez, Agueda; Garaulet, Guillermo; Vázquez-Carballo, Ana; Paramio, Jesús M; García-Escudero, Ramón

    2009-03-01

    The infection by mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with tumor development in cervix and oropharynx. The mechanisms responsible for this oncogenic potential are mainly due to the product activities of two early viral oncogenes: E6 and E7. Although a large number of cellular targets have been described for both oncoproteins, the interaction with tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma protein (pRb) emerged as the key functional activities. E6 degrades tumor suppressor p53, thus inhibiting p53-dependent functions, whereas E7 binds and degrades pRb, allowing the transcription of E2F-dependent genes. Since these two tumor suppressors exert their actions through transcriptional modulation, functional genomics has provided a large body of data that reflects the altered gene expression of HPVinfected cells or tissues. Here we will review the similarities and differences of these findings, and we also compare them with those obtained with transgenic mouse models bearing the deletion of some of the viral oncogene targets. The comparative analysis supports molecular evidences about the role of oncogenes E6 and E7 in the interference with the mentioned cellular functions, and also suggests that the mentioned transgenic mice can be used as models for HPV-associated diseases such as human cervical, oropharynx, and skin carcinomas.

  20. Gene expression signature based screening identifies ribonucleotide reductase as a candidate therapeutic target in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Kelli L.; Gordon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need in cancer therapeutics to identify targeted therapies that will improve outcomes and decrease toxicities compared to conventional, cytotoxic chemotherapy. Ewing sarcoma is a highly aggressive bone and soft tissue cancer that is caused by the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. Although EWS-FLI1 is specific for cancer cells, and required for tumorigenesis, directly targeting this transcription factor has proven challenging. Consequently, targeting unique dependencies or key downstream mediators of EWS-FLI1 represent important alternative strategies. We used gene expression data derived from a genetically defined model of Ewing sarcoma to interrogate the Connectivity Map and identify a class of drugs, iron chelators, that downregulate a significant number of EWS-FLI1 target genes. We then identified ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2), the iron-dependent subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), as one mediator of iron chelator toxicity in Ewing sarcoma cells. Inhibition of RNR in Ewing sarcoma cells caused apoptosis in vitro and attenuated tumor growth in an in vivo, xenograft model. Additionally, we discovered that the sensitivity of Ewing sarcoma cells to inhibition or suppression of RNR is mediated, in part, by high levels of SLFN11, a protein that sensitizes cells to DNA damage. This work demonstrates a unique dependency of Ewing sarcoma cells on RNR and supports further investigation of RNR inhibitors, which are currently used in clinical practice, as a novel approach for treating Ewing sarcoma. PMID:27557498

  1. Dynamic classification using case-specific training cohorts outperforms static gene expression signatures in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Győrffy, Balázs; Karn, Thomas; Sztupinszki, Zsófia; Weltz, Boglárka; Müller, Volkmar; Pusztai, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    The molecular diversity of breast cancer makes it impossible to identify prognostic markers that are applicable to all breast cancers. To overcome limitations of previous multigene prognostic classifiers, we propose a new dynamic predictor: instead of using a single universal training cohort and an identical list of informative genes to predict the prognosis of new cases, a case-specific predictor is developed for each test case. Gene expression data from 3,534 breast cancers with clinical annotation including relapse-free survival is analyzed. For each test case, we select a case-specific training subset including only molecularly similar cases and a case-specific predictor is generated. This method yields different training sets and different predictors for each new patient. The model performance was assessed in leave-one-out validation and also in 325 independent cases. Prognostic discrimination was high for all cases (n = 3,534, HR = 3.68, p = 1.67 E−56). The dynamic predictor showed higher overall accuracy (0.68) than genomic surrogates for Oncotype DX (0.64), Genomic Grade Index (0.61) or MammaPrint (0.47). The dynamic predictor was also effective in triple-negative cancers (n = 427, HR = 3.08, p = 0.0093) where the above classifiers all failed. Validation in independent patients yielded similar classification power (HR = 3.57). The dynamic classifier is available online at http://www.recurrenceonline.com/?q=Re_training. In summary, we developed a new method to make personalized prognostic prediction using case-specific training cohorts. The dynamic predictors outperform static models developed from single historical training cohorts and they also predict well in triple-negative cancers. PMID:25274406

  2. Gene expression signatures associated with suppression of TRAMP prostate carcinogenesis by a kavalactone-rich Kava fraction.

    PubMed

    Tang, Su-Ni; Zhang, Jinhui; Jiang, Peixin; Datta, Palika; Leitzman, Pablo; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Jiang, Cheng; Xing, Chengguo; Lü, Junxuan

    2016-12-01

    Kava (Piper methysticum Forster) extract and its major kavalactones have been shown to block chemically induced lung tumor initiation in mouse models. Here we evaluated the chemopreventive effect of a kavalactone-rich Kava fraction B (KFB), free of flavokavains, on carcinogenesis in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model and characterized the prostate gene expression signatures. Male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice were fed AIN93M diet with or without 0.4% KFB from 8 wk of age. Mice were euthanized at 16 or 28 wk. The growth of the dorsolateral prostate (DLP) lobes in KFB-treated TRAMP mice was inhibited by 66% and 58% at the respective endpoint. Anterior and ventral prostate lobes in KFB-treated TRAMP mice were suppressed by 40% and 49% at 28 wk, respectively. KFB consumption decreased cell proliferation biomarker Ki-67 and epithelial lesion severity in TRAMP DLP, without detectable apoptosis enhancement. Real time qRT-PCR detection of mRNA from DLP at 28 wk showed decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory genes congruent with Ki-67 suppression. Microarray profiling of DLP mRNA indicated that "oncogene-like" genes related to angiogenesis and cell proliferation were suppressed by KFB but tumor suppressor, immunity, muscle/neuro, and metabolism-related genes were upregulated by KFB in both TRAMP and WT DLP. TRAMP mice fed KFB diet developed lower incidence of neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECa) (2 out of 14 mice) than those fed the basal diet (8 out of 14 mice, χ(2)  = 5.6, P < 0.025). KFB may, therefore, inhibit not only TRAMP DLP epithelial lesions involving multiple molecular pathways, but also NECa. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mining Gene Expression Signature for the Detection of Pre-Malignant Melanocytes and Early Melanomas with Risk for Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Camila Ferreira; Xander, Patrícia; Monteiro, Ana Carolina; Silva, Amanda Gonçalves dos Santos; da Silva, Débora Castanheira Pereira; Mai, Sabine; Bernardo, Viviane; Lopes, José Daniel; Jasiulionis, Miriam Galvonas

    2012-01-01

    progression model to identify molecular markers commonly perturbed in metastasis. Additionally, the novel gene expression signature identified here may be useful in the future into a model more closely related to translational research. PMID:22984562

  4. High Expression of Three-Gene Signature Improves Prediction of Relapse-Free Survival in Estrogen Receptor-Positive and Node-Positive Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Arvind; Raj, Hemanth; Ravishankar; Muthuvelan, Bhaskaran; Balakrishnan, Arun; Padigaru, Muralidhara

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to validate prognostic gene signature for estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ER03B1+) and lymph node (+) breast cancer for improved selection of patients for adjuvant therapy. In our previous study, we identified a group of seven genes (GATA3, NTN4, SLC7A8, ENPP1, MLPH, LAMB2, and PLAT) that show elevated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in ERα (+) breast cancer patient samples. The prognostic values of these genes were evaluated using gene expression data from three public data sets of breast cancer patients (n = 395). Analysis of ERα (+) breast cancer cohort (n = 195) showed high expression of GATA3, NTN4, and MLPH genes significantly associated with longer relapse-free survival (RFS). Next cohort of ERα (+) and node (+) samples (n = 109) revealed high mRNA expression of GATA3, SLC7A8, and MLPH significantly associated with longer RFS. Multivariate analysis of combined three-gene signature for ERα (+) cohort, and ERα (+) and node (+) cohorts showed better hazard ratio than individual genes. The validated three-gene signature sets for ERα (+) cohort, and ERα (+) and node (+) cohort may have potential clinical utility since they demonstrated predictive and prognostic ability in three independent public data sets. PMID:26648682

  5. High IFIT1 expression predicts improved clinical outcome, and IFIT1 along with MGMT more accurately predicts prognosis in newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Chen, Yao; Lin, Guo-Shi; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Tang, Wen-Long; Huang, Jian-Huang; Chen, Jin-Shou; Wang, Xing-Fu; Lin, Zhi-Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeat 1 (IFIT1) plays a key role in growth suppression and apoptosis promotion in cancer cells. Interferon was reported to induce the expression of IFIT1 and inhibit the expression of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT).This study aimed to investigate the expression of IFIT1, the correlation between IFIT1 and MGMT, and their impact on the clinical outcome in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The expression of IFIT1 and MGMT and their correlation were investigated in the tumor tissues from 70 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The effects on progression-free survival and overall survival were evaluated. Of 70 cases, 57 (81.4%) tissue samples showed high expression of IFIT1 by immunostaining. The χ(2) test indicated that the expression of IFIT1 and MGMT was negatively correlated (r = -0.288, P = .016). Univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed high IFIT1 expression as a favorable prognostic indicator for progression-free survival (P = .005 and .017) and overall survival (P = .001 and .001), respectively. Patients with 2 favorable factors (high IFIT1 and low MGMT) had an improved prognosis as compared with others. The results demonstrated significantly increased expression of IFIT1 in newly diagnosed glioblastoma tissue. The negative correlation between IFIT1 and MGMT expression may be triggered by interferon. High IFIT1 can be a predictive biomarker of favorable clinical outcome, and IFIT1 along with MGMT more accurately predicts prognosis in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of expression signatures predictive of sensitivity to the Bcl-2 family member inhibitor ABT-263 in small cell lung carcinoma and leukemia/lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Stephen K; Wass, John; Joseph, Mary K; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Hessler, Paul; Zhang, Haichao; Elmore, Steve W; Kroeger, Paul E; Tse, Christin; Rosenberg, Saul H; Anderson, Mark G

    2010-03-01

    ABT-263 inhibits the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-w and has single-agent efficacy in numerous small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and leukemia/lymphoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. It is currently in clinical trials for treating patients with SCLC and various leukemia/lymphomas. Identification of predictive markers for response will benefit the clinical development of ABT-263. We identified the expression of Bcl-2 family genes that correlated best with sensitivity to ABT-263 in a panel of 36 SCLC and 31 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. In cells sensitive to ABT-263, expression of Bcl-2 and Noxa is elevated, whereas expression of Mcl-1 is higher in resistant cells. We also examined global expression differences to identify gene signature sets that correlated with sensitivity to ABT-263 to generate optimal signature sets predictive of sensitivity to ABT-263. Independent cell lines were used to verify the predictive power of the gene sets and to refine the optimal gene signatures. When comparing normal lung tissue and SCLC primary tumors, the expression pattern of these genes in the tumor tissue is most similar to sensitive SCLC lines, whereas normal tissue is most similar to resistant SCLC lines. Most of the genes identified using global expression patterns are related to the apoptotic pathway; however, all but Bcl-rambo are distinct from the Bcl-2 family. This study leverages global expression data to identify key gene expression patterns for sensitivity to ABT-263 in SCLC and leukemia/lymphoma and may provide guidance in the selection of patients in future clinical trials.

  7. Getting Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... also for those with related disorders. How is Marfan syndrome diagnosed? getting_diagnosed.jpg A Marfan diagnosis ... spinal column). Is there a genetic test for Marfan syndrome? Genetic testing can provide helpful information in ...

  8. Meta-analysis of expression signatures of muscle atrophy: gene interaction networks in early and late stages

    PubMed Central

    Calura, Enrica; Cagnin, Stefano; Raffaello, Anna; Laveder, Paolo; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Romualdi, Chiara

    2008-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle mass can be markedly reduced through a process called atrophy, as a consequence of many diseases or critical physiological and environmental situations. Atrophy is characterised by loss of contractile proteins and reduction of fiber volume. Although in the last decade the molecular aspects underlying muscle atrophy have received increased attention, the fine mechanisms controlling muscle degeneration are still incomplete. In this study we applied meta-analysis on gene expression signatures pertaining to different types of muscle atrophy for the identification of novel key regulatory signals implicated in these degenerative processes. Results We found a general down-regulation of genes involved in energy production and carbohydrate metabolism and up-regulation of genes for protein degradation and catabolism. Six functional pathways occupy central positions in the molecular network obtained by the integration of atrophy transcriptome and molecular interaction data. They are TGF-β pathway, apoptosis, membrane trafficking/cytoskeleton organization, NFKB pathways, inflammation and reorganization of the extracellular matrix. Protein degradation pathway is evident only in the network specific for muscle short-term response to atrophy. TGF-β pathway plays a central role with proteins SMAD3/4, MYC, MAX and CDKN1A in the general network, and JUN, MYC, GNB2L1/RACK1 in the short-term muscle response network. Conclusion Our study offers a general overview of the molecular pathways and cellular processes regulating the establishment and maintenance of atrophic state in skeletal muscle, showing also how the different pathways are interconnected. This analysis identifies novel key factors that could be further investigated as potential targets for the development of therapeutic treatments. We suggest that the transcription factors SMAD3/4, GNB2L1/RACK1, MYC, MAX and JUN, whose functions have been extensively studied in tumours but only marginally in

  9. Unique long non-coding RNA expression signature in ETV6/RUNX1-driven B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ghazavi, Farzaneh; Moerloose, Barbara De; Loocke, Wouter Van; Wallaert, Annelynn; Helsmoortel, Hetty H.; Ferster, Alina; Bakkus, Marleen; Plat, Geneviève; Delabesse, Eric; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Nieuwerburgh, Filip Van; Deforce, Dieter; Roy, Nadine Van; Speleman, Frank; Benoit, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs have essential roles in tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, their role in the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia has not been extensively explored. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the long non-coding RNA transcriptome in ETV6/RUNX1-positive BCP-ALL, one of the most frequent subtypes of pediatric leukemia. First, we used primary leukemia patient samples to identify an ETV6/RUNX1 specific expression signature consisting of 596 lncRNA transcripts. Next, integration of this lncRNA signature with RNA sequencing of BCP-ALL cell lines and lncRNA profiling of an in vitro model system of ETV6/RUNX1 knockdown, revealed that lnc-NKX2-3-1, lnc-TIMM21-5, lnc-ASTN1-1 and lnc-RTN4R-1 are truly regulated by the oncogenic fusion protein. Moreover, sustained inactivation of lnc-RTN4R-1 and lnc-NKX2-3-1 in ETV6/RUNX1 positive cells caused profound changes in gene expression. All together, our study defined a unique lncRNA expression signature associated with ETV6/RUNX1-positive BCP-ALL and identified lnc-RTN4R-1 and lnc-NKX2-3-1 as lncRNAs that might be functionally implicated in the biology of this prevalent subtype of human leukemia. PMID:27650541

  10. Unique long non-coding RNA expression signature in ETV6/RUNX1-driven B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ghazavi, Farzaneh; De Moerloose, Barbara; Van Loocke, Wouter; Wallaert, Annelynn; Helsmoortel, Hetty H; Ferster, Alina; Bakkus, Marleen; Plat, Geneviève; Delabesse, Eric; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; Van Roy, Nadine; Speleman, Frank; Benoit, Yves; Lammens, Tim; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter

    2016-11-08

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs have essential roles in tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, their role in the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia has not been extensively explored. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the long non-coding RNA transcriptome in ETV6/RUNX1-positive BCP-ALL, one of the most frequent subtypes of pediatric leukemia. First, we used primary leukemia patient samples to identify an ETV6/RUNX1 specific expression signature consisting of 596 lncRNA transcripts. Next, integration of this lncRNA signature with RNA sequencing of BCP-ALL cell lines and lncRNA profiling of an in vitro model system of ETV6/RUNX1 knockdown, revealed that lnc-NKX2-3-1, lnc-TIMM21-5, lnc-ASTN1-1 and lnc-RTN4R-1 are truly regulated by the oncogenic fusion protein. Moreover, sustained inactivation of lnc-RTN4R-1 and lnc-NKX2-3-1 in ETV6/RUNX1 positive cells caused profound changes in gene expression. All together, our study defined a unique lncRNA expression signature associated with ETV6/RUNX1-positive BCP-ALL and identified lnc-RTN4R-1 and lnc-NKX2-3-1 as lncRNAs that might be functionally implicated in the biology of this prevalent subtype of human leukemia.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of a Host Gene Expression Signature That Discriminates Clinical Severe Sepsis Syndrome and Infection-Negative Systemic Inflammation Among Critically Ill Children.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Jerry J; Sullivan, Erin; Yager, Thomas D; Cheng, Catherine; Permut, Lester; Cermelli, Silvia; McHugh, Leo; Sampson, Dayle; Seldon, Therese; Brandon, Richard B; Brandon, Roslyn A

    2017-04-01

    SeptiCyte Lab (Immunexpress, Seattle, WA), a molecular signature measuring the relative expression levels of four host messenger RNAs, was developed to discriminate critically ill adults with infection-positive versus infection-negative systemic inflammation. The objective was to assess the performance of Septicyte Lab in critically ill pediatric patients. Prospective observational study. Pediatric and Cardiac ICUs, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA. A cohort of 40 children with clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome and 30 children immediately postcardiopulmonary bypass surgery was recruited. The clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome children had confirmed or highly suspected infection (microbial culture orders, antimicrobial prescription), two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria (including temperature and leukocyte criteria), and at least cardiovascular ± pulmonary organ dysfunction. None (observational study only). Next-generation RNA sequencing was conducted on PAXgene blood RNA samples, successfully for 35 of 40 (87.5%) of the clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome patients and 29 of 30 (96.7%) of the postcardiopulmonary bypass patients. Forty patient samples (~ 60% of cohort) were reanalyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, to check for concordance with next-generation sequencing results. Postcardiopulmonary bypass versus clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome descriptors included the following: age, 7.3 ± 5.5 versus 9.0 ± 6.6 years; gender, 41% versus 49% male; Pediatric Risk of Mortality, version III, 7.0 ± 4.6 versus 8.7 ± 6.4; Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction, version II, 5.1 ± 2.2 versus 4.8 ± 2.8. SeptiCyte Lab strongly differentiated postcardiopulmonary bypass and clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome patients by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, with an area-under-curve value of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00). Equivalent performance was

  12. Proteomic analysis of acquired tamoxifen resistance in MCF-7 cells reveals expression signatures associated with enhanced migration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acquired tamoxifen resistance involves complex signaling events that are not yet fully understood. Successful therapeutic intervention to delay the onset of hormone resistance depends critically on mechanistic elucidation of viable molecular targets associated with hormone resistance. This study was undertaken to investigate the global proteomic alterations in a tamoxifen resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cell line obtained by long term treatment of the wild type MCF-7 cell line with 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH Tam). Methods We cultured MCF-7 cells with 4-OH Tam over a period of 12 months to obtain the resistant cell line. A gel-free, quantitative proteomic method was used to identify and quantify the proteome of the resistant cell line. Nano-flow high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to analyze fractionated peptide mixtures that were isobarically labeled from the resistant and control cell lysates. Real time quantitative PCR and Western blots were used to verify selected proteomic changes. Lentiviral vector transduction was used to generate MCF-7 cells stably expressing S100P. Online pathway analysis was performed to assess proteomic signatures in tamoxifen resistance. Survival analysis was done to evaluate clinical relevance of altered proteomic expressions. Results Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed a wide breadth of signaling events during transition to acquired tamoxifen resistance. A total of 629 proteins were found significantly changed with 364 up-regulated and 265 down-regulated. Collectively, these changes demonstrated the suppressed state of estrogen receptor (ER) and ER-regulated genes, activated survival signaling and increased migratory capacity of the resistant cell line. The protein S100P was found to play a critical role in conferring tamoxifen resistance and enhanced cell motility. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the adaptive changes in the proteome of

  13. Identification of a developmental gene expression signature, including HOX genes, for the normal human colonic crypt stem cell niche: overexpression of the signature parallels stem cell overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bhatlekar, Seema; Addya, Sankar; Salunek, Moreh; Orr, Christopher R; Surrey, Saul; McKenzie, Steven; Fields, Jeremy Z; Boman, Bruce M

    2014-01-15

    Our goal was to identify a unique gene expression signature for human colonic stem cells (SCs). Accordingly, we determined the gene expression pattern for a known SC-enriched region--the crypt bottom. Colonic crypts and isolated crypt subsections (top, middle, and bottom) were purified from fresh, normal, human, surgical specimens. We then used an innovative strategy that used two-color microarrays (∼18,500 genes) to compare gene expression in the crypt bottom with expression in the other crypt subsections (middle or top). Array results were validated by PCR and immunostaining. About 25% of genes analyzed were expressed in crypts: 88 preferentially in the bottom, 68 in the middle, and 131 in the top. Among genes upregulated in the bottom, ∼30% were classified as growth and/or developmental genes including several in the PI3 kinase pathway, a six-transmembrane protein STAMP1, and two homeobox (HOXA4, HOXD10) genes. qPCR and immunostaining validated that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are selectively expressed in the normal crypt bottom and are overexpressed in colon carcinomas (CRCs). Immunostaining showed that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are co-expressed with the SC markers CD166 and ALDH1 in cells at the normal crypt bottom, and the number of these co-expressing cells is increased in CRCs. Thus, our findings show that these two HOX genes are selectively expressed in colonic SCs and that HOX overexpression in CRCs parallels the SC overpopulation that occurs during CRC development. Our study suggests that developmental genes play key roles in the maintenance of normal SCs and crypt renewal, and contribute to the SC overpopulation that drives colon tumorigenesis.

  14. Long Non-Coding RNA Expression Signature Hallmarks Promising Efficacy in Identification of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: a Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyun; Han, Yanyan; Wu, Lele; Wu, Chaojun

    2017-09-01

    The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are significantly altered in an expanding list of malignant neoplasms, suggesting that they might be popularized as potential biomarkers for cancer detection. This study sought to validate the diagnostic efficacy of lncRNA expression signature(s) as potential biomarker(s) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosis. We conducted the online databases search for all eligible studies. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed using Stata 12.0 and Meta-Disc 1.4 statistical programs. Sensitivity analysis and a meta-regression test were applied to deeply trace the underlying heterogeneity sources. Eight cohorts comprised 775 NSCLC patients and 630 matched controls were included. Our data manifested that lncRNA expression profiling harbored a pooled sensitivity of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.71 - 0.82) and specificity of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.80 - 0.90) in discriminating NSCLC cases from cancer-free individuals, along with an AUC (area under the curve) value of 0.88. Further subgroup analysis revealed that paralleled testing of lncRNAs (sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 0.90, 0.80 and 0.96, respectively) substantially strengthened the diagnostic efficacy as compared with the single testing pattern (sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 0.71, 0.77 and 0.82, respectively). Other stratified analysis of ethnicity, histology type, and test matrix also presented robust results. Altogether, our results indicate that lncRNA expression signature(s) might be applicable as complementary biomarker(s) for the identification of NSCLC.

  15. Ion signatures of magnetic flux ropes in the Venusian ionosphere as observed by APSERA-4 and MAG onboard Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guymer, G.; Grande, M.; Whittaker, I.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Venus has a negligible intrinsic magnetic moment with an upper limit a factor 10-5 of earth's [1]. This entails that the ionosphere is vulnerable to scavenging by the solar wind. However, magnetic fields may be induced in the ionosphere by interaction with the interplanetary magnetic field frozen-in to the solar wind. The presence of small scale magnetic structures in the dayside ionosphere of the planet Venus has been long established and were first observed in Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) data in 1979 [2] during the run up to solar maximum. These ionospheric `flux ropes' were observed in over 70% of passes in which the orbit of PVO intersected the dayside ionosphere [3]. Magnetic flux ropes are identified as brief, discrete disturbances from any background magnetic field, lasting a few seconds with a magnitude of up to many 10's of nano-Teslas in strength [3, 4]. Flux ropes have a strong central, axial field, that is wrapped with field lines of weakening strength and increased helical angle with distance from the central field lines [4]. Due to this particular structure, flux ropes present a specific signature in the three variance projections (also known as a hodogram) when minimum variance analysis is applied to the magnetic data set [2]. With Venus Express now in operational orbit around the planet, flux ropes are being observed in the data retrieved by the magnetometers (MAG [5]) onboard. The magnetic data used in this analysis is the 1Hz data set provided by H. Wei (of UCLA). Variance projections have been produced for several structures in 2006, revealing them to be flux ropes (see figure 1). Using the Ion Mass Analyser (IMA; part of the ASPERA-4 package [6]) and MAG, the ion composition within the ropes and the effect of such magnetic structures upon ionospheric erosion is being studied. Where flux ropes have been evident in the magnetic data, ion spectra have been produced in an attempt to deduce any compositional differences between a flux rope

  16. Signature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyati, Vittal P.

    The reduction of vehicle radar signature is accomplished by means of vehicle shaping, the use of microwave frequencies-absorbent materials, and either passive or active cancellation techniques; such techniques are also useful in the reduction of propulsion system-associated IR emissions. In some anticipated scenarios, the objective is not signature-reduction but signature control, for deception, via decoy vehicles that mimic the signature characteristics of actual weapons systems. As the stealthiness of airframes and missiles increases, their propulsion systems' exhaust plumes assume a more important role in detection by an adversary.

  17. Using gene expression from urine sediment to diagnose prostate cancer: development of a new multiplex mRNA urine test and validation of current biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mengual, Lourdes; Lozano, Juan José; Ingelmo-Torres, Mercedes; Izquierdo, Laura; Musquera, Mireia; Ribal, María José; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2016-02-09

    Additional accurate non-invasive biomarkers are needed in the clinical setting to improve prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. Here we have developed a new and improved multiplex mRNA urine test to detect prostate cancer (PCa). Furthermore, we have validated the PCA3 urinary transcript and some panels of urinary transcripts previously reported as useful diagnostic biomarkers for PCa in our cohort. Post-prostatic massage urine samples were prospectively collected from PCa patients and controls. Expression levels of 42 target genes selected from our previous studies and from the literature were studied in 224 post-prostatic massage urine sediments by quantitative PCR. Univariate logistic regression was used to identify individual PCa predictors. A variable selection method was used to develop a multiplex biomarker model. Discrimination was measured by ROC curve AUC for both, our model and the previously published biomarkers. Seven of the 42 genes evaluated (PCA3, ELF3, HIST1H2BG, MYO6, GALNT3, PHF12 and GDF15) were found to be independent predictors for discriminating patients with PCa from controls. We developed a four-gene expression signature (HIST1H2BG, SPP1, ELF3 and PCA3) with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 67% (AUC = 0.763) for discriminating between tumor and control urines. The accuracy of PCA3 and previously reported panels of biomarkers is roughly maintained in our cohort. Our four-gene expression signature outperforms PCA3 as well as previously reported panels of biomarkers to predict PCa risk. This study suggests that a urinary biomarker panel could improve PCa detection. However, the accuracy of the panels of urinary transcripts developed to date, including our signature, is not high enough to warrant using them routinely in a clinical setting.

  18. miRNA expression profiling of inflammatory breast cancer identifies a 5-miRNA signature predictive of breast tumor aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Lerebours, Florence; Cizeron-Clairac, Geraldine; Susini, Aurelie; Vacher, Sophie; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Belichard, Catherine; Brain, Etienne; Alberini, Jean-Louis; Spyratos, Frédérique; Lidereau, Rosette; Bieche, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    IBC (inflammatory breast cancer) is a rare but very aggressive form of breast cancer with a particular phenotype. The molecular mechanisms responsible for IBC remain largely unknown. In particular, genetic and epigenetic alterations specific to IBC remain to be identified. MicroRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs able to regulate gene expression, are deregulated in breast cancer and may therefore serve as tools for diagnosis and prediction. This study was designed to determine miRNA expression profiling (microRNAome) in IBC. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine expression levels of 804 miRNAs in a screening series of 12 IBC compared to 31 non-stage-matched non-IBC and 8 normal breast samples. The differentially expressed miRNAs were then validated in a series of 65 IBC and 95 non-IBC. From a set of 18 miRNAs of interest selected from the screening series, 13 were differentially expressed with statistical significance in the validation series of IBC compared to non-IBC. Among these, a 5-miRNA signature comprising miR-421, miR-486, miR-503, miR-720 and miR-1303 was shown to be predictive for IBC phenotype with an overall accuracy of 89%. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that this signature was an independent predictor of poor Metastasis-Free Survival in non-IBC patients.

  19. Expression signature based on TP53 target genes doesn't predict response to TP53-MDM2 inhibitor in wild type TP53 tumors.

    PubMed

    Sonkin, Dmitriy

    2015-10-22

    A number of TP53-MDM2 inhibitors are currently under investigation as therapeutic agents in a variety of clinical trials in patients with TP53 wild type tumors. Not all wild type TP53 tumors are sensitive to such inhibitors. In an attempt to improve selection of patients with TP53 wild type tumors, an mRNA expression signature based on 13 TP53 transcriptional target genes was recently developed (Jeay et al. 2015). Careful reanalysis of TP53 status in the study validation data set of cancer cell lines considered to be TP53 wild type detected TP53 inactivating alterations in 23% of cell lines. The subsequent reanalysis of the remaining TP53 wild type cell lines clearly demonstrated that unfortunately the 13-gene signature cannot predict response to TP53-MDM2 inhibitor in TP53 wild type tumors.

  20. Discriminating Gene Expression Signature of Radiation-Induced Thyroid Tumors after Either External Exposure or Internal Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Catherine; Ugolin, Nicolas; Schlumberger, Martin; Hofman, Paul; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Both external radiation exposure and internal radionuclide contamination are well known risk factors in the development of thyroid epithelial tumors. The identification of specific molecular markers deregulated in radiation-induced thyroid tumors is important for the etiological diagnosis since neither histological features nor genetic alterations can discriminate between sporadic and radiation-induced tumors. Identification of highly discriminating markers in radiation-induced tumors is challenging as it relies on the ability to identify marker deregulation which is associated with a cellular stress that occurred many years before in the thyroid cells. The existence of such a signature is still controversial, as it was not found in several studies while a highly discriminating signature was found in both post-radiotherapy and post-Chernobyl series in other studies. Overall, published studies searching for radiation-induced thyroid tumor specificities, using transcriptomic, proteomic and comparative genomic hybridization approaches, and bearing in mind the analytical constraints required to analyze such small series of tumors, suggest that such a molecular signature could be found. In comparison with sporadic tumors, we highlight molecular similarities and specificities in tumors occurring after high-dose external radiation exposure, such as radiotherapy, and in post-Chernobyl tumors that occurred after internal 131I contamination. We discuss the relevance of signature extrapolation from series of tumors developing after high and low doses in the identification of tumors induced at very low doses of radiation. PMID:24704841

  1. Ubiquinol-induced gene expression signatures are translated into altered parameters of erythropoiesis and reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Constance; Niklowitz, Petra; Okun, Jürgen G; Haas, Dorothea; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Studies in vitro and in mice indicate a role for Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10) ) in gene expression. To determine this function in relationship to physiological readouts, a 2-week supplementation study with the reduced form of CoQ(10) (ubiquinol, Q(10) H(2) , 150 mg/d) was performed in 53 healthy males. Mean CoQ(10) plasma levels increased 4.8-fold after supplementation. Transcriptomic and bioinformatic approaches identified a gene-gene interaction network in CD14-positive monocytes, which functions in inflammation, cell differentiation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-signaling. These Q(10) H(2) -induced gene expression signatures were also described previously in liver tissues of SAMP1 mice. Biochemical and NMR-based analyses showed a reduction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol plasma levels after Q(10) H(2) supplementation. This effect was especially pronounced in atherogenic small dense LDL particles (19-21 nm, 1.045 g/L). In agreement with gene expression signatures, Q(10) H(2) reduces the number of erythrocytes but increases the concentration of reticulocytes. In conclusion, Q(10) H(2) induces characteristic gene expression patterns, which are translated into reduced LDL cholesterol levels and altered parameters of erythropoiesis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  3. Males are from Mars, and females are from Venus: sex-specific fetal brain gene expression signatures in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Edlow, Andrea G; Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Sverdlov, Deanna; Neri, Caterina; Bianchi, Diana W

    2016-05-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, including autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We previously identified second-trimester amniotic fluid and term cord blood gene expression patterns suggesting dysregulated brain development in fetuses of obese compared with lean women. We sought to investigate the biological significance of these findings in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. We evaluated sex-specific differences in fetal growth, brain gene expression signatures, and associated pathways. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet or 10% fat control diet for 12-14 weeks prior to mating. During pregnancy, obese dams continued on the high-fat diet or transitioned to the control diet. Lean dams stayed on the control diet. On embryonic day 17.5, embryos were weighed and fetal brains were snap frozen. RNA was extracted from male and female forebrains (10 per diet group per sex) and hybridized to whole-genome expression arrays. Significantly differentially expressed genes were identified using a Welch's t test with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Functional analyses were performed using ingenuity pathways analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. Embryos of dams on the high-fat diet were significantly smaller than controls, with males more severely affected than females (P = .01). Maternal obesity and maternal obesity with dietary change in pregnancy resulted in significantly more dysregulated genes in male vs female fetal brains (386 vs 66, P < .001). Maternal obesity with and without dietary change in pregnancy was associated with unique brain gene expression signatures for each sex, with an overlap of only 1 gene. Changing obese dams to a control diet in pregnancy resulted in more differentially expressed genes in the fetal brain than maternal obesity alone. Functional analyses identified common

  4. High BAALC expression associates with other molecular prognostic markers, poor outcome, and a distinct gene-expression signature in cytogenetically normal patients younger than 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) study.

    PubMed

    Langer, Christian; Radmacher, Michael D; Ruppert, Amy S; Whitman, Susan P; Paschka, Peter; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Baldus, Claudia D; Vukosavljevic, Tamara; Liu, Chang-Gong; Ross, Mary E; Powell, Bayard L; de la Chapelle, Albert; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Larson, Richard A; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2008-06-01

    BAALC expression is considered an independent prognostic factor in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), but has yet to be investigated together with multiple other established prognostic molecular markers in CN-AML. We analyzed BAALC expression in 172 primary CN-AML patients younger than 60 years of age, treated similarly on CALGB protocols. High BAALC expression was associated with FLT3-ITD (P = .04), wild-type NPM1 (P < .001), mutated CEBPA (P = .003), MLL-PTD (P = .009), absent FLT3-TKD (P = .005), and high ERG expression (P = .05). In multivariable analysis, high BAALC expression independently predicted lower complete remission rates (P = .04) when adjusting for ERG expression and age, and shorter survival (P = .04) when adjusting for FLT3-ITD, NPM1, CEBPA, and white blood cell count. A gene-expression signature of 312 probe sets differentiating high from low BAALC expressers was identified. High BAALC expression was associated with overexpression of genes involved in drug resistance (MDR1) and stem cell markers (CD133, CD34, KIT). Global microRNA-expression analysis did not reveal significant differences between BAALC expression groups. However, an analysis of microRNAs that putatively target BAALC revealed a potentially interesting inverse association between expression of miR-148a and BAALC. We conclude that high BAALC expression is an independent adverse prognostic factor and is associated with a specific gene-expression profile.

  5. Independent prognostic value of BCR-ABL1-like signature and IKZF1 deletion, but not high CRLF2 expression, in children with B-cell precursor ALL

    PubMed Central

    van der Veer, Arian; Waanders, Esmé; Pieters, Rob; Willemse, Marieke E.; Van Reijmersdal, Simon V.; Russell, Lisa J.; Harrison, Christine J.; Evans, William E.; van der Velden, Vincent H. J.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Van Leeuwen, Frank; Escherich, Gabriele; Horstmann, Martin A.; Mohammadi Khankahdani, Leila; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; De Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Kuiper, Roland P.

    2013-01-01

    Most relapses in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) are not predicted using current prognostic features. Here, we determined the co-occurrence and independent prognostic relevance of 3 recently identified prognostic features: BCR-ABL1-like gene signature, deletions in IKZF1, and high CRLF2 messenger RNA expression (CRLF2-high). These features were determined in 4 trials representing 1128 children with ALL: DCOG ALL-8, ALL9, ALL10, and Cooperative ALL (COALL)-97/03. BCR-ABL1-like, IKZF1-deleted, and CRLF2-high cases constitute 33.7% of BCR-ABL1–negative, MLL wild-type BCP-ALL cases, of which BCR-ABL1-like and IKZF1 deletion (co)occurred most frequently. Higher cumulative incidence of relapse was found for BCR-ABL1-like and IKZF1-deleted, but not CRLF2-high, cases relative to remaining BCP-ALL cases, reflecting the observations in each of the cohorts analyzed separately. No relapses occurred among cases with CRLF2-high as single feature, whereas 62.9% of all relapses in BCR-ABL1–negative, MLL wild-type BCP-ALL occurred in cases with BCR-ABL1-like signature and/or IKZF1 deletion. Both the BCR-ABL1-like signature and IKZF1 deletions were prognostic features independent of conventional prognostic markers in a multivariate model, and both remained prognostic among cases with intermediate minimal residual disease. The BCR-ABL1-like signature and an IKZF1 deletion, but not CRLF2-high, are prognostic factors and are clinically of importance to identify high-risk patients who require more intensive and/or alternative therapies. PMID:23974192

  6. CCR 20th Anniversary Commentary: Gene-Expression Signature in Breast Cancer--Where Did It Start and Where Are We Now?

    PubMed

    Gingras, Isabelle; Desmedt, Christine; Ignatiadis, Michail; Sotiriou, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Desmedt and colleagues published two articles, one in the June 1, 2007 issue, and the other in the August 15, 2008, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, that showed gene-expression signatures to be proliferation driven and time dependent, with their prognostic power decreasing with increasing follow-up years. Moreover, the articles showed that immune response is a crucial determinant of prognosis in the HER2-positive and estrogen receptor-negative/HER2-negative subtypes, providing a rationale to further explore the role of the antitumor immune response in these breast cancer subtypes.

  7. Conditional entropy in variation-adjusted windows detects selection signatures associated with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past 50,000 years, shifts in human-environmental or human-human interactions shaped genetic differences within and among human populations, including variants under positive selection. Shaped by environmental factors, such variants influence the genetics of modern health, disease, and treatment outcome. Because evolutionary processes tend to act on gene regulation, we test whether regulatory variants are under positive selection. We introduce a new approach to enhance detection of genetic markers undergoing positive selection, using conditional entropy to capture recent local selection signals. Results We use conditional logistic regression to compare our Adjusted Haplotype Conditional Entropy (H|H) measure of positive selection to existing positive selection measures. H|H and existing measures were applied to published regulatory variants acting in cis (cis-eQTLs), with conditional logistic regression testing whether regulatory variants undergo stronger positive selection than the surrounding gene. These cis-eQTLs were drawn from six independent studies of genotype and RNA expression. The conditional logistic regression shows that, overall, H|H is substantially more powerful than existing positive-selection methods in identifying cis-eQTLs against other Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the same genes. When broken down by Gene Ontology, H|H predictions are particularly strong in some biological process categories, where regulatory variants are under strong positive selection compared to the bulk of the gene, distinct from those GO categories under overall positive selection. . However, cis-eQTLs in a second group of genes lack positive selection signatures detectable by H|H, consistent with ancient short haplotypes compared to the surrounding gene (for example, in innate immunity GO:0042742); under such other modes of selection, H|H would not be expected to be a strong predictor.. These conditional logistic regression models are

  8. Conditional entropy in variation-adjusted windows detects selection signatures associated with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs).

    PubMed

    Handelman, Samuel K; Seweryn, Michal; Smith, Ryan M; Hartmann, Katherine; Wang, Danxin; Pietrzak, Maciej; Johnson, Andrew D; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50,000 years, shifts in human-environmental or human-human interactions shaped genetic differences within and among human populations, including variants under positive selection. Shaped by environmental factors, such variants influence the genetics of modern health, disease, and treatment outcome. Because evolutionary processes tend to act on gene regulation, we test whether regulatory variants are under positive selection. We introduce a new approach to enhance detection of genetic markers undergoing positive selection, using conditional entropy to capture recent local selection signals. We use conditional logistic regression to compare our Adjusted Haplotype Conditional Entropy (H|H) measure of positive selection to existing positive selection measures. H|H and existing measures were applied to published regulatory variants acting in cis (cis-eQTLs), with conditional logistic regression testing whether regulatory variants undergo stronger positive selection than the surrounding gene. These cis-eQTLs were drawn from six independent studies of genotype and RNA expression. The conditional logistic regression shows that, overall, H|H is substantially more powerful than existing positive-selection methods in identifying cis-eQTLs against other Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the same genes. When broken down by Gene Ontology, H|H predictions are particularly strong in some biological process categories, where regulatory variants are under strong positive selection compared to the bulk of the gene, distinct from those GO categories under overall positive selection. . However, cis-eQTLs in a second group of genes lack positive selection signatures detectable by H|H, consistent with ancient short haplotypes compared to the surrounding gene (for example, in innate immunity GO:0042742); under such other modes of selection, H|H would not be expected to be a strong predictor.. These conditional logistic regression models are adjusted for Minor allele

  9. CD30 expression defines a novel subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with favorable prognosis and distinct gene expression signature: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Visco, Carlo; Tzankov, Alexander; Liu, Wei-min; Miranda, Roberto N.; Zhang, Li; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkær, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W. L.; Han van Krieken, J.; Huang, Qin; Huh, Jooryung; Ai, Weiyun; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J. M.; Zhao, Xiaoying; Winter, Jane N.; Zhang, Mingzhi; Li, Ling; Møller, Michael B.; Piris, Miguel A.; Li, Yong; Go, Ronald S.; Wu, Lin; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Young, Ken H.

    2013-01-01

    CD30, originally identified as a cell-surface marker of Reed-Sternberg and Hodgkin cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is also expressed by several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the prognostic and biological importance of CD30 expression in DLBCL is unknown. Here we report that CD30 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in a cohort of 903 de novo DLBCL patients. CD30 was expressed in ∼14% of DLBCL patients. Patients with CD30+ DLBCL had superior 5-year overall survival (CD30+, 79% vs CD30–, 59%; P = .001) and progression-free survival (P = .003). The favorable outcome of CD30 expression was maintained in both the germinal center B-cell and activated B-cell subtypes. Gene expression profiling revealed the upregulation of genes encoding negative regulators of nuclear factor κB activation and lymphocyte survival, and downregulation of genes encoding B-cell receptor signaling and proliferation, as well as prominent cytokine and stromal signatures in CD30+ DLBCL patients, suggesting a distinct molecular basis for its favorable outcome. Given the superior prognostic value, unique gene expression signature, and significant value of CD30 as a therapeutic target for brentuximab vedotin in ongoing successful clinical trials, it seems appropriate to consider CD30+ DLBCL as a distinct subgroup of DLBCL. PMID:23343832

  10. Diagnosing Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Diagnosing Flu Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  11. Blood-based gene expression signatures of medication-free outpatients with major depressive disorder: integrative genome-wide and candidate gene analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nakamura, Seiji; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Several microarray-based studies have investigated gene expression profiles in major depressive disorder (MDD), yet with highly variable findings. We examined blood-based genome-wide expression signatures of MDD, focusing on molecular pathways and networks underlying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and behaviours of hypothesis-driven, evidence-based candidate genes for depression. Agilent human whole-genome arrays were used to measure gene expression in 14 medication-free outpatients with MDD who were at least moderately ill and 14 healthy controls matched pairwise for age and sex. After filtering, we compared expression of entire probes between patients and controls and identified DEGs. The DEGs were evaluated by pathway and network analyses. For the candidate gene analysis, we utilized 169 previously prioritized genes and examined their case-control separation efficiency and correlational co-expression network in patients relative to controls. The 317 screened DEGs mapped to a significantly over-represented pathway, the “synaptic transmission” pathway. The protein-protein interaction network was also significantly enriched, in which a number of key molecules for depression were included. The co-expression network of candidate genes was markedly disrupted in patients. This study provided evidence for an altered molecular network along with several key molecules in MDD and confirmed that the candidate genes are worthwhile targets for depression research. PMID:26728011

  12. Blood-based gene expression signatures of medication-free outpatients with major depressive disorder: integrative genome-wide and candidate gene analyses.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nakamura, Seiji; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-05

    Several microarray-based studies have investigated gene expression profiles in major depressive disorder (MDD), yet with highly variable findings. We examined blood-based genome-wide expression signatures of MDD, focusing on molecular pathways and networks underlying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and behaviours of hypothesis-driven, evidence-based candidate genes for depression. Agilent human whole-genome arrays were used to measure gene expression in 14 medication-free outpatients with MDD who were at least moderately ill and 14 healthy controls matched pairwise for age and sex. After filtering, we compared expression of entire probes between patients and controls and identified DEGs. The DEGs were evaluated by pathway and network analyses. For the candidate gene analysis, we utilized 169 previously prioritized genes and examined their case-control separation efficiency and correlational co-expression network in patients relative to controls. The 317 screened DEGs mapped to a significantly over-represented pathway, the "synaptic transmission" pathway. The protein-protein interaction network was also significantly enriched, in which a number of key molecules for depression were included. The co-expression network of candidate genes was markedly disrupted in patients. This study provided evidence for an altered molecular network along with several key molecules in MDD and confirmed that the candidate genes are worthwhile targets for depression research.

  13. A reported 20-gene expression signature to predict lymph node-positive disease at radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is clinically not applicable

    PubMed Central

    van Kessel, Kim E. M.; van de Werken, Harmen J. G.; Lurkin, Irene; Ziel – van der Made, Angelique C. J.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Boormans, Joost L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) provides a small but significant survival benefit. Nevertheless, controversies on applying NAC remain because the limited benefit must be weight against chemotherapy-related toxicity and the delay of definitive local treatment. Therefore, there is a clear clinical need for tools to guide treatment decisions on NAC in MIBC. Here, we aimed to validate a previously reported 20-gene expression signature that predicted lymph node-positive disease at radical cystectomy in clinically node-negative MIBC patients, which would be a justification for upfront chemotherapy. Methods We studied diagnostic transurethral resection of bladder tumors (dTURBT) of 150 MIBC patients (urothelial carcinoma) who were subsequently treated by radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. RNA was isolated and the expression level of the 20 genes was determined on a qRT-PCR platform. Normalized Ct values were used to calculate a risk score to predict the presence of node-positive disease. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA expression data was analyzed to subsequently validate the results. Results In a univariate regression analysis, none of the 20 genes significantly correlated with node-positive disease. The area under the curve of the risk score calculated by the 20-gene expression signature was 0.54 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.44-0.65) versus 0.67 for the model published by Smith et al. Node-negative patients had a significantly lower tumor grade at TURBT (p = 0.03), a lower pT stage (p<0.01) and less frequent lymphovascular invasion (13% versus 38%, p<0.01) at radical cystectomy than node-positive patients. In addition, in the TCGA data, none of the 20 genes was differentially expressed in node-negative versus node-positive patients. Conclusions We conclude that a 20-gene expression signature developed for nodal staging of MIBC at radical cystectomy could not be validated on a qRT-PCR platform in a

  14. Correlation of p16(INK4A) expression and HPV copy number with cellular FTIR spectroscopic signatures of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Kamila M; Garcia, Amaya; Meade, Aidan D; Malkin, Alison; Okewumi, Ifeoluwapo; O'Leary, John J; Martin, Cara; Byrne, Hugh J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2011-04-07

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, has its main aetiology in infection by high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Approaches to improving cervical cancer screening and diagnostic methodologies include molecular biological analysis, targeting of biomarker proteins, but also exploration and implementation of new techniques such as vibrational spectroscopy. This study correlates the biomarker protein p16(INK4A) expression levels dependent on HPV copy number with the infrared absorption spectral signatures of the cervical cancer cell lines, HPV negative C33A, HPV-16 positive SiHa and CaSki and HPV-18 positive HeLa. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that p16(INK4A) is expressed in all investigated cell lines in both nuclear and cytoplasmic regions, although predominantly in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the p16(INK4A) expression levels and demonstrated a correlation, albeit nonlinear, between the reported number of integrated HPV copies and p16(INK4A) expression levels. CaSki cells were found to have the highest level of expression, HeLa intermediate levels, and SiHa and C33A the lowest levels. FTIR spectra revealed differences in nucleic acid, lipid and protein signatures between the cell lines with varying HPV copy number. Peak intensities exhibited increasing tendency in nucleic acid levels and decreasing tendency in lipid levels with increasing HPV copy number, and although they were found to be nonlinearly correlated with the HPV copy number, their dependence on p16(INK4A) levels was found to be close to linear. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the infrared absorption spectra revealed differences between nuclear and cytoplasmic spectroscopic signatures for all cell lines, and furthermore clearly differentiated the groups of spectra representing each cell line. Finally, Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis was employed to construct a model which can predict the p16(INK4A) expression level based on a spectral

  15. Expression analysis of mitotic spindle checkpoint genes in breast carcinoma: role of NDC80/HEC1 in early breast tumorigenicity, and a two-gene signature for aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) are common abnormalities in human cancer. Alterations of the mitotic spindle checkpoint are likely to contribute to these phenotypes, but little is known about somatic alterations of mitotic spindle checkpoint genes in breast cancer. Methods To obtain further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying aneuploidy in breast cancer, we used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to quantify the mRNA expression of 76 selected mitotic spindle checkpoint genes in a large panel of breast tumor samples. Results The expression of 49 (64.5%) of the 76 genes was significantly dysregulated in breast tumors compared to normal breast tissues: 40 genes were upregulated and 9 were downregulated. Most of these changes in gene expression during malignant transformation were observed in epithelial cells. Alterations of nine of these genes, and particularly NDC80, were also detected in benign breast tumors, indicating that they may be involved in pre-neoplastic processes. We also identified a two-gene expression signature (PLK1 + AURKA) which discriminated between DNA aneuploid and DNA diploid breast tumor samples. Interestingly, some DNA tetraploid tumor samples failed to cluster with DNA aneuploid breast tumors. Conclusion This study confirms the importance of previously characterized genes and identifies novel candidate genes that could be activated for aneuploidy to occur. Further functional analyses are required to clearly confirm the role of these new identified genes in the molecular mechanisms involved in breast cancer aneuploidy. The novel genes identified here, and/or the two-gene expression signature, might serve as diagnostic or prognostic markers and form the basis for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:21352579

  16. MicroRNA expression signature of castration-resistant prostate cancer: the microRNA-221/222 cluster functions as a tumour suppressor and disease progression marker

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yusuke; Kojima, Satoko; Nishikawa, Rika; Kurozumi, Akira; Kato, Mayuko; Enokida, Hideki; Matsushita, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ishida, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Naya, Yukio; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Seki, Naohiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our present study of the microRNA (miRNA) expression signature in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) revealed that the clustered miRNAs microRNA-221 (miR-221) and microRNA-222 (miR-222) are significantly downregulated in cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional roles of miR-221 and miR-222 in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Methods: A CRPC miRNA signature was constructed by PCR-based array methods. Functional studies of differentially expressed miRNAs were analysed using PCa cells. The association between miRNA expression and overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. In silico database and genome-wide gene expression analyses were performed to identify molecular targets regulated by the miR-221/222 cluster. Results: miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly downregulated in PCa and CRPC specimens. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that low expression of miR-222 predicted a short duration of progression to CRPC. Restoration of miR-221 or miR-222 in cancer cells revealed that both miRNAs significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. Ecm29 was directly regulated by the miR-221/222 cluster in PCa cells. Conclusions: Loss of the tumour-suppressive miR-221/222 cluster enhanced migration and invasion in PCa cells. Our data describing targets regulated by the tumour-suppressive miR-221/222 cluster provide insights into the mechanisms of PCa and CRPC progression. PMID:26325107

  17. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-2/beta3 Integrin Expression Profile: Signature of Local Progression After Chemoradiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Massabeau, Carole; Rouquette, Isabelle; Lauwers-Cances, Valerie; Mazieres, Julien; Bachaud, Jean-Marc; Armand, Jean-Pierre; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Favre, Gilles; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: No biologic signature of chemoradiotherapy sensitivity has been reported for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have previously demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and alphavbeta3 integrin pathways control tumor radioresistance. We investigated whether the expression of the proteins involved in these pathways might be associated with the response to treatment and, therefore, the clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: FGF-2, beta3 integrin, angiopoietin-2, and syndecan-1 expression was studied using immunohistochemistry performed on biopsies obtained, before any treatment, from 65 patients exclusively treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced NSCLC. The response to treatment was evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria using computed tomography at least 6 weeks after the end of the chemoradiotherapy. Local progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and disease-free survival were studied using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: Among this NSCLC biopsy population, 43.7% overexpressed beta3 integrin (beta3{sup +}), 43% FGF-2 (FGF-2{sup +}), 41.5% syndecan-1, and 59.4% angiopoietin-2. Our results showed a strong association between FGF-2 and beta3 integrin expression (p = .001). The adjusted hazard ratio of local recurrence for FGF-2{sup +}/beta3{sup +} tumors compared with FGF-2{sup -}/beta3{sup -} tumors was 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-14.6, p = .005). However, the risk of local recurrence was not increased when tumors overexpressed beta3 integrin or FGF-2 alone. Moreover, the co-expression of these two proteins was marginally associated with the response to chemoradiotherapy and metastasis-free survival. Conclusion: The results of this study have identified the combined profile FGF-2/beta3 integrin expression as a signature of local control in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced

  18. Factors Associated with Expressive and Receptive Language in French-Speaking Toddlers Clinically Diagnosed with Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvestre, Audette; Desmarais, Chantal; Meyer, Francois; Bairati, Isabelle; Rouleau, Nancie; Merette, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine child and environmental factors known to be associated to language development and how they relate to results in expressive vocabulary, expressive language, and receptive language in language-delayed toddlers. The cross-sectional data on 96 French-speaking children aged 18-36 months were…

  19. Factors Associated with Expressive and Receptive Language in French-Speaking Toddlers Clinically Diagnosed with Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvestre, Audette; Desmarais, Chantal; Meyer, Francois; Bairati, Isabelle; Rouleau, Nancie; Merette, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine child and environmental factors known to be associated to language development and how they relate to results in expressive vocabulary, expressive language, and receptive language in language-delayed toddlers. The cross-sectional data on 96 French-speaking children aged 18-36 months were…

  20. A gene expression signature of CD34+ cells to predict major cytogenetic response in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib

    PubMed Central

    McWeeney, Shannon K.; Pemberton, Lucy C.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Vartanian, Kristina; Willis, Stephanie G.; Yochum, Gregory; Wilmot, Beth; Turpaz, Yaron; Pillai, Raji; Druker, Brian J.; Snead, Jennifer L.; MacPartlin, Mary; O'Brien, Stephen G.; Melo, Junia V.; Lange, Thoralf; Harrington, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    In chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, the lack of a major cytogenetic response (< 36% Ph+ metaphases) to imatinib within 12 months indicates failure and mandates a change of therapy. To identify biomarkers predictive of imatinib failure, we performed gene expression array profiling of CD34+ cells from 2 independent cohorts of imatinib-naive chronic-phase CML patients. The learning set consisted of retrospectively selected patients with a complete cytogenetic response or more than 65% Ph+ metaphases within 12 months of imatinib therapy. Based on analysis of variance P less than .1 and fold difference 1.5 or more, we identified 885 probe sets with differential expression between responders and nonresponders, from which we extracted a 75-probe set minimal signature (classifier) that separated the 2 groups. On application to a prospectively accrued validation set, the classifier correctly predicted 88% of responders and 83% of nonresponders. Bioinformatics analysis and comparison with published studies revealed overlap of classifier genes with CML progression signatures and implicated β-catenin in their regulation, suggesting that chronic-phase CML patients destined to fail imatinib have more advanced disease than evident by morphologic criteria. Our classifier may allow directing more aggressive therapy upfront to the patients most likely to benefit while sparing good-risk patients from unnecessary toxicity. PMID:19837975

  1. Whither the "signature wounds of the war" after the war: estimates of incidence rates and proportions of TBI and PTSD diagnoses attributable to background risk, enhanced ascertainment, and active war zone service, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Brundage, John F; Taubman, Stephen B; Hunt, Devin J; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are "signature wounds" of the Afghanistan/Iraq wars; however, many TBI/PTSD cases are not war related. During the wars, diagnoses of TBI/PTSD among military members increased because risks of TBI/PTSD, and capabilities to detect cases, increased. This report summarizes TBI/PTSD diagnosis experiences of three cohorts of overseas deployers in relation to the natures of their exposures to active war service and enhanced case ascertainment efforts. The findings suggest that, during the war, the proportions of PTSD diagnoses attributable to war zone service decreased from approximately 80% to less than 50%, while the proportions attributable to enhanced case ascertainment increased from less than 10% to nearly 50%. The proportions of TBI diagnoses attributable to war zone service more than tripled from 2003-2005 (13.1%) through 2007-2009 (44.8%); the proportions attributable to enhanced ascertainment also markedly increased, but not until after 2007. By the end of the war, war zone service and enhanced ascertainment accounted for similar proportions of all PTSD and TBI diagnoses. If programs and resources currently focused on TBI and PTSD continue, rates of diagnoses post-war will greatly exceed those pre-war.

  2. Recognition of emotional facial expressions and broad autism phenotype in parents of children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Demirel, Omer Faruk; Yavuz, Mesut; Demir, Türkay

    2014-07-01

    Research findings debate about features of broad autism phenotype. In this study, we tested whether parents of children with autism have problems recognizing emotional facial expression and the contribution of such an impairment to the broad phenotype of autism. Seventy-two parents of children with autistic spectrum disorder and 38 parents of control group participated in the study. Broad autism features was measured with Autism Quotient (AQ). Recognition of Emotional Face Expression Test was assessed with the Emotion Recognition Test, consisting a set of photographs from Ekman & Friesen's. In a two-tailed analysis of variance of AQ, there was a significant difference for social skills (F(1, 106)=6.095; p<.05). Analyses of variance revealed significant difference in the recognition of happy, surprised and neutral expressions (F(1, 106)=4.068, p=.046; F(1, 106)=4.068, p=.046; F(1, 106)=6.064, p=.016). According to our findings, social impairment could be considered a characteristic feature of BAP. ASD parents had difficulty recognizing neutral expressions, suggesting that ASD parents may have impaired recognition of ambiguous expressions as do autistic children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression signatures, barriers and beyond: the role of oxidative stress in murine colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease revisited.

    PubMed

    Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    (Table is included in full-text article). Inflammatory bowel disease is triggered by, as yet, unknown factors in the background of a polygenic susceptibility. Recent technological advances have made it possible to unravel genetic etiology and transcriptomal signature patterns of such complex diseases. Combining murine models with patient-derived data has proven a powerful approach to understand early events of etiopathogenesis and has pointed towards a primary deficiency of the innate immunological barrier function in this group of diseases. One of the emerging elements from transcriptomal studies is the imbalance of cellular programs involved in antioxidants with a resulting preponderance of reactive oxygen species in the inflamed intestinal tissue. The understanding of the complex genetic and genomic risk map of disease genes will not only further our understanding of inflammatory bowel disease etiopathogenesis, but may ultimately lead to therapeutic strategies aiming at the restoration of impaired intestinal barrier function.

  4. Gene expression analysis of TIL rich HPV-driven head and neck tumors reveals a distinct B-cell signature when compared to HPV independent tumors

    PubMed Central

    Savelyeva, Natalia; McCann, Katy J.; Singh, Divya; Jones, Terry; Peel, Lailah; Breen, Michael S.; Ward, Matthew; Martin, Eva Garrido

    2016-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a better prognosis than it's HPV negative (HPV(−)) counterpart. This may be due to the higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in HPV positive (HPV(+)) tumors. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to evaluate whether the differences in clinical behaviour simply reflect a numerical difference in TILs or whether there is a fundamental behavioural difference between TILs in these two settings. Thirty-nine HNSCC tumors were scored for TIL density by immunohistochemistry. After the removal of 16 TILlow tumors, RNA-Seq analysis was performed on 23 TILhigh/med tumors (HPV(+) n=10 and HPV(−) n=13). Using EdgeR, differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified. Immune subset analysis was performed using Functional Analysis of Individual RNA-Seq/ Microarray Expression (FAIME) and immune gene RNA transcript count analysis. In total, 1,634 DEGs were identified, with a dominant immune signature observed in HPV(+) tumors. After normalizing the expression profiles to account for differences in B- and T-cell number, 437 significantly DEGs remained. A B-cell associated signature distinguished HPV(+) from HPV(−) tumors, and included the DEGs CD200, GGA2, ADAM28, STAG3, SPIB, VCAM1, BCL2 and ICOSLG; the immune signal relative to T-cells was qualitatively similar between TILs of both tumor cohorts. Our findings were validated and confirmed in two independent cohorts using TCGA data and tumor-infiltrating B-cells from additional HPV(+) HNSCC patients. A B-cell associated signal segregated tumors relative to HPV status. Our data suggests that the role of B-cells in the adaptive immune response to HPV(+) HNSCC requires re-assessment. PMID:27462861

  5. Gene expression analysis of TIL rich HPV-driven head and neck tumors reveals a distinct B-cell signature when compared to HPV independent tumors.

    PubMed

    Wood, Oliver; Woo, Jeongmin; Seumois, Gregory; Savelyeva, Natalia; McCann, Katy J; Singh, Divya; Jones, Terry; Peel, Lailah; Breen, Michael S; Ward, Matthew; Garrido Martin, Eva; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman; Thomas, Gareth; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Woelk, Christopher H; King, Emma; Ottensmeier, Christian

    2016-08-30

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a better prognosis than it's HPV negative (HPV(-)) counterpart. This may be due to the higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in HPV positive (HPV(+)) tumors. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to evaluate whether the differences in clinical behaviour simply reflect a numerical difference in TILs or whether there is a fundamental behavioural difference between TILs in these two settings. Thirty-nine HNSCC tumors were scored for TIL density by immunohistochemistry. After the removal of 16 TILlow tumors, RNA-Seq analysis was performed on 23 TILhigh/med tumors (HPV(+) n=10 and HPV(-) n=13). Using EdgeR, differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified. Immune subset analysis was performed using Functional Analysis of Individual RNA-Seq/ Microarray Expression (FAIME) and immune gene RNA transcript count analysis. In total, 1,634 DEGs were identified, with a dominant immune signature observed in HPV(+) tumors. After normalizing the expression profiles to account for differences in B- and T-cell number, 437 significantly DEGs remained. A B-cell associated signature distinguished HPV(+) from HPV(-) tumors, and included the DEGs CD200, GGA2, ADAM28, STAG3, SPIB, VCAM1, BCL2 and ICOSLG; the immune signal relative to T-cells was qualitatively similar between TILs of both tumor cohorts. Our findings were validated and confirmed in two independent cohorts using TCGA data and tumor-infiltrating B-cells from additional HPV(+) HNSCC patients. A B-cell associated signal segregated tumors relative to HPV status. Our data suggests that the role of B-cells in the adaptive immune response to HPV(+) HNSCC requires re-assessment.

  6. Subclassification of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastomas through an Immunohistochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Siobhan; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Joseph, Justin V.; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Bhat, Krishna P.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Enting, Roelien H.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular signatures in Glioblastoma (GBM) have been described that correlate with clinical outcome and response to therapy. The Proneural (PN) and Mesenchymal (MES) signatures have been identified most consistently, but others including Classical (CLAS) have also been reported. The molecular signatures have been detected by array techniques at RNA and DNA level, but these methods are costly and cannot take into account individual contributions of different cells within a tumor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether subclasses of newly diagnosed GBMs could be assessed and assigned by application of standard pathology laboratory procedures. 123 newly diagnosed GBMs were analyzed for the tumor cell expression of 23 pre-identified proteins and EGFR amplification, together allowing for the subclassification of 65% of the tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based profiling was found to be analogous to transcription-based profiling using a 9-gene transcriptional signature for PN and MES subclasses. Based on these data a novel, minimal IHC-based scheme for subclass assignment for GBMs is proposed. Positive staining for IDH1R132H can be used for PN subclass assignment, high EGFR expression for the CLAS subtype and a combined high expression of PTEN, VIM and/or YKL40 for the MES subclass. The application of the proposed scheme was evaluated in an independent tumor set, which resulted in similar subclass assignment rates as those observed in the training set. The IHC-based subclassification scheme proposed in this study therefore could provide very useful in future studies for stratification of individual patient samples. PMID:25546404

  7. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center: Functional Signature Ontology Tool: Triplicate Measurements of Reporter Gene Expression in Response to Individual Genetic and Chemical Perturbations in HCT116 Cells | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of this project is to use an eight-gene expression profile to define functional signatures for small molecules and natural products with heretofore undefined mechanism of action. Two genes in the eight gene set are used as internal controls and do not vary across gene expression array data collected from the public domain. The remaining six genes are found to vary independently across a large collection of publically available gene expression array datasets.  Read the abstract

  8. Validation of Gene Expression Signatures to Identify Low-risk Clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients at Higher Risk for Disease-related Death.

    PubMed

    Parasramka, Mansi; Serie, Daniel J; Asmann, Yan W; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Castle, Erik P; Stanton, Melissa L; Leibovich, Brad C; Thompson, Robert Houston; Thompson, E Aubrey; Parker, Alexander S; Ho, Thai H; Joseph, Richard W

    2016-12-15

    Approximately 5-10% of patients with "low-risk" clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), as stratified by externally validated clinicopathologic prognostic algorithms, eventually have disease relapse and die. Improving prognostic algorithms for these low-risk patients could help to provide improved individualized surveillance recommendations. To identify genes that are differentially expressed in patients with low-risk ccRCC who did and did not die of their disease. Using the Mayo Clinic Renal Registry, we identified formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from patients with low-risk ccRCC, as defined by Mayo Clinic stage, size, grade, and necrosis score of 0-3. We conducted a nested case-control study between patients who did (cases) and did not (controls) have ccRCC relapse and death, using two independent sets (discovery and validation). We performed RNA sequencing of all samples in the discovery set to identify differentially expressed genes. In the independent validation set, we assessed the top 50 expressed genes using the nCounter Analysis System (NanoString Technologies, Seattle, WA, USA). In the discovery set of 24 cases and 24 controls, 92 genes were differentially expressed with p<0.001. The top 50 genes were validated in an independent set of 22 cases and 22 controls using linear mixed models. In the validation set, 10 genes remained differentially expressed between the groups. RNA signatures from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks can identify patients with low-risk ccRCC who die of their disease. This finding provides an opportunity to help guide improved surveillance in patients with low-risk ccRCC. In the current study we identified RNA signatures from low-risk clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients who died from this disease. Improving prognostic algorithms for these low-risk patients could help to provide improved individualized surveillance recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  9. FOXP1 suppresses immune response signatures and MHC class II expression in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P J; Wong, K K; Felce, S L; Lyne, L; Spearman, H; Soilleux, E J; Pedersen, L M; Møller, M B; Green, T M; Gascoyne, D M; Banham, A H

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP1 (forkhead box P1) transcription factor is a marker of poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here microarray analysis of FOXP1-silenced DLBCL cell lines identified differential regulation of immune response signatures and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) genes as some of the most significant differences between germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like DLBCL with full-length FOXP1 protein expression versus activated B-cell (ABC)-like DLBCL expressing predominantly short FOXP1 isoforms. In an independent primary DLBCL microarray data set, multiple MHC II genes, including human leukocyte antigen DR alpha chain (HLA-DRA), were inversely correlated with FOXP1 transcript expression (P<0.05). FOXP1 knockdown in ABC-DLBCL cells led to increased cell-surface expression of HLA-DRA and CD74. In R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-treated DLBCL patients (n=150), reduced HLA-DRA (<90% frequency) expression correlated with inferior overall survival (P=0.0003) and progression-free survival (P=0.0012) and with non-GCB subtype stratified by the Hans, Choi or Visco–Young algorithms (all P<0.01). In non-GCB DLBCL cases with <90% HLA-DRA, there was an inverse correlation with the frequency (P=0.0456) and intensity (P=0.0349) of FOXP1 expression. We propose that FOXP1 represents a novel regulator of genes targeted by the class II MHC transactivator CIITA (MHC II and CD74) and therapeutically targeting the FOXP1 pathway may improve antigen presentation and immune surveillance in high-risk DLBCL patients. PMID:26500140

  10. CD99 expression and newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab-CHOP immunochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junshik; Park, Sanghui; Park, Jinny; Jang, Seung Jun; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Sym, Sun Jin; Cho, Eun Kyung; Shin, Dong Bok; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate prognostic value of CD99 expression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who underwent treatment with rituximab-CHOP immunochemotherapy, immunohistochemistry for CD99/CD10/BCL-2/BCL-6/MUM-1 was performed on nodal DLBCL specimens from 70 patients. Patients were classified as either germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype or non-GCB subtype according to the Muris algorithm. A superior 2-year event-free survival (EFS) was observed in patients with the GCB subgroup, compared to those with the non-GCB subgroup (p = 0.034). The distribution of CD99 expression (29 patients; 41.4 %) did not show deviation according to subtype and was not prognostic for survival in the entire patient population. Among patients with the GCB subgroup, better EFS and overall survival (OS) were observed in CD99+ patients, compared to CD99- patients. Conversely, among patients with the non-GCB subgroup, inferior EFS and OS were reported in CD99+ patients. Superior 2-year EFS (p = 0.004) and 2-year OS (p = 0.003) were observed in patients with GCB/CD99+ and non-GCB/CD99- compared to the others, and the combination classification was found to be an independent prognostic factor.

  11. Determining epithelial contribution to in vivo mesenchymal tumour expression signature using species-specific microarray profiling analysis of xenografts.

    PubMed

    Purdom, E; Restall, C; Busuttil, R A; Schluter, H; Boussioutas, A; Thompson, E W; Anderson, R L; Speed, T P; Haviv, I

    2013-02-01

    Gene expression profiling using microarrays and xenograft transplants of human cancer cell lines are both popular tools to investigate human cancer. However, the undefined degree of cross hybridization between the mouse and human genomes hinders the use of microarrays to characterize gene expression of both the host and the cancer cell within the xenograft. Since an increasingly recognized aspect of cancer is the host response (or cancer-stroma interaction), we describe here a bioinformatic manipulation of the Affymetrix profiling that allows interrogation of the gene expression of both the mouse host and the human tumour. Evidence of microenvironmental regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition of the tumour component in vivo is resolved against a background of mesenchymal gene expression. This tool could allow deeper insight to the mechanism of action of anti-cancer drugs, as typically novel drug efficacy is being tested in xenograft systems.

  12. A stem cell-like gene expression signature associates with inferior outcomes and a distinct microRNA expression profile in adults with primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Metzeler, KH; Maharry, K; Kohlschmidt, J; Volinia, S; Mrózek, K; Becker, H; Nicolet, D; Whitman, SP; Mendler, JH; Schwind, S; Eisfeld, A-K; Wu, Y-Z; Powell, BL; Carter, TH; Wetzler, M; Kolitz, JE; Baer, MR; Carroll, AJ; Stone, RM; Caligiuri, MA; Marcucci, G; Bloomfield, CD

    2013-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is hypothesized to be sustained by self-renewing leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Recently, gene expression signatures (GES) from functionally defined AML LSC populations were reported, and expression of a ‘core enriched’ (CE) GES, representing 44 genes activated in LCSs, conferred shorter survival in cytogenetically normal (CN) AML. The prognostic impact of the CE GES in the context of other molecular markers, including gene mutations and microRNA (miR) expression alterations, is unknown and its clinical utility is unclear. We studied associations of the CE GES with known molecular prognosticators, miR expression profiles, and outcomes in 364 well-characterized CN-AML patients. A high CE score (CEhigh) associated with FLT3-internal tandem duplication, WT1 and RUNX1 mutations, wild-type CEBPA and TET2, and high ERG, BAALC and miR-155 expression. CEhigh patients had a lower complete remission (CR) rate (P=0.003) and shorter disease-free (DFS, P<0.001) and overall survival (OS, P<0.001) than CElow patients. These associations persisted in multivariable analyses adjusting for other prognosticators (CR, P=0.02; DFS, P<0.001; and OS, P<0.001). CEhigh status was accompanied by a characteristic miR expression signature. Fifteen miRs were upregulated in both younger and older CEhigh patients, including miRs relevant for stem cell function. Our results support the clinical relevance of LSCs and improve risk stratification in AML. PMID:23765227

  13. Analysis of Post-Traumatic Brain Injury Gene Expression Signature Reveals Tubulins, Nfe2l2, Nfkb, Cd44, and S100a4 as Treatment Targets.

    PubMed

    Lipponen, Anssi; Paananen, Jussi; Puhakka, Noora; Pitkänen, Asla

    2016-08-17

    We aimed to define the chronically altered gene expression signature of traumatic brain injury (TBI-sig) to discover novel treatments to reverse pathologic gene expression or reinforce the expression of recovery-related genes. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was performed at 3 months post-TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. We found 4964 regulated genes in the perilesional cortex and 1966 in the thalamus (FDR < 0.05). TBI-sig was used for a LINCS analysis which identified 11 compounds that showed a strong connectivity with the TBI-sig in neuronal cell lines. Of these, celecoxib and sirolimus were recently reported to have a disease-modifying effect in in vivo animal models of epilepsy. Other compounds revealed by the analysis were BRD-K91844626, BRD-A11009626, NO-ASA, BRD-K55260239, SDZ-NKT-343, STK-661558, BRD-K75971499, ionomycin, and desmethylclomipramine. Network analysis of overlapping genes revealed the effects on tubulins (Tubb2a, Tubb3, Tubb4b), Nfe2l2, S100a4, Cd44, and Nfkb2, all of which are linked to TBI-relevant outcomes, including epileptogenesis and tissue repair. Desmethylclomipramine modulated most of the gene targets considered favorable for TBI outcome. Our data demonstrate long-lasting transcriptomics changes after TBI. LINCS analysis predicted that these changes could be modulated by various compounds, some of which are already in clinical use but never tested in TBI.

  14. Meta-Profiles of Gene Expression during Aging: Limited Similarities between Mouse and Human and an Unexpectedly Decreased Inflammatory Signature

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, William R.; Johnston, Andrew; Sun, Liou; Xing, Xianying; Fisher, Gary J.; Bulyk, Martha L.; Elder, James T.; Gudjonsson, Johann E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin aging is associated with intrinsic processes that compromise the structure of the extracellular matrix while promoting loss of functional and regenerative capacity. These processes are accompanied by a large-scale shift in gene expression, but underlying mechanisms are not understood and conservation of these mechanisms between humans and mice is uncertain. Results We used genome-wide expression profiling to investigate the aging skin transcriptome. In humans, age-related shifts in gene expression were sex-specific. In females, aging increased expression of transcripts associated with T-cells, B-cells and dendritic cells, and decreased expression of genes in regions with elevated Zeb1, AP-2 and YY1 motif density. In males, however, these effects were contrasting or absent. When age-associated gene expression patterns in human skin were compared to those in tail skin from CB6F1 mice, overall human-mouse correspondence was weak. Moreover, inflammatory gene expression patterns were not induced with aging of mouse tail skin, and well-known aging biomarkers were in fact decreased (e.g., Clec7a, Lyz1 and Lyz2). These unexpected patterns and weak human-mouse correspondence may be due to decreased abundance of antigen presenting cells in mouse tail skin with age. Conclusions Aging is generally associated with a pro-inflammatory state, but we have identified an exception to this pattern with aging of CB6F1 mouse tail skin. Aging therefore does not uniformly heighten inflammatory status across all mouse tissues. Furthermore, we identified both intercellular and intracellular mechanisms of transcriptome aging, including those that are sex- and species-specific. PMID:22413003

  15. Effects of Sample Size on Differential Gene Expression, Rank Order and Prediction Accuracy of a Gene Signature

    PubMed Central

    Stretch, Cynthia; Khan, Sheehan; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Eisner, Roman; Vaisipour, Saman; Damaraju, Sambasivarao; Graham, Kathryn; Bathe, Oliver F.; Steed, Helen; Greiner, Russell; Baracos, Vickie E.

    2013-01-01

    Top differentially expressed gene lists are often inconsistent between studies and it has been suggested that small sample sizes contribute to lack of reproducibility and poor prediction accuracy in discriminative models. We considered sex differences (69♂, 65♀) in 134 human skeletal muscle biopsies using DNA microarray. The full dataset and subsamples (n = 10 (5♂, 5♀) to n = 120 (60♂, 60♀)) thereof were used to assess the effect of sample size on the differential expression of single genes, gene rank order and prediction accuracy. Using our full dataset (n = 134), we identified 717 differentially expressed transcripts (p<0.0001) and we were able predict sex with ∼90% accuracy, both within our dataset and on external datasets. Both p-values and rank order of top differentially expressed genes became more variable using smaller subsamples. For example, at n = 10 (5♂, 5♀), no gene was considered differentially expressed at p<0.0001 and prediction accuracy was ∼50% (no better than chance). We found that sample size clearly affects microarray analysis results; small sample sizes result in unstable gene lists and poor prediction accuracy. We anticipate this will apply to other phenotypes, in addition to sex. PMID:23755224

  16. MicroRNA expression signatures for the prediction of BRCA1/2 mutation-associated hereditary breast cancer in paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanic, Miljana; Yanowski, Kira; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Rodriguez-Pinilla, María Socorro; Marquez-Rodas, Iván; Osorio, Ana; Pisano, David G; Martinez-Delgado, Beatriz; Benítez, Javier

    2015-02-01

    Screening for germline mutations in breast cancer-associated genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is indicated for patients with breast cancer from high-risk breast cancer families and influences both treatment options and clinical management. However, only 25% of selected patients test positive for BRCA1/2 mutation, indicating that additional diagnostic biomarkers are necessary. We analyzed 124 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples from patients with hereditary (104) and sporadic (20) invasive breast cancer, divided into two series (A and B). Microarray expression profiling of 829 human miRNAs was performed on 76 samples (Series A), and bioinformatics tool Prophet was used to develop and test a microarray classifier. Samples were stratified into a training set (n = 38) for microarray classifier generation and a test set (n = 38) for signature validation. A 35-miRNA microarray classifier was generated for the prediction of BRCA1/2 mutation status with a reported 95% (95% CI = 0.88-1.0) and 92% (95% CI: 0.84-1.0) accuracy in the training and the test set, respectively. Differential expression of 12 miRNAs between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers versus noncarriers was validated by qPCR in an independent tumor series B (n = 48). Logistic regression model based on the expression of six miRNAs (miR-142-3p, miR-505*, miR-1248, miR-181a-2*, miR-25* and miR-340*) discriminated between tumors from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers with 92% (95% CI: 0.84-0.99) accuracy. In conclusion, we identified miRNA expression signatures predictive of BRCA1/2 mutation status in routinely available FFPE breast tumor samples, which may be useful to complement current patient selection criteria for gene testing by identifying individuals with high likelihood of being BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

  17. A unique gene expression signature associated with serotonin 2C receptor RNA editing in the prefrontal cortex and altered in suicide.

    PubMed

    Di Narzo, Antonio Fabio; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Roussos, Panos; Hao, Ke; Hurd, Yasmin; Lewis, David A; Sibille, Etienne; Siever, Larry J; Koonin, Eugene; Dracheva, Stella

    2014-09-15

    Editing of the pre-mRNA for the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2CR) by site-specific adenosine deamination (A-to-I pre-mRNA editing) substantially increases the functional plasticity of this key neurotransmitter receptor and is thought to contribute to homeostatic mechanisms in neurons. 5-HT2CR mRNA editing generates up to 24 different receptor isoforms. The extent of editing correlates with 5-HT2CR functional activity: more highly edited isoforms exhibit the least function. Altered 5-HT2CR editing has been reported in postmortem brains of suicide victims. We report a comparative analysis of the connections among 5-HT2CR editing, genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in suicide victims, individuals with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls. The results confirm previous findings of an overrepresentation of highly edited mRNA variants (which encode hypoactive 5-HT2CR receptors) in the brains of suicide victims. A large set of genes for which the expression level is associated with editing was detected. This signature set of editing-associated genes is significantly enriched for genes that are involved in synaptic transmission, genes that are preferentially expressed in neurons, and genes whose expression is correlated with the level of DNA methylation. Notably, we report that the link between 5-HT2CR editing and gene expression is disrupted in suicide victims. The results suggest that the postulated homeostatic function of 5-HT2CR editing is dysregulated in individuals who committed suicide.

  18. A unique gene expression signature associated with serotonin 2C receptor RNA editing in the prefrontal cortex and altered in suicide

    PubMed Central

    Di Narzo, Antonio Fabio; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Roussos, Panos; Hao, Ke; Hurd, Yasmin; Lewis, David A.; Sibille, Etienne; Siever, Larry J.; Koonin, Eugene; Dracheva, Stella

    2014-01-01

    Editing of the pre-mRNA for the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2CR) by site-specific adenosine deamination (A-to-I pre-mRNA editing) substantially increases the functional plasticity of this key neurotransmitter receptor and is thought to contribute to homeostatic mechanisms in neurons. 5-HT2CR mRNA editing generates up to 24 different receptor isoforms. The extent of editing correlates with 5-HT2CR functional activity: more highly edited isoforms exhibit the least function. Altered 5-HT2CR editing has been reported in postmortem brains of suicide victims. We report a comparative analysis of the connections among 5-HT2CR editing, genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in suicide victims, individuals with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls. The results confirm previous findings of an overrepresentation of highly edited mRNA variants (which encode hypoactive 5-HT2CR receptors) in the brains of suicide victims. A large set of genes for which the expression level is associated with editing was detected. This signature set of editing-associated genes is significantly enriched for genes that are involved in synaptic transmission, genes that are preferentially expressed in neurons, and genes whose expression is correlated with the level of DNA methylation. Notably, we report that the link between 5-HT2CR editing and gene expression is disrupted in suicide victims. The results suggest that the postulated homeostatic function of 5-HT2CR editing is dysregulated in individuals who committed suicide. PMID:24781207

  19. Identification of co-expressed gene signatures in mouse B1, marginal zone and B2 B-cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Mabbott, Neil A; Gray, David

    2014-01-01

    In mice, three major B-cell subsets have been identified with distinct functionalities: B1 B cells, marginal zone B cells and follicular B2 B cells. Here, we used the growing body of publicly available transcriptomics data to create an expression atlas of 84 gene expression microarray data sets of distinct mouse B-cell subsets. These data were subjected to network-based cluster analysis using BioLayout Express3D. Using this analysis tool, genes with related functions clustered together in discrete regions of the network graph and enabled the identification of transcriptional networks that underpinned the functional activity of distinct cell populations. Some gene clusters were expressed highly by most of the cell populations included in this analysis (such as those with activity related to house-keeping functions). Others contained genes with expression patterns specific to distinct B-cell subsets. While these clusters contained many genes typically associated with the activity of the cells they were specifically expressed in, many novel B-cell-subset-specific candidate genes were identified. A large number of uncharacterized genes were also represented in these B-cell lineage-specific clusters. Further analysis of the activities of these uncharacterized candidate genes will lead to the identification of novel B-cell lineage-specific transcription factors and regulators of B-cell function. We also analysed 36 microarray data sets from distinct human B-cell populations. These data showed that mouse and human germinal centre B cells shared similar transcriptional features, whereas mouse B1 B cells were distinct from proposed human B1 B cells. PMID:24032749

  20. Differential gene expression pattern in human mammary epithelial cells induced by realistic organochlorine mixtures described in healthy women and in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Javier; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F

    2016-03-30

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been associated with breast cancer development and progression, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well known. In this work, we evaluated the effects exerted on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by the OC mixtures most frequently detected in healthy women (H-mixture) and in women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC-mixture), as identified in a previous case-control study developed in Spain. Cytotoxicity and gene expression profile of human kinases (n=68) and non-kinases (n=26) were tested at concentrations similar to those described in the serum of those cases and controls. Although both mixtures caused a down-regulation of genes involved in the ATP binding process, our results clearly indicate that both mixtures may exert a very different effect on the gene expression profile of HMEC. Thus, while BC-mixture up-regulated the expression of oncogenes associated to breast cancer (GFRA1 and BHLHB8), the H-mixture down-regulated the expression of tumor suppressor genes (EPHA4 and EPHB2). Our results indicate that the composition of the OC mixture could play a role in the initiation processes of breast cancer. In addition, the present results suggest that subtle changes in the composition and levels of pollutants involved in environmentally relevant mixtures might induce very different biological effects, which explain, at least partially, why some mixtures seem to be more carcinogenic than others. Nonetheless, our findings confirm that environmentally relevant pollutants may modulate the expression of genes closely related to carcinogenic processes in the breast, reinforcing the role exerted by environment in the regulation of genes involved in breast carcinogenesis.

  1. Signatures of selection and host-adapted gene expression of the Phytophthora infestans RNA silencing suppressor PSR2.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sophie; von Dahlen, Janina K; Uhlmann, Constanze; Schnake, Anika; Kloesges, Thorsten; Rose, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is a devastating pathogen in agricultural systems. Recently, an RNA silencing suppressor (PSR2, 'Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2') has been described in P. infestans. PSR2 has been shown to increase the virulence of Phytophthora pathogens on their hosts. This gene is one of the few effectors present in many economically important Phytophthora species. In this study, we investigated: (i) the evolutionary history of PSR2 within and between species of Phytophthora; and (ii) the interaction between sequence variation, gene expression and virulence. In P. infestans, the highest PiPSR2 expression was correlated with decreased symptom expression. The highest gene expression was observed in the biotrophic phase of the pathogen, suggesting that PSR2 is important during early infection. Protein sequence conservation was negatively correlated with host range, suggesting host range as a driver of PSR2 evolution. Within species, we detected elevated amino acid variation, as observed for other effectors; however, the frequency spectrum of the mutations was inconsistent with strong balancing selection. This evolutionary pattern may be related to the conservation of the host target(s) of PSR2 and the absence of known corresponding R genes. In summary, our study indicates that PSR2 is a conserved effector that acts as a master switch to modify plant gene regulation early during infection for the pathogen's benefit. The conservation of PSR2 and its important role in virulence make it a promising target for pathogen management.

  2. A gene expression signature-based approach reveals the mechanisms of action of the Chinese herbal medicine berberine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lo, Hsiang-Ling; Tang, Wan-Chun; Hsiao, Heidi Hao-yun; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Berberine (BBR), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was shown to display anticancer activity. In this study, we attempted to provide a global view of the molecular pathways associated with its anticancer effect through a gene expression-based chemical approach. BBR-induced differentially expressed genes obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) were analyzed using the Connectivity Map (CMAP) database to compare similarities of gene expression profiles between BBR and CMAP compounds. Candidate compounds were further analyzed using the Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals (STITCH) database to explore chemical-protein interactions. Results showed that BBR may inhibit protein synthesis, histone deacetylase (HDAC), or AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Further analyses demonstrated that BBR inhibited global protein synthesis and basal AKT activity, and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy, which was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, BBR did not alter mTOR or HDAC activities. Interestingly, BBR induced the acetylation of α-tubulin, a substrate of HDAC6. In addition, the combination of BBR and SAHA, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of BBR in cancer therapy. PMID:25227736

  3. A gene expression signature-based approach reveals the mechanisms of action of the Chinese herbal medicine berberine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lo, Hsiang-Ling; Tang, Wan-Chun; Hsiao, Heidi Hao-yun; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2014-09-17

    Berberine (BBR), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was shown to display anticancer activity. In this study, we attempted to provide a global view of the molecular pathways associated with its anticancer effect through a gene expression-based chemical approach. BBR-induced differentially expressed genes obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) were analyzed using the Connectivity Map (CMAP) database to compare similarities of gene expression profiles between BBR and CMAP compounds. Candidate compounds were further analyzed using the Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals (STITCH) database to explore chemical-protein interactions. Results showed that BBR may inhibit protein synthesis, histone deacetylase (HDAC), or AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Further analyses demonstrated that BBR inhibited global protein synthesis and basal AKT activity, and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy, which was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, BBR did not alter mTOR or HDAC activities. Interestingly, BBR induced the acetylation of α-tubulin, a substrate of HDAC6. In addition, the combination of BBR and SAHA, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of BBR in cancer therapy.

  4. Laser Capture Microdissection Assisted Identification of Epithelial MicroRNA Expression Signatures for Prognosis of Stage I NSCLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    et al: A mammalian microRNA expression atlas based on small RNA library sequencing. Cell 129:1401-14, 2007 6. Sica A, Mantovani A: Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas. J Clin Invest 122:787-95, 2012  

  5. Identify signature regulatory network for glioblastoma prognosis by integrative mRNA and miRNA co-expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Bing, Zhi-Tong; Yang, Guang-Hui; Xiong, Jie; Guo, Ling; Yang, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor in adults. Patients with this disease have a poor prognosis. The objective of this study is to identify survival-related individual genes (or miRNAs) and miRNA -mRNA pairs in GBM using a multi-step approach. First, the weighted gene co-expression network analysis and survival analysis are applied to identify survival-related modules from mRNA and miRNA expression profiles, respectively. Subsequently, the role of individual genes (or miRNAs) within these modules in GBM prognosis are highlighted using survival analysis. Finally, the integration analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression as well as miRNA target prediction is used to identify survival-related miRNA -mRNA regulatory network. In this study, five genes and two miRNA modules that significantly correlated to patient's survival. In addition, many individual genes (or miRNAs) assigned to these modules were found to be closely linked with survival. For instance, increased expression of neuropilin-1 gene (a member of module turquoise) indicated poor prognosis for patients and a group of miRNA -mRNA regulatory networks that comprised 38 survival-related miRNA -mRNA pairs. These findings provide a new insight into the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of GBM.

  6. Calcitriol increases Dicer expression and modifies the microRNAs signature in SiHa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    González-Duarte, Ramiro José; Cázares-Ordoñez, Verna; Romero-Córdoba, Sandra; Díaz, Lorenza; Ortíz, Víctor; Freyre-González, Julio Augusto; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Larrea, Fernando; Avila, Euclides

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in cancer biology. Calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D3, regulates microRNAs expression in tumor cells. In the present study we asked if calcitriol would modify some of the components of the microRNA processing machinery, namely, Drosha and Dicer, in calcitriol-responsive cervical cancer cells. We found that calcitriol treatment did not affect Drosha mRNA; however, it significantly increased Dicer mRNA and protein expression in VDR-positive SiHa and HeLa cells. In VDR-negative C33-A cells, calcitriol had no effect on Dicer mRNA. We also found a vitamin D response element in Dicer promoter that interacts in vitro to vitamin D and retinoid X receptors. To explore the biological plausibility of these results, we asked if calcitriol alters the microRNA expression profile in SiHa cells. Our results revealed that calcitriol regulates the expression of a subset of microRNAs with potential regulatory functions in cancer pathways, such as miR-22, miR-296-3p, and miR-498, which exert tumor-suppressive effects. In summary, the data indicate that in SiHa cells, calcitriol stimulates the expression of Dicer possibly through the vitamin D response element located in its promoter. This may explain the calcitriol-dependent modulation of microRNAs whose target mRNAs are related to anticancer pathways, further adding to the various anticancer mechanisms of calcitriol.

  7. Behaviorally Activated mRNA Expression Profiles Produce Signatures of Learning and Enhanced Inhibition in Aged Rats with Preserved Memory

    PubMed Central

    Haberman, Rebecca P.; Colantuoni, Carlo; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often associated with cognitive decline, but many elderly individuals maintain a high level of function throughout life. Here we studied outbred rats, which also exhibit individual differences across a spectrum of outcomes that includes both preserved and impaired spatial memory. Previous work in this model identified the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus as a region critically affected by age and integral to differing cognitive outcomes. Earlier microarray profiling revealed distinct gene expression profiles in the CA3 region, under basal conditions, for aged rats with intact memory and those with impairment. Because prominent age-related deficits within the CA3 occur during neural encoding of new information, here we used microarray analysis to gain a broad perspective of the aged CA3 transcriptome under activated conditions. Behaviorally-induced CA3 expression profiles differentiated aged rats with intact memory from those with impaired memory. In the activated profile, we observed substantial numbers of genes (greater than 1000) exhibiting increased expression in aged unimpaired rats relative to aged impaired, including many involved in synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. This unimpaired aged profile also overlapped significantly with a learning induced gene profile previously acquired in young adults. Alongside the increased transcripts common to both young learning and aged rats with preserved memory, many transcripts behaviorally-activated in the current study had previously been identified as repressed in the aged unimpaired phenotype in basal expression. A further distinct feature of the activated profile of aged rats with intact memory is the increased expression of an ensemble of genes involved in inhibitory synapse function, which could control the phenotype of neural hyperexcitability found in the CA3 region of aged impaired rats. These data support the conclusion that aged subjects with preserved memory recruit adaptive mechanisms to

  8. MMP-13 Regulates Growth of Wound Granulation Tissue and Modulates Gene Expression Signatures Involved in Inflammation, Proteolysis, and Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Toriseva, Mervi; Laato, Matti; Carpén, Olli; Ruohonen, Suvi T.; Savontaus, Eriika; Inada, Masaki; Krane, Stephen M.; Kähäri, Veli-Matti

    2012-01-01

    Proteinases play a pivotal role in wound healing by regulating cell-matrix interactions and availability of bioactive molecules. The role of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) in granulation tissue growth was studied in subcutaneously implanted viscose cellulose sponge in MMP-13 knockout (Mmp13−/−) and wild type (WT) mice. The tissue samples were harvested at time points day 7, 14 and 21 and subjected to histological analysis and gene expression profiling. Granulation tissue growth was significantly reduced (42%) at day 21 in Mmp13−/− mice. Granulation tissue in Mmp13−/− mice showed delayed organization of myofibroblasts, increased microvascular density at day 14, and virtual absence of large vessels at day 21. Gene expression profiling identified differentially expressed genes in Mmp13−/− mouse granulation tissue involved in biological functions including inflammatory response, angiogenesis, cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation and proteolysis. Among genes linked to angiogenesis, Adamts4 and Npy were significantly upregulated in early granulation tissue in Mmp13−/− mice, and a set of genes involved in leukocyte motility including Il6 were systematically downregulated at day 14. The expression of Pdgfd was downregulated in Mmp13−/− granulation tissue in all time points. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases Mmp2, Mmp3, Mmp9 was also significantly downregulated in granulation tissue of Mmp13−/− mice compared to WT mice. Mmp13−/− mouse skin fibroblasts displayed altered cell morphology and impaired ability to contract collagen gel and decreased production of MMP-2. These results provide evidence for an important role for MMP-13 in wound healing by coordinating cellular activities important in the growth and maturation of granulation tissue, including myofibroblast function, inflammation, angiogenesis, and proteolysis. PMID:22880047

  9. Heterogeneous gene expression signatures correspond to distinct lung pathologies and biomarkers of disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    DePianto, Daryle J; Chandriani, Sanjay; Abbas, Alexander R; Jia, Guiquan; N'Diaye, Elsa N; Caplazi, Patrick; Kauder, Steven E; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Karnik, Satyajit K; Ha, Connie; Modrusan, Zora; Matthay, Michael A; Kukreja, Jasleen; Collard, Harold R; Egen, Jackson G; Wolters, Paul J; Arron, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    There is microscopic spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pathological changes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue, which may relate to heterogeneity in pathophysiological mediators of disease and clinical progression. We assessed relationships between gene expression patterns, pathological features, and systemic biomarkers to identify biomarkers that reflect the aggregate disease burden in patients with IPF. Gene expression microarrays (N=40 IPF; 8 controls) and immunohistochemical analyses (N=22 IPF; 8 controls) of lung biopsies. Clinical characterisation and blood biomarker levels of MMP3 and CXCL13 in a separate cohort of patients with IPF (N=80). 2940 genes were significantly differentially expressed between IPF and control samples (|fold change| >1.5, p<0.05). Two clusters of co-regulated genes related to bronchiolar epithelium or lymphoid aggregates exhibited substantial heterogeneity within the IPF population. Gene expression in bronchiolar and lymphoid clusters corresponded to the extent of bronchiolisation and lymphoid aggregates determined by immunohistochemistry in adjacent tissue sections. Elevated serum levels of MMP3, encoded in the bronchiolar cluster, and CXCL13, encoded in the lymphoid cluster, corresponded to disease severity and shortened survival time (p<10(-7) for MMP3 and p<10(-5) for CXCL13; Cox proportional hazards model). Microscopic pathological heterogeneity in IPF lung tissue corresponds to specific gene expression patterns related to bronchiolisation and lymphoid aggregates. MMP3 and CXCL13 are systemic biomarkers that reflect the aggregate burden of these pathological features across total lung tissue. These biomarkers may have clinical utility as prognostic and/or surrogate biomarkers of disease activity in interventional studies in IPF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Behaviorally activated mRNA expression profiles produce signatures of learning and enhanced inhibition in aged rats with preserved memory.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Rebecca P; Colantuoni, Carlo; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often associated with cognitive decline, but many elderly individuals maintain a high level of function throughout life. Here we studied outbred rats, which also exhibit individual differences across a spectrum of outcomes that includes both preserved and impaired spatial memory. Previous work in this model identified the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus as a region critically affected by age and integral to differing cognitive outcomes. Earlier microarray profiling revealed distinct gene expression profiles in the CA3 region, under basal conditions, for aged rats with intact memory and those with impairment. Because prominent age-related deficits within the CA3 occur during neural encoding of new information, here we used microarray analysis to gain a broad perspective of the aged CA3 transcriptome under activated conditions. Behaviorally-induced CA3 expression profiles differentiated aged rats with intact memory from those with impaired memory. In the activated profile, we observed substantial numbers of genes (greater than 1000) exhibiting increased expression in aged unimpaired rats relative to aged impaired, including many involved in synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. This unimpaired aged profile also overlapped significantly with a learning induced gene profile previously acquired in young adults. Alongside the increased transcripts common to both young learning and aged rats with preserved memory, many transcripts behaviorally-activated in the current study had previously been identified as repressed in the aged unimpaired phenotype in basal expression. A further distinct feature of the activated profile of aged rats with intact memory is the increased expression of an ensemble of genes involved in inhibitory synapse function, which could control the phenotype of neural hyperexcitability found in the CA3 region of aged impaired rats. These data support the conclusion that aged subjects with preserved memory recruit adaptive mechanisms to

  11. WDR5 Supports an N-Myc Transcriptional Complex That Drives a Protumorigenic Gene Expression Signature in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuting; Bell, Jessica L; Carter, Daniel; Gherardi, Samuele; Poulos, Rebecca C; Milazzo, Giorgio; Wong, Jason W H; Al-Awar, Rima; Tee, Andrew E; Liu, Pei Y; Liu, Bing; Atmadibrata, Bernard; Wong, Matthew; Trahair, Toby; Zhao, Quan; Shohet, Jason M; Haupt, Ygal; Schulte, Johannes H; Brown, Peter J; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Vedadi, Masoud; MacKenzie, Karen L; Hüttelmaier, Stefan; Perini, Giovanni; Marshall, Glenn M; Braithwaite, Antony; Liu, Tao

    2015-12-01

    MYCN gene amplification in neuroblastoma drives a gene expression program that correlates strongly with aggressive disease. Mechanistically, trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) at target gene promoters is a strict prerequisite for this transcriptional program to be enacted. WDR5 is a histone H3K4 presenter that has been found to have an essential role in H3K4 trimethylation. For this reason, in this study, we investigated the relationship between WDR5-mediated H3K4 trimethylation and N-Myc transcriptional programs in neuroblastoma cells. N-Myc upregulated WDR5 expression in neuroblastoma cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that WDR5 target genes included those with MYC-binding elements at promoters such as MDM2. We showed that WDR5 could form a protein complex at the MDM2 promoter with N-Myc, but not p53, leading to histone H3K4 trimethylation and activation of MDM2 transcription. RNAi-mediated attenuation of WDR5 upregulated expression of wild-type but not mutant p53, an effect associated with growth inhibition and apoptosis. Similarly, a small-molecule antagonist of WDR5 reduced N-Myc/WDR5 complex formation, N-Myc target gene expression, and cell growth in neuroblastoma cells. In MYCN-transgenic mice, WDR5 was overexpressed in precancerous ganglion and neuroblastoma cells compared with normal ganglion cells. Clinically, elevated levels of WDR5 in neuroblastoma specimens were an independent predictor of poor overall survival. Overall, our results identify WDR5 as a key cofactor for N-Myc-regulated transcriptional activation and tumorigenesis and as a novel therapeutic target for MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas.

  12. Heterogeneous gene expression signatures correspond to distinct lung pathologies and biomarkers of disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    DePianto, Daryle J.; Chandriani, Sanjay; Abbas, Alexander R.; Jia, Guiquan; N’Diaye, Elsa N.; Caplazi, Patrick; Kauder, Steven E.; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Karnik, Satyajit K.; Ha, Connie; Modrusan, Zora; Matthay, Michael A.; Kukreja, Jasleen; Collard, Harold R.; Egen, Jackson G.; Wolters, Paul J.; Arron, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is microscopic spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pathologic changes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue, which may relate to heterogeneity in pathophysiological mediators of disease and clinical progression. We assessed relationships between gene expression patterns, pathological features, and systemic biomarkers to identify biomarkers that reflect the aggregate disease burden in IPF patients. Methods Gene expression microarrays (N=40 IPF; 8 controls) and immunohistochemical analyses (N=22 IPF; 8 controls) of lung biopsies. Clinical characterization and blood biomarker levels of MMP3 and CXCL13 in a separate cohort of IPF patients (N=80). Results 2940 genes were significantly differentially expressed between IPF and control samples (|fold change| > 1.5, p < 0.05). Two clusters of co-regulated genes related to bronchiolar epithelium or lymphoid aggregates exhibited substantial heterogeneity within the IPF population. Gene expression in bronchiolar and lymphoid clusters corresponded to the extent of bronchiolization and lymphoid aggregates determined by immunohistochemistry in adjacent tissue sections. Elevated serum levels of MMP3, encoded in the bronchiolar cluster, and CXCL13, encoded in the lymphoid cluster, corresponded to disease severity and shortened survival time (p < 10−7 for MMP3 and p < 10−5 for CXCL13; Cox proportional hazards model). Conclusions Microscopic pathological heterogeneity in IPF lung tissue corresponds to specific gene expression patterns related to bronchiolization and lymphoid aggregates. MMP3 and CXCL13 are systemic biomarkers that reflect the aggregate burden of these pathological features across total lung tissue. These biomarkers may have clinical utility as prognostic and/or surrogate biomarkers of disease activity in interventional studies in IPF. PMID:25217476

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the mouse lung transcriptome reveals novel molecular gene interaction networks and cell-specific expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Rudi; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W; Schughart, Klaus

    2011-05-02

    The lung is critical in surveillance and initial defense against pathogens. In humans, as in mice, individual genetic differences strongly modulate pulmonary responses to infectious agents, severity of lung disease, and potential allergic reactions. In a first step towards understanding genetic predisposition and pulmonary molecular networks that underlie individual differences in disease vulnerability, we performed a global analysis of normative lung gene expression levels in inbred mouse strains and a large family of BXD strains that are widely used for systems genetics. Our goal is to provide a key community resource on the genetics of the normative lung transcriptome that can serve as a foundation for experimental analysis and allow predicting genetic predisposition and response to pathogens, allergens, and xenobiotics. Steady-state polyA+ mRNA levels were assayed across a diverse and fully genotyped panel of 57 isogenic strains using the Affymetrix M430 2.0 array. Correlations of expression levels between genes were determined. Global expression QTL (eQTL) analysis and network covariance analysis was performed using tools and resources in GeneNetwork http://www.genenetwork.org. Expression values were highly variable across strains and in many cases exhibited a high heritability factor. Several genes which showed a restricted expression to lung tissue were identified. Using correlations between gene expression values across all strains, we defined and extended memberships of several important molecular networks in the lung. Furthermore, we were able to extract signatures of immune cell subpopulations and characterize co-variation and shared genetic modulation. Known QTL regions for respiratory infection susceptibility were investigated and several cis-eQTL genes were identified. Numerous cis- and trans-regulated transcripts and chromosomal intervals with strong regulatory activity were mapped. The Cyp1a1 P450 transcript had a strong trans-acting eQTL (LOD 11

  14. Gene and miRNA expression signature of Lewis lung carcinoma LLC1 cells in extracellular matrix enriched microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stankevicius, Vaidotas; Vasauskas, Gintautas; Bulotiene, Danute; Butkyte, Stase; Jarmalaite, Sonata; Rotomskis, Ricardas; Suziedelis, Kestutis

    2016-10-11

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), one of the key components of tumor microenvironment, has a tremendous impact on cancer development and highly influences tumor cell features. ECM affects vital cellular functions such as cell differentiation, migration, survival and proliferation. Gene and protein expression levels are regulated in cell-ECM interaction dependent manner as well. The rate of unsuccessful clinical trials, based on cell culture research models lacking the ECM microenvironment, indicates the need for alternative models and determines the shift to three-dimensional (3D) laminin rich ECM models, better simulating tissue organization. Recognized advantages of 3D models suggest the development of new anticancer treatment strategies. This is among the most promising directions of 3D cell cultures application. However, detailed analysis at the molecular level of 2D/3D cell cultures and tumors in vivo is still needed to elucidate cellular pathways most promising for the development of targeted therapies. In order to elucidate which biological pathways are altered during microenvironmental shift we have analyzed whole genome mRNA and miRNA expression differences in LLC1 cells cultured in 2D or 3D culture conditions. In our study we used DNA microarrays for whole genome analysis of mRNA and miRNA expression differences in LLC1 cells cultivated in 2D or 3D culture conditions. Next, we indicated the most common enriched functional categories using KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Finally, we validated the microarray data by quantitative PCR in LLC1 cells cultured under 2D or 3D conditions or LLC1 tumors implanted in experimental animals. Microarray gene expression analysis revealed that 1884 genes and 77 miRNAs were significantly altered in LLC1 cells after 48 h cell growth under 2D and ECM based 3D cell growth conditions. Pathway enrichment results indicated metabolic pathway, MAP kinase, cell adhesion and immune response as the most significantly altered

  15. Tumor suppressive microRNAs (miR-222 and miR-31) regulate molecular pathways based on microRNA expression signature in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Miki; Kojima, Satoko; Enokida, Hideki; Chiyomaru, Takeshi; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Nohata, Nijiro; Kinoshita, Takashi; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Naya, Yukio; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Seki, Naohiko

    2012-11-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have key roles in human tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastasis. miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in many human cancers and can function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes that target many cancer-related genes. This study seeks to identify novel miRNA-regulated molecular pathways in prostate cancer (PCa). The miRNA expression signature in clinical specimens of PCa showed that 56 miRNAs were significantly downregulated in PCa compared with non-PCa tissues. We focused on the top four downregulated miRNAs (miR-187, miR-205, miR-222 and miR-31) to investigate their functional significance in PCa cells. Expression levels of these four miRNAs were validated in PCa specimens (15 PCa tissues and 17 non-PCa tissues) to confirm that they were significantly reduced in these PCa tissues. Gain-of-function analysis demonstrated that miR-222 and miR-31 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and migration in PCa cell lines (PC3 and DU145), suggesting that miR-222 and miR-31 may act as tumor suppressors in PCa. Genome-wide gene expression analysis using miR-222 or miR-31 transfectants to identify the pathways they affect showed that many cancer-related genes are regulated by these miRNAs in PC3 cells. Identification and categorization of the molecular pathways regulated by tumor suppressive miRNAs could provide new information about the molecular mechanisms of PCa tumorigenesis.

  16. Gene expression profiling of MYC-driven tumor signatures in porcine liver stem cells by transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Talbot, Neil C; Steer, Clifford J

    2015-02-21

    To identify the genes induced and regulated by the MYC protein in generating tumors from liver stem cells. In this study, we have used an immortal porcine liver stem cell line, PICM-19, to study the role of c-MYC in hepatocarcinogenesis. PICM-19 cells were converted into cancer cells (PICM-19-CSCs) by overexpressing human MYC. To identify MYC-driven differential gene expression, transcriptome sequencing was carried out by RNA sequencing, and genes identified by this method were validated using real-time PCR. In vivo tumorigenicity studies were then conducted by injecting PICM-19-CSCs into the flanks of immunodeficient mice. Our results showed that MYC-overexpressing PICM-19 stem cells formed tumors in immunodeficient mice demonstrating that a single oncogene was sufficient to convert them into cancer cells (PICM-19-CSCs). By using comparative bioinformatics analyses, we have determined that > 1000 genes were differentially expressed between PICM-19 and PICM-19-CSCs. Gene ontology analysis further showed that the MYC-induced, altered gene expression was primarily associated with various cellular processes, such as metabolism, cell adhesion, growth and proliferation, cell cycle, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Interestingly, six genes expressed by PICM-19 cells (CDO1, C22orf39, DKK2, ENPEP, GPX6, SRPX2) were completely silenced after MYC-induction in PICM-19-CSCs, suggesting that the absence of these genes may be critical for inducing tumorigenesis. MYC-driven genes may serve as promising candidates for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma therapeutics that would not have deleterious effects on other cell types in the liver.

  17. A Severe Asthma Disease Signature from Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood from U-BIOPRED Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Jeannette; Boedigheimer, Michael; Schofield, James P R; Skipp, Paul J; Corfield, Julie; Rowe, Anthony; Sousa, Ana R; Timour, Martin; Twehues, Lori; Hu, Xuguang; Roberts, Graham; Welcher, Andrew A; Yu, Wen; Lefaudeux, Diane; Meulder, Bertrand De; Auffray, Charles; Chung, Kian F; Adcock, Ian M; Sterk, Peter J; Djukanović, Ratko

    2017-05-15

    Stratification of asthma at the molecular level, especially using accessible biospecimens, could greatly enable patient selection for targeted therapy. To determine the value of blood analysis to identify transcriptional differences between clinically defined asthma and nonasthma groups, identify potential patient subgroups based on gene expression, and explore biological pathways associated with identified differences. Transcriptomic profiles were generated by microarray analysis of blood from 610 patients with asthma and control participants in the U-BIOPRED (Unbiased Biomarkers in Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes) study. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by analysis of variance, including covariates for RNA quality, sex, and clinical site, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was applied. Patient subgroups based on DEGs were created by hierarchical clustering and topological data analysis. A total of 1,693 genes were differentially expressed between patients with severe asthma and participants without asthma. The differences from participants without asthma in the nonsmoking severe asthma and mild/moderate asthma subgroups were significantly related (r = 0.76), with a larger effect size in the severe asthma group. The majority of, but not all, differences were explained by differences in circulating immune cell populations. Pathway analysis showed an increase in chemotaxis, migration, and myeloid cell trafficking in patients with severe asthma, decreased B-lymphocyte development and hematopoietic progenitor cells, and lymphoid organ hypoplasia. Cluster analysis of DEGs led to the creation of subgroups among the patients with severe asthma who differed in molecular responses to oral corticosteroids. Blood gene expression differences between clinically defined subgroups of patients with asthma and individuals without asthma, as well as subgroups of patients with severe asthma defined by transcript profiles, show the value of blood

  18. Huntington’s disease blood and brain show a common gene expression pattern and share an immune signature with Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hensman Moss, Davina J.; Flower, Michael D.; Lo, Kitty K.; Miller, James R. C.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; ’t Hoen, Peter A. C.; Stone, Timothy C.; Guinee, Amelia; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Jones, Lesley; Plagnol, Vincent; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M. C.; Holmans, Peter; Tabrizi, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington’s disease (HD) brain, but analysis is inevitably limited by advanced disease and postmortem changes. However, mutant HTT is ubiquitously expressed and acts systemically, meaning blood, which is readily available and contains cells that are dysfunctional in HD, could act as a surrogate for brain tissue. We conducted an RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis using whole blood from two HD cohorts, and performed gene set enrichment analysis using public databases and weighted correlation network analysis modules from HD and control brain datasets. We identified dysregulated gene sets in blood that replicated in the independent cohorts, correlated with disease severity, corresponded to the most significantly dysregulated modules in the HD caudate, the most prominently affected brain region, and significantly overlapped with the transcriptional signature of HD myeloid cells. High-throughput sequencing technologies and use of gene sets likely surmounted the limitations of previously inconsistent HD blood expression studies. Our results suggest transcription is disrupted in peripheral cells in HD through mechanisms that parallel those in brain. Immune upregulation in HD overlapped with Alzheimer’s disease, suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism involving macrophage phagocytosis and microglial synaptic pruning, and raises the potential for shared therapeutic approaches. PMID:28322270

  19. Single-cell transcriptomes identify human islet cell signatures and reveal cell-type–specific expression changes in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bolisetty, Mohan; Kursawe, Romy; Sun, Lili; Sivakamasundari, V.; Kycia, Ina

    2017-01-01

    Blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by the coordinated action of at least four cell types constituting pancreatic islets. Changes in the proportion and/or function of these cells are associated with genetic and molecular pathophysiology of monogenic, type 1, and type 2 (T2D) diabetes. Cellular heterogeneity impedes precise understanding of the molecular components of each islet cell type that govern islet (dys)function, particularly the less abundant delta and gamma/pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells. Here, we report single-cell transcriptomes for 638 cells from nondiabetic (ND) and T2D human islet samples. Analyses of ND single-cell transcriptomes identified distinct alpha, beta, delta, and PP/gamma cell-type signatures. Genes linked to rare and common forms of islet dysfunction and diabetes were expressed in the delta and PP/gamma cell types. Moreover, this study revealed that delta cells specifically express receptors that receive and coordinate systemic cues from the leptin, ghrelin, and dopamine signaling pathways implicating them as integrators of central and peripheral metabolic signals into the pancreatic islet. Finally, single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed genes differentially regulated between T2D and ND alpha, beta, and delta cells that were undetectable in paired whole islet analyses. This study thus identifies fundamental cell-type–specific features of pancreatic islet (dys)function and provides a critical resource for comprehensive understanding of islet biology and diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:27864352

  20. Genetic and Physiological Activation of Osmosensitive Gene Expression Mimics Transcriptional Signatures of Pathogen Infection in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfing, Anne-Katrin; Miteva, Yana; Hannenhalli, Sridhar; Lamitina, Todd

    2010-01-01

    The soil-dwelling nematode C. elegans is a powerful system for comparative molecular analyses of environmental stress response mechanisms. Infection of worms with bacterial and fungal pathogens causes the activation of well-characterized innate immune transcriptional programs in pathogen-exposed hypodermal and intestinal tissues. However, the pathophysiological events that drive such transcriptional responses are not understood. Here, we show that infection-activated transcriptional responses are, in large part, recapitulated by either physiological or genetic activation of the osmotic stress response. Microarray profiling of wild type worms exposed to non-lethal hypertonicity identified a suite of genes that were also regulated by infection. Expression profiles of five different osmotic stress resistant (osr) mutants under isotonic conditions reiterated the wild type transcriptional response to osmotic stress and also showed substantial similarity to infection-induced gene expression under isotonic conditions. Computational, transgenic, and functional approaches revealed that two GATA transcription factors previously implicated in infection-induced transcriptional responses, elt-2 and elt-3, are also essential for coordinated tissue-specific activation of osmosensitive gene expression and promote survival under osmotically stressful conditions. Together, our data suggest infection and osmotic adaptation share previously unappreciated transcriptional similarities which might be controlled via regulation of tissue-specific GATA transcription factors. PMID:20126308

  1. Distinct Fiber Type Signature in Mouse Muscles Expressing a Mutant Lamin A Responsible for Congenital Muscular Dystrophy in a Patient.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Alice; Vadrot, Nathalie; Agbulut, Onnik; Vicart, Patrick; Batonnet-Pichon, Sabrina; Buendia, Brigitte

    2017-04-24

    Specific mutations in LMNA, which encodes nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamins A/C, affect skeletal muscle tissues. Early-onset LMNA myopathies reveal different alterations of muscle fibers, including fiber type disproportion or prominent dystrophic and/or inflammatory changes. Recently, we identified the p.R388P LMNA mutation as responsible for congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) and lipodystrophy. Here, we asked whether viral-mediated expression of mutant lamin A in murine skeletal muscles would be a pertinent model to reveal specific muscle alterations. We found that the total amount and size of muscle fibers as well as the extent of either inflammation or muscle regeneration were similar to wildtype or mutant lamin A. In contrast, the amount of fast oxidative muscle fibers containing myosin heavy chain IIA was lower upon expression of mutant lamin A, in correlation with lower expression of genes encoding transcription factors MEF2C and MyoD. These data validate this in vivo model for highlighting distinct muscle phenotypes associated with different lamin contexts. Additionally, the data suggest that alteration of muscle fiber type identity may contribute to the mechanisms underlying physiopathology of L-CMD related to R388P mutant lamin A.

  2. Integrated microRNA, gene expression and transcription factors signature in papillary thyroid cancer with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Yusof, Azliana; Abdullah Suhaimi, Shahrun Niza; Muhammad, Rohaizak; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the commonest thyroid malignancy originating from the follicle cells in the thyroid. Despite a good overall prognosis, certain high-risk cases as in those with lymph node metastasis (LNM) have progressive disease and poorer prognosis. MicroRNAs are a class of non-protein-coding, 19–24 nucleotides single-stranded RNAs which regulate gene expression and these molecules have been shown to play a role in LNM. The integrated analysis of miRNAs and gene expression profiles together with transcription factors (TFs) has been shown to improve the identification of functional miRNA-target gene-TF relationships, providing a more complete view of molecular events underlying metastasis process. Objectives. We reanalyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets on PTC to identify differentially expressed miRNAs/genes in PTC patients with LNM-positive (LNM-P) versus lymph node negative (LNN) PTC patients and to investigate the miRNA-gene-TF regulatory circuit that regulate LNM in PTC. Results. PTC patients with LNM (PTC LNM-P) have a significantly shorter disease-free survival rate compared to PTC patients without LNM (PTC LNN) (Log-rank Mantel Cox test, p = 0.0049). We identified 181 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs in PTC LNM-P versus PTC LNN; 110 were upregulated and 71 were downregulated. The five topmost deregulated miRNAs were hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-375, hsa-miR-31, hsa-miR-7-2 and hsa-miR-204. In addition, 395 miRNAs were differentially expressed between PTC LNM-P and normal thyroid while 400 miRNAs were differentially expressed between PTC LNN and normal thyroid. We found four significant enrichment pathways potentially involved in metastasis to the lymph nodes, namely oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), leukocyte transendothelial migration and cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction. OxPhos was the most significantly perturbed pathway (p = 4.70E−06) involving downregulation

  3. miRNA signature identification of retinoblastoma and the correlations between differentially expressed miRNAs during retinoblastoma progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Mei, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a common pediatric cancer. The study aimed to uncover the mechanisms of RB progression and identify novel therapeutic biomarkers. The miRNA expression profile GSE7072, which includes three RB samples and three healthy retina samples, was used. After data normalization using the preprocessCore package, differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRs) were selected by the limma package. The targets of the DE-miRs were predicted based on two databases, followed by construction of the miRNA-target network. Pathway enrichment analysis was conducted for the targets of the DE-miRNAs using DAVID. The CTD database was used to predict RB-related genes, followed by clustering analysis using the pvclust package. The correlation network of DE-miRs was established. MiRNA expression was validated in another data set, GSE41321. In total, 24 DE-miRs were identified whose targets were correlated with the cell cycle pathway. Among them, hsa-miR-373, hsa-miR-125b, and hsa-miR-181a were highlighted in the miRNA-target regulatory network; 14 DE-miRs, including hsa-miR-373, hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-18a, hsa-miR-25, hsa-miR-20a, and hsa-let-7 (a, b, c), were shown to distinguish RB from healthy tissue. In addition, hsa-miR-25, hsa-miR-18a, and hsa-miR-20a shared the common target BCL2L11; hsa-let-7b and hsa-miR-125b targeted the genes CDC25A, CDK6, and LIN28A. Expression of three miRNAs in GSE41321 was consistent with that in GSE7072. Several critical miRNAs were identified in RB progression. Hsa-miR-373 might regulate RB invasion and metastasis, hsa-miR-181a might involve in the CDKN1B-mediated cell cycle pathway, and hsa-miR-125b and hsa-let-7b might serve as tumor suppressors by coregulating CDK6, CDC25A, and LIN28A. The miRNAs hsa-miR-25, hsa-miR-18a, and hsa-miR-20a might exert their function by coregulating BCL2L1.

  4. Avian Resistance to Campylobacter jejuni Colonization Is Associated with an Intestinal Immunogene Expression Signature Identified by mRNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Sarah; Meade, Kieran G.; Allan, Brenda; Lloyd, Andrew T.; Kenny, Elaine; Cormican, Paul; Morris, Derek W.; Bradley, Daniel G.; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is associated with several post-infectious manifestations, including onset of the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Poorly-cooked chicken meat is the most frequent source of infection as C. jejuni colonizes the avian intestine in a commensal relationship. However, not all chickens are equally colonized and resistance seems to be genetically determined. We hypothesize that differences in immune response may contribute to variation in colonization levels between susceptible and resistant birds. Using high-throughput sequencing in an avian infection model, we investigate gene expression associated with resistance or susceptibility to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with C. jejuni and find that gut related immune mechanisms are critical for regulating colonization. Amongst a single population of 300 4-week old chickens, there was clear segregation in levels of C. jejuni colonization 48 hours post-exposure. RNAseq analysis of caecal tissue from 14 C. jejuni-susceptible and 14 C. jejuni-resistant birds generated over 363 million short mRNA sequences which were investigated to identify 219 differentially expressed genes. Significantly higher expression of genes involved in the innate immune response, cytokine signaling, B cell and T cell activation and immunoglobulin production, as well as the renin-angiotensin system was observed in resistant birds, suggesting an early active immune response to C. jejuni. Lower expression of these genes in colonized birds suggests suppression or inhibition of a clearing immune response thus facilitating commensal colonization and generating vectors for zoonotic transmission. This study describes biological processes regulating C. jejuni colonization of the avian intestine and gives insight into the differential immune mechanisms incited in response to commensal bacteria in general

  5. High-resolution transcriptome analysis reveals neuropathic pain gene-expression signatures in spinal microglia after nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heejin; Na, Young-Ji; Lee, Kihwan; Kim, Yong Ho; Lee, Yunsin; Kang, Minho; Jiang, Bao-Chun; Yeom, Young Il; Wu, Long-Jun; Gao, Yong-Jing; Kim, Junhyong; Oh, Seog Bae

    2016-04-01

    Microglial cells, the resident immune cells of the spinal cord, become activated in response to peripheral nerve injury. Microglia activation contributes to the development of neuropathic pain. Here we employed microarray analysis of individually collected pools of 10 spinal microglia cells to identify changes of levels and cell-to-cell expression variance of microglial genes during their activation after peripheral nerve injury. The analysis of microglia on postoperative day 1 (POD1) identified miR-29c as a critical factor for microglial activation and the development of neuropathic pain. Early POD1 microglia exhibited a very distinct expression profile compared to late POD7 microglia, possibly leading to the transition from initiation to maintenance of neuropathic pain. We found sample variance patterns that were consistent with the hypothesis that microglia were highly heterogeneous at the level of individual cells, and variation analysis identified 56 microglial genes potentially linked to the maintenance of neuropathic pain which included Gria1. This study provides insights into spinal microglial biology and reveals novel microglial targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  6. Gene expression signatures in CD34+-progenitor-derived dendritic cells exposed to the chemical contact allergen nickel sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeters, Elke . E-mail: elke.schoeters@vito.be; Nuijten, Jean-Marie; Heuvel, Rosette L. van den; Nelissen, Inge; Witters, Hilda; Schoeters, Greet E.R.; Tendeloo, Vigor F.I. van; Berneman, Zwi N.; Verheyen, Geert R.

    2006-10-01

    The detection of the sensitizing potential of chemicals is of great importance to industry. A promising in vitro alternative to the currently applied animal assays for sensitization testing makes use of dendritic cells (DCs) that have the capability to process and present antigens to naive T cells and induce their proliferation. Here, we studied changes in gene expression profiles after exposing DCs to the contact allergen nickel sulfate. CD34+-progenitor-derived DCs, initiated from 3 different donors, were exposed to 60 {mu}M nickel sulfate, during 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. cDNA microarrays were used to assess the transcriptional activity of about 11,000 genes. Significant changes in the expression of 283 genes were observed; 178 genes were up-regulated and 93 down-regulated. These genes were involved in metabolism, cell structure, immune response, transcription, signal transduction, transport, and apoptosis. No functional information was found for 74 genes. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the microarray results of 12 genes. In addition, 3 DC maturation markers not present on the microarrays (DEC205, DC LAMP and CCR7) were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and found to be up-regulated at several time points. Our data indicate that a broad range of biological processes is influenced by nickel. Some processes are clearly linked to the immune response and DC maturation, others may indicate a toxic effect of nickel.

  7. First Generation Gene Expression Signature for Early Prediction of Late Occurring Hematological Acute Radiation Syndrome in Baboons.

    PubMed

    Port, M; Herodin, F; Valente, M; Drouet, M; Lamkowski, A; Majewski, M; Abend, M

    2016-07-01

    We implemented a two-stage study to predict late occurring hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) in a baboon model based on gene expression changes measured in peripheral blood within the first two days after irradiation. Eighteen baboons were irradiated to simulate different patterns of partial-body and total-body exposure, which corresponded to an equivalent dose of 2.5 or 5 Gy. According to changes in blood cell counts the surviving baboons (n = 17) exhibited mild (H1-2, n = 4) or more severe (H2-3, n = 13) HARS. Blood samples taken before irradiation served as unexposed control (H0, n = 17). For stage I of this study, a whole genome screen (mRNA microarrays) was performed using a portion of the samples (H0, n = 5; H1-2, n = 4; H2-3, n = 5). For stage II, using the remaining samples and the more sensitive methodology, qRT-PCR, validation was performed on candidate genes that were differentially up- or down-regulated during the first two days after irradiation. Differential gene expression was defined as significant (P < 0.05) and greater than or equal to a twofold difference above a H0 classification. From approximately 20,000 genes, on average 46% appeared to be expressed. On day 1 postirradiation for H2-3, approximately 2-3 times more genes appeared up-regulated (1,418 vs. 550) or down-regulated (1,603 vs. 735) compared to H1-2. This pattern became more pronounced at day 2 while the number of differentially expressed genes decreased. The specific genes showed an enrichment of biological processes coding for immune system processes, natural killer cell activation and immune response (P = 1 × E-06 up to 9 × E-14). Based on the P values, magnitude and sustained differential gene expression over time, we selected 89 candidate genes for validation using qRT-PCR. Ultimately, 22 genes were confirmed for identification of H1-3 classifications and seven genes for identification of H2-3 classifications using qRT-PCR. For H1-3 classifications, most genes were

  8. T lymphocytes from chronic HCV-infected patients are primed for activation-induced apoptosis and express unique pro-apoptotic gene signature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin-Bin; Zheng, Su-Jun; Gong, Lu-Lu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Cai-Feng; Jin, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Ding; Yuan, Xiao-Hui; Guo, Jian; Duan, Zhong-Ping; He, You-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Although extensive studies have demonstrated the functional impairment of antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the functional status of global CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells remains unclear. In this report, we recruited 42 long-term (~20 years) treatment-naïve chronic HCV (CHC) patients and 15 healthy donors (HDs) to investigate differences in global CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells function. We show that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells from CHC patients underwent increased apoptosis after TCR stimulation. Furthermore, IFN-γ, IL-9 and IP-10 were elevated in CHC patients' plasma and promoted activation-induced T-cells death. Global CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells also showed unique transcriptional profiles in the expression of apoptosis-related genes. We identified BCL2, PMAIP1, and CASP1 in CD4(+) T-cells and IER3 and BCL2A1 in CD8(+) T-cells from CHC patients as HCV-specific gene signatures. Importantly, the gene expression patterns of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells from CHC patients differ from those in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected individuals. Our results indicate that chronic HCV infection causes a systemic change in cytokine levels that primes T-cells for activation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, HCV infection programs unique apoptosis-related gene expression profiles in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, leading to their enhanced activation-induced apoptosis. These results provide novel insights to the pathogenesis of chronic HCV infection.

  9. Analysis of Post-Traumatic Brain Injury Gene Expression Signature Reveals Tubulins, Nfe2l2, Nfkb, Cd44, and S100a4 as Treatment Targets

    PubMed Central

    Lipponen, Anssi; Paananen, Jussi; Puhakka, Noora; Pitkänen, Asla

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to define the chronically altered gene expression signature of traumatic brain injury (TBI-sig) to discover novel treatments to reverse pathologic gene expression or reinforce the expression of recovery-related genes. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was performed at 3 months post-TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. We found 4964 regulated genes in the perilesional cortex and 1966 in the thalamus (FDR < 0.05). TBI-sig was used for a LINCS analysis which identified 11 compounds that showed a strong connectivity with the TBI-sig in neuronal cell lines. Of these, celecoxib and sirolimus were recently reported to have a disease-modifying effect in in vivo animal models of epilepsy. Other compounds revealed by the analysis were BRD-K91844626, BRD-A11009626, NO-ASA, BRD-K55260239, SDZ-NKT-343, STK-661558, BRD-K75971499, ionomycin, and desmethylclomipramine. Network analysis of overlapping genes revealed the effects on tubulins (Tubb2a, Tubb3, Tubb4b), Nfe2l2, S100a4, Cd44, and Nfkb2, all of which are linked to TBI-relevant outcomes, including epileptogenesis and tissue repair. Desmethylclomipramine modulated most of the gene targets considered favorable for TBI outcome. Our data demonstrate long-lasting transcriptomics changes after TBI. LINCS analysis predicted that these changes could be modulated by various compounds, some of which are already in clinical use but never tested in TBI. PMID:27530814

  10. "Fibrous nests" in human hepatocellular carcinoma express a Wnt-induced gene signature associated with poor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Désert, Romain; Mebarki, Sihem; Desille, Mireille; Sicard, Marie; Lavergne, Elise; Renaud, Stéphanie; Bergeat, Damien; Sulpice, Laurent; Perret, Christine; Turlin, Bruno; Clément, Bruno; Musso, Orlando

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 3rd cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most cases arise in a background of chronic inflammation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, severe fibrosis and stem/progenitor cell amplification. Although HCCs are soft cellular tumors, they may contain fibrous nests within the tumor mass. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore cancer cell phenotypes in fibrous nests. Combined anatomic pathology, tissue microarray and real-time PCR analyses revealed that HCCs (n=82) containing fibrous nests were poorly differentiated, expressed Wnt pathway components and target genes, as well as markers of stem/progenitor cells, such as CD44, LGR5 and SOX9. Consistently, in severe liver fibroses (n=66) and in HCCs containing fibrous nests, weighted correlation analysis revealed a gene network including the myofibroblast marker ACTA2, the basement membrane components COL4A1 and LAMC1, the Wnt pathway members FZD1; FZD7; WNT2; LEF1; DKK1 and the Secreted Frizzled Related Proteins (SFRPs) 1; 2 and 5. Moreover, unbiased random survival forest analysis of a transcriptomic dataset of 247 HCC patients revealed high DKK1, COL4A1, SFRP1 and LAMC1 to be associated with advanced tumor staging as well as with bad overall and disease-free survival. In vitro, these genes were upregulated in liver cancer stem/progenitor cells upon Wnt-induced mesenchymal commitment and myofibroblast differentiation. In conclusion, fibrous nests express Wnt target genes, as well as markers of cancer stem cells and mesenchymal commitment. Fibrous nests embody the specific microenvironment of the cancer stem cell niche and can be detected by routine anatomic pathology analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HPV status, cancer stem cell marker expression, hypoxia gene signatures and tumour volume identify good prognosis subgroups in patients with HNSCC after primary radiochemotherapy: A multicentre retrospective study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

    PubMed

    Linge, Annett; Lohaus, Fabian; Löck, Steffen; Nowak, Alexander; Gudziol, Volker; Valentini, Chiara; von Neubeck, Cläre; Jütz, Martin; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Sak, Ali; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Abdollahi, Amir; Debus, Jürgen; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; Buchholz, Frank; Aust, Daniela E; Baretton, Gustavo B; Thames, Howard D; Dubrovska, Anna; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the impact of the tumour volume, HPV status, cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures, as potential markers of radiobiological mechanisms of radioresistance, in a contemporary cohort of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received primary radiochemotherapy (RCTx). For 158 patients with locally advanced HNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx or hypopharynx who were treated at six DKTK partner sites, the impact of tumour volume, HPV DNA, p16 overexpression, p53 expression, CSC marker expression and hypoxia-associated gene signatures on outcome of primary RCTx was retrospectively analyzed. The primary endpoint of this study was loco-regional control (LRC). Univariate Cox regression revealed a significant impact of tumour volume, p16 overexpression, and SLC3A2 and CD44 protein expression on LRC. The tumour hypoxia classification showed a significant impact only for small tumours. In multivariate analyses an independent correlation of tumour volume, SLC3A2 expression, and the 15-gene hypoxia signature with LRC was identified (CD44 protein n/a because of no event in the CD44-negative group). Logistic modelling showed that inclusion of CD44 protein expression and p16 overexpression significantly improved the performance to predict LRC at 2years compared to the model with tumour volume alone. Tumour volume, HPV status, CSC marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures are potential prognostic biomarkers for patients with locally advanced HNSCC, who were treated by primary RCTx. The study also supports that the individual tumour volumes should generally be included in biomarker studies and that panels of biomarkers are superior to individual parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential microRNA expression signatures and cell type-specific association with Taxol resistance in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Kim, Eun Young; Jeon, Doin; Liu, Juinn-Lin; Kim, Helena Suhyun; Choi, Jin Woo; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) resistance remains a major obstacle for the successful treatment of ovarian cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have oncogenic and tumor suppressor activity and are associated with poor prognosis phenotypes. miRNA screenings for this drug resistance are needed to estimate the prognosis of the disease and find better drug targets. miRNAs that were differentially expressed in Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells, compared with Taxol-sensitive cells, were screened by Illumina Human MicroRNA Expression BeadChips. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to identify target genes of selected miRNAs. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was applied to identify dysregulated miRNAs in ovarian cancer patients using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A total of 82 miRNAs were identified in ovarian carcinoma cells compared to normal ovarian cells. miR-141, miR-106a, miR-200c, miR-96, and miR-378 were overexpressed, and miR-411, miR-432, miR-494, miR-409-3p, and miR-655 were underexpressed in ovarian cancer cells. Seventeen miRNAs were overexpressed in Taxol-resistant cells, including miR-663, miR-622, and HS_188. Underexpressed miRNAs in Taxol-sensitive cells included miR-497, miR-187, miR-195, and miR-107. We further showed miR-663 and miR-622 as significant prognosis markers of the chemo-resistant patient group. In particular, the downregulation of the two miRNAs was associated with better survival, perhaps increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to Taxol. In the chemo-sensitive patient group, only miR-647 could be a prognosis marker. These miRNAs inhibit several interacting genes of p53 networks, especially in TUOS-3 and TUOS-4, and showed cell line-specific inhibition effects. Taken together, the data indicate that the three miRNAs are closely associated with Taxol resistance and potentially better prognosis factors. Our results suggest that these miRNAs were successfully and reliably identified and would be used in the

  13. Differential microRNA expression signatures and cell type-specific association with Taxol resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Kim, Eun Young; Jeon, Doin; Liu, Juinn-Lin; Kim, Helena Suhyun; Choi, Jin Woo; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) resistance remains a major obstacle for the successful treatment of ovarian cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have oncogenic and tumor suppressor activity and are associated with poor prognosis phenotypes. miRNA screenings for this drug resistance are needed to estimate the prognosis of the disease and find better drug targets. miRNAs that were differentially expressed in Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells, compared with Taxol-sensitive cells, were screened by Illumina Human MicroRNA Expression BeadChips. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to identify target genes of selected miRNAs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to identify dysregulated miRNAs in ovarian cancer patients using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A total of 82 miRNAs were identified in ovarian carcinoma cells compared to normal ovarian cells. miR-141, miR-106a, miR-200c, miR-96, and miR-378 were overexpressed, and miR-411, miR-432, miR-494, miR-409-3p, and miR-655 were underexpressed in ovarian cancer cells. Seventeen miRNAs were overexpressed in Taxol-resistant cells, including miR-663, miR-622, and HS_188. Underexpressed miRNAs in Taxol-sensitive cells included miR-497, miR-187, miR-195, and miR-107. We further showed miR-663 and miR-622 as significant prognosis markers of the chemo-resistant patient group. In particular, the downregulation of the two miRNAs was associated with better survival, perhaps increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to Taxol. In the chemo-sensitive patient group, only miR-647 could be a prognosis marker. These miRNAs inhibit several interacting genes of p53 networks, especially in TUOS-3 and TUOS-4, and showed cell line-specific inhibition effects. Taken together, the data indicate that the three miRNAs are closely associated with Taxol resistance and potentially better prognosis factors. Our results suggest that these miRNAs were successfully and reliably identified and would be used in the

  14. Spatio-Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during In Vivo Early Ovarian Folliculogenesis: Integrated Transcriptomic Study and Molecular Signature of Early Follicular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Agnes; Servin, Bertrand; Mulsant, Philippe; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Background The successful achievement of early ovarian folliculogenesis is important for fertility and reproductive life span. This complex biological process requires the appropriate expression of numerous genes at each developmental stage, in each follicular compartment. Relatively little is known at present about the molecular mechanisms that drive this process, and most gene expression studies have been performed in rodents and without considering the different follicular compartments. Results We used RNA-seq technology to explore the sheep transcriptome during early ovarian follicular development in the two main compartments: oocytes and granulosa cells. We documented the differential expression of 3,015 genes during this phase and described the gene expression dynamic specific to these compartments. We showed that important steps occurred during primary/secondary transition in sheep. We also described the in vivo molecular course of a number of pathways. In oocytes, these pathways documented the chronology of the acquisition of meiotic competence, migration and cellular organization, while in granulosa cells they concerned adhesion, the formation of cytoplasmic projections and steroid synthesis. This study proposes the involvement in this process of several members of the integrin and BMP families. The expression of genes such as Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) and BMP binding endothelial regulator (BMPER) was highlighted for the first time during early follicular development, and their proteins were also predicted to be involved in gene regulation. Finally, we selected a data set of 24 biomarkers that enabled the discrimination of early follicular stages and thus offer a molecular signature of early follicular growth. This set of biomarkers includes known genes such as SPO11 meiotic protein covalently bound to DSB (SPO11), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and WEE1 homolog 2 (S. pombe)(WEE2) which play critical roles in follicular development but other

  15. DNA Methylation and Genome Evolution in Honeybee: Gene Length, Expression, Functional Enrichment Covary with the Evolutionary Signature of DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jia; Yi, Soojin V.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that DNA methylation is functionally divergent among different taxa. The recently discovered functional methylation system in the honeybee Apis mellifera presents an attractive invertebrate model system to study evolution and function of DNA methylation. In the honeybee, DNA methylation is mostly targeted toward transcription units (gene bodies) of a subset of genes. Here, we report an intriguing covariation of length and epigenetic status of honeybee genes. Hypermethylated and hypomethylated genes in honeybee are dramatically different in their lengths for both exons and introns. By analyzing orthologs in Drosophila melanogaster, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and Ciona intestinalis, we show genes that were short and long in the past are now preferentially situated in hyper- and hypomethylated classes respectively, in the honeybee. Moreover, we demonstrate that a subset of high-CpG genes are conspicuously longer than expected under the evolutionary relationship alone and that they are enriched in specific functional categories. We suggest that gene length evolution in the honeybee is partially driven by evolutionary forces related to regulation of gene expression, which in turn is associated with DNA methylation. However, lineage-specific patterns of gene length evolution suggest that there may exist additional forces underlying the observed interaction between DNA methylation and gene lengths in the honeybee. PMID:20924039

  16. An Integrated Analysis of MicroRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles to Identify RNA Expression Signatures in Lambskin Hair Follicles in Hu Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei; Yin, Jinfeng; Ni, Rong; Su, Rui; Wang, Qingzeng; Gao, Wen; Bao, Jianjun; Yu, Jiarui; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Wave patterns in lambskin hair follicles are an important factor determining the quality of sheep’s wool. Hair follicles in lambskin from Hu sheep, a breed unique to China, have 3 types of waves, designated as large, medium, and small. The quality of wool from small wave follicles is excellent, while the quality of large waves is considered poor. Because no molecular and biological studies on hair follicles of these sheep have been conducted to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of different wave patterns is currently unknown. The aim of this article was to screen the candidate microRNAs (miRNA) and genes for the development of hair follicles in Hu sheep. Two-day-old Hu lambs were selected from full-sib individuals that showed large, medium, and small waves. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles employed high-throughout sequencing technology. Approximately 13, 24, and 18 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively. A total of 54, 190, and 81 differentially expressed genes were found between small and large waves, small and medium waves, and medium and large waves, respectively, by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Differentially expressed genes were classified using gene ontology and pathway analyses. They were found to be mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, immune response, and ion transport, and were associated with MAPK and the Notch signaling pathway. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of differentially-expressed miRNA and genes were consistent with sequencing results. Integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression indicated that, compared to small waves, large waves included 4 downregulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 8 upregulated genes and 3 upregulated miRNAs, which in turn influenced 13 downregulated genes. Compared to small waves

  17. Osteopontin Modulates Inflammation, Mucin Production, and Gene Expression Signatures After Inhalation of Asbestos in a Murine Model of Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Ramos-Nino, Maria E.; Eugenia-Ariza, Maria; MacPherson, Maximilian B.; Butnor, Kelly J.; Vacek, Pamela C.; McGee, Sean P.; Clark, Jessica C.; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and lung remodeling are hallmarks of asbestos-induced fibrosis, but the molecular mechanisms that control these events are unclear. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) of distal bronchioles in a murine asbestos inhalation model, we show that osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated by bronchiolar epithelial cells after chrysotile asbestos exposures. In contrast to OPN wild-type mice (OPN+/+) inhaling asbestos, OPN null mice (OPN−/−) exposed to asbestos showed less eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, diminished lung inflammation, and decreased mucin production. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 subunit p40, MIP1α, MIP1β, and eotaxin) also were significantly less in asbestos-exposed OPN−/− mice. Microarrays performed on lung tissues from asbestos-exposed OPN+/+ and OPN−/− mice showed that OPN modulated the expression of a number of genes (Col1a2, Timp1, Tnc, Eln, and Col3a1) linked to fibrosis via initiation and cross talk between IL-1β and epidermal growth factor receptor-related signaling pathways. Novel targets of OPN identified include genes involved in cell signaling, immune system/defense, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell cycle regulation. Although it is unclear whether the present findings are specific to chrysotile asbestos or would be observed after inhalation of other fibers in general, these results highlight new potential mechanisms and therapeutic targets for asbestosis and other diseases (asthma, smoking-related interstitial lung diseases) linked to OPN overexpression. PMID:21514415

  18. Prolonged expression of the BX1 signature enzyme is associated with a recombination hotspot in the benzoxazinoid gene cluster in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linlin; McMullen, Michael D; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelopathic compounds. The main benzoxazinoid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to herbivores and microbes. Protective concentrations are found predominantly in young plantlets. We made use of the genetic diversity present in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel to identify lines with significant benzoxazinoid concentrations at later developmental stages. At 24 d after imbibition (dai), only three lines, including Mo17, showed effective DIMBOA concentrations of 1.5mM or more; B73, by contrast, had low a DIMBOA content. Mapping studies based on Mo17 and B73 were performed to reveal mechanisms that influence the DIMBOA level in 24 dai plants. A major quantitative trait locus mapped to the Bx gene cluster located on the short arm of chromosome 4, which encodes the DIMBOA biosynthetic genes. Mo17 was distinguished from all other NAM lines by high transcriptional expression of the Bx1 gene at later developmental stages. Bx1 encodes the signature enzyme of the pathway. In Mo17×B73 hybrids at 24 dai, only the Mo17 Bx1 allele transcript was detected. A 3.9kb cis-element, termed DICE (distal cis-element), that is located in the Bx gene cluster approximately 140 kb upstream of Bx1, was required for high Bx1 transcript levels during later developmental stages in Mo17. The DICE region was a hotspot of meiotic recombination. Genetic analysis revealed that high 24 dai DIMBOA concentrations were not strictly dependent on high Bx1 transcript levels. However, constitutive expression of Bx1 in transgenics increased DIMBOA levels at 24 dai, corroborating a correlation between DIMBOA content and Bx1 transcription. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Prolonged expression of the BX1 signature enzyme is associated with a recombination hotspot in the benzoxazinoid gene cluster in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Linlin; McMullen, Michael D.; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelopathic compounds. The main benzoxazinoid in maize (Zea mays L.) is 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA confers resistance to herbivores and microbes. Protective concentrations are found predominantly in young plantlets. We made use of the genetic diversity present in the maize nested association mapping (NAM) panel to identify lines with significant benzoxazinoid concentrations at later developmental stages. At 24 d after imbibition (dai), only three lines, including Mo17, showed effective DIMBOA concentrations of 1.5mM or more; B73, by contrast, had low a DIMBOA content. Mapping studies based on Mo17 and B73 were performed to reveal mechanisms that influence the DIMBOA level in 24 dai plants. A major quantitative trait locus mapped to the Bx gene cluster located on the short arm of chromosome 4, which encodes the DIMBOA biosynthetic genes. Mo17 was distinguished from all other NAM lines by high transcriptional expression of the Bx1 gene at later developmental stages. Bx1 encodes the signature enzyme of the pathway. In Mo17×B73 hybrids at 24 dai, only the Mo17 Bx1 allele transcript was detected. A 3.9kb cis-element, termed DICE (distal cis-element), that is located in the Bx gene cluster approximately 140kb upstream of Bx1, was required for high Bx1 transcript levels during later developmental stages in Mo17. The DICE region was a hotspot of meiotic recombination. Genetic analysis revealed that high 24 dai DIMBOA concentrations were not strictly dependent on high Bx1 transcript levels. However, constitutive expression of Bx1 in transgenics increased DIMBOA levels at 24 dai, corroborating a correlation between DIMBOA content and Bx1 transcription. PMID:25969552

  20. Similarities and differences in peripheral blood gene-expression signatures of individuals with schizophrenia and their first-degree biological relatives.

    PubMed

    Glatt, Stephen J; Stone, William S; Nossova, Nadine; Liew, Choong-Chin; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have evaluated the potential utility of blood-based whole-transcriptome signatures as a source of biomarkers for schizophrenia. This endeavor has been complicated by the fact that individuals with schizophrenia typically differ from appropriate comparison subjects on more than just the presence of the disorder; for example, individuals with schizophrenia typically receive antipsychotic medications, and have been dealing with the sequelae of this chronic illness for years. The inability to control such factors introduces a considerable degree of uncertainty in the results to date. To overcome this, we performed a blood-based gene-expression profiling study of schizophrenia patients (n = 9) as well as their unmedicated, nonpsychotic, biological siblings (n = 9) and unaffected comparison subjects (n = 12). The unaffected biological siblings, who may harbor some of the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia, exhibited a host of gene-expression differences from unaffected comparison subjects, many of which were shared by their schizophrenic siblings, perhaps indicative of underlying risk factors for the disorder. Several genes that were dysregulated in both individuals with schizophrenia and their siblings related to nucleosome and histone structure and function, suggesting a potential epigenetic mechanism underlying the risk state for the disorder. Nonpsychotic siblings also displayed some differences from comparison subjects that were not found in their affected siblings, suggesting that the dysregulation of some genes in peripheral blood may be indicative of underlying protective factors. This study, while exploratory, illustrated the potential utility and increased informativeness of including unaffected first-degree relatives in research in pursuit of peripheral biomarkers for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effectiveness of family interventions on psychological distress and expressed emotion in family members of individuals diagnosed with first-episode psychosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Napa, Wilai; Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Pothimas, Nisakorn

    2017-04-01

    A critical period for persons with first-episode psychosis is the first two years after diagnosis, when they are at high risk of suicide attempts, violent behaviors and substance abuse. This period also has a great impact on the psychological distress of family members, particularly caregivers who either provide care or live with ill family members. In addition, the families also report feelings of being overwhelmed when accessing service facilities at this critical point. These consequences impact on the affective tone/atmosphere in the family, also referred to as so-called expressed emotion. In addition, expressed emotion research has indicated that the family atmosphere contributes to recurrent psychosis and lengthy hospital stays for patients in the initial phase. Therefore, family interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving expressed emotion in families during this critical time are very important. Modern research has yielded international evidence addressing these outcomes, but little is known about which interventions are the most effective. Therefore, this review ai