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Sample records for expression specifies ovarian

  1. Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified, associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: rare tumors of an endocrine disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tina T; Ruscher, Kimberly R; Mandavilli, Srinivas; Balarezo, Fabiola; Finck, Christine M

    2013-06-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified (OSCTs), are extremely rare and present a diagnostic challenge when evaluating an ovarian mass. We present a case of such a tumor in a patient with known Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), secondary to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, who was noncompliant with her medications. The workup, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare condition are described.

  2. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  3. Symptomatic Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor not Otherwise Specified in a Post-Menopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neha; Desai, Kaniksha; Chindris, Ana-Maria; Lewis, Jason; Dinh, Tri A.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) is a rare subtype of sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary and contributes less than 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms. The majority of tumors occur in pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43 years), in which 56-77% of patients present with virilization due to excess testosterone. An 80-year-old woman with worsening alopecia and excessive growth of coarse hair on abdomen and genital area was found to have elevated serum testosterone level (462 ng/mL). Radiologic studies were consistent with bilateral adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling ruled out the adrenal gland as origin of hormone secretion. A diagnostic and therapeutic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy confirmed steroid cell tumor NOS of the left ovary. Post-operatively, the patient had complete resolution of her symptoms and normalization of testosterone level. Our case emphasizes the importance of a clinical suspicion for an occult testosterone secreting ovarian tumor in a symptomatic patient without obvious ovarian mass on imaging. PMID:27441075

  4. Gene expression profiling analysis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    YIN, JI-GANG; LIU, XIAN-YING; WANG, BIN; WANG, DAN-YANG; WEI, MAN; FANG, HUA; XIANG, MEI

    2016-01-01

    As a gynecological oncology, ovarian cancer has high incidence and mortality. To study the mechanisms of ovarian cancer, the present study analyzed the GSE37582 microarray. GSE37582 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and included data from 74 ovarian cancer cases and 47 healthy controls. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using linear models for microarray data package in R and were further screened for functional annotation. Next, Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was conducted. The interaction associations of the proteins encoded by the DEGs were searched using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized by Cytoscape. Moreover, module analysis of the PPI network was performed using the BioNet analysis tool in R. A total of 284 DEGs were screened, consisting of 145 upregulated genes and 139 downregulated genes. In particular, downregulated FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS) was an oncogene, while downregulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) was a tumor suppressor gene and upregulated cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) was classed as an ‘other’ gene. The enriched functions included collagen catabolic process, stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases cascade and insulin receptor signaling pathway. Meanwhile, FOS (degree, 15), CD44 (degree, 9), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2; degree, 7), CDKN1A (degree, 7) and matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3; degree, 6) had higher connectivity degrees in the PPI network for the DEGs. These genes may be involved in ovarian cancer by interacting with other genes in the module of the PPI network (e.g., BCL2-FOS, BCL2-CDKN1A, FOS-CDKN1A, FOS-CD44, MMP3-MMP7 and MMP7-CD44). Overall, BCL2, FOS, CDKN1A, CD44, MMP3 and MMP7 may be correlated with ovarian cancer. PMID:27347159

  5. PAX2 Expression in Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Celestine S.; Mok, Samuel C.; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Zu, Zhifei; Song, Huijuan; Liu, Jinsong; Deavers, Michael; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are thought to represent different stages on a tumorigenic continuum and to develop along pathways distinct from high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. We performed gene expression profiling on 3 normal human ovarian surface epithelia samples, and 10 low-grade and 10 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. Analysis of gene expression profiles of these samples has identified 80 genes up-regulated and 232 genes down-regulated in low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. PAX2 was found to be one of the most up-regulated genes in low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. The up-regulation of PAX2 was validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a statistically significant difference in PAX2 mRNA expression (expressed as fold change in comparison to normal human ovarian surface epithelia) among ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (1837.38, N=8), low-grade (183.12, N=17), and high-grade (3.72, N=23) carcinoma samples (p=0.015). Western blot analysis revealed strong PAX2 expression in ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (67%, N=3) and low-grade carcinoma samples (50%, N=10) but no PAX2 protein expression in high-grade carcinomas (0%, N=10). Using immunohistochemistry, tumors of low-malignant potential (59%, N=17) and low-grade carcinoma (63%, N=16) samples expressed significantly stronger nuclear staining than high-grade ovarian carcinoma samples (9.1%, N=263). Furthermore, consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings, PAX2 expression was found to be expressed in the epithelial cells of fallopian tubes but not in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our findings further support the two-tiered hypothesis that tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma are on a continuum and are distinct from high-grade ovarian carcinomas. Additionally, the absence of PAX2 expression in normal

  6. Lost expression of DCC gene in ovarian cancer and its inhibition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Meimei, Liu; Peiling, Li; Baoxin, Li; Changmin, Li; Rujin, Zhuang; Chunjie, Hu

    2011-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related women mortality in China. In recent years, the molecular mechanisms involved in ovarian carcinoma development and/or progression have been intensely studied, and several genes have been identified. Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma (DCC), is an important tumor suppressor gene, which is inactivated in many kinds of tumors, and its function(s) is not clarified. Even though the lost expression of DCC occurred in later stages of multistep colorectal carcinogenesis, its contribution to the onset or progression of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. To investigate DCC expression in ovarian cancer, we studied 254 clinical samples by RT-PCR. Our results revealed that 52% malignant ovarian cancer did not express DCC gene. By contrast, DCC expression was observed in all normal ovary tissues and 80% benign ovarian tumors. Obviously, there was a significant correlation between DCC expression and ovarian cancer, especially in the epithelial ovarian cancer. The present study also suggested that the loss expression of DCC occurred more frequently in the cases of later clinical stage, higher pathological grade, and poorer prognosis. In the other part of this study, we further explored DCC expression after transfection in two kinds of ovarian cancer cell lines, namely SKOV3 cell and HO-8910 cell, using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The results indicated that DCC expressed in SKOV3-DCC and HO-8910-DCC cells, and ultrastructural analysis showed the appearance of apoptotic features in them. Furthermore, cell growth was markedly down-regulated in above groups of cells, indicating that transfection with the DCC constructs can suppress the growth of tumor cells. In conclusion, our results suggest an association of lost expression of DCC with the ovarian cancer, and DCC gene may inhibit the growth of ovarian carcinoma cells. However, this result needs further trials with a larger sample. PMID:20054719

  7. Transcriptional regulation of chemokine expression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Singha, Bipradeb; Gatla, Himavanth R; Vancurova, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The increased expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic chemokines contributes to ovarian cancer progression through the induction of tumor cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The substantial potential of these chemokines to facilitate the progression and metastasis of ovarian cancer underscores the need for their stringent transcriptional regulation. In this Review, we highlight the key mechanisms that regulate the transcription of pro-inflammatory chemokines in ovarian cancer cells, and that have important roles in controlling ovarian cancer progression. We further discuss the potential mechanisms underlying the increased chemokine expression in drug resistance, along with our perspective for future studies. PMID:25790431

  8. Transcriptional regulation of chemokine expression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Singha, Bipradeb; Gatla, Himavanth R; Vancurova, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The increased expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic chemokines contributes to ovarian cancer progression through the induction of tumor cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The substantial potential of these chemokines to facilitate the progression and metastasis of ovarian cancer underscores the need for their stringent transcriptional regulation. In this Review, we highlight the key mechanisms that regulate the transcription of pro-inflammatory chemokines in ovarian cancer cells, and that have important roles in controlling ovarian cancer progression. We further discuss the potential mechanisms underlying the increased chemokine expression in drug resistance, along with our perspective for future studies.

  9. Localisation and expression of aquaporin subtypes in epithelial ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Hua; Yu, Yu-Qun; Yan, Chun-xiao

    2011-09-01

    To characterise AQP subtype localisation and expression in epithelial ovarian tumours, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the localisation and expression of AQP1-9 in 30 benign tumour cases, 30 borderline tumour cases, 50 malignant tumour cases and 20 normal ovarian tissue cases. Multiple AQP subtypes were expressed in epithelial ovarian tumours, with each AQP subtype displaying a different pattern of localisation and expression. AQP1 was mainly expressed in the microvascular endothelium, and AQP 2-9 were mainly expressed in tumour cells. Most AQP subtypes co-localised in the basolateral membranes of the epithelia of benign tumours and plasma membranes of malignant tumour cells. The positive rates for AQP1, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were over 50%, but those for AQP2, 3 and 4 were only 10-40%. The expression of AQP1, 5 and 9 in malignant and borderline tumours was significantly higher than that in benign tumours (P<0.05) and normal ovarian tissue (P<0.05). However, AQP6 expression in ovarian malignant and borderline tumours was significantly lower than that in benign tumours (P<0.01) or normal ovarian tissue (P<0.01). AQP1 expression was increased in cases with ascites volumes greater than 1000 mL (P<0.05), AQP5 expression was greater in cases with lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), and more AQP9 expression was observed in G3 cases versus G1 and G2 cases (P<0.01). These results suggest that changes in the distribution and expression of AQP subtypes may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. This study presents a novel avenue of research that could illuminate the mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis and treatment.

  10. Benign and malignant ovarian steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified: case studies, comparison, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Tao, Xiang; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Shaofen; Xu, Congjian

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified (NOS) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary with malignant potential. So far only a few cases were reported in English literature through the Pubmed search. Here we report two cases of such tumor, one was benign (first case underwent laparoscopic cystectomy) and the other was malignant (died 10 months later after initial diagnosis), both presented with amenorrhea and clinical signs or symptoms of virilization. In malignant case, we provided evidence (tumor embolus) in addition to the reported five characteristics associated with malignancy. On further evaluation, laboratory investigations revealed hyperandrogenism in the male range, while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) levels were within normal limits. Various aspects of the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors are discussed.

  11. Metadherin, p50, and p65 expression in epithelial ovarian neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Giopanou, Ioanna; Bravou, Vasiliki; Papanastasopoulos, Panagiotis; Lilis, Ioannis; Aroukatos, Panagiotis; Papachristou, Dionysios; Kounelis, Sophia; Papadaki, Helen

    2014-01-01

    NF-κB signaling promotes cancer progression in a large number of malignancies. Metadherin, a coactivator of the NF-κB transcription complex, was recently identified to regulate different signaling pathways that are closely related to cancer. We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of p50, p65, and metadherin in 30 ovarian carcinomas, 15 borderline ovarian tumours, and 31 benign ovarian cystadenomas. Ovarian carcinomas exhibited significantly higher expression of all 3 markers compared to benign ovarian tumours. Borderline ovarian tumours demonstrated significantly higher expression for all 3 markers compared to benign cystadenomas. Ovarian carcinomas demonstrated significantly higher expression of p50 and metadherin compared to borderline ovarian tumours, whereas no significant difference was noted in p65 expression between ovarian carcinomas and borderline ovarian tumours. There was a strong correlation with the expression levels of p50, p65, and metadherin, whereas no correlation was observed with either grade or stage. Strong p50, p65, and metadherin expression was associated with a high probability to distinguish ovarian carcinomas over borderline and benign ovarian tumours, as well as borderline ovarian tumours over benign ovarian neoplasms. A gradual increase in the expression of these molecules is noted when moving across the spectrum of ovarian carcinogenesis, from borderline ovarian tumours to epithelial carcinomas.

  12. NMDA receptors are expressed in human ovarian cancer tissues and human ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    North, William G; Liu, Fuli; Tian, Ruiyang; Abbasi, Hamza; Akerman, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We have earlier demonstrated that breast cancer and small-cell lung cancer express functional NMDA receptors that can be targeted to promote cancer cell death. Human ovarian cancer tissues and human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, A2008, and A2780) have now been shown to also express NMDA-receptor subunit 1 (GluN1) and subunit 2B (GluN2B). Seventeen ovarian cancers in two arrays were screened by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies that recognize an extracellular moiety on GluN1 and on GluN2B. These specimens comprised malignant tissue with pathology diagnoses of serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Additionally, archival tissues defined as ovarian adenocarcinoma from ten patients treated at this institute were also evaluated. All of the cancerous tissues demonstrated positive staining patterns with the NMDA-receptor antibodies, while no staining was found for tumor-adjacent normal tissues or sections of normal ovarian tissue. Human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines (A2008, A2780, SKOV3) were demonstrated to express GluN1 by Western blotting, but displayed different levels of expression. Through immunocytochemistry utilizing GluN1 antibodies and imaging using a confocal microscope, we were able to demonstrate that GluN1 protein is expressed on the surface of these cells. In addition to these findings, GluN2B protein was demonstrated to be expressed using polyclonal antibodies against this protein. Treatment of all ovarian cell lines with antibodies against GluN1 was found to result in decreased cell viability (P<0.001), with decreases to 10%–25% that of untreated cells. Treatment of control HEK293 cells with various dilutions of GluN1 antibodies had no effect on cell viability. The GluN1 antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate) and the GluN2B antagonist ifenprodil, like antibodies, dramatically decreased the viability of A2780 ovarian tumor cells (P<0.01). Treatment of A2780 tumor xenografts with

  13. NMDA receptors are expressed in human ovarian cancer tissues and human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    North, William G; Liu, Fuli; Tian, Ruiyang; Abbasi, Hamza; Akerman, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We have earlier demonstrated that breast cancer and small-cell lung cancer express functional NMDA receptors that can be targeted to promote cancer cell death. Human ovarian cancer tissues and human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, A2008, and A2780) have now been shown to also express NMDA-receptor subunit 1 (GluN1) and subunit 2B (GluN2B). Seventeen ovarian cancers in two arrays were screened by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies that recognize an extracellular moiety on GluN1 and on GluN2B. These specimens comprised malignant tissue with pathology diagnoses of serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Additionally, archival tissues defined as ovarian adenocarcinoma from ten patients treated at this institute were also evaluated. All of the cancerous tissues demonstrated positive staining patterns with the NMDA-receptor antibodies, while no staining was found for tumor-adjacent normal tissues or sections of normal ovarian tissue. Human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines (A2008, A2780, SKOV3) were demonstrated to express GluN1 by Western blotting, but displayed different levels of expression. Through immunocytochemistry utilizing GluN1 antibodies and imaging using a confocal microscope, we were able to demonstrate that GluN1 protein is expressed on the surface of these cells. In addition to these findings, GluN2B protein was demonstrated to be expressed using polyclonal antibodies against this protein. Treatment of all ovarian cell lines with antibodies against GluN1 was found to result in decreased cell viability (P<0.001), with decreases to 10%-25% that of untreated cells. Treatment of control HEK293 cells with various dilutions of GluN1 antibodies had no effect on cell viability. The GluN1 antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate) and the GluN2B antagonist ifenprodil, like antibodies, dramatically decreased the viability of A2780 ovarian tumor cells (P<0.01). Treatment of A2780 tumor xenografts with

  14. Over-Specified Referring Expressions Impair Comprehension: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Demiral, S. Baris; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often include extra information when producing referring expressions, which is inconsistent with the Maxim of Quantity (Grice, 1975). In this study, we investigated how comprehension is affected by unnecessary information. The literature is mixed: some studies have found that extra information facilitates comprehension and others reported…

  15. Comparative gene expression analysis of ovarian carcinoma and normal ovarian epithelium by serial analysis of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Peters, David G; Kudla, Donna M; Deloia, Julie A; Chu, Tian Jiao; Fairfull, Liane; Edwards, Robert P; Ferrell, Robert E

    2005-07-01

    Despite the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and the importance of early diagnosis, there are no reliable noninvasive biomarkers for detection in the early stages of disease. Therefore, to identify novel ovarian cancer markers with potential utility in early-stage screening protocols, we have undertaken an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of gene expression in primary ovarian tumors and normal human ovarian surface epithelium (HOSE) using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). Specifically, we have generated SAGE libraries from three serous adenocarcinomas of the ovary and, using novel statistical tools, have compared these to SAGE data derived from two pools of normal HOSE. Significantly, in contrast to previous SAGE-based studies, our normal SAGE libraries are not derived from cultured cell lines. We have also compared our data with publicly available SAGE data obtained from primary tumors and "normal" HOSE-derived cell lines. We have thus identified several known and novel genes whose expressions are elevated in ovarian cancer. These include but are not limited to CLDN3, WFDC2, FOLR1, COL18A1, CCND1, and FLJ12988. Furthermore, we found marked differences in gene expression patterns in primary HOSE tissue compared with cultured HOSE. The use of HOSE tissue as a control for these experiments, along with hierarchical clustering analysis, identified several potentially novel biomarkers of ovarian cancer, including TACC3, CD9, GNAI2, AHCY, CCT3, and HMGA1. In summary, these data identify several genes whose elevated expressions have not been observed previously in ovarian cancer, confirm the validity of several existing markers, and provide a foundation for future studies in the understanding and management of this disease. PMID:16030107

  16. Caveolin-1 expression in ovarian carcinoma is MDR1 independent.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ben; Goldberg, Iris; Givant-Horwitz, Vered; Nesland, Jahn M; Berner, Aasmund; Bryne, Magne; Risberg, Bjørn; Kopolovic, Juri; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Tropé, Claes G; van de Putte, Gregg; Reich, Reuven

    2002-02-01

    We studied the role of caveolin-1 in tumor progression and prognosis in serous ovarian carcinoma and the association between caveolin-1 and MDR1 expression. The study involved immunohistochemical analysis for caveolin-1 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in 75 effusions and 90 solid lesions from ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma; in situ hybridization for MDR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in 62 effusions and all 90 tumors; and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for caveolin-1 mRNA expression in 23 effusions. Immunohistochemical analysis localized caveolin-1 to the cell membrane in 43 effusions and 24 tumors. P-gp membrane expression was detected in 14 effusions and 11 tumors; MDR1 mRNA, in 20 effusions and 30 tumors. Caveolin-1 mRNA was expressed in 19 effusions. Caveolin-1 protein expression showed no association with that of P-gp protein or MDR1 mRNA. The expression of all markers was similar in carcinoma cells in pleural and peritoneal effusions. Caveolin-1 is a novel diagnostic marker for effusions; expression is moderately elevated in tumor cells in effusions, possibly owing to altered signal transduction and metabolism in cancer cells at this site. Expression seems MDR1 independent. PMID:11863219

  17. Gene expression in human ovarian tissue after xenografting.

    PubMed

    Van Langendonckt, A; Romeu, L; Ambroise, J; Amorim, C; Bearzatto, B; Gala, J L; Donnez, J; Dolmans, M M

    2014-06-01

    Cryobanking and transplantation of ovarian tissue is a promising approach to restore fertility in cancer patients. However, ischemic stress following avascular ovarian cortex grafting is known to induce stromal tissue fibrosis and alterations in follicular development. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of freeze-thawing and grafting procedures on gene expression in human ovarian tissue. Frozen-thawed ovarian tissue from 14 patients was xenografted for 7 days to nude mice and one ungrafted fragment was used as a control. Immediately after recovery, grafts were processed for RNA extraction and histological analysis. Their expression profile was screened by whole-genome oligonucleotide array (n = 4) and validated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain analysis (n = 10). After data filtering, the Limma package was used to build a linear regression model for each gene and to compute its fold change between tissues on Days 0 and 7. After adjusting the P-value by the Sidak method, 84 of the transcripts were significantly altered after 7 days of grafting, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -14 and angiogenic factors such as placental growth factor and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). Major biological processes were related to tissue remodeling, including secretory processes, cellular adhesion and response to chemical and hormonal stimuli. Angiopoietin signaling, the interleukin-8 pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation were shown to be differentially regulated. On Day 7, overexpression was confirmed by PCR for interleukin-8, transforming growth factor-beta 1, matrix metalloproteinase-14 and CXCR4, compared with ungrafted controls. In conclusion, new as well as known genes involved in tissue restructuring and angiogenesis were identified and found to play a key role during the first days after human ovarian tissue transplantation. This will facilitate the development of strategies to optimize grafting techniques. PMID

  18. Functional Expression of TWEAK and the Receptor Fn14 in Human Malignant Ovarian Tumors: Possible Implication for Ovarian Tumor Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Ding, Chuanwei; Xu, Hai-bo; Qiu, Lihua; Di, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this current study was to investigate the expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) in human malignant ovarian tumors, and test TWEAK’s potential role on tumor progression in cell models in-vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we found that TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were expressed in human malignant ovarian tumors, but not in normal ovarian tissues or in borderline/benign epithelial ovarian tumors. High levels of TWEAK expression was detected in the majority of malignant tumors (36 out of 41, 87.80%). Similarly, 35 out of 41 (85.37%) malignant ovarian tumors were Fn14 positive. In these malignant ovarian tumors, however, TWEAK/Fn14 expression was not corrected with patients’ clinical subtype/stages or pathological features. In vitro, we demonstrated that TWEAK only inhibited ovarian cancer HO-8910PM cell proliferation in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas either TWEAK or TNF-α alone didn’t affect HO-8910PM cell growth. TWEAK promoted TNF-α production in cultured THP-1 macrophages. Meanwhile, conditioned media from TWEAK-activated macrophages inhibited cultured HO-8910PM cell proliferation and invasion. Further, TWEAK increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in cultured HO-8910PM cells to possibly recruit macrophages. Our results suggest that TWEAK/Fn14, by activating macrophages, could be ovarian tumor suppressors. The unique expression of TWEAK/Fn14 in malignant tumors indicates that it might be detected as a malignant ovarian tumor marker. PMID:23469193

  19. Dub3 expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Shu, Bin; Xi, Tao; Su, Ning; Liu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Dub3 is a deubiquitinating enzyme. It is highly expressed in tumor-derived cell lines and has an established role in tumor proliferation. However, the role of Dub3 in human ovarian cancer remains unclear. Expression of Dub3 was evaluated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The relationship between Dub3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. Using RNA interference, the effects of Dub3 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were investigated in ovarian cancer cell line. All normal ovary tissues exhibited very little or no Dub3 immunoreactivity. High levels of Dub3 expression were examined by immunohistochemical analysis in 13.3% of cystadenomas, in 30.0% of borderline tumors, and in 58.9% of ovarian carcinomas, respectively. Dub3 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and clinical staging (P<0.05). Multivariate survival analysis indicated that Dub3 expression was an independent prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, the expression of Cdc25A was closely correlated with that of Dub3 in cancer cells and tissues. Knockdown of Dub3 could inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and increase cell apoptosis. These data indicate that the Dub3 might be a valuable biomarker for the prediction of ovarian cancer prognosis and Dub3 inhibition might be a potential strategy for ovarian cancer treatment.

  20. Loss of HSulf-1 expression enhances tumorigenicity by inhibiting Bim expression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoping; Khurana, Ashwani; Roy, Debarshi; Kaufmann, Scott; Shridhar, Viji

    2014-10-15

    The expression of human Sulfatase1 (HSulf-1) is downregulated in the majority of primary ovarian cancer tumors, but the functional consequence of this downregulation remains unclear. Using two different shRNAs (Sh1 and Sh2), HSulf-1 expression was stably downregulated in ovarian cancer OV202 cells. We found that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 Sh1 and Sh2 cells formed colonies in soft agar. In contrast, nontargeting control (NTC) shRNA-transduced OV202 cells did not form any colonies. Moreover, subcutaneous injection of OV202 HSulf-1-deficient cells resulted in tumor formation in nude mice, whereas OV202 NTC cells did not. Also, ectopic expression of HSulf-1 in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Here, we show that HSulf-1-deficient OV202 cells have markedly decreased expression of proapoptotic Bim protein, which can be rescued by restoring HSulf-1 expression in OV202 Sh1 cells. Enhanced expression of HSulf-1 in HSulf-1-deficient SKOV3 cells resulted in increased Bim expression. Decreased Bim levels after loss of HSulf-1 were due to increased p-ERK, because inhibition of ERK activity with PD98059 resulted in increased Bim expression. However, treatment with a PI3 kinase/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, failed to show any change in Bim protein level. Importantly, rescuing Bim expression in HSulf-1 knockdown cells significantly retarded tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively, these results suggest that loss of HSulf-1 expression promotes tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer through regulating Bim expression.

  1. Effect of taxol on the expression of FoxM1 ovarian cancer-associated gene

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZENG; XIAO, YU; NING, SIQING; LI, ZHAO YUAN; ZHU, YUANYUAN; HU, GANG

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of ovarian cancer in women has been on the increase in recent years. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of taxol on the expression of ovarian cancer-associated gene forkhead box transcription factor M1 (FoxM1) and its therapeutic effects for ovarian cancer. The expression of FoxM1 gene was examined in patients with or without ovarian cancer. RNA and protein levels of FoxM1 gene of ovarian cancer patients were detected at different time periods (1, 3, 6, 8, 12 and 24 months) after treatment with taxol. The results showed that the mRNA level of FoxM1 gene in patients with ovarian cancer was significantly higher than that in normal women (P<0.05). With time and progression of the disease, the expression of FoxM1 gene significantly increased in the patients not being administered taxol, whereas the expression of FoxM1 in the patients administered taxol was significantly lower comparatively (P<0.05). In conclusion, an asssociation was identified between the FoxM1 gene and ovarian cancer. The FoxM1 gene therefore promotes the generation and deterioration of ovarian cancer, whereas taxol reduces it. These findings provide a certain theoretical basis for the later treatment of ovarian cancer disease. PMID:27313736

  2. Distinct prognostic values of four-Notch-receptor mRNA expression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinling; Teng, Lingling; Wang, Min

    2016-05-01

    Notch signaling pathway includes ligands and Notch receptors, which are frequently deregulated in several human malignancies including ovarian cancer. Aberrant activation of Notch signaling has been linked to ovarian carcinogenesis and progression. In the current study, we used the "Kaplan-Meier plotter" (KM plotter) database, in which updated gene expression data and survival information from a total of 1306 ovarian cancer patients were used to access the prognostic value of four Notch receptors in ovarian cancer patients. Hazard ratio (HR), 95 % confidence intervals, and log-rank P were calculated. Notch1 messenger RNA (mRNA) high expression was not found to be correlated to overall survival (OS) for all ovarian cancer, as well as in serous and endometrioid cancer patients followed for 20 years. However, Notch1 mRNA high expression is significantly associated with worsen OS in TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer patients, while it is significantly associated with better OS in TP53 mutation-type ovarian cancer patients. Notch2 mRNA high expression was found to be significantly correlated to worsen OS for all ovarian cancer patients, as well as in grade II ovarian cancer patients. Notch3 mRNA high expression was found to be significantly correlated to better OS for all ovarian cancer patients, but not in serous cancer patients and endometrioid cancer patients. Notch4 mRNA high expression was not found to be significantly correlated to OS for all ovarian cancer patients, serous cancer patients, and endometrioid cancer patients. These results indicate that there are distinct prognostic values of four Notch receptors in ovarian cancer. This information will be useful for better understanding of the heterogeneity and complexity in the molecular biology of ovarian cancer and for developing tools to more accurately predict their prognosis. Based on our results, Notch1 could be a potential drug target of TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer and Notch2 could be a potential drug

  3. Primary Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Cells Broadly Express HER2 at Immunologically-Detectable Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lanitis, Evripidis; Dangaj, Denarda; Hagemann, Ian S.; Song, De-Gang; Best, Andrew; Sandaltzopoulos, Raphael; Coukos, George; Powell, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The breadth of HER2 expression by primary human ovarian cancers remains controversial, which questions its suitability as a universal antigen in this malignancy. To address these issues, we performed extensive HER2 expression analysis on a wide panel of primary tumors as well as established and short-term human ovarian cancer cell lines. Conventional immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of multiple tumor sites in 50 cases of high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas revealed HER2 overexpression in 29% of evaluated sites. However, more sensitive detection methods including flow cytometry, western blot analysis and q-PCR revealed HER2 expression in all fresh tumor cells derived from primary ascites or solid tumors as well as all established and short-term cultured cancer cell lines. Cancer cells generally expressed HER2 at higher levels than that found in normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Accordingly, genetically-engineered human T cells expressing an HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recognized and reacted against all established or primary ovarian cancer cells tested with minimal or no reactivity against normal OSE cells. In conclusion, all human ovarian cancers express immunologically-detectable levels of HER2, indicating that IHC measurement underestimates the true frequency of HER2-expressing ovarian cancers and may limit patient access to otherwise clinically meaningful HER2-targeted therapies. PMID:23189165

  4. Differential expression of argininosuccinate synthetase in serous and non-serous ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Dong-Joo; Walts, Ann E; Beach, Jessica A; Lester, Jenny; Bomalaski, John S; Walsh, Christine S; Ruprecht Wiedemeyer, W; Karlan, Beth Y; Orsulic, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The current standard of care for epithelial ovarian cancer does not discriminate between different histologic subtypes (serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous) despite the knowledge that ovarian carcinoma subtypes do not respond uniformly to conventional platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy. Exploiting addictions and vulnerabilities in cancers with distinguishable molecular features presents an opportunity to develop individualized therapies that may be more effective than the current 'one size fits all' approach. One such opportunity is arginine depletion therapy with pegylated arginine deiminase, which has shown promise in several cancer types that exhibit low levels of argininosuccinate synthetase including hepatocellular and prostate carcinoma and melanoma. Based on the high levels of argininosuccinate synthetase previously observed in ovarian cancers, these tumours have been considered unlikely candidates for arginine depletion therapy. However, argininosuccinate synthetase levels have not been evaluated in the individual histologic subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. The current study is the first to examine the expression of argininosuccinate synthetase at the mRNA and protein levels in large cohorts of primary and recurrent ovarian carcinomas and ovarian cancer cell lines. We show that the normal fallopian tube fimbria and the majority of primary high-grade and low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas express high levels of argininosuccinate synthetase, which tend to further increase in recurrent tumours. In contrast to the serous subtype, non-serous ovarian carcinoma subtypes (clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous) frequently lack detectable argininosuccinate synthetase expression. The in vitro sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to arginine depletion with pegylated arginine deiminase was inversely correlated with argininosuccinate synthetase expression. Our data suggest that the majority of serous ovarian carcinomas are not susceptible to therapeutic

  5. Expression of PCV2 antigen in the ovarian tissues of gilts.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Pearodwong, Pachara

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to determine the expression of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antigen in the ovarian tissue of naturally infected gilts. Ovarian tissues were obtained from 11 culled gilts. The ovarian tissues sections were divided into two groups according to PCV2 DNA detection using PCR. PCV2 antigen was assessed in the paraffin embedded ovarian tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. A total of 2,131 ovarian follicles (i.e., 1,437 primordial, 133 primary, 353 secondary and 208 antral follicles), 66 atretic follicles and 131 corpora lutea were evaluated. It was found that PCV2 antigen was detected in 280 ovarian follicles (i.e., 239 primordial follicles, 12 primary follicles, 10 secondary follicles and 19 antral follicles), 1 atretic follicles and 3 corpora lutea (P<0.05). PCV2 antigen was detected in primordial follicles more often than in secondary follicles, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (P<0.05). The detection of PCV2 antigen was found mainly in oocytes. PCV2 antigen was found in both PCV2 DNA positive and negative ovarian tissues. It can be concluded that PCV2 antigen is expressed in all types of the ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. Further studies should be carried out to determine the influence of PCV2 on porcine ovarian function and oocyte quality. PMID:26522687

  6. Expression of PCV2 antigen in the ovarian tissues of gilts

    PubMed Central

    TUMMARUK, Padet; PEARODWONG, Pachara

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the expression of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antigen in the ovarian tissue of naturally infected gilts. Ovarian tissues were obtained from 11 culled gilts. The ovarian tissues sections were divided into two groups according to PCV2 DNA detection using PCR. PCV2 antigen was assessed in the paraffin embedded ovarian tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. A total of 2,131 ovarian follicles (i.e., 1,437 primordial, 133 primary, 353 secondary and 208 antral follicles), 66 atretic follicles and 131 corpora lutea were evaluated. It was found that PCV2 antigen was detected in 280 ovarian follicles (i.e., 239 primordial follicles, 12 primary follicles, 10 secondary follicles and 19 antral follicles), 1 atretic follicles and 3 corpora lutea (P<0.05). PCV2 antigen was detected in primordial follicles more often than in secondary follicles, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (P<0.05). The detection of PCV2 antigen was found mainly in oocytes. PCV2 antigen was found in both PCV2 DNA positive and negative ovarian tissues. It can be concluded that PCV2 antigen is expressed in all types of the ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. Further studies should be carried out to determine the influence of PCV2 on porcine ovarian function and oocyte quality. PMID:26522687

  7. Decreased Expression of Beclin 1 Correlates Closely with Bcl-xL Expression and Poor Prognosis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Hui-Lan; Yang, Guo-Fen; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Cai, Mu-Yan; Xie, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that autophagy-related Beclin 1 plays a critical role in the regulation of tumor development and/or progression, but its prognostic significance and relationship with Bcl-xL expression in ovarian carcinoma are unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, the methods of Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were utilized to investigate the expression status of Beclin 1 and Bcl-xL in fresh ovarian tissues and paraffin-embedded epithelial ovarian tumor tissues. Decreased expression of Beclin 1 was examined by IHC in 8.3% of normal ovaries, in 15.4% of cystadenomas, in 20.0% of borderline tumors, and in 55.6% of ovarian carcinomas, respectively. In ovarian carcinomas, decreased expression of Beclin 1 was correlated closely with ascending histological grade, later pT/pN/pM status and/or advanced clinical stage (P<0.05). In univariate survival analysis, a highly significant association between low-expressed Beclin 1 and shortened patient survival was evaluated in ovarian carcinoma patients (P<0.01), and Beclin 1 expression was an independent prognostic factor as evidenced by multivariate analysis (P = 0.013). In addition, decreased expression of Beclin 1 was inversely correlated with altered expression of Bcl-xL in ovarian carcinoma cohort, and combined analysis further showed that the low Beclin 1/high Bcl-xL group had the lowest survival rate. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Beclin 1 expression, as examined by IHC, could be served as an additional tool in identifying ovarian carcinoma patients at risk of tumor progression, and predicting patient survival in ovarian carcinomas with increased expression of Bcl-xL. PMID:23573264

  8. REG4 Is Highly Expressed in Mucinous Ovarian Cancer: A Potential Novel Serum Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Laura; Vesterkvist, Pia; Roering, Pia; Korpela, Taina; Hattara, Liisa; Kaipio, Katja; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Hynninen, Johanna; Auranen, Annika; Davidson, Ben; Haglund, Caj; Iljin, Kristiina; Grenman, Seija; Siitari, Harri; Carpen, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative diagnostics of ovarian neoplasms rely on ultrasound imaging and the serum biomarkers CA125 and HE4. However, these markers may be elevated in non-neoplastic conditions and may fail to identify most non-serous epithelial cancer subtypes. The objective of this study was to identify histotype-specific serum biomarkers for mucinous ovarian cancer. The candidate genes with mucinous histotype specific expression profile were identified from publicly available gene-expression databases and further in silico data mining was performed utilizing the MediSapiens database. Candidate biomarker validation was done using qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue microarrays. The expression level of the candidate gene in serum was compared to the serum CA125 and HE4 levels in a patient cohort of prospectively collected advanced ovarian cancer. Database searches identified REG4 as a potential biomarker with specificity for the mucinous ovarian cancer subtype. The specific expression within epithelial ovarian tumors was further confirmed by mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed distinctive cytoplasmic expression pattern only in mucinous carcinomas and suggested differential expression between benign and malignant mucinous neoplasms. Finally, an ELISA based serum biomarker assay demonstrated increased expression only in patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. This study identifies REG4 as a potential serum biomarker for histotype-specific detection of mucinous ovarian cancer and suggests serum REG4 measurement as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for postoperative follow-up of patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. PMID:26981633

  9. REG4 Is Highly Expressed in Mucinous Ovarian Cancer: A Potential Novel Serum Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Laura; Vesterkvist, Pia; Roering, Pia; Korpela, Taina; Hattara, Liisa; Kaipio, Katja; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Hynninen, Johanna; Auranen, Annika; Davidson, Ben; Haglund, Caj; Iljin, Kristiina; Grenman, Seija; Siitari, Harri; Carpen, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative diagnostics of ovarian neoplasms rely on ultrasound imaging and the serum biomarkers CA125 and HE4. However, these markers may be elevated in non-neoplastic conditions and may fail to identify most non-serous epithelial cancer subtypes. The objective of this study was to identify histotype-specific serum biomarkers for mucinous ovarian cancer. The candidate genes with mucinous histotype specific expression profile were identified from publicly available gene-expression databases and further in silico data mining was performed utilizing the MediSapiens database. Candidate biomarker validation was done using qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue microarrays. The expression level of the candidate gene in serum was compared to the serum CA125 and HE4 levels in a patient cohort of prospectively collected advanced ovarian cancer. Database searches identified REG4 as a potential biomarker with specificity for the mucinous ovarian cancer subtype. The specific expression within epithelial ovarian tumors was further confirmed by mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed distinctive cytoplasmic expression pattern only in mucinous carcinomas and suggested differential expression between benign and malignant mucinous neoplasms. Finally, an ELISA based serum biomarker assay demonstrated increased expression only in patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. This study identifies REG4 as a potential serum biomarker for histotype-specific detection of mucinous ovarian cancer and suggests serum REG4 measurement as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for postoperative follow-up of patients with mucinous ovarian cancer.

  10. REG4 Is Highly Expressed in Mucinous Ovarian Cancer: A Potential Novel Serum Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Laura; Vesterkvist, Pia; Roering, Pia; Korpela, Taina; Hattara, Liisa; Kaipio, Katja; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Hynninen, Johanna; Auranen, Annika; Davidson, Ben; Haglund, Caj; Iljin, Kristiina; Grenman, Seija; Siitari, Harri; Carpen, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative diagnostics of ovarian neoplasms rely on ultrasound imaging and the serum biomarkers CA125 and HE4. However, these markers may be elevated in non-neoplastic conditions and may fail to identify most non-serous epithelial cancer subtypes. The objective of this study was to identify histotype-specific serum biomarkers for mucinous ovarian cancer. The candidate genes with mucinous histotype specific expression profile were identified from publicly available gene-expression databases and further in silico data mining was performed utilizing the MediSapiens database. Candidate biomarker validation was done using qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue microarrays. The expression level of the candidate gene in serum was compared to the serum CA125 and HE4 levels in a patient cohort of prospectively collected advanced ovarian cancer. Database searches identified REG4 as a potential biomarker with specificity for the mucinous ovarian cancer subtype. The specific expression within epithelial ovarian tumors was further confirmed by mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed distinctive cytoplasmic expression pattern only in mucinous carcinomas and suggested differential expression between benign and malignant mucinous neoplasms. Finally, an ELISA based serum biomarker assay demonstrated increased expression only in patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. This study identifies REG4 as a potential serum biomarker for histotype-specific detection of mucinous ovarian cancer and suggests serum REG4 measurement as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for postoperative follow-up of patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. PMID:26981633

  11. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) Expression in Ovarian Carcinomas and Its Clinicopathological Associations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruixia; Ma, Yuanyuan; Holm, Ruth; Trope, Claes G.; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2013-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is known as a carrier protein. It is classically thought to be mainly synthesized in the liver and then secreted into the circulating system, where it binds to sex steroids with a high affinity and modulates the bio-availability of the hormones. Other organs known to produce SHBG include brain, uterus, testis, prostate, breast and ovary, and the local expressed SHBG may play an important role in tumor development. However, SHBG expression status and its clinicopathological significance in ovarian cancer cells are not reported yet. In our present study, we examined and found the variable SHBG expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines (OV-90, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. We then extended our study to 248 ovarian carcinoma samples, which were collected at The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital with complete clinical information, and discovered that SHBG was variably expressed in these ovarian carcinomas. Higher level of SHBG expression was significantly associated with more aggressive histological subtype (p = 0.022), higher FIGO stage (p = 0.018) and higher histological grade (grade of differentiation, p = 0.020), although association between SHBG expression and OS/PFS was not observed. Our results demonstrate that ovarian cancer cells produce SHBG and higher SHBG expression in ovarian carcinoma is associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features. PMID:24386165

  12. NPPB is a Novel Candidate Biomarker Expressed by Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Kate; Grun, Barbara; Lee, Nathan; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Kan, Jenny; Swenson, Steve; Lin, Yvonne G.; Pejovic, Tanja; Millstein, Joshua; Gayther, Simon A

    2014-01-01

    Most solid tumours contain cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that support tumourigenesis and malignant progression. However the cellular origins of CAFs in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) remain poorly understood, and their utility as a source of clinical biomarkers for cancer diagnosis has not been explored in great depth. Here, we report establishing in vitro and in vivo models of CAFs in ovarian cancer development. Normal ovarian fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the presence of EOC cells acquired a CAF-like phenotype, and promoted EOC cell migration in vitro. CAFs also promoted ovarian cancer growth in vivo in both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal murine xenograft assays. Molecular profiling of CAFs identified gene expression signatures that were highly enriched for extracellular and secreted proteins. We identified novel candidate CAF specific biomarkers for ovarian cancer including NPPB, which was expressed in the stroma of 60% primary ovarian cancer tissues (n=145) but not in the stroma of normal ovaries (n=4). NPPB is a secreted protein that was also elevated in the blood of 50% of women with ovarian cancer (n=8). Taken together these data suggest that the tumor stroma is a novel source of biomarkers, including NPPB, that may be of clinical utility for detection of EOC. PMID:25047817

  13. Maximal expression of Foxl2 in pituitary gonadotropes requires ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Maria K; Nilson, John H

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and activin regulate synthesis of FSH and ultimately fertility. Recent in vivo studies cast SMAD4 and FOXL2 as master transcriptional mediators of activin signaling that act together and independently of GnRH to regulate Fshb gene expression and female fertility. Ovarian hormones regulate GnRH and its receptor (GNRHR) through negative and positive feedback loops. In contrast, the role of ovarian hormones in regulating activin, activin receptors, and components of the activin signaling pathway, including SMAD4 and FOXL2, remains understudied. The widespread distribution of activin and many of its signaling intermediates complicates analysis of the effects of ovarian hormones on their synthesis in gonadotropes, one of five pituitary cell types. We circumvented this complication by using a transgenic model that allows isolation of polyribosomes selectively from gonadotropes of intact females and ovariectomized females treated with or without a GnRH antagonist. This paradigm allows assessment of ovarian hormonal feedback and distinguishes responses that are either independent or dependent on GnRH. Surprisingly, our results indicate that Foxl2 levels in gonadotropes decline significantly in the absence of ovarian input and independently of GnRH. Expression of the genes encoding other members of the activin signaling pathway are unaffected by loss of ovarian hormonal feedback, highlighting their selective effect on Foxl2. Expression of Gnrhr, a known target of FOXL2, also declines upon ovariectomy consistent with reduced expression of Foxl2 and loss of ovarian hormones. In contrast, Fshb mRNA increases dramatically post-ovariectomy due to increased compensatory input from GnRH. Together these data suggest that ovarian hormones regulate expression of Foxl2 thereby expanding the number of genes controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that ultimately dictate reproductive fitness.

  14. Mixed lineage kinase 3 is required for matrix metalloproteinase expression and invasion in ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Yu; Abi Saab, Widian F.; Modi, Nidhi; Stewart, Amanda M.; Liu, Jinsong; Chadee, Deborah N.

    2012-08-15

    Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) that activates MAPK signaling pathways and regulates cellular responses such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Here we report high levels of total and phospho-MLK3 in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to immortalized nontumorigenic ovarian epithelial cell lines. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing, we determined that MLK3 is required for the invasion of SKOV3 and HEY1B ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, mlk3 silencing substantially reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -9 and -12 gene expression and MMP-2 and -9 activities in SKOV3 and HEY1B ovarian cancer cells. MMP-1, -2, -9 and-12 expression, and MLK3-induced activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 requires both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activities. In addition, inhibition of activator protein-1 (AP-1) reduced MMP-1, MMP-9 and MMP-12 gene expression. Collectively, these findings establish MLK3 as an important regulator of MMP expression and invasion in ovarian cancer cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ovarian cancer cell lines have high levels of total and phosphorylated MLK3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MLK3 is required for MMP expression and activity in ovarian cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MLK3 is required for invasion of SKOV3 and HEY1B ovarian cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MLK3-dependent regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities requires ERK and JNK.

  15. Oestrus expression and ovarian function in repeat breeder cows, monitored by ultrasonography and progesterone assay.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, C C; España, F

    2007-10-01

    Ovarian ultrasonography and plasma progesterone levels were monitored in 37 lactating Holstein cows with a history of repeat breeding; the data obtained were analysed in conjunction with clinical and behavioural signs, to identify the aetiology of the syndrome. Differences were detected between RBCs displaying apparently normal cycles and others with irregular cycles. There were also differences in heat expression; a large number of repeat breeder cows (RBCs, 50%) displayed delayed or silent oestrus. Ovarian disorders were common in RBCs, and included ovarian cysts, mistimed AI, subluteal progesterone levels, luteal dysfunction or ovulation defects. Both ultrasonography and plasma progesterone assays are useful tools for ascertaining the aetiology of the repeat breeder syndrome. PMID:17845598

  16. Oestrus expression and ovarian function in repeat breeder cows, monitored by ultrasonography and progesterone assay.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, C C; España, F

    2007-10-01

    Ovarian ultrasonography and plasma progesterone levels were monitored in 37 lactating Holstein cows with a history of repeat breeding; the data obtained were analysed in conjunction with clinical and behavioural signs, to identify the aetiology of the syndrome. Differences were detected between RBCs displaying apparently normal cycles and others with irregular cycles. There were also differences in heat expression; a large number of repeat breeder cows (RBCs, 50%) displayed delayed or silent oestrus. Ovarian disorders were common in RBCs, and included ovarian cysts, mistimed AI, subluteal progesterone levels, luteal dysfunction or ovulation defects. Both ultrasonography and plasma progesterone assays are useful tools for ascertaining the aetiology of the repeat breeder syndrome.

  17. Promoter methylation and downregulated expression of the TBX15 gene in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gozzi, Gaia; Chelbi, Sonia T.; Manni, Paola; Alberti, Loredana; Fonda, Sergio; Saponaro, Sara; Fabbiani, Luca; Rivasi, Francesco; Benhattar, Jean; Losi, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    TBX15 is a gene involved in the development of mesodermal derivatives. As the ovaries and the female reproductive system are of mesodermal origin, the aim of the present study was to determine the methylation status of the TBX15 gene promoter and the expression levels of TBX15 in ovarian carcinoma, which is the most lethal and aggressive type of gynecological tumor, in order to determine the role of TBX15 in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma. This alteration could be used to predict tumor development, progression, recurrence and therapeutic effects. The study was conducted on 80 epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 17 control cases (normal ovarian and tubal tissues). TBX15 promoter methylation was first determined by pyrosequencing following bisulfite modification, then by cloning and sequencing, in order to obtain information about the epigenetic haplotype. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between the methylation and protein expression levels. Data revealed a statistically significant increase of the TBX15 promoter region methylation in 82% of the tumor samples and in various histological subtypes. Immunohistochemistry showed an inverse correlation between methylation levels and the expression of the TBX15 protein. Furthermore, numerous tumor samples displayed varying degrees of intratumor heterogeneity. Thus, the present study determined that ovarian carcinoma typically expresses low levels of TBX15 protein, predominantly due to an epigenetic mechanism. This may have a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma independent of the histological subtype.

  18. Effect of Human Ovarian Tissue Vitrification/Warming on the Expression of Genes Related to Folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shams Mofarahe, Zahra; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Jafarabadi, Mina; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Noroozian, Mohsen; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is an alternative strategy to preserve the fertility of women predicted to undergo premature ovarian failure. This study was designed to evaluate the expression of folliculogenesis-related genes, including factor in the germline alpha (FIGLA), growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and KIT LIGAND after vitrification/warming of human ovarian tissue. Methods: Human ovarian tissue samples were collected from five transsexual women. In the laboratory, the ovarian medullary part was removed by a surgical blade, and the cortical tissue was cut into small pieces. Some pieces were vitrified and warmed and the others were considered as non-vitrified group (control). Follicular normality was assessed with morphological observation by a light microscope, and the expression of FIGLA, KIT LIGAND, GDF-9,, and FSHR genes was examined using real-time RT-PCR in both the vitrified and non-vitrified groups. Results: Overall, 85% of the follicles preserved their normal morphologic feature after warming. The percentage of normal follicles and the expression of FIGLA, KIT LIGAND, GDF-9, and FSHR genes were similar in both vitrified and non-vitrified groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Vitrification/warming of human ovarian tissue had no remarkable effect on the expression of folliculogenesis-related genes. PMID:26175108

  19. Promoter methylation and downregulated expression of the TBX15 gene in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gozzi, Gaia; Chelbi, Sonia T.; Manni, Paola; Alberti, Loredana; Fonda, Sergio; Saponaro, Sara; Fabbiani, Luca; Rivasi, Francesco; Benhattar, Jean; Losi, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    TBX15 is a gene involved in the development of mesodermal derivatives. As the ovaries and the female reproductive system are of mesodermal origin, the aim of the present study was to determine the methylation status of the TBX15 gene promoter and the expression levels of TBX15 in ovarian carcinoma, which is the most lethal and aggressive type of gynecological tumor, in order to determine the role of TBX15 in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma. This alteration could be used to predict tumor development, progression, recurrence and therapeutic effects. The study was conducted on 80 epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 17 control cases (normal ovarian and tubal tissues). TBX15 promoter methylation was first determined by pyrosequencing following bisulfite modification, then by cloning and sequencing, in order to obtain information about the epigenetic haplotype. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between the methylation and protein expression levels. Data revealed a statistically significant increase of the TBX15 promoter region methylation in 82% of the tumor samples and in various histological subtypes. Immunohistochemistry showed an inverse correlation between methylation levels and the expression of the TBX15 protein. Furthermore, numerous tumor samples displayed varying degrees of intratumor heterogeneity. Thus, the present study determined that ovarian carcinoma typically expresses low levels of TBX15 protein, predominantly due to an epigenetic mechanism. This may have a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma independent of the histological subtype. PMID:27698863

  20. Ribosomal S6 kinase 4 (RSK4) expression in ovarian tumors and its regulation by antineoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian; Zeferino-Toquero, Moises; Estrada-Moscoso, Isaias; Imani-Razavi, Fazlollah Shahram; Olivares, Aleida; Perez-Juarez, Carlos Eduardo; Diaz-Cueto, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Survival rate in ovarian cancer depends on the stage of the disease. RSK4, which has been considered as a tumor suppressor factor, controls cells invasion due to its antiinvasive and antimetastatic properties. Modulation of RSK4 expression could be an important event to increase the survival rate in ovarian cancer patients. Thus, the goal of the present study was to establish the differences in RSK4 expression among normal, benign and malignant ovarian tissues and to determine whether antineoplastic drugs regulate its expression in SKOV3 and TOV-112D cells. RSK4 levels in 30 malignant ovarian tumors, 64 benign tumors and 36 normal ovary tissues were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Modulation of RSK4 expression by two antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin and vorinostat) was also studied in the SKOV3 and TOV-112D ovarian cancer cell lines using the same techniques. RSK4 mRNA and protein levels were decreased in malignant ovarian tumors as compared to benign tumors and normal tissue. These low-RSK4 levels were significantly associated with advanced stages of ovarian cancer. RSK4 expression was increased after incubation of SKOV3 and TOV-112D cell lines with cisplatin and vorinostat for 24 h. The combination of these antineoplastic drugs did not produce a synergistic or additive effect. These results suggest that RSK4 is expressed at low levels in malignant ovarian tumors, which correlates with advanced stages of the disease. Additionally, RSK4 expression is regulated by cisplatin and vorinostat in two ovarian cancer cell lines.

  1. Cytokines, Chemokines, and Chemokine Receptors Quantitative Expressions in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeifard, Somayeh; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Robati, Minoo; Momtahan, Mozhdeh; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors regulate the proliferation and survival of tumor cells, angiogenesis, and metastasis to other organs. This network of ligands and receptors has been used in molecular targeting of cancer. Methods We compared the mRNA expression of CXCR3, CXCL-10, CXCR4, CXCL-12, IL-4, and IL-10 in tissues of benign and malignant ovarian tumors by qRT-PCR method and evaluated serum IL-10 and CA-125 content of these patients by ELISA during one year. Results Our result showed a trend toward a higher expression of CXCR4 in malignant ovarian tissues compared with the benign ovarian cysts (P>0.05). However, SDF-1, IP-10, IL-4, CXCR3, and IL-10 had a lower trend in mRNA expression in malignant ovarian tissues compared to the benign cyst tissues. Except for IL-4 (P=0.01) and SDF-1 (P=0.02), the data for other factors were not statistically significant. A trend toward higher concentration of IL-10 was observed in the serum of ovarian cancer patients compared to those with benign cysts; however, the difference was not significant. CA-125 concentration in the serum of ovarian cancer patients was higher than that of benign cyst patients (P=0.05). Conclusion According to results obtained, we hypothesize that the lower expression of SDF-1 in malignant tissues may have an important role in ovarian tumor growth. However, this hypothesis requires more investigation. Higher levels of CA125 and IL-10 in the serum of patients might indicate that the combination of these biomarkers could be used for distinguishing patients with ovarian cancer from those with benign cysts.   PMID:25999622

  2. MiR181c inhibits ovarian cancer metastasis and progression by targeting PRKCD expression

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lijuan; Wang, Li; Li, Fengxia; Gao, Xihai; Wei, Xuegong; Liu, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many important cancer related gene expression in the posttranscriptional process. Dysregulated expression of miRNAs has been observed in numerous human cancers including ovarian cancer. In this study, we found that the expression of the miR-181c was significantly decreased in ovarian cancer tissue and in tissues with lymph node metastasis when compared with their control samples, respectively. Moreover, among pathological stages, the expression of miR-181c was significantly decreased in the tissues with IV stage compared with other stages. In vitro, miR-181c significantly inhibited the proliferation, metastasis of A2780 cell line, and induced G1 phase arrest. Through bioinformatics prediction, protein kinase C delta (PRKCD) was identified as a target gene of miR-181c. Western blot results showed that PRKCD was increased in ovarian cancer tissue, in tissues with lymph node metastasis and IV stage of ovarian cancer pathological samples. After knocking down PRKCD, the cell cycle of A2780 cells was also arrested in G1 phase. The proliferation and the metastasis of A2780 cells were reduced. The dual luciferase reporter experiments showed that miR-181c regulated the expression of PRKCD by combining with its 3’UTR. These results indicate that miR-181c inhibits ovarian cancer metastasis and progression by targeting PRKCD expression. PMID:26629004

  3. Human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit affects the expression of apoptosis-regulating factors in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Szczerba, Anna; Śliwa, Aleksandra; Kubiczak, Marta; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Jankowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin, especially its free β subunit (hCGβ) were shown to play an important role in cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. It is postulated that hCGβ is one of the factors determining cancer cell survival. To test this hypothesis, we applied two models: an in vitro model of ovarian cancer using OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cell lines transfected with the CGB5 gene and an in vivo model of ovarian cancer tissues. The material was tested against changes in expression level of genes encoding factors involved in apoptosis: BCL2, BAX and BIRC5. Overexpression of hCGβ was found to cause a decrease in expression of the analyzed genes in the transfected cells compared with the control cells. In ovarian cancer tissues, high expression of CGB was related to significantly lower BCL2 but higher BAX and BIRC5 transcript levels. Moreover, a low BCL2/BAX ratio, characteristic of advanced stages of ovarian cancer, was revealed. Since tumors were discriminated by a significantly lower LHCGR level than the level noted in healthy fallopian tubes and ovaries, it may be stated that the effect of hCGβ on changes in the expression of apoptosis-regulating agents observed in ovarian cancer is LHCGR-independent. The results of the study suggest that the biological effects evoked by hCGβ are related to apoptosis suppression.

  4. Gene expression signatures differentiate ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ben; Stavnes, Helene Tuft; Holth, Arild; Chen, Xu; Yang, Yanqin; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2011-03-01

    Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities.With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies,as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina.Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3,PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery.

  5. The prognostic significance of specific HOX gene expression patterns in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Zoe; Moller-Levet, Carla; McGrath, Sophie; Butler-Manuel, Simon; Kavitha Madhuri, Thumuluru; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Pandha, Hardev; Morgan, Richard; Michael, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    HOX genes are vital for all aspects of mammalian growth and differentiation, and their dysregulated expression is related to ovarian carcinogenesis. The aim of the current study was to establish the prognostic value of HOX dysregulation as well as its role in platinum resistance. The potential to target HOX proteins through the HOX/PBX interaction was also explored in the context of platinum resistance. HOX gene expression was determined in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary EOCs by QPCR, and compared to expression in normal ovarian epithelium and fallopian tube tissue samples. Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA and t-tests, using statistical software R and GraphPad. The analysis identified 36 of the 39 HOX genes as being overexpressed in high grade serous EOC compared to normal tissue. We detected a molecular HOX gene-signature that predicted poor outcome. Overexpression of HOXB4 and HOXB9 was identified in high grade serous cell lines after platinum resistance developed. Targeting the HOX/PBX dimer with the HXR9 peptide enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. In conclusion, this study has shown the HOX genes are highly dysregulated in ovarian cancer with high expression of HOXA13, B6, C13, D1 and D13 being predictive of poor clinical outcome. Targeting the HOX/PBX dimer in platinum-resistant cancer represents a potentially new therapeutic option that should be further developed and tested in clinical trials. PMID:27225067

  6. Inhibition of HDAC1 and DNMT1 Modulate RGS10 Expression and Decrease Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Cacan, Ercan; Ali, Mourad W.; Boyd, Nathaniel H.; Hooks, Shelley B.; Greer, Susanna F.

    2014-01-01

    RGS10 is an important regulator of cell survival and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. We recently showed that RGS10 transcript expression is suppressed during acquired chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. The suppression of RGS10 is due to DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, two important mechanisms that contribute to silencing of tumor suppressor genes during cancer progression. Here, we fully investigate the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic silencing of RGS10 expression in chemoresistant A2780-AD ovarian cancer cells. We identify two important epigenetic regulators, HDAC1 and DNMT1, that exhibit aberrant association with RGS10 promoters in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of HDAC1 or DNMT1 expression, and pharmacological inhibition of DNMT or HDAC enzymatic activity, significantly increases RGS10 expression and cisplatin-mediated cell death. Finally, DNMT1 knock down also decreases HDAC1 binding to the RGS10 promoter in chemoresistant cells, suggesting HDAC1 recruitment to RGS10 promoters requires DNMT1 activity. Our results suggest that HDAC1 and DNMT1 contribute to the suppression of RGS10 during acquired chemoresistance and support inhibition of HDAC1 and DNMT1 as an adjuvant therapeutic approach to overcome ovarian cancer chemoresistance. PMID:24475290

  7. Paclitaxel sensitivity in relation to ABCB1 expression, efflux and single nucleotide polymorphisms in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiao Qing; Healey, Sue; Henderson, Michelle; Wong, Mark; Emmanuel, Catherine; Galletta, Laura; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Bowtell, David; Bowtell, David; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Gertig, Dorota; Green, Adle; Webb, Penelope; Hung, Jillian; Moore, Sue; Traficante, Nadia; Fereday, Sian; Harrap, Karen; Sadkowsky, Troy; Pandeya, Nirmala; Stuart-Harris, Robin; Kirsten, Fred; Rutovitz, Josie; Clingan, Peter; Glasgow, Amanda; Proietto, Anthony; Braye, Stephen; Otton, Greg; Shannon, Jennifer; Bonaventura, Tony; Stewart, James; Begbie, Stephen; Friedlander, Michael; Bell, David; Baron-Hay, Sally; Ferrier, Alan; Gard, Greg; Nevell, David; Pavlakis, Nick; Valmadre, Sue; Young, Barbara; Camaris, Catherine; Crouch, Roger; Edwards, Lyndal; Hacker, Neville; Marsden, Donald; Robertson, Greg; Beale, Phillip; Beith, Jane; Carter, Jonothan; Dalrymple, Chris; Hamilton, Anne; Houghton, Roger; Russell, Peter; Links, Matthew; Grygiel, John; Hill, Jane; Brand, Alison; Byth, Karen; Jaworski, Richard; Harnett, Paul; Sharma, Raghwa; Achen, Anita; Wain, Gerard; Ward, Bruce; Papadimos, David; Crandon, Alex; Cummings, Margaret; Horwood, Ken; Obermair, Andreas; Perrin, Lew; Wyld, David; Nicklin, Jim; Davy, Margaret; Oehler, Martin K; Hall, Chris; Dodd, Tom; Healy, Tabitha; Pittman, Ken; Henderson, Doug; Miller, John; Pierdes, John; Blomfield, Penny; Challis, David; McIntosh, Robert; Parker, Andrew; Brown, Bob; Rome, Robert; Allen, David; Grant, Peter; Hyde, Simon; Laurie, Rohan; Robbie, Melissa; Healy, David; Jobling, Tom; Manolitsas, Tom; McNealage, Jane; Rogers, Peter; Susil, Beatrice; Sumithran, Eric; Simpson, Ian; Phillips, Kelly; Rischin, Danny; Fox, Stephen; Johnson, Daryl; Waring, Paul; Lade, Stephen; Loughrey, Maurice; O’Callaghan, Neil; Murray, William; Billson, Virginia; Pyman, Jan; Neesham, Debra; Quinn, Michael; Underhill, Craig; Bell, Richard; Ng, Leong-Fook; Blum, Robert; Ganju, Vinod; Hammond, Ian; Leung, Yee; McCartney, Anthony; Buck, Martin; Haviv, Izak; Purdie, David; Whiteman, David; Zeps, Nikolajs; Malt, Mary-Rose; Mellon, Anne; Robertson, Randall; Bergh, Trish Vanden; Jones, Marian; Mackenzie, Patricia; Maidens, Jane; Nattress, Kath; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Stenlake, Annie; Sullivan, Helen; Alexander, Barbara; Ashover, Pat; Brown, Sue; Corrish, Tracy; Green, Lyn; Jackman, Leah; Ferguson, Kaltin; Martin, Karen; Martyn, Adam; Ranieri, Barbara; White, Jo; Jayde, Victoria; Bowes, Leanne; Mamers, Pamela; Galletta, Laura; Giles, Debra; Hendley, Joy; Alsop, Katherine; Schmidt, Trudy; Shirley, Helen; Ball, Colleen; Young, Cherry; Viduka, Suzanna; Tran, Hoa; Bilic, Sanela; Glavinas, Lydia; Brooks, Julia; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray; Harnett, Paul; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Balleine, Rosemary L.; deFazio, Anna

    2014-01-01

    ABCB1 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B1) mediates cellular elimination of many chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel, which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. A significant association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1 and progression-free survival has been reported in patients with ovarian cancer. Variable paclitaxel clearance due to genotype specific differences in ABCB1 activity in cancer cells and/or normal tissues may underlie the association. Using cell-based models, we evaluated the correlations between ABCB1 expression, polymorphisms, transporter activity and paclitaxel sensitivity in ovarian cancer (n = 10) and lymphoblastoid (n = 19) cell lines. Close associations between ABCB1 expression, transporter function and paclitaxel sensitivity were found in lymphoblastoid cell lines, although we could not demonstrate an association with common SNPs. In ovarian cancer cell lines, ABCB1 expression was low and the association between expression and function was lost. These results suggest that ABCB1 related survival difference in ovarian cancer patients is more likely to be due to differential whole body paclitaxel clearance mediated by normal cells rather than a direct effect on cancer cells. PMID:24810093

  8. Abdominal-B expression in a spider suggests a general role for Abdominal-B in specifying the genital structure.

    PubMed

    Damen, W G; Tautz, D

    1999-04-15

    We have cloned an Abdominal-B (Abd-B) orthologue from the spider Cupiennius salei and have analysed its expression pattern during embryogenesis. An early expression domain is seen in the posterior part of the embryo, with an initial border in the third opisthosomal segment and later in the fifth opisthosomal segment. During mid-stage of germ band extension, two additional spots of expression appear in the posterior parts of the limb buds on the second opisthosomal segment. These coincide with the position of the future genital opening and Cs-Abd-B remains expressed in these regions until the openings are formed. In view of the fact that Abd-B and its orthologous genes are also required for specifying the genitalia in Drosophila and vertebrates, we suggest that this function may constitute an independent and ancestral role of Abd-B that can be separated from its role in specifying the posterior part of the body region. PMID:10327654

  9. [The expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) in primary ovarian epithelial tumor tissues].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian Wei; Gan, Ning Yue; Zhang, Wei Jiang

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the expression of mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and phosphorylation extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK(1/2)) in primary ovarian epithelial tumor tissues, and provide experiment's foundation on the new treatment in ovarian cancer. Expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) in tissues from 64 patients with primary ovarian epithelial tumor, 35 patients with ovarian epithelial bordline tumor, 32 patients with ovarian epithelial benign tumor and 26 normal ovarian tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Western-blot was also used for detecting the expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) protein in these tissues. Immunohistochemistry and Western-blot assay showed that the expression of MKP-1 was gradually decreased in normal ovarian tissues, benign tumor, bordline tumor and carcinoma respectively, and there were significant differences among them (P < 0.01). The MKP-1 expression level in the carcinoma tissues of stage III/IV patients was significantly lower than that of stage I/II patients. However, the expression of p-ERK(1/2) was gradually increased in normal ovarian tissues, benign tumor, bordline tumor and carcinoma respectively, and there were also significant differences among them (P < 0.01), the p-ERK(1/2) expression level in the carcinoma tissues of stage III/IV patients was significantly higher than that of stage I/II patients. Expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) in same ovarian carcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry and Western-blot assay showed significant negative correlation (r = -0.90, P < 0.01 and r = -0.78, P < 0.01 respectively). The expression changes of MKP-1 and ERKs may play a role in the development of ovarian carcinoma. The abnormal expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) probably assists in promoting the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma.

  10. Uncertainty in the Utility of Immunohistochemistry in Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Copppola, Domenico; Nicosia, Santo V.; Doty, Andrea; Sellers, Thomas A; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, Jimmy; Thompson, Zachary; Galeb, Sanja; McLaughlin, John; Narod, Steven A; Schildkraut, Joellen; Pal, Tuya

    2014-01-01

    Background Utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression has been demonstrated in colorectal cancer but remains incompletely defined in ovarian cancer. We evaluated MMR protein expression in three population-based samples of epithelial ovarian cancers. Methods IHC staining was performed on full section (FS) or tissue microarray (TMA) slides for MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 expression. Results Of 487 cases, 147 and 340 were performed through FS and TMA, respectively. Overall, Loss of Expression (LoE) of at least one MMR protein was observed in 12.7% based on an expression score of ≤3 (on a scale of 9). Notably, LoE was significantly higher in TMAs (17.9%) compared to FS cases (0.7%) (p <0.001). Conclusions A substantial proportion of epithelial ovarian cancers have a loss of MMR protein expression. Protein expression results vary significantly by the tissue sampling methodology utilized, raising concerns about the clinical utility of this test for ovarian tumors. PMID:23155266

  11. Decreased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 predicts an unfavorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaqing; Huang, Ruixia; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaoran; Yu, Dandan; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jianguo; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 (PDHA1) serves as a gate-keeper enzyme link between glycolysis and the mitochondrial citric acid cycle. The inhibition of PDHA1 in cancer cells can result in an increased Warburg effect and a more aggressive phenotype in cancer cells. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of PDHA1 in ovarian cancer and the correlation between PDHA1 expression and the prognosis of patients. The PDHA1 protein expression in 3 ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) and 248 surgically removed ovarian carcinoma samples was immunocytochemically examined. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlations between PDHA1 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients as well as the predictive value of PDHA1. The results showed the presence of variable expression of PDHA1 in the three ovarian cancer cell lines. Of the 248 ovarian cancer tissue specimens, 45 cases (18.1%) were negative in tumor cells for PDHA1, 162 cases (65.3%) displayed a low expression level, and 41 cases (16.5%) had a relatively high PDHA1 staining. The expression of PDHA1 was associated with the histological subtype (P=0.004) and FIGO stage (P=0.002). The median OS time in the PDHA1 negative group, low expression group and high expression group were 0.939 years, 1.443 years and 9.900 years, respectively. The median PFS time in the above three groups were 0.287 years, 0.586 years and 9.900 years, respectively. Furthermore, the high expression of PDHA1 in ovarian carcinoma cells was significantly associated with better OS and PFS by statistical analyses. Multivariate analyses showed that PDHA1 expression was also an independent prognostic factor for higher OS in ovarian cancer patients (HR=0.705, 95% CI 0.541-0.918, P=0.01). Our study indicated that the decreased expression of PDHA1 might be an independent prognostic factor in unfavorable outcomes. PMID:27725912

  12. Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 over-expression in primary and metastatic ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    McFadyen, M C E; Cruickshank, M E; Miller, I D; McLeod, H L; Melvin, W T; Haites, N E; Parkin, D; Murray, G I

    2001-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological malignancies world wide. Little improvement has been made in the long-term outcome of this disease, with the 5-year survival of patients only 30%. This poor prognosis is due to the late presentation of the disease and to the unpredictable response of ovarian cancer to chemotherapy. The cytochrome P450 enzymes are a superfamily of haemoproteins, known to be involved in the metabolic activation and/or detoxification of a number of anti-cancer drugs. CYP1B1 is a tumour-related form of cytochrome P450 which is over expressed in a wide variety of primary tumours of different histological type. The presence of CYP1B1 may be of importance in the modulation of these tumours to anti-cancer drugs. We have conducted a comprehensive immunohistochemical investigation, into the presence of cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 in primary and metastatic ovarian cancer. The key findings of this study are the increased expression of CYP1B1 in the majority of ovarian cancers investigated (92%), with a strong correlation demonstrated between CYP1B1 expression in both primary and metastatic ovarian cancer (P= 0.005 Spearman's rank correlation test). In contrast no detectable CYP1B1 was found in normal ovary. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11461084

  13. BCAT1 expression associates with ovarian cancer progression: possible implications in altered disease metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Faddaoui, Adnen; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Guillemette, Chantal; Gobeil, Stéphane; Macdonald, Elizabeth; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2015-10-13

    Previously, we have identified the branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) gene as notably hypomethylated in low-malignant potential (LMP) and high-grade (HG) serous epithelial ovarian tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. Here we show that BCAT1 is strongly overexpressed in both LMP and HG serous epithelial ovarian tumors, which probably correlates with its hypomethylated status. Knockdown of the BCAT1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells led to sharp decrease of cell proliferation, migration and invasion and inhibited cell cycle progression. BCAT1 silencing was associated with the suppression of numerous genes and pathways known previously to be implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis, and the induction of some tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). Moreover, BCAT1 suppression resulted in downregulation of numerous genes implicated in lipid production and protein synthesis, suggesting its important role in controlling EOC metabolism. Further metabolomic analyses were indicative for significant depletion of most amino acids and different phospho- and sphingolipids following BCAT1 knockdown. Finally, BCAT1 suppression led to significantly prolonged survival time in xenograft model of advanced peritoneal EOC. Taken together, our findings provide new insights about the functional role of BCAT1 in ovarian carcinogenesis and identify this transaminase as a novel EOC biomarker and putative EOC therapeutic target.

  14. BCAT1 expression associates with ovarian cancer progression: possible implications in altered disease metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Faddaoui, Adnen; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Guillemette, Chantal; Gobeil, Stéphane; Macdonald, Elizabeth; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have identified the branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) gene as notably hypomethylated in low-malignant potential (LMP) and high-grade (HG) serous epithelial ovarian tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. Here we show that BCAT1 is strongly overexpressed in both LMP and HG serous epithelial ovarian tumors, which probably correlates with its hypomethylated status. Knockdown of the BCAT1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells led to sharp decrease of cell proliferation, migration and invasion and inhibited cell cycle progression. BCAT1 silencing was associated with the suppression of numerous genes and pathways known previously to be implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis, and the induction of some tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). Moreover, BCAT1 suppression resulted in downregulation of numerous genes implicated in lipid production and protein synthesis, suggesting its important role in controlling EOC metabolism. Further metabolomic analyses were indicative for significant depletion of most amino acids and different phospho- and sphingolipids following BCAT1 knockdown. Finally, BCAT1 suppression led to significantly prolonged survival time in xenograft model of advanced peritoneal EOC. Taken together, our findings provide new insights about the functional role of BCAT1 in ovarian carcinogenesis and identify this transaminase as a novel EOC biomarker and putative EOC therapeutic target. PMID:26372729

  15. Analysis of CC chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in solid ovarian tumours

    PubMed Central

    Scotton, C; Milliken, D; Wilson, J; Raju, S; Balkwill, F

    2001-01-01

    To understand the chemokine network in a tissue, both chemokine and chemokine receptor expression should be studied. Human epithelial ovarian tumours express a range of chemokines but little is known about the expression and localisation of chemokine receptors. With the aim of understanding chemokine action in this cancer, we investigated receptors for CC–chemokines and their ligands in 25 biopsies of human ovarian cancer. CC–chemokine receptor mRNA was generally absent from solid tumours, the exception being CCR1 which was detected in samples from 75% of patients. CCR1 mRNA localised to macrophages and lymphocytes and there was a correlation between numbers of CD8+ and CCR1 expressing cells (P = 0.031). mRNA for 6 CC-chemokines was expressed in a majority of tumour samples. In a monocytic cell line in vitro, we found that CCR1 mRNA expression was increased 5-fold by hypoxia. We suggest that the CC-chemokine network in ovarian cancer is controlled at the level of CC-chemokine receptors and this may account for the phenotypes of infiltrating cells found in these tumours. The leukocyte infiltrate may contribute to tumour growth and spread by providing growth survival factors and matrix metalloproteases. Thus, CCR1 may be a novel therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. http://www.bjcancer.com © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11556842

  16. The immunohistochemical expression of CD24 and CD171 adhesion molecules in borderline ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Moulla, Alexandra; Miliaras, Dimosthenis; Sioga, Antonia; Kaidoglou, Aikaterini; Economou, Louisa

    2013-10-01

    CD24 and CD171 are cell adhesion proteins, which have been shown to be overexpressed in several carcinomas and to be associated with a poor clinical outcome. Our aim was to determine the expression of these two adhesion molecules in ovarian borderline neoplasms. We investigated 50 ovarian borderline tumors (serous, mucinous and endometrioid) as well as 29 benign cystadenomas and 25 carcinomas, which were used as controls. Paraffin sections were stained immunohistochemically for CD24 and CD171, and their expression was recorded in a semi-quantitative manner. In normal epithelium and benign ovarian cystadenomas both the CD24 and CD171 expression was negative to low, while their expression was significantly increased in borderline and malignant ovarian tumors. High-grade carcinomas, and carcinomas with metastases to the omentum presented considerably higher CD24 expression than low-grade carcinomas, and carcinomas without metastases. In addition, a few borderline and many malignant tumors presented cytoplasmic CD24 immunoreactivity, whereas all benign and most borderline tumors showed apical localization of this molecule. In conclusion, borderline tumors and carcinomas of the ovary present increased expression of CD24 and CD171 in relation to their benign counterparts, as is the case in malignant tumors of other organs. Change of staining pattern of CD24 (apical to cytoplasmic) apparently relates to a more aggressive phenotype. PMID:24166603

  17. Expression Profiles of Fsh-Regulated Ovarian Genes during Oogenesis in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, José M.; Luckenbach, J. Adam; Yamamoto, Yoji; Swanson, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The function of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) during oogenesis in fishes is poorly understood. Using coho salmon as a fish model, we recently identified a suite of genes regulated by Fsh in vitro and involved in ovarian processes mostly unexplored in fishes, like cell proliferation, differentiation, survival or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To better understand the role of these Fsh-regulated genes during oocyte growth in fishes, we characterized their mRNA levels at discrete stages of the ovarian development in coho salmon. While most of the transcripts were expressed at low levels during primary growth (perinucleolus stage), high expression of genes associated with cell proliferation (pim1, pcna, and mcm4) and survival (ddit4l) was found in follicles at this stage. The transition to secondary oocyte growth (cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stage ovarian follicles) was characterized by a marked increase in the expression of genes related to cell survival (clu1, clu2 and ivns1abpa). Expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and growth (wt2l and adh8l), growth factor signaling (inha), steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a) and the ECM (col1a1, col1a2 and dcn) peaked in vitellogenic follicles, showing a strong and positive correlation with transcripts for fshr. Other genes regulated by Fsh and associated with ECM function (ctgf, wapl and fn1) and growth factor signaling (bmp16 and smad5l) peaked in maturing follicles, along with increases in steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, ovarian genes regulated by Fsh showed marked differences in their expression patterns during oogenesis in coho salmon. Our results suggest that Fsh regulates different ovarian processes at specific stages of development, likely through interaction with other intra- or extra-ovarian factors. PMID:25485989

  18. Expression profiles of Fsh-regulated ovarian genes during oogenesis in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José M; Luckenbach, J Adam; Yamamoto, Yoji; Swanson, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The function of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) during oogenesis in fishes is poorly understood. Using coho salmon as a fish model, we recently identified a suite of genes regulated by Fsh in vitro and involved in ovarian processes mostly unexplored in fishes, like cell proliferation, differentiation, survival or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To better understand the role of these Fsh-regulated genes during oocyte growth in fishes, we characterized their mRNA levels at discrete stages of the ovarian development in coho salmon. While most of the transcripts were expressed at low levels during primary growth (perinucleolus stage), high expression of genes associated with cell proliferation (pim1, pcna, and mcm4) and survival (ddit4l) was found in follicles at this stage. The transition to secondary oocyte growth (cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stage ovarian follicles) was characterized by a marked increase in the expression of genes related to cell survival (clu1, clu2 and ivns1abpa). Expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and growth (wt2l and adh8l), growth factor signaling (inha), steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a) and the ECM (col1a1, col1a2 and dcn) peaked in vitellogenic follicles, showing a strong and positive correlation with transcripts for fshr. Other genes regulated by Fsh and associated with ECM function (ctgf, wapl and fn1) and growth factor signaling (bmp16 and smad5l) peaked in maturing follicles, along with increases in steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, ovarian genes regulated by Fsh showed marked differences in their expression patterns during oogenesis in coho salmon. Our results suggest that Fsh regulates different ovarian processes at specific stages of development, likely through interaction with other intra- or extra-ovarian factors.

  19. Diet-induced obesity alters immune cell infiltration and expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in mouse ovarian and peri-ovarian adipose depot tissues.

    PubMed

    Nteeba, J; Ortinau, L C; Perfield, J W; Keating, A F

    2013-11-01

    Dysregulation of immune cells and/or altered inflammatory signaling have been implicated with reproductive dysfunction. Physiological changes leading to perturbations in the profile of immune cells and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines in or around female reproductive tissue could potentially have profound effects on ovarian function. Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation due, in part, to increased immune cell infiltration and inflammation in visceral adipose depots. This study investigated the impact of diet-induced obesity on immune cell infiltration and inflammation in peri-ovarian adipose tissue and mRNA expression of key inflammatory markers and microRNAs (miRs) in ovarian tissue. Six-week-old female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat) for approximately 7 months, at which time peri-ovarian adipose tissue and ovarian tissues were collected. Histological analysis of peri-ovarian adipose tissue from obese mice revealed increased (P < 0.05) adipocyte size and the presence of crown-like structures, the morphological presentation of infiltrating immune cells in adipose tissue, along with increases (P < 0.05) in the mRNA levels of markers of T-cells, activated macrophages, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. Ovarian mRNA levels of Il1b, Il6, Tnfa, p55, p75, Ccl2, Ikbkb, and Rela were higher in obese tissue (P < 0.05), with a strong trend (P = 0.06) for an increase in Nos2 and RELA protein. Additionally, ovarian miR125b and miR143 levels were decreased (P = 0.1). These data demonstrate that diet-induced obesity elevates expression of inflammatory-mediator genes in both the ovary and surrounding adipose depot, potentially negatively affecting ovarian function.

  20. Tissue factor expression as a possible determinant of thromboembolism in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uno, K; Homma, S; Satoh, T; Nakanishi, K; Abe, D; Matsumoto, K; Oki, A; Tsunoda, H; Yamaguchi, I; Nagasawa, T; Yoshikawa, H; Aonuma, K

    2007-01-01

    Ovarian cancer, and clear cell carcinoma in particular, reportedly increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Tissue factor (TF) supposedly represents a major factor in the procoagulant activities of cancer cells. The present study examined the involvement of TF expression in VTE for patients with ovarian cancer. Subjects comprised 32 consecutive patients (mean age 49.8 years) with histologically confirmed ovarian cancer. Presence of VTE was examined using a combination of clinical features, D-dimer levels and venous ultrasonography. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate TF expression into 4 degrees. Venous thromboembolism was identified in 10 of the 32 patients (31%), including five of the 11 patients with clear cell carcinoma. Tissue factor expression was detected in cancer tissues from 24 patients and displayed significant correlations with VTE development (P=0.0003), D-dimer concentration (P=0.003) and clear cell carcinoma (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis identified TF expression as an independent predictive factor of VTE development (P<0.05). Tissue factor (TF) expression is a possible determinant of VTE development in ovarian cancer. In particular, clear cell carcinoma may produce excessive levels of TF and is more likely to develop VTE. PMID:17211468

  1. Expression analysis and prognostic significance of the SRA1 gene, in ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Leoutsakou, Theoni; Talieri, Maroulio; Scorilas, Andreas . E-mail: ascorilas@biol.uoa.gr

    2006-06-02

    The SR-related-CTD-associated-factors (SCAFs) have the ability to interact with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II, linking this way transcription to splicing. SRA1 (SR-A1) gene, encoding for a human high-molecular weight SCAF protein, is located on chromosome 19, between the IRF3 and the R-RAS oncogene and it has been demonstrated from members of our group that SRA1 is constitutively expressed in most of the human tissues, while it is overexpressed in a subset of ovarian tumors. In this study, we examine the expression of SRA1 gene in 111 ovarian malignant tissues and in the human ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3, TOV21-G, and ES-2, using a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. SRA1 gene was overexpressed in 61/111 (55%) of ovarian carcinomas. This higher expression was positively associated to the size of the tumor (p < 0.001), the grade and the stage of the disease (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006, respectively), and the debulking success (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that lower SRA1 expression increases the probability of both the longer overall and the progression free survival of the patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that SRA1 may be used as an independent prognostic biomarker in ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that SRA1 is associated with cancer progression and may possibly be characterized as a new marker of unfavorable prognosis for ovarian cancer.

  2. PTEN overexpression improves cisplatin-resistance of human ovarian cancer cells through upregulating KRT10 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huijuan; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Overexpression of PTEN enhanced the sensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin. • KRT10 is a downstream molecule of PTEN involved in the resistance-reversing effect. • Overexpression of KRT10 enhanced the chemosensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin. - Abstract: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a common cause of the failure of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, has been demonstrated to be able to reverse cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer cell line C13K. However, the downstream molecules of PTEN involved in the resistance-reversing effect have not been completely clarified. Therefore, we screened the downstream molecules of PTEN and studied their interactions in C13K ovarian cancer cells using a 3D culture model. Firstly, we constructed an ovarian cancer cell line stably expressing PTEN, C13K/PTEN. MTT assay showed that overexpression of PTEN enhanced the sensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin, but not to paclitaxel. Then we examined the differently expressed proteins that interacted with PTEN in C13K/PTEN cells with or without cisplatin treatment by co-immunoprecipitation. KRT10 was identified as a differently expressed protein in cisplatin-treated C13K/PTEN cells. Further study confirmed that cisplatin could induce upregulation of KRT10 mRNA and protein in C13K/PTEN cells and there was a directly interaction between KRT10 and PTEN. Forced expression of KRT10 in C13K cells also enhanced cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of C13K cells. In addition, KRT10 siRNA blocked cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition of C13K/PTEN cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that KRT10 is a downstream molecule of PTEN which improves cisplatin-resistance of ovarian cancer and forced KRT10 overexpression may also act as a therapeutic method for overcoming MDR in ovarian cancer.

  3. Mammaglobin B (SCGB2A1) is a novel tumour antigen highly differentially expressed in all major histological types of ovarian cancer: implications for ovarian cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bellone, S; Tassi, R; Betti, M; English, D; Cocco, E; Gasparrini, S; Bortolomai, I; Black, J D; Todeschini, P; Romani, C; Ravaggi, A; Bignotti, E; Bandiera, E; Zanotti, L; Pecorelli, S; Ardighieri, L; Falchetti, M; Donzelli, C; Siegel, E R; Azodi, M; Silasi, D-A; Ratner, E; Schwartz, P E; Rutherford, T J; Santin, A D

    2013-01-01

    Background: We studied the genetic fingerprints of ovarian cancer and validated the potential of Mammaglobin b (SCGB2A1), one of the top differentially expressed genes found in our analysis, as a novel ovarian tumour rejection antigen. Methods: We profiled 70 ovarian carcinomas including 24 serous (OSPC), 15 clear-cell (CC), 24 endometrioid (EAC) and 7 poorly differentiated tumours, and 14 normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) control cell lines using the Human HG-U133 Plus 2.0 chip (Affymetrix). Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry staining techniques were used to validate microarray data at RNA and protein levels for SCGB2A1. Full-length human-recombinant SCGB2A1 was used to pulse monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate autologous SCGB2A1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against chemo-naive and chemo-resistant autologous ovarian tumours. Results: Gene expression profiling identified SCGB2A1 as a top differentially expressed gene in all histological ovarian cancer types tested. The CD8+ CTL populations generated against SCGB2A1 were able to consistently induce lysis of autologous primary (chemo-naive) and metastatic/recurrent (chemo-resistant) target tumour cells expressing SCGB2A1, whereas autologous HLA-identical noncancerous cells were not lysed. Cytotoxicity against autologous tumour cells was significantly inhibited by anti-HLA-class I (W6/32) monoclonal antibody. Intracellular cytokine expression measured by flow cytometry showed a striking type 1 cytokine profile (i.e., high IFN-γ secretion) in SCGB2A1-specific CTLs. Conclusion: SCGB2A1 is a top differentially expressed gene in all major histological types of ovarian cancers and may represent a novel and attractive target for the immunotherapy of patients harbouring recurrent disease resistant to chemotherapy. PMID:23807163

  4. Prognostic significance of Notch 3 gene expression in ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang G; Kwon, Young D; Song, Ji A; Back, Min J; Lee, Sun Y; Lee, Chan; Hwang, Yoon Y; An, Hee J

    2010-09-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is an important cell signaling system, which regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and is aberrantly activated in a wide range of cancer, including ovarian cancers. However, it remains unclear as to whether Notch signaling plays a role in the progression and prognosis of ovarian cancer. We examined the mRNA and protein expression of Notch 3, Jagged 1, and Jagged 2 in 98 ovarian epithelial tumors via real-time PCR and in 175 tumors with immunohistochemical analysis, and then correlated their expression levels with clinicopathological parameters and patient survival. In this study, we detected high levels of Notch3 mRNA and protein expression especially in serous ovarian carcinomas compared to their benign counterparts, accompanied by a positive correlation with the expressions of Jagged 1 and Jagged 2. High levels of Notch 3 mRNA expression (>2-fold than that of benign tumor) were noted in 63% of the serous carcinomas (mean level: 17-fold, P = 0.032). Additionally, Notch 3 protein overexpression was significantly associated with advanced stage (P = 0.0008), lymph node (P = 0.001), and distant metastasis (P = 0.003). Notably, high Notch 3 mRNA and protein expressions were correlated with chemoresistance (P = 0.033) and poor overall survival (P = 0.027, P = 0.042) in these patients. Our results indicate that the Notch 3 signaling pathway is involved in the tumor progression of ovarian serous carcinoma, and higher Notch 3 expression may be an independent poor prognostic factor in this subset of tumors.

  5. Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, G H; Ghazizadeh, M; Kawanami, O; Shimizu, H; Jin, E; Araki, T; Sugisaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    The influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvessel density (MVD) on prognosis and the relationship between VEGF expression and MVD in ovarian carcinoma are not well defined. We studied VEGF expression in parallel with MVD by immunohistochemistry in 94 ovarian tumours (64 malignant, 13 borderline, and 17 benign) and correlated the results with the clinicopathologic prognostic factors of the disease to clarify their significance in this disease. Assessment of VEGF mRNA isoforms by RT-PCR was also performed. Of the malignant, borderline, and benign ovarian tumours respectively, two (3%), four (31%) and 16 (94%) were negative, 31 (48%), seven (54%) and one (6%) had low expressions, and 31 (48%), two (15%) and none (0%) had high expressions of VEGF. There were significant associations between the VEGF expression and disease stage (P = 0.002), histologic grade (P = 0.0004), and patient outcome (P = 0.0002). MVD did not correlate significantly with the clinicopathologic parameters. Likewise, no correlation was found between MVD and VEGF expression. The survival of patients with high VEGF expression was significantly worse than that of patients with low and negative VEGF expression (P = 0.0004). Multivariate analysis revealed that disease stage and VEGF expression were significant and independent prognostic indicators of overall survival time (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006 respectively). These findings suggest that in conjunction with the established clinicopathologic prognostic parameters of ovarian carcinoma, VEGF expression may enhance the predictability of patients at high risk for tumour progression who are potential candidates for further aggressive therapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901370

  6. PTEN loss and HOXA10 expression are associated with ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma differentiation and progression.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Pradeep S; Kaneko-Tarui, Tomoko; Lee, Ho-Joon; Zhang, Lihua; Teixeira, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is subdivided into five major histotypes but the mechanisms driving their differentiation are not clear. Mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and β-catenin are commonly observed in the human ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma (OEA) patients. However, the mechanisms subsequent to APC deletion in ovarian tumorigenesis have not been well characterized. We have conditionally deleted APC in the murine ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and showed that its loss leads to development of epithelial inclusion cysts. High-grade OEAs with tightly packed villoglandular histology were observed in older APC-deleted mice. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression was elevated in the early lesions but lost after progression to the more advanced tumors. Knockdown of APC or expression of a gain-of-function β-catenin similarly induced human OSE cells to develop tumors with endometrioid histology in xenografts. Expression of HOXA10 was induced in both the advanced APC-deleted murine tumors and in the tumor xenografts of human OSE cells with knocked-down APC. These results show that reduced APC activity is sufficient to induce formation of epithelial inclusion cysts and support OEA development and suggest that induced HOXA10 expression and loss of PTEN are key mechanisms driving endometrioid histotype differentiation and progression.

  7. Gene expression profiling bovine ovarian follicular and luteal cells provides insight into cellular identities and functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After ovulation, somatic cells of the ovarian follicle (theca and granulosa cells) become the small and large luteal cells of the corpus luteum. Aside from known cell type-specific receptors and steroidogenic enzymes, little is known about the differences in the gene expression profiles of these fou...

  8. Gene expression data reveal common pathways that characterize the unifocal nature of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    MARCHION, Douglas C.; XIONG, Yin; CHON, Hye Sook; SAWAH, Entidhar AL; ZGHEIB, Nadim BOU; RAMIREZ, Ingrid J.; ABBASI, Forough; STICKLES, Xiaomang B.; JUDSON, Patricia L.; HAKAM, Ardeshir; GONZALEZ-BOSQUET, Jesus; WENHAM, Robert M.; APTE, Sachin M.; BERGLUND, Anders E.; LANCASTER, Johnathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the biologic validity of ovarian cancer (OVCA) screening and early detection efforts and to characterize signaling pathways associated with human cancer metastasis and patient survival. Study Design Using genome-wide expression profiling and DNA sequencing, we compared pelvic and matched extra-pelvic implants from 30 patients with advanced-stage OVCA for expression of molecular signaling pathways and p53 gene mutations. Differentially expressed pathways were further evaluated in a series of primary or early-stage versus metastatic or recurrent cancer samples from 389 ovarian, prostate, and oral cancer patients. Metastasis pathways were also evaluated for associations with survival in nine independent clinico-genomic datasets from 1,691 ovarian, breast, colon, brain, and lung cancer and leukemia patients. The inhibitory effects of one pathway (TGF-WNT) on in-vitro OVCA cell migration were studied. Results Pelvic and extra-pelvic OVCA implants demonstrated similar patterns of signaling pathway expression and identical p53 mutations. However, we identified 3 molecular pathways/cellular processes that were differentially expressed between pelvic and extra-pelvic OVCA samples and between primary/early-stage and metastatic/advanced or recurrent ovarian, oral, and prostate cancers. Furthermore, their expression was associated with overall survival from ovarian cancer (P=0.006), colon cancer (1 pathway at P=0.005), and leukemia (P=0.05). Artesunate-induced TGF-WNT pathway inhibition impaired OVCA cell migration. Conclusions Advanced-stage OVCA has a unifocal origin in the pelvis, supporting validity of early detection/screening efforts. Molecular pathways associated with extra-pelvic OVCA spread are also associated with metastasis from other human cancers and with overall patient survival. Such pathways represent appealing therapeutic targets for patients with metastatic disease. PMID:23933223

  9. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases during stimulated ovarian recrudescence in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Salverson, Trevor J; McMichael, Greer E; Sury, Jonathan J; Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2008-02-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix-cleaving enzymes involved in ovarian remodeling. In many non-tropical species, including Siberian hamsters, ovarian remodeling is necessary for the functional changes associated with seasonal reproduction. We evaluated MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), during photoperiod-induced ovarian recrudescence in Siberian hamsters. Hamsters were transferred from long day (LD; 16:8) to short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods for 14weeks, and then returned to LD for 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8weeks for collection of ovaries and plasma. Post-transfer (PT) LD exposure increased body and ovarian mass. Number of corpora lutea and antral, but not preantral follicles increased in PT groups. Plasma estradiol concentrations were lower in PT weeks 0-4, and returned to LD levels at PT week 8. No change was observed in relative MMP/TIMP mRNA levels at PT week 0 (SD week 14) as compared to LD. Photostimulation increased MMP-2 mRNA at PT week 8 as compared to PT weeks 0-1. MMP-14 mRNA expression peaked at PT weeks 1-2 as compared to LD levels, while MMP-13 expression was low during this time. TIMP-1 mRNA peaked at PT week 8 as compared to PT weeks 0-4. No changes were noted in MMP-9 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression. In general, MMP/TIMP protein immunodetection followed the same patterns with most staining occurring in granulosa cells of follicles and corpora lutea. Our data suggest that mRNA and protein for several members of the MMP/TIMP families are expressed in Siberian hamster ovaries during recrudescence. Because of the variation observed in expression patterns, MMPs and TIMPs may be differentially involved with photostimulated return to ovarian function.

  10. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Erez, Neta; Glanz, Sarah; Raz, Yael; Avivi, Camilla; Barshack, Iris

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-κb activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-κB targets and we show that NF-κB is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.

  11. A Five-Gene Expression Signature Predicts Clinical Outcome of Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenna

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma is a common malignant tumor of female genital organs. Treatment is generally less effective as patients are usually diagnosed in the late stage. Therefore, a well-designed prognostic marker provides valuable data for optimizing therapy. In this study, we analyzed 303 samples of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and the corresponding RNA-seq data. We observed the correlation between gene expression and patients' survival and eventually established a risk assessment model of five factors using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. We found that the survival time in high-risk patients was significantly shorter than in low-risk patients in both training and testing sets after Kaplan-Meier analysis. The AUROC value was 0.67 when predicting the survival time in testing set, which indicates a relatively high specificity and sensitivity. The results suggest diagnostic and therapeutic applications of our five-gene model for ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:27478834

  12. Trefoil factor 3 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer exerts a minor effect on clinicopathological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hoellen, Friederike; Kostara, Athina; Karn, Thomas; Holtrich, Uwe; El-Balat, Ahmed; Otto, Mike; Rody, Achim; Hanker, Lars C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of trefoil factor 3 (intestinal) (TFF3) has been analyzed in numerous cancers, such as breast and gastrointestinal cancer, and has been associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of TFF3 in ovarian cancers is not clear. Expression analysis of TFF3 in 91 ovarian cancer patients was performed by immunohistochemistry of primary paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The results were scored according to staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells resulting in an immune-reactive score (IRS) of 0–12. These results were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and survival. TFF3 expression in our patient cohort exhibited a tendency towards improved overall and progression-free survival (PFS). In TFF3-positive serous and high-grade serous ovarian cancers, the median PFS was 27.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 0–55.7] vs. 15.2 months in TFF3-negative tumors (95% CI: 13.8–16.6) (P=0.183). The median overall survival was 53.9 months in TFF3-positive tumors (95% CI: Non-applicable) vs. 44.4 months in TFF3-negative cases (95% CI: 30.5–58.3) (P=0.36). TFF3 negativity was significantly associated with higher tumor grade (P=0.05). Based on our results, further studies are required in order to elucidate whether survival and chemosensitivity are affected by TFF3 expression in ovarian cancer. PMID:27699037

  13. Quantitative analysis of bortezomib-induced IL-8 gene expression in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Singha, Bipradeb; Phyo, Sai A; Gatla, Himavanth R; Vancurova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), originally discovered as the neutrophil chemoattractant and inducer of leukocyte-mediated inflammation, contributes to cancer progression through its induction of tumor cell proliferation, survival, and migration. IL-8 expression is increased in many types of advanced cancers, including ovarian cancer, and correlates with poor prognosis. Bortezomib (BZ) is the first FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor that has shown remarkable antitumor activity in multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies. In solid tumors, including ovarian carcinoma, BZ has been less effective as a single agent; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have recently shown that in ovarian cancer cells, BZ greatly increases IL-8 expression, while expression of other NFκB-regulated cytokines, IL-6 and TNF, is unchanged. In this chapter, we describe a protocol that uses real-time qRT-PCR to quantitatively analyze mRNA levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in BZ-treated ovarian cancer cells. The protocol can be easily modified and used for analysis of other cytokines in different cell types. PMID:24908316

  14. Trefoil factor 3 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer exerts a minor effect on clinicopathological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hoellen, Friederike; Kostara, Athina; Karn, Thomas; Holtrich, Uwe; El-Balat, Ahmed; Otto, Mike; Rody, Achim; Hanker, Lars C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of trefoil factor 3 (intestinal) (TFF3) has been analyzed in numerous cancers, such as breast and gastrointestinal cancer, and has been associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of TFF3 in ovarian cancers is not clear. Expression analysis of TFF3 in 91 ovarian cancer patients was performed by immunohistochemistry of primary paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The results were scored according to staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells resulting in an immune-reactive score (IRS) of 0–12. These results were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and survival. TFF3 expression in our patient cohort exhibited a tendency towards improved overall and progression-free survival (PFS). In TFF3-positive serous and high-grade serous ovarian cancers, the median PFS was 27.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 0–55.7] vs. 15.2 months in TFF3-negative tumors (95% CI: 13.8–16.6) (P=0.183). The median overall survival was 53.9 months in TFF3-positive tumors (95% CI: Non-applicable) vs. 44.4 months in TFF3-negative cases (95% CI: 30.5–58.3) (P=0.36). TFF3 negativity was significantly associated with higher tumor grade (P=0.05). Based on our results, further studies are required in order to elucidate whether survival and chemosensitivity are affected by TFF3 expression in ovarian cancer.

  15. Quantitative analysis of bortezomib-induced IL-8 gene expression in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Singha, Bipradeb; Phyo, Sai A; Gatla, Himavanth R; Vancurova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), originally discovered as the neutrophil chemoattractant and inducer of leukocyte-mediated inflammation, contributes to cancer progression through its induction of tumor cell proliferation, survival, and migration. IL-8 expression is increased in many types of advanced cancers, including ovarian cancer, and correlates with poor prognosis. Bortezomib (BZ) is the first FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor that has shown remarkable antitumor activity in multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies. In solid tumors, including ovarian carcinoma, BZ has been less effective as a single agent; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have recently shown that in ovarian cancer cells, BZ greatly increases IL-8 expression, while expression of other NFκB-regulated cytokines, IL-6 and TNF, is unchanged. In this chapter, we describe a protocol that uses real-time qRT-PCR to quantitatively analyze mRNA levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in BZ-treated ovarian cancer cells. The protocol can be easily modified and used for analysis of other cytokines in different cell types.

  16. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Preinvasive Tubal Lesions of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chene, G.; Ouellet, V.; Rahimi, K.; Barres, V.; Meunier, L.; De Ladurantaye, M.; Provencher, D.; Mes-Masson, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the ovarian serous carcinogenic process with tubal origin, we investigated the expression of stem cell markers in premalignant tubal lesions (serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC). We found an increased stem cell marker density in the normal fallopian tube followed by a high CD117 and a low ALDH and CD44 expression in STICs raising the question of the role of the stem cell markers in the serous carcinogenic process. PMID:26504831

  17. Expression of transcription factor AP-2α predicts survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, M A; Kellokoski, J K; Moisio, K I; Mitchell, P J; Saarikoski, S; Syrjänen, K; Kosma, V-M

    2000-01-01

    The 52-kDa activator protein (AP)-2 is a DNA-binding transcription factor which has been reported to have growth inhibitory effects in cancer cell lines and in human tumours. In this study the expression of AP-2α was analysed in 303 epithelial ovarian carcinomas by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a polyclonal AP-2α antibody and its mRNA status was determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The immunohistochemical expression of AP-2α was correlated with clinicopathological variables, p21/WAF1 protein expression and survival. In normal ovaries, epithelial cells expressed AP-2α protein only in the cytoplasm. In carcinomas nuclear AP-2α expression was observed in 28% of the cases although cytoplasmic expression was more common (51%). The expression of AP-2α varied according to the histological subtype and differentiation. AP-2α and p21/WAF1 expressions did not correlate with each other. Both in univariate (P = 0.002) and multivariate analyses (relative risks (RR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–2.18, P = 0.007) the high cytoplasmic AP-2α expression favoured the overall survival. In contrast, the nuclear AP-2α expression combined with low cytoplasmic expression increased the risk of dying of ovarian cancer (RR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.13–3.83, P = 0.018). The shift in the expression pattern of AP-2α (nuclear vs cytoplasmic) in carcinomas points out to the possibility that this transcription factor may be used by oncogenes in certain histological subtypes. Based on the mRNA analyses, the incomplete expression and translation of AP-2α in ovarian cancer may be due to post-transcriptional regulation. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864206

  18. Expression of CD133 and CD117 in 64 Serous Ovarian Cancer Cases.

    PubMed

    Stemberger-Papić, Snjezana; Vrdoljak-Mozetic, Danijela; Ostojić, Damjana Versa; Rubesa-Mihaljević, Roberta; Krigtofić, Ines; Brncić-Fisher, Alemka; Kragević, Maja; Eminović, Senija

    2015-09-01

    The cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a minority of tumor cells that are able to proliferate and self-renew and might be responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. The CD133 and CD117 are the most commonly used markers for the putative CSCs, especially for the ovarian CSCs, but its clinical significance remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the immunohistochemical expression of CD133 and CD117 in 64 primary ovarian high grade serous carcinoma and peritoneal metastasis, and to examine their potential clinical role. CD133 expression was mainly seen in the apical/endoluminal cell surface of tumor cells and was found in 61% of the carcinoma samples and 41% of the metastasis. The median of CD133 positive cells in tumors was 1 (0.1-7)%, and in metastases was 0.6 (0.1-6)%. CD117 expression appeared as a cytoplasmic and/or membranous stain and was found in 81% of the carcinoma samples and 77% of the metastasis. The median of CD117 positive cells in tumors was 1 (0.1-8)%, and in metastases was 0.1 (0.1-7)%. Multivariate analysis has shown that patients with high CD133 expression in tumor cells have significantly shorter disease free survival and overall survival (p=0.025 and p=0.014, respectively). Patients with high CD117 expression in tumor cells have significantly shorter disease free survival (p=0.031). Cox's proportional hazards model identified expression of CD133 protein in tumor as an independent prognostic factor. Our study indicates that the immunohistochemical assessment of CD133 and CD117 expression may have potential clinical value in predicting disease progression and prognosis in the high grade serous ovarian cancer. CD133 proved to be an independent prognostic factor in the high grade serous ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26898076

  19. Knockdown of RhoA expression alters ovarian cancer biological behavior in vitro and in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Wenyan; Kang, Jiali; Liu, Qicai; Nie, Miaoling

    2015-08-01

    RhoA regulates cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and gene expression. Altered RhoA activity contributes to cancer progression. The present study investigated the effects of RhoA knockdown on the regulation of ovarian cancer biological behavior in vitro and in nude mice. The expression of RhoA was knocked down using a lentivirus carrying RhoA short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in ovarian cancer cells and was confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. The altered ovarian cancer biological behaviors were assayed by cell viability, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL), migration, invasion, and nude mice tumorigenicity assays, while the altered gene expression was detected by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The results showed that lentivirus-carrying RhoA shRNA significantly suppressed RhoA expression in ovarian cancer cells, which suppressed tumor cell viability, migration, invasion and adhesion in vitro. RhoA silencing also inhibited the tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells in nude mice, which was characterized by the suppression of tumor xenograft formation and growth and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The results of the present study demonstrated that knockdown of RhoA expression had a significant antitumor effect on ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in nude mice, suggesting that RhoA may be a target for the development of a novel therapeutic strategy in the control of ovarian cancer.

  20. A novel protease homolog differentially expressed in breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Anisowicz, A.; Sotiropoulou, G.; Stenman, G.; Mok, S. C.; Sager, R.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using differential display (DD), we discovered a new member of the serine protease family of protein-cleaving enzymes, named protease M. The gene is most closely related by sequence to the kallikreins, to prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and to trypsin. The diagnostic use of PSA in prostate cancer suggested that a related molecule might be a predictor for breast or ovarian cancer. This, in turn, led to studies designed to characterize the protein and to screen for its expression in cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The isolation of protease M by DD, the cloning and sequencing of the cDNA, and the comparison of the predicted protein structure with related proteins are described, as are methods to produce recombinant proteins and polyclonal antibody preparations. Protease M expression was examined in mammary, prostate, and ovarian cancer, as well as normal, cells and tissues. Stable transfectants expressing the protease M gene were produced in mammary carcinoma cells. RESULTS: Protease M was localized by fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis to chromosome 19q13.3, in a region to which other kallikreins and PSA also map. The gene is expressed in the primary mammary carcinoma lines tested but not in the corresponding cell lines of metastatic origin. It is strongly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. The enzyme activity could not be established, because of difficulties in producing sufficient recombinant protein, a common problem with proteases. Transfectants were selected that overexpress the mRNA, but the protein levels remained very low. CONCLUSIONS: Protease M expression (mRNA) may be a useful marker in the detection of primary mammary carcinomas, as well as primary ovarian cancers. Other medical applications are also likely, based on sequence relatedness to trypsin and PSA. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:8898378

  1. Expression of Ets-1, Ang-2 and maspin in ovarian cancer and their role in tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various angiogenic regulators are involved in angiogenesis cascade. Transcription factor Ets-1 plays important role in angiogenesis, remodeling of extracellular matrix, and tumor metastasis. Ets-1 target genes involved in various stages of new blood vessel formation include angiopoietin, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the protease inhibitor maspin. Methods We used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect the expression of Ets-1, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and maspin in ovarian tumor and analyzed the relationship between the expression of these proteins and the clinical manifestation of ovarian cancer. Results Ets-1 expression was much stronger in ovarian cancer compared to benign tumors, but had no significant correlation with other pathological parameters of ovarian cancer. However, Ang-2 and maspin expression had no obvious correlation with pathological parameters of ovarian cancer. Ets-1 had a positive correlation with Ang-2 which showed their close relationship in angiogenesis. Although microvessel density (MVD) value had no significant correlation with the expression of Ets-1, Ang-2 or maspin, strong nuclear expression of maspin appeared to be correlated with high grade and MVD. Conclusions The expression of Ets-1, Ang2 and maspin showed close relationship with angiogenesis in ovarian cancer and expression of maspin appeared to be correlated with high grade and MVD. The mechanisms underlying the cross-talk of the three factors need further investigations. PMID:21439064

  2. Ets-1 messenger RNA expression is a novel marker of poor survival in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Davidson, B; Reich, R; Goldberg, I; Gotlieb, W H; Kopolovic, J; Berner, A; Ben-Baruch, G; Bryne, M; Nesland, J M

    2001-03-01

    Ets-1 proto-oncogene is a transcription factor involved in several cellular functions, including the activation of several proteases participating in tumor invasion and metastasis. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible correlation between Ets-1 mRNA expression and survival in advanced-stage ovarian carcinomas, studying two patient groups with extremely different disease outcome. Sections from 66 primary ovarian carcinomas and metastatic lesions from 41 patients diagnosed with advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians stages III and IV) were evaluated for expression of Ets-1 using mRNA in situ hybridization. Patients were divided into long-term (n = 17) and short-term (n = 24) survivors. The mean values for disease-free survival and overall survival were 116 and 133 months for long-term survivors, as compared to 3 and 21 months for short-term survivors, respectively. Expression of Ets-1 mRNA was detected in carcinoma cells and stromal cells in 28 of 66 (42%) and 22 of 66 (33%) lesions, respectively. Ets-1 expression showed an association with mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.001 for carcinoma cells; P = 0.004 for stromal cells), basic fibroblast growth factor (P = 0.049 for carcinoma cells), and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (P = 0.045), which were previously studied in this patient cohort. Ets-1 mRNA was detected more often in both carcinoma and stromal cells in tumors of short-term survivors (P = 0.038 for carcinoma cells). In univariate survival analysis for all cases, Ets-1 expression in both tumor (P = 0.018) and stroma (P = 0.026) correlated with poor survival. These findings were reproduced in an analysis of primary tumors alone (P = 0.039 for tumor cells; P < 0.001 for stromal cells). Ets-1 mRNA expression in stromal cells retained its predictive power in a multivariate survival analysis in which all molecules studied previously in this patient cohort

  3. Expression of angiogenesis-related genes in ovarian carcinoma--a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Davidson, B; Goldberg, I; Kopolovic, J; Gotlieb, W H; Givant-Horwitz, V; Nesland, J M; Berner, A; Ben-Baruch, G; Bryne, M; Reich, R

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenic factors play a role in tumor growth and spread. The object of this study was to analyze the correlation between mRNA expression of angiogenesis-related genes and disease outcome in advanced-stage ovarian carcinomas. Sections from 66 primary ovarian carcinomas and metastatic lesions from 41 patients diagnosed with advanced stage ovarian carcinoma (FIGO stages III-IV) were evaluated for expression of basic fibroblast factor (bFGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using mRNA In Situ Hybridization (ISH). Patients were divided in two groups based on disease outcome. Long-term survivors (17 patients) and short-term survivors (24 patients) were defined using a double cut-off of 36 months for disease-free survival (DFS) and 60 months for overall survival (OS). Mean follow-up period was 70 months. The mean values for DFS and OS were 116 and 133 months for long-term survivors, as compared to 3 and 21 months for short-term survivors, respectively. Expression of bFGF mRNA, most often intense, was detected in tumor and stromal cells in the majority of cases. Weak expression of IL-8 mRNA was detected in both cell compartments, while VEGF mRNA expression was limited to few cases. Primary tumors displayed higher bFGF and IL-8 mRNA expression. However, these differences did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). bFGF, IL-8 and VEGF mRNA expression in both tumor and stromal cells was comparable in tumors of long-term and short-term survivors, and showed no correlation with disease outcome in survival analysis (P > 0.05). bFGF is the major angiogenic factor expressed in ovarian carcinoma at the mRNA level. mRNA expression of VEGF, bFGF, and IL-8 does not appear to be a predictor of disease outcome in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma. PMID:11592307

  4. Ovarian function in mice results in abrogated skeletal muscle PPARdelta and FoxO1-mediated gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, the age-related loss of ovarian hormone production, promotes increased adiposity and associated metabolic pathology, but molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We previously reported that estrogen increases skeletal muscle PPARDelta expression in vivo, and transgenic mice overexpressing mus...

  5. MicroRNA Expression and Identification of Putative miRNA Targets in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Neetu; Sherman-Baust, Cheryl A.; Wang, Tian-Li; Davidson, Ben; Shih, Ie-Ming; Zhang, Yongqing; Wood, William; Becker, Kevin G.; Morin, Patrice J.

    2008-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression by targeting mRNAs and triggering either translation repression or RNA degradation. Emerging evidence suggests the potential involvement of altered regulation of miRNA in the pathogenesis of cancers, and these genes are thought to function as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Methodology/Principal Findings Using microRNA microarrays, we identify several miRNAs aberrantly expressed in human ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. miR-221 stands out as a highly elevated miRNA in ovarian cancer, while miR-21 and several members of the let-7 family are found downregulated. Public databases were used to reveal potential targets for the highly differentially expressed miRNAs. In order to experimentally identify transcripts whose stability may be affected by the differentially expressed miRNAs, we transfected precursor miRNAs into human cancer cell lines and used oligonucleotide microarrays to examine changes in the mRNA levels. Interestingly, there was little overlap between the predicted and the experimental targets or pathways, or between experimental targets/pathways obtained using different cell lines, highlighting the complexity of miRNA target selection. Conclusion/Significance Our results identify several differentially expressed miRNAs in ovarian cancer and identify potential target transcripts that may be regulated by these miRNAs. These miRNAs and their targets may have important roles in the initiation and development of ovarian cancer. PMID:18560586

  6. Metallothionein expression and nuclear size in benign, borderline, and malignant serous ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y; Sinniah, R; Bay, B H; Singh, G

    1999-09-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight proteins involved in metalloregulatory functions such as cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation. In recent years, MT expression has been linked with carcinogenesis, resistance to cancer therapy, and tumour progression. However, the significance of MT expression in ovarian cancers is at present inadequately documented. In this study, MT immunohistochemistry was performed in 12 benign, 14 borderline, and eight malignant serous tumours of the ovary. The intensity of the immunostaining was evaluated by image analysis. There was a significantly higher number of MT-immunopositive cells in the multilayered epithelial cells of borderline serous tumours (atypical proliferative serous tumours) than in the single layered epithelial cells within the same tumour, and in the single cell layer of benign serous tumours. There was no difference in the expression of MTs in the single layered tumour cells of benign and borderline serous tumours. Significantly higher numbers of MT-immunopositive cells were observed in both the single and the multilayered epithelial cells of serous carcinomas, the highest number being observed in the multiple layers of serous carcinomas. The positively stained malignant tumour cells in both single and multiple layers were larger than the negatively stained cells in benign, borderline, and malignant serous ovarian tumours. There was moderate to intense staining. These findings indicate that there is increased expression of MTs in the progression of malignancy, which could be used as a marker in grading the three groups of ovarian serous tumours and for determining prognosis.

  7. Oncolytic Measles Virus Expressing the Sodium Iodide Symporter to Treat Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Evanthia; Atherton, Pamela J.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Knutson, Keith L.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Cliby, William A.; Haluska, Paul; Long, Harry J.; Oberg, Ann; Aderca, Ileana; Block, Matthew S.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie; Federspiel, Mark J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Keeney, Gary; Peng, Kah Whye; Hartmann, Lynn C.

    2015-01-01

    Edmonston vaccine strains of measles virus (MV) have significant antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer. MV engineered to express the sodium iodide symporter gene (MV-NIS) facilitates localization of viral gene expression and offers a tool for tumor radiovirotherapy. Here, we report results from a clinical evaluation of MV-NIS in patients with taxol- and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. MV-NIS was given intraperitoneally every 4 weeks for up to 6 cycles. Treatment was well tolerated and associated with promising median overall survival in these patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer; no dose-limiting toxicity was observed in 16 patients treated at high-dose levels (108–109 TCID50), and their median overall survival of 26.5 months compared favorably with other contemporary series. MV receptor CD46 and nectin-4 expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in patient tumors. Sodium iodide symporter expression in patient tumors after treatment was confirmed in three patients by 123I uptake on SPECT/CTs and was associated with long progression-free survival. Immune monitoring posttreatment showed an increase in effector T cells recognizing the tumor antigens IGFBP2 and FRα, indicating that MV-NIS treatment triggered cellular immunity against the patients' tumor and suggesting that an immune mechanism mediating the observed antitumor effect. Our findings support further clinical evaluation of MV-NIS as an effective immunovirotherapy. PMID:25398436

  8. Increased Expression of Several Collagen Genes is Associated with Drug Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Świerczewska, Monika; Sterzyńska, Karolina; Wojtowicz, Karolina; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological cancer. The main reason for the high mortality among ovarian cancer patients is the development of drug resistance. The expression of collagen genes by cancer cells can increase drug resistance by inhibiting the penetration of the drug into the cancer tissue as well as increase apoptosis resistance. In this study, we present data that shows differential expression levels of collagen genes and proteins in cisplatin- (CIS), paclitaxel- (PAC), doxorubicin- (DOX), topotecan- (TOP), vincristine- (VIN) and methotrexate- (MTX) resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed to determine the mRNA levels. Protein expression was detected using Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays. In the drug resistant cell lines, we observed the upregulation of eight collagen genes at the mRNA level and based on these expression levels, we divided the collagen genes into the following three groups: 1. Genes with less than a 50-fold increase in expression: COL1A1, COL5A2, COL12A1 and COL17A1. 2. Genes with greater than a 50-fold increase in expression: COL1A2, COL15A1 and COL21A1. 3. Gene with a very high level of expression: COL3A1. Expression of collagen (COL) proteins from groups 2 and 3 were also confirmed using immunocytochemistry. Western blot analysis showed very high expression levels of COL3A1 protein, and immunocytochemistry analysis showed the presence of extracellular COL3A1 in the W1TR cell line. The cells mainly responsible for the extracellular COL3A1 production are aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) positive cells. All correlations between the types of cytostatic drugs and the expression levels of different COL genes were studied, and our results suggest that the expression of fibrillar collagens may be involved in the TOP and PAC resistance of the ovarian cancer cells. The expression pattern of COL genes provide a preliminary view into the role of these proteins in

  9. Increased Expression of Several Collagen Genes is Associated with Drug Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Januchowski, Radosław; Świerczewska, Monika; Sterzyńska, Karolina; Wojtowicz, Karolina; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological cancer. The main reason for the high mortality among ovarian cancer patients is the development of drug resistance. The expression of collagen genes by cancer cells can increase drug resistance by inhibiting the penetration of the drug into the cancer tissue as well as increase apoptosis resistance. In this study, we present data that shows differential expression levels of collagen genes and proteins in cisplatin- (CIS), paclitaxel- (PAC), doxorubicin- (DOX), topotecan- (TOP), vincristine- (VIN) and methotrexate- (MTX) resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed to determine the mRNA levels. Protein expression was detected using Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays. In the drug resistant cell lines, we observed the upregulation of eight collagen genes at the mRNA level and based on these expression levels, we divided the collagen genes into the following three groups: 1. Genes with less than a 50-fold increase in expression: COL1A1, COL5A2, COL12A1 and COL17A1. 2. Genes with greater than a 50-fold increase in expression: COL1A2, COL15A1 and COL21A1. 3. Gene with a very high level of expression: COL3A1. Expression of collagen (COL) proteins from groups 2 and 3 were also confirmed using immunocytochemistry. Western blot analysis showed very high expression levels of COL3A1 protein, and immunocytochemistry analysis showed the presence of extracellular COL3A1 in the W1TR cell line. The cells mainly responsible for the extracellular COL3A1 production are aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) positive cells. All correlations between the types of cytostatic drugs and the expression levels of different COL genes were studied, and our results suggest that the expression of fibrillar collagens may be involved in the TOP and PAC resistance of the ovarian cancer cells. The expression pattern of COL genes provide a preliminary view into the role of these proteins in

  10. ABCA Transporter Gene Expression and Poor Outcome in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hedditch, Ellen L.; Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda J.; Lu, Yi; Emmanuel, Catherine; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Harnett, Paul; George, Joshy; Williams, Rebekka T.; Flemming, Claudia; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susan K.; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James; Metcalf, Michelle D; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel P.; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen; Bowtell, David D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Norris, Murray D.; MacGregor, Stuart; Haber, Michelle; Henderson, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown. Methods The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two independent cohorts of high-grade serous EOC tumors was assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, analysis of expression microarray data, and immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinical outcomes and ABCA transporter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in a genome-wide association study. Impact of short interfering RNA–mediated gene suppression was determined by colony forming and migration assays. Association with survival was assessed with Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank tests. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Associations with outcome were observed with ABC transporters of the “A” subfamily, but not with multidrug transporters. High-level expression of ABCA1, ABCA6, ABCA8, and ABCA9 in primary tumors was statistically significantly associated with reduced survival in serous ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of ABCA5 and the C-allele of rs536009 were associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio for death = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.26 to 1.79; P = 6.5e−6). The combined expression pattern of ABCA1, ABCA5, and either ABCA8 or ABCA9 was associated with particularly poor outcome (mean overall survival in group with adverse ABCA1, ABCA5 and ABCA9 gene expression = 33.2 months, 95% CI = 26.4 to 40.1; vs 55.3 months in the group with favorable ABCA gene expression, 95% CI = 49.8 to 60.8; P = .001), independently of tumor stage or surgical debulking status. Suppression of cholesterol transporter ABCA1 inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration. Conclusions Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor

  11. Genetic and functional characterization of the gene cluster specifying expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pili.

    PubMed Central

    Koga, T; Ishimoto, K; Lory, S

    1993-01-01

    The genetic organization of the gene cluster containing pilA, the structural gene for type IV pilin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as the accessory genes pilB, pilC, and pilD, has been studied. DNA sequences capable of initiating transcription when fused to a promoterless lacZ gene have been identified in the pilA-pilB and pilB-pilC intergenic regions. Unlike pilA, which requires rpoN (encoding the sigma 54 subunit of RNA polymerase) and products of two regulatory genes, pilS and pilR, expression of pilB, pilC, or pilD did not depend on any of these transcriptional regulators. Moreover, transcription of pilA from the tac promoter in an rpoN mutant background resulted in piliated bacteria, suggesting that the RpoN-based regulatory network is specific for pilA and does not control expression of any other genes necessary for formation of pili. Insertion of the omega fragment containing strong transcriptional terminators into pilB, pilC, and pilD failed to have a polar effect on expression of downstream genes, as determined by the ability of each cloned gene to complement, in trans, the corresponding insertionally inactivated chromosomal copy. Insertions into pilC, however, resulted in decreased synthesis of PilD as determined by quantitation of PilD enzymatic activity in processing prepilin in vitro and by immunoassay. This finding suggests that PilD may require PilC for its optimal stability or correct membrane localization. Images PMID:7681046

  12. The Rho/ROCK pathway for lysophosphatidic acid-induced proteolytic enzyme expression and ovarian cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Jeong, K J; Park, S Y; Cho, K H; Sohn, J S; Lee, J; Kim, Y K; Kang, J; Park, C G; Han, J W; Lee, H Y

    2012-09-27

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a biolipid that has diverse biological activities implicated in ovarian cancer initiation and progression. Previous studies have shown the critical role of the Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway in LPA-induced ovarian cancer progression. However, detailed underlying mechanism by which the Rho/ROCK pathway induces ovarian cancer cell invasion is still incompletely understood. In the present study, we observed that the Rho/ROCK pathway is implicated in the production of proteolytic enzymes, leading to LPA-induced ovarian cancer cell invasion. LPA induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression in CAOV-3 and PA-1 cells and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression in SKOV-3 cells. LPA-induced proteolytic enzyme expression was required for the invasion of ovarian cancer cells expressing corresponding enzymes. Pretreatment of cells with a pharmacological inhibitor of Rho/ROCK (Y-27632) or overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Rho (Rho N19) profoundly inhibited LPA-induced proteolytic enzyme expression as well as the invasive potential of ovarian cancer cells. In addition, transfection with dominant-negative Ras (Ras N17) significantly inhibited LPA-induced Rho activation as well as MMP-9 and uPA expression. Consistently, Y-27632 reduced LPA-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation that is critical for proteolytic enzyme expression and cellular invasion. Collectively, we demonstrate a mechanism by which LPA promotes ovarian cancer progression through coordinate activation of a Ras/Rho/ROCK/NF-κB signaling pathway and the proteolytic enzyme secretion, providing novel biomarkers and promising therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer cell progression.

  13. Variation in cell signaling protein expression may introduce sampling bias in primary epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mittermeyer, Gabriele; Malinowsky, Katharina; Beese, Christian; Höfler, Heinz; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Avril, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Although the expression of cell signaling proteins is used as prognostic and predictive biomarker, variability of protein levels within tumors is not well studied. We assessed intratumoral heterogeneity of protein expression within primary ovarian cancer. Full-length proteins were extracted from 88 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 13 primary high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas with 5-9 samples each. In addition, 14 samples of normal fallopian tube epithelium served as reference. Quantitative reverse phase protein arrays were used to analyze the expression of 36 cell signaling proteins including HER2, EGFR, PI3K/Akt, and angiogenic pathways as well as 15 activated (phosphorylated) proteins. We found considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in the expression of proteins with a mean coefficient of variation of 25% (range 17-53%). The extent of intratumoral heterogeneity differed between proteins (p<0.005). Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the extent of heterogeneity between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated proteins. In comparison, we assessed the variation of protein levels amongst tumors from different patients, which revealed a similar mean coefficient of variation of 21% (range 12-48%). Based on hierarchical clustering, samples from the same patient clustered more closely together compared to samples from different patients. However, a clear separation of tumor versus normal tissue by clustering was only achieved when mean expression values of all individual samples per tumor were analyzed. While differential expression of some proteins was detected independently of the sampling method used, the majority of proteins only demonstrated differential expression when mean expression values of multiple samples per tumor were analyzed. Our data indicate that assessment of established and novel cell signaling proteins as diagnostic or prognostic markers may require sampling of serous ovarian cancers at several distinct

  14. Variation in Cell Signaling Protein Expression May Introduce Sampling Bias in Primary Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beese, Christian; Höfler, Heinz; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Avril, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Although the expression of cell signaling proteins is used as prognostic and predictive biomarker, variability of protein levels within tumors is not well studied. We assessed intratumoral heterogeneity of protein expression within primary ovarian cancer. Full-length proteins were extracted from 88 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 13 primary high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas with 5–9 samples each. In addition, 14 samples of normal fallopian tube epithelium served as reference. Quantitative reverse phase protein arrays were used to analyze the expression of 36 cell signaling proteins including HER2, EGFR, PI3K/Akt, and angiogenic pathways as well as 15 activated (phosphorylated) proteins. We found considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in the expression of proteins with a mean coefficient of variation of 25% (range 17–53%). The extent of intratumoral heterogeneity differed between proteins (p<0.005). Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the extent of heterogeneity between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated proteins. In comparison, we assessed the variation of protein levels amongst tumors from different patients, which revealed a similar mean coefficient of variation of 21% (range 12–48%). Based on hierarchical clustering, samples from the same patient clustered more closely together compared to samples from different patients. However, a clear separation of tumor versus normal tissue by clustering was only achieved when mean expression values of all individual samples per tumor were analyzed. While differential expression of some proteins was detected independently of the sampling method used, the majority of proteins only demonstrated differential expression when mean expression values of multiple samples per tumor were analyzed. Our data indicate that assessment of established and novel cell signaling proteins as diagnostic or prognostic markers may require sampling of serous ovarian cancers at several

  15. Ovarian cancer treatment with a tumor-targeting and gene expression-controllable lipoplex

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhi-Yao; Deng, Feng; Wei, Xia-Wei; Ma, Cui-Cui; Luo, Min; Zhang, Ping; Sang, Ya-Xiong; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Li; Qin, Han-Xiao; Shen, Ya-Li; Liu, Ting; Liu, Yan-Tong; Wang, Wei; Wen, Yan-Jun; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Qian, Zhi-Yong; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of folate receptor alpha (FRα) and high telomerase activity are considered to be the characteristics of ovarian cancers. In this study, we developed FRα-targeted lipoplexes loaded with an hTERT promoter-regulated plasmid that encodes a matrix protein (MP) of the vesicular stomatitis virus, F-LP/pMP(2.5), for application in ovarian cancer treatment. We first characterized the pharmaceutical properties of F-LP/pMP(2.5). The efficient expression of the MP-driven hTERT promoter in SKOV-3 cells was determined after an in-vitro transfection assay, which was significantly increased compared with a non-modified LP/pMP(2.5) group. F-LP/pMP(2.5) treatment significantly inhibited the growth of tumors and extended the survival of mice in a SKOV-3 tumor model compared with other groups. Such an anti-tumor effect was due to the increased expression of MP in tumor tissue, which led to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and suppression of tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, a preliminary safety evaluation demonstrated a good safety profile of F-LP/pMP(2.5) as a gene therapy agent. Therefore, FRα-targeted lipoplexes with therapeutic gene expression regulated by an hTERT promoter might be a promising gene therapy agent and a potential translational candidate for the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:27026065

  16. Molecular Characterization of Three Gonadotropin Subunits and Their Expression Patterns during Ovarian Maturation in Cynoglossus semilaevis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bao; Liu, Xuezhou; Xu, Yongjiang; Wang, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine regulation of reproduction in a multiple spawning flatfish with an ovary of asynchronous development remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to monitor changes in mRNA expression patterns of three gonadotropin hormone (GTH) subunits (FSHβ, LHβ and CGα) and plasma GTH levels during ovarian maturation of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis. Cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the cDNAs of FSHβ, LHβ and CGα were 541, 670 and 685 bp in length, and encode for peptides of 130, 158 and 127 amino acids, respectively. The number of cysteine residues and potential N-linked glycosylation sites of the flatfish GTHs were conserved among teleosts. However, the primary structure of GTHs in Pleuronectiformes appeared to be highly divergent. The FSHβ transcriptional level in the pituitary remained high during the vitellogenic stage while plasma levels of FSH peaked and oocyte development was stimulated. The LHβ expression in the pituitary and ovary reached the maximum level during oocyte maturation stages when the plasma levels of LH peaked. The brain GTHs were expressed at the different ovarian stages. These results suggested that FSH and LH may simultaneously regulate ovarian development and maturation through the brain-pituitary-ovary axis endocrine system in tongue sole. PMID:25633101

  17. Testosterone improves the transition of primary oocytes in artificial maturation eels (Anguilla japonica) by altering ovarian PTEN expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Sen; Chen, Ya-Mei; Liao, Pei-Chi; Lee, Yan-Horn; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Chen, Ming-Chyuan; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2012-06-01

    In mammals, androgens appear to enhance the development of primary ovarian follicles, but PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinases) pathway is well recognized as one of the critical pathways in early follicular development. Roles of the PI3K were revealed by deletion of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10). PTEN is demonstrated to play an important role in the early stage of follicle development. In the Japanese eel, two forms of PTEN have been cloned, but what their functions on the development of early ovarian follicles are still not clear. The natural blockage and inducible of ovarian development was a benefit to address this question in the eel. Testosterone (T) shows to ameliorate the early ovarian development in the eel. The aims of this study were to elucidate the two forms of PTEN by cellular and physiological criteria and to study the effects of T on the ovarian PTEN production in the exogenous pituitary extracts-stimulated eel. Our results suggested that two forms of PTEN are existing in the Japanese eel, and eel ovarian development corresponded to the decrease in ovarian PTEN expression, vice versa. In addition, the supplement of T on eel early ovarian development can be attributed to its PTEN inhibitor role.

  18. Aberrant over-expression of COX-1 intersects multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways in high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew J.; Fadare, Oluwole; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Son, Deok-Soo; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Shilin; Saskowski, Jeanette; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Daniel, Cristina; Crews, Brenda; Lehmann, Brian D.; Pietenpol, Jennifer A.; Crispens, Marta A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Khabele, Dineo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is implicated in ovarian cancer. However, patterns of COX expression and function have been unclear and controversial. In this report, patterns of COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression were obtained from RNA-seq data through The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our analysis revealed markedly higher COX-1 mRNA expression than COX-2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) and higher COX-1 expression in HGSOC tumors than 10 other tumor types. High expression of COX-1 in HGSOC tumors was confirmed in an independent tissue microarray. In contrast, lower or similar expression of COX-1 compared to COX-2 was observed in endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell tumors. Stable COX-1 knockdown in HGSOC-representative OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells reduced gene expression in multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways. Functional cell viability, clonogenicity, and migration/invasion assays were consistent with transcriptomic changes. These effects were reversed by stable over-expression of COX-1 in SKOV-3 cells. Our results demonstrate a distinct pattern of COX-1 over-expression in HGSOC tumors and strong association of COX-1 with multiple pro-tumorigenic pathways in ovarian cancer cells. These findings provide additional insight into the role of COX-1 in human ovarian cancer and support further development of methods to selectively target COX-1 in the management of HGSOC tumors. PMID:25972361

  19. The Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Is Highly Expressed in Ovarian Cancer and Induces Cell Growth and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanqing; Xu, Xiaying; Lv, Huabing; Wen, Qirong; Li, Juan; Tan, Linyu; Li, Jianqi; Sheng, Xiujie

    2016-01-01

    Background Metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT-1) is overexpressed during cancer progression and promotes cell migration and invasion in many solid tumors. However, its role in ovarian cancer remains poorly understood. Methods Expressions of MALAT-1 were detected in 37 normal ovarian tissues and 45 ovarian cancer tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was observed by CCK-8 assay; Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle and apoptosis; Cell migration was detected by transwell migration and invasion assay. In order to evaluate the function of MALAT-1, shRNA combined with DNA microarray and Functional enrichment analysis were performed to determine the transcriptional effects of MALAT-1 silencing in OVCAR3 cells. RNA and protein expression were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results We found that upregulation of MALAT-1 mRNA in ovarian cancer tissues and enhanced MALAT-1 expression was associated with FIGO stage. Knockdown of MALAT-1 expression in OVCAR3 cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, leading to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Overexpressed MALAT-1 expression in SKOV3 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Downregulation of MALAT-1 resulted in significant change of gene expression (at least 2-fold) in 449 genes, which regulate proliferation, cell cycle, and adhesion. As a consequence of MALAT-1 knockdown, MMP13 protein expression decreased, while the expression of MMP19 and ADAMTS1 was increased. Conclusions The present study found that MALAT-1 is highly expressed in ovarian tumors. MALAT-1 promotes the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that MALAT-1 may be an important contributor to ovarian cancer development. PMID:27227769

  20. Hyperosmotic stress induces cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells by stimulating aquaporin-5 expression

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XUEJUN; ZHOU, CHUNXIA; YAN, CHUNXIAO; MA, JIONG; ZHENG, WEI

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are important mediators of water permeability and are closely associated with tumor cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and chemoresistance. Moreover, the chemosensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin (CDDP) is potentially affected by osmotic pressure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether hyperosmosis regulates ovarian cancer cell sensitivity to CDDP in vitro and to explore whether this is associated with AQP expression. The hyperosmotic stress was induced by D-sorbitol. 3AO ovarian cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of hypertonic medium and/or CDDP for various times, followed by measuring the inhibition rate of cell proliferation using an MTT assay. In addition, AQP expression in response to osmotic pressure and/or CDDP was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell proliferation in response to hypertonic stress was also measured when AQP5 was knocked down by small interfering (si)RNA. 3AO cell proliferation was inhibited by hyperosmotic stress, while the expression of AQP5, but not that of AQP1, AQP3 or AQP9, was increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner in hypertonic sorbitol-containing medium. When AQP5 was silenced by siRNA, cells were susceptible to hypertonic stress. MTT analyses showed that the inhibition of cell proliferation by a low dose of CDDP increased significantly with exposure to a hyperosmotic stimulus, and this effect was reduced when a high dose of CDDP was used. AQP5 expression was induced by a low dose of CDDP, but was reduced by a high dose of CDDP. However, hyperosmosis enhanced AQP5 mRNA expression at every dose of CDDP tested, compared with isotonic medium. With prolonged treatment time, AQP5 expression was reduced by CDDP in hypertonic and isotonic culture medium. Thus, the effects of hyperosmosis on cell sensitivity to CDDP were associated with AQP5 expression. These results suggest that AQP5 expression in ovarian

  1. Immunohistochemical Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 in Human Colorectal Adenomas Using Specified Automated Cellular Image Analysis System: A Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban J.; Ali, Hussam H.; Hussein, Alaa G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) in colorectal adenomas, and to correlate this expression with different clinicopathological parameters. Patients and Methods: The study was retrospectively designed. Thirty three paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenoma and 20 samples of non-tumerous colonic tissue taken as control group were included in the study. MMP-7 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry method. The scoring of immunohistochemical staining was conducted utilizing a specified automated cellular image analysis system (Digimizer). Results: The frequency of positive immunohistochemical expression of MMP-7 was significantly higher in adenoma than control group (45.45% versus 10%) (P value < 0.001). Strong MMP-7 staining was mainly seen in adenoma cases (30.30%) in comparison with control (0%) the difference is significant (P < 0.001). The three digital parameters of MMP-7 immunohistochemical expression (Area (A), Number of objects (N), and intensity (I)) were significantly higher in adenoma than control. Mean (A and I) of MMP-7 showed a significant correlation with large sized adenoma (≥ 1cm) (P < 0.05), also a significant positive correlation of the three digital parameters (A, N, and I) of MMP-7 expression with villous configuration and severe dysplasia in colorectal adenoma had been identified (P < 0.05). Conclusion: MMP-7 plays an important role in the growth and malignant conversion of colorectal adenomas as it is more likely to be expressed in advanced colorectal adenomatous polyps with large size, severe dysplasia and villous histology. The use of automated cellular image analysis system (Digmizer) to quantify immunohistochemical staining yields more consistent assay results, converts semi-quantitative assay to a truly quantitative assay, and improves assay objectivity and reproducibility. PMID:23319034

  2. Kaempferol inhibits angiogenesis and VEGF expression through both HIF dependent and independent pathways in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haitao; Rankin, Gary O; Liu, Lingzhi; Daddysman, Matthew K; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is 1 of the most significant malignancies in the Western world, and the antiangiogenesis strategy has been postulated for prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid present in many fruits and vegetables. The antiangiogenesis potential of kaempferol and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in two ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70. Kaempferol mildly inhibits cell viability but significantly reduces VEGF gene expression at mRNA and protein levels in both ovarian cancer cell lines. In chorioallantoic membranes of chicken embryos, kaempferol significantly inhibits OVCAR-3-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth. HIF-1alpha, a regulator of VEGF, is downregulated by kaempferol treatment in both ovarian cancer cell lines. Kaempferol also represses AKT phosphorylation dose dependently at 5 to 20 muM concentrations. ESRRA is a HIF-independent VEGF regulator, and it is also downregulated by kaempferol in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, this study demonstrated that kaempferol is low in cytotoxicity but inhibits angiogenesis and VEGF expression in human ovarian cancer cells through both HIF-dependent (Akt/HIF) and HIF-independent (ESRRA) pathways and deserves further studies for possible application in angio prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers.

  3. Oncogene expression in vivo by ovarian adenocarcinomas and mixed-mullerian tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Kacinski, B. M.; Carter, D.; Kohorn, E. I.; Mittal, K.; Bloodgood, R. S.; Donahue, J.; Kramer, C. A.; Fischer, D.; Edwards, R.; Chambers, S. K.

    1989-01-01

    Six-micron paraffin sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed specimens of 24 ovarian benign and neoplastic specimens were assayed for tumor cell-specific oncogene expression by a sensitive, quantitative in situ hybridization technique with probes for 17 oncogenes, beta-actin, and E. coli beta-lactamase. In the benign, borderline, and invasive adenocarcinomas, multiple oncogenes, including neu, fes, fms, Ha-ras, trk, c-myc, fos, and PDGF-A chains, were expressed at significant levels relative to a housekeeping gene (beta-actin). In the mixed-Mullerian tumors, a rather different pattern of oncogene expression was observed, characterized primarily by expression of sis (PDGF-B chain). For the adenocarcinomas, statistical analysis demonstrated that expression of several genes (fms, neu, PDGF-A) was closely linked to others (c-fos, c-myc) known to have important roles in the control of cell proliferation, but only one gene, fms, correlated very strongly with clinicopathologic features (high FIGO histologic grade and high FIGO clinical stage) predictive of aggressive clinical behavior and poor outcome. The authors discuss the role that tumor epithelial cell expression of the fms gene product might play in the auto- and paracrine control of growth and dissemination of ovarian adenocarcinomas. Images FIG. 1 PMID:2556864

  4. The prognostic value of epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA expression in primary ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, J. M.; Langdon, S. P.; Simpson, B. J.; Stewart, M.; Katsaros, D.; Sismondi, P.; Love, S.; Scott, W. N.; Williams, A. R.; Lessells, A. M.; Macleod, K. G.; Smyth, J. F.; Miller, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    The expression of mRNA for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) was determined in 76 malignant, six borderline and 15 benign primary ovarian tumours using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and related to clinical and pathological parameters. Of the malignant tumours, 70% (53/76) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 31% (23/75) expressed EGF mRNA and 35% (26/75) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. For the borderline tumours, four of six (67%) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 1/6 (17%) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA and none expressed EGF mRNA. Finally, 33% (5/15) of the benign tumours expressed EGF receptor mRNA, whereas 40% (6/15) expressed EGF mRNA and 7% (1/15) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. The presence of the EGF receptor in malignant tumours was associated with that of TGF-alpha (P = 0.0015) but not with EGF (P = 1.00), whereas there was no relationship between the presence of EGF and TGF-alpha (P = 1.00). EGF receptor mRNA expression was significantly and positively associated with serous histology (P = 0.006) but not with stage or grade. Neither EGF nor TGF-alpha showed any link with histological subtype or stage. The survival of patients with malignant tumours possessing EGF receptor mRNA was significantly reduced compared with that of patients whose tumours were negative (P = 0.030 for all malignant tumours; P = 0.007 for malignant epithelial tumours only). In contrast, neither the expression of TGF-alpha nor EGF was related to survival. These data suggest that the presence of EGF receptor mRNA is associated with poor prognosis in primary ovarian cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8562334

  5. Serum folate receptor alpha as a biomarker for ovarian cancer: Implications for diagnosis, prognosis and predicting its local tumor expression.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Akira; Hasegawa, Kosei; Kato, Tomomi; Abe, Kenji; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Miyara, Akiko; O'Shannessy, Daniel J; Somers, Elizabeth B; Yasuda, Masanori; Sekino, Tetsuo; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2016-04-15

    Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a GPI-anchored glycoprotein and encoded by the FOLR1 gene. High expression of FRA is observed in specific malignant tumors of epithelial origin, including ovarian cancer, but exhibits very limited normal tissue expression, making it as an attractive target for the ovarian cancer therapy. FRA is known to shed from the cell surface into the circulation which allows for its measurement in the serum of patients. Recently, methods to detect the soluble form of FRA have been developed and serum FRA (sFRA) is considered a highly promising biomarker for ovarian cancer. We prospectively investigated the levels of sFRA in patients clinically suspected of having malignant ovarian tumors. A total of 231 patients were enrolled in this study and analyzed for sFRA as well as tumor expression of FRA by immunohistochemistry. High sFRA was predominantly observed in epithelial ovarian cancer patients, but not in patients with benign or borderline gynecological disease or metastatic ovarian tumors from advanced colorectal cancers. Levels of sFRA were highly correlated to clinical stage, tumor grade and histological type and demonstrated superior accuracy for the detection of ovarian cancer than did serum CA125. High sFRA was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival in both early and advanced ovarian cancer patients. Finally, tumor FRA expression status was strongly correlated with sFRA levels. Taken together, these data suggest that sFRA might be a useful noninvasive serum biomarkers for future clinical trials assessing FRA-targeted therapy.

  6. Differential Effects of Estradiol and Bisphenol A on SET8 and SIRT1 Expression in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Laura; Weening, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to estrogenic compounds has been shown to epigenetically reprogram the female reproductive tract and may contribute to ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to compare the effect of estradiol or bisphenol A (BPA) on the expression of histone-modifying enzymes (HMEs) in ovarian cancer cells. Using 2 human ovarian cancer cell lines, we examined the expression of SET8, a histone methyltransferase, and SIRT1, a histone deacetylase, after exposure to estrogen or BPA. These experiments were carried out in complete media (fetal bovine serum) that contain natural hormones to understand the impact of additional exposure to estrogen or BPA on HME expression. We found differential expression of the HMEs in the different models examined and between the different compounds. Further, we determined that the changes in gene expression occurred via estrogen receptor signaling using the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant). PMID:27114721

  7. Differential Effects of Estradiol and Bisphenol A on SET8 and SIRT1 Expression in Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Laura; Weening, Allison; Morey, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to estrogenic compounds has been shown to epigenetically reprogram the female reproductive tract and may contribute to ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to compare the effect of estradiol or bisphenol A (BPA) on the expression of histone-modifying enzymes (HMEs) in ovarian cancer cells. Using 2 human ovarian cancer cell lines, we examined the expression of SET8, a histone methyltransferase, and SIRT1, a histone deacetylase, after exposure to estrogen or BPA. These experiments were carried out in complete media (fetal bovine serum) that contain natural hormones to understand the impact of additional exposure to estrogen or BPA on HME expression. We found differential expression of the HMEs in the different models examined and between the different compounds. Further, we determined that the changes in gene expression occurred via estrogen receptor signaling using the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant). PMID:27114721

  8. Rac1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer: effect on cell EMT and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ruobing; Liao, Gang; Wang, Haixia; Kuang, Jun; Tang, Liangdan

    2015-02-01

    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rac1) has been implicated in tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, limited information is available regarding the role of rac1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of rac1 expression with EMT and EOC prognosis. Rac1 protein levels of 150 EOC specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Survival analysis was performed to determine the correlation between rac1 expression and survival. Cellular and molecular changes were also examined after rac1 in ovarian cancer cells was silenced in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of rac1 on EMT was investigated by Western blot analysis. Rac1 was highly expressed in EOC. Rac1 overexpression was closely associated with advanced stage based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, poor grade, serum Ca-125, and residual tumor size. Survival analyses demonstrated that patients with high rac1 expression levels were more susceptible to early tumor recurrence with very poor prognosis. This study revealed that rac1 downregulation decreased cell EMT and proliferation capability in vitro and in vivo. Rac1 expression possibly altered cell EMT by interacting with p21-activated kinase 1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. The present study showed that rac1 overexpression is associated with cell EMT and poor EOC prognosis. Rac1 possibly plays an important role in predicting EOC metastasis.

  9. Rac1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer: effect on cell EMT and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ruobing; Liao, Gang; Wang, Haixia; Kuang, Jun; Tang, Liangdan

    2015-02-01

    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rac1) has been implicated in tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, limited information is available regarding the role of rac1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of rac1 expression with EMT and EOC prognosis. Rac1 protein levels of 150 EOC specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Survival analysis was performed to determine the correlation between rac1 expression and survival. Cellular and molecular changes were also examined after rac1 in ovarian cancer cells was silenced in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of rac1 on EMT was investigated by Western blot analysis. Rac1 was highly expressed in EOC. Rac1 overexpression was closely associated with advanced stage based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, poor grade, serum Ca-125, and residual tumor size. Survival analyses demonstrated that patients with high rac1 expression levels were more susceptible to early tumor recurrence with very poor prognosis. This study revealed that rac1 downregulation decreased cell EMT and proliferation capability in vitro and in vivo. Rac1 expression possibly altered cell EMT by interacting with p21-activated kinase 1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. The present study showed that rac1 overexpression is associated with cell EMT and poor EOC prognosis. Rac1 possibly plays an important role in predicting EOC metastasis. PMID:25585684

  10. Expression of high-affinity IL-4 receptors on human melanoma, ovarian and breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, N I; Siegel, J P; Varricchio, F; Puri, R K

    1994-01-01

    It has previously been shown that murine sarcoma cells express high-affinity IL-4 receptors (IL-4R) which are internalized after binding to the ligand (Puri et al., Cancer Res 1991; 51:3011-7). We have also reported that human renal cell carcinoma cells express high-affinity IL-4R, and IL-4 inhibits tumour growth in vitro (Obiri et al., J Clin Invest 1993; 91:88). In this study we investigated the expression and function of IL-4R on other human solid tumours. Human melanoma, ovarian carcinoma and breast carcinoma cell lines were assessed for the cell surface expression of IL-4R by radio-ligand receptor binding and for IL-4R gene expression by Northern blot analysis. Primary cultures of mesothelioma and neurofibrosarcoma cells were similarly investigated. Human melanoma, ovarian carcinoma and breast carcinoma cell lines expressed IL-4R on their cell surface with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 140-549 pM. These tumour lines expressed a single 4 kb species of mRNA for IL-4R. Similarly, primary cultures of mesothelioma and neurofibrosarcoma cells were positive for the IL-4R mRNA by Northern blot analysis. Fresh, non-cultured mesothelioma and neurofibrosarcoma tumour sections were also positive for the presence of IL-4R as determined by immunohistochemistry of frozen sections using anti-IL-4R antibody. In order to study possible functions of IL-4R, we evaluated the effects of IL-4 on cell growth and its effect on MHC antigen expression in the presence or absence of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In tissue culture, IL-4 reduced the growth of tumour cell lines and primary cell cultures studied. IL-4 had very little effect on MHC class I antigen expression on ovarian, breast and melanoma cell lines; however, MHC class II (HLA-DR) expression was enhanced on melanoma and breast carcinoma cells. IL-4 also enhanced the IFN-gamma-induced class II expression on melanoma and breast carcinoma cells. Taken together, our observations indicate that IL-4R are expressed on a variety of

  11. Changes of HMGB1 expression on angiogenesis of ovarian cancer and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L Y; Shi, L Y; Xiao, Y

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the changes of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) expression and its effects on regulating the angiogenesis of ovarian cancer. HMGB1 eukaryotic expression plasmid and artificially synthesized small interfering ribose nucleic acid (siRNA) were constructed to transfer SKOV3 cell, respectively. Western blot was adopted to investigate the changes of HMGB1, CXCL12 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) before and after the transfection and flow cytometry (FCM) was applied to detect SKOV3 apoptosis. Results revealed that the apoptosis rates of SKOV3 cell were 32.8±2.2%, 33.9±1.9% and 11.7±1%, respectively, in the control group, no-load group and transfection group after 2-d cisplatin treatment (10 μg/mL). The apoptosis rate in the transfection group was obviously lower than that in the control group and no-load group (p = 0.00) while no significant difference was found in the apoptosis rate in the other two groups (p = 0.75). Furthermore, the apoptosis rates of SKOV3 cell in the SKOV3 group, negative control group, SKOV3-ribose nucleic acid interfere (RNAi) group were 7.9±0.5%, 8.3±0.8% and 29.5±1.3% respectively. The apoptosis rate was notably higher in SKOV3-RNAi group than in the SKOV3 group and negative control group (p < 0.001) while no significant difference was found in the apoptosis rate in the other two groups (p = 0.89). Thus, it can be concluded that HMGB1 interference can reduce VEGF and CXCL12 expression in ovarian cancer cells, but increase the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, HMGB1 is highly expressed in cytoplasm and karyon. PMID:27049097

  12. Expression Profiling of Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Tumors Reveals Differences Indicative of Aggressive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Alexander S.; Fischer, Andrew; Miller, Daniel H.; Vang, Souriya; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Yu, Jovian; Steinhoff, Margaret; Collins, Colin; Smith, Peter J. S.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Brard, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The behavior and genetics of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) metastasis, the form of the disease lethal to patients, is poorly understood. The unique properties of metastases are critical to understand to improve treatments of the disease that remains in patients after debulking surgery. We sought to identify the genetic and phenotypic landscape of metastatic progression of EOC to understand how metastases compare to primary tumors. DNA copy number and mRNA expression differences between matched primary human tumors and omental metastases, collected at the same time during debulking surgery before chemotherapy, were measured using microarrays. qPCR and immunohistochemistry validated findings. Pathway analysis of mRNA expression revealed metastatic cancer cells are more proliferative and less apoptotic than primary tumors, perhaps explaining the aggressive nature of these lesions. Most cases had copy number aberrations (CNAs) that differed between primary and metastatic tumors, but we did not detect CNAs that are recurrent across cases. A six gene expression signature distinguishes primary from metastatic tumors and predicts overall survival in independent datasets. The genetic differences between primary and metastatic tumors, yet common expression changes, suggest that the major clone in metastases is not the same as in primary tumors, but the cancer cells adapt to the omentum similarly. Together, these data highlight how ovarian tumors develop into a distinct, more aggressive metastatic state that should be considered for therapy development. PMID:24732363

  13. Extracellular matrix proteins expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly--over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis.

  14. Immuno-stimultory/regulatory gene expression patterns in advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Kevin H.; Weir, Isabelle; Tsuji, Takemasa; Odunsi, Kunle

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that a high degree of tumor-infiltrating T cells is associated with ovarian cancer prognosis. We hypothesized that tumors display an immune-related program of transcription that can act in a stimulatory or a regulatory manner. We analyzed transcriptome-wide gene expression data from 503 ovarian tumors from the Cancer Genome Atlas to identify genes that show differential prognoses when stratified by CD3 expression. Genes with immunological functions and tumor antigen genes were selected for analysis. We repeated our analysis in an independent validation study. Five genes showed stimulatory/regulatory patterns at a high level of confidence (Bonferroni p < 0.05). Three of these (MAGEA8, MPL, AMHR2) were validated and one (WT1) could not be evaluated. These patterns show specific prognostic effect only in conjunction with CD3 expression. When patients express multiple transcripts in poor prognosis directions, there is a dose response: increasingly regulatory type tumors are associated with higher stage, lower treatment response and shorter overall survival and progression free survival. The high-confidence set of transcripts (MAGEA8, MPL, AMHR2, WT1) and selected low-confidence hits (EPOR, TLR7) alone or in combination represent candidate prognosis markers for further investigation. PMID:26622942

  15. Bisdemethoxycurcumin inhibits ovarian cancer via reducing oxidative stress mediated MMPs expressions

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Haifeng; Yang, Yi; Cui, Lin; Yang, Jiong; Li, Xiuchuan; Yang, Yongjian; Duan, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    As one main active compound of curcuminoids, Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) possesses several biological activities, such as anti-inflammation and anti-cancer activities. However, the detailed mechanism of BDMC’s anti-metastasis activity in ovarian cancer has not been clearly elucidated yet. In the present study, cell proliferation, wound healing motility, cell adhesion and invasion with or without BDMC were determined. In addition, western blot was used to examine proteins expressions. The lucigenin-enhanced luminescence was introduced to assess cellular oxidative stress. The luciferase reporter gene assay was introduced to evaluate the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Finally, BDMC significantly inhibited the adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis of SKOV-3 cells. Moreover, BDMC inhibited expressions of several degradation-associated proteins, such as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), CD147, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), whereas increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BDMC reduced generation of cellular superoxide in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, BDMC inhibited the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65 and IκB-α, and consequently reduced NF-κB-driven luciferase expression. Collectively, BDMC serves as a therapeutic medicine to suppress ovarian cancer, perhaps via inhibiting cellular oxidative stress and subsequently inactivating NF-κB pathway. PMID:27349797

  16. High concordance of gene expression profiling-correlated immunohistochemistry algorithms in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hee Sang; Park, Chan-Sik; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2014-08-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is classified into prognostically distinct germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell subtypes by gene expression profiling (GEP). Recent reports suggest the role of GEP subtypes in targeted therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) algorithms have been proposed as surrogates of GEP, but their utility remains controversial. Using microarray, we examined the concordance of 4 GEP-correlated and 2 non-GEP-correlated IHC algorithms in 381 DLBCLs, not otherwise specified. Subtypes and variants of DLBCL were excluded to minimize the possible confounding effect on prognosis and phenotype. Survival was analyzed in 138 cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-treated and 147 rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP)-treated patients. Of the GEP-correlated algorithms, high concordance was observed among Hans, Choi, and Visco-Young algorithms (total concordance, 87.1%; κ score: 0.726 to 0.889), whereas Tally algorithm exhibited slightly lower concordance (total concordance 77.4%; κ score: 0.502 to 0.643). Two non-GEP-correlated algorithms (Muris and Nyman) exhibited poor concordance. Compared with the Western data, incidence of the non-GCB subtype was higher in all algorithms. Univariate analysis showed prognostic significance for Hans, Choi, and Visco-Young algorithms and BCL6, GCET1, LMO2, and BCL2 in CHOP-treated patients. On multivariate analysis, Hans algorithm retained its prognostic significance. By contrast, neither the algorithms nor individual antigens predicted survival in R-CHOP treatment. The high concordance among GEP-correlated algorithms suggests their usefulness as reliable discriminators of molecular subtype in DLBCL, not otherwise specified. Our study also indicates that prognostic significance of IHC algorithms may be limited in R-CHOP-treated Asian patients because of the predominance of the non-GCB type. PMID:24705314

  17. High concordance of gene expression profiling-correlated immunohistochemistry algorithms in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hee Sang; Park, Chan-Sik; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2014-08-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is classified into prognostically distinct germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell subtypes by gene expression profiling (GEP). Recent reports suggest the role of GEP subtypes in targeted therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) algorithms have been proposed as surrogates of GEP, but their utility remains controversial. Using microarray, we examined the concordance of 4 GEP-correlated and 2 non-GEP-correlated IHC algorithms in 381 DLBCLs, not otherwise specified. Subtypes and variants of DLBCL were excluded to minimize the possible confounding effect on prognosis and phenotype. Survival was analyzed in 138 cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-treated and 147 rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP)-treated patients. Of the GEP-correlated algorithms, high concordance was observed among Hans, Choi, and Visco-Young algorithms (total concordance, 87.1%; κ score: 0.726 to 0.889), whereas Tally algorithm exhibited slightly lower concordance (total concordance 77.4%; κ score: 0.502 to 0.643). Two non-GEP-correlated algorithms (Muris and Nyman) exhibited poor concordance. Compared with the Western data, incidence of the non-GCB subtype was higher in all algorithms. Univariate analysis showed prognostic significance for Hans, Choi, and Visco-Young algorithms and BCL6, GCET1, LMO2, and BCL2 in CHOP-treated patients. On multivariate analysis, Hans algorithm retained its prognostic significance. By contrast, neither the algorithms nor individual antigens predicted survival in R-CHOP treatment. The high concordance among GEP-correlated algorithms suggests their usefulness as reliable discriminators of molecular subtype in DLBCL, not otherwise specified. Our study also indicates that prognostic significance of IHC algorithms may be limited in R-CHOP-treated Asian patients because of the predominance of the non-GCB type.

  18. Candidate Gene Expression in Bos indicus Ovarian Tissues: Prepubertal and Postpubertal Heifers in Diestrus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Fortes, Marina Rufino S.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Kelly, Matthew; Venus, Bronwyn; Kidd, Lisa; do Rego, João Paulo Arcelino; Edwards, Sophia; Boe-Hansen, Gry B.; Piper, Emily; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Moore, Stephen Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase). Six postpubertal (POST) heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six prepubertal (PRE) heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1, and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1, and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the downregulation of LHR and upregulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Upregulation of IGF1 expression prepuberty, compared to postpuberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r

  19. Expression of Gab1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingling; Liu, Ruilei

    2016-01-01

    Growth factor receptor-bound protein-2 (Grb2) can act as the scaffold protein recruiting other molecules to the stimulated receptors. Grb2-associated binding protein 1 (Gab1) is involved in cell proliferation, and its expression may enhance the carcinogenesis and cancer progression. However, the function of Gab1 remains to be investigated. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy in the female reproductive system with increasing incidence and unsatisfied overall survival (OS). We investigated the expression of Gab1 in EOC tissues and the correlations between Gab1 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with EOC using Spearman rank test. The staining results were evaluated based on both the percentage of Gab1-positive tumor cells and the staining intensity for Gab1 expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis were used to compare the postoperative OS between EOC patients with high Gab1 expression and those with low Gab1 expression. The high expression of Gab1 was positively correlated with advanced FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis of EOC. Univariate analysis showed that advanced FIGO stage, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis or Gab1 expression were associated with poor OS. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that Gab1 expression could be an independent prognostic factor for the poor OS of EOC patients (P = 0.042). We propose that Gab1 expression is correlated with poor prognosis of EOC patients and may act as an independent prognostic indicator. PMID:27302321

  20. Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in bovine ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zamberlam, Gustavo; Portela, Valério; de Oliveira, João Francisco C; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Price, Christopher A

    2011-03-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potential regulator of ovarian follicle growth, and ovarian granulosa cells reportedly generate NO in response to gonadotrophins, suggesting that the regulated form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is present. The objectives of the present study were to gain insight into the expression and role of iNOS in the follicle. Messenger RNA encoding iNOS was detected in granulosa cells, and abundance was higher in growing dominant follicles compared to subordinate follicles (P<0.01). FSH (P<0.05) and IGF1 (P<0.01) stimulated oestradiol secretion and iNOS mRNA abundance in granulosa cells in vitro, whereas FGF2 (P<0.05) and EGF (P<0.01) decreased oestradiol secretion and iNOS expression. The addition of an anti-oestrogen prevented FSH-induced iNOS mRNA accumulation. Inhibition of endogenous NO production did not affect steroidogenesis in granulosa cells, but increased FasL mRNA abundance, caspase-3 activation and the incidence of apoptotic cell death (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that iNOS is expressed in ruminant granulosa cells and is regulated by gonadotrophins and oestradiol. Physiological levels of NO may contribute to the survival of granulosa cells. PMID:21256181

  1. miR-92a inhibits peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer cells by inhibiting integrin α5 expression.

    PubMed

    Ohyagi-Hara, Chifumi; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kamiura, Shoji; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Isobe, Aki; Hashimoto, Kae; Kinose, Yasuto; Mabuchi, Seiji; Hisamatsu, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Nagata, Shigenori; Morishige, Ken-Ichirou; Lengyel, Ernst; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2013-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by widespread peritoneal dissemination and ascites and has a cure rate of only 30%. As has been previously reported, integrin α5 plays a key role in the peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer. Our aim was to identify a new miRNA that regulates integrin α5 expression and analyze the therapeutic potential of targeting this miRNA. By using an IHC analysis, we proved that high integrin α5 expression correlates with a poor prognosis in Japanese patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III ovarian cancer. Based on an miRNA algorithm search, we identified hsa-mir-92a (miR-92a) as a candidate. The level of miR-92a expression was significantly inversely correlated with ITGA5 expression in various cancer cells. Transfection of precursor miR-92a reduced integrin α5 expression in ovarian cancer cells, which was accompanied by the inhibition of cancer cell adhesion, invasion, and proliferation. miR-92a overexpression reduced the luciferase activity of the ITGA5 3'-untranslated region, suggesting that ITGA5 mRNA is a direct target of miR-92a. In in vivo ovarian cancer xenografts, the enforced expression of miR-92a in HeyA-8 cells suppressed peritoneal dissemination. Although we still have a long way to go before an effective and nontoxic miRNA-based cancer therapy can be introduced into the clinic, the inhibition of integrin α5 expression by targeting miR-92a needs to be explored further for future applications in ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:23499550

  2. Transcription factor AP-2γ induces early Cdx2 expression and represses HIPPO signaling to specify the trophectoderm lineage

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zubing; Carey, Timothy S.; Ganguly, Avishek; Wilson, Catherine A.; Paul, Soumen; Knott, Jason G.

    2015-01-01

    Cell fate decisions are fundamental to the development of multicellular organisms. In mammals the first cell fate decision involves segregation of the pluripotent inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, a process regulated by cell polarity proteins, HIPPO signaling and lineage-specific transcription factors such as CDX2. However, the regulatory mechanisms that operate upstream to specify the trophectoderm lineage have not been established. Here we report that transcription factor AP-2γ (TFAP2C) functions as a novel upstream regulator of Cdx2 expression and position-dependent HIPPO signaling in mice. Loss- and gain-of-function studies and promoter analysis revealed that TFAP2C binding to an intronic enhancer is required for activation of Cdx2 expression during early development. During the 8-cell to morula transition TFAP2C potentiates cell polarity to suppress HIPPO signaling in the outside blastomeres. TFAP2C depletion triggered downregulation of PARD6B, loss of apical cell polarity, disorganization of F-actin, and activation of HIPPO signaling in the outside blastomeres. Rescue experiments using Pard6b mRNA restored cell polarity but only partially corrected position-dependent HIPPO signaling, suggesting that TFAP2C negatively regulates HIPPO signaling via multiple pathways. Several genes involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton (including Rock1, Rock2) were downregulated in TFAP2C-depleted embryos. Inhibition of ROCK1 and ROCK2 activity during the 8-cell to morula transition phenocopied TFAP2C knockdown, triggering a loss of position-dependent HIPPO signaling and decrease in Cdx2 expression. Altogether, these results demonstrate that TFAP2C facilitates trophectoderm lineage specification by functioning as a key regulator of Cdx2 transcription, cell polarity and position-dependent HIPPO signaling. PMID:25858457

  3. β-Catenin Expression Pattern in Stage I and II Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Gamallo, Carlos; Palacios, José; Moreno, Gema; Calvo de Mora, Jorge; Suárez, Asunción; Armas, Alvaro

    1999-01-01

    The immunohistochemical expression pattern of β-catenin has been correlated with β-catenin gene mutations, clinicopathological features, and disease outcome in 69 stage I and II ovarian carcinomas. β-Catenin expression was localized in the nuclei, in addition to the cytoplasm and membrane, in 11 tumors (16%): nine endometrioid carcinomas with widespread nuclear expression and two serous carcinomas with focal nuclear expression. The remaining 58 carcinomas (84%) only had membranous β-catenin expression. All but one of the endometrioid carcinomas with nuclear β-catenin expression had considerable squamous metaplasia, and five of these cases had large areas of endometrioid tumor of low malignant potential. In addition, β-catenin nuclear expression was observed in atypical epithelial cells in endometriotic glands adjacent to an endometrioid carcinoma. Sequencing was performed on 25 tumors and corresponding normal tissue: all 13 endometrioid tumors as well as 12 carcinomas of other histological types (four serous, two clear cell, two mucinous, and two mixed). There were oncogenic mutations in the phosphorylation sequence for GSK-3β in exon 3 of the β-catenin gene in seven endometrioid carcinomas with β-catenin nuclear expression. Three mutations affected codon 32 (D32G, D32Y, and D32Y), one affected codon 33 (S33C), two affected codon 37 (S37C and S37F), and one affected codon 41 (T41A). No mutations were observed in the other 18 carcinomas analyzed, comprising two endometrioid and two serous carcinomas with β-catenin nuclear expression, and 14 carcinomas of different histological types with only membranous expression. In the univariate and multivariate survival analyses, β-catenin nuclear expression was selected as an indicator of good prognosis, because no patient whose tumor expressed β-catenin in the nuclei showed relapses or died, in contrast to the 19 relapses and deaths among patients with tumors that only had β-catenin membranous expression

  4. Does Aquaporin-1 expression have clinical significance in serous epithelial ovarian cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Takal, Mustafa Kemal; Baykal, Cem; Başer, Eralp; Kaya, Mustafa Derda; Dursun, Polat; Özen, Özlem; Haberal, Asuman Nihan; Ayhan, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) expression and clinicopathological variables in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Material and Methods Serous EOC cases treated in our institution between January 2007 and December 2009 were included in the study. A semi-quantitative immunohistochemical method was used to determine AQP1 expression levels, intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) and AQP1/IMD ratios. The relationship between these parameters and clinicopathological variables were assessed. P values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 55 cases of serous EOC were included in the study. AQP1 was strongly expressed in the membranes of microvessels and small vessels within all tumor tissues. In a few cases, AQP1 expression was also observed in the membrane of interstitial cells and in individual tumor cells. A positive correlation was detected between preoperative CA125 levels and the expression of AQP1 (R: 0.277, p<0.05). AQP1 expression was similar between FIGO stage I–II and FIGO stage III–IV cases (p > 0.05). A significant relationship did not exist between AQP1 expression and FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis or ascites volume (p>0.05). Conclusion In this study, AQP1 expression did not have a significant association with important clinicopathological variables in serous EOC. Future studies are needed to determine AQP1 expression in other histological types of EOC. PMID:24592091

  5. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Armenti, AnnMarie E; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 microg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P<0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P<0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor beta was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P<0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P<0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  6. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  7. Differential Granulosa Cell Gene Expression in Young Women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Greenseid, Keri; Jindal, Sangita; Hurwitz, Joshua; Santoro, Nanette; Pal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate if a diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is associated with a differential gene profile of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) in infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Design: Prospective Cohort Study. Setting: Academic IVF Program. Patients: Infertile women <38 years were prospectively enrolled into 2 groups: normal ovarian reserve (NOR, follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] < 10 mIU/mL, n = 4) and DOR (FSH ≥ 10.0 mIU/mL, n = 4). Interventions: Cumulus (C) and mural (M) GCs were isolated at egg retrieval; messenger RNA was extracted and transcribed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Differential gene expression in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) in the 2 groups was assessed by cDNA microarray. Microarray findings were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) in CGCs and explored in multinucleated giant cells (MGCs). Results: Of the 1256 differentially regulated genes identified in CGCs of women with DOR, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family was a biologically relevant gene family of a priori interest. Downregulation of IGF1 and IGF2 ligands (−3.28- and −2.54–fold, respectively), and their receptors, (−3.53- and −1.32-fold downregulation of IGF1R and IGF2R, respectively) was identified in luteinized CGCs in women with DOR compared to those with NOR. Downregulation of both IGF1 and IGF 2 ligands (−4.35- and 3.89-fold, respectively) was furthermore observed in MGCs in women with DOR compared to those with NOR; no differences in the expression of respective receptors were however observed in MGCs in the 2 groups. Conclusions: Components of the IGF gene family are downregulated in GCs of women with DOR. These findings maybe contributory to the reproductive compromise observed in women with DOR, and merit further exploration. PMID:21846690

  8. MicroRNA-106a regulates phosphatase and tensin homologue expression and promotes the proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Fang; Sheng, Xiu-Gui; Zhang, Shi-Qian; Chen, Yue-Ting; Liu, Bo-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of malignant gynecological tumor-related mortality among women. The treatment of ovarian cancer patients continues to be challenging. MicroRNA‑106a (miR‑106a) is widely expressed in diverse human tumors. In the present study, we investigated the biological and pathological roles of miR-106a in ovarian cancers. We found that miR-106a expression was significantly increased in primary ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cells compared with the level in normal tissues. Ectopic expression of an miR-106a inhibitor attenuated ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion. miR-106a promoted the growth and invasion of SKOV3 cells by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Furthermore, the present study revealed that IL-6 inhibited miR-106a expression by activating STAT3. Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-human IL-6R antibody, that competitively inhibits IL-6/IL-6R signaling, did not inhibit the proliferation and invasion of SKOV3 cells. In conclusion, our studies revealed that miR-106a was significantly increased in the ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Downregulation of the expression of miR-106a inhibited cell growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. Together, the present study suggests that miR‑106a acts as an oncogene in ovarian cancers. PMID:27510094

  9. Expression of Fatty Acid Synthase Depends on NAC1 and Is Associated with Recurrent Ovarian Serous Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Stefanie M; Yap, Kai Lee; Davidson, Ben; Tian, Yuan; Murthy, Vivek; Wang, Tian-Li; Visvanathan, Kala; Kuhajda, Francis P; Bristow, Robert E; Zhang, Hui; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Our previous reports demonstrated that NAC1, a BTB/POZ domain-containing nuclear protein, upregulates in recurrent ovarian serous carcinoma and participates in developing drug resistance in cancer cells. The current study applies quantitative proteomics to identify the proteins controlled by NAC1 by comparing the proteomes of SKOV3 cells with and without expression of a dominant negative NAC1 construct, N130. From the proteins that are downregulated by N130 (upregulated by NAC1), we chose to further characterize fatty acid synthase (FASN). Similar to change in protein level, the FASN transcript level in SKOV3 cells was significantly reduced by N130 induction or by NAC1 knockdown. Immunohistochemistry showed that NAC1 and FASN immunointensities in ovarian serous carcinoma tissues had a highly significant correlation (P < .0001). Moreover, we found that recurrent serous carcinomas exhibited higher FASN immunointensities than their matched primary tumors (P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that an FASN staining score of >1 in serous carcinomas was associated with a worse overall survival time (P < .01). Finally, C93, a new FASN inhibitor, induced massive apoptosis in carboplatin/paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. In conclusion, we show that NAC1 is essential for FASN expression in ovarian serous carcinomas and the expression of FASN significantly correlates with tumor recurrence and disease aggressiveness. The dependence of drug resistant tumor cells on FASN suggests a potential application of FASN-based therapeutics for recurrent ovarian cancer patients.

  10. Effects of deletion of the prolactin receptor on ovarian gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Grosdemouge, Isabelle; Bachelot, Anne; Lucas, Aurélie; Baran, Nathalie; Kelly, Paul A; Binart, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) exerts pleiotropic physiological effects in various cells and tissues, and is mainly considered as a regulator of reproduction and cell growth. Null mutation of the PRL receptor (R) gene leads to female sterility due to a complete failure of embryo implantation. Pre-implantatory egg development, implantation and decidualization in the mouse appear to be dependent on ovarian rather than uterine PRLR expression, since progesterone replacement permits the rescue of normal implantation and early pregnancy. To better understand PRL receptor deficiency, we analyzed in detail ovarian and corpora lutea development of PRLR-/- females. The present study demonstrates that the ovulation rate is not different between PRLR+/+ and PRLR-/- mice. The corpus luteum is formed but an elevated level of apoptosis and extensive inhibition of angiogenesis occur during the luteal transition in the absence of prolactin signaling. These modifications lead to the decrease of LH receptor expression and consequently to a loss of the enzymatic cascades necessary to produce adequate levels of progesterone which are required for the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:12646063

  11. Expression and prognostic significance of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR) has previously been associated with a favourable prognosis in a few cancer forms, but its expression and relationship with clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the clinicopathological correlates and prognostic significance of PIGR expression in EOC. Methods After an initial screening in the Human Protein Atlas portal, a validated antibody was selected for extended analysis of immunohistochemical PIGR expression in tissue microarrays with tumours from 154 incident cases of EOC from two pooled prospective population-based cohorts. Subsets of corresponding benign-appearing fallopian tubes (n = 38) and omental metastases (n = 33) were also analysed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were applied to examine the impact of PIGR expression on overall survival (OS) and ovarian cancer-specific survival (OCSS). Results PIGR expression was significantly higher in fallopian tubes compared to primary tumours and metastases (p < 0.001) and lower in carcinoma of the serous subtype compared to other carcinomas (p < 0.001). PIGR expression was significantly associated with lower grade (p = 0.001), mucinous histological subtype (p = 0.002), positive progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.009) and negative or low Ki-67 expression (p = 0.003). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly improved OS (p = 0.013) and OCSS (p = 0.009) for patients with tumours displaying high expression of PIGR. These associations were confirmed in unadjusted Cox regression analysis (HR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.26-0.87; p = 0.015 for OS and HR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.82; p = 0.011 for OCSS) but did not remain significant after adjustment for age, grade and clinical stage. Conclusions This study provides a first demonstration of PIGR expression in human fallopian tubes, primary EOC

  12. Preferential Allele Expression Analysis Identifies Shared Germline and Somatic Driver Genes in Advanced Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Najeeb M; Martinez, Alejandra; Al-Farsi, Halema; Mery, Eliane; Puydenus, Laurence; Pujol, Pascal; Khalak, Hanif G; McLurcan, Cameron; Ferron, Gwenael; Querleu, Denis; Al-Azwani, Iman; Al-Dous, Eman; Mohamoud, Yasmin A; Malek, Joel A; Rafii, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genes where a variant allele is preferentially expressed in tumors could lead to a better understanding of cancer biology and optimization of targeted therapy. However, tumor sample heterogeneity complicates standard approaches for detecting preferential allele expression. We therefore developed a novel approach combining genome and transcriptome sequencing data from the same sample that corrects for sample heterogeneity and identifies significant preferentially expressed alleles. We applied this analysis to epithelial ovarian cancer samples consisting of matched primary ovary and peritoneum and lymph node metastasis. We find that preferentially expressed variant alleles include germline and somatic variants, are shared at a relatively high frequency between patients, and are in gene networks known to be involved in cancer processes. Analysis at a patient level identifies patient-specific preferentially expressed alleles in genes that are targets for known drugs. Analysis at a site level identifies patterns of site specific preferential allele expression with similar pathways being impacted in the primary and metastasis sites. We conclude that genes with preferentially expressed variant alleles can act as cancer drivers and that targeting those genes could lead to new therapeutic strategies.

  13. Decreased expression of RNA interference machinery, Dicer and Drosha, is associated with poor outcome in ovarian cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, William M.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Han, Liz Y.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Spannuth, Whitney A.; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Urbauer, Diana; Pennacchio, Len A.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Zeidan, Alexandra; Wang, Hua; Mueller, Peter; Lenburg, Marc E.; Gray, Joe W.; Mok, Samuel; Birrer, Michael J.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L.; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Sood, Anil K.

    2008-05-06

    The clinical and functional significance of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, Dicer and Drosha, in ovarian cancer is not known and was examined. Dicer and Drosha expression was measured in ovarian cancer cell lines (n=8) and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer specimens (n=111) and correlated with clinical outcome. Validation was performed with previously published cohorts of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer patients. Anti-Galectin-3 siRNA and shRNA transfections were used for in vitro functional studies. Dicer and Drosha mRNA and protein levels were decreased in 37% to 63% of ovarian cancer cell lines and in 60% and 51% of human ovarian cancer specimens, respectively. Low Dicer was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (p=0.007), and low Drosha with suboptimal surgical cytoreduction (p=0.02). Tumors with both high Dicer and Drosha were associated with increased median patient survival (>11 years vs. 2.66 years for other groups; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, high Dicer (HR=0.48; p=0.02), high-grade histology (HR=2.46; p=0.03), and poor chemoresponse (HR=3.95; p<0.001) were identified as independent predictors of disease-specific survival. Findings of poor clinical outcome with low Dicer expression were validated in separate cohorts of cancer patients. Galectin-3 silencing with siRNA transfection was superior to shRNA in cell lines with low Dicer (78-95% vs. 4-8% compared to non-targeting sequences), and similar in cell lines with high Dicer. Our findings demonstrate the clinical and functional impact of RNAi machinery alterations in ovarian carcinoma and support the use of siRNA constructs that do not require endogenous Dicer and Drosha for therapeutic applications.

  14. Wnt ligands regulate Tkv expression to constrain Dpp activity in the Drosophila ovarian stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lichao; Wang, Huashan; Fan, Chao; Liu, Sen

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation is regulated by the niche, which provides localized molecules that favor self-renewal. In the Drosophila melanogaster female germline stem cell (GSC) niche, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), a fly transforming growth factor β molecule and well-established long-range morphogen, acts over one cell diameter to maintain the GSCs. Here, we show that Thickveins (Tkv; a type I receptor of Dpp) is highly expressed in stromal cells next to Dpp-producing cells and functions to remove excess Dpp outside the niche, thereby spatially restricting its activity. Interestingly, Tkv expression in these stromal cells is regulated by multiple Wnt ligands that are produced by the niche. Our data demonstrate a self-restraining mechanism by which the Drosophila ovarian GSC niche acts to define its own boundary. PMID:26008746

  15. S100A1 Expression in Ovarian and Endometrial Endometrioid Carcinomas Is a Prognostic Indicator of Relapse-Free Survival

    PubMed Central

    DeRycke, Melissa S.; Andersen, John D.; Harrington, Katherine M.; Pambuccian, Stefan E.; Kalloger, Steve E.; Boylan, Kristin L.M.; Argenta, Peter A.; Skubitz, Amy P.N.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to investigate the expression levels of S100A1 in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues to correlate S100A1 with subtype, stage, grade, and relapse-free survival. S100A1 messenger RNA and protein were up-regulated in ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors compared with normal ovarian cell lines and tissues by gene microarray analysis, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, and Western immunoblotting. In the study, 63.7% of serous, 21.2% of clear cell, 11.2% of endometrioid, and 3% of mucinous ovarian (1/31) cancers were S100A1+ by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays (n = 500). S100A1 expression increased with increasing Silverberg grade but not stage in serous tumors. Endometrial tissue microarrays (n = 127) were 9.4% S100A1+; no correlation with stage or grade and S100A1 was found. In the endometrioid subtype of ovarian and endometrial cancers, relapse-free survival was decreased for patients with S100A1+ tumors. These data suggest that S100A1 is a marker for poor prognosis of endometrioid subtypes of cancer. PMID:19926575

  16. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another. PMID:27157109

  17. Specifying Specification.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in ovarian serous carcinomas and its effect on tumor proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Gayatri; Crasta, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an endothelial mitogen, acts through VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) on the endothelial cells. During neoplastic transformation, it is hypothesized that the tumor expresses VEGF and also acquire VEGF receptor, enabling VEGF action in an autocrine and paracrine manner with varied effects on the tumor growth and progression. This study on ovarian serous carcinomas (OSCs) was done to determine the expression of VEGF and to correlate it with tumor proliferation. Material and Methods: Forty cases of OSCs were included. Immunohistochemistry was performed for VEGF and Ki-67. The VEGF slides were assigned an immunohistochemical score based on the staining intensity (a) and the percentage of tumor cells staining (b). The sum of both (a) and (b) ranged from 0-6. VEGF was considered positive when the score was more than 2. For Ki-67, maximally immunostained areas were selected; 500 cells counted and positive fraction determined. Mann Whitney test was used to determine the difference in the median value of Ki-67 between VEGF positive tumors and VEGF negative tumors. Results: Of the 40 cases, 32 cases had a VEGF score of >2 (positive) and 8 cases had VEGF score <2 (negative). The Ki-67 score ranged from 2-98%, with mean of 51%. The median Ki-67 index was much higher in VEGF positive cases as compared to VEGF negative tumors (57.5% vs. 40%). However, the difference in the two categories did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.45, Mann Whitney test). Conclusion: Ovarian serous carcinomas express VEGF in a significant number of cases (80% in the present study) although its potential mitogenic effect on tumor cells was not confirmed. PMID:24455566

  19. A comparison of ovarian follicular and luteal cell gene expression profiles provides insight into cellular identities and functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After ovulation, somatic cells of the ovarian follicle (theca and granulosa cells) become the small and large luteal cells of the corpus luteum. Aside from known cell type-specific receptors and steroidogenic enzymes, little is known about the differences in the gene expression profiles of these fou...

  20. Alterations in gene expression during fasting-induced atresia of early secondary ovarian follicles of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoji; Luckenbach, J Adam; Young, Graham; Swanson, Penny

    2016-11-01

    Molecular processes that either regulate ovarian atresia or are consequences of atresia are poorly understood in teleost fishes. We hypothesized that feed restriction that perturbs normal ovarian growth and induces follicular atresia would alter ovarian gene expression patterns. Previtellogenic, two-year old coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were subjected to prolonged fasting to induce atresia or maintained on a normal feeding schedule that would promote continued ovarian development. To identify genes that were specifically up- or down-regulated during oocyte growth in healthy, growing fish compared to fasted fish, reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were generated using ovaries from fed and fasted animals. Differential expression of genes identified by SSH was confirmed with quantitative PCR. The SSH library representing genes elevated in ovaries of fed fish relative to those of fasted fish contained steroidogenesis-related genes (e.g., hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase), Tgf-beta superfamily members (e.g., anti-Mullerian hormone) and cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins (e.g., type I keratin s8). Overall, these genes were associated with steroid production, cell proliferation and differentiation, and ovarian epithelialization. The library representing genes elevated in ovaries of fasted fish relative to fed fish contained genes associated with apoptosis (e.g., programmed cell death protein 4), cortical alveoli (e.g., alveolin), the zona pellucida (e.g., zona pellucida protein c), and microtubules (e.g., microtubule associated protein tau). Elevated expression of this suite of genes was likely associated with the initiation of atresia and/or a reduced rate of follicle development in response to fasting. This study revealed ovarian genes involved in normal early secondary oocyte growth and potential early markers of atresia.

  1. Alterations in gene expression during fasting-induced atresia of early secondary ovarian follicles of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoji; Luckenbach, J Adam; Young, Graham; Swanson, Penny

    2016-11-01

    Molecular processes that either regulate ovarian atresia or are consequences of atresia are poorly understood in teleost fishes. We hypothesized that feed restriction that perturbs normal ovarian growth and induces follicular atresia would alter ovarian gene expression patterns. Previtellogenic, two-year old coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were subjected to prolonged fasting to induce atresia or maintained on a normal feeding schedule that would promote continued ovarian development. To identify genes that were specifically up- or down-regulated during oocyte growth in healthy, growing fish compared to fasted fish, reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were generated using ovaries from fed and fasted animals. Differential expression of genes identified by SSH was confirmed with quantitative PCR. The SSH library representing genes elevated in ovaries of fed fish relative to those of fasted fish contained steroidogenesis-related genes (e.g., hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase), Tgf-beta superfamily members (e.g., anti-Mullerian hormone) and cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins (e.g., type I keratin s8). Overall, these genes were associated with steroid production, cell proliferation and differentiation, and ovarian epithelialization. The library representing genes elevated in ovaries of fasted fish relative to fed fish contained genes associated with apoptosis (e.g., programmed cell death protein 4), cortical alveoli (e.g., alveolin), the zona pellucida (e.g., zona pellucida protein c), and microtubules (e.g., microtubule associated protein tau). Elevated expression of this suite of genes was likely associated with the initiation of atresia and/or a reduced rate of follicle development in response to fasting. This study revealed ovarian genes involved in normal early secondary oocyte growth and potential early markers of atresia. PMID:27320185

  2. Interfering EZH2 Expression Reverses the Cisplatin Resistance in Human Ovarian Cancer by Inhibiting Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Jin, Long; Liu, Jia-Hua; Sui, Yu-Xia; Han, Li-Li; Shen, Xiao-Li

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of the inhibition of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) gene expression on the cisplatin resistance of the human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3/DDP, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. SKOV3/DDP cells were stably transfected with pSUPER-EZH2 (EZH2 RNA interference plasmid) or pcDNA3.1-EZH2 (EZH2 gene overexpression plasmid) using the lipofection method. Real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting confirmed that EZH2 expression was downregulated in pSUPER-EZH2-transfected cells. Flow cytometry revealed that EZH2 inhibition did not induce apoptosis, but significantly inhibited autophagy. In addition, it significantly increased the expression of the cellular senescence-signaling proteins p14(ARF), p16(INK4a), p53, pRb, and p21, and significantly decreased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1, CDK2, and H3K27me3. Cellular senescence was characterized by a significant increase in the G0/G1 ratio and the restoration of sensitivity to cisplatin in the drug-resistant cells. These findings suggest that interfering with EZH2 expression can inhibit SKOV3/DDP cell autophagy and reverse resistance to cisplatin. The underlying mechanisms could be associated with the regulation of the cellular senescence-signaling pathway. PMID:27610467

  3. Decreased expression of H3K27me3 in human ovarian carcinomas correlates with more aggressive tumor behavior and poor patient survival.

    PubMed

    He, W P; Li, Q; Zhou, J; H, Z S; Kung, H F; Guan, X Y; Xie, D; Yang, G F

    2015-01-01

    It has been confirmed that trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) plays an important role in epigenetic process of tumorigenesis. However, the status of H3K27me3 in ovarian cancer and its impact on patients' clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis are unclear. In the present study, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) was utilized to detect protein expression of H3K27me3 in 12 normal ovaries, 26 ovarian cystadenomas, 31 borderline ovarian tumors and 168 ovarian carcinomas by tissue microarray. The association between H3K27me3 expression with clinicopathologic features and patient prognosis were also evaluated using various statistical models. The expression of H3K27me3 was decreased in 2 of 12 (16.7%) cases of the normal ovaries, 8 of 26 (30.8%) cases of cystadenomas, 12 of 31 (38.7%) cases of borderline ovarian tumors, and 93 of 168 (55.4%) cases of primary ovarian carcinomas, respectively (P<0.05). Further correlation analysis suggested that decreased expression of H3K27me3 in ovarian carcinomas was significantly correlated with more advanced pM and FIGO stages (P<0.05). In addition, a significant association between decreased expression of H3K27me3 and shortened patient survival (mean 66 months versus 101 months, p=0.019) was demonstrated by univariate survival analysis of the ovarian carcinoma cohorts. Importantly, H3K27me3 expression provided a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (p=0.028). These findings confirmed that decreased expression of H3K27me3 in primary ovarian cancer might be correlated with the acquisition of an invasive and/or aggressive phenotype of tumor, and might serve as an independent biomarker for poor prognosis in patients with ovarian carcinoma.

  4. Protein levels and gene expressions of the epidermal growth factor receptors, HER1, HER2, HER3 and HER4 in benign and malignant ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Jeppesen, Ulla; Knudsen, Hans Jørgen; Brandslund, Ivan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-07-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptors, HER1, HER2, HER3 and HER4 play a key role in the growth of malignant tumors. The receptors of the EGF receptor family are not cancer-specific proteins since these receptors are expressed to some extent in both normal and benign tissue, but this is not elucidated in detail in ovarian tissue. High tumor-to-normal-tissue concentration ratios would be favorable for molecular targeted anti-cancer treatment. The primary aim of the study was to analyze the potential differential protein content and gene expression of the four receptors in benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Tissue from 207 patients (101 malignant, 19 borderline, 64 benign ovarian tumors and 23 normal ovaries) were analyzed by quantitative ELISA for HER1-HER4 protein concentrations and by real-time PCR for HER1-HER4 gene expression. HER2 was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The HER2-4 receptor protein content and the median gene expression level was significantly higher in ovarian cancer patients compared to patients with benign ovarian tumors and normal ovaries (p<0.0000001). The protein content of the HER1 receptor was significantly lower in ovarian cancer compared to borderline tumors (p=0.012), benign ovarian tumors (p=0.049) and to normal ovaries (p=0.000069). A sound correlation between the protein levels and gene expressions was documented. In conclusion, decreased concentration of HER1 protein and increased HER2, HER3 and HER4 protein concentration were observed, as also elevated HER2-HER4 gene expression levels in ovarian cancer patients with barely any overlap of the HER3 and HER4 expression in malignant ovarian tumors compared to benign ovarian tissues.

  5. Gene expression during ovarian differentiation in parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys: implications for fecundity and life history types.

    PubMed

    Spice, Erin K; Whyard, Steven; Docker, Margaret F

    2014-11-01

    Lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrate lineage approximately 500million years ago. Lampreys undergo sex differentiation much later than most other vertebrates, and ovarian differentiation occurs several years before testicular differentiation. The genetic basis of lamprey sex differentiation is of particular interest both because of the phylogenetic importance of lampreys and because of their unusual pattern of sex differentiation. As well, differences between parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys may first become evident at ovarian differentiation. However, nothing is known about the genetic basis of ovarian differentiation in lampreys. This study examined potential differences in gene expression before, during, and after ovarian differentiation in parasitic chestnut lamprey Ichthyomyzon castaneus and non-parasitic northern brook lamprey Ichthyomyzonfossor. Eight target genes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, germ cell-less, estrogen receptor β, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, daz-associated protein 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, and dehydrocholesterol reductase 7) were examined. Northern brook lamprey displayed higher expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, whereas chestnut lamprey displayed higher expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; these genes may be involved in apoptosis and oocyte growth, respectively. Presumptive male larvae had higher expression of Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, which may be involved in the undifferentiated gonad and/or later testicular development. Differentiated females had higher expression of 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and daz-associated protein 1, which may be involved in female development. This study is the first to identify genes that may be involved in ovarian differentiation and fecundity in lampreys.

  6. Gene expression during ovarian differentiation in parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys: implications for fecundity and life history types.

    PubMed

    Spice, Erin K; Whyard, Steven; Docker, Margaret F

    2014-11-01

    Lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrate lineage approximately 500million years ago. Lampreys undergo sex differentiation much later than most other vertebrates, and ovarian differentiation occurs several years before testicular differentiation. The genetic basis of lamprey sex differentiation is of particular interest both because of the phylogenetic importance of lampreys and because of their unusual pattern of sex differentiation. As well, differences between parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys may first become evident at ovarian differentiation. However, nothing is known about the genetic basis of ovarian differentiation in lampreys. This study examined potential differences in gene expression before, during, and after ovarian differentiation in parasitic chestnut lamprey Ichthyomyzon castaneus and non-parasitic northern brook lamprey Ichthyomyzonfossor. Eight target genes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, germ cell-less, estrogen receptor β, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, daz-associated protein 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, and dehydrocholesterol reductase 7) were examined. Northern brook lamprey displayed higher expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, whereas chestnut lamprey displayed higher expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; these genes may be involved in apoptosis and oocyte growth, respectively. Presumptive male larvae had higher expression of Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, which may be involved in the undifferentiated gonad and/or later testicular development. Differentiated females had higher expression of 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and daz-associated protein 1, which may be involved in female development. This study is the first to identify genes that may be involved in ovarian differentiation and fecundity in lampreys. PMID:25218130

  7. LncRNA HOTAIR controls the expression of Rab22a by sponging miR-373 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongbao; Cheng, Jiajing; Wu, Yi; Qiu, Jin; Sun, Yi; Tong, Xiaowen

    2016-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the long non-coding RNA, HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is widely involved in the progression and metastasis of cancer. However, the specific role of HOTAIR in ovarian carcinogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the levels of HOTAIR were detected in 30 paired cancer and noncancer tissues using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The effect of HOTAIR on the ovarian cancer cells was examined by overexpression or small interfering RNA interference experiments. To examine the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNAs) mechanism, a luciferase reporter assay was used. In patients with ovarian cancer, HOTAIR was significantly upregulated. Furthermore, the upregulation of HOTAIR increased the proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. By contrast, the knockdown of HOTAIR repressed cell invasion and viability. HOTAIR functioned as a ceRNA, and acted as a sink for microRNA (miR)‑373, thereby regulating the expression of Rab22a. The upregulation of HOTAIR contributed to the malignant progression of ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, the positive regulation between HOTAIR and Rab22a can be partially attributed to the ceRNA regulatory network through miR-373.

  8. Selecting bioactive phenolic compounds as potential agents to inhibit proliferation and VEGF expression in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    HE, ZHIPING; LI, BO; RANKIN, GARY O.; ROJANASAKUL, YON; CHEN, YI CHARLIE

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease that continues to cause mortality in female individuals worldwide. Ovarian cancer is challenging to treat due to emerging resistance to chemotherapy, therefore, the identification of effective novel chemotherapeutic agents is important. Polyphenols have demonstrated potential in reducing the risk of developing numerous types of cancer, as well reducing the risk of cancer progression, due to their ability to reduce cell viability and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. In the present study, eight phenolic compounds were screened in two human ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70) to determine their effect on proliferation suppression and VEGF protein secretion inhibition, in comparison to cisplatin, a conventional chemotherapeutic agent. The current study identified that 40 μM gallic acid (GA) exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on OVCAR-3 cell viability, compared with all of the phenolic compounds investigated. Similarly to cisplatin, baicalein, GA, nobiletin, tangeretin and baicalin were all identified to exhibit significant VEGF inhibitory effects from ELISA results. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that GA effectively decreased the level of the VEGF-binding protein hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the ovarian cancer cell line. Considering the results of the present study, GA appears to inhibit cell proliferation and, thus, is a potential agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25663929

  9. LncRNA HOTAIR controls the expression of Rab22a by sponging miR-373 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongbao; Cheng, Jiajing; Wu, Yi; Qiu, Jin; Sun, Yi; Tong, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the long non-coding RNA, HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is widely involved in the progression and metastasis of cancer. However, the specific role of HOTAIR in ovarian carcinogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the levels of HOTAIR were detected in 30 paired cancer and noncancer tissues using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The effect of HOTAIR on the ovarian cancer cells was examined by overexpression or small interfering RNA interference experiments. To examine the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNAs) mechanism, a luciferase reporter assay was used. In patients with ovarian cancer, HOTAIR was significantly upregulated. Furthermore, the upregulation of HOTAIR increased the proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. By contrast, the knockdown of HOTAIR repressed cell invasion and viability. HOTAIR functioned as a ceRNA, and acted as a sink for microRNA (miR)-373, thereby regulating the expression of Rab22a. The upregulation of HOTAIR contributed to the malignant progression of ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, the positive regulation between HOTAIR and Rab22a can be partially attributed to the ceRNA regulatory network through miR-373. PMID:27484896

  10. Ontogeny of the long form of leptin receptor gene expression in the porcine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, N; Kaminski, T; Siawrys, G; Przala, J

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a polypeptide hormone produced predominantly in adipocytes. It has been found to be implicated in the regulation of satiety and energy homeostasis. A role for leptin in reproduction was later suggested by findings that this hormone may be involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine pathways. The objective of the study was to investigate the ontogeny of the long isoform of leptin receptor (OB-Rb) gene in porcine ovarian follicles. The expression of OB-Rb gene was detected in porcine primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles by in situ hybridization. In summary, our data suggest that leptin might have a direct effect on porcine follicles and plays an important role in the follicular development.

  11. Immunohistochemical Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptors in Ovarian Cancer Patients with Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Christine Vestergaard; Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Jakobsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The well-documented role of the PDGF system in tumor growth and angiogenesis has prompted the development of new biological agents targeting the PDGF system. The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of the PDGF-receptors in ovarian cancer and to investigate its relation to histopathological parameters and long-term overall survival. Methods. The immunohistochemical expression of PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β was investigated in tumor and stromal cells in 170 patients with histologically verified epithelial ovarian cancer. Results. Almost half of the tumor specimens showed high expression of PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β in tumor cells (43% and 41%) and in stromal compartments (32% and 44%). There was a significant association between high expression of PDGFR-α and high expression of PDGFR-β in both tumor and stromal cells. Coexpression of PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β in stromal cells was seen more often in serous adenocarcinomas than in nonserous adenocarcinomas. No clear correlation between PDGFR expression and longterm overall survival or clinical parameters was found. Conclusions. PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β were expressed in a subset of ovarian carcinomas but did not show significant prognostic importance in this material. PMID:23094199

  12. High LIN28A Expressing Ovarian Cancer Cells Secrete Exosomes That Induce Invasion and Migration in HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Vanessa A; Cleys, Ellane R; Da Silveira, Juliano C; Spillman, Monique A; Winger, Quinton A; Bouma, Gerrit J

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most aggressive and deadly form of ovarian cancer and is the most lethal gynecological malignancy worldwide; therefore, efforts to elucidate the molecular factors that lead to epithelial ovarian cancer are essential to better understand this disease. Recent studies reveal that tumor cells release cell-secreted vesicles called exosomes and these exosomes can transfer RNAs and miRNAs to distant sites, leading to cell transformation and tumor development. The RNA-binding protein LIN28 is a known marker of stem cells and when expressed in cancer, it is associated with poor tumor outcome. We hypothesized that high LIN28 expressing ovarian cancer cells secrete exosomes that can be taken up by nontumor cells and cause changes in gene expression and cell behavior associated with tumor development. IGROV1 cells were found to contain high LIN28A and secrete exosomes that were taken up by HEK293 cells. Moreover, exposure to these IGROV1 secreted exosomes led to significant increases in genes involved in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), induced HEK293 cell invasion and migration. These changes were not observed with exosomes secreted by OV420 cells, which contain no detectable amounts of LIN28A or LIN28B. No evidence was found of LIN28A transfer from IGROV1 exosomes to HEK293 cells.

  13. Azidothymidine and cisplatin increase p14ARF expression in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Vaskivuo, Liisa; Rysae, Jaana; Koivuperae, Johanna; Myllynen, Paeivi; Vaskivuo, Tommi; Chvalova, Katerina; Serpi, Raisa; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Puistola, Ulla; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi . E-mail: kirsi.vahakangas@uku.fi

    2006-10-01

    p14{sup ARF} tumor suppressor protein regulates p53 by interfering with mdm2-p53 interaction. p14{sup ARF} is activated in response to oncogenic stimuli but little is known of the responses of endogenous p14{sup ARF} to different types of cellular stress or DNA damage. Azidothymidine (AZT) is being tested in several clinical trials as an enhancer of anticancer chemotherapy. However, the knowledge of the relationship between AZT and cellular pathways, e.g. p53 pathway, is very limited. In this study, we show that AZT, cisplatin (CDDP) and docetaxel (DTX) all induce unique molecular responses in OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells carrying a mutated p53, while in A2780, ovarian carcinoma and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells with wild type p53, all of these drugs cause similar p53 responses. We found that endogenous p14{sup ARF} protein in OVCAR-3 cells is down-regulated by DTX but induced by AZT and a short CDDP pulse treatment. In HT-29 colon carcinoma cells with a mutated p53, all treatments down-regulated p14{sup ARF} protein. Both CDDP and AZT increased the expression of p14ARF mRNA in OVCAR-3 cells. Differences in cell death induced by these drugs did not explain the differences in protein and mRNA expressions. No increase in the level of either c-Myc or H-ras oncoproteins was seen in OVCAR-3 cells after AZT or CDDP-treatment. These results suggest that p14{sup ARF} can respond to DNA damage without oncogene activation in cell lines without functional p53.

  14. An EGF receptor inhibitor induces RAR-beta expression in breast and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grunt, Thomas W; Puckmair, Klaudia; Tomek, Katharina; Kainz, Birgit; Gaiger, Alexander

    2005-04-22

    Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor (EGFR) has become a promising anticancer treatment strategy. In addition, application of retinoids yields encouraging results for cancer prevention and therapy. Many tumors express no or low amounts of retinoic acid receptor-beta2 (RAR-beta2) due to epigenetic silencing via DNA hypermethylation. RAR-beta2 is the main mediator of the antiproliferative effect of retinoids. RAR-beta2 re-expression causes reversal of transformation, cell cycle arrest, and restoration of retinoid sensitivity. RAR-beta2 is thus a tumor suppressor. Western blotting, colorimetric in vitro cell proliferation assays, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the EGFR inhibitor PD153035 not only blocked activation of EGFR and inhibited cell growth, but also stimulated RAR-beta expression in MDA-MB-468 breast and OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Upregulation of RAR-beta by PD153035 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In contrast, expression of other retinoid receptors and of estrogen receptor-alpha was not affected. PD153035-mediated re-induction of RAR-beta was associated with demethylation of the RAR-beta2 gene promoter P2 as demonstrated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. These novel results on the ErbB/retinoid receptor cross-talk may be useful for designing future anticancer combination regimens.

  15. An EGF receptor inhibitor induces RAR-{beta} expression in breast and ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grunt, Thomas W. . E-mail: thomas.grunt@meduniwien.ac.at; Puckmair, Klaudia; Tomek, Katharina; Kainz, Birgit; Gaiger, Alexander

    2005-04-22

    Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor (EGFR) has become a promising anticancer treatment strategy. In addition, application of retinoids yields encouraging results for cancer prevention and therapy. Many tumors express no or low amounts of retinoic acid receptor-{beta}2 (RAR-{beta}2) due to epigenetic silencing via DNA hypermethylation. RAR-{beta}2 is the main mediator of the antiproliferative effect of retinoids. RAR-{beta}2 re-expression causes reversal of transformation, cell cycle arrest, and restoration of retinoid sensitivity. RAR-{beta}2 is thus a tumor suppressor. Western blotting, colorimetric in vitro cell proliferation assays, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the EGFR inhibitor PD153035 not only blocked activation of EGFR and inhibited cell growth, but also stimulated RAR-{beta} expression in MDA-MB-468 breast and OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Upregulation of RAR-{beta} by PD153035 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In contrast, expression of other retinoid receptors and of estrogen receptor-{alpha} was not affected. PD153035-mediated re-induction of RAR-{beta} was associated with demethylation of the RAR-{beta}2 gene promoter P2 as demonstrated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. These novel results on the ErbB/retinoid receptor cross-talk may be useful for designing future anticancer combination regimens.

  16. MicroRNA Gene Expression Signature Driven by miR-9 Overexpression in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yanaihara, Nozomu; Noguchi, Yukiko; Saito, Misato; Takenaka, Masataka; Takakura, Satoshi; Yamada, Kyosuke; Okamoto, Aikou

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified microRNA (miRNA) involvement in human cancers. This study aimed to elucidate potential clinical and biological associations of ovarian cancer-related miRNA gene expression profiles in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Accordingly, we investigated 27 patients with ovarian cancer (12 HGSC and 15 OCCC cases) using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the cancer-related miRNA expressions. Gene Cluster 3.0 was used for hierarchical clustering analysis, and differentially expressed miRNAs between HGSC and OCCC were identified by the class comparison analysis using BRB-ArrayTools. An unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis identified two distinct miRNA expression clusters, with histological subtype-related significant differences in the associations between clusters and clinicopathological features. A comparison of miRNA expression in HGSCs and OCCCs identified five miRNAs (miR-132, miR-9, miR-126, miR-34a, and miR-21), with OCCCs demonstrating a statistically higher expression. Further investigation of the biological significance of miR-9 overexpression in OCCC revealed that miR-9 inhibition reduced the cell invasion ability and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we further demonstrated the direct binding of miR-9 to E-cadherin. Global cancer-related miRNA expression analysis identified statistically unique profiles that could discriminate ovarian cancer histotypes. In OCCC, miR-9 overexpression may affect pathogenesis by targeting E-cadherin, thereby inducing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Therefore, miR-9 may be a promising therapeutic target strategy for OCCC. PMID:27612152

  17. MicroRNA Gene Expression Signature Driven by miR-9 Overexpression in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Misato; Takenaka, Masataka; Takakura, Satoshi; Yamada, Kyosuke; Okamoto, Aikou

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified microRNA (miRNA) involvement in human cancers. This study aimed to elucidate potential clinical and biological associations of ovarian cancer-related miRNA gene expression profiles in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Accordingly, we investigated 27 patients with ovarian cancer (12 HGSC and 15 OCCC cases) using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the cancer-related miRNA expressions. Gene Cluster 3.0 was used for hierarchical clustering analysis, and differentially expressed miRNAs between HGSC and OCCC were identified by the class comparison analysis using BRB-ArrayTools. An unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis identified two distinct miRNA expression clusters, with histological subtype-related significant differences in the associations between clusters and clinicopathological features. A comparison of miRNA expression in HGSCs and OCCCs identified five miRNAs (miR-132, miR-9, miR-126, miR-34a, and miR-21), with OCCCs demonstrating a statistically higher expression. Further investigation of the biological significance of miR-9 overexpression in OCCC revealed that miR-9 inhibition reduced the cell invasion ability and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we further demonstrated the direct binding of miR-9 to E-cadherin. Global cancer-related miRNA expression analysis identified statistically unique profiles that could discriminate ovarian cancer histotypes. In OCCC, miR-9 overexpression may affect pathogenesis by targeting E-cadherin, thereby inducing an epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Therefore, miR-9 may be a promising therapeutic target strategy for OCCC. PMID:27612152

  18. IKKβ Regulates VEGF Expression and Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Ovarian Cancer as an Antiangiogenic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kinose, Yasuto; Sawada, Kenjiro; Makino, Hiroshi; Ogura, Tomonori; Mizuno, Tomoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Morii, Eiichi; Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Ikuko; Toda, Aska; Hashimoto, Kae; Isobe, Aki; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Itai, Akiko; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The prolongation of progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced ovarian cancer by antiangiogenic therapy has been shown in several clinical trials. However, although an anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab) is the only option currently available, its efficacy is limited and it is not cost effective for use in all patients. Therefore, the development of a novel antiangiogenic drug, especially composed of small-molecule compounds, could be a powerful armament for ovarian cancer treatment. As NF-κB signaling has the potential to regulate VEGF expression, we determined to identify whether VEGF expression is associated with NF-κB activation and to investigate the possibility of a novel IKKβ inhibitor, IMD-0354 (IMMD Inc.), as an antiangiogenic drug. Tissue microarrays from 94 ovarian cancer tissues were constructed and immunohistochemical analyses performed. We revealed that IKK phosphorylation is an independent prognostic factor (PFS: 26.1 vs. 49.8 months, P = 0.011), and is positively correlated with high VEGF expression. In in vitro analyses, IMD-0354 robustly inhibited adhesive and invasive activities of ovarian cancer cells without impairing cell viabilities. IMD-0354 significantly suppressed VEGF production from cancer cells, which led to the inhibition of angiogenesis. In a xenograft model, the treatment of IMD-0354 significantly inhibited peritoneal dissemination with a marked reduction of intratumoral blood vessel formation followed by the inhibition of VEGF expression from cancer cells. IMD-0354 is a stable small-molecule drug and has already been administered safely to humans in other trials. Antiangiogenic therapy targeting IKKβ is a potential future option to treat ovarian cancer. PMID:25637316

  19. Differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qun; Luo, Xiaoping; Chegini, Nasser

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Given the emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) as key regulator of mRNA stability we assessed their expression profile in paired myometrium and leiomyoma, their isolated smooth muscle cells (MSMC and LSMC), a spontaneously transformed leiomyoma smooth muscle cells (T-LSMC) and SK-LMS-1, a leiomyosarcoma cell line using microarray and real time PCR.Based on global normalization of expression values of 385 miRNAs and statistical analysis (anova), 91 miRNAs were expressed above the threshold levels in myometrium, with a progressive decline in numbers in leiomyomas, MSMC, LSMC, T-LSMC and SK-LMS-1 (P<0.05).We selected and validated the expression of miR-20a, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-18a, miR-206, miR-181a and miR-142–5p and found their differential expression in tissue and cell-specific manners (P<0.05).Treatments of MSMC and LSMC with 17β estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate (10−8M), or ICI-182780 and RU-486 (10−6M) resulted in differential regulation of these miRNAs (P<0.05).In conclusion, the expression of a number of miRNAs in myometrium and leiomyoma with their progressive aberrant from normal MSMC into LSMC, transformed and cancerous stage, suggests that miRNAs and their regulation by ovarian steroids play a key role in pathogenesis of leiomyoma through gene expression stability. PMID:18182067

  20. Gene expression in mouse ovarian follicle development in vivo versus an ex vivo alginate culture system.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Elizabeth M; Siletz, Anaar; Xu, Min; Woodruff, Teresa K; Shea, Lonnie D

    2011-08-01

    Ovarian follicle maturation results from a complex interplay of endocrine, paracrine, and direct cell-cell interactions. This study compared the dynamic expression of key developmental genes during folliculogenesis in vivo and during in vitro culture in a 3D alginate hydrogel system. Candidate gene expression profiles were measured within mouse two-layered secondary follicles, multi-layered secondary follicles, and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The expression of 20 genes involved in endocrine communication, growth signaling, and oocyte development was investigated by real-time PCR. Gene product levels were compared between i) follicles of similar stage and ii) COCs derived either in vivo or by in vitro culture. For follicles cultured for 4 days, the expression pattern and the expression level of 12 genes were the same in vivo and in vitro. Some endocrine (cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (Cyp19a1) and inhibin βA subunit (Inhba)) and growth-related genes (bone morphogenetic protein 15 (Bmp15), kit ligand (Kitl), and transforming growth factor β receptor 2 (Tgfbr2)) were downregulated relative to in vivo follicles. For COCs obtained from cultured follicles, endocrine-related genes (inhibin α-subunit (Inha) and Inhba) had increased expression relative to in vivo counterparts, whereas growth-related genes (Bmp15, growth differentiation factor 9, and kit oncogene (Kit)) and zona pellucida genes were decreased. However, most of the oocyte-specific genes (e.g. factor in the germline α (Figla), jagged 1 (Jag1), and Nlrp5 (Mater)) were expressed in vitro at the same level and with the same pattern as in vivo-derived follicles. These studies establish the similarities and differences between in vivo and in vitro cultured follicles, guiding the creation of environments that maximize follicle development and oocyte quality. PMID:21610168

  1. Common and Unique Impairments in Facial-Expression Recognition in Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify specific difficulties and associated features related to the problems with social interaction experienced by individuals with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) using an emotion-recognition task. We compared individuals with PDD-NOS or Asperger's disorder (ASP) and typically…

  2. Leptin modulates the expression of its receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in a differential way.

    PubMed

    Di Yorio, M P; Bilbao, M G; Pustovrh, M C; Prestifilippo, J P; Faletti, A G

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the expression of leptin receptors (Ob-R) in the rat hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, immature rats were treated with eCG/hCG and Ob-R expression was evaluated by western blot analysis. The Ob-R expression increased 24 h after eCG administration in all the tissues assayed. In the hypothalamus, these levels immediately decreased to those obtained without treatment. In the pituitary, the Ob-R expression continued to be elevated 48 h after eCG administration, whereas the hCG injection did not modify these levels. Similar results were obtained with the ovarian long isoform. To assess the effect of leptin on its receptors, Ob-R was assessed in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovarian explants cultured in the presence or absence of leptin (0.3-500 ng/ml). In the hypothalamus, we found a biphasic effect: the Ob-R expression was either reduced or increased at low or high concentrations of leptin respectively. LH-releasing hormone secretion increased at 1 ng/ml. In the pituitary, Ob-R increased at 10 or 30 ng/ml of leptin for the long and short isoforms respectively. Leptin also induced an increase in LH release at 30 ng/ml. In the ovarian culture, the presence of leptin produced an increase in Ob-R expression at different ranges of concentrations and a dose-dependent biphasic effect on the progesterone production. In conclusion, all these results clearly suggest that leptin is able to modulate the expression of its own receptors in the reproductive axis in a differential way. Moreover, the positive or negative effect that leptin exerts on the ovulatory process may be dependent on this regulation.

  3. DUSP1 induces paclitaxel resistance through the regulation of p-glycoprotein expression in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Seon; Seok, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Yuna; Yun, Seok-Joong; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Jang-Seong

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneity and genetic instability of ovarian cancer cells often lead to the development of drug resistance, closely related with the increased cancer-related mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the development of the resistance in human ovarian cancer cells against paclitaxel. Overexpression of DUSP1 in HeyA8 human ovarian cancer cells (HeyA8-DUSP1) up-regulated the expression of the drug efflux pump, p-glycoprotein. Consequently, HeyA8-DUSP1 cells are highly resistant to paclitaxel, with the resistance comparable to that of a multi-drug resistance cell line (HeyA8-MDR). Moreover, over expression of DUSP1 significantly increased the activation of p38 MAPK, leaving the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 unaffected. Pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK activity prevents the up-regulation of p-glycoprotein expression and the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-DUSP1 cells. By contrast, HeyA8-MDR cells expressed a significantly higher level of DUSP1, but treatment with small interference RNA against DUSP1 significantly suppressed the expression of p-glycoprotein and the resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-MDR cells. Ectopic expression of MKK3, an upstream activator of p38 MAPK, significantly up-regulated the expression of p-glycoprotein and increased the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that DUSP1 may induce the resistance against paclitaxel through the p38 MAPK-mediated overexpression of p-glycoprotein in human ovarian cancer cells.

  4. DUSP1 induces paclitaxel resistance through the regulation of p-glycoprotein expression in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Seon; Seok, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Yuna; Yun, Seok-Joong; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Jang-Seong

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneity and genetic instability of ovarian cancer cells often lead to the development of drug resistance, closely related with the increased cancer-related mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the development of the resistance in human ovarian cancer cells against paclitaxel. Overexpression of DUSP1 in HeyA8 human ovarian cancer cells (HeyA8-DUSP1) up-regulated the expression of the drug efflux pump, p-glycoprotein. Consequently, HeyA8-DUSP1 cells are highly resistant to paclitaxel, with the resistance comparable to that of a multi-drug resistance cell line (HeyA8-MDR). Moreover, over expression of DUSP1 significantly increased the activation of p38 MAPK, leaving the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 unaffected. Pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK activity prevents the up-regulation of p-glycoprotein expression and the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-DUSP1 cells. By contrast, HeyA8-MDR cells expressed a significantly higher level of DUSP1, but treatment with small interference RNA against DUSP1 significantly suppressed the expression of p-glycoprotein and the resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8-MDR cells. Ectopic expression of MKK3, an upstream activator of p38 MAPK, significantly up-regulated the expression of p-glycoprotein and increased the consequent resistance against paclitaxel in HeyA8 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that DUSP1 may induce the resistance against paclitaxel through the p38 MAPK-mediated overexpression of p-glycoprotein in human ovarian cancer cells. PMID:27422607

  5. Leptin modulates the expression of its receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in a differential way.

    PubMed

    Di Yorio, M P; Bilbao, M G; Pustovrh, M C; Prestifilippo, J P; Faletti, A G

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the expression of leptin receptors (Ob-R) in the rat hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, immature rats were treated with eCG/hCG and Ob-R expression was evaluated by western blot analysis. The Ob-R expression increased 24 h after eCG administration in all the tissues assayed. In the hypothalamus, these levels immediately decreased to those obtained without treatment. In the pituitary, the Ob-R expression continued to be elevated 48 h after eCG administration, whereas the hCG injection did not modify these levels. Similar results were obtained with the ovarian long isoform. To assess the effect of leptin on its receptors, Ob-R was assessed in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovarian explants cultured in the presence or absence of leptin (0.3-500 ng/ml). In the hypothalamus, we found a biphasic effect: the Ob-R expression was either reduced or increased at low or high concentrations of leptin respectively. LH-releasing hormone secretion increased at 1 ng/ml. In the pituitary, Ob-R increased at 10 or 30 ng/ml of leptin for the long and short isoforms respectively. Leptin also induced an increase in LH release at 30 ng/ml. In the ovarian culture, the presence of leptin produced an increase in Ob-R expression at different ranges of concentrations and a dose-dependent biphasic effect on the progesterone production. In conclusion, all these results clearly suggest that leptin is able to modulate the expression of its own receptors in the reproductive axis in a differential way. Moreover, the positive or negative effect that leptin exerts on the ovulatory process may be dependent on this regulation. PMID:18515494

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and a synchronized examination of plasma and tissue expression in epithelial ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Bhaskari, J; Premalata, C S; Shilpa, V; Rahul, B; Pallavi, V R; Ramesh, G; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed six genetic polymorphisms of the VEGF-A gene and correlated the genetic data with plasma and tissue expression of VEGF-A in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. A total of 130 cases including 95 malignant carcinomas, 17 low malignant potential and 18 benign tumours were studied. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were studied by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Plasma levels of VEGF-A were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tissue expression of VEGF-A by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Four polymorphisms of the above excluding rs699947 and rs3025039 showed significant association with malignancy, and we observed the presence of positive correlation between haplotype CCGGCC and increased expression of VEGF-A in both plasma and tissues which also correlated with poor prognosis and recurrence suggesting a probable increase in resistance to treatment in such carriers. Highly upregulated tissue expression of VEGF-A was seen in all epithelial ovarian carcinomas with intensity of expression increasing from benign to malignant cases. ELISA data from our study showed an increase in circulating levels of VEGF-A in malignancies. VEGF-A plasma levels can be employed as a biomarker for high-grade malignancy in epithelial ovarian cancers alongside tissue expression and CA-125 levels. This study is unique due to the fact that a simultaneous analysis of plasma and tissue expression has been demonstrated and is a first such study in epithelial ovarian cancers and representing the Indian population (South-east Asian) synchronized with genetic polymorphism data as well. PMID:26264619

  7. Increased expression of the RIα subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A is associated with advanced stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    McDaid, H M; Cairns, M T; Atkinson, R J; McAleer, S; Harkin, D P; Gilmore, P; Johnston, P G

    1999-01-01

    The primary element in the cAMP signal transduction pathway is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Expression of the RIα subunit of type I PKA is elevated in a variety of human tumours and cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic importance of RIα expression in patients with ovarian cancer. We have evaluated the expression of RIα in a panel of human ovarian tumours (n= 40) and five human ovarian cancer cell lines using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The human ovarian cell lines OAW42 and OTN14 express high endogenous levels of RIα mRNA and protein (at significantly higher mRNA levels than high tissue expressors, P< 0.05). The ovarian cell line A2780 expresses low endogenous levels of RIα mRNA and protein (also at higher mRNA levels than low tissue expressors, P< 0.05). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed no significant difference in RIα mRNA expression between different ovarian histological subtypes in this study. No associations were found between RIα mRNA expression and differentiation state. RIα mRNA expression was significantly associated with tumour stage (P= 0.0036), and this remained significant in univariate analysis (P= 0.0002). A trend emerged between RIα mRNA expression levels and overall survival in univariate analysis (P= 0.051), however, by multivariate analysis, stage remained the major determinant of overall survival (P= 0.0001). This study indicates that in ovarian epithelial tumours high RIα mRNA expression is associated with advanced stage disease. RIα expression may be of predictive value in ovarian cancer and may be associated with dysfunctional signalling pathways in this cancer type. 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10070893

  8. Detection of RUNX2 gene expression in cumulus cells in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background RUNX2 is a transcription factor, whose expression has been recently identified in the mouse ovary. Regulation of RUNX2 expression and its function in the human ovary have not been determined yet. The aim of the present study is the investigation of the possible correlation between RUNX2 gene expression in cumulus cells and controlled ovarian stimulation and pregnancy outcomes after ART treatment. Methods A total of 41 patients undergoing ICSI treatment for male factor infertility were enrolled into a specific ART program, during which cumulus cells were collected. The expression of RUNX2 gene in cumulus cells was examined by real-time PCR. Results Concerning RUNX2 gene expression, 12 out of 41 women were detected with RUNX2 expression, with ratios ranging from 0.84 to 1.00, while 28 out of 41 women had no expression (ratio = 0). Only 1 woman presented a weak RUNX2 gene expression (ratio = 0.52). From 8 women that proceeded to pregnancy, 7 of them did not express RUNX2 gene in cumulus cells, while one was the woman with weak gene expression that also achieved pregnancy. The group of women without RUNX2 expression presented higher number of follicles (p = 0.013), higher number of retrieved oocytes (p = 0.016), higher basal LH serum levels (p = 0.016) and higher peak estradiol levels (p = 0.013), while the number of fertilized oocytes differed marginally between the two groups (p = 0.089). Moreover, RUNX2 expression was negatively associated with LH levels (OR = 0.22, p = 0.021) and E2 levels (OR = 0.25, p = 0.026). Conclusions Consequently, based on the preliminary findings of the present pilot study a potential inhibitory mechanism of RUNX2 gene is observed in the ovary when high mRNA levels are detected, suggesting that RUNX2 could possibly be used as a candidate genetic marker in the monitoring of the outcome of an ART treatment. PMID:23186169

  9. First Evidence of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 Expression and Activity in Sheep Ovarian Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Canty-Laird, Elizabeth; Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Mandon-Pépin, Béatrice; Kadler, Karl E.; Fabre, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 1 is a vertebrate metalloproteinase of the astacin family. BMP1 plays a key role in regulating the formation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), particularly by processing the C-propeptide of fibrillar procollagens. BMP1 also promotes BMP signaling by releasing BMP signaling molecules from complexes with the BMP-antagonist chordin. As a result of BMP1′s dual role in both ECM formation and BMP signaling, we hypothesized that BMP1 could play a role in ovarian physiology. Using the sheep ovary as a model system, we showed that BMP1 was expressed in the ovary throughout early fetal stages to adulthood. Furthermore, in adult ovaries, BMP1 was expressed along with chordin, BMP4, and twisted gastrulation, which together form an extracellular regulatory complex for BMP signaling. Within ovine ovaries, immunohistochemical localization demonstrated that BMP1 was present in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development, from primordial to large antral follicles, and that the levels of BMP1 were not affected by the final follicle selection mechanism. In cultured granulosa cells, BMP1 expression was not affected by gonadotropins, but BMP4 and activin A had opposing effects on the levels of BMP1 mRNA. BMP1 appeared to be secreted into the follicular fluid of antral follicles, where it is able to exert procollagen C-proteinase and chordinase activities. Interestingly, BMP1 activity in follicular fluid decreased with follicular growth. PMID:20357269

  10. Effects of temperature and fish oil supplementation on ovarian development and foxl2 mRNA expression in spotted scat Scatophagus argus.

    PubMed

    Li, G-L; Zhang, M-Z; Deng, S-P; Chen, H-P; Zhu, C-H

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete foxl2 complementary (c)DNA sequence was isolated by simple modular-architecture research tool (SMART)er rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Two year-old female spotted scat, Scatophagus argus, were reared at different temperatures (23, 26 and 29° C) for 6 weeks, or fed with different concentrations of dietary fish oil (0, 2 or 6%) for 8 weeks. Ovarian development, serum oestradiol-17β (E2 ) levels, as well as ovarian foxl2 expression were measured. At the end of experiment, ovarian foxl2 messenger (m)RNA expression in fish reared at 23 and 26° C was significantly higher than that in fish reared at 29° C, and that in 2 and 6% fish oil groups was also significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0·05). Serum E2 levels exhibited the same trend with foxl2 mRNA expression in temperature treatment groups and fish oil fed groups. There was a significant positive correlation between stage of oocytes and foxl2 expressions. Results showed that from 23 to 29° C, the optimal temperature for ovarian development in S. argus was 23-26° C, and 6% fish oil supplementation could effectively promote ovarian development. Optimal temperature and fish oil supplement might increase ovarian foxl2 mRNA expressions to promote ovarian development in S. argus.

  11. Characterization of the Expression of the RNA Binding Protein eIF4G1 and Its Clinicopathological Correlation with Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhe; Li, Guiqin; Mao, Chengyi; Liu, Yi; Wen, Xin; Yin, Na; Cao, Jianzhong; Wang, Jing; Li, Li; Yu, Jianhua; Wang, Fang; Yi, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal type of malignant tumor in gynecological cancers and is associated with a high percentage of late diagnosis and chemotherapy resistance. Thus, it is urgent to identify a tumor marker or a molecular target that allows early detection and effective treatment. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are crucial in various cellular processes at the post-transcriptional level. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 1(eIF4G1), an RNA-binding protein, facilitates the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome, which is a rate-limiting step during the initiation phase of protein synthesis. However, little is known regarding the characteristics of eIF4G1 expression and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer. Therefore, we propose to investigate the expression and clinicopathological significance of eIF4G1 in ovarian cancer patients. Methods We performed Real-time PCR in 40 fresh serous ovarian cancer tissues and 27 normal ovarian surface epithelial cell specimens to assess eIF4G1mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to examine the expression of eIF4G1 at the protein level in 134 patients with serous ovarian cancer and 18 normal ovarian tissues. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the correlation of the eIF4G1 protein levels with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in ovarian cancer. Results The expression of eIF4G1 was upregulated in serous ovarian cancer tissues at both the mRNA (P = 0.0375) and the protein (P = 0.0007) levels. The eIF4G1 expression was significantly correlated with the clinical tumor stage (P = 0.0004) and omentum metastasis (P = 0.024). Moreover, patients with low eIF4G1 protein expression had a longer overall survival time (P = 0.026). Conclusions These data revealed that eIF4G1 is markedly expressed in serous ovarian cancer and that upregulation of the eIF4G1 protein expression is significantly associated with an advanced tumor stage. Besides, the patients with

  12. Rosiglitazone stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and directly affects in vitro steroidogenesis in porcine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Karpeta, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Rosiglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) synthetic activator from the group of thiazolidinediones often used in the treatment of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and other forms of insulin resistance. The present in vitro study assessed the direct effects of rosiglitazone at 25 and 50 μM doses on PPARγ gene expression, steroid secretion (progesterone [P4], androstenedione [A4], testosterone [T], and estradiol), and protein expression of PPARγ, 3βHSD, CYP17, 17βHSD, CYP19 by porcine ovarian follicles from prepubertal and cycling animals. We analyzed also steroid enzymatic activity by conversion of pregnen-3β-ol-20-one to P4, P4 to A4, and A4 to T. Our results indicated that rosiglitazone increased significantly PPARγ expression, P4 secretion, 3βHSD activity, and protein expression. Rosiglitazone decreased A4 and T secretion by reducing the expression and activity of CYP17 and 17βHSD and did not change estradiol secretion and CYP19. Similarly results was observed both in prepubertal and cycling pigs. Our results indicate that these direct effects of rosiglitazone on ovarian steroidogenesis provide a framework for testing several potential new mechanisms of PPAR-γ actions on porcine ovarian function. PMID:24681211

  13. Identification and confirmation of differentially expressed fucosylated glycoproteins in the serum of ovarian cancer patients using a lectin array and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Xie, Xiaolei; Liu, Yashu; He, Jintang; Benitez, Ricardo; Buckanovich, Ronald J; Lubman, David M

    2012-09-01

    In order to discover potential glycoprotein biomarkers in ovarian cancer, we applied a lectin array and Exactag labeling based quantitative glycoproteomics approach. A lectin array strategy was used to detect overall lectin-specific glycosylation changes in serum proteins from patients with ovarian cancer and those with benign conditions. Lectins, which showed significant differential response for fucosylation, were used to extract glycoproteins that had been labeled using isobaric chemical tags. The glycoproteins were then identified and quantified by LC-MS/MS, and five glycoproteins were found to be differentially expressed in the serum of ovarian cancer patients compared to benign diseases. The differentially expressed glycoproteins were further confirmed by lectin-ELISA and ELISA assay. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), serum amyloid p component (SAP), complement factor B (CFAB), and histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) were identified as potential markers for differentiating ovarian cancer from benign diseases or healthy controls. A combination of CBG and HRG (AUC = 0.825) showed comparable performance to CA125 (AUC = 0.829) in differentiating early stage ovarian cancer from healthy controls. The combination of CBG, SAP, and CA125 showed improved performance for distinguishing stage III ovarian cancer from benign diseases compared to CA125 alone. The ability of CBG, SAP, HRG, and CFAB to differentiate the serum of ovarian cancer patients from that of controls was tested using an independent set of samples. Our findings suggest that glycoprotein modifications may be a means to identify novel diagnostic markers for detection of ovarian cancer.

  14. Calreticulin expression: Interaction with the immune infiltrate and impact on survival in patients with ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Gautier; Iribarren, Kristina; Michels, Judith; Leary, Alexandra; Zitvogel, Laurence; Cremer, Isabelle; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-07-01

    Loss of expression of calreticulin (CALR) has been detected by immunohistochemistry in a fraction of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and has been demonstrated to have a major negative prognostic impact on overall patient survival. Here, we analyzed the impact of CALR expression levels detected by microarray finding a positive correlation between CALR and the expression of a metagene indicating the presence of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in NSCLC and ovarian cancer. In addition, we detected a positive correlation with a metagene suggestive of activated dendritic cell (aDC) infiltration in ovarian cancer. Combination of two parameters (CALR + DC (dendritic cell) in NSCL and CALR + aDC in ovarian cancer) or three parameters (CALR + CTL + DC in NSCL and CALR + CTL + aDC in ovarian cancer) had a significant impact on overall patient survival in NSCL (Adenoconsortium) and ovarian cancer (TCGA collection), allowing the stratification of patients in high-risk and low-risk groups. In addition, CALR and aDC alone have a significant impact on overall survival in ovarian cancer. In contrast, in mammary, colorectal and prostate cancer, CALR had no impact on patient survival if analyzed alone or in combination with the immune infiltrate. In addition, CALR correlates with CTL infiltrate in three cancer types (colorectal, breast, ovarian). Altogether, these results support the contention that, at least in some cancers, loss of CALR expression may negatively affect immunosurveillance, thereby reducing patient survival. PMID:27622029

  15. Screening of potential biomarkers for chemoresistant ovarian carcinoma with miRNA expression profiling data by bioinformatics approach

    PubMed Central

    WEI, SHIYANG; WANG, YAFENG; XU, HONG; KUANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen out the biomarkers associated with chemoresistance in ovarian carcinomas and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. microRNA (miRNA) expression data was obtained from published microarray data of the GSE43867 dataset from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), including the data of 86 chemotherapy-treated patients with serous epithelial ovarian carcinomas (response group, 36 complete response cases and 12 partial response cases; non-response group, 10 stable cases and 28 progressive disease cases), and identification of differentially-expressed miRNAs were conducted with a GEO2R online tool based on R language. TargetScan 6.2 was used to predict the targets of differentially-expressed miRNAs. Protein-protein interaction network analysis was conducted by STRING 9.1, while functional enrichment [Gene Ontology (GO) biological process terms] and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were conducted by GeneCodis3 for the target genes. A total of 6 differentially-expressed miRNAs were screened out, with 317 target genes obtained. It was found that 67 interactions existed among 76 genes/proteins through the PPI network analysis, and that 6 of these were potential key genes (PIK3R5, MAPK3, PTEN, S1PR3, BDKRB2 and NCBP2). The main biological processes involved in chemoresistant ovarian carcinoma were apoptosis, programmed cell death, cell migration, cell death and cell motility. The miRNA target genes were found to be associated with the ErbB signaling pathway, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway and other pathways in cancer. IK3R5, MAPK3 and PIK3R5 are involved in the majority of GO terms and KEGG pathways associated with chemoresistance in ovarian carcinoma. PMID:26622864

  16. Ovarian Hormone Deprivation Reduces Oxytocin Expression in Paraventricular Nucleus Preautonomic Neurons and Correlates with Baroreflex Impairment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    De Melo, Vitor U.; Saldanha, Rayssa R. M.; Dos Santos, Carla R.; De Campos Cruz, Josiane; Lira, Vitor A.; Santana-Filho, Valter J.; Michelini, Lisete C.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension increases dramatically in women after menopause, however the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Oxytocinergic (OTergic) neurons are largely present within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Several studies have shown that OTergic drive from PVN to brainstem increases baroreflex sensitivity and improves autonomic control of the circulation. Since preautonomic PVN neurons express different types of estrogen receptors, we hypothesize that ovarian hormone deprivation causes baroreflex impairment, autonomic imbalance and hypertension by negatively impacting OTergic drive and oxytocin levels in pre-autonomic neurons. Here, we assessed oxytocin gene and protein expression (qPCR and immunohistochemistry) within PVN subnuclei in sham-operated and ovariectomized Wistar rats. Conscious hemodynamic recordings were used to assess resting blood pressure and heart rate and the autonomic modulation of heart and vessels was estimated by power spectral analysis. We observed that the ovarian hormone deprivation in ovariectomized rats decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased sympathetic and reduced vagal outflows to the heart and augmented the resting blood pressure. Of note, ovariectomized rats had reduced PVN oxytocin mRNA and protein expression in all pre-autonomic PVN subnuclei. Furthermore, reduced PVN oxytocin protein levels were positively correlated with decreased baroreflex sensitivity and negatively correlated with increased LF/HF ratio. These findings suggest that reduced oxytocin expression in OTergic neurons of the PVN contributes to the baroreflex dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation observed with ovarian hormone deprivation. PMID:27790154

  17. High level of CFTR expression is associated with tumor aggression and knockdown of CFTR suppresses proliferation of ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiao; Yong, Min; Li, Jia; Dong, Xiaojing; Yu, Tinghe; Fu, Xiao; Hu, Lina

    2015-05-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, members of which are involved in various types of cancer. The relationship between CFTR and ovarian cancer remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of CFTR in human ovarian cancer tissues and its clinical significance in the progression of ovarian cancer. The role of CFTR in the malignant invasion, migration and proliferation of ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo was also investigated. Immunohistochemical staining analysis was performed to detect the expression of CFTR in 83 cases of human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. Moreover, SKOV3 and A2780 stable cell lines containing shRNA gene specific for CFTR were established. Cell proliferation and motility were observed and compared with CFTR-RNAi cells. Tumorigenicity of CFTR-RNAi cells was investigated by tumor xenograft experiments conducted subcutaneously in nude mice. The expresssion of CFTR in ovarian cancer was significantly higher than that in benign ovarian tumor and normal ovaries (P<0.05). In ovarian cancer, CFTR expression was significantly associated with advanced FIGO stage, poor histopathological grade and serum Ca-125 (P<0.05). Furthermore, we observed that CFTR staining was stronger in the serous type as compared to the other types (P<0.05). Compared with the negative control, decreased cell invasion, migration, proliferation, adhesion and colony formation were observed in CFTR-RNAi cells in vitro. In vivo, tumorigenic abilities of CFTR-RNAi cells were significantly repressed compared with that of the control groups. CFTR overexpression may play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian cancer. Additionally, the downregulation of CFTR suppresses aggressive malignant biological behaviors of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25738998

  18. Chimeric NKG2D CAR-Expressing T Cell-Mediated Attack of Human Ovarian Cancer Is Enhanced by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Song, De-Gang; Ye, Qunrui; Santoro, Stephen; Fang, Chongyun; Best, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Abstract NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) are widely expressed on ovarian cancers to various degrees, making them attractive targets for immunotherapy. Here, we applied a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) approach for the targeting of NKG2DLs expressed on human ovarian cancer cells and evaluated the impact of pharmacological upregulation of NKG2DLs on immune recognition. Various NKG2DLs, including MICA/B and ULBP-1, -2, -3, and -4, were expressed at various levels on the surface of all established ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian cancer samples tested. To redirect human T cells against NKG2DLs, an NKG2DL-specific CAR was generated by fusing the extracellular domain of the NKG2D receptor to the 4-1BB costimulatory and CD3-ζ chain signaling domains. In vitro expansion of chimeric NKG2D CAR T cells was delayed compared with untransduced T cells and control CAR T cells; the likely result of fratricide among activated T cells expressing NKG2DLs. However, NKG2D CAR T cells did expand and were selectively enriched during prolonged culture. In coculture, CD4+ and CD8+ NKG2D CAR T cells specifically recognized and killed NKG2DL-expressing ovarian cancer cell lines but not NKG2DL-negative cells. Notably, pretreatment of ovarian cancer cells expressing moderate to low levels of NKG2DLs with the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate (VPA) upregulated NKG2DL cell surface expression and consequently enhanced their immune recognition by chimeric NKG2D CAR T cells. Our results demonstrate that VPA-induced upregulation of NKG2DL expression enhances the immune recognition of ovarian cancer cells by engineered NKG2D CAR T cells, and rationalizes the use of VPA in combination with NKG2DL-targeted immunotherapy in ovarian cancer. PMID:23297870

  19. Differential microRNA expression signatures and cell type-specific association with Taxol resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Kim, Eun Young; Jeon, Doin; Liu, Juinn-Lin; Kim, Helena Suhyun; Choi, Jin Woo; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) resistance remains a major obstacle for the successful treatment of ovarian cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have oncogenic and tumor suppressor activity and are associated with poor prognosis phenotypes. miRNA screenings for this drug resistance are needed to estimate the prognosis of the disease and find better drug targets. miRNAs that were differentially expressed in Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells, compared with Taxol-sensitive cells, were screened by Illumina Human MicroRNA Expression BeadChips. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to identify target genes of selected miRNAs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to identify dysregulated miRNAs in ovarian cancer patients using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A total of 82 miRNAs were identified in ovarian carcinoma cells compared to normal ovarian cells. miR-141, miR-106a, miR-200c, miR-96, and miR-378 were overexpressed, and miR-411, miR-432, miR-494, miR-409-3p, and miR-655 were underexpressed in ovarian cancer cells. Seventeen miRNAs were overexpressed in Taxol-resistant cells, including miR-663, miR-622, and HS_188. Underexpressed miRNAs in Taxol-sensitive cells included miR-497, miR-187, miR-195, and miR-107. We further showed miR-663 and miR-622 as significant prognosis markers of the chemo-resistant patient group. In particular, the downregulation of the two miRNAs was associated with better survival, perhaps increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to Taxol. In the chemo-sensitive patient group, only miR-647 could be a prognosis marker. These miRNAs inhibit several interacting genes of p53 networks, especially in TUOS-3 and TUOS-4, and showed cell line-specific inhibition effects. Taken together, the data indicate that the three miRNAs are closely associated with Taxol resistance and potentially better prognosis factors. Our results suggest that these miRNAs were successfully and reliably identified and would be used in the

  20. Differential microRNA expression signatures and cell type-specific association with Taxol resistance in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Kim, Eun Young; Jeon, Doin; Liu, Juinn-Lin; Kim, Helena Suhyun; Choi, Jin Woo; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel (Taxol) resistance remains a major obstacle for the successful treatment of ovarian cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have oncogenic and tumor suppressor activity and are associated with poor prognosis phenotypes. miRNA screenings for this drug resistance are needed to estimate the prognosis of the disease and find better drug targets. miRNAs that were differentially expressed in Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells, compared with Taxol-sensitive cells, were screened by Illumina Human MicroRNA Expression BeadChips. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to identify target genes of selected miRNAs. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was applied to identify dysregulated miRNAs in ovarian cancer patients using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A total of 82 miRNAs were identified in ovarian carcinoma cells compared to normal ovarian cells. miR-141, miR-106a, miR-200c, miR-96, and miR-378 were overexpressed, and miR-411, miR-432, miR-494, miR-409-3p, and miR-655 were underexpressed in ovarian cancer cells. Seventeen miRNAs were overexpressed in Taxol-resistant cells, including miR-663, miR-622, and HS_188. Underexpressed miRNAs in Taxol-sensitive cells included miR-497, miR-187, miR-195, and miR-107. We further showed miR-663 and miR-622 as significant prognosis markers of the chemo-resistant patient group. In particular, the downregulation of the two miRNAs was associated with better survival, perhaps increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to Taxol. In the chemo-sensitive patient group, only miR-647 could be a prognosis marker. These miRNAs inhibit several interacting genes of p53 networks, especially in TUOS-3 and TUOS-4, and showed cell line-specific inhibition effects. Taken together, the data indicate that the three miRNAs are closely associated with Taxol resistance and potentially better prognosis factors. Our results suggest that these miRNAs were successfully and reliably identified and would be used in the

  1. Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 expression is a prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian cancer and correlates with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming; Yu, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) is a common target of herpesviruses and is important in the DNA damage response, which is also upregulated in several cancers, including prostate, colon, liver, and lung cancers. However, less is known about its expression in ovarian cancer tissues. The role of USP7 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has not yet been investigated. Materials and methods We recruited 141 patients from Linyi People’s Hospital between June 1999 and June 2013, all pathologically diagnosed with primary EOC. Their clinical data were collected, and the expression of USP7 in the tumor tissues was determined using immunohistochemistry. The correlations between USP7 expression and the clinicopathological variables of patients with EOC were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation test. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to identify the prognosis value of USP7. The function of USP7 in the EOC cells was also detected in vitro. Results Among the 141 cases, USP7 expression was high in 59 EOC samples (41.8%), and was significantly correlated with lymphatic invasion; USP7 can act as independent prognostic indicator for the overall survival (OS) of EOC, and its high expression was associated with poor OS rate. The RNA inteference and overexpression assays indicated that USP7 can positively regulate the ovarian cell vitality and invasion process. Conclusion Patients with EOC expressing high level of USP7 have worse OS compared with those with low USP7 expression. USP7 may be involved in the proliferation and invasion of EOC cells, and USP7 expression can serve as an independent predictor of EOC. PMID:27051296

  2. Analysis of wntless (WLS) expression in gastric, ovarian, and breast cancers reveals a strong association with HER2 overexpression.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jonathan; James, Jacqueline; McCluggage, Glenn W; McQuaid, Stephen; Arthur, Kenneth; Boyle, David; Mullan, Paul; McArt, Darragh; Yan, Benedict; Irwin, Gareth; Harkin, D Paul; Zhengdeng, Lei; Ong, Chee-Wee; Yu, Jia; Virshup, David M; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The oncogenic role of WNT is well characterized. Wntless (WLS) (also known as GPR177, or Evi), a key modulator of WNT protein secretion, was recently found to be highly overexpressed in malignant astrocytomas. We hypothesized that this molecule may be aberrantly expressed in other cancers known to possess aberrant WNT signaling such as ovarian, gastric, and breast cancers. Immunohistochemical analysis using a TMA platform revealed WLS overexpression in a subset of ovarian, gastric, and breast tumors; this overexpression was associated with poorer clinical outcomes in gastric cancer (P=0.025). In addition, a strong correlation was observed between WLS expression and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. Indeed, 100% of HER2-positive intestinal gastric carcinomas, 100% of HER2-positive serous ovarian carcinomas, and 64% of HER2-positive breast carcinomas coexpressed WLS protein. Although HER2 protein expression or gene amplification is an established predictive biomarker for trastuzumab response in breast and gastric cancers, a significant proportion of HER2-positive tumors display resistance to trastuzumab, which may be in part explainable by a possible mechanistic link between WLS and HER2.

  3. Morphine administration during low ovarian hormone stage results in transient over expression of fear memories in females.

    PubMed

    Perez-Torres, Emily M; Ramos-Ortolaza, Dinah L; Morales, Roberto; Santini, Edwin; Rios-Ruiz, Efrain J; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn

    2015-01-01

    Acute exposure to morphine after a traumatic event reduces trauma related symptoms in humans and conditioned fear expression in male rats. We aimed to determine whether acute administration of morphine alters consolidation of fear learning and extinction. Male and female rats in proestrus and metaestrus (high and low ovarian hormones respectively) underwent fear conditioning and received saline or morphine (2.5 mg/kg s.c.). The next day they underwent extinction. Results showed increased freezing during extinction only in the morphine metaestrus group while morphine did not affect males or proestrus females. Recall of extinction was similar on all groups. On a second experiment, a subset of rats conditioned during metaestrus was administered morphine prior to extinction producing no effects. We then measured mu opioid receptor (MOR) expression in the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG) at the end of extinction (day 2). In males and proestrus females, morphine caused an increase in MOR in the amygdala but no in the PAG. In metaestrus females, morphine did not change MOR expression in either structure. These data suggests that ovarian hormones may interact with MORs in the amygdala to transiently alter memory consolidation. Morphine given after trauma to females with low ovarian hormones might increase the recall of fear responses, making recovery harder. PMID:26052274

  4. Subtype Specific Elevated Expression of Hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL-1) in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoffou, Paule Héléna; Edjekouane, Lydia; Meunier, Liliane; Tremblay, André; Provencher, Diane Michèle; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Carmona, Euridice

    2011-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is morphologically heterogeneous being classified as serous, endometrioid, clear cell, or mucinous. Molecular genetic analysis has suggested a role for tumor suppressor genes located at chromosome 3p in serous EOC pathogenesis. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of HYAL1, located at chromosome 3p21.3, in these EOC subtypes, and to investigate its correlation with the expression of steroid hormone receptors. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the mRNA expression of HYAL1, estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ERβ and progesterone receptor (PR) in EOC tumor samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR. We also examined the expression of these genes in a publicly available microarray dataset. HYAL-1 enzyme activity was measured in EOC cell lines and in plasma samples from patients. We found that HYAL1 mRNA expression was elevated in clear cell and mucinous EOC tissue samples, but not in serous and endometrioid samples, normal ovaries or benign tumors. Similar results were obtained by two different techniques and with tissue sample cohorts from two independent institutions. Concordantly, HYAL1 mRNA levels and enzymatic activity were elevated only in EOC cell lines derived from clear cell and mucinous subtypes. We also showed that HYAL1 mRNA was inversely correlated to that of ERα specifically in clear cell and mucinous EOCs. Additionally, ectopic expression of ERα in a clear cell EOC cell line (ER- and PR-negative) induced 50% reduction of HYAL1 mRNA expression, supporting a role of ERα in HYAL1 gene regulation. Significantly, HYAL-1 activity was also high in the plasma of patients with these EOC subtypes. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report showing high HYAL-1 levels in EOC and demonstrating HYAL1 gene repression by ERα. Our results identify Hyaluronidase-1 as a potential target/biomarker for clear cell and mucinous EOCs and especially in tumors with low ERα levels. PMID:21695196

  5. Infantile 4-tert-octylphenol exposure transiently inhibits rat ovarian steroidogenesis and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression

    SciTech Connect

    Myllymaeki, S.A. . E-mail: saanmy@utu.fi; Karjalainen, M.; Haavisto, T.E.; Toppari, J.; Paranko, J.

    2005-08-22

    Phenolic compounds, such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), have been shown to interfere with rat ovarian steroidogenesis. However, little is known about steroidogenic effects of infantile OP exposure on immature ovary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of infantile OP exposure on plasma FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels in 14-day-old female rats. The effect on ovarian steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and FSH receptor (FSHr) expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Ex vivo analysis was carried out for follicular estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cAMP production. Sprague-Dawley rats were given OP (0, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg) subcutaneously on postnatal days 6, 8, 10, and 12. On postnatal day 14, plasma FSH was decreased and progesterone increased significantly at a dose of 100 mg OP/kg. In addition, the highest OP dose advanced the time of vaginal opening in puberty. OP had no effect on infantile LH and estradiol levels or ovarian FSHr content. Ovarian StAR protein content and ex vivo hormone and cAMP production were decreased at all OP doses compared to controls. However, hormone levels recovered independent on FSH and even increased above the control level during a prolonged culture. On postnatal day 35, no statistically significant differences were seen between control and OP-exposed animals in plasma FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels, or in ovarian StAR protein content. The results indicate that the effect of OP on the infantile ovary is reversible, while more permanent effects in the hypothalamus and pituitary, as described earlier, are involved in the reduction of circulating FSH levels and premature vaginal opening.

  6. Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of Cacna2d1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancers: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dandan; Holm, Ruth; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, in which cancer stem cells (CSC) have been reported to be the driving force of relapse and therapy-resistance. It is therefore important to explore CSC markers in ovarian cancer. This project aimed to explore the correlation between the expression of potential CSC maker Cacna2d1 and clinicopathological parameters in 238 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) samples. Immunohistochemically, positive Cacna2d1 expression was observed in 83.6% (199/238) of the EOC tumors, among which 107 tumors (44.9%) were highly positive and 92 (38.7%) tumors were weakly positive for the Cacna2d1 protein expression. Among the 158 serous carcinomas, the Cacna2d1 positivity was 148 (93.7%), in which 88 (55.7%) were highly positive, and 60 (38.0%) were weakly positive for the Cacna2d1 protein expression. Most strikingly, the Cacna2d1 was specifically expressed in the infiltration front areas of the EOC tumors. Statistical analyses showed that positive expression of Cacna2d1 was significantly associated with advanced FIGO stage (P<0.001), histological subtype (P=0.017) and tumor differentiation (P=0.015). Positive Cacna2d1 protein expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) and shorter progression free survival (PFS) in both total EOCs and serous carcinomas, although multivariate analyses did not reach statistical significance. In summary, our results suggest Cacna2d1 protein may play a crucial role in promoting aggressive EOC behavior and progression, and Cacna2d1 may serve as a novel predictive prognostic marker and a potential target for therapeutic intervention in EOCs. PMID:27725913

  7. Heterogeneity of the Mac-1 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with different types of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Szyłło, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej; Sułowska, Zofia; Nowak, Marek

    2016-02-01

    The expression level of Mac-1 on the surface of neutrophils is an important indicator of neutrophil activation. Under pathological conditions, Mac-1 is believed a key adhesion molecule that facilitates cancer progression and mediates the adhesion of tumour cells to the endothelium of blood vessels. Our previous findings indicated that circulating peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) expressed enhanced levels of Mac-1, which was functionally associated with an increased adhesive function of neutrophils. The objective of the current study was to analyse whether the value of individual components of the differential white cell count, including the neutrophil and lymphocyte ratios, which are markers of blood neutrophil activation, might be associated with certain types of ovarian cancer. We showed the increase in Mac-1 expression along with a parallel decrease of L-selectin and PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with EOC of early and advanced FIGO stages, which indicates an activated state of neutrophils in comparison to neutrophils of individuals without cancer. Despite a significant difference between Mac-1 expression in patients with and without cancer, a dramatic increase in Mac-1 expression was observed in the blood of patients with undifferentiated carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC. Moreover, the expression level of Mac-1 correlated with the number of neutrophils in patients with serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated EOC. The results of an ROC analysis demonstrated that the patients with the undifferentiated type of EOC form a distinct group with regard to Mac-1 expression on blood neutrophils. The results suggested a diverse biological cadre of immune cells in patients with undifferentiated ovarian carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC. PMID:26563750

  8. Heterogeneity of the Mac-1 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with different types of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Szyłło, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej; Sułowska, Zofia; Nowak, Marek

    2016-02-01

    The expression level of Mac-1 on the surface of neutrophils is an important indicator of neutrophil activation. Under pathological conditions, Mac-1 is believed a key adhesion molecule that facilitates cancer progression and mediates the adhesion of tumour cells to the endothelium of blood vessels. Our previous findings indicated that circulating peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) expressed enhanced levels of Mac-1, which was functionally associated with an increased adhesive function of neutrophils. The objective of the current study was to analyse whether the value of individual components of the differential white cell count, including the neutrophil and lymphocyte ratios, which are markers of blood neutrophil activation, might be associated with certain types of ovarian cancer. We showed the increase in Mac-1 expression along with a parallel decrease of L-selectin and PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with EOC of early and advanced FIGO stages, which indicates an activated state of neutrophils in comparison to neutrophils of individuals without cancer. Despite a significant difference between Mac-1 expression in patients with and without cancer, a dramatic increase in Mac-1 expression was observed in the blood of patients with undifferentiated carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC. Moreover, the expression level of Mac-1 correlated with the number of neutrophils in patients with serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated EOC. The results of an ROC analysis demonstrated that the patients with the undifferentiated type of EOC form a distinct group with regard to Mac-1 expression on blood neutrophils. The results suggested a diverse biological cadre of immune cells in patients with undifferentiated ovarian carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC.

  9. Ets-1 mRNA expression in effusions of serous ovarian carcinoma patients is a marker of poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Davidson, B; Risberg, B; Goldberg, I; Nesland, J M; Berner, A; Tropé, C G; Kristensen, G B; Bryne, M; Reich, R

    2001-12-01

    Ets-1 proto-oncogene is a transcription factor with a role in the activation of metastasis-associated molecules. We recently found that Ets-1 mRNA expression in solid tumors is a marker of poor prognosis in ovarian carcinoma. The objective of this study was to compare the expression of Ets-1 mRNA in effusions and primary and metastatic tumors of serous ovarian carcinoma patients and to evaluate its prognostic role in effusions. Sections from 67 malignant effusions and 90 primary and metastatic lesions were evaluated for expression of Ets-1 using mRNA in situ hybridization. Expression of Ets-1 mRNA was detected in carcinoma cells in 24 of 67 (36%) effusions. Expression in cancer cells was similar in peritoneal and pleural effusions. In solid lesions Ets-1 expression was detected in both tumor cells and stromal cells in 34 of 90 (38%) lesions. Ets-1 expression in tumor cells showed a strong association with that of stromal cells (p <0.001). Ets-1 expression in effusions showed an association with mRNA expression of basic fibroblast growth factor, previously studied in this patient cohort (p = 0.019). Ets-1 expression in solid lesions showed an association with mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (p <0.001 for both carcinoma and stromal cells), basic fibroblast growth factor (p = 0.007 for carcinoma cells, p = 0.006 for stromal cells), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (p = 0.001 for tumor cells). Ets-1 mRNA showed upregulation in metastases when compared with effusion specimens (p = 0.028). In univariate survival analysis Ets-1 expression in carcinoma cells in effusions correlated with poor survival (p = 0.003). Our findings confirm the role of Ets-1 as a novel prognostic marker in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma and extend it to effusion specimens. The elevated expression in solid metastases supports a central role in tumor progression as well. The association between Ets-1 mRNA expression and the expression of angiogenic genes, documented also in our

  10. Global gene expression analysis of early response to chemotherapy treatment in ovarian cancer spheroids

    PubMed Central

    L'Espérance, Sylvain; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Tetu, Bernard; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2008-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy (CT) resistance in ovarian cancer (OC) is broad and encompasses diverse unrelated drugs, suggesting more than one mechanism of resistance. To better understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the immediate response of OC cells to CT exposure, we have performed gene expression profiling in spheroid cultures derived from six OC cell lines (OVCAR3, SKOV3, TOV-112, TOV-21, OV-90 and TOV-155), following treatment with 10,0 μM cisplatin, 2,5 μM paclitaxel or 5,0 μM topotecan for 72 hours. Results Exposure of OC spheroids to these CT drugs resulted in differential expression of genes associated with cell growth and proliferation, cellular assembly and organization, cell death, cell cycle control and cell signaling. Genes, functionally involved in DNA repair, DNA replication and cell cycle arrest were mostly overexpressed, while genes implicated in metabolism (especially lipid metabolism), signal transduction, immune and inflammatory response, transport, transcription regulation and protein biosynthesis, were commonly suppressed following all treatments. Cisplatin and topotecan treatments triggered similar alterations in gene and pathway expression patterns, while paclitaxel action was mainly associated with induction of genes and pathways linked to cellular assembly and organization (including numerous tubulin genes), cell death and protein synthesis. The microarray data were further confirmed by pathway and network analyses. Conclusion Most alterations in gene expression were directly related to mechanisms of the cytotoxics actions in OC spheroids. However, the induction of genes linked to mechanisms of DNA replication and repair in cisplatin- and topotecan-treated OC spheroids could be associated with immediate adaptive response to treatment. Similarly, overexpression of different tubulin genes upon exposure to paclitaxel could represent an early compensatory effect to this drug action. Finally, multicellular growth conditions that are

  11. Diethylstilbestrol regulates expression of avian apolipoprotein D during regression and recrudescence of the oviduct and epithelial-derived ovarian carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J; Bae, H; Lim, W; Bazer, F W; Song, G

    2015-07-01

    Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a glycoprotein which is widely expressed in mammalian tissues. It is structurally and functionally similar to the lipocalins which are multiple lipid-binding proteins that transport hydrophobic ligands and other small hydrophobic molecules, including cholesterol and several steroid hormones. Although multiple functions for APOD in various tissues have been reported, its expression, biological function, and hormonal regulation in the female reproductive system are not known. Thus, in this study, we focused on correlations between APOD and estrogen during development, differentiation, regression, and regeneration of the oviduct in chickens and in the development of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens. Results of the present study indicated that APOD messenger RNA (mRNA) expression increased (P < 0.001) in the luminal and glandular (GE) epithelia of the chicken oviduct in response to diethylstilbestrol (a nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen). In addition, the expression of APOD mRNA and protein decreased (P < 0.001) as the oviduct regressed during induced molting, and gradually increased (P < 0.001) with abundant expression in GE of the oviduct during recrudescence after molting. Furthermore, APOD mRNA and protein were predominantly localized in GE of cancerous, but not normal ovaries from laying hens. Collectively, results of the present study suggest that APOD is a novel estrogen-stimulated gene in the chicken oviduct which likely regulates growth, differentiation, and remodeling of the oviduct during oviposition cycles. Moreover, up-regulated expression of APOD in epithelial cell-derived ovarian cancerous tissue suggests that it could be a candidate biomarker for early detection and treatment of ovarian cancer in laying hens and in women. PMID:25929245

  12. Baicalein inhibits MMP-2 expression in human ovarian cancer cells by suppressing the p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Xin, Shaobin; Wang, Hui; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Heng; Wei, Hailing

    2015-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by ovarian cancer play essential roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effect of baicalein, which is isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, on human ovarian cancer cell lines by measuring MMP-2 expression, invasive potential, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Analysis of MMP-2 was carried out by western blots and RT-PCR. The invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells was determined using a Transwell invasion assay. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and p38 MAPK activation was assessed by western blots. The results of the present study showed that baicalein reduced the expression of MMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner and the invasion of ovarian cancer cells was also significantly suppressed by baicalein. We also found that baicalein reduced the activation of NF-κB signaling molecules; in addition, the MMP-2 expression and invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells were abolished with the treatment of the NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. However, the addition of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 significantly reduced the activation of NF-κB; meanwhile, baicalein was shown to exert an inhibitory effect on p38 activation. Furthermore, the MMP-2 expression and invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells were significantly inhibited by SB203580. In conclusion, baicalein inhibits the MMP-2 expression and invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells, possibly by the p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway; these findings may provide insights into the potential of using baicalein as a therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  13. Expression of organic cation transporter SLC22A16 in human epithelial ovarian cancer: a possible role of the adriamycin importer.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kyoko; Ito, Kiyoshi; Akahira, Jun-ichi; Sato, Naoko; Onogawa, Tohru; Moriya, Takuya; Unno, Michiaki; Abe, Takaaki; Niikura, Hitoshi; Takano, Tadao; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2007-07-01

    The SLC22A16 is one of the newly isolated organic cation transporters, which is responsible for uptake and transport of adriamycin into cells. Adriamycin is considered to be an active agent for ovarian cancer. Recently, the benefit of adding adriamycin to the current standard regimen, paclitaxel and platinum, is evaluated to improve the outcome of patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, we examined the expression of SLC22A16 in ovarian cancers. Twelve ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used for immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to confirm the expression of SLC22A16 mRNA and protein. Five normal ovaries, 12 ovarian adenomas, and 94 ovarian cancer cases were obtained from patients after surgical therapy. The specimens were used for immunohistochemistry. The median value of relative SLC22A16 gene expression in cell lines derived from clear-cell adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in cell lines from other histologies (P < 0.001). Expression of SLC22A16 protein was also detected in cell lines derived from clear-cell adenocarcinoma. The SLC22A16 immunoreactivity was detected in 15 (16%) of 94 epithelial ovarian cancer, 1 (8.3%) of 12 benign adenomas, but 0 (0%) of 5 normal ovary cases. In ovarian cancer tissues, SLC22A16 immunoreactivity was detected in 2 (5%) of 38 serous adenocarcinoma, 1 (6.7%) of 15 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 0 (0%) of 14 mucinous adenocarcinoma, and 12 (46.2%) of 26 clear-cell adenocarcinoma (P < 0.0001, clear-cell vs other histologies). In conclusion, SLC22A16 was abundantly expressed in clear-cell adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that adriamycin-related chemicals that are taken up via SLC22A16 may have the potential to be effective against clear-cell adenocarcinoma.

  14. Human leukocyte antigen-E alleles and expression in patients with serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Lu, Renquan; Xie, Suhong; Wen, Xuemei; Wang, Hongling; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) is one of the most extensively studied non-classical MHC class I molecules that is almost non-polymorphic. Only two alleles (HLA-E*0101 and HLA-E*0103) are found in worldwide populations, and suggested to be functional differences between these variants. The HLA-E molecule can contribute to the escape of cancer cells from host immune surveillance. However, it is still unknown whether HLA-E gene polymorphisms might play a role in cancer immune escape. To explore the association between HLA-E alleles and the susceptibility to serous ovarian cancer (SOC), 85 primary SOC patients and 100 healthy women were enrolled. Here, we indicated that high frequency of HLA-E*0103 allele existed in SOC patients by the allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR method. The levels of HLA-E protein expression in SOC patients with the HLA-E*0103 allele were higher than those with the HLA-E*0101 allele using immunohistochemistry analysis. The cell surface expression and functional differences between the two alleles were verified by K562 cells transfected with HLA-E*0101 or HLA-E*0103 allelic heavy chains. The HLA-E*0103 allele made the transfer of the HLA-E molecule to the cell surface easier, and HLA-E/peptides complex more stable. These differences ultimately influenced the function of natural killer cells, showing that the cells transfected with HLA-E*0103 allele inhibited natural killer cells to lysis. This study reveals a novel mechanism regarding the susceptibility to SOC, which is correlated with the HLA-E*0103 allele. PMID:25711417

  15. Expression of the Homeobox Gene HOXA9 in Ovarian Cancer Induces Peritoneal Macrophages to Acquire an M2 Tumor-Promoting Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Song Yi; Ladanyi, Andras; Lengyel, Ernst; Naora, Honami

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exhibit an M2 macrophage phenotype that suppresses anti-tumor immune responses and often correlates with poor outcomes in patients with cancer. Patients with ovarian cancer frequently present with peritoneal carcinomatosis, but the mechanisms that induce naïve peritoneal macrophages into TAMs are poorly understood. In this study, we found an increased abundance of TAMs in mouse i.p. xenograft models of ovarian cancer that expressed HOXA9, a homeobox gene that is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. HOXA9 expression in ovarian cancer cells stimulated chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages and induced macrophages to acquire TAM-like features. These features included induction of the M2 markers, CD163 and CD206, and the immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and chemokine ligand 17, and down-regulation of the immunostimulatory cytokine, IL-12. HOXA9-mediated induction of TAMs was primarily due to the combinatorial effects of HOXA9-induced, tumor-derived transforming growth factor-β2 and chemokine ligand 2 levels. High HOXA9 expression in clinical specimens of ovarian cancer was strongly associated with increased abundance of TAMs and intratumoral T-regulatory cells and decreased abundance of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Levels of immunosuppressive cytokines were also elevated in ascites fluid of patients with tumors that highly expressed HOXA9. HOXA9 may, therefore, stimulate ovarian cancer progression by promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment via paracrine effects on peritoneal macrophages. PMID:24332016

  16. CSIOVDB: a microarray gene expression database of epithelial ovarian cancer subtype.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tuan Zea; Yang, He; Ye, Jieru; Low, Jeffrey; Choolani, Mahesh; Tan, David Shao Peng; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju

    2015-12-22

    Databases pertaining to various diseases provide valuable resources on particular genes of interest but lack the molecular subtype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition status. CSIOVDB is a transcriptomic microarray database of 3,431 human ovarian cancers, including carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum, and metastasis to the ovary. The database also comprises stroma and ovarian surface epithelium from normal ovary tissue, as well as over 400 early-stage ovarian cancers. This unique database presents the molecular subtype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition status for each ovarian cancer sample, with major ovarian cancer histologies (clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, low-grade serous, serous) represented. Clinico-pathological parameters available include tumor grade, surgical debulking status, clinical response and age. The database has 1,868 and 1,516 samples with information pertaining to overall and disease-free survival rates, respectively. The database also provides integration with the copy number, DNA methylation and mutation data from TCGA. CSIOVDB seeks to provide a resource for biomarker and therapeutic target exploration for ovarian cancer research. PMID:26549805

  17. CSIOVDB: a microarray gene expression database of epithelial ovarian cancer subtype.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tuan Zea; Yang, He; Ye, Jieru; Low, Jeffrey; Choolani, Mahesh; Tan, David Shao Peng; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju

    2015-12-22

    Databases pertaining to various diseases provide valuable resources on particular genes of interest but lack the molecular subtype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition status. CSIOVDB is a transcriptomic microarray database of 3,431 human ovarian cancers, including carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum, and metastasis to the ovary. The database also comprises stroma and ovarian surface epithelium from normal ovary tissue, as well as over 400 early-stage ovarian cancers. This unique database presents the molecular subtype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition status for each ovarian cancer sample, with major ovarian cancer histologies (clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, low-grade serous, serous) represented. Clinico-pathological parameters available include tumor grade, surgical debulking status, clinical response and age. The database has 1,868 and 1,516 samples with information pertaining to overall and disease-free survival rates, respectively. The database also provides integration with the copy number, DNA methylation and mutation data from TCGA. CSIOVDB seeks to provide a resource for biomarker and therapeutic target exploration for ovarian cancer research.

  18. Ovarian expressed microsomal epoxide hydrolase: Role in detoxification of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide and regulation by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Sen, Nivedita; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2012-01-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is a metabolite of 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) which has the potential to be formed in the ovary through CYP2E1 activity. VCD specifically destroys primordial and small primary follicles in the rodent ovary. Mouse ovaries exposed to VCD demonstrate increased mRNA and protein expression of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), and an inactive tetrol metabolite (4-(1,2-dihydroxy)ethyl-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexane) can be formed in mouse ovarian follicles, potentially through detoxification action of mEH. In contrast, mEH can bioactivate another ovotoxic chemical, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to a more toxic compound, DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide. Thus, the present study evaluated a functional role for mEH during detoxification of VCD. Additionally, because inhibition of the phosphatidyinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in a previous study protected primordial follicles from VCD-induced destruction, but accelerated DMBA-induced ovotoxicity, a role for PI3K in ovarian mEH regulation was evaluated. Using a post-natal day (PND) 4 Fischer 344 rat whole ovary culture system inhibition of mEH using cyclohexene oxide during VCD exposure resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) loss of primordial and small primary follicles relative to VCD-treated ovaries. Also, relative to controls, meh mRNA was increased (P < 0.05) on day 4 of VCD (30 μM) exposure, followed by increased (P < 0.05) mEH protein after 6 days. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K signaling increased mEH mRNA and protein expression. Thus, these results support a functional role for mEH in the rat ovary, and demonstrate the involvement of PI3K signaling in regulation of ovarian xenobiotic metabolism by mEH. -- Highlights: ► Ovarian mEH functions to metabolize VCD to a less toxic compound. ► mEH expression is increased in a temporal pattern in response to VCD exposure. ► PI3K signaling is involved in regulation of ovarian mEH expression.

  19. Effect of luteal-phase support on endometrial microRNA expression following controlled ovarian stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that microRNAs influence cellular activities in the uterus including cell differentiation and embryo implantation. In assisted reproduction cycles, luteal phase support, given to improve endometrial characteristics and to facilitate the implantation process, has been a standard practice. The effect of different types of luteal phase support using steroid hormones in relation to endometrial miRNA profiles during the peri-implantation period has not seen described. This study was designed to evaluate the expression of miRNAs during the luteal phase following controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF and the influence of different luteal phase support protocols on miRNA profiles. Methods The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Hospital Institutional Review Board. Endometrial biopsies were obtained on the day of oocyte retrieval from 9 oocyte donors (group I). An additional endometrial biopsy was obtained 3–5 days later (Group II) after the donors were randomized into three groups. Group IIa had no luteal-phase support, group IIb had luteal support with micronized progesterone (P), and Group IIc had luteal support with progesterone plus 17-beta-estradiol (P + E). Total RNA was isolated and microarray analysis was performed using an Illumina miRNA expression panel. Results A total of 526 miRNAs were identified. Out of those, 216 miRNAs were differentially regulated (p < 0.05) between the comparison groups. As compared to the day of retrieval, 19, 11 and 6 miRNAs were differentially regulated more than 2 fold in the groups of no support, in the P support only, and in the P + E support respectively, 3–5 days after retrieval. During the peri-implantation period (3–5 days after retrieval) the expression of 33 and 6 miRNAs increased, while the expression of 3 and 0 miRNAs decreased, in the P alone and in the P + E group respectively as compared to the no steroid supplementation group. Conclusion Luteal support

  20. Global transcriptional expression in ovarian follicles from Tsaiya ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) with a high-fertilization rate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shyh-Jong; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Liu, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Hsing-He; Huang, Hsiu-Lin

    2016-05-01

    Novel candidates for biomarkers of a high-fertilization rate were identified here through global transcriptional profiling of ovarian follicles. Some other differentially expressed candidate genes were first noted to influence animal reproduction in our previous cDNA microarray analysis and are now recognized as markers for marker-assisted selection. In the present study, we compared gene expression in ovarian follicles from animals with high- and low-fertilization rates using an oligonucleotide array. On the basis of a fold change of greater than 1.2 and less than -1.2, a difference of >100 Affymetrix arbitrary units between the two groups, and a P value of less than 0.05, 47 genes were found to be associated with fertilization rate. GOEAST and MetaCore software were further used to identify the functional categories of genes that were differentially expressed. Then, we focused on three interesting genes associated with a high-fertilization rate: one of these genes was discovered to participate in signaling pathways of fertilization, and two genes take roles in lipid metabolism. An oligonucleotide array showed that the levels of orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene expression were 1.62-fold and 1.95-fold higher in the high-fertilization rate group than in the low-fertilization rate group, respectively (P < 0.05). The level of apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) gene expression was also higher in the high-fertilization rate group, with a difference of 2.31-fold (P < 0.05). The data were validated through quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. These results confirm the usefulness of the array technique and data mining methods in the discovery of new biomarkers and add knowledge to our understanding of the factors affecting fertilization rates in ovarian follicles. PMID:26861074

  1. Molecular characterisation and expression profiling of the ENO1 gene in the ovarian follicle of the Sichuan white goose.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bo; Jiang, Dong Mei; Bai, Lin; He, Hui; Ma, Rong

    2014-01-01

    The ENO1 gene encodes a multifunctional enzyme that has been identified as a key component of the glycolytic pathway. Our previous studies demonstrated that ENO1 gene expression was higher in the ovaries of laying geese compared with prelaying geese. However, the molecular characterisation and expression profiling of the ENO1 gene in geese tissues and ovarian follicles remain to be determined. In this study, ENO1 cDNA (1,445 bp long) of the Sichuan white goose was cloned and characterised. The ORF of ENO1 cDNA is 1,305 bp in length and encodes a 434 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 47.27 kDa. ENO1 expression in all of the examined tissues was the highest in spleen and the lowest in breast muscle. High expression of ENO1 appeared in the kidney, liver, adrenal gland, and retina. With increasing follicle growth, ENO1 gene expression began to decrease from the small white follicle to F5, which was followed by a sharp increase in expression in F4 and then a gradual decrease in expression from F3 to F1. Furthermore, in the postovulatory follicles (POF), the levels of ENO1 gene expression decreased gradually from POF1 to POF4. In conclusion, the ENO1 transcript was widely distributed in various tissues of the Sichuan white goose, but ENO1 expression was tissue-specific. Furthermore, the results of the ENO1 expression profiling of ovarian follicles suggest that ENO1 may play an important dual role in the progress of follicular development, where ENO1 acts as a glycolytic enzyme and also mediates apoptosis.

  2. High expression of crystallin αB represents an independent molecular marker for unfavourable ovarian cancer patient outcome and impairs TRAIL- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Juliane; Reuning, Ute; Rudelius, Martina; Häfner, Norman; Schuster, Tibor; Becker V Ros, Aaron; Weimer, Joerg; Hilpert, Felix; Kiechle, Marion; Dürst, Matthias; Arnold, Norbert; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Ramser, Juliane

    2013-06-15

    Dysregulated apoptotic pathways are regarded as major reasons for chemoresistance development as a particular challenge in ovarian cancer therapy. In search of molecular factors affecting human ovarian cancer cell apoptosis and, consequently, patient survival, we examined tumors of 103 platinum-/taxane-treated ovarian cancer patients by mRNA-array hybridization, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. We identified high expression of crystallin αB (CRYAB), a proposed negative regulator of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis. By Kaplan Meier analysis, this factor turned out to be significantly associated with poor patient outcome [overall survival (OS) p = 0.001, recurrence-free survival (RFS) p = 0.003]. Elevated hazard ratios (HR) were estimated with regard to OS (HR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.10-4.06) and RFS (HR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.07-3.47) in multivariable analyses. These associations were confirmed in independent, publicly available mRNA data comprising 431 patients for OS (p < 0.001) and 413 for RFS (p < 0.001). Our findings were validated by studying apoptotic events in cultured human ovarian cancer cells which were stably transfected to express elevated CRYAB levels. These data emphasized the crucial role of CRYAB in human ovarian cancer biology since TRAIL- as well as cisplatin-induced apoptosis was significantly impaired as a function of enhanced CRYAB expression. Taken together, we identified CRYAB as an independent biomarker for unfavourable outcome of human ovarian cancer patients. Since TRAIL is currently tested as anti-cancer drug and large proportions of the present patient cohort displayed low CRYAB levels in their tumors, CRYAB may enable the selection of patient subgroups benefiting most from TRAIL-containing therapy. PMID:23225306

  3. The RUNX1 transcription factor is expressed in serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma and contributes to cell proliferation, migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Mamadou; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Morin, Chantale; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have identified the RUNX1 gene as hypomethylated and overexpressed in post-chemotherapy (CT) primary cultures derived from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients, when compared with primary cultures derived from matched primary (prior to CT) tumors. Here we show that RUNX1 displays a trend of hypomethylation, although not significant, in omental metastases compared with primary EOC tumors. Surprisingly, RUNX1 displayed significantly higher expression not only in metastatic tissue, but also in high-grade primary tumors and even in low malignant potential tumors. The RUNX1 expression levels were almost identical in primary tumors and omental metastases, suggesting that RUNX1 hypomethylation might have a limited impact on its overexpression in advanced (metastatic) stage of the disease. Knockdown of the RUNX1 expression in EOC cells led to sharp decrease of cell proliferation and induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, RUNX1 suppression significantly inhibited EOC cell migration and invasion. Gene expression profiling and consecutive network and pathway analyses confirmed these findings, as numerous genes and pathways known previously to be implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis, including EOC tumor invasion and metastasis, were found to be downregulated upon RUNX1 suppression, while a number of pro-apoptotic genes and some EOC tumor suppressor genes were induced. Taken together, our data are indicative for a strong oncogenic potential of the RUNX1 gene in EOC progression and suggest that RUNX1 might be a novel EOC therapeutic target. Further studies are needed to more completely elucidate the functional implications of RUNX1 and other members of the RUNX gene family in ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:23442798

  4. The expression of the Sprouty 1 protein inversely correlates with growth, proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our recent study on a panel of human ovarian cancer cells revealed that SKOV-3 cells barely express the Sprouty isoform 1 (Spry1) while 1A9 cells maintain it at a level similar to normal ovarian cells. Here we investigated the functional outcomes of induced alterations in the expression of Spry1 in the two cell lines in vitro. Methods Using the Spry1 specific plasmid and siRNA, the expression of Spry1 was induced and conversely silenced in SKOV-3 and 1A9 cells, respectively. The functional outcome was investigated by means of proliferation, MTT, scratch-wound, migration and invasion assays and selection of the stable clones. Mechanism of the effect was explored by Western blot. Results In the Spry1-transfected SKOV-3 cells, a significant reduction in growth and proliferation was evident. Stable clones of the Spry1-transfected SKOV-3 were almost undetectable after day 14. The number of migrated and invaded cells and the percentage of the scratch closure were significantly lower in the Spry1-transfected group. Spry1 silencing in 1A9 cells, on the other hand, led to a significant increase in cell growth and proliferation. The number of migrated and invaded cells and the percentage of the scratch closure significantly increased in Spry1-silenced 1A9 group. Mechanistically, overexpression of Bax, activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9, cleavage of PARP and attenuation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl were observed along with reduced activation of Erk and Akt and increased amount and activity of PTEN in the Spry1-transfected SKOV-3 cells. Conclusions Here, we report the inverse correlation between the expression of Spry1 and growth, proliferation, invasion and migration of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:24932220

  5. Metabolic alterations caused by HNF1β expression in ovarian clear cell carcinoma contribute to cell survival.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yasuaki; Mandai, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Ken; Matsumura, Noriomi; Kharma, Budiman; Baba, Tsukasa; Abiko, Kaoru; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-09-22

    HNF1β is expressed exclusively in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) and not in other ovarian cancers, regarded as a hallmark of this tumor. This implies its central role in the unique character of OCCC, including resistance to chemotherapy, but its exact role and influence in cancer biology or the molecular bases of its function are largely unknown. Using comprehensive metabolome analysis of HNF1β_shRNA-stable cell lines, we show here that HNF1β drastically alters intracellular metabolism, especially in direction to enhance aerobic glycolysis, so called the "Warburg effect". The consequence of the metabolic change contributed cell survival under stresses such as hypoxia and chemo-reagent, only when sufficient glucose supply was available. Augmented cell survival was based on the reduced ROS activity derived from metabolic alteration such as shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and increased intracellular anti-oxidant, glutathione (GSH). One of the cystine transporters, rBAT is likely to play a major role in this GSH increase. These data suggest that HNF1β, possibly induced by stressful microenvironment in the endometriotic cyst, confers survival advantage to the epithelial cells, which leads to the occurrence of OCCC, a chemo-resistant phenotype of ovarian cancer. PMID:26318292

  6. Elevated Peritoneal Fluid TNF-α Incites Ovarian Early Growth Response Factor 1 Expression and Downstream Protease Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Julie A.; Nabli, Henda; Stilley, Julie A.; Windham, Emma A.; Frazier, Shellaine R.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis-associated infertility manifests itself via multiple, poorly understood mechanisms. Our goal was to characterize signaling pathways, between peritoneal endometriotic lesions and the ovary, leading to failed ovulation. Genome-wide microarray analysis comparing ovarian tissue from an in vivo endometriosis model in the rat (Endo) with controls (Sham) identified 22 differentially expressed genes, including transiently expressed early growth response factor 1 (Egr1). The Egr1 regulates gene requisites for ovulation. The Egr1 promoter is responsive to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling. We hypothesized that altered expression of ovarian EGR1 is induced by elevated peritoneal fluid TNF-α which is upregulated by the presence of peritoneal endometriosis. Endo rats, compared to controls, had more peritoneal fluid TNF-α and quantitative, spatial differences in Egr1 mRNA and EGR1 protein localization in follicular compartments. Interactions between elevated peritoneal fluid TNF-α and overexpression of follicular Egr1/EGR1 expression may affect downstream protease pathways impeding ovulation in endometriosis. Preliminary studies identified similar patterns of EGR1 protein localization in human ovaries from women with endometriosis and compared to those without endometriosis. PMID:23427178

  7. Expression of WT1, CA 125, and GCDFP-15 as useful markers in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary.

    PubMed

    Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert; Chen, Shirley; Akram, Muzaffar; Hummer, Amanda J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeen; Norton, Larry; Tan, Lee K

    2005-11-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary ovarian carcinoma. This problem is often encountered in breast carcinoma patients who develop adnexal masses. ER and PR can be positive in a high percentage of breast and ovarian carcinomas, and therefore cannot be used in the differential diagnosis of these entities. WT1 and CA125 have been identified as possible markers for ovarian cancer. However, no studies have been done that specifically compare the immunophenotype of breast carcinoma metastatic to ovary with that of primary ovarian cancer. Thirty-nine cases of metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary, 36 primary breast carcinomas, and 42 primary ovarian carcinomas were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of WT1, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC2, MUC1, and GCDFP. The percentage of cells stained and the intensity of staining were recorded. Thirty-two ovarian carcinomas (76%) were positive for WT1, including 31 of 33 (94%) serous carcinomas. Most of them had strong and diffuse staining. None of the breast cancers either primary or metastatic to the ovary expressed WT1. Thirty-eight (90%) ovarian carcinomas were positive for CA125, most of them with strong and diffuse staining. Most breast carcinomas were negative for CA125, with only 6 (16%) of the primary ones and 5 (12%) of the metastatic showing weak and focal positivity. All ovarian carcinomas were negative for GCDFP. Five primary breast cancers (14%) and 17 (43%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for GCDFP. Nine (21%) ovarian carcinomas, 8 (22%) primary breast carcinomas, and 13 (33%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. Almost all tumors examined were positive for MUC1 (100% ovarian carcinomas, 100% primary breast carcinomas, and 95% metastatic breast carcinomas to ovary). MUC2 was positive in 10 (24%) ovarian carcinomas, 3 (8%) primary breast cancers, and 12 (30%) metastases to the ovary. The presence of

  8. Microarray-based detection and expression analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in drug‑resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) development leads to resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Microarray methods can provide information regarding new candidate genes that can play a role in resistance to cytostatic drugs. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence drug resistance by inhibiting the penetration of the drug into cancer tissue as well as increased apoptosis resistance. In the present study, we report changes in the ECM and related gene expression pattern in methotrexate-, cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, vincristine-, topotecan- and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the W1 ovarian cancer cell line. The resistant variants of the W1 cell line were generated by stepwise selection of cells with an increasing concentration of the indicated drugs. Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Genome U219 Array Strips were used for hybridizations. Independent t-tests were used to determinate the statistical significance of results. Genes whose expression levels were higher than the assumed threshold (upregulated, >5-fold and downregulated, <5-fold) were visualized using the scatter plot method, selected and listed in the tables. Among the investigated genes, expression of 24 genes increased, expression of 14 genes decreased and expression of three genes increased or decreased depending on the cell line. Among the increased genes, expression of 10 increased very significantly, >20-fold. These genes were: ITGB1BP3, COL3A1, COL5A2, COL15A1, TGFBI, DCN, LUM, MATN2, POSTN and EGFL6. The expression of seven genes decreased very significantly: ITGA1, COL1A2, LAMA2, GPC3, KRT23, VIT and HMCN1. The expression pattern of ECM and related genes provided the preliminary view into the role of ECM components in cytostatic drug resistance of cancer cells. The exact role of the investigated genes in drug resistance requires further investigation.

  9. Microarray-based detection and expression analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in drug‑resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Ruciński, Marcin; Zabel, Maciej

    2014-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) development leads to resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Microarray methods can provide information regarding new candidate genes that can play a role in resistance to cytostatic drugs. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence drug resistance by inhibiting the penetration of the drug into cancer tissue as well as increased apoptosis resistance. In the present study, we report changes in the ECM and related gene expression pattern in methotrexate-, cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, vincristine-, topotecan- and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the W1 ovarian cancer cell line. The resistant variants of the W1 cell line were generated by stepwise selection of cells with an increasing concentration of the indicated drugs. Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Genome U219 Array Strips were used for hybridizations. Independent t-tests were used to determinate the statistical significance of results. Genes whose expression levels were higher than the assumed threshold (upregulated, >5-fold and downregulated, <5-fold) were visualized using the scatter plot method, selected and listed in the tables. Among the investigated genes, expression of 24 genes increased, expression of 14 genes decreased and expression of three genes increased or decreased depending on the cell line. Among the increased genes, expression of 10 increased very significantly, >20-fold. These genes were: ITGB1BP3, COL3A1, COL5A2, COL15A1, TGFBI, DCN, LUM, MATN2, POSTN and EGFL6. The expression of seven genes decreased very significantly: ITGA1, COL1A2, LAMA2, GPC3, KRT23, VIT and HMCN1. The expression pattern of ECM and related genes provided the preliminary view into the role of ECM components in cytostatic drug resistance of cancer cells. The exact role of the investigated genes in drug resistance requires further investigation. PMID:25199881

  10. Human epididymis protein 4 expression positively correlated with miR-21 and served as a prognostic indicator in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Qingquan; Liu, Qicai; Gao, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological malignancy-related mortality. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a useful biomarker for ovarian cancer when either used alone or in combination with carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125). What is more, aberrant expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been shown to be involved in oncogenesis, but the relationship between miR-21 and HE4 in ovarian cancer is not clear. Tumor and adjacent tumor tissues from 43 patients with ovarian cancer were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of HE4 in the carcinoma and adjacent tissues. The associations between HE4 and tumor biological characters were discussed. TaqMan(®) MicroRNA (miRNA) assays were employed to detect the expression of miR-21 in the ovarian carcinoma. In ovarian cancer, the expression of HE4 messenger RNA (mRNA) in cancer tissues was higher than adjacent tumor tissues (P < 0.0001), which was 1.299-fold of adjacent tumor tissues. And, the expression of miR-21 was also up-regulated which was significantly different in the ovarian cancer (the positive rate was 76.74 %). There was a significantly positive correlation between miR-21 and HE4 expression (r = 0.283 and P = 0.066 for HE4 mRNA, r = 0.663 and P < 0.0001 for serum HE4). There was also a significant correlation between miR-21 and tumor grade (r = 0.608, P < 0.0001). Significantly, patients with recent recurrence (less than 6 months, n = 17) have a higher miR-21 expression than those with no recent recurrence. Therefore, HE4 and miR-21 may play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian cancer and they may serve as prognostic indicators in ovarian cancer.

  11. Cloning and expression of R-Spondin1 in different vertebrates suggests a conserved role in ovarian development

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Craig A; Shoemaker, Christina M; Roeszler, Kelly N; Queen, Joanna; Crews, David; Sinclair, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Background R-Spondin1 (Rspo1) is a novel regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in human RSPO1 cause testicular differentiation in 46, XX females, pointing to a role in ovarian development. Here we report the cloning and comparative expression analysis of R-SPONDIN1 orthologues in the mouse, chicken and red-eared slider turtle, three species with different sex-determining mechanisms. Evidence is presented that this gene is an ancient component of the vertebrate ovary-determining pathway. Results Gonadal RSPO1 gene expression is female up-regulated in the embryonic gonads in each species at the onset of sexual differentiation. In the mouse gonad, Rspo1 mRNA is expressed in the somatic cell lineage at the time of ovarian differentiation (E12.5–E15.5), with little expression in germ cells. However, the protein is localised in the cytoplasm and at the cell surface of both somatic (pre-follicular) and germ cells. In the chicken embryo, RSPO1 expression becomes elevated in females at the time of ovarian differentiation, coinciding with female-specific activation of the FOXL2 gene and estrogen synthesis. RSPO1 protein in chicken is localised in the outer cortical zone of the developing ovary, the site of primordial follicle formation and germ cell differentiation. Inhibition of estrogen synthesis with a specific aromatase inhibitor results in a decline in chicken RSPO1 expression, indicating that RSPO1 is influenced by estrogen. In the red-eared slider turtle, which exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination, up-regulation of RSPO1 occurs during the temperature-sensitive period, when gonadal development is responsive to temperature. Accordingly, RSPO1 expression is temperature-responsive, and is down-regulated in embryos shifted from female- to male-producing incubation temperatures. Conclusion These results indicate that RSPO1 is up-regulated in the embryonic gonads of female vertebrates with different sex

  12. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator is associated with progression from benign to advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmalfeldt, B; Prechtel, D; Härting, K; Späthe, K; Rutke, S; Konik, E; Fridman, R; Berger, U; Schmitt, M; Kuhn, W; Lengyel, E

    2001-08-01

    Proteases are linked to the malignant phenotype of different solid tumors. Therefore, the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in the progression of ovarian cancer was investigated. Gelatinolytic activity and protein expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were analyzed in tissue extracts of 19 cystadenomas and 18 low malignant potential (LMP) tumors, as well as 41 primary tumors of advanced ovarian cancer stage International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics IIIc/IV and their corresponding omentum metastases by quantitative gelatin zymography and Western blot. In the same tissue extracts, antigen levels of uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 were determined by ELISA. Protein expression of pro-MMP-2 (72 kDa) and pro-MMP-9 (92 kDa as well as antigen levels of uPA and PAI-1 were low in benign ovarian tumors but increased significantly from LMP tumors to advanced ovarian cancers. The highest values of all of the proteolytic factors were detected in omentum metastases. Active MMP-2 enzyme (62 kDa) was detected only in ovarian cancer (66%) and corresponding metastases (93%) but never in benign or LMP tumors. The activation rate of MMP-2 to its active isoform was higher in the metastases. Comparing both proteolytic systems, higher PAI-1 concentrations were consistently found in cancers with high pro-MMP-9 expression. These data indicate that members of the plasminogen activator system, as well as the metalloproteinases MMP-2/9, increase with growing malignant potential of ovarian tumors. These findings are of particular relevance to the development of protease inhibitors as new therapeutic approaches in ovarian cancer.

  13. Ovarian Transcriptome Analysis of Portunus trituberculatus Provides Insights into Genes Expressed during Phase III and IV Development

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tao; Liu, Tao; Wang, Chunlin; Xiao, Jia; Mu, Changkao; Li, Ronghua; Yu, Fangping; Shi, Huilai

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the production of aquatic animals is crucial for fishery management and aquaculture applications. Ovaries are specialized tissues that play critical roles in producing oocytes and hormones. Significant biochemical changes take place during the sexual maturation of Portunus trituberculatus, but the genetics of this process has not been extensively studied. Transcriptome sequencing can be used to determine gene expression changes within specific periods. In the current study, we used transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ovarian development of P. trituberculatus. Approximately 100 million sequencing reads were generated, and 126,075 transcripts were assembled. Functional annotation of the obtained transcripts revealed important pathways in ovarian development, such as those involving the vitellogenin gene. Also, we performed deep sequencing of ovaries in phases III and IV of sexual maturation in P. trituberculatus. Differential analysis of gene expression identified 506 significantly differentially expressed genes, which belong to 20 pathway, transporters, development, transcription factors, metabolism of other amino acids, carbohydrate and lipid, solute carrier family members, and enzymes. Taken together, our study provides the first comprehensive transcriptomic resource for P. trituberculatus ovaries, which will strengthen understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the sexual maturation process and advance molecular nutritional studies of P. trituberculatus. PMID:26431399

  14. Molecular analysis of the QM gene from Penaeus monodon and its expression on the different ovarian stages of development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, FaLin; Jiang, ShiGui; Huang, JianHua; Qiu, LiHua; Zhang, DianChang; Su, TiannFeng

    2011-03-01

    In present study, a QM gene was obtained from the ovary and neurosecretory organ in eyestalk cDNA library of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). The full-length black tiger prawn QM (PmQM) cDNA contained a 5'-UTR of 41 bp, an ORF of 663 bp encoding a polypeptide of 220 amino acids with molecular weight 25.5 kDa, and a 3'-UTR of 54 bp. Homology analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the PmQM with other known QM sequences by MatGAT software revealed that the PmQM was high homology with other invertebrates. A conserved signature sequence of the QM family was found in the PmQM deduced amino acid sequence. Analysis of the tissue expression pattern of the PmQM gene showed that the PmQM mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested, with highest levels in ovary. Furthermore, the PmQM expression was found to be different in three important ovarian stages of development. The results indicated PmQM might play an important role in ovarian development.

  15. Expression of microRNA-30a-5p in drug-resistant and drug-sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Wu, Xiaohua; Liu, Hongmei; Liang, Yijuan; Gao, Xinping; Cai, Zhihui; Wang, Weiming; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the expression of microRNA (miRNA or miR) in drug-resistant and drug-sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines, and to seek the potential therapeutic target of ovarian cancer drug-resistant mechanism in order to improve drug resistance by altering miRNA levels. The drug-resistant characteristics of SKOV3/DDP, SKOV3, COC1/DDP and COC1 cell lines were studied. The miRNAs that were differentially expressed between cisplatin-resistant cells and its parental cells in ovarian cancer were screened with a miRNA chip. The effect of miRNAs was detected, and their drug-resistant mechanism was investigated by transfection and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide methods. Among the expression screening of miRNAs, 41 mRNAs, including Homo sapiens (hsa)-miR-30a-5p and hsa-miR-34c-5p, were highly expressed in the drug-resistant cells, whereas 44 miRNAs, including hsa-miR-96-5p and hsa-miR-200c-3p, were lowly expressed. The expression levels of hsa-miR-30a-5p in two types of ovarian cancer chemotherapy-resistant cell lines were significantly higher than those in chemotherapy-sensitive cell lines, which was associated with ovarian cancer chemotherapy resistance. In conclusion, high expression of miRNA-30a-5p was able to promote cell growth and colony forming ability, and enhance cell migration and invasion. Thus, miRNA-30a-5p is expected to become a meaningful novel target for ovarian cancer resistant treatment. PMID:27602140

  16. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Ovarian Cancer There are five main types of cancer that affect a woman’s reproductive organs: cervical, ovarian, uterine, ... rare fallopian tube cancer.) This fact sheet about ovarian cancer is part of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  17. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  18. Effects of neonatal litter size and age on ovarian gene expression and follicular development in gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gilts raised in small litters have greater ovulation rate, stay in the herd longer and produce more pigs. The objective was to understand how neonatal litter size affects gilt development. The hypothesis is that gilts reared in smaller litters have greater ovarian follicular development. Within 24 h...

  19. Increased expression of CD146 and microvessel density (MVD) in invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast: Comparative study with invasive ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Yang, Dongling; Wang, Shuling; Guo, Xiaojing; Lang, Ronggang; Fan, Yu; Gu, Feng; Zhang, Xinmin; Niu, Yun; Yan, Xiyun; Fu, Li

    2011-12-15

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is a rare variant of ductal carcinoma of the breast, and is characterized by a high metastatic potential and an aggressive clinical course. Studies of CD146 expression and function in breast cancer remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CD146 and microvessel density (MVD) in breast IMPC. CD146 mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry for CD146 and MVD measured by CD31 were assessed in 82 cases of IMPC and 137 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS). The mRNA level of CD146 in cancer specimens was higher in IMPC than in IDC-NOS. CD146 expression in tumor cells was up-regulated in IMPC as compared with that in IDC-NOS, and was positively correlated with histological grade, ER, PR status, and P53 expression in IMPC and IDC-NOS. CD146 expression in vascular endothelial cells was significantly higher than that in IDC, and was positively correlated with tumor progression in IMPC and IDC-NOS. MVD in IMPC was significantly higher than that in IDC. CD146 expression in tumor cells was positively correlated with that in vascular endothelial cells of IMPC and IDC-NOS. The association of CD146 expression with MVD and its correlation with progression in breast carcinoma indicated that CD146 is a potentially useful prognostic marker for breast cancer. CD146 could be a new drug target in the treatment of breast cancer.

  20. Clinicopathologic Significance of HNF-1β, AIRD1A, and PIK3CA Expression in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shuang; Yang, Jiaxin; You, Yan; Cao, Dongyan; Huang, Huifang; Wu, Ming; Chen, Jie; Lang, Jinghe; Shen, Keng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a distinct histologic subtype with relatively poor survival. No prognostic or predictive molecular marker is currently available. Recent studies have shown that AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) mutations are common genetic changes in ovarian CCC. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) expression has been proven to be highly sensitive and specific for clear cell histology. However, the correlations between these biomarkers and clinicopathologic variables and survival outcomes are controversial. The immunohistochemical analysis for HNF-1β, ARID1A, and PIK3CA was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 130 cases of ovarian CCC (237 tissue blocks) linked with clinical information. The immunostaining results were interpreted in a manner consistent with previous publications. The associations between biomarker expression and clinical and prognostic features were examined. All statistical analyses were conducted using 2-sided tests, and a value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. HNF-1β was expressed in 92.8% of all primary ovarian tumors, while the loss of ARID1A and PIK3CA was noted in 56.2% and 45.0%, respectively. Early-stage tumors tended to have high levels of HNF-1β immunoreactivity and expression of ARID1A (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03). Most patients (76.9%, 20/26) with concurrent endometriosis stained negative for ARID1A (P = 0.02). No relation was found between PIK3CA expression and clinical features. Low-level HNF-1β expression and loss of ARID1A were more commonly observed in patients with tumor recurrence (P = 0.02 and P < 0.001). Antibody expression was not associated with platinum-based chemotherapy response. Patients with negative ARID1A expression had worse survival outcome in terms of both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). On

  1. Visual and automated assessment of matrix metalloproteinase-14 tissue expression for the evaluation of ovarian cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Dominique; Desmeules, Patrice; Turcotte, Stéphane; Plante, Marie; Grégoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Orain, Michèle; Bairati, Isabelle; Têtu, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-14 (or MT1-MMP) tissue expression, as assessed visually on digital slides and by digital image analysis, could predict outcomes in women with ovarian carcinoma. Tissue microarrays from a cohort of 211 ovarian carcinoma women who underwent a debulking surgery between 1993 and 2006 at the CHU de Québec (Canada) were immunostained for matrix metalloproteinase-14. The percentage of MMP-14 staining was assessed visually and with the Calopix software. Progression was evaluated using the CA-125 and/or the RECIST criteria according to the GCIG criteria. Dates of death were obtained by record linkage with the Québec mortality files. Adjusted hazard ratios of death and progression with their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the Cox model. Comparisons between the two modalities of MMP-14 assessment were done using the box plots and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The highest levels of MMP-14 immunostaining were associated with nonserous histology, early FIGO stage, and low preoperative CA-125 levels (P<0.05). In bivariate analyses, the higher level of MMP-14 expression (>40% of MMP-14-positive cells) was inversely associated with progression using visual assessment (hazard ratio=0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.82). A similar association was observed with the highest quartile of MMP-14-positive area assessed by digital image analysis (hazard ratio=0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.82). After adjustment for standard prognostic factors, these associations were no longer significant in the ovarian carcinoma cohort. However, in women with serous carcinoma, the highest quartile of MMP-14-positive area was associated with progression (adjusted hazard ratio=0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.99). There was no association with overall survival. The digital image analysis of MMP-14-positive area matched the visual assessment using three categories (>40% vs 21-40 vs <20

  2. Genomic and protein expression analysis reveals Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) as a key biomarker in breast and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek MA; Russell, Roslin; Albarakati, Nada; Maloney, David J; Dorjsuren, Dorjbal; Rueda, Oscar M; Moseley, Paul; Mohan, Vivek; Sun, Hongmao; Abbotts, Rachel; Mukherjee, Abhik; Agarwal, Devika; Illuzzi, Jennifer L.; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Ball, Graham; Chan, Stephen; Caldas, Carlos; Ellis, Ian O; Wilson, David M; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    FEN1 has key roles in Okazaki fragment maturation during replication, long patch base excision repair, rescue of stalled replication forks, maintenance of telomere stability and apoptosis. FEN1 may be dysregulated in breast and ovarian cancers and have clinicopathological significance in patients. We comprehensively investigated FEN1 mRNA expression in multiple cohorts of breast cancer [training set (128), test set (249), external validation (1952)]. FEN1 protein expression was evaluated in 568 oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancers, 894 ER positive breast cancers and 156 ovarian epithelial cancers. FEN1 mRNA overexpression was highly significantly associated with high grade (p=4.89 × 10−57), high mitotic index (p=5.25 × 10−28), pleomorphism (p=6.31 × 10−19), ER negative (p=9.02 × 10−35), PR negative (p=9.24 × 10−24), triple negative phenotype (p=6.67 × 10−21), PAM50.Her2 (p=5.19 × 10−13), PAM50.Basal (p=2.7 × 10−41), PAM50.LumB (p=1.56 × 10−26), integrative molecular cluster 1 (intClust.1) (p=7.47 × 10−12), intClust.5 (p=4.05 × 10−12) and intClust. 10 (p=7.59 × 10−38) breast cancers. FEN1 mRNA overexpression is associated with poor breast cancer specific survival in univariate (p= 4.4 × 10−16) and multivariate analysis (p= 9.19 × 10−7). At the protein level, in ER positive tumours, FEN1 overexpression remains significantly linked to high grade, high mitotic index and pleomorphism (ps<0.01). In ER negative tumours, high FEN1 is significantly associated with pleomorphism, tumour type, lymphovascular invasion, triple negative phenotype, EGFR and HER2 expression (ps<0.05). In ER positive as well as in ER negative tumours, FEN1 protein overexpression is associated with poor survival in univariate and multivariate analysis (ps<0.01). In ovarian epithelial cancers, similarly, FEN1 overexpression is associated with high grade, high stage and poor survival (ps<0.05). We conclude that FEN1 is a promising biomarker in breast

  3. Genomic and protein expression analysis reveals flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) as a key biomarker in breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Russell, Roslin; Albarakati, Nada; Maloney, David J; Dorjsuren, Dorjbal; Rueda, Oscar M; Moseley, Paul; Mohan, Vivek; Sun, Hongmao; Abbotts, Rachel; Mukherjee, Abhik; Agarwal, Devika; Illuzzi, Jennifer L; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Ball, Graham; Chan, Stephen; Caldas, Carlos; Ellis, Ian O; Wilson, David M; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-10-01

    FEN1 has key roles in Okazaki fragment maturation during replication, long patch base excision repair, rescue of stalled replication forks, maintenance of telomere stability and apoptosis. FEN1 may be dysregulated in breast and ovarian cancers and have clinicopathological significance in patients. We comprehensively investigated FEN1 mRNA expression in multiple cohorts of breast cancer [training set (128), test set (249), external validation (1952)]. FEN1 protein expression was evaluated in 568 oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancers, 894 ER positive breast cancers and 156 ovarian epithelial cancers. FEN1 mRNA overexpression was highly significantly associated with high grade (p = 4.89 × 10(-57)), high mitotic index (p = 5.25 × 10(-28)), pleomorphism (p = 6.31 × 10(-19)), ER negative (p = 9.02 × 10(-35)), PR negative (p = 9.24 × 10(-24)), triple negative phenotype (p = 6.67 × 10(-21)), PAM50.Her2 (p = 5.19 × 10(-13)), PAM50. Basal (p = 2.7 × 10(-41)), PAM50.LumB (p = 1.56 × 10(-26)), integrative molecular cluster 1 (intClust.1) (p = 7.47 × 10(-12)), intClust.5 (p = 4.05 × 10(-12)) and intClust. 10 (p = 7.59 × 10(-38)) breast cancers. FEN1 mRNA overexpression is associated with poor breast cancer specific survival in univariate (p = 4.4 × 10(-16)) and multivariate analysis (p = 9.19 × 10(-7)). At the protein level, in ER positive tumours, FEN1 overexpression remains significantly linked to high grade, high mitotic index and pleomorphism (ps < 0.01). In ER negative tumours, high FEN1 is significantly associated with pleomorphism, tumour type, lymphovascular invasion, triple negative phenotype, EGFR and HER2 expression (ps < 0.05). In ER positive as well as in ER negative tumours, FEN1 protein overexpression is associated with poor survival in univariate and multivariate analysis (ps < 0.01). In ovarian epithelial cancers, similarly, FEN1 overexpression is associated with high grade, high stage and poor survival (ps < 0.05). We conclude that FEN1

  4. Changes in ovarian gene expression profiles and plasma hormone levels in maturing European eel (Anguilla anguilla); Biomarkers for broodstock selection.

    PubMed

    Burgerhout, Erik; Minegishi, Yuki; Brittijn, Sebastiaan A; de Wijze, Danielle L; Henkel, Christiaan V; Jansen, Hans J; Spaink, Herman P; Dirks, Ron P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2016-01-01

    Complete sexual maturation of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in captivity can only be achieved via injections with gonadotropins. For female eels this procedure takes 4-6months and the response ranges from "unresponsive" to final maturation and ovulation. Reproductive success could be significantly increased via early selection of responders based on predictive markers and minimally invasive sampling methods. To get a better understanding of the genetic background of ovarian maturation of the European eel we performed a pilot deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of ovarian tissue derived from a yellow eel, a prepubertal silver eel and a post-spawning matured eel. Two key players in steroidogenesis were strongly correlated with advanced sexual maturation, namely P450c17 and liver receptor homolog-1, suggesting that blood plasma steroids might qualify as minimally invasive markers for early detection of responders. Since the predictive value of plasma sex steroid levels for final maturation of the European eel had not yet been carefully examined, we performed an extensive artificial maturation trial. Farmed silver eels were treated with pituitary extracts and sampled at multiple time intervals. Expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in ovarian tissue of responding and non-responding eels after four weekly injections with pituitary extract was compared using a custom-built microarray and RNAseq. Increased expression of 17β-hsd1 was strongly linked to sexual maturation. Blood plasma levels of sex steroids were measured using ELISAs. We show that a 2.5-fold increase in blood-plasma estradiol level after 4 weekly pituitary extract injections is a strong predictor of final sexual maturation of female European eel.

  5. Expression of leptin and its receptor genes in the ovarian follicles of cycling and early pregnant pigs.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, N; Kaminski, T; Siawrys, G; Przala, J

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a polypeptide hormone produced primarily by adipocytes. It has been implicated in the regulation of satiety and energy homeostasis. Leptin has been suggested to play a role in reproduction based on its involvement in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine pathways. The aim of the present study was to localize the cellular distribution of leptin and the long isoform of leptin receptor (OB-Rb) genes in porcine ovarian antral follicles and to compare the expression levels of leptin and OB-Rb mRNAs in porcine granulosa cells (GC), theca interna (TIC) and theca externa (TEC) cells during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and in early pregnancy. The expression of leptin and OB-Rb genes was detected in GC, TIC and TEC. Significantly higher levels of leptin gene expression in GC were observed during the mid- and late-luteal phases of the cycle than on days 30 to 32 of pregnancy. On days 14 to 16 of pregnancy, leptin mRNA expression was higher than that on days 14 to 16 of the cycle. The expression of the OB-Rb gene in GC and TEC increased during pregnancy in comparison with the analyzed luteal phases of the cycle. Our results validate the hypothesis that locally produced leptin plays a role in the regulation of porcine reproduction at the ovarian level and exerts a direct effect on porcine follicles. The differences in OB-Rb gene expression in porcine GC and theca cells also suggest that their sensitivity to leptin varies in the ovaries of pregnant and cyclic pigs.

  6. The expression of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2), survivin and cycline D1 in serous ovarian neoplasms: their correlation with clinicopathological variables.

    PubMed

    Turan, Gulay; Usta, Ceyda Sancakli; Usta, Akin; Kanter, Mehmet; Tavli, Lema; Karacan, Meric; Celik, Cetin; Eser, Metin

    2014-12-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among all gynecologic malignancies and a result of complex interaction of multiple oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2), survivin and cycline D1 biomarkers in serous ovarian neoplasms and their correlations with clinicopathological variables in serous ovarian cancers. We analyzed pathological specimens of 62 patients with benign (n = 25), borderline (n = 14) and malignant (n = 23) serous ovarian neoplasms. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Significantly more immunoreactivity with HER-2/neu was detected in malignant tumors (100 %) compared to borderline (78.6 %) and benign tumors (48 %) (P < 0.01). Survivin expression was significantly higher in malignant tumors (91.3 %) than those found in borderline (71.4 %) and benign tumors (24 %) (P < 0.001). Similarly, higher cyclin D1 expression was observed in malignant tumors (95.6 %) compared to borderline (85.7 %) and benign tumors (48 %) (P < 0.001). Expression of all biomarkers analyzed significantly and gradually increased from benign to borderline and borderline to malignant serous tumors. In terms of clinicopathological variables, only tumor grade was associated with the expression of all biomarkers others exhibited different correlations in serous ovarian cancers. The expressions of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2), survivin and cycline D1 are positively correlated with the malignant potential of serous ovarian neoplasms.

  7. Profile of differentially expressed miRNAs in high-grade serous carcinoma and clear cell ovarian carcinoma, and the expression of miR-510 in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XINCHEN; GUO, GORDON; WANG, GUANG; ZHAO, JINYAO; WANG, BO; YU, XIAOTANG; DING, YANFANG

    2015-01-01

    Improved insight into the molecular and genetic profile of different types of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is required for understanding the carcinogenesis of EOC and may potentially be exploited by future targeted therapies. The aim of the present study was to identify a unique microRNA (miRNA) patterns and key miRNAs, which may assist in predicting progression and prognosis in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and clear cell carcinoma (CCC). To identify unique miRNA patterns associated with HGSC and CCC, a miRNA microarray was performed using Chinese tumor bank specimens of patients with HGSC or CCC in a retrospective analysis. The expression levels of four deregulated miRNAs were further validated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in an external cohort of 42 cases of HGSC and 36 cases of CCC. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between the expression levels of the four miRNAs and patient prognosis. Among these validated miRNAs, miR-510 was further examined in another cohort of normal ovarian tissues, as well as the HGSC, low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) and CCC specimens using RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization. The results revealed that, of the 768 miRNAs analyzed in the microarray, 33 and 50 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, with at least a 2-fold difference in HGSC, compared with CCC. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that miR-510 and miR-129-3p were significantly downregulated, and that miR-483-5p and miR-miR-449a were significantly upregulated in CCC, compared with HGSC (P<0.05), which was consistent with the microarray results. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed low expression levels of miR-510 and low expression levels of miR-129-3p, advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, lymphatic metastasis and that HGSC was significantly associated with the poorer overall survival rates (P<0.05). The expression of miR-510

  8. cRGD inhibits vasculogenic mimicry formation by down-regulating uPA expression and reducing EMT in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin; Li, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Na; Luo, Wanxian; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Yifeng; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Vasculogenic minicry (VM), an alternative blood supply modality except to endothelial cells-mediated vascular network, is a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer due to VM correlated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. Accelerated extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is prerequisite for VM formation induced by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Previous reports demonstrate uPA has ability to degrade ECM thereby promoting tumor angiogenesis. Also, exogenous cRGD sequence enables to modulate uPA expression, attenuate EMT and suppress endothelial-lined channels. Till now, the correlation of uPA and VM formation and the effect of exogenous cRGD on VM formation remain unknown. Herein, we validate uPA expression is positively correlated with VM formation in ovarian cancer tissues (90 cases) and ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3, OVCAR-3 and A2780 cells). In particular, silencing uPA experiments show that down-regulated uPA causes notable decrease for the complete channels formed by SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. Mechanism study discloses uPA promotes VM formation by regulating AKT/mTOR/MMP-2/Laminin5γ2 signal pathway. The result demonstrates uPA may serve as therapeutic target of VM for ovarian cancer. Also, it is found exogenous cRGD enables to inhibit VM formation in ovarian cancer via not only down-regulating uPA expression but also reducing EMT. Exogenous cRGD may be a promising angiogenic inhibitor for ovarian cancer therapy due to its inhibiting effect on VM formation as well as endothelial cells-mediated vascular network. PMID:26992227

  9. Transposable element dynamics and PIWI regulation impacts lncRNA and gene expression diversity in Drosophila ovarian cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sytnikova, Yuliya A.; Rahman, Reazur; Chirn, Gung-wei; Clark, Josef P.

    2014-01-01

    Piwi proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) repress transposable elements (TEs) from mobilizing in gonadal cells. To determine the spectrum of piRNA-regulated targets that may extend beyond TEs, we conducted a genome-wide survey for transcripts associated with PIWI and for transcripts affected by PIWI knockdown in Drosophila ovarian somatic sheet (OSS) cells, a follicle cell line expressing the Piwi pathway. Despite the immense sequence diversity among OSS cell piRNAs, our analysis indicates that TE transcripts are the major transcripts associated with and directly regulated by PIWI. However, several coding genes were indirectly regulated by PIWI via an adjacent de novo TE insertion that generated a nascent TE transcript. Interestingly, we noticed that PIWI-regulated genes in OSS cells greatly differed from genes affected in a related follicle cell culture, ovarian somatic cells (OSCs). Therefore, we characterized the distinct genomic TE insertions across four OSS and OSC lines and discovered dynamic TE landscapes in gonadal cultures that were defined by a subset of active TEs. Particular de novo TEs appeared to stimulate the expression of novel candidate long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in a cell lineage-specific manner, and some of these TE-associated lncRNAs were associated with PIWI and overlapped PIWI-regulated genes. Our analyses of OSCs and OSS cells demonstrate that despite having a Piwi pathway to suppress endogenous mobile elements, gonadal cell TE landscapes can still dramatically change and create transcriptome diversity. PMID:25267525

  10. Molecular subtypes of serous borderline ovarian tumor show distinct expression patterns of benign tumor and malignant tumor-associated signatures.

    PubMed

    Curry, Edward W J; Stronach, Euan A; Rama, Nona R; Wang, Yuepeng Y P; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona A

    2014-03-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors show heterogeneity in clinical behavior. Most have excellent prognosis, although a small percentage show recurrence or progressive disease, usually to low-grade serous carcinoma. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular relationship between these entities and identify potential markers of tumor progression and therapeutic targets. We studied gene expression using Affymetrix HGU133plus2 GeneChip microarrays in 3 low-grade serous carcinomas, 13 serous borderline tumors and 8 serous cystadenomas. An independent data set of 18 serous borderline tumors and 3 low-grade serous carcinomas was used for validation. Unsupervised clustering revealed clear separation of benign and malignant tumors, whereas borderline tumors showed two distinct groups, one clustering with benign and the other with malignant tumors. The segregation into benign- and malignant-like borderline molecular subtypes was reproducible on applying the same analysis to an independent publicly available data set. We identified 50 genes that separate borderline tumors into their subgroups. Functional enrichment analysis of genes that separate borderline tumors to the two subgroups highlights a cell adhesion signature for the malignant-like subset, with Claudins particularly prominent. This is the first report of molecular subtypes of borderline tumors based on gene expression profiling. Our results provide the basis for identification of biomarkers for the malignant potential of borderline ovarian tumor and potential therapeutic targets for low-grade serous carcinoma.

  11. Transposable element dynamics and PIWI regulation impacts lncRNA and gene expression diversity in Drosophila ovarian cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sytnikova, Yuliya A; Rahman, Reazur; Chirn, Gung-Wei; Clark, Josef P; Lau, Nelson C

    2014-12-01

    Piwi proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) repress transposable elements (TEs) from mobilizing in gonadal cells. To determine the spectrum of piRNA-regulated targets that may extend beyond TEs, we conducted a genome-wide survey for transcripts associated with PIWI and for transcripts affected by PIWI knockdown in Drosophila ovarian somatic sheet (OSS) cells, a follicle cell line expressing the Piwi pathway. Despite the immense sequence diversity among OSS cell piRNAs, our analysis indicates that TE transcripts are the major transcripts associated with and directly regulated by PIWI. However, several coding genes were indirectly regulated by PIWI via an adjacent de novo TE insertion that generated a nascent TE transcript. Interestingly, we noticed that PIWI-regulated genes in OSS cells greatly differed from genes affected in a related follicle cell culture, ovarian somatic cells (OSCs). Therefore, we characterized the distinct genomic TE insertions across four OSS and OSC lines and discovered dynamic TE landscapes in gonadal cultures that were defined by a subset of active TEs. Particular de novo TEs appeared to stimulate the expression of novel candidate long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in a cell lineage-specific manner, and some of these TE-associated lncRNAs were associated with PIWI and overlapped PIWI-regulated genes. Our analyses of OSCs and OSS cells demonstrate that despite having a Piwi pathway to suppress endogenous mobile elements, gonadal cell TE landscapes can still dramatically change and create transcriptome diversity.

  12. Pair Box 8 (PAX8) protein expression in high grade, late stage (stages III and IV) ovarian serous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Wang, Dan; Samrao, Damanzoopinder; Godoy, Heidi; Ough, Faith; Liu, Song; Pejovic, Tanja; Lele, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pair-Box 8 (PAX8) is a transcription factor which has been found to be overexpressed in ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC). Silencing PAX8 by using shRNA led to a drop in cell viability in ovarian cancer cell lines, suggesting its use as a targeted therapeutic agent. The prognostic value of PAX8 in OSC is still widely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate PAX8 as a prognostic biomarker in patients with advanced stage OSC. Methods PAX8 was evaluated using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 148 OSC and the expression was correlated to the following clinico-pathologic variables; age of diagnosis, tumor stage, optimal debulking, recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Results We found that PAX8 was expressed in 61% of cases. There was no association between PAX8 and tumor stage, optimal debulking and disease recurrence. In addition, PAX8 failed to have a predictive value in disease outcome. Conclusion Despite showing that PAX8 protein is not a useful predictive marker in patients with high grade, advanced stage OSC, its overexpression in a large number of these cases makes the inhibition of PAX8 a very attractive targeted therapy. PMID:22705448

  13. Plakoglobin Reduces the in vitro Growth, Migration and Invasion of Ovarian Cancer Cells Expressing N-Cadherin and Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Alaee, Mahsa; Danesh, Ghazal; Pasdar, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of cadherins and catenins plays pivotal roles in ovarian cancer development and progression. Plakoglobin (PG, γ-catenin) is a paralog of β-catenin with dual adhesive and signaling functions. While β-catenin has known oncogenic function, PG generally acts as a tumor/metastasis suppressor. We recently showed that PG interacted with p53 and that its growth/metastasis inhibitory function may be mediated by this interaction. Very little is known about the role of PG in ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the in vitro tumor/metastasis suppressor effects of PG in ovarian cancer cell lines with mutant p53 expression and different cadherin profiles. We showed that the N-cadherin expressing and E-cadherin and PG deficient ES-2 cells were highly migratory and invasive, whereas OV-90 cells that express E-cadherin, PG and very little/no N-cadherin were not. Exogenous expression of PG or E-cadherin or N-cadherin knockdown in ES-2 cells (ES-2-E-cad, ES-2-PG and ES-2-shN-cad) significantly reduced their migration and invasion. Also, PG expression or N-cadherin knockdown significantly decreased ES-2 cells growth. Furthermore, PG interacted with both cadherins and with wild type and mutant p53 in normal ovarian and ES-2-PG cell lines, respectively. PMID:27144941

  14. Differential expression of the P2X7 receptor in ovarian surface epithelium during the oestrous cycle in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Cruz-Rico, A; Garay, E; García-Carrancá, A; Pérez-Montiel, D; Juárez, B; Arellano, R O

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic signalling has been proposed as an intraovarian regulatory mechanism. Of the receptors responsible for purinergic transmission, the P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated cationic channel that displays a broad spectrum of cellular functions ranging from apoptosis to cell proliferation and tumourigenesis. In the present study, we investigated the functional expression of P2X7 receptors in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). P2X7 protein was detected in the OSE layer of the mouse, both in situ and in primary cultures. In cultures, 2'(3')-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (BzATP) activation of P2X7 receptors increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced apoptosis. The functionality of the P2X7 receptor was investigated in situ by intrabursal injection of BzATP on each day of the oestrous cycle and evaluation of apoptosis 24h using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay. Maximum effects of BzATP were observed during pro-oestrus, with the effects being blocked by A438079, a specific P2X7 receptor antagonist. Immunofluorescence staining for P2X7 protein revealed more robust expression during pro-oestrus and in OSE regions behind the antral follicles, strongly supporting the notion that the differences in apoptosis can be explained by increased receptor expression, which is regulated during the oestrous cycle. Finally, P2X7 receptor expression was detected in the OSE layer of human ovaries, with receptor expression maintained in human ovaries diagnosed with cancer, as well as in the human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line.

  15. Differential ovarian morphometry and follicular expression of BMP15, GDF9 and BMPR1B influence the prolificacy in goat.

    PubMed

    Pramod, R K; Sharma, S K; Singhi, A; Pan, S; Mitra, A

    2013-10-01

    The variation in the kidding size of Black Bengal and Sirohi breed of goats makes them an interesting genetic material to study the underlying genetic mechanism of prolificacy. Accordingly, we studied the comparative ovarian morphometry including disparity in numbers of antral follicles of different sizes between these two breeds. Further, we evaluated the differential expression of the important candidate genes (viz., BMP15, GDF9 and BMPR1B) known to influence the ovulation rates and the prolificacy. The ovaries of Black Bengal (n = 20) goat were lighter (p < 0.01) in weight and smaller (p < 0.01) in diameter than those of Sirohi (n = 19) goats but possessed more numbers (p < 0.05) of corpus luteum (CL), large and small antral follicles. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed differential expression of mRNAs encoding for the BMP15 and GDF9. Small antral follicles of Black Bengal goats expressed 2.78-fold more (p < 0.05) of BMP 15 than those of Sirohi goat. Expression of BMP15 (p < 0.01) and GDF9 (p < 0.05) mRNAs was more abundant in the small than the large antral follicles of Black Bengal goat. The more numbers of antral follicles per unit of ovarian mass and differential expression of BMP15 and GDF9 may serve as an important clue for higher prolificacy.

  16. Immunohistochemical Expression of PCNA and CD34 in Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas Using Specified Automated Cellular Image Analysis System: A Clinicopathologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban J.; Ali, Hussam H.; Hussein, Alaa G.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CD34 in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, and to correlate this expression with different clinicopathologic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was retrospectively designed. A total of 86 tissue samples, including 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenomas, 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, and a control group of 20 samples of nontumerous colonic tissue, were included in the study. From each block, 3 sections of 5 ΅m thickness were taken, 1 section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and the other 2 sections were stained immunohistochemically for PCNA and CD34. Scoring of the immunohistochemical staining was performed using a specified automated cellular image analysis system (Digimizer). Results: PCNA expression was significantly increased in a sequence of normal mucosa–adenoma–carcinoma. It was significantly higher in adenomas ≥ 1 cm and those with severe dysplasia, and it showed a significant positive correlation with grade and lymph node involvement in colorectal carcinoma. CD34 showed significantly higher expression in carcinoma than adenoma and in adenoma than in the control group. CD34 expression showed a significant correlation with adenomas carrying severe dysplasia and large-sized adenomas (≥1cm). It was significantly correlated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node involvement in colorectal carcinoma. Conclusion: PCNA plays an important role in colorectal neoplastic progression and can be utilized as ancillary marker for the risk of malignant transformation in colorectal adenomas as it correlates with high grade dysplasia and size. Intratumoral quantification of the mean (A and N) of CD34 in colorectal carcinoma reflects the grade of tumors and can predict lymph node involvement and lymphovascular invasion, to make a useful additional prognostic

  17. Expression and regulation of SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin VII in developing mouse ovarian follicles via the FSH receptor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Sik; Jung, Joo Young; Lee, Dong Ho; Kang, Ji Yoon; Lee, Sang Ho

    2013-02-01

    Soluble-NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins play a role in vesicle fusion, exocytosis, and intracellular trafficking in neuronal cells as well as in fertilization and embryogenesis. We investigated the expression patterns of two SNARE proteins, SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin VII (SytVII), and their regulation by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) during mouse ovarian follicular development. Ovaries were obtained at 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h post-PMSG injection of immature mice. SNAP-25 and SytVII mRNA expression levels increased gradually in a time-dependant manner. However, protein levels revealed different patterns of expression, suggesting different translational regulation following PMSG stimulation. SNAP-25 and SytVII expression was closely associated with thickening of the granulosa cell (GC) layer and follicle morphological changes from a flattened to a cuboidal shape. To explore follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)-mediated regulation of their expression, GCs from preantral follicles were cultured to examine the effects of FSHR siRNA knockdown. FSHR siRNA abolished upregulation of the SNAREs in both PMSG and FSH-stimulated GCs. This abolished gene expression was rescued by adding dibutyryl cyclic AMP to the cultures. These results suggest that SNAP-25 and SytVII expression is regulated via the FSHR-cAMP pathway during follicular development.

  18. Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and involved in cell proliferation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Qizhi; Fu, Aili; Yang, Shude; He, Xiaoli; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhou, Jiadi; Luan, Xiying; Yu, Wenzheng; Xue, Jiangnan

    2015-03-06

    Previous studies have shown that leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is expressed on most types of hamatopoietic cells and negatively regulate immune response, but the roles of LAIR-1 in tumor of the non-hematopoietic lineage have not been determined. Despite advances in therapy of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), many questions relating to EOC pathogenesis remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of LAIR-1 expression in EOC and explore the possible association between LAIR-1 and cancer. In this study, a tissue microarray containing 78 ovarian cancer cases was stained following a standard immunohistochemical protocol for LAIR-1 and the correlation of LAIR-1 expression with clinicopathologic features was assessed. LAIR-1 was detected to express in tumor cells of ovarian cancer tissues (73.1%) and EOC cell lines COC1 and HO8910, not in normal ovarian tissues. In addition, LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade (p = 0.004). Furthermore, down-regulation of LAIR-1 in HO8910 cells increased cell proliferation, colony formation and cell invasion. These data suggest that LAIR-1 has a relevant impact on EOC progression and may be helpful for a better understanding of molecular pathogenesis of cancer. - Highlights: • LAIR-1 is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. • LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade. • Down-regulation of LAIR-1 expression increased cell proliferation and invasion. • LAIR-1 may be a novel candidate for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Clinicopathological features and the value of differential Cytokeratin 7 and 20 expression in resolving diagnostic dilemmas of ovarian involvement by colorectal adenocarcinoma and vice-versa

    PubMed Central

    Rekhi, Bharat; George, Sophia; Madur, Bhulaxmi; Chinoy, RF; Dikshit, Rajesh; Maheshwari, Amita

    2008-01-01

    The distinction between metastasis from a colorectal adenocarcinoma into the ovary and an ovarian adenocarcinoma is vital, but challenging at times, due to overlapping morphological features. Similarly, a distinction between an ovarian metastasis into the colorectum and a colorectal adenocarcinoma, although rare; is important and can be daunting. We report an analysis of 20 cases of ovarian involvement by metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas and colorectal involvement by metastatic ovarian adenocarcinomas, including the value of differential expression of cytokeratins 7 & 20 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in these cases. Nine cases (45%) were identified as colorectal adenocarcinomas metastatic to the ovary. On biopsy, all these cases showed a 'garland-like' tumor necrosis, with desmoplasia and predominantly exhibited a tubuloalveolar pattern (67% cases). On IHC, all 8 of 9 such cases, where staining for cytokeratin 20 was performed, displayed strong positivity and 7 cases, where staining for carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) was performed, revealed positivity for this marker (100%). Other 11 cases (55%) were ovarian adenocarcinomas, metastatic to the colorectum. These showed metachronous presentations, with the ovarian tumor preceding the colorectal tumor deposits. Morphologically, psammomatous calcification was noted in 73% of these cases, whereas 'garland-like' necrosis was absent in all. The chief morphological subtype was serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma (55% cases). On IHC, CK7 and CA 125 were positive in all 6 of 11 such cases, whereas CK 20 was negative in all these cases. In cases of complex presentations like an ovarian involvement by a metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and vice-versa, certain clinicopathological features are useful. Differential expression of CK 7 and CK20 is vital in resolving these dilemmas. CK20 positivity and CK7 negativity is associated with a colorectal adenocarcinoma. Markers like CEA and CA-125 have an added value. PMID

  20. Expression and Significance of CD44, CD47 and c-met in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huimin; Tan, Mingzi; Zhang, Song; Li, Xiao; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Danye; Hao, Yingying; Gao, Song; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the differential expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), the correlation in their expression and their relationship with the biological behavior of OCCC. Methods: We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met in OCCC (86 cases) and investigated the effects of the expression and interaction of these molecules on the development of OCCC. Results: CD44, CD47 and c-met expression was significantly high in OCCC. Expression of CD44 and CD47 correlated with patient surgical stage, chemotherapy resistance and prognosis (all p < 0.05), and expression of c-met correlated with chemotherapy resistance and prognosis (all p < 0.05), but did not correlate with lymph node metastasis (all p > 0.05). The surgical stage, CD44, CD47 and c-met expression were independent risk factors for OCCC prognosis (all p < 0.05). Patients with low levels of CD44, CD47 and c-met showed better survival than those with high levels (all p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between CD44 (or CD47) and c-met, as well as between CD44 and CD47 (the Spearman correlation coefficient rs was 0.783, 0.776 and 0.835, respectively, all p < 0.01). Additionally, pairwise correlation analysis of these three markers shows that the high expression of CD44/CD47, CD44/c-met and CD47/c-met were correlated with patient surgical stage, chemotherapy resistance and prognosis (all p < 0.05), but did not correlate with lymph node metastasis (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: Expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met was upregulated in OCCC and pairwise correlation. CD44, CD47 and c-met may have synergistic effects on the development of OCCC and are prognostic factors for ovarian cancer. PMID:25658794

  1. Expression status and mutational analysis of the PTEN and P13K subunit genes in ovarian granulosa cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Bittinger, Sophie; Alexiadis, Maria; Fuller, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are a unique subset of ovarian tumors which have a molecular phenotype resembling that of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated pre-ovulatory granulosa cells. FSH acts via its receptor to stimulate signaling pathways including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway. Activation of this pathway occurs in solid tumors, including ovarian epithelial tumors, through mutation of the PI3K subunit genes or inactivation of the tumor suppressor, PTEN. Activation of this pathway would be predicted to be tumorigenic in granulosa cells.Expression of the 2 PI3K subunit genes, PIK3CA, which encodes the catalytic subunit, and PIK3R1, which encodes the regulatory subunit, together with the PTEN gene was determined in a panel of GCT, 2 human GCT-derived cell lines, COV434 and KGN, and normal ovary. Direct sequence analysis was used to screen for mutations. Expression of all 3genes was observed in the GCT without evidence of overexpression for the PI3K subunit genes or loss of expression for PTEN. Sequence analysis of amplicons spanning exons 9and 20, in which greater than 75% of mutations occur in the PIK3CA gene did not identify any missense mutations. Similarly, the previously reported deletions in exons 12 and 13 of the PIK3R1 were not found in the GCT. Three amplicons spanning the entire coding sequence of the PTEN gene were sequenced; neither deletions nor mutations were identified.These findings suggest that activation of PI3K signaling through PI3K/PTEN mutation or altered expression, in contrast to many other types of solid tumor, is not associated with GCT.

  2. Frequent loss of PTEN expression is linked to elevated phosphorylated Akt levels, but not associated with p27 and cyclin D1 expression, in primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kurose, K; Zhou, X P; Araki, T; Cannistra, S A; Maher, E R; Eng, C

    2001-06-01

    PTEN (MMAC1/TEP1), a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome subband 10q23.3, is variably mutated and/or deleted in a variety of human cancers. Germline mutations in PTEN, which encode a dual-specificity phosphatase, have been implicated in at least two hamartoma tumor syndromes that exhibit some clinical overlap, Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. Among several series of ovarian cancers, the frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of markers flanking and within PTEN, is approximately 30 to 50%, and the somatic intragenic PTEN mutation frequency is <10%. In this study, we screened primary adenocarcinomas of the ovary for LOH of polymorphic markers within and flanking the PTEN gene and for intragenic mutations of the PTEN gene and compared them to PTEN expression using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we sought to detect the expression of the presumed downstream targets of PTEN, such as P-Akt, p27, and cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry. LOH at 10q23 was observed in 29 of 64 (45%) cases. Of the 117 samples, 6 somatic intragenic PTEN mutations, 1 germline mutation, and 1 novel polymorphism were found in 7 (6%) patients. Immunostaining of 49 ovarian cancer samples revealed that 13 (27%) were PTEN immunostain-negative, 25 (51%) had reduced staining, and the rest (22%) were PTEN expression-positive. Among the 44 informative tumors assessed for 10q23 LOH and PTEN immunostaining, there was an association between 10q23 LOH and decreased or absent staining (P = 0.0317). Of note, there were five (11%) tumors with neither mutation nor deletion that exhibited no PTEN expression and 10 (25%) others without mutation or deletion but had decreased PTEN expression. Among the 49 tumors available for immunohistochemistry, 28 (57%) showed P-Akt-positive staining, 24 (49%) had decreased p27 staining, and cyclin D1 was overexpressed in 35 (79%) cases. In general, P-Akt expression was inversely correlated with PTEN expression (P = 0.0083). These data suggest that

  3. HUR mRNA expression in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma effusions is associated with poor survival.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ben; Holth, Arild; Hellesylt, Ellen; Hadar, Rivka; Katz, Betina; Tropé, Claes G; Reich, Reuven

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the expression and clinical role of the RNA-binding molecule HuR in metastatic high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma (HGSC). HUR mRNA expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was analyzed in 66 effusions from patients diagnosed with HGSC. Protein expression was analyzed in 262 HGSC effusions using immunohistochemistry. HUR mRNA was detected in all 66 effusions. HUR mRNA levels were unrelated to clinicopathological parameters. However, higher HUR mRNA levels were significantly related to poor overall survival in the entire cohort (P=.023), as well as in analysis limited to patients with prechemotherapy primary diagnosis specimens (P=.001) in univariate analysis. Cox multivariate analysis showed an independent prognostic role for HUR mRNA in the entire cohort (P=.033) and in patients with prechemotherapy primary diagnosis specimens (P=.002). HuR protein was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm of tumor cells in 258 (98%) of 262 and 153 (58%) of 262 effusions, respectively. Higher HuR protein expression was associated with higher serum Cancer Antigen (CA) 125 levels at diagnosis (P=.01), but its presence at both cellular compartments was otherwise unrelated to clinicopathological parameters or survival. In conclusion, HuR is widely expressed in metastatic HGSC at both the mRNA and protein level. Higher HUR mRNA levels are associated with poor survival in metastatic HGSC, whereas protein expression has no prognostic value.

  4. High-grade fimbrial-ovarian carcinomas are unified by altered p53, PTEN and PAX2 expression.

    PubMed

    Roh, Michael H; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Mehra, Karishma K; Mehrad, Mitra; Monte, Nicolas M; Mutter, George L; Nucci, Marisa R; Ning, Geng; Mckeon, Frank D; Hirsch, Michelle S; Wa, Xian; Crum, Christopher P

    2010-10-01

    High-grade endometrioid and serous carcinomas of the ovary and fallopian tube are responsible for the majority of cancer deaths and comprise a spectrum that includes early or localized (tubal intraepithelial carcinoma) and advanced (invasive or metastatic) disease. We subdivided a series of these tumors into three groups, (1) classic serous, (2) mixed serous and endometrioid and (3) endometrioid carcinomas and determined: (1) the frequencies of coexisting tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, (2) frequency of a dominant ovarian mass suggesting an ovarian origin and (3) immuno-localization of WT-1, p53, PTEN, PAX2 and p16(ink4). All tumors were analyzed for p53 mutations. Thirty six, 25 and 8% of groups 1-3 were associated with tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (P=0.09) and 34, 45 and 62% predominated in one ovary (P=0.028), respectively. Differences in frequencies of diffuse p53 immunostaining (85-93%), WT-1 (70-98%) and p16(ink4) positivity (69-75%) were not significant for all groups. Greater than 95% reduction in PAX2 and PTEN occurred in 67-75 and 5-12%, respectively; however, PAX2 and PTEN staining intensity, when present, was often heterogeneous, highlighting different tumor populations. PAX2 and PTEN expression were markedly reduced or absent in 12 of 12 and 4 of 12 tubal intraepithelial carcinomas. In summary, high-grade müllerian carcinomas share identical frequencies of altered or reduced expression of p53, PTEN and PAX2, all of which can be appreciated in tubal intraepithelial carcinomas. Because only a subset of these tumors appears to arise in the fallopian tube, attention to expression of these biomarkers in the ovary and other müllerian sites might facilitate the identification of other carcinogenic pathways. PAX2 and PTEN, in addition to p53 and p16(ink4), comprise a potentially important gene combination in high-grade pelvic carcinogenesis.

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha is required for the tumourigenic and aggressive phenotype associated with Rab25 expression in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roman, Natividad; Sahasrabudhe, Neha Mohan; McGregor, Fiona; Chalmers, Anthony J.; Cassidy, Jim; Plumb, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab25 has been functionally linked to tumour progression and aggressiveness in ovarian cancer and promotes invasion in three-dimensional environments. This type of migration has been shown to require the expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). In this report we demonstrate that Rab25 regulates HIF-1α protein expression in an oxygen independent manner in a panel of cancer cell lines. Regulation of HIF-1α protein expression by Rab25 did not require transcriptional upregulation, but was dependent on de novo protein synthesis through the Erbb2/ERK1/2 and p70S6K/mTOR pathways. Rab25 expression induced HIF-1 transcriptional activity, increased cisplatin resistance, and conferred intraperitoneal growth to the A2780 cell line in immunocompromised mice. Targeting HIF1 activity by silencing HIF-1β re-sensitised cells to cisplatin in vitro and reduced tumour formation of A2780-Rab25 expressing cells in vivo in a mouse ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis model. Similar effects on cisplatin resistance in vitro and intraperitoneal tumourigenesis in vivo were obtained after HIF1b knockdown in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, which expresses endogenous Rab25 and HIF-1α at atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Our results suggest that Rab25 tumourigenic potential and chemoresistance relies on HIF1 activity in aggressive and metastatic ovarian cancer. Targeting HIF-1 activity may potentially be effective either alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy for aggressive metastatic ovarian cancer. PMID:26967059

  6. High expression of CTHRC1 promotes EMT of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Shanyang; Li, Yang; Pan, Yunping; Feng, Chongjin; Chen, Xinlin; Zhang, Yang; Lin, Millicent; Wang, Liantang; Ke, Zunfu

    2015-01-01

    Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1) is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple malignant tumors. However, the expression characteristics and function of CTHRC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain unclear. We found that CTHRC1 expression was up-regulated in the paraffin-embedded EOC tissues compared to borderline or benign tumor tissues. CTHRC1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size (p = 0.008), menopause (p = 0.037), clinical stage (p = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) and was also an important prognostic factor for the overall survival of EOC patients, as revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. CTHRC1 increased the invasive capabilities of EOC cells in vitro by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We showed that ectopic transfection of CTHRC1 in EOC cells up-regulated the expression of EMT markers such as N-cadherin and vimentin, and EMT-associated transcriptional factor Snail. Knockdown of CTHRC1 expression in EOC cells resulted in down-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and translocation of β-catenin. Collectively, CTHRC1 may promote EOC metastasis through the induction of EMT process and serve as a potential biomarker for prognosis as well as a target for therapy. PMID:26452130

  7. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome. PMID:20041792

  8. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome.

  9. The effect of progesterone treatment after ovarian induction on endometrial VEGF gene expression and its receptors in mice at pre-implantation time

    PubMed Central

    Boroujeni, Mandana Beigi; Boroujeni, Nasim Beigi; Gholami, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Progestrone is a prequisite for pre-implantation angiogenesis and induce decidual angiogenesis. It is unknown the effect of progestrone administration on the endometrium of hyperstimulated mice at pre-implantation time. Material and Methods: Adult female NMRI mice were divided in three groups [control group, ovarian stimulated group and progestrone treated mice after ovarian stimulation]. Uterine horn samples removed at pre-implantation time in each group. Motic image Plus 2 software was used to assess the quantitative vascular parameters of endometrium. Gene expression was determined for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), FMS-like tyrosine kinase (FLT) and Kinase insert domain protein receptor (FLK) genes using the real time PCR method. Data analysis was done with LinReg PCR and Rest-RG software. Results: Comparison between progestrone treated mice after ovarian stimulation with control group showed that increase in rate of VEGF gene expression [0.775] and decrease in rate of FLK [6.072] and FLT [1.711] gene expression. Analysis of the data on quantitative vascular parameters were indicated remarkable increase in quantitative vascular parameters of progestrone treated mice compare to control group. Conclusion: Biological effect of progestrone on the vascular changes after ovarian stimulation resulted in an increase in VEGF receptors experession, it seems that induced angiogenesis by progesterone could result in better condition for implantation. PMID:27114794

  10. The milk-derived hexapeptide PGPIPN inhibits the invasion and migration of human ovarian cancer cells by regulating the expression of MTA1 and NM23H1 genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengjing; Wei, Cai; Yang, Xue; Zhou, Juan; Wang, Jing; Gu, Fang; Lei, Ting; Qin, Yide

    2016-04-01

    Some bioactive peptides derived from natural resources or synthesized by rational design have been proved to have very good anticancer effect. We studied the inhibition of PGPIPN, a hexapeptide derived from bovine β-casein, on the invasion and metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro and its molecular mechanism. The human ovarian cancer cells studied include the cell line SKOV3 as well as the primary ovarian cancer cells from ovarian tumor tissues of 37 patients at initial debulking surgery, diagnosed as serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. We showed that PGPIPN inhibited the invasion of ovarian cancer cells with Transwell chamber assay, the migration of ovarian cancer cells with cell scratch assay and colony formation of ovarian cancer cells. The expression (mRNAs and proteins) of genes relevant to invasion and metastasis, MTA1, and NM23H1 were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blotting. PGPIPN repressed the expression of MTA1, and promoted NM23H1. The effects of PGPIPN were dose-dependent. Thus, our study suggests that PGPIPN is a potential therapeutic agent for adjuvant therapy of human malignant ovarian tumors.

  11. Cooperation of bisphenol A and leptin in inhibition of caspase-3 expression and activity in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Anna; Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L

    2013-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of bisphenol A and leptin on caspase-3 expression and activity in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Caspase-3 and survivin expression was measured at the transcript level by real-time PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting. In addition, caspase-3 activity was measured, using a fluorometric assay, upon exposure to bisphenol A (40 nM) alone, leptin (2.5 nM) alone, and the combination of both agents. 17β-estradiol (40 nM) was used as a positive control for estrogenic properties of bisphenol A. Results showed that the interaction between bisphenol A and leptin, which was similar to that observed between 17β-estradiol and leptin, led to the inhibition of caspase-3 expression and activity in OVCAR-3 cells. Surprisingly, survivin was found to not be involved in the anti-apoptotic activity of either agent. Also, results showed that leptin inhibits caspase-3 activity by acting on the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway, but bisphenol A and 17β-estradiol by the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. In conclusion, the study reveals that bisphenol A and leptin interact to inhibit caspase-3 expression and activity by modulating STAT3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in OVCAR-3 cells.

  12. Expression of E-Cadherin, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor and Progesterone Receptor in Mouse Blastocysts after Ovarian Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Movaghar, Bahar; Askarian, Saeedeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The appropriate interaction between a blastocyst and the endometrium is essential for successful implantation. Numerous factors, including hormone receptors (progesterone receptor), cytokines [leukemia inhibitory factors (LIF)], and adherence molecules such as E-cadherin are involved in the cross-talk that occurs between the embryo and endometrium. Studies show that a lack of these genes impact endometrial receptivity. In this study, we compare the expression levels of E-cadherin, LIF, and progesterone receptor (PgR) genes in blastocysts that have been obtained from superovulated mice to those obtained from natural cycles. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, for the experimental group, a total of 17 virgin female NMRI mice (6- 8 weeks old) were injected with 7.5 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Their blastocysts (approximately n= 120) were flushed out after 3.5 days, following administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The control group consisted of blastocysts from 62 female mice that were mated with male mice. The natural cycle blastocysts were flushed out from the female mice uteri 3.5 days after mating. The expression levels of E-cadherin, LIF, t PgR genes were examined by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data were analyzed by the student’s t-test (one sample t-test). Results: Expression levels of all studied genes were significantly lower in the hormone-treated group compared to the natural cycle blastocysts (p<0.05). Conclusion: Although ovarian stimulation is utilized to obtain more oocytes in ART cycles, it seems that this could disadvantageous to implantation because of the decrease in expression levels of certain genes. Because of the important roles of E-cadherin, LIF, and progesterone receptor in the implantation process, we have shown lower expression levels of these genes in mouse blastocysts obtained from ovarian-stimulated mice than those derived from

  13. Expression of orexins and their precursor in the porcine ovary and the influence of orexins on ovarian steroidogenesis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nitkiewicz, Anna; Smolinska, Nina; Maleszka, Anna; Chojnowska, Katarzyna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-07-01

    Orexins A and B are hypothalamic neuropeptides associated with homeostasis and the reproductive system. The aim of the study was to compare the expression of the prepro-orexin gene and the intensity of orexins immunoreactivity in the porcine ovary (corpora lutea, granulosa and theca interna cells) during four different stages of the oestrous cycle (days: 2-3, 10-12, 14-16 and 17-19) and to examine the in vitro effect of orexins on the secretion of steroid hormones by porcine luteal, granulosa and theca interna cells. The highest expression of prepro-orexin mRNA was observed in theca interna cells on days 17-19 of the oestrous cycle. The highest content of immunoreactive orexin A was noted in corpora lutea on days 10-12 and the highest level of immunoreactive orexin B on days 14-16 of the cycle. Immunoreactive orexin A concentrations were higher in theca interna cells than in granulosa cells, whereas similar levels of immunoreactive orexin B were observed in both cell types. Under in vitro conditions, at the concentration of 10 nM, orexins A and B inhibited FSH-induced oestradiol secretion by granulosa cells. The obtained results suggest that the pattern of orexin peptide expression in the porcine ovary is related to the animals' hormonal status. Our findings imply that orexins can affect porcine reproductive functions through modulation of ovarian steroidogenesis.

  14. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Functional ovarian cysts are not the same as ovarian tumors, or cysts due to hormone-related conditions such ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson ...

  15. Ovarian hormones modulate endothelin-1 vascular reactivity and mRNA expression in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    David, F L; Carvalho, M H; Cobra, A L; Nigro, D; Fortes, Z B; Rebouças, N A; Tostes, R C

    2001-09-01

    We previously demonstrated a differential activation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) pathway in male and female deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats, with the male rats exhibiting marked alterations in vascular and pressor responses to ET-1 and Suc-[Glu,(9)Ala(11,15)]-ET-1(8-21) (IRL-1620), an ET(B) agonist. Mechanisms underlying these gender differences are unclear, and we hypothesized that the ovarian hormones attenuate vascular ET(B) responses in female DOCA-salt rats. Female Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX plus hormone replacement with estradiol (E) or estradiol/progesterone (EP). Two weeks later, rats were uninephrectomized and further randomized in DOCA-salt (subcutaneous injections of desoxycorticosterone and drinking water containing NaCl/KCl) and control normotensive (subcutaneous injections of vehicle and tap water). Blood pressure was evaluated both by direct and standard tail-cuff methods. Responses to IRL-1620 were evaluated in vivo/in situ in the mesenteric microcirculation. mRNA expression of ET-1 and ET(A/B) receptors was evaluated in mesenteric arteries by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and expressed relative to GAPDH. OVX-DOCA rats developed a more severe form of hypertension than did DOCA rats. Treatment with E or EP restored blood pressure to levels observed in DOCA rats. In the mesentery, IRL-1620 induced vasodilatation in control rats, a mild vasoconstriction in DOCA rats, and marked vasoconstriction in OVX-DOCA rats. Both E and EP decreased IRL-1620-induced vasoconstriction in the DOCA group. In the normotensive group, OVX did not change blood pressure or IRL-1620-induced vasodilation. Removal of the ovaries increased ET-1 mRNA in arteries from DOCA and control rats, although treatment with E or EP reversed these changes. Vascular ET(B) receptor mRNA levels were greatly enhanced in OVX-DOCA but not OVX-control rats. Hormone replacement with E or EP restored ET

  16. Ovarian Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... accurate way to tell if a woman has ovarian cancer. For example, some women who do have ovarian cancer have a normal CA-125 level. Also, this ... for women who show signs or symptoms of ovarian cancer or who have genetic mutations that increase the ...

  17. Quantitative expression patterns of GDF9 and BMP15 genes in sheep ovarian follicles grown in vivo or cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kona, S S R; Praveen Chakravarthi, V; Siva Kumar, A V N; Srividya, D; Padmaja, K; Rao, V H

    2016-01-15

    Quantitative patterns of expression of the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenic protein 15 (BMP15) genes in different development stages of in vivo and in vitro grown ovarian follicles in sheep were studied for the first time. Both GDF9 and BMP15 were expressed in the cumulus cells and oocytes at all the development stages of in vivo and in vitro grown ovarian follicles. Growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenic protein 15 exhibited stage-specific undulations in the expression in the cumulus cells and oocytes isolated from in vivo grown ovarian follicles. These undulations could be related to discrete development events during the ovarian follicle development. The expression of GDF9 and BMP15 was highest (3.38 ± 0.02 and 2.69 ± 0.06, respectively; P ≤ 0.05) in the primordial follicles compared with preantral, early antral, antral, and large antral stages. Similarly, GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the cumulus cells (0 ± 0.16 and 0 ± 0.07) and oocytes (1.47 ± 0.07 and 1.32 ± 0.03) was lowest (P ≤ 0.05) in the in vivo grown antral follicles. In the cultured follicles, the stage-specific undulations observed in the expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in the in vivo grown follicles were either different or abolished. For example, in the oocytes from in vitro grown follicles, the expression of BMP15 did not change as the development progressed all the way from preantral to large antral follicle stage although in the oocytes from in vivo grown follicles BMP15 expression exhibited stage-specific variations. It is concluded that GDF9 and BMP15 follow a stage-specific pattern of expression during the in vivo development of ovarian follicles in sheep, and in vitro culture altered the stage-specific changes in the expression of these two genes.

  18. Microarray-based detection and expression analysis of ABC and SLC transporters in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Zawierucha, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Ruciński, Marcin; Zabel, Maciej

    2013-04-01

    Multiple drug resistance of cancer cells is multifactorial. A microarray technique may provide information about new candidate genes playing a role in drug resistance. Drug membrane transporters from ABC and SLC families play a main role in this phenomenon. This study demonstrates alterations in ABC and SLC gene expression levels in methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, topotecan and paclitaxel-resistant variant of W1 ovarian cancer cell line. Resistant W1 cell lines were derived by stepwise selection of cells in increasing concentration of drugs. Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Genome U219 Array Strip was used for hybridizations. Statistical significance was determined by independent sample t-test. The genes having altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scater plot. Genes up/downregulated more than threefolds were selected and listed. Among ABC genes, seven were upregulated and three were downregulated. Three genes: ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCG2 were upregulated very significantly (over tenfold). One ABCA8 was significantly downregulated. Among 38 SLC genes, 18 were upregulated, 16 were downregulated and four were up- or downregulated dependent on the cell line. Expression of 10 SLC genes was changed very significantly (over tenfold). Four genes were significantly increased: SLC6A1, SLC9A2, SLC12A1, SLC16A6 and six genes were significantly decreased: SLC2A14, SLC7A3, SLC7A8, SLC7A11, SLC16A14, SLC38A9. Based on the expression profiles, our results provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and expression of membrane transporters involved in drug resistance. Correlation of specific drug transporter with drug resistance requires further analysis.

  19. Effect of high ovarian response on the expression of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) in peri-implantation endometrium in IVF women

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Zhen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Yao, Li-Hua; Liang, A-Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Zhao-Gui

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ovarian stimulation on the expression of EG-VEGF mRNA and protein in peri-implantation endometrium in women undergoing IVF and its relation with endometrial receptivity (ER). Design: Prospective laboratory study. Setting: University hospital. Patients: Eighteen women in stimulated cycles (SC) as study subjects and 18 women in natural cycles (NC) as controls. Women in SC group were classified with two subgroups, high ovarian response (SC1, n=9) with peak serum E2>5,000 pg/mL and moderate ovarian response (SC2, n=9) with peak serum E2 1,000-5,000 pg/mL. Intervention(s): Endometrial biopsies were collected 6 days after ovulation in NC or after oocyte retrieval in SC. Main outcome measure(s): Endometrium histological dating was observed with HE staining. EG-VEGF mRNA expression levels determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and protein levels by immunohistochemistry. Results: All endometrial samples were in the secretory phase. The endometrial development in SC1 was 1 to 2 days advanced to NC, and with dyssynchrony between glandular and stromal tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that EG-VEGF protein was predominantly expressed in the glandular epithelial cells and endothelial cells of vessels, and also presented in the stroma. The image analysis confirmed that both the gland and stroma of endometrium in SC1 had a significantly lower EG-VEGF protein expression than that in SC2 and NC endometrium. Moreover, EG-VEGF mRNA levels were significantly lower in SC1 than in NC. Both EG-VEGF protein and mRNA levels had no significant difference between SC2 and NC. Conclusion: Decreased expression of EG-VEGF in the peri-implantation is associated with high ovarian response, which may account for the impaired ER and lower implantation rate in IVF cycles. PMID:26464631

  20. Association of Immunosuppression with DR6 Expression during the Development and Progression of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer in Laying Hen Model

    PubMed Central

    McNeal, Sa'Rah; Bitterman, Pincas; Bahr, Janice M.; Edassery, Seby L.; Abramowicz, Jacques S.; Basu, Sanjib

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OVCA) mainly disseminates in the peritoneal cavity. Immune functions are important to prevent OVCA progression and recurrence. The mechanism of immunosuppression, a hallmark of tumor progression, is not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine the immune system's responses and its suppression during OVCA development and progression in hens. Frequencies of CD8+ T cells and IgY-containing cells and expression of immunosuppressors including IRG1 and DR6 in OVCA at early and late stages in hens were examined. Frequencies of stromal but not the intratumoral CD+8 T cells and IgY-containing cells increased significantly (P < 0.01) during OVCA development and progression. Tumor progression was associated with increased expression of IRG1 and DR6 and decreased infiltration of immune cells into the tumor. Frequency of stromal but not intratumoral immune cells increases during OVCA development and progression. Tumor-induced IRG1 and DR6 may prevent immune cells from invading the tumor. PMID:27579331

  1. Association of Immunosuppression with DR6 Expression during the Development and Progression of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer in Laying Hen Model.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Sa'Rah; Bitterman, Pincas; Bahr, Janice M; Edassery, Seby L; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Basu, Sanjib; Barua, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OVCA) mainly disseminates in the peritoneal cavity. Immune functions are important to prevent OVCA progression and recurrence. The mechanism of immunosuppression, a hallmark of tumor progression, is not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine the immune system's responses and its suppression during OVCA development and progression in hens. Frequencies of CD8+ T cells and IgY-containing cells and expression of immunosuppressors including IRG1 and DR6 in OVCA at early and late stages in hens were examined. Frequencies of stromal but not the intratumoral CD+8 T cells and IgY-containing cells increased significantly (P < 0.01) during OVCA development and progression. Tumor progression was associated with increased expression of IRG1 and DR6 and decreased infiltration of immune cells into the tumor. Frequency of stromal but not intratumoral immune cells increases during OVCA development and progression. Tumor-induced IRG1 and DR6 may prevent immune cells from invading the tumor. PMID:27579331

  2. Low expression of the X-linked ribosomal protein S4 in human serous epithelial ovarian cancer is associated with a poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The X-linked ribosomal protein S4 (RPS4X), which is involved in cellular translation and proliferation, has previously been identified as a partner of the overexpressed multifunctional protein YB-1 in several breast cancer cells. Depletion of RPS4X results in consistent resistance to cisplatin in such cell lines. Methods As platinum-based chemotherapy is a standard first line therapy used to treat patients with ovarian cancer, we evaluated the prognostic value of RPS4X and YB-1 at the protein level in specimen from 192 high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Results Immunohistochemistry studies indicated that high expression of RPS4X was associated with a lower risk of death and later disease progression (HR = 0.713, P = 0.001 and HR = 0.761, P = 0.001, respectively) as compared to low expression of RPS4X. In contrast, YB-1 was not significantly associated with either recurrence or survival time in this cohort. Finally, the depletion of RPS4X with different siRNAs in two different ovarian cancer cell lines reduced their proliferative growth rate but more importantly increased their resistance to cisplatin. Conclusion Altogether, these results suggest that the levels of RPS4X could be a good indicator for resistance to platinum-based therapy and a prognostic marker for ovarian cancer. Our study also showed that RPS4X is an independent prognostic factor in patients with serous epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:23800275

  3. Estrus synchronization and ovarian hyper-stimulation treatments have negligible effects on cumulus oocyte complex gene expression whereas induction of ovulation causes major expression changes.

    PubMed

    Agca, Cansu; Yakan, Akin; Agca, Yuksel

    2013-02-01

    The effects of exogenous hormones, used for estrus synchronization and ovarian hyper stimulation, on cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) gene expression in sexually mature rats were determined using microarrays. Gene expression in COCs collected from GnRH (G(trt)), GnRH + eCG (G + E(trt)), and GnRH + eCG + hCG (G + E + H(trt)) treatments were compared to COCs from naturally cycling (NC) rats before the preovulatory luteninizing hormone surge. There was no significant difference in gene expression among NC, G(trt), and G + E(trt); however, over 2,600 genes were significantly different between NC and G + E + H(trt) (P < 0.05). Genes upregulated in G + E + H(trt) encode for: proteins that are involved in prostaglandin synthesis (Ptgs2, Pla2g4a, and Runx1) and cholesterol biosynthesis (Hmgcr, Sc4mol, and Dhcr24); receptors that allow cholesterol uptake (Ldlr and Scarb1), regulate progesterone synthesis (Star), and inactivate estrogen (Sult1e1); and downstream effectors of LH signal (Pgr, Cebpb, Creb3l1, Areg, Ereg, and Adamts1). Conversely, G + E + H(trt) downregulated genes encoding proteins involved in: DNA replication and cell cycle progression (Ccne2, Orc5l, Rad50, and Mcm6); reproductive developmental process; and granulosa cell expansion (Gdf9, Bmp15, Amh, Amhr2, Bmpr1b, Tgfb2, Foxl2, Pde3a, Esr2, Fshr, Ybx2, Ccnd2, Ccnb1ip1, and Zp3); maternal effect genes required for embryo development (Zar1, Npm2, Nlrp5, Dnmt1, H1foo, and Zfp57); amino acid degradation; and ketogenesis (Hmgcs2, and Cpt1b). These results from the rat show that hormones used for estrus synchronization (G(trt)) and ovarian hyper stimulation (G + E(trt)) had minimal effects on gene expression, whereas induction of ovulation (G + E + H(trt)) caused major changes in gene expression of rat COCs. This study provides comprehensive information about regulated genes during late follicle development and ovulation induction.

  4. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of antizyme inhibitor 1 in the ovarian follicles of the Sichuan white goose.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong; Jiang, Dongmei; Kang, Bo; Bai, Lin; He, Hui; Chen, Ziyu; Yi, Zhixin

    2015-08-15

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (Azin1) plays critical roles in various cellular pathways, including ornithine decarboxylase regulation, polyamine anabolism and uptake and cell proliferation. However, the molecular characteristics of the AZIN1 gene and its expression profile in goose tissues and ovarian follicles have not been reported. In this study, the AZIN1 cDNA of the Sichuan white goose (Anser cygnoides) was cloned, and analyzed for its phylogenetic and physiochemical properties. The expression profile of AZIN1 mRNA in geese tissues and ovarian follicles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the open reading frame of the AZIN1 cDNA is 1,353 bp in length, encoding a 450 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 50 kDa. Out of all tissues examined, AZIN1 expression was highest in the adrenal gland and lowest in breast muscle. There was also a high expression of AZIN1 in the cerebellum and isthmus of oviduct. With follicular development, AZIN1 gene expression gradually increased, and its expression in F1 was significantly higher than in F5 (P<0.05). AZIN1 expression was also significantly higher in the POF1 than in the other follicles (P<0.05), and there was a low mRNA expression of AZIN1 in atretic follicles. The results of AZIN1 expression profiling in ovarian follicles suggest that AZIN1 may play an important role in the progression of follicular development, potentially through regulating polyamine levels.

  5. Inhibition of ALDH1A1 activity decreases expression of drug transporters and reduces chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Wojtowicz, Karolina; Sterzyńska, Karolina; Sosińska, Patrycja; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Zawierucha, Piotr; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The high mortality of ovarian cancer patients results from the failure of treatment caused by the inherent or acquired chemotherapy drug resistance. It was reported that overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDH1A1) in cancer cells can be responsible for the development of drug resistance. To add the high expression of the drug transporter proteins the ALDHA1 is considered as a molecular target in cancer therapy. Therefore, we analysed drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines according to ALDHA1 expression and the association with drug resistance. The expression of ALDH1A1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was determined using a microarray and confirmed by Q-PCR, western blot and fluorescence analysis. ALDH1A1 activity was determined using an Aldefluor assay. The impact of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) on chemotherapy resistance was assessed by the MTT chemosensitivity assay. The most abundant expression of ALDH1A1 was noted in paclitaxel- and topotecan-resistant cell lines where two populations of ALDH-positive and ALDH-negative cells could be observed. Those cell lines also revealed the overexpression of P-gp and BCRP respectively, and were able to form spheres in non-adherent conditions. Pre-treatment with ATRA and DEAB reduced chemotherapy resistance in both cell lines. ATRA treatment led to downregulation of the ALDH1A1, P-gp and BCRP proteins. DEAB treatment led to downregulation of the P-gp protein and BCRP transcript and protein. Our results indicate that ALDH1A1-positive cancer cells can be responsible for drug resistance development in ovarian cancer. Developing more specific ALDH1A1 inhibitors can increase chemotherapy effectiveness in ovarian cancer.

  6. Inhibition of ALDH1A1 activity decreases expression of drug transporters and reduces chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Januchowski, Radosław; Wojtowicz, Karolina; Sterzyńska, Karolina; Sosińska, Patrycja; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Zawierucha, Piotr; Nowicki, Michał; Zabel, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The high mortality of ovarian cancer patients results from the failure of treatment caused by the inherent or acquired chemotherapy drug resistance. It was reported that overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDH1A1) in cancer cells can be responsible for the development of drug resistance. To add the high expression of the drug transporter proteins the ALDHA1 is considered as a molecular target in cancer therapy. Therefore, we analysed drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines according to ALDHA1 expression and the association with drug resistance. The expression of ALDH1A1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was determined using a microarray and confirmed by Q-PCR, western blot and fluorescence analysis. ALDH1A1 activity was determined using an Aldefluor assay. The impact of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) on chemotherapy resistance was assessed by the MTT chemosensitivity assay. The most abundant expression of ALDH1A1 was noted in paclitaxel- and topotecan-resistant cell lines where two populations of ALDH-positive and ALDH-negative cells could be observed. Those cell lines also revealed the overexpression of P-gp and BCRP respectively, and were able to form spheres in non-adherent conditions. Pre-treatment with ATRA and DEAB reduced chemotherapy resistance in both cell lines. ATRA treatment led to downregulation of the ALDH1A1, P-gp and BCRP proteins. DEAB treatment led to downregulation of the P-gp protein and BCRP transcript and protein. Our results indicate that ALDH1A1-positive cancer cells can be responsible for drug resistance development in ovarian cancer. Developing more specific ALDH1A1 inhibitors can increase chemotherapy effectiveness in ovarian cancer. PMID:27443528

  7. Vitellogenin and its messenger RNA during ovarian development in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: gene expression, synthesis, transport, and cleavage.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nili; Trant, John; Chan, Siu-Ming; Chung, J Sook

    2007-07-01

    Blue crab vitellogenin (VTG) cDNA encodes a precursor that, together with two other Brachyuran VTGs, forms a distinctive cluster within a phylogenetic tree of crustacean VTGs. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that VTG was primarily expressed in the hepatopancreas of a vitellogenic female, with minor expression in the ovary. VTG expression in the hepatopancreas correlated with ovarian growth, with a remarkable 8000-fold increase in expression from stage 3 to 4 of ovarian development. In contrast, the VTG levels in the hepatopancreas and hemolymph decreased in stage 4. Western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing revealed that vitellin is composed of three subunits of approximately 78.5 kDa, 119.42 kDa, and 87.9 kDa. The processing pathway for VTG includes an initial hepatopancreatic cleavage of the primary precursor into approximately 78.5-kDa and 207.3-kDa subunits, both of which are found in the hemolymph. A second cleavage in the ovary splits the approximately 207.3-kDa subunit into approximately 119.4-kDa and approximately 87.9-kDa subunits. The hemolymph VTG profiles of mated and unmated females during ovarian development indicate that early vitellogenesis and ovarian development do not require mating, which may be essential for later stages, as VTG decreased to the basal level at stage 4 in the unmated group but remained high in the mated females. Our results encompass comprehensive overall temporal and spatial aspects of vitellogenesis, which may reflect the reproductive physiology of the female blue crab, e.g., single mating and anecdysis in adulthood.

  8. Cytoplasmic localization of Lrh-1 down-regulates ovarian follicular cyp19a1a expression in a teleost, the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijie; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Qiongyou; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2014-08-01

    Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is a conserved member of the NR5A subfamily in vertebrates and a potential regulator of estrogen synthesis in the ovarian granulosa cells. An Lrh-1 homologue was obtained from the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides that contains the conserved structural features of NR5A and is phylogenetically closely related to NR5A2. The expression of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 is tissue-specific with relatively higher levels in the liver and ovary. The immunoreactive signals for Lrh-1 and Cyp19a1a were present in the ovarian follicular cells and germ cells. In the ovarian follicular cells, Lrh-1 was present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and colocalized with Cyp19a1a. The expression levels of both increased during vitellogenesis whereas only Cyp19a1a dramatically decreased toward maturation when Lrh-1 was localized almost exclusively to the cytoplasm of the follicular cells. The orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could up-regulate cyp19a1a transcription in vitro via the two conserved Ftz-f1 sites in cyp19a1a promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could bind cyp19a1a promoter in vivo with a higher abundance in the vitellogenic ovary, whereas the binding was dramatically decreased in the mature ovary. Taken together, the results of present study demonstrate that Lrh-1 plays an important role in up-regulating cyp19a1a gene in the ovarian follicular cells during vitellogenesis, and the sequestration of Lrh-1 to the cytoplasm may down-regulate cyp19a1a expression in the mature ovary. This mechanism for modifying transcriptional roles of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 may shed new light on the regulation of Cyp19a1 expression in other vertebrates as well.

  9. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 2 in ovarian follicles of the Sichuan white goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Kang, Bo; Jiang, Dongmei; Ma, Rong; Bai, Lin

    2014-07-25

    The ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 2 (OAZ2) gene is a member of the antizyme gene family. Antizymes play pivotal roles in various cellular pathways, including polyamine anabolism and apoptosis. The molecular structure and expression profile of the OAZ2 in goose ovarian follicles have not been reported. In this study, the OAZ2 cDNA sequence of the Sichuan white goose was cloned (Anser cygnoides), and phylogenetic and structural analyses of the OAZ2 were performed. The expression profiling of OAZ2 mRNA in goose ovarian follicles was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The sequence analysis showed that the 756 bp OAZ2 sequence contained two overlapping open reading frames (ORF). ORF1 was 99 bp in length, and encoded a 32 aa polypeptide. ORF2 was 477 bp in length, and encoded a 158 aa polypeptide. The frameshift site that initiates the translation of ORF2 was located at nucleotide position 97 in the OAZ2. The analysis of OAZ2 mRNA expression in hierarchical follicles showed that the level of OAZ2 mRNA was higher in the SWF and F2 follicular stages than that in the ovarian stroma (P<0.05). The lowest level of OAZ2 expression was detected in the ovarian stroma. These results suggest that the highly conserved frameshift region plays an important role in sustaining the function of OAZs. Furthermore, the significantly higher level of OAZ2 mRNA in the SWF stage indicates that OAZ2 may be involved in recruiting hierarchical follicles. Our results also suggest that OAZ2 may augment the effects of OAZ1 in follicle development.

  10. Haptoglobin and CCR2 receptor expression in ovarian cancer cells that were exposed to ascitic fluid: Exploring a new role of haptoglobin in the tumoral microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Garibay-Cerdenares, OL; Hernández-Ramírez, VI; Osorio-Trujillo, JC; Gallardo-Rincón, D; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2015-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute-phase protein that is produced by the liver to capture the iron that is present in the blood circulation, thus avoiding its accumulation in the blood. Moreover, Hp has been detected in a wide variety of tissues, in which it performs various functions. In addition, this protein is considered a potential biomarker in many diseases, such as cancer, including ovarian carcinoma; however, its participation in the cancerous processes has not yet been determined. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the expression of Hp and its receptor CCR2 in the ovarian cancer cells and its possible involvement in the process of cell migration through changes in the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton using western blot and wound-healing assays and confirming by confocal microscopy. Ovarian cancer cells express both Hp and its receptor CCR2 but only after exposure to ascitic fluid, inducing moderated cell migration. However, when the cells are exposed to exogenous Hp, the expression of CCR2 is induced together with drastic changes in the actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. At the same time, Hp induced cell migration in a much more efficient manner than did ascitic fluid. These effects were blocked when the CCR2 synthetic antagonist RS102895 was used to pretreat the cells. These results suggest that Hp-induced changes in the cell morphology, actin cytoskeleton structure, and migration ability of tumor cells, is possibly “preparing” these cells for the potential induction of the metastatic phenotype. PMID:26211665

  11. Mouse oocytes suppress miR-322-5p expression in ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    SUMITOMO, Jun-ichi; EMORI, Chihiro; MATSUNO, Yuta; UENO, Mizuki; KAWASAKI, Kurenai; ENDO, Takaho A.; SHIROGUCHI, Katsuyuki; FUJII, Wataru; NAITO, Kunihiko; SUGIURA, Koji

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs) regulate miRNA expression in mouse granulosa cells. Expression of mmu-miR-322-5p (miR-322) was higher in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) than in cumulus cells of the Graafian follicles. The expression levels of miR-322 decreased when cumulus cells or MGCs were co-cultured with oocytes denuded of their cumulus cells. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling by SB431542 increased miR-322 expression by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Moreover, the cumulus cells but not the MGCs in Bmp15–/–/Gdf9+/– (double-mutant) mice exhibited higher miR-322 expression than those of wild-type mice. Taken together, these results show that ODPFs suppress the expression of miR-322 in cumulus cells. Gene ontology analysis of putative miR-322 targets whose expression was detected in MGCs with RNA-sequencing suggested that multiple biological processes are affected by miR-322 in MGCs. These results demonstrate that ODPFs regulate miRNA expression in granulosa cells and that this regulation may participate in the differential control of cumulus cell versus MGC functions. Therefore, the ODPF-mediated regulation of cumulus cells takes place at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:27180925

  12. Effect of Antiprogesterone RU486 on VEGF Expression and Blood Vessel Remodeling on Ovarian Follicles before Ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Berardinelli, Paolo; Russo, Valentina; Bernabò, Nicola; Di Giacinto, Oriana; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background The success of ovarian follicle growth and ovulation is strictly related to the development of an adequate blood vessel network required to sustain the proliferative and endocrine functions of the follicular cells. Even if the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) drives angiogenesis before ovulation, the local role exerted by Progesterone (P4) remains to be clarified, in particular when its concentration rapidly increases before ovulation. Aim This in vivo study was designed to clarify the effect promoted by a P4 receptor antagonist, RU486, on VEGF expression and follicular angiogenesis before ovulation, in particular, during the transition from pre to periovulatory follicles induced by human Chorionic Gonadotropins (hCG) administration. Material and Methods Preovulatory follicle growth and ovulation were pharmacologically induced in prepubertal gilts by combining equine Chorionic Gonadotropins (eCG) and hCG used in the presence or absence of RU486. The effects on VEGF expression were analyzed using biochemical and immunohistochemical studies, either on granulosa or on theca layers of follicles isolated few hours before ovulation. This angiogenic factor was also correlated to follicular morphology and to blood vessels architecture. Results and Conclusions VEGF production, blood vessel network and follicle remodeling were impaired by RU486 treatment, even if the cause-effect correlation remains to be clarified. The P4 antagonist strongly down-regulated theca VEGF expression, thus, preventing most of the angiogenic follicle response induced by hCG. RU486-treated follicles displayed a reduced vascular area, a lower rate of endothelial cell proliferation and a reduced recruitment of perivascular mural cells. These data provide important insights on the biological role of RU486 and, indirectly, on steroid hormones during periovulatory follicular phase. In addition, an in vivo model is proposed to evaluate how periovulatory follicular angiogenesis may

  13. Molecular cloning, expression analysis, and function of decorin in goat ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, J Y; Gao, K X; Xin, H Y; Han, P; Zhu, G Q; Cao, B Y

    2016-10-01

    Decorin (DCN), a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), participates in ECM assembly and influences cell proliferation and apoptosis in many mammalian tissues and cells. However, expression and function of DCN in the ovary remain unclear. This study cloned the full-length cDNA of goat DCN obtained from the ovary of an adult goat. Sequence analysis revealed that the putative DCN protein shared a highly conserved amino acid sequence with known mammalian homologs. The tissue distribution of DCN mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR, and the results showed that DCN was widely expressed in the tissues of adult goat. Immunohistochemistry results suggested that DCN protein existed in the granulosa cells and oocytes from all types of follicles and theca cells of antral follicles. Moreover, hCG-induced DCN mRNA expression was significantly reduced by the inhibitors of protein kinase A, PI3K, or p38 kinase (P < 0.05), which are key mediators involved in hCG-induced DCN expression. Overexpression of DCN significantly increased apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in cultured granulosa cells (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis also showed that overexpression of DCN upregulated the expression levels of p21 protein (P < 0.05), whereas no effects were observed on the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 and on Bcl-2/Bax ratio (P > 0.05). These findings suggested that DCN regulates the apoptosis and cell cycle of granulosa cells. PMID:27565237

  14. Epidermal growth factor, oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in primary ovarian cancer: correlation with clinical outcome and response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Scambia, G.; Benedetti-Panici, P.; Ferrandina, G.; Distefano, M.; Salerno, G.; Romanini, M. E.; Fagotti, A.; Mancuso, S.

    1995-01-01

    The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) was assayed by a radioreceptor method in 117 primary ovarian cancers. EGFR was not significantly related to any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. In patients with stage II-IV disease who underwent second-look surgery after primary chemotherapy, a significant correlation between high EGFR levels and poor response to chemotherapy was demonstrated (P = 0.031). Moreover, post-operative residual tumour showed an independent role in predicting chemotherapy response (P = 0.0007) and EGFR status showed a borderline significance (P = 0.052) in the multivariate analysis. No correlation between steroid hormone receptors and clinicopathological parameters was observed. Whereas a significant relationship was shown between EGFR positivity and a shorter overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0022) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.0033), patient survival was not related to steroid hormone receptor status. Among the parameters tested only stage, ascites and EGFR status retained an independent prognostic value in the multivariate analysis. PMID:7640219

  15. Isolation and characterization of goat ovarian aromatase cDNA: assessment of the activity using an intact cell system and placental expression.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Raúl José; Miranda, Carolina; Pérez-Martinez, Mario; Luu-The, Van; Romano, Marta C

    2004-08-01

    Goat ovarian follicles produce estrone and estradiol from androgens. The synthesis of C18 estrogens from C19 androgens requires cytochrome P450 aromatase, but little information about this key enzyme is available in the goat. We report here for the first time the cDNA sequence of the goat ovarian aromatase, the activity of the enzyme in a cell system, and its expression in the term goat placenta. A cDNA library from goat ovarian poly(A)+ RNA was constructed. Human aromatase cDNA was selected as probe to screen the library; several clones were isolated, but none was complete. The longest clone was 3.1 kb long, but it lacked the sequence coding for a few amino acids in the NH(2)-terminal. To obtain the missing sequence, we performed reverse amplification of the cDNA end (RACE). Sequence analysis indicated that goat aromatase possessed a very long 3'-untranslated region ( approximately 1790 bp), and a polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) located at position 3320 downstream from the ATG start codon. The coding region of goat cDNA was inserted in an expression vector and transfected into HEK-293 cells that were cultured in presence of [14C]-androstenedione, steroids extracted and further separated by TLC. The transfected cells efficiently transformed [14C]-androstenedione into estrone. This activity was inhibited by 4-hydroxyandrostenedione. We also investigated the presence of mRNA for P450 aromatase in the goat placenta, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and primers derived from the cDNA ovarian sequence and confirmed the expression of the mRNA in term placenta.

  16. Dietary vitamin A supplementation improved reproductive performance by regulating ovarian expression of hormone receptors, caspase-3 and Fas in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Jiang, Zongyong; Jiang, Shouqun; Li, Long; Lin, Xiajing; Gou, Zongyong; Fan, Qiuli

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin A (VA) supplementation on reproductive performance, VA deposition, and potential mechanisms of action were studied in Chinese yellow-feathered broiler breeders. A total of 528 yellow-feathered broiler breeders that were 46 wk old were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0; 5,400; 10,800; or 21,600 IU/kg VA for 9 wk. Each dietary treatment had 6 replicates with 22 birds per replicate. After 7 wk of treatment, 60 settable eggs per replicate were collected for hatching. The results showed that dietary VA improved the laying rate, egg-to-feed ratio, and hatch weight of offspring (P < 0.05). Hepatic retinyl palmitate in broiler breeders and hatchlings (within 12 h) increased with increasing VA (P < 0.05). VA supplementation increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) receptor transcripts in the ovarian stroma and the walls of yellow follicles, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor expression in the walls of white and yellow follicles, and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and growth hormone (GH) receptor transcripts in the walls of yellow follicles (P < 0.05). Caspase-3 and Fas mRNA levels in the ovarian stroma and the walls of white and yellow follicles decreased with VA supplementation (P < 0.05). The relative expression of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) transcripts in the walls of white follicles increased with 5,400 IU/kg VA supplementation (P < 0.05). Supplemental 21,600 IU/kg VA increased cytochrome P450 26A1 (CYP26A1) transcripts in the ovarian stroma and the walls of white follicles (P < 0.05). Dietary VA elevated retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) expression in the ovarian stroma and the walls of yellow follicles and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) expression in the walls of yellow follicles. It was concluded that VA supplementation improved reproductive performance and hepatic storage of VA, and this was associated with the regulation of ovarian hormone receptor expression and suppression of apoptosis

  17. Oxaliplatin regulates expression of stress ligands in ovarian cancer cells and modulates their susceptibility to natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Siew, Yin-Yin; Neo, Soek-Ying; Yew, Hui-Chuing; Lim, Shun-Wei; Ng, Yi-Cheng; Lew, Si-Min; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Seow, See-Voon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Selected cytotoxic chemicals can provoke the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant tumors. Most of the studies on immunogenic cell death are focused on the signals that operate on a series of receptors expressed by dendritic cells to induce tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses. Here, we explored the effects of oxaliplatin, an immunogenic cell death inducer, on the induction of stress ligands and promotion of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer cells. The results indicated that treatment of tumor cells with oxaliplatin induced the production of type I interferons and chemokines and enhanced the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chains (MIC) A/B, UL16-binding protein (ULBP)-3, CD155 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-R1/R2. Furthermore, oxaliplatin but not cisplatin treatment enhanced susceptibility of ovarian cancer cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis. In addition, activated NK cells completely abrogated the growth of cancer cells that were pretreated with oxaliplatin. However, cancer cells pretreated with the same concentration of oxaliplatin alone were capable of potentiating regrowth over a period of time. These results suggest an advantage in combining oxaliplatin and NK cell-based therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Further investigation on such potential combination therapy is warranted.

  18. Seasonal variations in reproductive activity of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: Vitellogenin expression and levels of vitellogenin in the hemolymph during ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Thongda, Willawan; Chung, J Sook; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Zmora, Nilli; Katenta, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In general, season affects the physiology and behavior of most animals. Warmer temperatures accelerate growth and reproduction of ectotherms, whereas these processes are slowed or halted in colder temperatures. Female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay, exhibit a seasonal migratory behavior that is closely tied with spawning and the release of larvae. To better understand reproductive activities of the migratory adult females, we examined two reproductive parameters of these crabs sampled monthly (April-December, 2006): the levels of vitellogenin (VtG) in the hemolymph and VtG expression in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The full-length cDNA of VtG (CasVtG-ova) has been isolated from the ovary. The putative CasVtG sequence found in the ovary is >99% identical to that of the hepatopancreas and is related most closely to the sequences reported in other crab species. In female C. sapidus, the hepatopancreas produces over 99% of the total VtG toward the ovarian development. Ovarian stages 2 and 3 in the sampled females are characterized by significant high levels of VtG in hemolymph and VtG expression in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. However, during the southbound migration in fall, females at ovarian stages 2 and 3 have decreased VtG levels, compared to those in spring and summer. The decreased vitellogenesis activity during the fall migration suggests seasonal adaptation to ensure successful spawning and the larval release. PMID:25218941

  19. Seasonal variations in reproductive activity of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: Vitellogenin expression and levels of vitellogenin in the hemolymph during ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Thongda, Willawan; Chung, J Sook; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Zmora, Nilli; Katenta, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In general, season affects the physiology and behavior of most animals. Warmer temperatures accelerate growth and reproduction of ectotherms, whereas these processes are slowed or halted in colder temperatures. Female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay, exhibit a seasonal migratory behavior that is closely tied with spawning and the release of larvae. To better understand reproductive activities of the migratory adult females, we examined two reproductive parameters of these crabs sampled monthly (April-December, 2006): the levels of vitellogenin (VtG) in the hemolymph and VtG expression in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The full-length cDNA of VtG (CasVtG-ova) has been isolated from the ovary. The putative CasVtG sequence found in the ovary is >99% identical to that of the hepatopancreas and is related most closely to the sequences reported in other crab species. In female C. sapidus, the hepatopancreas produces over 99% of the total VtG toward the ovarian development. Ovarian stages 2 and 3 in the sampled females are characterized by significant high levels of VtG in hemolymph and VtG expression in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. However, during the southbound migration in fall, females at ovarian stages 2 and 3 have decreased VtG levels, compared to those in spring and summer. The decreased vitellogenesis activity during the fall migration suggests seasonal adaptation to ensure successful spawning and the larval release.

  20. Cumulus Cells Gene Expression Profiling in Terms of Oocyte Maturity in Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation Using GnRH Agonist or GnRH Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Devjak, Rok; Fon Tacer, Klementina; Juvan, Peter; Virant Klun, Irma; Rozman, Damjana; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda

    2012-01-01

    In in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is established by gonadotropins in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists or antagonists, to prevent premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The aim of our study was to improve the understanding of gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) in terms of ovarian stimulation protocol and oocyte maturity. We applied Affymetrix gene expression profiling in CC of oocytes at different maturation stages using either GnRH agonists or GnRH antagonists. Two analyses were performed: the first involved CC of immature metaphase I (MI) and mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes where 359 genes were differentially expressed, and the second involved the two GnRH analogues where no differentially expressed genes were observed at the entire transcriptome level. A further analysis of 359 differentially genes was performed, focusing on anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2 (AMHR2), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) and serine protease inhibitor E2 (SERPINE2). Among other differentially expressed genes we observed a marked number of new genes connected to cell adhesion and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glycine and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). No differential expression in CC between the two GnRH analogues supports the findings of clinical studies where no significant difference in live birth rates between both GnRH analogues has been proven. PMID:23082142

  1. Expression and activity of ovarian tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases during pseudopregnancy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nothnick, W B; Edwards, D R; Leco, K J; Curry, T E

    1995-09-01

    The present study examined the role of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in tissue remodeling that occurs during luteal development and regression throughout pseudopregnancy in the rat. Pseudopregnancy was induced in immature female rats by eCG/hCG priming. Animals (n = 4 per time point) were killed on Days 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 14, and 16 of pseudopregnancy (post hCG administration), and ovaries were removed and analyzed for metalloproteinase inhibitor activity or TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 mRNA expression. Inhibitory activity was highest in Day-1 samples (41.35 +/- 6.50 inhibitory units), and inhibitor activity significantly decreased (p < 0.05) thereafter to minimal values at Day 12 (8.14 +/- 2.71 inhibitory units). Methylamine hydrochloride treatment, which inactivates macroglobulin-type inhibitors, revealed that the majority of the inhibitor activity in the Day-1 samples (82.6%) and the Day-16 samples (77.3%) could be attributed to TIMPs. To further distinguish the contribution of each TIMP to this activity, Northern analysis for TIMP-1, -2, and -3 was performed. Analysis of TIMP mRNA expression revealed that TIMP-1 transcript expression was highest (p = 0.00009) at Day 1, decreased approximately 3- to 20-fold from Days 2 to 12, respectively, and again increased at Days 14-16. However, TIMP-2 expression did not change (p > 0.05) over any of the time points studied. In contrast to TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression, TIMP-3 mRNA expression was lowest during Days 1 and 2 of pseudopregnancy, increased approximately 4-fold at Day 4, peaked at Day 8, and remained elevated throughout the remainder of pseudopregnancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Toward gene therapy of premature ovarian failure: intraovarian injection of adenovirus expressing human FSH receptor restores folliculogenesis in FSHR(−/−) FORKO mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghadami, M.; El-Demerdash, E.; Salama, S.A.; Binhazim, A.A.; Archibong, A.E.; Chen, X.; Ballard, B.R.; Sairam, M.R.; Al-Hendy, A.

    2010-01-01

    A homozygous missense mutation, C566T, in the follicle stimulation hormone receptor (FSHR) gene has been linked to premature ovarian failure. The disease leads to infertility in a normal karyotype female with an elevated follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and decreased serum estrogen level. Female mice carrying mutated FSHR gene, called follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO), display similar phenotype and are sterile because of a folliculogenesis block at a primary stage. We investigated the effects of bilateral intra-ovarian injection of an adenovirus expressing a normal copy of human FSHR on the reproductive system of 6–10 weeks female FORKO mice. Ad-LacZ was injected directly into each ovary of the control group. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-injection and tissues collected for evaluation. Treated mice showed estrogenic changes in daily vaginal smear whereas control animals remained fixated in the diestrus stage. Histological evaluation showed on average 26 ± 4 follicles/ovary in treated group with 8 ± 2 follicles at the antral stage compared with only 5 ± 2 with zero follicles at antral stage in Ad-LacZ control mice. There was no significant change in serum level of progesterone, however, estrogen level increased 2–3-fold (P < 0.02) and FSH decreased by up to 50% (P < 0.04) in treated animals. FSHR mRNA was detected in the ovaries of the treated group. In conclusion, intra-ovarian injection of an adenovirus expressing human FSHR gene is able to restore FSH responsiveness and reinitiate ovarian folliculogenesis as well as resume estrogen production in female FORKO mice. Ad-LacZ injections indicate the absence of systemic viral dissemination or germ line transmission of adenovirus DNA to offspring. PMID:20086006

  3. Characterization and expression profile of the ovarian cytochrome P-450 aromatase (cyp19A1) gene during thermolabile sex determination in Pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karube, M.; Fernandino, J.I.; Strobl-Mazzulla, P.; Strussmann, C.A.; Yoshizaki, G.; Somoza, G.M.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (cyp19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens and may play a role in temperature- dependent sex determination (TSD) of reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In this study, the ovarian P450 aromatase form (cyp19A1) of pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis, a teleost with marked TSD, was cloned and its expression profile evaluated during gonadal differentiation at feminizing (17??C, 100% females), mixed-sex producing (24 and 25??C, 73.3 and 26.7% females, respectively), and masculinizing (29??C, 0% females) temperatures. The deduced cyp19A1 amino acid sequence shared high identity (>77.8%) with that from other teleosts but had low identity (<61.8%) with brain forms (cyp19A2), including that of pejerrey itself. The tissue distribution analysis of cyp19A1 mRNA in adult fish revealed high expression in the ovary. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of the bodies of larvae revealed that cyp19A1 expression increased before the appearance of the first histological signs of ovarian differentiation at the feminizing temperature but remained low at the masculinizing temperature. The expression levels at mixed-sex producing temperatures were bimodal rather than intermediate, showing low and high modal values similar to those at the feminizing and masculinizing temperatures, respectively. The population percentages of high and low expression levels at intermediate temperatures were proportional to the percentage of females and males, respectively, and high levels were first observed at about the time of sex differentiation of females. These results suggest that cyp19A1 is involved in the process of ovarian formation and possibly also in the TSD of pejerrey. ?? 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  5. Molecular characterization and expression of DERL1 in bovine ovarian follicles and corpora lutea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major site of protein synthesis and facilitates the folding and assembly of newly synthesized proteins. Misfolded proteins are retrotranslocated across the ER membrane and destroyed at the proteasome. DERL1 is an important protein involved in the retrotranslocation and degradation of a subset of misfolded proteins from the ER. We characterized a 2617 bp cDNA from bovine granulosa cells that corresponded to bovine DERL1. Two transcripts of 3 and 2.6 kb were detected by Northern blot analysis, and showed variations in expression among tissues. During follicular development, DERL1 expression was greater in day 5 dominant follicles compared to small follicles, ovulatory follicles, or corpus luteum (CL). Within the CL, DERL1 mRNA expression was intermediate in midcycle, and lowest in late cycle as compared to early in the estrous cycle. Western blot analyses demonstrated the presence of DERL1 in the bovine CL at days 5, 11, and 18 of the estrous cycle. Co-immunoprecipitation using luteal tissues showed that DERL1 interacts with class I MHC but not with VIMP or p97 ATPase. The interaction between DERL1 and MHC I suggests that, in the CL, DERL1 may regulate the integrity of MHC I molecules that are transported to the ER membrane. Furthermore, the greater expression of DERL1 mRNA is associated with the active follicular development and early luteal stages, suggesting a role of DERL1 in tissue remodeling events and maintenance of function in reproductive tissues. PMID:20682045

  6. Ovarian Steroids Increase PSD-95 Expression and Dendritic Spines in the Dorsal Raphe of Ovariectomized Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Bethea, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) promote spinogenesis in several brain areas. Intracellular signaling cascades that promote spinogenesis involve RhoGTPases, glutamate signaling and synapse assembly. We found that in serotonin neurons, E±P administration increases (a) gene and protein expression of RhoGTPases, (b) gene expression of glutamate receptors (c) gene expression of pivotal synapse assembly proteins. Therefore, in this study we determined whether structural changes in dendritic spines in the dorsal raphe follow the observed changes in gene and protein expression. Dendritic spines were examined with immunogold silver staining of a spine marker protein, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and with Golgi staining. In the PSD-95 study, adult Ovx monkeys received placebo, E, P, or E+P for 1 month (n=3/group). Sections were immunostained for PSD-95 and the number of PSD-95-positive puncta was determined with stereology. E, P and E+P treatment significantly increased the total number of PSD-95-positive puncta (ANOVA, P=0.04). In the Golgi study, adult Ovx monkeys received placebo, E or E+P for 1 month (n=3–4) and the midbrain was Golgi-stained. A total of 80 neurons were analyzed with Neurolucida software. There was a significant difference in spine density that depended on branch order (two-way ANOVA). E+P treatment significantly increased spine density in higher-order (3–5°) dendritic branches relative to Ovx group (Bonferroni, P<0.05). In summary, E+P leads to the elaboration of dendritic spines on dorsal raphe neurons. The ability of E to induce PSD-95, but not actual spines, suggests either a sampling or time lag issue. Increased spinogenesis on serotonin dendrites would facilitate excitatory glutamatergic input and, in turn, increase serotonin neurotransmission throughout the brain. PMID:23959764

  7. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... or if the cyst does not go away. Birth control pills can help prevent new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS can have high levels of male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian ...

  8. Oridonin effectively reverses cisplatin drug resistance in human ovarian cancer cells via induction of cell apoptosis and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shihong; Tan, Wenhua; Du, Botao; Liu, Wei; Li, Weijia; Che, Dehong; Zhang, Guangmei

    2016-04-01

    Cisplatin is a first generation platinum‑based chemotherapeutic agent, however, the extensive application of cisplatin inevitably results in drug resistance, which is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of reversing cisplatin‑resistance with the use of combination therapy with oridonin and cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cells, and attempt to reduce the side effects of the therapeutic agents when used alone. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of cisplatin were determined in cisplatin‑sensitive and cisplatin‑resistant ovarian cancer cells using an MTT assay. IC50 values of cisplatin in A2780, A2780/DDP, SKOV3 and SKOV3/DDP cells were significantly decreased in a time‑dependent manner. The antitumor effect of oridonin in A2780/DDP cells was also detected by the MTT assay and the inhibitory effects of oridonin increased in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. A2780/DDP cells were treated with 20 µM oridonin in combination with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for 48 h, and the result demonstrated that oridonin synergistically increased the antitumor effects of cisplatin in A2780/DDP cells. Notably, the combination treatment of oridonin and cisplatin effectively reversed cisplatin resistance and the IC50 values were significantly decreased from 50.97 µM and 135.20 to 26.12 µM and 73.00 µM in A2780/DDP and SKOV3/DDP cells at 48 h, respectively. Furthermore, oridonin induced cell apoptosis in a dose‑dependent manner and promoted cell‑cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in ovarian cancer cells. Oridonin and cisplatin synergistically increased the cell apoptosis rate of A2780/DDP cells, which was detected by fluorescence‑activated cell sorting analysis. Downregulated expression levels of Bcl‑2 and upregulated the expression of Bax protein were demonstrated by western blot analysis, further indicating increased apoptosis. In addition, the expression levels of

  9. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingbin; Li, Diyan; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Xiao, Qihai; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Artificial illumination is widely used in modern poultry houses and different wavelengths of light affect poultry production and behaviour. In this study, we measure mRNA and protein abundance of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in order to investigate the effect of monochromatic light on egg production traits and gonadal hormone function in chicken ovarian follicles. Five hundred and fifty-two 19-wk-old laying hens were exposed to three monochromatic lights: red (RL; 660 nm), green (GL; 560 nm), blue (BL; 480 nm) and control cool white (400-760 nm) light with an LED (light-emitting diode). There were 4 identical light-controlled rooms (n = 138) each containing 3 replicate pens (46 birds per pen). Water was supplied ad libitum and daily rations were determined according to the nutrient suggestions for poultry. Results showed that under BL conditions there was an increase in the total number of eggs at 300 days of age and egg-laying rate during the peak laying period. The BL and GL extended the duration of the peak laying period. Plasma melatonin was lowest in birds reared under BL. Plasma estradiol was elevated in the GL-exposed laying hens, and GL and BL increased progesterone at 28 wk of age. In the granulosa layers of the fifth largest preovulatory follicle (F5), the third largest preovulatory follicle (F3) and the largest preovulatory follicle (F1), ERα mRNA was increased by BL and GL. Treatment with BL increased ERβ mRNA in granulosa layers of F5, F3 and F1, while GL increased ERβ mRNA in F5 and F3. There was a corresponding increase in abundance of the proteins in the granulosa layers of F5, with an increase in PR-B, generated via an alternative splice site, relative to PR-A. Treatment with BL also increased expression of PR mRNA in all of the granulosa layers of follicles, while treatment with GL increased expression of PR mRNA in granulosa layers of SYF(small yellow follicle), F5 and F1. These results indicate that blue and green

  10. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Xiao, Qihai; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Artificial illumination is widely used in modern poultry houses and different wavelengths of light affect poultry production and behaviour. In this study, we measure mRNA and protein abundance of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in order to investigate the effect of monochromatic light on egg production traits and gonadal hormone function in chicken ovarian follicles. Five hundred and fifty-two 19-wk-old laying hens were exposed to three monochromatic lights: red (RL; 660 nm), green (GL; 560 nm), blue (BL; 480 nm) and control cool white (400–760 nm) light with an LED (light-emitting diode). There were 4 identical light-controlled rooms (n = 138) each containing 3 replicate pens (46 birds per pen). Water was supplied ad libitum and daily rations were determined according to the nutrient suggestions for poultry. Results showed that under BL conditions there was an increase in the total number of eggs at 300 days of age and egg-laying rate during the peak laying period. The BL and GL extended the duration of the peak laying period. Plasma melatonin was lowest in birds reared under BL. Plasma estradiol was elevated in the GL-exposed laying hens, and GL and BL increased progesterone at 28 wk of age. In the granulosa layers of the fifth largest preovulatory follicle (F5), the third largest preovulatory follicle (F3) and the largest preovulatory follicle (F1), ERα mRNA was increased by BL and GL. Treatment with BL increased ERβ mRNA in granulosa layers of F5, F3 and F1, while GL increased ERβ mRNA in F5 and F3. There was a corresponding increase in abundance of the proteins in the granulosa layers of F5, with an increase in PR-B, generated via an alternative splice site, relative to PR-A. Treatment with BL also increased expression of PR mRNA in all of the granulosa layers of follicles, while treatment with GL increased expression of PR mRNA in granulosa layers of SYF(small yellow follicle), F5 and F1. These results indicate that blue and

  11. Effect of benzophenone-1 and octylphenol on the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition via an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway in estrogen receptor expressing ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sam; Go, Ryeo-Eun; Kim, Cho-Won; Hwang, Kyung-A; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process in embryonic development and cancer progression and metastasis. EMT is influenced by 17β-estradiol (E2), an endogenous estrogen. Benzophenone-1 (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, BP-1) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) are suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) because they can exhibit estrogenic properties. In this study, we examined whether BP-1 and OP can lead to EMT of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs). A wound healing assay and western blot assay were conducted to show the effect of BP-1 and OP on the migration of BG-1 cells and protein expression of EMT-related genes. BP-1 (10(-6) M) and OP (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced the migration capability of BG-1 cells by reducing the wounded area in the cell monolayer relative to the control, similar to E2 (10(-9) M). However, when BG-1 cells were co-treated with ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, the uncovered area was maintained at the level of the control. N-cadherin, snail, and slug were increased by BP-1 and OP while E-cadherin was reduced compared to the control. However, this effect was also restored by co-treatment with ICI 182,780. Taken together, these results indicate that BP-1 and OP, the potential EDCs, may have the ability to induce ovarian cancer metastasis via regulation of the expression of EMT markers and migration of ER-expressing BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. PMID:27145024

  12. Prolonged ovarian hormone deprivation alters the effects of 17β-estradiol on microRNA expression in the aged female rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yathindar S; Shults, Cody L; Pinceti, Elena; Pak, Toni R

    2015-11-10

    Administration of 17β-estradiol (E2) has beneficial effects on cognitive function in peri- but not post-menopausal women, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related changes in E2 action remain unclear. We propose that there is a biological switch in E2 action that occurs coincident with age and length of time after ovarian hormone depletion, and we hypothesized that age-dependent regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be the molecular basis for that switch. Previously we showed that miRNAs are regulated by E2 in young compared to aged female rats. Here we tested whether increasing lengths of ovarian hormone deprivation in aged females altered E2 regulation of these mature miRNAs. In addition, we determined where along the miRNA biogenesis pathway E2 exerted its effects. Our results showed that age and increased lengths of ovarian hormone deprivation abolished the ability of E2 to regulate mature miRNA expression in the brain. Further, we show that E2 acted at specific points along the miRNA biogenesis pathway.

  13. The mechanism and significance of synergistic induction of the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by glucocorticoid and transforming growth factor beta in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-yu; Wang, Yan; Su, Jie; Huang, Gao-xiang; Cao, Dong-mei; Qu, Shen; Lu, Jian

    2015-05-15

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays a key role in tissue remodeling and tumor development by suppression of plasminogen activator function. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signal pathways cross-talk to regulate gene expression, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Here we investigated the mechanism and significance of co-regulation of PAI-1 by TGF-β and dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid in ovarian cancer cells. We found that TGF-β and DEX showed rapidly synergistic induction of PAI-1 expression, which contributed to the early pro-adhesion effects. The synergistic induction effect was accomplished by several signal pathways, including GC receptor (GR) pathway and TGF-β-activated p38MAPK, ERK and Smad3 pathways. TGF-β-activated p38MAPK and ERK pathways cross-talked with GR pathway to augment the expression of PAI-1 through enhancing DEX-induced GR phosphorylation at Ser211 in ovarian cancer cells. These findings reveal possible novel mechanisms by which TGF-β pathways cooperatively cross-talk with GR pathway to regulate gene expression.

  14. Molecular cloning of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) elongation factor 2 (EF-2): sequence analysis and its expression on the ovarian maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhou, Falin; Zhang, Dianchang; Huang, Jianhua; Guo, Yihui

    2008-09-01

    The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the elongation factor 2 (EF-2) gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The full length cDNA of black tiger shrimp EF-2 (btsEF-2) contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 73 bp, an ORF of 2541 bp encoding a polypeptide of 846 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 95 kDa, and a 3( UTR of 112 bp. The searches for protein sequence similarities with BLAST analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of btsEF-2 was homological to the EF-2 of other species and even the mammalians. The conserved signature sequence of EF-2 gene family, GTPase effector domain and ADP-ribosylation domain were found in the btsEF-2 deduced amino acid sequence. The temporal expressions of gene in the different ovarian stages were measured by real time PCR. The mRNA expressions of the gene were constitutively expressed in ovary and different during the maturation stages. The result indicated that EF-2 gene was constitutively expressed and could play a critical role in the ovarian maturation stage.

  15. Pivotal roles for hormonally regulated expression of the HEP21 gene in the reproductive tract of chickens for oviduct development and in ovarian carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lim, W; Song, G

    2014-07-01

    Hen egg protein (HEP21) is a 21-kDa secreted protein and has a single copy of the Ly6/uPAR domain. Although HEP21 is expressed primarily in the chicken oviduct, its biological function(s) in the reproductive system of chickens is not known. Thus, in the present study, we investigated expression patterns of HEP21 with respect to hormonal regulation, oviduct development, changes in expression in laying hens undergoing induced molting, and in the development of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens. Results of present study indicated that HEP21 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression increased (P < 0.001) in the chicken oviduct in response to estrogen. In situ hybridization analyses revealed expression of HEP21 mRNA predominantly in glandular (GE) and luminal epithelia of the magnum of the chicken oviduct in response to estrogen. The expression of HEP21 mRNA decreased (P < 0.001) as the oviduct regressed during induced molting and increased (P < 0.001) with recrudescence of the oviduct following molting. HEP21 mRNA was most abundant in GE of the oviduct during recrudescence, but not during oviduct regression following induced molting. Moreover, we found abundant expression of HEP21 in GE of cancerous ovaries, but not in normal ovaries of hens. Collectively, results of present study suggest that HEP21 is an estrogen-responsive gene in the oviduct of hens that likely regulates development of the chicken oviduct, and egg production and formation. Furthermore, there is increased expression of HEP21 in epithelial-derived ovarian cancer suggesting that HEP21 could be used for diagnosis and monitoring carcinogenesis in laying hens and in women. PMID:24906939

  16. A clinically applicable molecular classification for high-grade serous ovarian cancer based on hormone receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zheng; Wen, Hao; Bi, Rui; Ju, Xingzhu; Chen, Xiaojun; Yang, Wentao; Wu, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    To establish an effective hormone receptor-based molecular classification of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC), we retrospectively examined 875 consecutive HGSC patients who underwent primary surgery at our hospital and constructed tissue microarrays from these specimens. The expression levels of the hormone receptors were as follows: ER 64.4%, PR 12.6%, AR 35.6%, FSHR 54.5%, LHR 34.8%, and GnRHR 88.3%. Based on clustering of their expression patterns, we classified patients into five subgroups with distinctive clinical features (PR+, PR − ER + AR+, PR − ER + AR−, PR − ER − AR+, and PR − ER − AR−). Patients in the PR + group were younger compared to those in the other groups (p < 0.001). More patients were of advanced stage in the PR − ER + AR− group than the other groups (p = 0.020). A greater proportion of patients were sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy in the PR − ER − AR + group compared with the other groups (p = 0.034). A trend of increasing risk of death was observed among these subgroups (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, patients also had orderly increased hazard ratios for death in the PR + (HR = 2.256, 95% CI, 0.983–5.175), PR − ER + AR + (HR = 2.188, 95% CI, 1.004–4.796), PR − ER − AR− (HR = 2.316, 95% CI, 1.097–5.082) and PR − ER + AR− (HR = 2.928, 95% CI, 1.366–6.276) subgroups compared to the PR − ER − AR+ subgroup. Our classification could help predict patient clinical outcomes, guide individual treatments and stratify patients in future clinical trials. PMID:27139372

  17. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1)*

    PubMed Central

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S.; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted. PMID:26004777

  18. Effects of phenol on ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo and antioxidant metabolism in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumana; Majumder, Suravi; Gupta, Shreyasi; Dutta, Sharmistha; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cyp19a mRNA expression and P450 aromatase activity were measured in vivo in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to phenol for 96 h. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and parameters of antioxidant defense system in serum ovary and liver of this fish after long-term phenol exposure were also studied. In vivo exposure of fish to sublethal dose of phenol for 96 h caused marked attenuation of ovarian cyp19a1a gene expression and P450 aromatase activity. Production of ROS like hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in serum, liver and ovary in fish exposed to phenol for 15 days elevated significantly from day 1 to day 7 with no further significant increase thereafter compared to their respective control values. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in serum and ovary decreased gradually and significantly from day 1 to day 4, which then increased significantly for the rest of the exposure days. Liver SOD activity seemed to be distinctly responsive to phenol. SOD activity in liver of phenol-exposed fish started to increase gradually from day 1 to 4 with no further increase thereafter. Catalase activities in all the tissues showed significant inhibition up to day 4 which then increased gradually and significantly up to day 15 of phenol exposure compared to their respective control values. From our results, it appears that sublethal dose of phenol has the endocrine disruptive potential and effect is mediated via inhibition of ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo. Sublethal dose of phenol also caused oxidative stress, and antioxidant systems are very much effective to prevent the damages caused by the generation of ROS.

  19. Targeted genome-wide methylation and gene expression analyses reveal signaling pathways involved in ovarian dysfunction after developmental EDC exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2013-02-01

    Transient exposure to methoxychlor (MXC), an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical, during fetal and neonatal stages causes ovarian dysfunction in pubertal, adult, and aging animals. Adult animals have reduced number of ovulations and abnormal follicular composition associated with altered gene expression and DNA methylation patterns. To test the hypothesis that the ovarian epigenomic changes induced by MXC are detectable following the exposure period, leading to altered gene expression by adulthood, we conducted a targeted genome-wide methylation study using Nimblegen 3x720K CpG Island Plus RefSeq Promoter Arrays. Control (vehicle), low-dose MXC (20 μg/kg/day), or high-dose MXC (100 mg/kg/day) treatments were administered between Embryonic Day 19 and Postnatal Day (PND) 7. Ovaries were collected at PND 7 immediately after exposure or at adulthood, PND 60. Array hybridizations were conducted with genomic DNA after methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and the array data were analyzed. DNA methylation events were functionally annotated, and candidate loci common to all the treatments or unique to some treatments were identified. Specific loci encoding signaling molecules such as the regulatory subunit p85 of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene, insulin receptor, and forkhead box protein O3 were identified to be hypermethylated in MXC-treated ovaries at PND 7 and/or PND 60. Examination of gene expression changes with TaqMan low-density arrays revealed that nearly 25% of the genes that were assayed were downregulated. These data demonstrate that key molecules in specific signaling pathways such as PTEN signaling, IGF-1 signaling, or rapid estrogen signaling are epigenetically altered in MXC-exposed ovaries, which is associated with ovarian dysfunction and female infertility.

  20. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1).

    PubMed

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2015-07-10

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted.

  1. Comparative gene expression profiling in human cumulus cells according to ovarian gonadotropin treatments.

    PubMed

    Assou, Said; Haouzi, Delphine; Dechaud, Hervé; Gala, Anna; Ferrières, Alice; Hamamah, Samir

    2013-01-01

    In in vitro fertilization cycles, both HP-hMG and rFSH gonadotropin treatments are widely used to control human follicle development. The objectives of this study are (i) to characterize and compare gene expression profiles in cumulus cells (CCs) of periovulatory follicles obtained from patients stimulated with HP-hMG or rFSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle and (ii) to examine their relationship with in vitro embryo development, using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Genes that were upregulated in HP-hMG-treated CCs are involved in lipid metabolism (GM2A) and cell-to-cell interactions (GJA5). Conversely, genes upregulated in rFSH-treated CCs are implicated in cell assembly and organization (COL1A1 and COL3A1). Interestingly, some genes specific to each gonadotropin treatment (NPY1R and GM2A for HP-hMG; GREM1 and OSBPL6 for rFSH) were associated with day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst grade at day 5, while others (STC2 and PTX3) were related to in vitro embryo quality in both gonadotropin treatments. These genes may prove valuable as biomarkers of in vitro embryo quality. PMID:24151596

  2. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ovarian Cancer Patient Education FAQs Ovarian Cancer Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Ovarian Cancer FAQ096, April 2015 PDF Format Ovarian ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  3. The mouse ovarian surface epithelium contains a population of LY6A (SCA-1) expressing progenitor cells that are regulated by ovulation-associated factors.

    PubMed

    Gamwell, Lisa F; Collins, Olga; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2012-10-01

    The ovarian surface epithelium, a single layer of poorly differentiated epithelial cells, covers the surface of the ovary and is ruptured during ovulation. Little is known about the changes that occur in this layer before or during ovulation, and even less is known about the regenerative processes that occur after the surface is ruptured to release a mature oocyte. Recently, a population of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells that exhibit progenitor/stem cell characteristics has been identified, though neither a genetic marker nor how these cells are regulated has been determined. We have identified a defined population of MOSE cells with progenitor cell characteristics that express the stem cell marker lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A (LY6A; also known as stem cell antigen-1 [SCA-1]). By testing the effect of factors found in the follicular fluid at ovulation on proliferation, sphere formation, and LY6A expression, we have determined that the size of the LY6A-expressing (LY6A+) progenitor cell population is regulated by at least two ovulation-associated factors present in the follicular fluid: transforming growth factor beta 1 and leukemia-inhibitory factor. Our work has identified a population of LY6A+ MOSE progenitor cells on the surface of the ovary that may play a role in ovulatory wound healing.

  4. Expression and localization of ghrelin and its receptor in ovarian follicles during different stages of development and the modulatory effect of ghrelin on granulosa cells function in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a hormone predominantly found in the stomach, was recently described as a factor that controls female reproductive function. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression and localization of ghrelin and its active receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) in buffalo ovarian follicles of different follicular size and to investigate role of ghrelin on estradiol (E2) secretion, aromatase (CYP19A1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and apoptosis regulator Bax gene expression on granulosa cell culture. Using real time PCR and western blot, we measured gene and protein expression of examined factors. Localization was done with immunofluorescence method. Expression of ghrelin increased with follicle size with significantly highest in dominant or pre-ovulatory follicle (P<0.05). Expression of GHS-R1a was comparable in medium and large follicle but was higher than small follicles (P<0.05). Both the factors were localized in granulosa and theca cells. Pattern of intensity of immunofluorescence was similar with mRNA and protein expression. In the in vitro study granulosa cells (GCs) were cultured and treated with ghrelin each at 1, 10 and 100ng/ml concentrations for two days after obtaining 75-80 per cent confluence. Ghrelin treatment significantly (P<0.05) inhibited E2 secretion, CYP19A1 expression, apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation. In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence for the presence of ghrelin and receptor GHS-R1a in ovarian follilcles and modulatory role of ghrelin on granulosa cell function in buffalo.

  5. Carbohydrate antigen expression in primary tumors, metastatic lesions, and serous effusions from patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma: evidence of up-regulated Tn and Sialyl Tn antigen expression in effusions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, B; Berner, A; Nesland, J M; Risberg, B; Kristensen, G B; Tropé, C G; Bryne, M

    2000-09-01

    The object of this study was the investigation of carbohydrate antigen expression in malignant epithelial cells and benign mesothelial cells in serous effusions from patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinomas. In addition, to compare antigen expression in carcinoma cells in effusions with those of corresponding primary tumors and metastatic lesions. Sections from 63 malignant effusions from ovarian carcinoma patients and 15 reactive effusions were immunohistochemically stained, using 5 monoclonal antibodies for Lewis(y), Sialyl Lewis(x), Tn, and Sialyl Tn antigens. Tissue sections (n = 97) from corresponding primary ovarian carcinomas and metastatic lesions, as well as from 12 malignant mesotheliomas, were additionally stained using the above panel. Staining for the 4 antigens was seen in carcinoma cells in serous effusions in the majority of cases (range = 71% to 85%). In contrast, immunoreactivity was detected in mesothelial cells in only 6% to 23% of the specimens studied (P < .001 for all 5 markers). With the exception of B3 antibody against Lewis(y) antigen, malignant mesotheliomas stained negative, infrequently showing focal immunoreactivity. An up-regulation of Tn and Sialyl Tn expression was detected in carcinoma cells in effusions when compared with both primary tumors (P < .003 and P < .007, respectively) and metastatic lesions (P < .034 and .041, respectively). Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens can thus be used as an adjunct in the differentiation between malignant epithelial and reactive mesothelial cells. Ovarian carcinoma cells in effusions show up-regulation of Tn and Sialyl Tn, possibly representing a transient phenotypic alteration facilitating metastasis. PMID:11014575

  6. Ovarian hypofunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by genetic factors such as chromosome abnormalities. It may also occur with certain autoimmune disorders that disrupt the normal function of the ovaries. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also cause ovarian hypofunction.

  7. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Endometriosis fact sheet Ovarian cancer fact sheet Polycystic ovary syndrome fact sheet The javascript used in this widget ... ovaries make many small cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries ...

  8. Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Human Colorectal Adenoma and Carcinoma Using Specified Automated Cellular Image Analysis System: A Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban Jumaa; Ali, Hussam Hasson; Hussein, Alaa Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma and to correlate this immunohistochemical expression with different clinicopathological parameters. Methods The study was retrospectively designed. A total of 86 tissue samples, including 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenomas, 33 paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas and a control group of 20 samples of non-tumorous colonic tissue, were included in the study. Results The frequency of expression of ER and PR showed a gradual increase from control through adenoma to carcinoma. The frequencies of expression of ER in the control, adenoma and carcinoma were (10%, 15.15% and 42.42% respectively, p<0.001), while the frequency of expression for PR were (10%, 24.24% and 36.36% respectively, p<0.001). Strong ER and PR staining was mainly seen in carcinoma cases (42.42%, 36.36%, respectively) in comparison with adenoma (9.09%, 15.15%, respectively) and control (0%, 0%, respectively). The three digital parameters of ER and PR immunohistochemical expression (Area [A], Number of objects [N], and intensity [I]) were significantly increased in a sequence of normal mucosa-adenoma-carcinoma. There was a significant positive correlation between ER and PR in adenoma (r=0.312, p=0.034) and carcinoma (r=0.321, p=0.0398). Conclusion ER and PR expression increased in a sequence of; normal colonic mucosa-adenoma-carcinoma, and a positive correlation was observed between ER and PR expression in colonic adenoma and carcinoma specimen indicating that ER and PR may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:22125723

  9. RPS2, an Arabidopsis disease resistance locus specifying recognition of Pseudomonas syringae strains expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2.

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, B N; Bent, A F; Dahlbeck, D; Innes, R W; Staskawicz, B J

    1993-01-01

    A molecular genetic approach was used to identify and characterize plant genes that control bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis. A screen for mutants with altered resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2 resulted in the isolation of four susceptible rps (resistance to P. syringae) mutants. The rps mutants lost resistance specifically to bacterial strains expressing avrRpt2 as they retained resistance to Pst strains expressing the avirulence genes avrB or avrRpm1. Genetic analysis indicated that in each of the four rps mutants, susceptibility was due to a single mutation mapping to the same locus on chromosome 4. Identification of a resistance locus with specificity for a single bacterial avirulence gene suggests that this locus, designated RPS2, controls specific recognition of bacteria expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2. Ecotype Wü-0, a naturally occurring line that is susceptible to Pst strains expressing avrRpt2, appears to lack a functional allele at RPS2, demonstrating that there is natural variation at the RPS2 locus among wild populations of Arabidopsis. PMID:8400869

  10. DNA methylation status of cyp17-II gene correlated with its expression pattern and reproductive endocrinology during ovarian development stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Ding, YuXia; He, Feng; Wen, HaiShen; Li, JiFang; Ni, Meng; Chi, MeiLi; Qian, Kun; Bu, Yan; Zhang, DongQian; Si, YuFeng; Zhao, JunLi

    2013-09-15

    Cytochrome P450c17-II (cyp17-II, 17α-hydroxylase) is responsible for the production of steroid hormones during oocyte maturation in vertebrates. The comparative expression pattern of cyp17-II gene during the gonadal development stages will provide important insights into its function of gonadal development. In addition, epigenetic modification especially DNA methylation plays a vital role in regulation of gene expression. The adult female Japanese flounder at different ovarian development stage (from stages II to V) was obtained in this experiment. The expression of cyp17-II gene in the ovary of Japanese flounder during the gonadal development stages was measured by quantitative PCR. Reproductive traits included gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) were also measured. Moreover, whole CpG dinucleotides methylation status of the two CpG rich regions in cyp17-II coding region was detected by bisulfate sequencing. In the ovary, the cyp17-II gene had the lowest mRNA expression at the early ovarian development stage, but then increased afterward. The variation trends of T and E2 level were consistent with the cyp17-II expression pattern in ovary. In contrast, the whole methylation levels of each CpG rich region (exon 4 and 6) in cyp17-II coding region were declined from stages II to IV, then increased at stage V. The methylation levels of whole CpG sites in each CpG rich region were inversely correlated with the values of ovarian cyp17-II gene expression, T and E2 level, and GSI. Based on the present study, we proposed that cyp17-II may regulate the level of steroid hormone, and then stimulate the oocyte growth and maturation. The cyp17-II gene transcriptional activity was possibly affected by the methylation level of CpG rich regions in coding region. These findings will help in the study of the molecular mechanism of fish reproduction and endocrine physiology.

  11. Intact PTEN Expression by Immunohistochemistry is Associated With Decreased Survival in Advanced Stage Ovarian/Primary Peritoneal High-grade Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bakkar, Rania M; Xie, Su-Su; Urbauer, Diana L; Djordjevic, Bojana; Vu, Kim; Broaddus, Russell R

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Optimal surgical debulking and tumor sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy are 2 well-established prognostics for this tumor type. Molecular markers that identify more clinically aggressive tumors would potentially allow for the development of individualized treatment options. PTEN is a key negative regulator of the PI3K signaling pathway. Loss of PTEN expression in endometrial carcinoma is associated with endometrioid histology; women with endometrioid tumors have a better prognosis than those with nonendometrioid tumors. The prognostic and predictive value for PTEN has not been effectively explored in ovarian/peritoneal high-grade serous carcinoma. PTEN immunohistochemistry was assessed in 126 women with Stage III, high-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary/peritoneum treated with surgery and then a platinum-based regimen. Compared with PTEN-negative or PTEN-reduced tumors, positive PTEN immunohistochemistry, detected in 58% of tumors, was associated with decreased pS6 and increased PTEN mRNA levels. Positive PTEN expression was independent of surgical debulking status or platinum sensitivity. PTEN-positive tumors were associated with significantly decreased recurrence-free survival. Importantly, the devised PTEN immunohistochemistry scoring system was reproducible among pathologists.

  12. Pattern of tissue expression of CA-125 and HE4 in primary epithelial ovarian tumours and correlation with serum CA-125 levels.

    PubMed

    Devan, Shobana Mukunda; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Sthaneshwar, Pavai; Narayanan, Vallikkanu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess tissue expression of CA-125 and HE4 protein in primary benign and malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary and correlate with serum CA-125 levels. A total of 100 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded sections of ovarian tumours which included serous adenoma (11), mucinous adenoma (42), serous carcinoma (20), mucinous carcinoma (12) and endometrioid carcinoma (15), histologically diagnosed between 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2012 at the University Malaya Medical Centre, were stained for HE4 (rabbit polyclonal antibody, Abcam, UK) and CA-125 (mouse monoclonal antibody clone: OC125, Cell Marque Corporation, Rocklin, California, USA). Pre-operative serum CA-125 levels were obtained from the laboratory information system. Immunoscore (I score) for HE4 and CA-125 was given based on the intensity of staining and percentage of positive tumour cells and considered significant when it was >50 (intensity of staining multiplied by percentage of positive tumour cells). Serum CA-125 levels were compared with the I score of HE4 and CA-125 in tissues. We noted that the CA-125 levels in serum and tissues were significantly raised in malignant compared to benign ovarian tumours (p value<0.05). Tissue expression of HE4 protein was also significantly raised in malignant tumours compared to benign tumours (p value<0.05). We conclude that HE4 can be a useful tissue immunomarker in addition to CA-125.

  13. Avian SERPINB12 expression in the avian oviduct is regulated by estrogen and up-regulated in epithelial cell-derived ovarian carcinomas of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jo, Gahee; Lim, Whasun; Bae, Seung-Min; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2014-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs) are involved in a variety of biological processes such as blood clotting, angiogenesis, immune system, and embryogenesis. Although, of these, SERPINB12 is identified as the latest member of clade B in humans, little is known of it in chickens. Thus, in this study, we investigated SERPINB12 expression profiles in various tissues of chickens and focused on effects of steroid hormone regulation of its expression. In the chicken oviduct, SERPINB12 mRNA and protein are abundant in the luminal (LE) and glandular (GE) epithelia of the magnum in response to endogenous or exogenous estrogen. Furthermore, SERPINB12 mRNA and protein increase significantly in GE of cancerous ovaries of laying hens with epithelia-derived ovarian cancer. Collectively, these results indicate that SERPINB12 is a novel estrogen-stimulated gene that is up-regulated by estrogen in epithelial cells of the chicken oviduct and that it is a potential biomarker for early detection of ovarian carcinomas in laying hens and women. PMID:25020046

  14. Maternal Low-protein Diet Alters Ovarian Expression of Folliculogenic and Steroidogenic Genes and Their Regulatory MicroRNAs in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Shiyan; Jia, Yimin; He, Bin; Li, Runsheng; Li, Xian; Cai, Demin; Song, Haogang; Zhang, Rongkui; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy may give rise to female offspring with disrupted ovary functions in adult age. Neonatal ovary development predisposes adult ovary function, yet the effect of maternal nutrition on the neonatal ovary has not been described. Therefore, here we show the impact of maternal protein restriction on the expression of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes, their regulatory microRNAs and promoter DNA methylation in the ovary of neonatal piglets. Sows were fed either standard-protein (SP, 15% crude protein) or low-protein (LP, 7.5% crude protein) diets throughout gestation. Female piglets born to LP sows showed significantly decreased ovary weight relative to body weight (p<0.05) at birth, which was accompanied with an increased serum estradiol level (p<0.05). The LP piglets demonstrated higher ratio of bcl-2 associated X protein/B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 mRNA (p<0.01), which was associated with up-regulated mRNA expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) (p<0.05) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (p<0.05). The steroidogenic gene, cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in LP piglets. The alterations in ovarian gene expression were associated with a significant down-regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mRNA expression (p<0.05) in LP piglets. Moreover, three microRNAs, including miR-423-5p targeting both CYP19A1 and PCNA, miR-378 targeting CYP19A1 and miR-210 targeting BMP4, were significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in the ovary of LP piglets. These results suggest that microRNAs are involved in mediating the effect of maternal protein restriction on ovarian function through regulating the expression of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes in newborn piglets. PMID:25358362

  15. Treatment of BG-1 Ovarian Cancer Cells Expressing Estrogen Receptors with Lambda-cyhalothrin and Cypermethrin Caused a Partial Estrogenicity Via an Estrogen Receptor-dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cho-Won; Go, Ryeo-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are the most common pesticides which are recently used for indoor pest control. The widespread use of SPs has resulted in the increased exposure to wild animals and humans. Recently, some SPs are suspected as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and have been assessed for their potential estrogenicity by adopting various analyzing assays. In this study, we examined the estrogenic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin (LC) and cypermethrin (CP), the most commonly used pesticides in Korea, using BG-1 ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs). To evaluate the estrogenic activities of two SPs, LC and CP, we employed MTT assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in LC or CP treated BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. In MTT assay, LC (10−6 M) and CP (10−5 M) significantly induced the growth of BG-1 cancer cells. LC or CP-induced cell growth was antagonized by addition of ICI 182,720 (10−8 M), an ER antagonist, suggesting that this effect appears to be mediated by an ER-dependent manner. Moreover, RT-PCR results showed that transcriptional level of cyclin D1, a cell cycle-regulating gene, was significantly up-regulated by LC and CP, while these effects were reversed by co-treatment of ICI 182,780. However, p21, a cyclin D-ckd-4 inhibitor gene, was not altered by LC or CP. Moreover, ERα expression was not significantly changed by LC and CP, while downregulated by E2. Finally, in xenografted mouse model transplanted with human BG-1 ovarian cancer cells, E2 significantly increased the tumor volume compare to a negative control, but LC did not. Taken together, these results suggest that LC and CP may possess estrogenic potentials by stimulating the growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells via partially ER signaling pathway associated with cell cycle as did E2, but this estrogenic effect was not found in in vivo mouse model. PMID:26877835

  16. Uterine progesterone receptor expression, conceptus development, and ovarian function in pigs treated with RU 486 during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Daniel J; Sellner, Erin M; Green, Jacob C; Okamura, Carol S; Anderson, Lloyd L; Lucy, Matthew C; Geisert, Rodney D

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of pregnancy in the pig depends on down-regulation of progesterone receptor (PGR) in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during the first week after breeding. The present study evaluated the regulation of endometrial PGR by progesterone and the possible role of endometrial tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB) activation in PGR expression. Mature, cycling gilts were inseminated (Day 0) and assigned to either untreated control (n = 9) or one of two treatments that employed RU 486 to block progesterone action either before (treatment 1 [T1]) or after (treatment 2 [T2]) the initiation of PGR down-regulation. The T1 gilts were treated with RU 486 (400 mg/day) on Days 3-5 of pregnancy (n = 9), and T2 gilts were treated with RU 486 on Days 6 and 7 of pregnancy (n = 9). Uteri and ovaries were collected on Day 8 or 12 of gestation. The diameter of the conceptuses in T1 gilts was approximately half that in controls by Day 8, and normal conceptuses were not collected from any T1 gilts on Day 12. Endometrial PGR mRNA was more abundant in T1 and T2 gilts compared with control gilts. The PGR-B protein decreased from Day 8 to Day 12 in the luminal epithelium and, to some extent, in superficial glandular epithelium in control and T2 gilts. In T1 gilts, the PGR-B protein remained elevated (i.e., failed to undergo down-regulation) on Day 12. Blocking PGR action early in the cycle (i.e., on or before Day 5), therefore, prevented normal conceptus development, caused elevated PGR mRNA, and prevented the decrease in PGR protein that typically occurs in pigs. We could not confirm a role for NFKB activation in PGR down-regulation, because pigs with extreme differences in PGR and TNFSF11 expression (T1 and controls) had similar NFKB activation on Day 8. Activated NFKB within the luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium (both superficial and deep) was observed in T2 and control pigs on Day 12 when

  17. A distal 594 bp ECR specifies Hmx1 expression in pinna and lateral facial morphogenesis and is regulated by the Hox-Pbx-Meis complex.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Jessica M; Li, Wenjie; Cox, Liza L; Rolfe, Sara M; Latorre, Victor; Akiyama, Jennifer A; Visel, Axel; Kuramoto, Takashi; Bobola, Nicoletta; Turner, Eric E; Cox, Timothy C

    2016-07-15

    Hmx1 encodes a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing lateral craniofacial mesenchyme, retina and sensory ganglia. Mutation or mis-regulation of Hmx1 underlies malformations of the eye and external ear in multiple species. Deletion or insertional duplication of an evolutionarily conserved region (ECR) downstream of Hmx1 has recently been described in rat and cow, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the impact of Hmx1 loss is greater than previously appreciated, with a variety of lateral cranioskeletal defects, auriculofacial nerve deficits, and duplication of the caudal region of the external ear. Using a transgenic approach, we demonstrate that a 594 bp sequence encompassing the ECR recapitulates specific aspects of the endogenous Hmx1 lateral facial expression pattern. Moreover, we show that Hoxa2, Meis and Pbx proteins act cooperatively on the ECR, via a core 32 bp sequence, to regulate Hmx1 expression. These studies highlight the conserved role for Hmx1 in BA2-derived tissues and provide an entry point for improved understanding of the causes of the frequent lateral facial birth defects in humans. PMID:27287804

  18. Treatment of HER2-Expressing Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cells With Alpha Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Trastuzumab

    SciTech Connect

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Krogh, Cecilie; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Larsen, Asmund; Dahle, Jostein

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of low-dose-rate alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-DOTA-trastuzumab ({sup 227}Th-trastuzumab [where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]) internalized by breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in order to assess the potential of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancers that overexpress the HER2 oncogene. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival and cell growth rates of breast cancer cells treated with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab were compared with rates of cells treated with nonbinding {sup 227}Th-rituximab, cold trastuzumab, and X-radiation. Cell growth experiments were also performed with ovarian cancer cells. Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at several time points, and the mean radiation dose to cells was calculated. Results: SKBR-3 cells got 50% of the mean absorbed radiation dose from internalized activity and 50% from cell surface-bound activity, while BT-474 and SKOV-3 cells got 75% radiation dose from internalized activity and 25% from cell surface-bound activity. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 2.5 kBq/ml {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab for 1 h at 4{sup o}C, followed by washing, resulted in mean absorbed radiation doses of 2 to 2.5 Gy. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis were induced in all cell lines. Conclusions: Clinically relevant activity concentrations of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab induced a specific cytotoxic effect in three HER2-expressing cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab was higher than that of single-dose X-radiation (relative biological effectiveness = 1.2). These results warrant further studies of treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab.

  19. Ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Matulonis, Ursula A; Sood, Anil K; Fallowfield, Lesley; Howitt, Brooke E; Sehouli, Jalid; Karlan, Beth Y

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is not a single disease and can be subdivided into at least five different histological subtypes that have different identifiable risk factors, cells of origin, molecular compositions, clinical features and treatments. Ovarian cancer is a global problem, is typically diagnosed at a late stage and has no effective screening strategy. Standard treatments for newly diagnosed cancer consist of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. In recurrent cancer, chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors are used, and immunological therapies are currently being tested. High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most commonly diagnosed form of ovarian cancer and at diagnosis is typically very responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. However, in addition to the other histologies, HGSCs frequently relapse and become increasingly resistant to chemotherapy. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms underlying platinum resistance and finding ways to overcome them are active areas of study in ovarian cancer. Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that are associated with a high risk of ovarian cancer (such as BRCA1 and BRCA2), as well as a precursor lesion of HGSC called serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, which holds promise for identifying individuals at high risk of developing the disease and for developing prevention strategies. PMID:27558151

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of the vitellogenin gene and its correlation with ovarian development in an invasive pest Octodonta nipae on two host plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Lei; Tang, Bao-Zhen; Hou, You-Ming; Xie, Yi-Xing

    2016-10-01

    There is an ongoing relationship between host plants and herbivores. The nutrient substances and secondary compounds found in the host plant can not only impact the growth and development process of herbivores, but, more importantly, may also affect their survival and reproductive fitness. Vitellogenesis is the core process of reproductive regulation and is generally considered as a reliable indicator for evaluating the degree of ovarian development in females. Vitellogenin (Vg) plays a critical role in the synthesis and secretion of yolk protein. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the Vg gene in an alien invasive species, the nipa palm hispid beetle Octodonta nipae Maulik (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (OnVg) was cloned and, the effect of host plant on the OnVg expression level and ovarian development was investigated. The results revealed that the OnVg was highly and exclusively expressed in adult females, but barely detectable in larvae, pupae and adult males. The relative expression level of OnVg and egg hatchability were much higher in females fed on Phoenix canariensis (their preferred host) than those fed on Phoenix roebelenii. A positive correlation relationship between OnVg expression and egg hatchability was also detected. Additionally, the anatomy of the female reproductive system showed that the ovaries of individuals fed on P. canariensis were considerably more developed than in females fed on P. roebelenii. The results may be applicable to many pest management situations through reproductive disturbance by alternating host plant species or varieties or by reproductive regulation through vitellogenesis mediated by specific endocrine hormones. PMID:27215940

  1. Low Concentrations of o,p’-DDT Inhibit Gene Expression and Prostaglandin Synthesis by Estrogen Receptor-Independent Mechanism in Rat Ovarian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Meirong; Zhuang, Shulin; Yang, Yan; Yang, Ye; Liu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    o,p’-DDT is an infamous xenoestrogen as well as a ubiquitous and persistent pollutant. Biomonitoring studies show that women have been internally exposed to o,p’-DDT at range of 0.3–500 ng/g (8.46×10−10 M−1.41×10−6 M) in blood and other tissues. However, very limited studies have investigated the biological effects and mechanism(s) of o,p’-DDT at levels equal to or lower than current exposure levels in human. In this study, using primary cultures of rat ovarian granulosa cells, we determined that very low doses of o,p’-DDT (10−12−10−8 M) suppressed the expression of ovarian genes and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In vivo experiments consistently demonstrated that o,p’-DDT at 0.5–1 mg/kg inhibited the gene expression and PGE2 levels in rat ovary. The surprising results from the receptor inhibitors studies showed that these inhibitory effects were exerted independently of either classical estrogen receptors (ERs) or G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). Instead, o,p’-DDT altered gene expression or hormone action via inhibiting the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), rather than protein kinase C (PKC). We further revealed that o,p’-DDT directly interfered with the PKA catalytic subunit. Our novel findings support the hypothesis that exposure to low concentrations of o,p’-DDT alters gene expression and hormone synthesis through signaling mediators beyond receptor binding, and imply that the current exposure levels of o,p’-DDT observed in the population likely poses a health risk to female reproduction. PMID:23209616

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of the vitellogenin gene and its correlation with ovarian development in an invasive pest Octodonta nipae on two host plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Lei; Tang, Bao-Zhen; Hou, You-Ming; Xie, Yi-Xing

    2016-10-01

    There is an ongoing relationship between host plants and herbivores. The nutrient substances and secondary compounds found in the host plant can not only impact the growth and development process of herbivores, but, more importantly, may also affect their survival and reproductive fitness. Vitellogenesis is the core process of reproductive regulation and is generally considered as a reliable indicator for evaluating the degree of ovarian development in females. Vitellogenin (Vg) plays a critical role in the synthesis and secretion of yolk protein. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the Vg gene in an alien invasive species, the nipa palm hispid beetle Octodonta nipae Maulik (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (OnVg) was cloned and, the effect of host plant on the OnVg expression level and ovarian development was investigated. The results revealed that the OnVg was highly and exclusively expressed in adult females, but barely detectable in larvae, pupae and adult males. The relative expression level of OnVg and egg hatchability were much higher in females fed on Phoenix canariensis (their preferred host) than those fed on Phoenix roebelenii. A positive correlation relationship between OnVg expression and egg hatchability was also detected. Additionally, the anatomy of the female reproductive system showed that the ovaries of individuals fed on P. canariensis were considerably more developed than in females fed on P. roebelenii. The results may be applicable to many pest management situations through reproductive disturbance by alternating host plant species or varieties or by reproductive regulation through vitellogenesis mediated by specific endocrine hormones.

  3. Ovarian Kaleidoscope database: ten years and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Aaron J; Rauch, Rami

    2012-06-01

    Ovarian Kaleidoscope database (OKdb) is an online, searchable, public database containing text-based and DNA microarray data to facilitate research by ovarian researchers. Using key words and predetermined categories, users can search ovarian gene information based on gene function, cell type of expression, cellular localization, hormonal regulation, mutant phenotypes, chromosomal location, ligand-receptor relationship, and other criteria, either alone or in combination. For individual genes, users can access more than 10 extensive DNA microarray datasets to interrogate gene expression patterns in a development-specific and cell type-specific manner. All ligand and receptor genes expressed in the ovary are matched to facilitate investigation of paracrine/autocrine signaling. More than 3500 ovarian genes in the database are matched to 185 gene pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes to allow for elucidation of gene interactions and relationships. In addition to >400 genes with infertility or subfertility phenotypes when mutated in mice or humans, the OKdb also lists ~50 and ~40 genes associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency, respectively. The expanding OKdb is updated weekly and allows submission of new genes by ovarian researchers to allow instant access to DNA microarray datasets for newly submitted genes. The present database is a virtual community for ovarian researchers and allows users to instantaneously provide their comments for individual gene pages based on an automated Web-discussion system. In the coming years, we will continue to add new features to serve the ovarian research community. PMID:22441797

  4. Molecular phenotype of zebrafish ovarian follicle by serial analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiling, and comparison with the transcriptomes of other animals

    PubMed Central

    Knoll-Gellida, Anja; André, Michèle; Gattegno, Tamar; Forgue, Jean; Admon, Arie; Babin, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    Background The ability of an oocyte to develop into a viable embryo depends on the accumulation of specific maternal information and molecules, such as RNAs and proteins. A serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was carried out in parallel with proteomic analysis on fully-grown ovarian follicles from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The data obtained were compared with ovary/follicle/egg molecular phenotypes of other animals, published or available in public sequence databases. Results Sequencing of 27,486 SAGE tags identified 11,399 different ones, including 3,329 tags with an occurrence superior to one. Fifty-eight genes were expressed at over 0.15% of the total population and represented 17.34% of the mRNA population identified. The three most expressed transcripts were a rhamnose-binding lectin, beta-actin 2, and a transcribed locus similar to the H2B histone family. Comparison with the large-scale expressed sequence tags sequencing approach revealed highly expressed transcripts that were not previously known to be expressed at high levels in fish ovaries, like the short-sized polarized metallothionein 2 transcript. A higher sensitivity for the detection of transcripts with a characterized maternal genetic contribution was also demonstrated compared to large-scale sequencing of cDNA libraries. Ferritin heavy polypeptide 1, heat shock protein 90-beta, lactate dehydrogenase B4, beta-actin isoforms, tubulin beta 2, ATP synthase subunit 9, together with 40 S ribosomal protein S27a, were common highly-expressed transcripts of vertebrate ovary/unfertilized egg. Comparison of transcriptome and proteome data revealed that transcript levels provide little predictive value with respect to the extent of protein abundance. All the proteins identified by proteomic analysis of fully-grown zebrafish follicles had at least one transcript counterpart, with two exceptions: eosinophil chemotactic cytokine and nothepsin. Conclusion This study provides a complete sequence data set of

  5. Expression of Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase and p53 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Their Role in Prognosis and Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Heidi; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Beck, Amy; Miller, Austin; Lele, Shashikant; Odunsi, Kunle

    2016-01-01

    Summary PARP, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, is a damage-sensing protein, which is essential for the repair of DNA single-strand breaks. PARP and p53 function synergistically in repairing DNA damage and suppressing chromosomal rearrangements. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of PARP and p53 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to correlate their expression with clinicopathologic characteristics. PARP and p53 were evaluated using immunohistochemistry applied on a tissue microarray of 189 EOC and their expressions were correlated to clinicopathologic variables, including the age of diagnosis, stage, grade, histologic type, optimal debulking, progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS). PARP and p53 expressions were shown in 61% and 54% of cases, respectively. PARP-positive tumors are more likely to have higher grade (P = 0.03) and complete response to initial first-line chemotherapy (P = 0.009). Patients with positive p53 staining are more likely to be at the advanced stage disease (P = 0.004). Finally, there were no significant associations between PARP and p53 expression and no differences in progression-free survival and OS for PARP or p53 expressions. The overexpression of PARP and p53 in high grade, and advanced stage tumors indicated that these 2 markers might serve as an indicator of aggressive disease behavior. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate the role of PARP and PARP inhibitors in the setting of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:21293287

  6. Single-sample expression-based chemo-sensitivity score improves survival associations independently from genomic mutations for ovarian cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael T; Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapies are first-line treatments for ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Although chemotherapy has a high initial response rate, some patients exhibit inherent chemo-resistance. With advancements of molecular and genomic profiling, it is of high interest to identify molecular and genomic signatures predictive of chemo- sensitivity priori to treatment initiation in order to better personalize care decisions. Previous efforts have made use of mRNA expression levels of selected genes responsible for repairing DNA damage, under the hypothesis that chemo efficacy is associated with their proficiency. However, the resulting scores have been difficult to interpret. In this study, we designed a single-sample based approach known as eCARD to investigate chemo-sensitivity in ovarian cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We demonstrated that the proposed single-sample based approach can lead to a molecular-based chemo-sensitivity score predictive of prognosis, which validates in 5 independent cohorts, and associates with increasing mutation burden and likelihood of BRCA1/2 mutation. PMID:27570657

  7. Specifying the behavior of concurrent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furtek, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    A framework for rigorously specifying the behavior of concurrent systems is proposed. It is based on the view of a concurrent system as a collection of interacting processes but no assumptions are made about the mechanisms for process synchronization and communication. A formal language is described that permits the expression of a broad range of logical and timing dependencies.

  8. Tissue-Specific Effects of Reduced β-catenin Expression on Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation-Instigated Tumorigenesis in Mouse Colon and Ovarian Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ying; Sakamoto, Naoya; Wu, Rong; Liu, Jie-yu; Wiese, Alexandra; Green, Maranne E.; Green, Megan; Akyol, Aytekin; Roy, Badal C.; Zhai, Yali; Cho, Kathleen R.; Fearon, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) inactivating mutations are present in most human colorectal cancers and some other cancers. The APC protein regulates the β-catenin protein pool that functions as a co-activator of T cell factor (TCF)-regulated transcription in Wnt pathway signaling. We studied effects of reduced dosage of the Ctnnb1 gene encoding β-catenin in Apc-mutation-induced colon and ovarian mouse tumorigenesis and cell culture models. Concurrent somatic inactivation of one Ctnnb1 allele, dramatically inhibited Apc mutation-induced colon polyposis and greatly extended Apc-mutant mouse survival. Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose markedly inhibited increases in β-catenin levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus following Apc inactivation in colon epithelium, with attenuated expression of key β-catenin/TCF-regulated target genes, including those encoding the EphB2/B3 receptors, the stem cell marker Lgr5, and Myc, leading to maintenance of crypt compartmentalization and restriction of stem and proliferating cells to the crypt base. A critical threshold for β-catenin levels in TCF-regulated transcription was uncovered for Apc mutation-induced effects in colon epithelium, along with evidence of a feed-forward role for β-catenin in Ctnnb1 gene expression and CTNNB1 transcription. The active β-catenin protein pool was highly sensitive to CTNNB1 transcript levels in colon cancer cells. In mouse ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas (OEAs) arising from Apc- and Pten-inactivation, while Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose affected β-catenin levels and some β-catenin/TCF target genes, Myc induction was retained and OEAs arose in a fashion akin to that seen with intact Ctnnb1 gene dose. Our findings indicate Ctnnb1 gene dose exerts tissue-specific differences in Apc mutation-instigated tumorigenesis. Differential expression of selected β-catenin/TCF-regulated genes, such as Myc, likely underlies context-dependent effects of Ctnnb1 gene dosage in tumorigenesis. PMID:26528816

  9. Molecular analysis of a ras-like nuclear (Ran) gene from Penaeus monodon and its expression at the different ovarian stages of development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Falin; Zheng, Liming; Yang, Qibin; Qiu, Lihua; Huang, Jianhua; Su, Tiannfeng; Jiang, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, a ras-like nuclear (Ran) gene was obtained from the ovary and neurosecretory organ in eyestalk cDNA library of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). The full-length black tiger prawn Ran (PmRan) cDNA consisted of 1140 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) 648 bp, a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of 117 bp and a 3'UTR of 375 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence "aataaa" and a poly (A) tail. The ORF encoded a peptide of 215 amino acids with molecular mass 24.6 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 7.39. ScanProsite analysis indicated that PmRan protein sequence contained a small GTPase Ran family motif. Homology analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the PmRan with other known Ran sequences by MatGAT software revealed that the PmRan show very high homology with the sequences of other animals (92.1-98.6% similarity, 85.6-98.1% identity). Analysis of the tissue expression pattern of the PmRan gene showed that the PmRan mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues, including hepatopancreas, ovary, muscle, intestine, neurosecretory organ in eyestalk, neurosecretory organ in brain, stomach, and heart, with the highest levels in ovary. Furthermore, the PmRan expression was found to be high level in the six ovarian stages of development. The results indicated PmRan might play an important role in ovarian development.

  10. E-cadherin and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenin protein expression is up-regulated in ovarian carcinoma cells in serous effusions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, B; Berner, A; Nesland, J M; Risberg, B; Berner, H S; Tropè, C G; Kristensen, G B; Bryne, M; Ann Florenes, V

    2000-12-01

    The aims of this study were firstly, to investigate the expression of E-cadherin complex proteins in ovarian carcinoma cells in serous effusions and in primary and metastatic lesions; and secondly to study the value of these four proteins and calretinin, a mesothelial marker, in the differential diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma cells from reactive mesothelial cells in effusions. Sixty-seven malignant effusions and 97 corresponding primary (n=36) and metastatic (n=61) lesions were immunohistochemically stained for E-cadherin and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenin. Staining extent and intensity were scored. Effusion specimens were additionally analysed for calretinin immunoreactivity. Membrane immunoreactivity for E-cadherin and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenin was detected on carcinoma cells in the majority of the effusions, but rarely on reactive mesothelial cells (p<0.001 for all markers). Calretinin immunoreactivity was confined to mesothelial cells (p<0.001). An association was seen between E-cadherin and alpha-catenin expression, in both effusions and solid tumours, and for beta-catenin in solid tumours (range p<0. 001 to p=0.014). Up-regulation of all four cadherin complex proteins was seen in carcinoma cells in effusions, when compared with corresponding primary tumours (range p<0.001 to p=0.028). As with effusions, metastatic lesions showed up-regulation of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenin when compared with primary carcinomas (p=0.002-0. 015). Carcinoma cells in effusions showed in addition elevated levels of E-cadherin when compared with metastatic lesions (p<0.001). Staining results in effusions showed no association with effusion site, tumour type or histological grade. Immunoblotting on 29 malignant effusions confirmed the presence of all four proteins in the majority of samples and co-precipitation of E-cadherin and beta-catenin was seen in ten specimens examined. E-cadherin complex proteins are widely expressed in ovarian carcinoma cells. Together with

  11. Expression and localization of IL-18 in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of non-pregnant, pregnant, and abortive rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Fang, Guangli

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines present in the reproductive system play an important role both in the modulation of immune responses to infectious challenge and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been regarded as an important regulator of innate and acquired immune response, but its expression and distribution in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remain unclear. In this paper, the expression and distribution of IL-18 in non-pregnant, pregnant, and early abortive rats were examined using an ultra-sensitive immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that IL-18 expression in the pituitary, in follicular ovaries, and in the corpus luteum of abortive rats were significantly lower than that of pregnant and non-pregnant rats. However, the staining of IL-18 in the hypothalamus, interstitial glands of the ovary, and uterus of abortive rats was strikingly stronger than those of the non-pregnant ones. IL-18 mRNA expression in rat uterus was detected in all groups, whereas IL-18 mRNA content in abortive rat uterus was significantly higher than in normal pregnant rats. Further, IL-18 in the peripheral blood serum of abortive rats was significantly lower than in same-period normal pregnant rats. The differential expression of IL-18 in early abortion suggests that IL-18 may be related to the underlying mechanisms of abortion.

  12. Gestational N-hexane inhalation alters the expression of genes related to ovarian hormone production and DNA methylation states in adult female F1 rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Chenyun; Ni, Feng; Guo, Suhua; Wang, Wenxiang; Liu, Jing; Lu, Xiaoli; Huang, Huiling; Zhang, Wenchang

    2015-12-15

    Research has revealed that n-hexane can disrupt adult female endocrine functions; however, few reports have focused on endocrine changes in adult F1 females after maternal exposure during gestation. In this study, female Wistar rats inhaled 100, 500, 2500, or 12,500 ppm n-hexane for 4 h daily during their initial 20 gestational days. The F1 female offspring exhibited abnormal oestrus cycles. Compared with the controls, the in vitro-cultured ovarian granulosa cells of the 12,500 ppm group showed significantly reduced in vitro progesterone and oestradiol secretion. Elevated progesterone secretion was observed in the 500 ppm group, and decreased and significantly upregulated mRNA expression of the Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd3b genes was observed in the 12,500 ppm and 500 ppm groups, respectively. The protein expression levels were consistent with the mRNA expression levels. Methylation screening of the promoter regions of these genes was performed using MeDIP-chip and confirmed by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM), and the observed methylation state changes of the promoter regions were correlated with the gene expression levels. The results suggest that the hormone levels in the female offspring after gestational n-hexane inhalation correspond to the expression levels and DNA methylation states of the hormone production genes. PMID:26410608

  13. Molecular cloning of the SMAD4 gene and its mRNA expression analysis in ovarian follicles of the Yangzhou goose (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Yuan, X; Wang, M; Wu, N; Song, Y; Chen, Y; Zhang, Y; Xu, Q; Chen, G; Zhao, W

    2016-08-01

    Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) is an important protein in animal reproduction. It plays pivotal roles in cellular pathways, including apoptosis. The expression profile of the SMAD4 gene in goose ovarian follicles has not been reported. In this study, the SMAD4 coding sequence was cloned from the Yangzhou goose. A phylogenetic analysis was performed and mRNA expression was examined in various tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. An alternative splice form of SMAD4, SMAD4-b having 1656 bp, was identified. SMAD4-a mRNA was widely expressed in various healthy tissues, whereas SMAD4-b was very weakly expressed. SMAD4 mRNA in the ovary and oviduct was significantly higher than that in the pituitary and hypothalamus. SMAD4 mRNA expression analysis in hierarchical follicles showed that the level of SMAD4 mRNA was higher in large white follicles and post-ovulatory follicles than in the other follicles. The results indicate that SMAD4 might be involved in the recruitment of hierarchical follicles. PMID:27108648

  14. How Ovarian Cancer Evades Immune Scrutiny.

    PubMed

    Poh, Alissa

    2016-04-01

    Although dendritic cells are abundant in ovarian tumors, scientists have been puzzled that these cells aren't immunostimulatory. New research reveals a role for the protein SATB1, which is transiently required during ovarian-associated dendritic cell maturation-its unremitting expression in these cells drives them to acquire an inflammatory, immunosuppressive phenotype.

  15. Modifications in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters After α-Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab Therapy of HER2-Expressing Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Røe, Kathrine; Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel; Dahle, Jostein

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-particle-emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab. Methods and Materials: Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm{sup 3} (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0.9% NaCl (control group, n=10 tumors). Dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) was used to study the effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab on tumor vasculature. DCEMRI was performed before treatment and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after therapy. Tumor contrast-enhancement curves were extracted voxel by voxel and fitted to the Brix pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the tumors that underwent radioimmunotherapy were compared with the corresponding parameters of control tumors. Results: Significant increases of k{sub ep}, the rate constant of diffusion from the extravascular extracellular space to the plasma (P<.05), and k{sub el,} the rate of clearance of contrast agent from the plasma (P<.01), were seen in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection, compared with the control group. The product of k{sub ep} and the amplitude parameter A, associated with increased vessel permeability and perfusion, was also significantly increased in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection (P<.01). Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic modeling of MRI contrast-enhancement curves evidenced significant alterations in parameters associated with increased tumor vessel permeability and tumor perfusion after {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab treatment of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts.

  16. Efficacy of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia and fowlpox vectors expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen in ovarian cancer and melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Odunsi, Kunle; Matsuzaki, Junko; Karbach, Julia; Neumann, Antje; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Miller, Austin; Beck, Amy; Morrison, Carl D.; Ritter, Gerd; Godoy, Heidi; Lele, Shashikant; duPont, Nefertiti; Edwards, Robert; Shrikant, Protul; Old, Lloyd J.; Gnjatic, Sacha; Jäger, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant poxviruses (vaccinia and fowlpox) expressing tumor-associated antigens are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as cancer vaccines to induce tumor-specific immune responses that will improve clinical outcome. To test whether a diversified prime and boost regimen targeting NY-ESO-1 will result in clinical benefit, we conducted two parallel phase II clinical trials of recombinant vaccinia-NY-ESO-1 (rV-NY-ESO-1), followed by booster vaccinations with recombinant fowlpox-NY-ESO-1 (rF-NY-ESO-1) in 25 melanoma and 22 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with advanced disease who were at high risk for recurrence/progression. Integrated NY-ESO-1-specific antibody and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were induced in a high proportion of melanoma and EOC patients. In melanoma patients, objective response rate [complete and partial response (CR+PR)] was 14%, mixed response was 5%, and disease stabilization was 52%, amounting to a clinical benefit rate (CBR) of 72% in melanoma patients. The median PFS in the melanoma patients was 9 mo (range, 0–84 mo) and the median OS was 48 mo (range, 3–106 mo). In EOC patients, the median PFS was 21 mo (95% CI, 16–29 mo), and median OS was 48 mo (CI, not estimable). CD8+ T cells derived from vaccinated patients were shown to lyse NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor targets. These data provide preliminary evidence of clinically meaningful benefit for diversified prime and boost recombinant pox-viral-based vaccines in melanoma and ovarian cancer and support further evaluation of this approach in these patient populations. PMID:22454499

  17. Targeting FR-expressing cells in ovarian cancer with Fab-functionalized nanoparticles: a full study to provide the proof of principle from in vitro to in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarta, Alessandra; Bernareggi, Davide; Benigni, Fabio; Luison, Elena; Nano, Giuseppe; Nitti, Simone; Cesta, Maria Candida; di Ciccio, Luciano; Canevari, Silvana; Pellegrino, Teresa; Figini, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Efficient targeting in tumor therapies is still an open issue: systemic biodistribution and poor specific accumulation of drugs weaken efficacy of treatments. Engineered nanoparticles are expected to bring benefits by allowing specific delivery of drug to the tumor or acting themselves as localized therapeutic agents. In this study we have targeted epithelial ovarian cancer with inorganic nanoparticles conjugated to a human antibody fragment against the folate receptor over-expressed on cancer cells. The conjugation approach is generally applicable. Indeed several types of nanoparticles (either magnetic or fluorescent) were engineered with the fragment, and their biological activity was preserved as demonstrated by biochemical methods in vitro. In vivo studies with mice bearing orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors were performed. Elemental and histological analyses showed that the conjugated magnetic nanoparticles accumulated specifically and were retained at tumor sites longer than the non-conjugated nanoparticles.Efficient targeting in tumor therapies is still an open issue: systemic biodistribution and poor specific accumulation of drugs weaken efficacy of treatments. Engineered nanoparticles are expected to bring benefits by allowing specific delivery of drug to the tumor or acting themselves as localized therapeutic agents. In this study we have targeted epithelial ovarian cancer with inorganic nanoparticles conjugated to a human antibody fragment against the folate receptor over-expressed on cancer cells. The conjugation approach is generally applicable. Indeed several types of nanoparticles (either magnetic or fluorescent) were engineered with the fragment, and their biological activity was preserved as demonstrated by biochemical methods in vitro. In vivo studies with mice bearing orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors were performed. Elemental and histological analyses showed that the conjugated magnetic nanoparticles accumulated specifically and were retained

  18. Efficacy of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia and fowlpox vectors expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen in ovarian cancer and melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Odunsi, Kunle; Matsuzaki, Junko; Karbach, Julia; Neumann, Antje; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Miller, Austin; Beck, Amy; Morrison, Carl D; Ritter, Gerd; Godoy, Heidi; Lele, Shashikant; duPont, Nefertiti; Edwards, Robert; Shrikant, Protul; Old, Lloyd J; Gnjatic, Sacha; Jäger, Elke

    2012-04-10

    Recombinant poxviruses (vaccinia and fowlpox) expressing tumor-associated antigens are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as cancer vaccines to induce tumor-specific immune responses that will improve clinical outcome. To test whether a diversified prime and boost regimen targeting NY-ESO-1 will result in clinical benefit, we conducted two parallel phase II clinical trials of recombinant vaccinia-NY-ESO-1 (rV-NY-ESO-1), followed by booster vaccinations with recombinant fowlpox-NY-ESO-1 (rF-NY-ESO-1) in 25 melanoma and 22 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with advanced disease who were at high risk for recurrence/progression. Integrated NY-ESO-1-specific antibody and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were induced in a high proportion of melanoma and EOC patients. In melanoma patients, objective response rate [complete and partial response (CR+PR)] was 14%, mixed response was 5%, and disease stabilization was 52%, amounting to a clinical benefit rate (CBR) of 72% in melanoma patients. The median PFS in the melanoma patients was 9 mo (range, 0-84 mo) and the median OS was 48 mo (range, 3-106 mo). In EOC patients, the median PFS was 21 mo (95% CI, 16-29 mo), and median OS was 48 mo (CI, not estimable). CD8(+) T cells derived from vaccinated patients were shown to lyse NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor targets. These data provide preliminary evidence of clinically meaningful benefit for diversified prime and boost recombinant pox-viral-based vaccines in melanoma and ovarian cancer and support further evaluation of this approach in these patient populations.

  19. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about ovarian cancer? What is ovarian cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... section . Other cancers that are similar to epithelial ovarian cancer Primary peritoneal carcinoma Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is ...

  20. The effect of androgens on ovarian follicle maturation: Dihydrotestosterone suppress FSH-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation by upregulating PPARγ-dependent PTEN expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Yu-Shih; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2015-12-17

    Intraovarian hyperandrogenism is one of the determining factors of follicular arrest in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using androgenized rat models, we investigated the effects of androgens on metabolism, as well as on factors involved in follicular arrest and the reduced number of estrus cycles. The dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats had fewer estrus cycles, higher numbers of large arrested follicles and an increased in body weight gain compared with the dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA)- and placebo-treated rats. In cultured rat granulosa cells, DHT suppressed follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced granulosa cell proliferation and increased the accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase. DHT decreased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cyclin D1 levels through increasing PTEN. DHT-promoted PTEN expression was regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in granulosa cells. Meanwhile, in the large follicles of the DHT-treated rats, the expressions of PPARγ and PTEN were higher, but the expression of p-Akt and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were lower. Conclusively, DHT and DHEA produced differential effects on metabolism in prepubertal female rats like clinical manifestations of women with PCOS. DHT treatment may affect ovarian follicular maturation by altering granulosa cell proliferation through the regulation of enhancing PPARγ dependent PTEN/p-Akt expression in the granulosa cells.

  1. The effect of androgens on ovarian follicle maturation: Dihydrotestosterone suppress FSH-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation by upregulating PPARγ-dependent PTEN expression.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Yu-Shih; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2015-01-01

    Intraovarian hyperandrogenism is one of the determining factors of follicular arrest in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using androgenized rat models, we investigated the effects of androgens on metabolism, as well as on factors involved in follicular arrest and the reduced number of estrus cycles. The dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats had fewer estrus cycles, higher numbers of large arrested follicles and an increased in body weight gain compared with the dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA)- and placebo-treated rats. In cultured rat granulosa cells, DHT suppressed follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced granulosa cell proliferation and increased the accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase. DHT decreased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cyclin D1 levels through increasing PTEN. DHT-promoted PTEN expression was regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in granulosa cells. Meanwhile, in the large follicles of the DHT-treated rats, the expressions of PPARγ and PTEN were higher, but the expression of p-Akt and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were lower. Conclusively, DHT and DHEA produced differential effects on metabolism in prepubertal female rats like clinical manifestations of women with PCOS. DHT treatment may affect ovarian follicular maturation by altering granulosa cell proliferation through the regulation of enhancing PPARγ dependent PTEN/p-Akt expression in the granulosa cells. PMID:26674985

  2. Sodium Arsenite ± Hyperthermia Sensitizes p53-Expressing Human Ovarian Cancer Cells to Cisplatin by Modulating Platinum-DNA Damage Responses

    PubMed Central

    Muenyi, Clarisse S.; Pinhas, Allan R.; Fan, Teresa W.; Brock, Guy N.; Helm, C. William; States, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of gynecological cancer death in the United States. Cisplatin is a DNA damaging agent initially effective against EOC but limited by resistance. P53 plays a critical role in cellular response to DNA damage and has been implicated in EOC response to platinum chemotherapy. In this study, we examined the role of p53 status in EOC response to a novel combination of cisplatin, sodium arsenite, and hyperthermia. Human EOC cells were treated with cisplatin ± 20μM sodium arsenite at 37°C or 39°C for 1 h. Sodium arsenite ± hyperthermia sensitized wild-type p53-expressing (A2780, A2780/CP70, OVCA 420, OVCA 429, and OVCA 433) EOC cells to cisplatin. Hyperthermia sensitized p53-null SKOV-3 and p53-mutant (OVCA 432 and OVCAR-3) cells to cisplatin. P53 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection abrogated sodium arsenite sensitization effect. XPC, a critical DNA damage recognition protein in global genome repair pathway, was induced by cisplatin only in wild-type p53-expressing cells. Cotreatment with sodium arsenite ± hyperthermia attenuated cisplatin-induced XPC in wild-type p53-expressing cells. XPC siRNA transfection sensitized wild-type p53-expressing cells to cisplatin, suggesting that sodium arsenite ± hyperthermia attenuation of XPC is a mechanism by which wild-type p53-expressing cells are sensitized to cisplatin. Hyperthermia ± sodium arsenite enhanced cellular and DNA accumulation of platinum in wild-type p53-expressing cells. Only hyperthermia enhanced platinum accumulation in p53-null cells. In conclusion, sodium arsenite ± hyperthermia sensitizes wild-type p53-expressing EOC cells to cisplatin by suppressing DNA repair protein XPC and increasing cellular and DNA platinum accumulation. PMID:22331493

  3. Expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in ovarian and uterine tissue during diestrus and open cervix cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Gultiken, Nilgun; Yarim, Murat; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Gacar, Ayhan; Mason, James Ian

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of 3β-hydroxystreroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in the uterus and ovary of healthy dogs and those with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and/or pyometra complex (CEH-pyometra). Eighteen female dogs were included in the study. Eleven bitches with open cervix CEH-pyometra were included in the CEH-pyometra group and seven diestrus bitches in the control group. For immunostaining a rabbit polyclonal, one raised against recombinant human type 2 (adrenal/gonadal) 3β-HSD was used. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were not statistically different between the groups. Strongly stained large interstitial cell groups in the ovarian medulla were observed particularly in CEH-pyometra group although these cells in the control group were weakly or moderately stained and existed singly or paired. The expressions of 3β-HSD in luminal epithelium (42.40 ± 22.40% vs. 18.42 ± 13.15%, P < 0.05) and glandular epithelium (32.80 ± 27.05% vs. 2.94 ± 7.79%, P < 0.01) of endometrium were significantly higher in CEH-pyometra group than those in the control group. The expression of 3β-HSD in CL was higher (29.38 ± 9.58% vs. 22.94 ± 4.97%) in CEH-pyometra group than that of control group although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Similarly, the significant increase in the expression of 3β-HSD in ovarian interstitial cells (33.86 ± 29.44 vs. 1.13 ± 2.97, P < 0.05) was found in CEH-pyometra group compared to the control group. The study revealed that 3β-HSD expression in the endometrium of canine CEH-pyometra was significantly high. PMID:27020880

  4. Spatio-Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during In Vivo Early Ovarian Folliculogenesis: Integrated Transcriptomic Study and Molecular Signature of Early Follicular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Agnes; Servin, Bertrand; Mulsant, Philippe; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Background The successful achievement of early ovarian folliculogenesis is important for fertility and reproductive life span. This complex biological process requires the appropriate expression of numerous genes at each developmental stage, in each follicular compartment. Relatively little is known at present about the molecular mechanisms that drive this process, and most gene expression studies have been performed in rodents and without considering the different follicular compartments. Results We used RNA-seq technology to explore the sheep transcriptome during early ovarian follicular development in the two main compartments: oocytes and granulosa cells. We documented the differential expression of 3,015 genes during this phase and described the gene expression dynamic specific to these compartments. We showed that important steps occurred during primary/secondary transition in sheep. We also described the in vivo molecular course of a number of pathways. In oocytes, these pathways documented the chronology of the acquisition of meiotic competence, migration and cellular organization, while in granulosa cells they concerned adhesion, the formation of cytoplasmic projections and steroid synthesis. This study proposes the involvement in this process of several members of the integrin and BMP families. The expression of genes such as Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) and BMP binding endothelial regulator (BMPER) was highlighted for the first time during early follicular development, and their proteins were also predicted to be involved in gene regulation. Finally, we selected a data set of 24 biomarkers that enabled the discrimination of early follicular stages and thus offer a molecular signature of early follicular growth. This set of biomarkers includes known genes such as SPO11 meiotic protein covalently bound to DSB (SPO11), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and WEE1 homolog 2 (S. pombe)(WEE2) which play critical roles in follicular development but other

  5. The effects of temperature on ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1a) expression and sex differentiation in summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus).

    PubMed

    Caruso, Catherine C; Breton, Timothy S; Berlinsky, David L

    2016-04-01

    Female summer flounder grow considerably faster and larger than males, and a tremendous increase in performance can therefore be realized through production of monosex female populations. Rearing temperature has been shown to affect sex differentiation in other teleost species by influencing expression of genes encoding transcription factors or enzymes involved in endocrine function. Cyp19a1a is a well-studied gene that had been shown to play a role in ovarian development, and exhibits sexually dimorphic expression in other species. In the present study, summer flounder (37 days post-hatch; DPH) were raised at 13, 16 or 19 °C. Fish from all three treatments were sampled throughout development and analyzed in qPCR to determine cyp19a1a gene expression levels. Sex ratios of additional fish grown to ≥150 mm at each temperature treatment were determined. Low female production was achieved overall (26.9, 17.6 and 0% at 13, 16 and 19 °C, respectively). Cyp19a1a expression was significantly lower at 52 DPH (~15 mm total length) at the male-producing temperature (19 °C) and increased to similar levels as other treatments at 66 DPH. Expression levels later in juvenile development (66-191 DPH) largely decreased with fish size. The period of sex differentiation in summer flounder remains unknown, but cyp19a1a expression patterns suggest that it may occur earlier in development than that of congenerics. Further research is necessary to understand the sex-determining mechanisms in this species before sexually dimorphic growth can be used to achieve economic advantages in commercial production.

  6. Ovarian cancer ascites increase Mcl-1 expression in tumor cells through ERK1/2-Elk-1 signaling to attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ascites may affect the progression of ovarian cancer (OC). In particular, soluble factors present in OC ascites can create a protective environment for tumor cells that promote de novo resistance to drug- and death receptor-induced apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for ascites-induced drug resistance are not well characterized. Methods Using human OC cell lines and tissues microarrays of human OC biopsies, we assessed the mechanism by which OC ascites increase Mcl-1 expression using Western blots, chemical inhibitors of ERK and small-inhibitory RNA treatments. Results In the present study, we found that both Mcl-1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated within 2 h upon treatment of OC cells with ascites obtained from women with advanced OC. In contrast, the expression of other Bcl-2 family antiapoptotic members such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was not affected by ascites. An increase of Mcl-1 expression was consistently observed across different ascites from women with advanced serous OC. The knockdown of Mcl-1 significantly blocked ascites-induced Mcl-1 upregulation and ascites-mediated inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Ascites induced a rapid phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1 transcription factor. Furthermore, we found that ERK1/2 inhibition or Elk-1 knockdown was sufficient to block ascites-induced Mcl-1 expression. In high grade serous OC, we found a positive correlation between phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Mcl-1 expression. Conclusions These results indicate that ascites-induced ERK1/2/Elk-1 signaling is critical for Mcl-1 expression and for the ascites-mediated attenuation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The ERK1/2/Elk-1/Mcl-1 pathway represents a novel mechanism by which ascites induce de novo TRAIL resistance in OC cells. PMID:23158473

  7. Expression of ovarian microsomal epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase during onset of VCD-induced ovotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Aileen F.; Sipes, I. Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B.

    2008-07-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) specifically destroys small pre-antral follicles in the rodent ovary. VCD can be detoxified to an inactive tetrol by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), or by conjugation to glutathione (GSH) by glutathione S-transferase (GST). Formation of VCD-GSH adducts in the mouse ovary 4 h after VCD exposure (0.57 mmol/kg/day) has been demonstrated. Because the mouse ovary expresses both mEH and GST, expression of mEH and GST pi and mu during a time-course of VCD-induced ovotoxicity was evaluated in a neonatal mouse ovarian culture system. Ovaries from postnatal day 4 (PND4) B6C3F{sub 1} mice were incubated with VCD (15 {mu}M) for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 15 days. Following incubation, ovaries were histologically evaluated, or assessed for mRNA or protein expression. VCD did not cause follicle loss (p > 0.05) on days 2, 4, or 6 of culture. At days 8, 10, 12, and 15, VCD reduced (p < 0.05) both primordial and primary follicle numbers. Increased (p < 0.05) expression of mEH, GST pi and GST mu mRNA was detected after 4 days of VCD exposure. This expression was reduced on days 6 and 8, when follicle loss was underway, but increased (p < 0.05) after 10 days of exposure. mEH and GST pi proteins were elevated (p < 0.05) following 8 days of VCD-exposure however there was no increase in GST mu protein. These findings suggest that with continuous exposure to VCD, increased expression of detoxification enzymes may participate in retarding the onset of follicle loss, but that this loss cannot ultimately be prevented.

  8. Expression of antiapoptosis gene survivin in luteinized ovarian granulosa cells of women undergoing IVF or ICSI and embryo transfer: clinical correlations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of survivin gene expression in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in Greek women with normal FSH levels, undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any correlation between levels of gene expression and clinical parameters, efficacy of ovulation or outcomes of assisted reproduction. Methods Twenty nine women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus–mature oocyte complexes were denuded and the granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for survivin gene expression with internal standard the ABL gene. Results The ABL and survivin mRNA were detected in granulosa cells in 93.1%. The expression levels of survivin were significantly lower in normal women (male infertility factor) compared to women with tubal infertility factor (p = 0.007). There was no additional statistically significant correlation between levels of survivin expression and estradiol levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction or number of dominant follicles aspirated or number of retrieved oocytes or embryo grade or clinical pregnancy rates respectively. Conclusions High levels of survivin mRNA expression in luteinized granulosa cells in cases with tubal infertility seem to protect ovaries from follicular apoptosis. A subpopulation of patients with low levels of survivin mRNA in granulosa cells might benefit with ICSI treatment to bypass possible natural barriers of sperm-oocyte interactions. PMID:22958786

  9. Epithelial ovarian cancer: influence of polymorphism at the glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 and GSTT1 loci on p53 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Sarhanis, P.; Redman, C.; Perrett, C.; Brannigan, K.; Clayton, R. N.; Hand, P.; Musgrove, C.; Suarez, V.; Jones, P.; Fryer, A. A.; Farrell, W. E.; Strange, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of polymorphism in the glutathione S-transferase GSTM1, GSTT1 and, cytochrome P450, CYP2D6 loci in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer has been assessed in two studies; firstly, a case-control study designed to determine the influence of these genes on susceptibility to this cancer, and secondly, the putative role of these genes in the protection of host cell DNA has been studied by comparing p53 expression in patients with different GSTM1, GSTT1 and CYP2D6 genotypes. The frequencies of GSTM1, GSTT1 and CYP2D6 genotypes in 84 cases and 325 controls were not different. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect p53 expression in 63 of these tumours. Expression was found in 23 tumours. Of the patients demonstrating immunopositivity, 20 (87%) were GSTM1 null. The frequency distributions of GSTM1 genotypes in p53-positive and -negative samples were significantly different (P = 0.002) and those for GSTT1 genotypes approached significance (exact P = 0.057). The proportion of patients with both GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null was also significantly greater in the immunopositive (4/22) than in the immunonegative group (1/40) (P = 0.0493). Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to detect mutations in the 23 tumour samples demonstrating p53 positivity. A shift in electrophoretic mobility of amplified fragments was found in 11 patients (exons 5, 6, 7 and 8) and these exons were sequenced. In eight samples a mutation was found. No SCCP variants were identified in the other 12 immunopositive patients. Sequencing of exons 4-9 of p53 from these tumours resulted in the detection of mutations in two patients (exons 5 and 7). Thus, in 23 patients who demonstrated immunopositivity, p53 mutations were found in nine patients with GSTM1 null (90.0%). In the 13 patients in whom no mutations were identified, 11 were GSTM1 null (84.6%). The data show that overexpression of p53 is associated with the GSTM1 null genotype. We propose the data are

  10. Impact of the putative cancer stem cell markers and growth factor receptor expression on the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and cytotoxic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Puvanenthiran, Soozana; Essapen, Sharadah; Seddon, Alan M.; Modjtahedi, Helmout

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression and activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 have been reported in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a large panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines (OCCLs) to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and cytotoxic drugs. The aim was to see if there was any association between the protein expression of various biomarkers including three putative ovarian cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD24, CD44, CD117/c-Kit), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and HER family members and response to treatment with these agents. The sensitivity of 10 ovarian tumour cell lines to the treatment with various forms of HER TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sapitinib, afatinib, canertinib, neratinib), as well as other TKIs (dasatinib, imatinib, NVP-AEW541, crizotinib) and cytotoxic agents (paclitaxel, cisplatin and doxorubicin), as single agents or in combination, was determined by SRB assay. The effect on these agents on the cell cycle distribution, and downstream signaling molecules and tumour migration were determined using flow cytometry, western blotting, and the IncuCyte Clear View cell migration assay respectively. Of the HER inhibitors, the irreversible pan-TKIs (canertinib, neratinib and afatinib) were the most effective TKIs for inhibiting the growth of all ovarian cancer cells, and for blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR, HER-2, AKT and MAPK in SKOV3 cells. Interestingly, while the majority of cancer cells were highly sensitive to treatment with dasatinib, they were relatively resistant to treatment with imatinib (i.e., IC50 >10 μM). Of the cytotoxic agents, paclitaxel was the most effective for inhibiting the growth of OCCLs, and of various combinations of these drugs, only treatment with a combination of NVP-AEW541 and paclitaxel produced a synergistic or additive anti-proliferative effect in all three cell lines examined (i.e., SKOV3, Caov3, ES2

  11. Formalisms for Specifying Markovian Population Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzinger, Thomas A.; Jobstmann, Barbara; Wolf, Verena

    We compare several languages for specifying Markovian population models such as queuing networks and chemical reaction networks. These languages —matrix descriptions, stochastic Petri nets, stoichiometric equations, stochastic process algebras, and guarded command models— all describe continuous-time Markov chains, but they differ according to important properties, such as compositionality, expressiveness and succinctness, executability, ease of use, and the support they provide for checking the well-formedness of a model and for analyzing a model.

  12. Novel Treatment Shrinks Ovarian Tumors in Mice

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have developed a new approach for treating tumors that express mutant versions of the p53 protein, which are present in more than half of all cancers, including an aggressive and common subtype of ovarian cancer.

  13. Differential Ovarian Expression of KiSS-1 and GPR-54 During the Estrous Cycle and Photoperiod Induced Recrudescence in Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    PubMed Central

    Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A.

    2008-01-01

    Kisspeptins, coded by the KiSS-1 gene, regulate aspects of the reproductive axis by stimulating GnRH release via the G protein coupled receptor, GPR54. Recent reports show that KiSS/GPR54 may be key mediators in photoperiod-controlled reproduction in seasonal breeders, and that KiSS-1/GPR54 are expressed in the hypothalamus, ovaries, placenta, and pancreas. This study examined the expression of KiSS-1/GPR54 mRNA and protein in ovaries of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Ovaries from cycling hamsters were collected during proestrus (P), estrus (E), diestrus I (DI), and diestrus II (DII). To examine KiSS-1/GPR54 during stimulated recrudescence, additional hamsters were maintained either in long day (LD 16L:8D, control) or short day (SD 8L:16D) for 14 weeks and then transferred to LD for 0–8 weeks. Staining of KiSS-1/GPR54 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in steroidogenic cells of preantral and antral follicles, and corpora lutea. Immunostaining peaked in P and E, but decreased in the diestrus stages (p<0.05). In recrudescing ovaries, KiSS-1/GPR54 immunostaining was low after 14 wks of SD exposure (post transfer [PT] wk0), and increased during the early weeks of recrudescence. Expression of KiSS-1/GPR54 mRNA was low with short day exposure, but increased during recrudescence and was higher at PT wk8 as compared to PTwks 0 and 2 (p<0.05). The elevated KiSS-1/ GPR54 expression during P and E suggests a potential role in ovulation in Siberian hamsters. Transient increases in KiSS-1/GPR54 expression following LD stimulation are also suggestive of possible involvement in ovulation and/or restoration of ovarian function. PMID:18937338

  14. Magellan: a web based system for the integrated analysis of heterogeneous biological data and annotations; application to DNA copy number and expression data in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Chris B; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Polikoff, Daniel; Berchuck, Andy; Gray, Joe W; Jain, Ajay N

    2007-02-05

    Recent advances in high throughput biological methods allow researchers to generate enormous amounts of data from a single experiment. In order to extract meaningful conclusions from this tidal wave of data, it will be necessary to develop analytical methods of sufficient power and utility. It is particularly important that biologists themselves be able to perform many of these analyses, such that their background knowledge of the experimental system under study can be used to interpret results and direct further inquiries. We have developed a web-based system, Magellan, which allows the upload, storage, and analysis of multivariate data and textual or numerical annotations. Data and annotations are treated as abstract entities, to maximize the different types of information the system can store and analyze. Annotations can be used in analyses/visualizations, as a means of subsetting data to reduce dimensionality, or as a means of projecting variables from one data type or data set to another. Analytical methods are deployed within Magellan such that new functionalities can be added in a straightforward fashion. Using Magellan, we performed an integrated analysis of genome-wide comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), mRNA expression, and clinical data from ovarian tumors. Analyses included the use of permutation-based methods to identify genes whose mRNA expression levels correlated with patient survival, a nearest neighbor classifier to predict patient survival from CGH data, and curated annotations such as genomic position and derived annotations such as statistical computations to explore the quantitative relationship between CGH and mRNA expression data.

  15. Prognostic impact of human leukocyte antigen class I expression and association of platinum resistance with immunologic profiles in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mariya, Tasuku; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Asano, Takuya; Kuroda, Takafumi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Sonoda, Tomoko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Noriyuki

    2014-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most deadly carcinomas in females. Immune systems can recognize EOCs; however, a defect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression is known to be a major mechanism for escape from immune systems, resulting in poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to identify novel correlations between immunologic responses and other clinical factors. We investigated the expression of immunologic components in 122 cases of EOCs for which surgical operations were performed between 2001 and 2011. We immunohistochemically stained EOC specimens using an anti-pan HLA class I monoclonal antibody (EMR8-5) and anti-CD3, -CD4, and -CD8 antibodies, and we analyzed correlations between immunologic parameters and clinical factors. In multivariate analysis that used the Cox proportional hazards model, independent prognostic factors for overall survival in advanced EOCs included low expression level of HLA class I [risk ratio (RR), 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.83; P = 0.046] and loss of intraepithelial cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration (RR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.06-4.20; P = 0.033). Interestingly, almost all platinum-resistant cases showed a significantly low rate of intraepithelial CTL infiltration in the χ(2) test (positive vs. negative: 9.0% vs. 97.7%; P < 0.001). Results from a logistic regression model revealed that low CTL infiltration rate was an independent factor of platinum resistance in multivariate analysis (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.08-13.12; P = 0.037). Platinum-resistant EOCs show poor immunologic responses. The immune escape system of EOCs may be one of the mechanisms of platinum resistance.

  16. Between-female variation in house sparrow yolk testosterone concentration is negatively associated with CYP19A1 (aromatase) mRNA expression in ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Egbert, Jeremy R; Jackson, Melissa F; Rodgers, Buel D; Schwabl, Hubert

    2013-03-01

    Maternally-derived yolk androgens influence the development and long-term phenotype of offspring in oviparous species. Between-female variation in the amounts of these yolk androgens has been associated with a number of social and environmental factors, suggesting that the variation is adaptive, but the mechanisms behind it are unknown. Using two different approaches, we tested the hypothesis that variation in yolk androgen levels across individuals is associated with variation in their capacity to synthesize androgens. First, we injected female house sparrows with exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to maximally stimulate ovarian steroidogenesis. Second, we collected pre-ovulatory follicle tissue and quantified the mRNA expression of four key enzymes of the steroid synthesis pathway: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450-side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B1), and aromatase (CYP19A1). Thirty minutes after GnRH injection, androgen concentrations in both the plasma and in the yolks of pre-ovulatory follicles were significantly elevated compared to controls. However, this measure of steroidogenic capacity did not explain variation in yolk testosterone levels, although physiological differences between house sparrows and more widely studied poultry models were revealed by this approach. Steroidogenic enzyme mRNA levels were detectable in all samples and were significantly lower in the most mature pre-ovulatory follicles. Of the four measured genes, CYP19A1 expression exhibited a significant negative relationship with yolk testosterone concentrations in laid eggs, revealing a key mechanism for between-female variation in yolk testosterone. Furthermore, this suggests that any factors which alter the expression of CYP19A1 within an individual female could have dramatic effects on offspring phenotype. PMID:23247271

  17. Significantly greater expression of ER, PR, and ECAD in advanced-stage low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Lu, Karen H; Malpica, Anais; Bodurka, Diane C; Shvartsman, Hyun S; Schmandt, Rosemarie E; Thornton, Angela D; Deavers, Michael T; Silva, Elvio G; Gershenson, David M

    2007-10-01

    A 2-tier system that classifies ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC) as low grade or high grade is gaining acceptance. Women with low-grade OSC generally have higher 5-year survival rates than do women with high-grade OSC. We examined the expression of various markers to further understand the molecular differences between low-grade and high-grade OSCs: the potential therapeutic targets or prognostic markers Her-2/neu, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor (PR); the metastasis-associated markers cyclin D1 (BCL1), E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, and MMP-9; and the cell proliferation-associated markers BCL1, Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67), and p53. For this immunohistochemical analysis, we used paraffin-embedded specimens from 47 patients with advanced-stage low-grade OSC and from 49 patients with advanced-stage high-grade OSC. Our results showed that low-grade tumors expressed significantly higher levels of estrogen receptor, PR, and E-cadherin than did high-grade tumors, suggesting the involvement of gonadal steroid hormones, especially in the pathogenesis of low-grade OSC; the PR positivity was also observed in the stromal component of these low-grade tumors. On the other hand, high-grade tumors trended toward increased expression of MMP-9, BCL1, p53, and Ki-67, and robust MMP-9 positivity was observed in the stromal component of these high-grade tumors. These differences may lead to the development of different therapeutic strategies for women with either the low-grade or the high-grade form of OSC.

  18. Specifying and protecting germ cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Strome, Susan; Updike, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells are the special cells in the body that undergo meiosis to generate gametes and subsequently entire new organisms after fertilization, a process that continues generation after generation. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the factors and mechanisms that specify germ cell fate, including the partitioning of maternally supplied ‘germ plasm’, inheritance of epigenetic memory and expression of transcription factors crucial for primordial germ cell (PGC) development. Even after PGCs are specified, germline fate is labile and thus requires protective mechanisms, such as global transcriptional repression, chromatin state alteration and translation of only germline-appropriate transcripts. Findings from diverse species continue to provide insights into the shared and divergent needs of these special reproductive cells. PMID:26122616

  19. SMARCA4 (BRG1) loss of expression is a useful marker for the diagnosis of ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type (ovarian rhabdoid tumor): a comprehensive analysis of 116 rare gynecologic tumors, 9 soft tissue tumors, and 9 melanomas.

    PubMed

    Karanian-Philippe, Marie; Velasco, Valérie; Longy, Michel; Floquet, Anne; Arnould, Laurent; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Le Naoures-Méar, Cécile; Averous, Gerlinde; Guyon, Frédéric; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Croce, Sabrina

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT)/ovarian rhabdoid tumor is a rare and highly malignant tumor that typically occurs in young women. Up until now the diagnosis has been made on the basis of morphology without any specific immunohistochemical (IHC) markers. However, several authors have shown recently that SCCOHTs are characterized by inactivation of the SMARCA4 gene (encoding the BRG1 protein) resulting in a loss of BRG1 protein expression in IHC. We evaluated BRG1 and INI1 expression in 12 SCCOHTs and in a series of 122 tumors that could mimic SCCOHT morphologically: 9 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 47 adult granulosa cell tumors, 33 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas, 9 desmoplastic round cell tumors, 13 Ewing sarcomas (5 from the pelvis and 8 from soft tissues), 1 round cell sarcoma associated with CIC-DUX4 translocation from soft tissue (thigh), 1 case of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the ovary, and 9 melanomas. Forty-four adult granulosa cell tumors were interpretable by IHC. All 12 SCCOHTs were devoid of BRG1 expression and expressed INI1. All other interpretable 119 tumors showed BRG1 nuclear positivity, with variable staining proportions, ranging from 10% to 100% of positive cells (mean: 77%, median: 80%), variable intensities (weak: 5%, moderate: 37%, strong: 58%), and distributions: diffuse in 82 cases (70%) and heterogenous in 36 cases (30%). BRG1 positivity was heterogenous in desmoplastic round cell tumors and adult granulosa cell tumors. Overall, BRG1 is a useful diagnostic marker in SCCOHT, showing the absence of expression in SCCOHT. Nevertheless, the possible heterogeneity and the variable intensity of this staining warrant caution in the interpretation of BRG1 staining in biopsy specimens.

  20. Effects of orexins A and B on expression of orexin receptors and progesterone release in luteal and granulosa ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Natalia I; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A R; Libertun, Carlos

    2012-10-10

    Orexin-A and orexin-B are neuropeptides controlling sleep-wakefulness, feeding and neuroendocrine functions via their G protein-coupled receptors, orexin-1R and orexin-2R. They are synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus and project throughout the brain. Orexins and orexin receptors have also been described outside the brain. Previously we demonstrated the presence of both receptors in the ovary, their increased expression during proestrous afternoon and the dependence on the gonadotropins. Here we studied the effects of orexins on the mRNA expression of both receptors, by quantitative real-time PCR, on luteal cells from superovulated rat ovaries and granulosa cells from diethylstilbestrol-treated rat ovaries. Effects on progesterone secretion were also measured. In luteal cells, 1 nM of either orexin-A or orexin-B decreased progesterone secretion. Orexin-A treatment increased expression of both orexin-1R and orexin-2R mRNA. The effect on orexin-1R mRNA expression was abolished by an orexin-1R selective receptor antagonist SB-334867 and the effect on orexin-2R mRNA expression was abolished by a selective orexin-2R antagonist JNJ-10397049. Orexin-B did not modify orexin-1R mRNA expression, but increased orexin-2R mRNA expression. The effect of orexin-B on orexin-2R was abolished by a selective orexin-2R antagonist. Neither the expression of orexin receptors nor progesterone secretions by granulosa cells were affected by orexins. FSH, as positive control, increased both steroid hormones secretion, but did not induce the expression of OX receptors in granulosa cells isolated from late preantral/early antral follicles. Finally in ovaries obtained immediately after sacrifice, the expression of orexin-1R and orexin-2R was higher in superovulated rat ovaries compared to control or diethylstilbestrol treated rat ovaries. A selective presence and function of both orexinergic receptors in luteal and granulosa cells is described, suggesting that the orexinergic system may

  1. Characterization and expression of cDNAs encoding P450c17-II (cyp17a2) in Japanese eel during induced ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Su, Ting; Ijiri, Shigeho; Kanbara, Hirokazu; Hagihara, Seishi; Wang, De-Shou; Adachi, Shinji

    2015-09-15

    Estradiol-17β (E2) and maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) are two steroid hormones produced in the teleost ovary that are required for vitellogenic growth and final oocyte maturation and ovulation. During this transition, the main steroid hormone produced in the ovary shifts from estrogens to progestogens. In the commercially important Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), the MIH 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) is generated from its precursor by P450c17, which has both 17α-hydroxylase and C17-20 lyase activities. In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanism underlying the steroidogenic shift from E2 to DHP and the mechanistic basis for the failure of this shift in artificially matured eels, the cDNA for cyp17a2-which encodes P450c17-II-was isolated from the ovary of wild, mature Japanese eel and characterized, and the expression patterns of cyp17a1 and cyp17a2 during induced ovarian development were investigated in cultured eel ovaries. Five cDNAs (types I-V) encoding P450c17-II were identified that had minor sequence variations. HEK293T cells transfected with all but type II P450c17-II converted exogenous progesterone to 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-P), providing evidence for 17α-hydroxylase activity; however, a failure to convert 17α-P to androstenedione indicated that C17-20 lyase activity was absent. Cyp17a2 mRNA was expressed mainly in the head kidney, ovary, and testis, and quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that expression in the ovary increased during induced vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation/ovulation. In contrast, P450c17-I showed both 17α-hydroxylase and C17-20 lyase activities, and cyp17a1 expression increased until the mid-vitellogenic stage and remained high thereafter. Considering the high level of cyp17a2 transcript in the eel ovary at the migratory nucleus stage together with our previous report demonstrating that eel ovaries have strong 17α-P-to-DHP conversion activity, the failure of artificially maturing eels to produce

  2. Expression and clinical significance of estrogen-regulated long non-coding RNAs in estrogen receptor α-positive ovarian cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jun-Jun; Ye, Le-Chi; Ding, Jing-Xin; Feng, Wei-Wei; Jin, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ying; Li, Qing; Hua, Ke-Qin

    2014-04-01

    Estrogen (E2) has long been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. The effects of E2 on cancer progression can be mediated by numerous target genes, including coding RNAs and, more recently, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Among the ncRNAs, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new regulators in cancer progression; therefore, our aim was to determine whether the expression of any lncRNAs is regulated by E2 and, if so, whether a subset of these lncRNAs have some clinical significance in EOC progression. A microarray was performed to identify E2-regulated lncRNAs in E2 receptor (ER) α-positive EOC cells. Bioinformatics analyses of lncRNAs were conducted, focusing on gene ontology and pathway analyses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed to confirm the expression of certain lncRNAs in ERα-positive EOC tissues. The correlation between certain lncRNA expression and clinicopathological factors as well as prognosis in ERα-positive EOC patients was then analyzed. We showed that 115 lncRNAs exhibited significant changes in E2-treated SKOV3 cells compared with untreated controls. Most of these lncRNAs were predicated to have potential to contribute to cancer progression. Notably, three candidates (TC0100223, TC0101686 and TC0101441) were aberrantly expressed in ERα-positive compared to ERα-negative EOC tissues, showing correlations with some malignant cancer phenotypes such as advanced FIGO stage and/or high histological grade. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that TC0101441 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that E2 can modulate lncRNA expression in ERα-positive EOC cells and that certain lncRNAs are correlated with advanced cancer progression and suggestive of a prognostic indicator in ERα-positive EOC patients. Knowledge of these E2-regulated lncRNAs could aid in the future understanding of the estrogenic effect on EOC progression

  3. Impact of Food Restriction on the Expression of the Adiponectin System and Genes in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis of Pre-Pubertal Ewes.

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Kuang, M; Nie, H; Bai, W; Sun, L; Wang, F; Mao, D; Wang, Z

    2016-10-01

    Adiponectin, a cytokine secreted typically by adipocytes, has been implicated as a molecular switch between female reproduction and energy balance. The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of adiponectin system and patterns of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis of food-restricted pre-pubertal ewes. Eighteen 2-month-old female ewes were assigned to 3 groups after a pre-feeding ad libitum for 10 days (six in each group): the control group (C), the low-food-restricted group (LR) and the high-food-restricted group (HR), which were fed with 100%, 70% and 50% of ad libitum food intake, respectively. The hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary and serum were collected after food restriction for 2 months. Results by ELISA showed that food restriction increased serum adiponectin concentrations. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the gene transcriptions for adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and 2 (AdipoR2) were enhanced in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, while KISS-1/GPR-54 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus and luteinizing hormone β-subunit (LHβ) and follicle-stimulating hormone β-subunit (FSHβ) in the pituitary were reduced after food restriction. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that AdipoR1 localized in the oocytes of follicles in the ovary. These results suggest that the alterations in the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in response to food restriction might negatively influence the HPO axis. PMID:27405252

  4. Network-based integration of GWAS and gene expression identifies a HOX-centric network associated with serous ovarian cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Siddhartha P.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Li, Qiyuan; Lawrenson, Kate; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjørge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Yian Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas F.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A.; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified by co-expression may also be enriched for additional EOC risk associations. Methods We selected TF genes within 1 Mb of the top signal at the 12 genome-wide significant risk loci. Mutual information, a form of correlation, was used to build networks of genes strongly co-expressed with each selected TF gene in the unified microarray data set of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this data set were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls). Results Gene set enrichment analysis identified six networks centered on TF genes (HOXB2, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7 at 17q21.32 and HOXD1, HOXD3 at 2q31) that were significantly enriched for genes from the risk-associated end of the ranked list (P<0.05 and FDR<0.05). These results were replicated (P<0.05) using an independent association study (7,035 cases/21,693 controls). Genes underlying enrichment in the six networks were pooled into a combined network. Conclusion We identified a HOX-centric network associated with serous EOC risk containing several genes with known or emerging roles in serous EOC development. Impact Network analysis integrating large, context-specific data sets has the potential to offer mechanistic insights into cancer susceptibility and prioritize genes for experimental characterization. PMID:26209509

  5. Differential Regulation of Gene and Protein Expression by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Hen’s Ovarian Granulosa Cells: Specific Roles of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Shen, Wei; Liu, Jing; Yang, Fen-Fang; Liu, Hong-Bo; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Annually, tons and tons of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are produced in the world. And they are applied in almost all aspects of our life. Their release from the products into environment may pose issue for human health. Although many studies have reported the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on organisms, little is known about the effects on female reproductive systems or the related mechanisms. Quantitative proteomics have not been applied although quantitative transcriptomics have been used in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) research. Genes are very important players however proteins are the real actors in the biological systems. By using hen’s ovarian granulosa cells, it was found that ZnO-NP-5μg/ml and ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatments produced the same amount of intracellular Zn and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And NPs were found in the treated cells. However, ZnO-NP-5μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of genes and proteins compared with that in ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatment. For the first time, this investigation reports that intact NPs produce different impacts on the expression of genes and proteins involved in specific pathways compared to that by Zn2+. The findings enrich our knowledge for the molecular insights of zinc oxide nanoparticles effects on the female reproductive systems. This also may raise the health concern that ZnO NPs may adversely affect the female reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:26460738

  6. Di-n-butyl phthalate disrupts the expression of genes involved in cell cycle and apoptotic pathways in mouse ovarian antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Craig, Zelieann R; Hannon, Patrick R; Wang, Wei; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A

    2013-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is present in many consumer products, such as infant, beauty, and medical products. Several studies have shown that DBP causes reproductive toxicity in rodents, but no studies have evaluated its effects on ovarian follicles. Therefore, we used a follicle culture system to evaluate the effects of DBP on antral follicle growth, cell cycle and apoptosis gene expression, cell cycle staging, atresia, and 17β-estradiol (E(2)) production. Antral follicles were isolated from adult CD-1 mice and exposed to DBP at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/ml for 24 or 168 h. Follicles treated with vehicle or DBP at 1-100 μg/ml grew over time, but DBP at 1000 μg/ml significantly suppressed follicle growth. Regardless of effect on follicle growth, DBP-treated follicles had decreased mRNA for cyclins D2, E1, A2, and B1 and increased p21. Levels of the proapoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and Bok were not altered by DBP treatment, but DBP 1000 μg/ml increased levels of Bid and decreased levels of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2. DBP-treated follicles contained significantly more cells in G(1) phase, significantly less cells in S, and exhibited a trend for fewer cells in G(2). Although DBP did not affect E(2) production and atresia at 24 h, follicles treated with DBP had reduced levels of E(2) at 96 h and underwent atresia at 168 h. These data suggest that DBP targets antral follicles and alters the expression of cell cycle and apoptosis factors, causes cell cycle arrest, decreases E(2), and triggers atresia, depending on dose. PMID:23242528

  7. Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Disrupts the Expression of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle and Apoptotic Pathways in Mouse Ovarian Antral Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Hannon, Patrick R.; Wang, Wei; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is present in many consumer products, such as infant, beauty, and medical products. Several studies have shown that DBP causes reproductive toxicity in rodents, but no studies have evaluated its effects on ovarian follicles. Therefore, we used a follicle culture system to evaluate the effects of DBP on antral follicle growth, cell cycle and apoptosis gene expression, cell cycle staging, atresia, and 17β-estradiol (E2) production. Antral follicles were isolated from adult CD-1 mice and exposed to DBP at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/ml for 24 or 168 h. Follicles treated with vehicle or DBP at 1–100 μg/ml grew over time, but DBP at 1000 μg/ml significantly suppressed follicle growth. Regardless of effect on follicle growth, DBP-treated follicles had decreased mRNA for cyclins D2, E1, A2, and B1 and increased p21. Levels of the proapoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and Bok were not altered by DBP treatment, but DBP 1000 μg/ml increased levels of Bid and decreased levels of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2. DBP-treated follicles contained significantly more cells in G1 phase, significantly less cells in S, and exhibited a trend for fewer cells in G2. Although DBP did not affect E2 production and atresia at 24 h, follicles treated with DBP had reduced levels of E2 at 96 h and underwent atresia at 168 h. These data suggest that DBP targets antral follicles and alters the expression of cell cycle and apoptosis factors, causes cell cycle arrest, decreases E2, and triggers atresia, depending on dose. PMID:23242528

  8. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  9. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α during ovarian follicular growth and development in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z H; Chen, L Y; Wang, F; Wu, Y Q; Su, J Q; Huang, X H; Wang, Z C; Cheng, Y

    2015-06-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has been identified as a transcription factor that is involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes in the ovary. In this study, we examined whether HIF-1α is expressed in a cell- and stage-specific manner during follicular growth and development in the mammalian ovaries. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, HIF-1α expression was observed in granulosa cells specifically and was significantly increased during the follicular growth and development of postnatal rats. Furthermore, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin also induced HIF-1α expression in granulosa cells and ovaries during the follicular development of immature rats primed with gonadotropin. Moreover, we also examined proliferation cell nuclear antigen, a cell proliferation marker, during follicular growth and development and found that its expression pattern was similar to that of HIF-1α protein. Granulosa cell culture experiments revealed that proliferation cell nuclear antigen expression may be regulated by HIF-1α. These results indicated that HIF-1α plays an important role in the follicular growth and development of these 2 rat models. The HIF-1α-mediated signaling pathway may be an important mechanism regulating follicular growth and development in mammalian ovaries in vivo.

  10. Ovarian aging and premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Kıvançlı, İçten Balık; Özmen, Batuhan

    2014-01-01

    Physiological reproductive aging occurs as a result of a decrease in the number and quality of oocytes in ovarian cortex follicles. Although the reason for the decrease in the quality of the pool and follicular oocytes is not fully understood, endocrine, paracrine, genetic, and metabolic factors are thought to be effective. Nowadays, in order to understand the mechanisms of ovarian aging, genomic research has gained importance. The effect of co-factors, such as telomerase and ceramide, in the ovarian aging process is only getting ascertained with new research studies. The most important tests in the assessment of ovarian aging are antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone. PMID:25317048

  11. Expression of membrane-type 1, 2, and 3 matrix metalloproteinases messenger RNA in ovarian carcinoma cells in serous effusions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, B; Goldberg, I; Berner, A; Nesland, J M; Givant-Horwitz, V; Bryne, M; Risberg, B; Kristensen, G B; Tropé, C G; Kopolovic, J; Reich, R

    2001-04-01

    We studied the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, membrane-type (MT)1-MMP, MT2-MMP, and MT3-MMP in 43 malignant pleural and peritoneal effusions using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cellular localization of MT1-MMP in 66 effusion specimens and 85 corresponding primary and metastatic tumors using messenger RNA (mRNA) in situ hybridization (ISH). In 43 effusions, MMP-2 mRNA was detected in 37, MT1-MMP in 25, and MT2-MMP in 32. Expression of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP was found in 21 specimens; in 16 MT-MMP-positive specimens, mRNA for only 1 of 2 enzymes was expressed. MT3-MMP mRNA was not detected. High levels of MMP-2 mRNA were detected more often in effusions with high MT1-MMP and/or MT2-MMP mRNA expression. Using ISH, MT1-MMP mRNA was localized to cancer cells in 27 of 58 malignant effusions; focal signals were detected in mesothelial cells in 7 of 42. MT1-MMP was localized to tumor cells in 32 of 85 primary and metastatic solid lesions, and stromal cells expressed MT1-MMP in 3. Tumor cell MT1-MMP expression in effusion specimens did not differ from primary or metastatic lesions. MT-MMP expression in tumor cells in effusions showed no association with effusion site or tumor type using ISH and RT-PCR. PMID:11293899

  12. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these signs ...

  13. Resveratrol promotes expression of SIRT1 and StAR in rat ovarian granulosa cells: an implicative role of SIRT1 in the ovary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound known for its beneficial effects on energy homeostasis, and it also has multiple properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Recently, silent information regulator genes (Sirtuins) have been identified as targets of resveratrol. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), originally found as an NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, is a principal modulator of pathways downstream of calorie restriction, and the activation of SIRT1 ameliorates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. To date, the presence and physiological role of SIRT1 in the ovary are not known. Here we found that SIRT1 was localized in granulosa cells of the human ovary. Methods The physiological roles of resveratrol and SIRT1 in the ovary were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize the SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 protein expression of cultured cells and luteinized human granulosa cells was investigated by Western blot. Rat granulosa cells were obtained from diethylstilbestrol treated rats. The cells were treated with increasing doses of resveratrol, and subsequently harvested to determine mRNA levels and protein levels. Cell viability was tested by MTS assay. Cellular apoptosis was analyzed by caspase 3/7 activity test and Hoechst 33342 staining. Results SIRT1 protein was expressed in the human ovarian tissues and human luteinized granulosa cells. We demonstrated that resveratrol exhibited a potent concentration-dependent inhibition of rat granulosa cells viability. However, resveratrol-induced inhibition of rat granulosa cells viability is independent of apoptosis signal. Resveratrol increased mRNA levels of SIRT1, LH receptor, StAR, and P450 aromatase, while mRNA levels of FSH receptor remained unchanged. Western blot analysis was consistent with the results of quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. In addition, progesterone secretion was induced by the treatment of resveratrol. Conclusions These results

  14. Expression of CD11c+HLA-DR+dendritic cells and related cytokines in the follicular fluid might be related to pathogenesis of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Sen-Lin; Peng, Zhao-Feng; Yao, Gui-Dong; Jin, Hai-Xia; Song, Wen-Yan; Yang, Hong-Yi; Xue, Ru-Yue; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expressions of CD11c+HLA-DR+dentritic cells in the follicular fluid of patients with OHSS and their significances. Subjects: 100 individuals. Treatment: embryos were observed. The distribution of dentritic cells in follicular fluid and the levels of IL-10, IL-12, IL-18 and IL-23 in follicular fluid were detected. Methods: There were ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) group and control group in this study. The OHSS group consisted of 50 patients with OHSS and the control group consisted of 50 patients who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) only due to male factors. The statuses of embryos were compared between the two groups. The distribution of dentritic cells in follicular fluid was determined with flow cytometry, and the levels of IL-10, IL-12, IL-18 and IL-23 in follicular fluid were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all patients. Results: The two-pronuclear (2PN) fertility rate, high-quality embryo rate and available embryo rate were all significantly lower in OHSS group than in control group (all P<0.05). The number of CD11c+HLA-DR+dentritic cells (P<0.05) and the levels of IL-10, IL-12, IL-18 and IL-23 were all significantly higher in OHSS group than in control group (all P<0.01). Conclusion: The follicular fluid of the patients with OHSS is in an inflammatory status, the inflammatory status may be involved in OHSS and the microenvironment of follicular fluid may affects oocyte quality and embryo development. PMID:26823856

  15. Ovarian Kaleidoscope Database: Ten Years and Beyond1

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Aaron J.; Rauch, Rami

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ovarian Kaleidoscope database (OKdb) is an online, searchable, public database containing text-based and DNA microarray data to facilitate research by ovarian researchers. Using key words and predetermined categories, users can search ovarian gene information based on gene function, cell type of expression, cellular localization, hormonal regulation, mutant phenotypes, chromosomal location, ligand-receptor relationship, and other criteria, either alone or in combination. For individual genes, users can access more than 10 extensive DNA microarray datasets to interrogate gene expression patterns in a development-specific and cell type-specific manner. All ligand and receptor genes expressed in the ovary are matched to facilitate investigation of paracrine/autocrine signaling. More than 3500 ovarian genes in the database are matched to 185 gene pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes to allow for elucidation of gene interactions and relationships. In addition to >400 genes with infertility or subfertility phenotypes when mutated in mice or humans, the OKdb also lists ∼50 and ∼40 genes associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency, respectively. The expanding OKdb is updated weekly and allows submission of new genes by ovarian researchers to allow instant access to DNA microarray datasets for newly submitted genes. The present database is a virtual community for ovarian researchers and allows users to instantaneously provide their comments for individual gene pages based on an automated Web-discussion system. In the coming years, we will continue to add new features to serve the ovarian research community. PMID:22441797

  16. Establishment of an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice using a drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line with a high expression of c-Kit.

    PubMed

    Yi, Cunjian; Zhang, Lei; Li, Li; Liu, Xiangqiong; Ling, Shengrong; Zhang, Fayun; Liang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The resistance of ovarian cancer to platinum-based chemotherapy is a critical issue in the clinical setting. The present study aimed to establish animal models to replicate this clinical condition, as well as to investigate the resistance mechanisms of ovarian cancer. A cisplatin (DDP)-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3/DDP, was screened, validated and injected subcutaneously into the neck of female nude mice. Following tumor establishment, the tumor was collected and cut into small sections, which were subsequently implanted into the ovaries of other nude mice. The growth of the orthotopic tumors was observed and the tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed and dissected. The orthotopic and metastatic tumor tissues were collected, sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed. In the present study, 16 nude mice underwent orthotopic transplantation surgery and a tumor model was successfully established in 14/16 of the mice, with an in situ tumor formation rate of 87.5%. Following euthanasia, a laparotomy demonstrated the tumor formation at the site of transplantation, as well as varying degrees of metastasis to additional organs and tissues. Therefore, the present study successfully established an orthotopic tumor transplantation model in nude mice using a c-Kit-positive DDP-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line. This model may represent a useful tool for investigating the resistance mechanism of ovarian cancer, as well as evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic strategies.

  17. Estrogen receptor beta, a possible tumor suppressor involved in ovarian carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lazennec, Gwendal

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of death from gynecological tumors in women. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogens may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis, through their receptors, ERα and ERβ. Interestingly, malignant ovarian tumors originating from epithelial surface constitute about 90% of ovarian cancers and expressed low levels of ERβ, compared to normal tissues. In addition, restoration of ERβ in ovarian cancer cells, leads to strong inhibition of their proliferation and invasion, while apoptosis is enhanced. In this manuscript, recent data suggesting a possible tumor-suppressor role for ERβ in ovarian carcinogenesis are discussed. PMID:16399219

  18. Ovarian steroids regulate gene expression related to DNA repair and neurodegenerative diseases in serotonin neurons of macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Cynthia L.; Reddy, Arubala P.

    2015-01-01

    Depression often accompanies the peri-menopausal transition and it often precedes overt symptomology in common neurodegenerative diseases (NDD; Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington, ALS). Serotonin dysfunction is frequently found in the different etiologies of depression. We have shown that ovariectomized (Ovx) monkeys treated with estradiol (E) for 28 days supplement with placebo or progesterone (P) on days 14-28 had reduced DNA fragmentation in serotonin neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus; and long-term Ovx monkeys had fewer serotonin neurons than intact controls. We questioned the effect of E alone or E+P on gene expression related to DNA repair, protein folding (chaperones), the ubiquitin proteosome, axon transport, and NDD specific genes in serotonin neurons. Ovx macaques were treated with placebo, E or E+P (n=3/group) for 1 month. Serotonin neurons were laser captured and subjected to microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. Increases were confirmed with qRT-PCR in 5 genes that code for proteins involved in repair of strand breaks and nucleotide excision. NBN1, PCNA, GADD45A, RAD23A and GTF2H5 significantly increased with E or E+P treatment (all ANOVA p< 0.01). Chaperone genes HSP70, HSP60 and HSP27 significantly increased with E or E+P treatment (all ANOVA p<0.05). HSP90 showed a similar trend. Ubiquinase coding genes UBEA5, UBE2D3 and UBE3A (Parkin) increased with E or E+P (all ANOVA p<0.003). Transport related genes coding kinesin, dynein, and dynactin increased with E or E+P (all ANOVA p<0.03). SCNA (α synuclein) and ADAM10 (α secretase) increased (both ANOVA p<0.02), but PSEN1 (presenilin1) decreased (ANOVA p<0.02) with treatment. APP decreased 10-fold with E or E+P administration. Newman-Keuls posthoc comparisons indicated variation in the response to E alone versus E+P across the different genes. In summary, E or E+P increased gene expression for DNA repair mechanisms in serotonin neurons, thereby rendering them less vulnerable to stress-induced DNA

  19. Alterations in the expression of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) in human ovarian cancer and indentification of the therapeutic potential of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Xiang, Debing; Wang, Dong; Xin, Xiaoyan

    2009-11-01

    Resistance to platinum is a major limitation for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In an effort to overcome the platinum resistance problem in ovarian cancer treatment, we explored the correlation between cisplatin resistance and the human AP endonuclease (APE1 or Ref-1). APE1/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein that is not only an essential enzyme in base excision repair pathway, but also acts as a major redox-signaling factor that has a wide variety of important cellular functions including transcription factor regulation, oxidative signaling and cell cycle control. In this study, we examined APE1/Ref-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in sections of ovarian cancers from 78 patients who were administered standard adjuvant chemotherapy based on platinum post-operatively. Altered levels and subcellular APE1/Ref-1 expression was found in patients not responding to platinum-based chemotherapy comparing with those who responded to platinum-based chemotherapy. Meanwhile, we detected the APE1/Ref-1 expression in A2780 and CP70 cell lines which have different sensitivity to cisplatin. We found similar altered APE1/Ref-1 expression in them. We hypothesized that the APE1/Ref-1 expression is responsible in part for the cisplatin resistance. To answer this hypothesis, we decreased the APE1/Ref-1 level by silencing RNA targeting technology in A2780 and CP70 cell lines. The A2780 cells treated with APE1-siRNA had IC50 values ranging from 6.70 to 1.74 microM cisplatin compared with 15.81 microM for control A2780 cells. The CP70 cells treated with APE1-siRNA had 1.62-4.63-fold enhancement in cisplatin sensitivity. The apoptosis assays using TUNEL analysis showed that decreased APE1/Ref-1 level resulted in increased apoptosis levels in A2780 and CP70 cell lines compared with the control-treated cells. These data suggest that APE1/Ref-1 levels play an important role in the sensitization of ovarian cancer cells to apoptosis. In vitro studies revealed that it is possible to

  20. The global effect of follicle-stimulating hormone and tumour necrosis factor α on gene expression in cultured bovine ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oocytes mature in ovarian follicles surrounded by granulosa cells. During follicle growth, granulosa cells replicate and secrete hormones, particularly steroids close to ovulation. However, most follicles cease growing and undergo atresia or regression instead of ovulating. To investigate the effects of stimulatory (follicle-stimulating hormone; FSH) and inhibitory (tumour necrosis factor alpha; TNFα) factors on the granulosa cell transcriptome, bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and pools of granulosa cells were cultured in vitro for six days under defined serum-free conditions with treatments present on days 3–6. Initially dose–response experiments (n = 4) were performed to determine the optimal concentrations of FSH (0.33 ng/ml) and TNFα (10 ng/ml) to be used for the microarray experiments. For array experiments cells were cultured under control conditions, with FSH, with TNFα, or with FSH plus TNFα (n = 4 per group) and RNA was harvested for microarray analyses. Results Statistical analysis showed primary clustering of the arrays into two groups, control/FSH and TNFα/TNFα plus FSH. The effect of TNFα on gene expression dominated that of FSH, with substantially more genes differentially regulated, and the pathways and genes regulated by TNFα being similar to those of FSH plus TNFα treatment. TNFα treatment reduced the endocrine activity of granulosa cells with reductions in expression of FST, INHA, INBA and AMH. The top-ranked canonical pathways and GO biological terms for the TNFα treatments included antigen presentation, inflammatory response and other pathways indicative of innate immune function and fibrosis. The two most significant networks also reflect this, containing molecules which are present in the canonical pathways of hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and transforming growth factor β signalling, and these were up regulated. Upstream regulator analyses also predicted TNF, interferons γ and

  1. Ovarian Cancer Biomarker Discovery Based on Genomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Hee Seung; Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer presents at an advanced stage in more than 75% of patients. Early detection has great promise to improve clinical outcomes. Although the advancing proteomic technologies led to the discovery of numerous ovarian cancer biomarkers, no screening method has been recommended for early detection of ovarian cancer. Complexity and heterogeneity of ovarian carcinogenesis is a major obstacle to discover biomarkers. As cancer arises due to accumulation of genetic change, understanding the close connection between genetic changes and ovarian carcinogenesis would provide the opportunity to find novel gene-level ovarian cancer biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the various gene-based biomarkers by genomic technologies, including inherited gene mutations, epigenetic changes, and differential gene expression. In addition, we suggest the strategy to discover novel gene-based biomarkers with recently introduced next generation sequencing. PMID:25337559

  2. Expression of intermediate filaments in the Balbiani body and ovarian follicular wall of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Rodler, Daniela; Sinowatz, Fred

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the distribution of 6 groups of intermediate filaments (IFs; cytokeratins, CKs, vimentin, synemin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and lamins) in oocytes and follicular walls of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) during their development using immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques. A distinctly vimentin- and synemin-positive Balbiani body, which is a transient accumulation of organelles (mitochondria, Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum) that occurs in the oocytes of all vertebrates including birds, could be detected in the oocytes of primordial and early pre-vitellogenic follicles. In larger pre-vitellogenic follicles, the Balbiani body has dispersed and the positivity of the granulosa cells appeared to concentrate in the basal portion of their cytoplasm. Our ultrastructural data demonstrated that the matrix of the Bal-biani body consists of fine IFs, which may play a role in the formation and dispersion of the Balbiani body. Of the CKs studied (panCK, CK5, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK15, CK18 and CK19), only CK5 showed a slight positive staining in both the theca externa and the Balbiani bodies of pre-vitellogenic oocytes. In conclusion, our data, which describe the changes in avian IF protein expression during folliculogenesis, suggest that the functions of the IFs (vimentin and synemin) of oocytes and follicular walls are not primarily mechanical but may be involved in the transient tethering of mitochondria in the area of the Balbiani body and in the gain of endocrine competence during the differentiation of granulosa cells.

  3. Ovarian stem cells: From basic to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ozakpinar, Ozlem Bingol; Maurer, Anne-Marie; Ozsavci, Derya

    2015-05-26

    The field of reproductive biology has undergone significant developments in the last decade. The notion that there is a fixed reserve pool of oocytes before birth was established by Zuckerman in 1951. However, in 2004, an article published in nature challenged this central dogma of mammalian reproductive biology. Tilly's group reported the existence of ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) in postnatal ovaries of mice and suggested that the bone marrow could be an extragonadal source of ovarian GSCs. These findings were strongly criticized; however, several independent groups have since successfully isolated and characterized ovarian GSCs in postnatal mice. The ovarian GSCs are located in the ovarian surface epithelium and express markers of undifferentiated GSCs. When transplanted into mouse ovaries, mouse ovarian GSCs could differentiate and produce embryos and offspring. Similarly, in a recent study, ovarian GSCs were found to be present in the ovaries of women of reproductive age. Conversely, there is increasing evidence that stem cells responsible for maintaining a healthy state in normal tissue may be a source of some cancers, including ovarian cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been found in many tissues, including ovaries. Some researchers have suggested that ovarian cancer may be a result of the transformation and dysfunction of ovarian GSCs with self-renewal properties. Drug resistant and metastasis-generating CSCs are responsible for many important problems affecting ovarian cancer patients. Therefore, the identification of CSCs will provide opportunities for the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatments for infertility and ovarian cancer. In this article, we summarize the current understanding of ovarian GSCs in adult mammals, and we also discuss whether there is a relationship between GSCs and CSCs.

  4. Dynamic changes in the expression of relaxin-like factor (INSL3), cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome p450, and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in bovine ovarian follicles during growth and atresia.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Bathgate, Ross A D; Ivell, Richard; Domagalski, Roger; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2002-04-01

    Relaxin-like factor (RLF) is a new member of the insulin-relaxin gene family known to be expressed in the ovarian follicular thecal cells of ruminants. To investigate the pattern of RLF expression in development and atresia of bovine follicles, antisera were raised in rats and rabbits to recombinantly expressed bovine pro-RLF and to chemically synthesized ovine RLF B chain, respectively. On dot blotting analysis, the rat antiserum bound to pro-RLF and less strongly to a synthetic mature ovine RLF lacking the C-domain, whereas the rabbit antiserum bound the mature form of ovine RLF. These antisera were used to immunostain bovine ovarian follicles of differing sizes and stages of health and atresia. 3beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was colocalized with pro-RLF (n = 86 follicles), and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 was localized in another section of many of the same follicles (n = 66). Not all follicles expressed pro-RLF in the theca interna, so the results are presented as the proportion of follicles expressing pro-RLF. Both mature and pro-RLF were immunolocalized to steroidogenic thecal cells of healthy follicles. As follicles enlarged to >5 mm, the proportion expressing pro-RLF declined (19/19 for <5 mm and 18/26 for >6 mm). Atresia was divided into antral (antral granulosa cells dying first) or basal (basal cells dying first) and further divided into early, middle, and late. For antral atresia of small follicles (2-5 mm), no decline in the proportion expressing pro-RLF was observed (early 6/6, middle 2/2) until the late stages (1/4). For basal atresia, which only occurs in small follicles (2-5 mm), the proportion expressing pro-RLF declined in the middle (2/5) and late (0/8) stages. In larger follicles (>6 to <10 mm), the proportion expressing pro-RLF also declined with atresia (1/13). These declines in RLF expression with atresia or increasing size were not accompanied by a decline in the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the theca

  5. Fractionated Therapy of HER2-Expressing Breast and Ovarian Cancer Xenografts in Mice with Targeted Alpha Emitting 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Abbas, Nasir; Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel; Mollatt, Camilla; Dahle, Jostein

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate therapeutic efficacy and normal tissue toxicity of single dosage and fractionated targeted alpha therapy (TAT) in mice with HER2-expressing breast and ovarian cancer xenografts using the low dose rate radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-trastuzumab. Methodology/Principal Findings Nude mice carrying HER2-overexpressing subcutaneous SKOV-3 or SKBR-3 xenografts were treated with 1000 kBq/kg 227Th-trastuzumab as single injection or four injections of 250 kBq/kg with intervals of 4–5 days, 2 weeks, or 4 weeks. Control animals were treated with normal saline or unlabeled trastuzumab. In SKOV-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed (p<0.01) and survival with tumor diameter less than 16 mm was prolonged (p<0.05) in all TAT groups compared to the control groups. No statistically significant differences were seen among the treated groups. In SKBR-3 xenografts tumor growth to 10-fold size was delayed in the single injection and 4–5 days interval groups (p<0.001) and all except the 4 weeks interval TAT group showed improved survival to the control groups (p<0.05). Toxicity was assessed by blood cell counts, clinical chemistry measurements and body weight. Transient reduction in white blood cells was seen for the single injection and 4–5 days interval groups (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in red blood cells, platelets or clinical chemistry parameters. Survival without life threatening loss of body weight was significantly prolonged in 4 weeks interval group compared to single injection group (p<0.05) for SKOV-3 animals and in 2 weeks interval group compared with the 4–5 days interval groups (p<0.05) for SKBR-3 animals. Conclusions/Significance The same concentration of radioactivity split into several fractions may improve toxicity of 227Th-radioimmunotherapy while the therapeutic effect is maintained. Thus, it might be possible to increase the cumulative absorbed radiation dose to tumor

  6. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Diane M.; Khan, Sheema; Nordquist, Jordan; Ebeling, Mara C.; Bauer, Nichole A.; Kopel, Lucas; Singh, Man Mohan; Halaweish, Fathi; Bell, Maria C.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25306892

  8. [Diagnosis of presumed benign ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Laculle-Massin, C; Collinet, P; Faye, N

    2013-12-01

    Symptoms of presumed benign ovarian tumors (PBOT) are not specific (LE4). Personal or family history of gynecological cancers can guide the diagnostic strategy. Clinical examination is ineffective for positive, topographic and etiologic diagnosis of PBOT (LE4). Signs of hormonal impregnation may refer to certain types of tumors (LE4). For any patient presenting with a pelvic mass, pelvic ultrasound is in the first-line exam (grade A); it can classify most ovarian tumors. In case of pure liquid unilocular mass smaller than 7 cm, ultrasound is sufficient to characterize the mass (grade A). In case of indeterminate or complex ovarian mass on ultrasound, MRI is useful to characterize the mass (LE2). Beyond 7 cm, the diagnostic performance of ultrasound decreases (LE2). When a non-unilocular liquid ovarian formation is characterized using ultrasound as determinate mass, ultrasound scan is the only exam recommended (grade B). MRI is indicated as a second-line scan for indeterminate masses or greater than 7 cm (grade B). Cyst puncture for diagnostic purposes has no place in the diagnostic strategy of ovarian cysts (grade C). In case of PBOT in pre-pubertal period, dosing biomarkers is useful but should not delay care. In adult women with PBOT, the measurement of CA125 is not recommended for first-line diagnosis (grade C). Current literature data are not sufficient to specify the diagnostic strategy for an ovarian tumor discovered incidentally during laparoscopy. In case of discovery of a high CA125 value, pelvic ultrasound is the first-line examination. The literature data are still limited to define a CA125 threshold value requiring further exploration or special monitoring, in case of normal pelvic ultrasound.

  9. Vanishing ovarian mass: Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Turkay, Rustu; Bakir, Baris; Golabi, Uygar Cenik; Topuz, Samet; Ilhan, Huseyin Ridvan

    2012-01-01

    A woman was referred to our hospital with the working diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. While she was undergoing both clinical and radiological evaluation and monitoring, a decrease in the size of the ovarian mass was noted. After further evaluation via laboratory findings and tissue biopsy, we arrived at a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis, which is very unusual in the ovaries. Our case places emphasis on the importance of considering rare entities, such as ovarian sarcoidosis, and the importance of radiologic changes in solid ovarian mass dimensions over time.

  10. Continuous cadmium exposure from weaning to maturity induces downregulation of ovarian follicle development-related SCF/c-kit gene expression and the corresponding changes of DNA methylation/microRNA pattern.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shaozheng; Wang, Wenxiang; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Lu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Shihua; Wu, Tingting; Xie, Meimei; Zhang, Wenchang

    2014-03-21

    Cadmium (Cd) impairs ovary structure and function in mature animals. However, the influence of Cd on follicle development from weaning to maturity is obscure. In the current study, 21-day-old Wistar rats were administered Cd chloride at doses of 0, 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight once a day for eight weeks by gavage. After administration, a significant decrease in ovarian wet weight, ovarian/body weight ratios, and primordial follicles, in addition to an increase in atresic follicles, were observed. Transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL assay confirmed the increase of follicle apoptosis as Cd concentration increased. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting showed a significantly decreased expression of follicle development-related factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and c-kit. Bisulfite sequencing suggested that the total methylation percentages of SCF/c-kit promoter region were not obvious change after Cd exposure. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed a significantly increased expression of miR-193, miR-221 and miR-222, which regulate c-kit, in the 2.0 mg/kg and 8.0 mg/kg treatment groups. Overall, this study proved that Cd administration from weaning to maturity could damage follicle development, suggesting that SCF/c-kit might play an important role in this effect. In addition, microRNAs might play a role in c-kit protein downregulation.

  11. Erlotinib Plus Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Ovarian Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-29

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  12. A novel biomarker ARMc8 promotes the malignant progression of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guiyang; Yang, Dalei; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Xiupeng; Xu, Hongtao; Miao, Yuan; Wang, Enhua; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide, and the survival rates have remained low in spite of medical advancements. More research is dedicated to the identification of novel biomarkers for this deadly disease. The association between ARMc8 and ovarian cancer remained unraveled. In this study, immunohistochemical staining was used to examine ARMc8 expression in 247 cases of ovarian cancer, 19 cases of borderline ovarian tumors, 41 cases of benign ovarian tumors, and 9 cases of normal ovarian tissues. It was shown that ARMc8 was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, and its expression was up-regulated in the ovarian cancer (61.9%) and the borderline ovarian tumor tissues (57.9%), in comparison with the benign ovarian tumors (12.2%; P < .05) and the normal ovarian tissues (11.1%; P < .05). In ovarian cancer, ARMc8 expression was closely related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages (P = .002), histology grade (P < .001), lymph node metastasis (P = .008), and poor prognosis (P < .001). Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses revealed that ARMc8 expression was an independent prognostic factor for ovarian cancer (P = .039 and P = .005). In addition, ARMc8 could promote the invasion and migration of ovarian cancer cells. Overexpressing ARMc8 enhanced the invasion and metastasis capacity of ARMc8-low Cavo-3 cells (P < .001), whereas interfering ARMc8 significantly reduced cell invasion and metastasis in ARMc8-high SK-OV-3 cells (P < .001). Furthermore, ARMc8 could up-regulate matrix metalloproteinase-7 and snail and down-regulate α-catenin, p120ctn, and E-cadherin. Collectively, ARMc8 may enhance the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells and likely to become a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:26232863

  13. Pathogenesis of ovarian cancer: clues from selected overexpressed genes

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ie-Ming; Davidson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most malignant gynecologic neoplasm. Although new chemotherapeutic agents have improved patients' 5-year survival rate, the overall mortality of ovarian cancer has remained largely unchanged in the past several decades. The main reason for the lack of success in effectively treating ovarian cancer is our limited understanding of its etiology and the very few molecular diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets known so far. Identification and characterization of ovarian cancer-associated genes are fundamental for unveiling the pathogenesis of its initiation and progression, especially the development of recurrent diseases. As there are a vast number of genes for which molecular genetic changes and aberrant gene expression have been reported in ovarian cancer, this review will only focus on summarizing those exemplified genes that have been demonstrated to have biological functions in promoting ovarian cancer development and potential clinical significance. The genes to be discussed include nuclear proteins (Notch3, HBXAP [Rsf-1], NAC1 and NFκB), cytoplasmic proteins (fatty acid synthase and apolipoprotein E) and cell surface/secretory proteins (mucin-4, mesothelin, claudin, HLA-G, kallikrein and folate receptor and osteopontin). Since the study of ovarian cancer-associated genes is complicated by several factors unique to ovarian cancer, we will also present our views on the limitations and challenges of current ovarian cancer research. PMID:20001801

  14. Overexpression of the β Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes the Transformation of Human Ovarian Epithelial Cells and Ovarian Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Liu, Guangzhi; Schauer, Isaiah G.; Yang, Gong; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shiwu; He, Yuanli; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, however underlying molecular events remain elusive. Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit (β-hCG) is clinically significant for both trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic cancers; however, whether β-hCG facilitates ovarian epithelial cell tumorigenic potential remains uncharacterized. Immortalized nontumorigenic ovarian epithelial T29 and T80 cells stably overexpressing β-hCG were examined for alterations in cell cycle and apoptotic status by flow cytometry, expression of proteins regulating cell cycle and apoptosis by Western blot, proliferation status by MTT assay, anchorage-independent colony formation, and mouse tumor formation. Immunoreactivity for β-hCG was evaluated using mouse xenografts and on human normal ovarian, fallopian tube, endometrium, and ovarian carcinoma tissues. T29 and T80 cells overexpressing β-hCG demonstrated significantly increased proliferation, anchorage-independent colony formation, prosurvival Bcl-XL protein expression, G2-checkpoint progression, elevated cyclins E/D1 and Cdk 2/4/6, and decreased apoptosis. Collectively, these transformational alterations in phenotype facilitated increased xenograft tumorigenesis (P < 0.05). Furthermore, β-hCG immunoreactivity was elevated in malignant ovarian tumors, compared with normal epithelial expression in ovaries, fallopian tube, and endometrium (P < 0.001). Our data indicate that elevated β-hCG transforms ovarian surface epithelial cells, facilitating proliferation, cell cycle progression, and attenuated apoptosis to promote tumorigenesis. Our results further decipher the functional role and molecular mechanism of β-hCG in ovarian carcinoma. β-hCG may contribute to ovarian cancer etiology, which introduces a new therapeutic intervention target for ovarian cancer. PMID:21763678

  15. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... States, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death. Around one in every 60 ... States, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death. Are some women more at ...

  16. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  17. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  19. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  20. Overexpression of TAZ promotes cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangyuan; Xie, Jiabin; Huang, Ping; Yang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is dysregulated in multiple types of human cancer, including ovarian cancer. Nuclear expression of yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a downstream transcription coactivator of the Hippo pathway, has been demonstrated to promote tumorigenesis in ovarian cancer and may serve as a poor prognostic indicator. However, transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ), a downstream target of the Hippo pathway and paralog of YAP in mammalian cells, has not been fully investigated in ovarian cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the dysregulation and biological function of TAZ in ovarian cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting revealed that TAZ mRNA and protein levels, respectively, were upregulated in ovarian cancer, and a meta-analysis of ovarian cancer microarray datasets identified that increased expression of TAZ mRNA is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. In addition, TAZ-knockdown in ovarian cancer cells demonstrated that TAZ regulates the migration, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, pharmacological disruption of the YAP/TAZ/TEA domain protein complex resulted in a decrease in ovarian cancer cell migration, proliferation and vimentin expression. The results of the present study indicate that the overexpression of TAZ is important in the development and progression of ovarian cancer, and may function as a potential drug target for treatment of this disease entity. PMID:27588129

  1. Specifying structural constraints of architectural patterns in the ARCHERY language

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Barbosa, Luis S.; Riesco, Daniel

    2015-03-10

    ARCHERY is an architectural description language for modelling and reasoning about distributed, heterogeneous and dynamically reconfigurable systems in terms of architectural patterns. The language supports the specification of architectures and their reconfiguration. This paper introduces a language extension for precisely describing the structural design decisions that pattern instances must respect in their (re)configurations. The extension is a propositional modal logic with recursion and nominals referencing components, i.e., a hybrid µ-calculus. Its expressiveness allows specifying safety and liveness constraints, as well as paths and cycles over structures. Refinements of classic architectural patterns are specified.

  2. [Bone marrow involvement in ovarian cancer determined by immunohistochemical methods].

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M; Obrebowska, A; Spaczyński, M

    2000-01-01

    Atypical epithelial cells in the bone marrow of patients with ovarian cancer were evaluated using immunohistochemical techniques. We investigated cytospin preparations of bone marrow taken from 9 women with benign ovarian tumors and 59 women with malignant ovarian tumors. Two monoclonal antibodies (NCL-C11 and NCL-CA 125) were used. With both antibodies we were able to detect keratin and CA 125 antigen expression in the bone marrow of 9 (18.4%) of the patients with ovarian cancer. With regard to the wide histological differentiation of ovarian carcinomas, the presence of atypical epithelial cells in the bone marrow was required as a prognostic factor for survival and relapses. This should be investigated in a larger study group. PMID:11326158

  3. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. MV-NIS Infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-08

    Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer Can ovarian cancer be found early? About 20% of ovarian cancers ... cancer in its earliest stage. Ways to find ovarian cancer early Regular women's health exams During a pelvic ...

  6. Downregulation of LRRC8A protects human ovarian and alveolar carcinoma cells against Cisplatin-induced expression of p53, MDM2, p21Waf1/Cip1, and Caspase-9/-3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Nielsen, Dorthe; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) protein is an essential component of the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), and using pharmacological anion channel inhibitors (NS3728, DIDS) and LRRC8A siRNA we have investigated its role in development of Cisplatin resistance in human ovarian (A2780) and alveolar (A549) carcinoma cells. In Cisplatin-sensitive cells Cisplatin treatment increases p53-protein level as well as downstream signaling, e.g., expression of p21Waf1/Cip1, Bax, Noxa, MDM2, and activation of Caspase-9/-3. In contrast, Cisplatin-resistant cells do not enter apoptosis, i.e., their p53 and downstream signaling are reduced and caspase activity unaltered following Cisplatin exposure. Reduced LRRC8A expression and VSOAC activity are previously shown to correlate with Cisplatin resistance, and here we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition and transient knockdown of LRRC8A reduce the protein level of p53, MDM2, and p21Waf1/Cip1 as well as Caspase-9/-3 activation in Cisplatin-sensitive cells. Cisplatin resistance is accompanied by reduction in total LRRC8A expression (A2780) or LRRC8A expression in the plasma membrane (A549). Activation of Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by TNFα-exposure or hyperosmotic cell shrinkage is almost unaffected by pharmacological anion channel inhibition. Our data indicate 1) that expression/activity of LRRC8A is essential for Cisplatin-induced increase in p53 protein level and its downstream signaling, i.e., Caspase-9/-3 activation, expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and MDM2; and 2) that downregulation of LRRC8A-dependent osmolyte transporters contributes to acquirement of Cisplatin resistance in ovarian and lung carcinoma cells. Activation of LRRC8A-containing channels is upstream to apoptotic volume decrease as hypertonic cell shrinkage induces apoptosis independent of the presence of LRRC8A. PMID:26984736

  7. Expression and localization of angiopoietin family in buffalo ovarian follicles during different stages of development and modulatory role of angiopoietins on steroidogenesis and survival of cultured buffalo granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S R; Thakur, N; Somal, A; Parmar, M S; Yadav, V P; Bharati, Jaya; Bharti, M K; Paul, A; Verma, M R; Chouhan, V S; Sharma, G Taru; Singh, G; González, L A; D'Occhio, M J; Sarkar, M

    2016-10-15

    The present study investigated the expression and localization of angiopoietin (ANPT) family members in buffalo ovarian follicles of different size. It also looked at the role of ANPTs in estradiol secretion and mRNA expression of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-protein kinase B signaling pathway cellular proliferation (phosphoinositide-dependant kinase and protein kinase B [AKT]) and proapoptotic (BAD) factors with caspase 3 in cultured buffalo granulosa cells (GCs). The mRNA and protein expression of ANPT-1 was greatest (P < 0.05), whereas ANPT-2 was reduced (P < 0.05) in preovulatory follicles as compared to F1 follicle. Tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 1 transcripts and protein expression did not change in all follicular groups, whereas tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2 mRNA was highest (P < 0.05) in theca interna but not GC layer of preovulatory follicle. All members of ANPT family were localized in GC and theca interna showing a stage specific immunoreactivity. Cultured GCs were treated with ANPT-1 and ANPT-2 separately at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL and in combination at 100 ng/mL for three incubation periods (24, 48, and 72 hours). Estradiol secretion was highest (P < 0.05) at 100 ng/mL at 72 hours of incubation when GCs were treated with either protein alone. The mRNA expression of phosphoinositide-dependant kinase and AKT was highest (P < 0.05), and BAD with caspase 3 was lowest (P < 0.05) at 100 ng/mL at 72 hours of incubation, when cultured GCs were treated separately with each protein or in combination. The immuoreactivity of AKT, pAKT, and pBAD were maximal, whereas BAD was minimal with 100 ng/mL at 72 hours when cultured GCs treated with either protein alone. The findings indicate that ANPTs are expressed in a regulated manner in buffalo ovarian follicle during different stages of development where they may promote steroidogenesis and GC survival through autocrine and paracrine

  8. Expression and localization of angiopoietin family in buffalo ovarian follicles during different stages of development and modulatory role of angiopoietins on steroidogenesis and survival of cultured buffalo granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S R; Thakur, N; Somal, A; Parmar, M S; Yadav, V P; Bharati, Jaya; Bharti, M K; Paul, A; Verma, M R; Chouhan, V S; Sharma, G Taru; Singh, G; González, L A; D'Occhio, M J; Sarkar, M

    2016-10-15

    The present study investigated the expression and localization of angiopoietin (ANPT) family members in buffalo ovarian follicles of different size. It also looked at the role of ANPTs in estradiol secretion and mRNA expression of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-protein kinase B signaling pathway cellular proliferation (phosphoinositide-dependant kinase and protein kinase B [AKT]) and proapoptotic (BAD) factors with caspase 3 in cultured buffalo granulosa cells (GCs). The mRNA and protein expression of ANPT-1 was greatest (P < 0.05), whereas ANPT-2 was reduced (P < 0.05) in preovulatory follicles as compared to F1 follicle. Tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 1 transcripts and protein expression did not change in all follicular groups, whereas tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2 mRNA was highest (P < 0.05) in theca interna but not GC layer of preovulatory follicle. All members of ANPT family were localized in GC and theca interna showing a stage specific immunoreactivity. Cultured GCs were treated with ANPT-1 and ANPT-2 separately at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL and in combination at 100 ng/mL for three incubation periods (24, 48, and 72 hours). Estradiol secretion was highest (P < 0.05) at 100 ng/mL at 72 hours of incubation when GCs were treated with either protein alone. The mRNA expression of phosphoinositide-dependant kinase and AKT was highest (P < 0.05), and BAD with caspase 3 was lowest (P < 0.05) at 100 ng/mL at 72 hours of incubation, when cultured GCs were treated separately with each protein or in combination. The immuoreactivity of AKT, pAKT, and pBAD were maximal, whereas BAD was minimal with 100 ng/mL at 72 hours when cultured GCs treated with either protein alone. The findings indicate that ANPTs are expressed in a regulated manner in buffalo ovarian follicle during different stages of development where they may promote steroidogenesis and GC survival through autocrine and paracrine

  9. 50 CFR 218.10 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Training in the Jacksonville Range Complex (JAX Range Complex) § 218.10 Specified activity and specified... the Navy is only authorized if it occurs within the JAX Range Complex Operation Areas (OPAREAs),...

  10. Coordinately up-regulated genes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hough, C D; Cho, K R; Zonderman, A B; Schwartz, D R; Morin, P J

    2001-05-15

    A better understanding of the molecular circuitry in normal ovarian tissues and in ovarian cancer will likely provide new targets for diagnosis and therapy. Recently, much has been learned about the genes expressed in ovarian cancer through studies with cDNA arrays and serial analysis of gene expression. However, these methods do not allow highly quantitative analysis of gene expression on a large number of specimens. Here, we have used quantitative real-time RT-PCR in a panel of 39 microdissected ovarian carcinomas of various subtypes to systematically analyze the expression of 13 genes, many of which were previously identified as up-regulated in a subset of ovarian cancers by serial analyses of gene expression. The genes analyzed are glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), apolipoprotein J/clusterin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2, epithelial cell adhesion molecule/GA733-2, Kop protease inhibitor, matrix gla protein, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3, folate receptor 1, S100A2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, and ceruloplasmin. All of the genes were found overexpressed, some at extremely high levels, in the vast majority of ovarian carcinomas irrespective of the subtype. Interestingly, GPX3 was found at much higher levels in tumors with clear cell histology and may represent a biomarker for this subtype. Some of the genes studied here may thus represent targets for early detection ovarian cancer. The gene expression patterns were not associated with age at diagnosis, stage, or K-ras mutation status in ovarian cancer. We find that several genes are coordinately regulated in ovarian cancer, likely representing the fact that many genes are activated as part of common signaling pathways or that extensive cross-talk exists between several pathways in ovarian cancer. A statistical analysis shows that genes commonly up-regulated in ovarian cancer may result from the aberrant

  11. Expression and localization of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in buffalo ovarian follicle during different stages of development and modulatory role of FGF2 on steroidogenesis and survival of cultured buffalo granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S R; Thakur, N; Somal, A; Parmar, M S; Reshma, R; Rajesh, G; Yadav, V P; Bharti, M K; Bharati, Jaya; Paul, A; Chouhan, V S; Sharma, G T; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the expression and localization of FGF and its functional receptors in the follicle of buffalo and the treatment of FGF2 on mRNA expression of CYP19A1 (aromatase), PCNA, and BAX (BCL-2 associated X protein) in cultured buffalo granulosa cells (GCs). Follicles were classified into four groups based on size and E2 level in follicular fluid (FF): F1, 4-6mm diameter, E2<0.5ng/ml of FF; F2, 7-9mm, E2=0.5-5ng/ml; F3, 10-13mm, E2=5-40ng/ml; F4, >14mm, E2>180ng/ml. The qPCR studies revealed that the mRNA expression of FGF1, FGF2 and FGF7 were maximum (P<0.05) in theca interna (TI) whereas the transcripts of FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR2IIIB and FGFR2IIIC were up-regulated (P<0.05) in GCs of F4 follicles. Protein expression of most members were maximum (P<0.05) in F4 follicles except FGFR3 and FGFR4. All members were localized in GC and TI with a stage specific immunoreactivity. Primary culture of GCs with treatment of FGF2 at different dose-time combinations revealed that the mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of CYP19A1 and PCNA were maximum (P<0.05) whereas BAX was minimum (P<0.05) with 200ng/ml at 72h of incubation. The findings indicate that FGF family members are expressed in a regulated manner in buffalo ovarian follicles during different stages of development where FGF2 may promote steroidogenesis and GC survival through autocrine and paracrine manner. PMID:27663377

  12. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  13. Anti-PD-L1 prolongs survival and triggers T cell but not humoral anti-tumor immune responses in a human MUC1-expressing preclinical ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Mony, Jyothi Thyagabhavan; Zhang, Lixin; Ma, Tianzhou; Grabosch, Shannon; Tirodkar, Tejas S; Brozick, Joan; Tseng, George; Elishaev, Esther; Edwards, Robert P; Huang, Xin; Vlad, Anda M

    2015-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that block inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules and enhance anti-tumor responses show clinical promise in advanced solid tumors. Most of the preliminary evidence on therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockers comes from studies in melanoma, lung and renal cancer. To test the in vivo potential of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade in ovarian cancer, we recently generated a new transplantable tumor model using human mucin 1 (MUC1)-expressing 2F8 cells. The MUC1 transgenic (MUC1.Tg) mice develop large number of intraperitoneal (IP) tumors following IP injection of 8 × 10(5) syngeneic 2F8 cells. The tumors are aggressive and display little T cell infiltration. Anti-PD-L1 antibody was administered IP every 2 weeks (200 μg/dose) for a total of three doses. Treatment was started 21 days post-tumor challenge, a time point which corresponds to late tumor stage. The anti-PD-L1 treatment led to substantial T cell infiltration within the tumor and significantly increased survival (p = 0.001) compared to isotype control-treated mice. When the same therapy was administered to wild-type mice challenged with 2F8 tumors, no survival benefit was observed, despite the presence of high titer anti-MUC1 antibodies. However, earlier treatment (day 11) and higher frequency of IP injections restored the T cell responses and led to prolonged survival. Splenocyte profiling via Nanostring using probes for 511 immune genes revealed a treatment-induced immune gene signature consistent with increased T cell-mediated immunity. These findings strongly support further preclinical and clinical strategies exploring PD-L1 blockade in ovarian cancer.

  14. Small molecule inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway DMH1 reduces ovarian cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Hover, Laura D; Young, Christian D; Bhola, Neil E; Wilson, Andrew J; Khabele, Dineo; Hong, Charles C; Moses, Harold L; Owens, Philip

    2015-11-01

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) family of secreted cytokines/growth factors is an important regulator of cancer. BMP ligands have been shown to play both tumor suppressive and promoting roles in human cancers. We have found that BMP ligands are amplified in human ovarian cancers and that BMP receptor expression correlates with poor progression-free-survival (PFS). Furthermore, active BMP signaling has been observed in human ovarian cancer tissue. We also determined that ovarian cancer cell lines have active BMP signaling in a cell autonomous fashion. Inhibition of BMP signaling with a small molecule receptor kinase antagonist is effective at reducing ovarian tumor sphere growth. Furthermore, BMP inhibition can enhance sensitivity to Cisplatin treatment and regulates gene expression involved in platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. Overall, these studies suggest targeting the BMP pathway as a novel source to enhance chemo-sensitivity in ovarian cancer.

  15. MiR-197 induces Taxol resistance in human ovarian cancer cells by regulating NLK.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dongling; Wang, Dong; Li, Rong; Tang, Ying; Yuan, Li; Long, Xingtao; Zhou, Qi

    2015-09-01

    Chemotherapy is the preferred therapeutic approach for the therapy of advanced ovarian cancer, but 5-year survival rate remains low due to the development of drug resistance. Increasing evidence has documented that microRNAs (miRNAs) act important roles in drug resistance in a variety types of cancer. However, the roles of miRNA in regulating Taxol resistance in ovarian cancer and the detailed mechanism are less reported. We used Taqman probe stem loop real-time PCR to accurately measure the levels of miR-197 in normal ovarian cells, ovarian cancer cells, and Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells and found that miR-197 was significantly increased in Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Enforced expression of miR-197 can promote Taxol resistance, cell proliferation, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, repression of miR-197 in ovarian cancer cells can sensitize its response to Taxol and also induced attenuated cell proliferation and invasion ability. Furthermore, investigation of the detailed mechanism showed that the promotion of miR-197 on drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells was partially mediated by downregulating NLK, a negative regulator of WNT signaling pathway. Taken together, our work first demonstrated that miR-197 can confer drug resistance to Taxol, by regulating tumor suppressor, NLK expression in ovarian cancer cells.

  16. TRPM7 is required for ovarian cancer cell growth, migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Liao, Qian-jin; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Hui; Luo, Chen-hui; Tang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Tang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Xue-heng; Zhang, Qiong-yu; Xiao, Ling

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Silence of TRPM7 in ovarian cancer cells inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • Silence of TRPM7 decreases phosphorylation levels of Akt, Src and p38 in ovarian cancer cells. • Silence of TRPM7 increases expression of filamentous actin and number of focal adhesions in ovarian cancer cells. - Abstract: Our previous study demonstrated that the melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel 7 (TRPM7) was highly expressed in ovarian carcinomas and its overexpression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. However, the function of TRPM7 in ovarian cancer is mostly unknown. In this study, we examined the roles of TRPM7 in ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We found that short hairpin RNA interference-mediated silence of TRPM7 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in multiple ovarian cancer cell lines. Mechanistic investigation revealed that silence of TRPM7 decreased phosphorylation levels of Akt, Src and p38 and increased filamentous actin and focal adhesion number in ovarian cancer cells. Thus, our results suggest that TRPM7 is required for proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells through regulating multiple signaling transduction pathways and the formation of focal adhesions.

  17. A distinct molecular profile associated with mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann-Schwarz, V A; Gardiner-Garden, M; Henshall, S M; Scurry, J P; Scolyer, R A; Smith, A N; Bali, A; Bergh, P Vanden; Baron-Hay, S; Scott, C; Fink, D; Hacker, N F; Sutherland, R L; O'Brien, P M

    2006-01-01

    Mucinous epithelial ovarian cancers (MOC) are clinically and morphologically distinct from the other histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. To determine the genetic basis of MOC and to identify potential tumour markers, gene expression profiling of 49 primary ovarian cancers of different histological subtypes was performed using a customised oligonucleotide microarray containing >59 000 probesets. The results show that MOC express a genetic profile that both differs and overlaps with other subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer. Concordant with its histological phenotype, MOC express genes characteristic of mucinous carcinomas of varying epithelial origin, including intestinal carcinomas. Differences in gene expression between MOC and other histological subtypes of ovarian cancer were confirmed by RT–PCR and/or immunohistochemistry. In particular, galectin 4 (LGALS4) was highly and specifically expressed in MOC, but expressed at lower levels in benign mucinous cysts and borderline (atypical proliferative) tumours, supporting a malignant progression model of MOC. Hence LGALS4 may have application as an early and differential diagnostic marker of MOC. PMID:16508639

  18. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S.; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K.; Colvin, Emily K.; Jones, Marc D.; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M.; Brown, Laura M.; Wong, Carol W.; Spong, Suzanne M.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Hacker, Neville F.; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C.; Birrer, Michael J.; Samimi, Goli

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. PMID:26575166

  19. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K; Colvin, Emily K; Jones, Marc D; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M; Brown, Laura M; Wong, Carol W; Spong, Suzanne M; Scarlett, Christopher J; Hacker, Neville F; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C; Birrer, Michael J; Samimi, Goli

    2015-12-29

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

  20. Nectin 4 Overexpression in Ovarian Cancer Tissues and Serum

    PubMed Central

    DeRycke, Melissa S.; Pambuccian, Stefan E.; Gilks, C. Blake; Kalloger, Steve E.; Ghidouche, Abderrezak; Lopez, Marc; Bliss, Robin L.; Geller, Melissa A.; Argenta, Peter A.; Harrington, Katherine M.; Skubitz, Amy P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of ovarian cancer is difficult owing to the lack of specific and sensitive tests available. Previously, we found expression of nectin 4 to be increased in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovaries. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR validated the overexpression of nectin 4 messenger RNA in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovarian cell lines and tissues. Protein levels of nectin 4 were elevated in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissue compared with normal ovarian cell lines as demonstrated by Western immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray slides. Cleaved nectin 4 was detectable in a number of patient serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In patients with benign gynecologic diseases with high serum CA125 levels, nectin 4 was not detected in the majority of cases, suggesting that nectin 4 may serve as a potential biomarker that helps discriminate benign gynecologic diseases from ovarian cancer in a panel with CA125. PMID:20959669