Usability of expressive description logics--a case study in UMLS.
Cornet, R; Abu-Hanna, A
2002-01-01
Research in (medical) terminological knowledge representation is showing an increased interest in the family of Description Logics (DLs), as they allow for automatic reasoning. This interest is driven by an increase in demands on the quality of and reasoning ability with medical terminological knowledge. Recent advances in Computer Science have demonstrated the computational decidability and empirical tractability of quite expressive DLs. The question arises whether this expressivity is usable and useful. This paper motivates and describes an exploratory study to address this question by examining the surplus value of individual DL constructors based on an investigation of UMLS terms. Our study indicates that the disjunction and negation operators comprise very valuable extensions to current DLs. The impact of formalization depends on the involved semantic type; "Injury and Poisoning" is one of the semantic types in which a large portion of concepts will benefit from the extension. PMID:12463811
Closed terminologies in description logics
Weida, R.A. |
1996-12-31
We introduce a predictive concept recognition methodology for description logics based on a new closed terminology assumption. During knowledge engineering, our system adopts the standard open terminology assumption as it automatically classifies concept descriptions into a taxonomy via subsumption inferences. However, for applications like configuration, the terminology becomes fixed during problem solving. Then, closed terminology reasoning is more appropriate. In our interactive configuration application, a user incrementally specifies an individual computer system in collaboration with a configuration engine. Choices can be made in any order and at any level of abstraction. We distinguish between abstract and concrete concepts to formally define when an individual`s description may be considered finished. We also take advantage of the closed terminology assumption, together with the terminology`s subsumption-based organization, to efficiently track the types of systems and components consistent with current choices, infer additional constraints on current choices, and appropriately guide future choices. Thus, we can help focus the efforts of both user and configuration engine.
The limits on combining recursive horn rules with description logics
Levy, A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.
1996-12-31
Horn rule languages have formed the basis for many Artificial Intelligence application languages, but are not expressive enough to model domains with a rich hierarchical structure. Description logics have been designed especially to model rich hierarchies. Several applications would significantly benefit from combining the expressive power of both formalisms. This paper focuses on combining recursive function-free Horn rules with the expressive description logic ALCNR, and shows exactly when a hybrid language with decidable inference can be obtained. First, we show that several of the core constructors of description logics lead by themselves to undecidability of inference when combined with recursive function-free Horn rules. We then show that without these constructors we obtain a maximal subset of ALCNRR that yields a decidable hybrid language. Finally, we describe a restriction on the Horn rules that guarantees decidable inference when combined with all of ALCNR, and covers many of the common usages of recursive rules.
Modelling Object Typicality in Description Logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britz, Katarina; Heidema, Johannes; Meyer, Thomas
We present a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics (DLs) that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. We define a general preferential semantic framework for reasoning with object typicality in DLs. We propose the use of feature vectors to rank concept members according to their defining and characteristic features, which provides a modelling mechanism to specify typicality in composite concepts.
The CSM testbed matrix processors internal logic and dataflow descriptions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Regelbrugge, Marc E.; Wright, Mary A.
1988-01-01
This report constitutes the final report for subtask 1 of Task 5 of NASA Contract NAS1-18444, Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Research. This report contains a detailed description of the coded workings of selected CSM Testbed matrix processors (i.e., TOPO, K, INV, SSOL) and of the arithmetic utility processor AUS. These processors and the current sparse matrix data structures are studied and documented. Items examined include: details of the data structures, interdependence of data structures, data-blocking logic in the data structures, processor data flow and architecture, and processor algorithmic logic flow.
Describing and recognizing patterns of events in smart environments with description logic.
Scalmato, Antonello; Sgorbissa, Antonio; Zaccaria, Renato
2013-12-01
This paper describes a system for context awareness in smart environments, which is based on an ontology expressed in description logic and implemented in OWL 2 EL, which is a subset of the Web Ontology Language that allows for reasoning in polynomial time. The approach is different from all other works in the literature since the proposed system requires only the basic reasoning mechanisms of description logic, i.e., subsumption and instance checking, without any additional external reasoning engine. Experiments performed with data collected in three different scenarios are described, i.e., the CASAS Project at Washington State University, the assisted living facility Villa Basilea in Genoa, and the Merry Porter mobile robot at the Polyclinic of Modena. PMID:23757579
Describing and recognizing patterns of events in smart environments with description logic.
Scalmato, Antonello; Sgorbissa, Antonio; Zaccaria, Renato
2013-12-01
This paper describes a system for context awareness in smart environments, which is based on an ontology expressed in description logic and implemented in OWL 2 EL, which is a subset of the Web Ontology Language that allows for reasoning in polynomial time. The approach is different from all other works in the literature since the proposed system requires only the basic reasoning mechanisms of description logic, i.e., subsumption and instance checking, without any additional external reasoning engine. Experiments performed with data collected in three different scenarios are described, i.e., the CASAS Project at Washington State University, the assisted living facility Villa Basilea in Genoa, and the Merry Porter mobile robot at the Polyclinic of Modena.
Brewer, Allen; Helfgott, Maxwell A; Novak, Joseph; Schanhals, Rick
2012-09-01
The development and implementation of competent and cost-effective computerized medical records that profoundly improve physician productivity and knowledge management will require the development of a new paradigm for the representation and analysis of medical knowledge and logic. Medical knowledge is acquired inductively by observing, measuring, and eliciting information from patients in a process that is investigational rather than transactional. Most, if not all, current approaches to health information technology (HIT) rely on a logic and data structure that imposes significant limitations on the ability of physicians to thoroughly and efficiently document and access empiric patient data because the information is almost invariably organized in a way which presumes, rather than makes explicit, the relationships of concepts and their meaning. Cmapping provides a graphical method of capturing and displaying expert content knowledge that is simple to comprehend and modify and provides a foundation for a dynamic, inductive, and inclusive method of clinical documentation and research. The basis of medical decision analysis along with representative samples of medical knowledge modeling in the Cmap format is presented. The knowledge structures that are captured in Cmaps can be expressed directly in propositional logic, enabling the capability to convert Cmapped clinical expressions to be used to define a description logic for clinical evidence documentation and analysis that can in turn be mapped to multiple natural languages. The described description logic approach can be used to formulate digital messages and documents and to automate the process of converting description specifications formulated in propositional logic into operational electronic health record solutions for capture and reporting of clinical encounters. It has also been demonstrated that using Cmaps to elicit content knowledge from physicians to build point-of-care clinical documentation screens
SeDeLo: using semantics and description logics to support aided clinical diagnosis.
Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Labra-Gayo, Jose Emilio; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Mayer, Miguel A; Gómez-Berbís, Juan Miguel; García-Crespo, Angel
2012-08-01
Automated medical diagnosis systems based on knowledge-oriented descriptions have gained momentum with the emergence of semantic descriptions. The objective of this paper is to propose a normalized design that solves some of the problems which have been detected by authors in previous tools. The authors bring together two different technologies to develop a new clinical decision support system: description logics aimed at developing inference systems to improve decision support for the prevention, treatment and management of illness and semantic technologies. Because of its new design, the system is capable of obtaining improved diagnostics compared with previous efforts. However, this evaluation is more focused in the computational performance, giving as result that description logics is a good solution with small data sets. In this paper, we provide a well-structured ontology for automated diagnosis in the medical field and a three-fold formalization based on Description Logics with the use of Semantic Web technologies.
Measuring Incoherence in Description Logic-Based Ontologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Guilin; Hunter, Anthony
Ontologies play a core role in the success of the Semantic Web as they provide a shared vocabulary for different resources and applications. Developing an error-free ontology is a difficult task. A common kind of error for an ontology is logical contradiction or incoherence. In this paper, we propose some approaches to measuring incoherence in DL-based ontologies. These measures give an ontology engineer important information for maintaining and evaluating ontologies. We implement the proposed approaches using the KAON2 reasoner and provide some preliminary but encouraging empirical results.
Disgust and biological descriptions bias logical reasoning during legal decision-making.
Capestany, Beatrice H; Harris, Lasana T
2014-01-01
Legal decisions often require logical reasoning about the mental states of people who perform gruesome behaviors. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine how brain regions implicated in logical reasoning are modulated by emotion and social cognition during legal decision-making. Participants read vignettes describing crimes that elicit strong or weak disgust matched on punishment severity using the US Federal Sentencing Guidelines. An extraneous sentence at the end of each vignette described the perpetrator's personality using traits or biological language, mimicking the increased use of scientific evidence presented in courts. Behavioral results indicate that crimes weak in disgust receive significantly less punishment than the guidelines recommend. Neuroimaging results indicate that brain regions active during logical reasoning respond less to crimes weak in disgust and biological descriptions of personality, demonstrating the impact of emotion and social cognition on logical reasoning mechanisms necessary for legal decision-making.
An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benenson, Yaakov; Gil, Binyamin; Ben-Dor, Uri; Adar, Rivka; Shapiro, Ehud
2004-05-01
Early biomolecular computer research focused on laboratory-scale, human-operated computers for complex computational problems. Recently, simple molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers were demonstrated allowing both input and output information to be in molecular form. Such computers, using biological molecules as input data and biologically active molecules as outputs, could produce a system for `logical' control of biological processes. Here we describe an autonomous biomolecular computer that, at least in vitro, logically analyses the levels of messenger RNA species, and in response produces a molecule capable of affecting levels of gene expression. The computer operates at a concentration of close to a trillion computers per microlitre and consists of three programmable modules: a computation module, that is, a stochastic molecular automaton; an input module, by which specific mRNA levels or point mutations regulate software molecule concentrations, and hence automaton transition probabilities; and an output module, capable of controlled release of a short single-stranded DNA molecule. This approach might be applied in vivo to biochemical sensing, genetic engineering and even medical diagnosis and treatment. As a proof of principle we programmed the computer to identify and analyse mRNA of disease-related genes associated with models of small-cell lung cancer and prostate cancer, and to produce a single-stranded DNA molecule modelled after an anticancer drug.
Use of description logic classification to reason about consequences of penetrating injuries.
Rubin, Daniel L; Dameron, Olivier; Musen, Mark A
2005-01-01
The consequences of penetrating injuries can be complex, including abnormal blood flow through the injury channel and functional impairment of organs if arteries supplying them have been severed. Determining the consequences of such injuries can be posed as a classification problem, requiring a priori symbolic knowledge of anatomy. We hypothesize that such symbolic knowledge can be modeled using ontologies, and that the reasoning task can be accomplished using knowl-edge representation in description logics (DL) and automatic classification. We demonstrate the capabilities of automated classification using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to reason about the consequences of penetrating injuries. We created in OWL a knowledge model of chest and heart anatomy describing the heart structure and the surrounding anatomic compartments, as well as the perfusion of regions of the heart by branches of the coronary arteries. We then used a domain-independent classifier to infer ischemic regions of the heart as well as anatomic spaces containing ectopic blood secondary to the injuries. Our results highlight the advantages of posing reasoning problems as a classification task, and lever-aging the automatic classification capabilities of DL to create intelligent applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garai, Sisir Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sourangshu
2010-08-01
To implement different all optical logic operations, encoding/decoding of optical signal is a very important issue. Since now there are so many types of optical signal encoding and decoding techniques have been adopted, such as intensity encoding, polarization encoding, phase encoding, symbolic substitution technique etc. All these existing techniques have their own limitations. In this context one may mention the frequency encoding/decoding technique. The basic inherent advantage of frequency encoding technique over all other existing techniques is that as the frequency of a signal is the fundamental character of it, it always preserves its identity throughout the communication of the signal, irrespective of reflection, refraction attenuation etc. Again, different optical signal has different distinct frequency which may be encoded as a distinct state of a logic system to represent the information. Adopting this technique it is possible to implement binary logic system as well as higher order logic system such as tristate logic, quaternary logic system etc. The major advantages of multivalued logic system over Boolean logic system are that in multivalued logic system the states of information is very more and as result information storage capacity is high. Again in multivalued logic system carry free and borrow free operation can be implemented which is less time consuming and therefore speed of operation is very fast. We have already developed methods of implementation of different all-optical frequency encoded logic as well as different optical processor. In this communication we propose an analytical approach to develop the expression of the outputs of frequency encoded different binary logic expression in terms of input frequencies from the stand point of basic laws of reflection, transmission and frequency conversion property of optical devices and of course mention the way-out to implement these logic operations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.
1975-01-01
A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.
Logical Analysis of Regulation of Interleukin-12 Expression Pathway Regulation During HCV Infection.
Farooqi, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Tareen, Samar H K; Ahmed, Jamil; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar S
2016-01-01
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers coordinated innate and adaptive response in host cell. HCV genome and proteins of the replicating virus are recognized as non-self-antigens by host cell to activate Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). Activated TLRs ultimately express cytokines, which can clear virus either by activating interferon (IFN), protein kinase C (PKC) and RNA Lase system or through activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antiviral cytokine, capable of clearing HCV by bridging both innate and adaptive antiviral immune response. Activation of TLR-4 on macrophages surface induces expression of IL-12 via NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional pathway. After expression, IL- 12 releases IFN-γ, which activates anti-HCV cytotoxic lymphocytes. Conversely, in chronic HCV infection downregulation of IL-12 has been reported instead of by number of studies. Keeping in view of the above mentioned facts, this study was designed to evaluate HCV-core mediated down-regulation of IL-12 transcriptional pathway by employing a logical modeling approach based on the Ren´e Thomas formalism. The logical parameters of entities were estimated by using SMBioNet. The Logical model represents all possible dynamics of protein expression involved during course of HCV pathology. Results demonstrated that at chronic stage of infection, though TLR-4 was constantly active but yet it failed to express the NF-κB, AP-1, IL-12 and IFN-γ. This mechanism was indicative of incorporation of core mediated changes in IL-12 regulatory pathway. Moreover, results also indicate that HCV adopts different trajectories to accomplish the persistence of chronic phase of infection. It also implicated that human immune system tries to clear HCV but core is capable of inducing system oscillations to evade the immunity.
An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.
1983-01-01
Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.
Identifying patients for clinical trials using fuzzy ternary logic expressions on HL7 messages.
Majeed, Raphael W; Röhrig, Rainer
2011-01-01
Identifying eligible patients is one of the most critical parts of any clinical trial. The process of recruiting patients for the third phase of any clinical trial is usually done manually, informing relevant physicians or putting notes on bulletin boards. While most necessary information is already available in electronic hospital information systems, required data still has to be looked up individually. Most university hospitals make use of a dedicated communication server to distribute information from independent information systems, e.g. laboratory information systems, electronic health records, surgery planning systems. Thus, a theoretical model is developed to formally describe inclusion and exclusion criteria for each clinical trial using a fuzzy ternary logic expression. These expressions will then be used to process HL7 messages from a communication server in order to identify eligible patients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burgin, G. H.; Owens, A. J.
1975-01-01
A detailed description is presented of the computer programs in order to provide an understanding of the mathematical and geometrical relationships as implemented in the programs. The individual sbbroutines and their underlying mathematical relationships are described, and the required input data and the output provided by the program are explained. The relationship of the adaptive maneuvering logic program with the program to drive the differential maneuvering simulator is discussed.
Song, Mingzhou; Lewis, Chris K.; Lance, Eric; Chesler, Elissa J; Kirova, Roumyana; Langston, Michael A; Bergeson, Susan
2009-01-01
The problem of reconstructing generalized logical networks to account for temporal dependencies among genes and environmental stimuli from high-throughput transcriptomic data is addressed. A network reconstruction algorithm was developed that uses the statistical significance as a criterion for network selection to avoid false-positive interactions arising from pure chance. Using temporal gene expression data collected from the brains of alcohol-treated mice in an analysis of the molecular response to alcohol, this algorithm identified genes from a major neuronal pathway as putative components of the alcohol response mechanism. Three of these genes have known associations with alcohol in the literature. Several other potentially relevant genes, highlighted and agreeing with independent results from literature mining, may play a role in the response to alcohol. Additional, previously-unknown gene interactions were discovered that, subject to biological verification, may offer new clues in the search for the elusive molecular mechanisms of alcoholism.
Preface of the "Symposium on Logic Synthesis for Programmable Logic Devices"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kania, Dariusz
2015-12-01
Logic synthesis is an indirect link between design description and technology mapping. In the result of synthesis process an implementation in terms of an interconnection of logic gates, flip-flops, LUTs, etc. is generated. Typically, synthesis is performed for an objective function, such as minimizing the number of logic blocks (area), delay of interconnection, minimizing the power consumed, or making the implementation more testable. Logic synthesis is typically separated into two stages: technology-independent optimization, followed by a technology mapping. Technology mapping is the process of expressing a boolean network in terms of elements characteristic for a given technology (or device family). The aim of the symposium is to show all aspects of logic synthesis dedicated for Programmable Logic Devices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knox, Charles E.
1990-01-01
A primary flight display format was integrated with the flight guidance and control system logic in support of various flight tests conducted with the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737-100 airplane. The functional operation of the flight guidance mode control panel and the corresponding primary flight display formats are presented.
Executing medical logic modules expressed in ArdenML using Drools.
Jung, Chai Young; Sward, Katherine A; Haug, Peter J
2012-01-01
The Arden Syntax is an HL7 standard language for representing medical knowledge as logic statements. Despite nearly 2 decades of availability, Arden Syntax has not been widely used. This has been attributed to the lack of a generally available compiler to implement the logic, to Arden's complex syntax, to the challenges of mapping local data to data references in the Medical Logic Modules (MLMs), or, more globally, to the general absence of decision support in healthcare computing. An XML representation (ArdenML) may partially address the technical challenges. MLMs created in ArdenML can be converted into executable files using standard transforms written in the Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) language. As an example, we have demonstrated an approach to executing MLMs written in ArdenML using the Drools business rule management system. Extensions to ArdenML make it possible to generate a user interface through which an MLM developer can test for logical errors. PMID:22180871
Executing medical logic modules expressed in ArdenML using Drools.
Jung, Chai Young; Sward, Katherine A; Haug, Peter J
2012-01-01
The Arden Syntax is an HL7 standard language for representing medical knowledge as logic statements. Despite nearly 2 decades of availability, Arden Syntax has not been widely used. This has been attributed to the lack of a generally available compiler to implement the logic, to Arden's complex syntax, to the challenges of mapping local data to data references in the Medical Logic Modules (MLMs), or, more globally, to the general absence of decision support in healthcare computing. An XML representation (ArdenML) may partially address the technical challenges. MLMs created in ArdenML can be converted into executable files using standard transforms written in the Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) language. As an example, we have demonstrated an approach to executing MLMs written in ArdenML using the Drools business rule management system. Extensions to ArdenML make it possible to generate a user interface through which an MLM developer can test for logical errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wongvasu, Naken; Pittner, Stefan; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Zeid, Ibrahim
2001-10-01
This paper presents a new technique which uses a tree for constraining the compatibility among components in a logical bill of material (BOM) structure. The new representation for restricting possible combinations of components is designed to address the limitations of matrix representations that were used for the same purpose in earlier work. These matrix representations, which assume that the compatibility in a BOM can always be described for pairs of components, cannot be used for products in which the compatibility among three or more components is an issue. Thus, it is proposed to use a standard tree with a special representation, which is called a trie, to represent the compatibility between the components in a product configuration. Similar to the inter-component compatibility matrix, the trie can be used to validate and/or complete an arbitrary product configuration during the configuration process without having to spell out product configuration rules. The new representation provides the user with a means to describe all possible compatibility relationships with a limited amount of data. This trie representation is comprehensive, easy to maintain, and easy to understand.
Choi, Jeeyae; Bakken, Suzanne; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A
2006-01-01
Medical logic modules are a procedural representation for sharing task-specific knowledge for decision support systems. Based on the premise that clinicians may perceive object-oriented expressions as easier to read than procedural rules in Arden Syntax-based medical logic modules, we developed a method for improving the readability of medical logic modules. Two approaches were applied: exploiting the concept-oriented features of the Medical Entities Dictionary and building an executable Java program to replace Arden Syntax procedural expressions. The usability evaluation showed that 66% of participants successfully mapped all Arden Syntax rules to Java methods. These findings suggest that these approaches can play an essential role in the creation of human readable medical logic modules and can potentially increase the number of clinical experts who are able to participate in the creation of medical logic modules. Although our approaches are broadly applicable, we specifically discuss the relevance to concept-oriented nursing terminologies and automated processing of task-specific nursing knowledge.
Regulatory logic of pan-neuronal gene expression in C. elegans
Stefanakis, Nikolaos; Carrera, Ines; Hobert, Oliver
2015-01-01
While neuronal cell types display an astounding degree of phenotypic diversity, most if not all neuron types share a core panel of terminal features. However, little is known about how pan-neuronal expression patterns are genetically programmed. Through an extensive analysis of the cis-regulatory control regions of a battery of pan-neuronal C.elegans genes, including genes involved in synaptic vesicle biology and neuropeptide signaling, we define a common organizational principle in the regulation of pan-neuronal genes in the form of a surprisingly complex array of seemingly redundant, parallel-acting cis-regulatory modules that direct expression to broad, overlapping domains throughout the nervous system. These parallel-acting cis-regulatory modules are responsive to a multitude of distinct trans-acting factors. Neuronal gene expression programs therefore fall into two fundamentally distinct classes. Neuron type-specific genes are generally controlled by discrete and non-redundantly acting regulatory inputs, while pan-neuronal gene expression is controlled by diverse, coincident and seemingly redundant regulatory inputs. PMID:26291158
Zadeh, L.A.
1988-01-01
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived. 7 references.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Le Balleur, J. C.
1988-01-01
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.
Application of linear logic to simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarke, Thomas L.
1998-08-01
Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A; Bonar, Christopher J
2006-01-01
Facial expressions are a critical mode of non-vocal communication for many mammals, particularly non-human primates. Although chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have an elaborate repertoire of facial signals, little is known about the facial expression (i.e. mimetic) musculature underlying these movements, especially when compared with some other catarrhines. Here we present a detailed description of the facial muscles of the chimpanzee, framed in comparative and phylogenetic contexts, through the dissection of preserved faces using a novel approach. The arrangement and appearance of muscles were noted and compared with previous studies of chimpanzees and with prosimians, cercopithecoids and humans. The results showed 23 mimetic muscles in P. troglodytes, including a thin sphincter colli muscle, reported previously only in adult prosimians, a bi-layered zygomaticus major muscle and a distinct risorius muscle. The presence of these muscles in such definition supports previous studies that describe an elaborate and highly graded facial communication system in this species that remains qualitatively different from that reported for other non-human primate species. In addition, there are minimal anatomical differences between chimpanzees and humans, contrary to conclusions from previous studies. These results amplify the importance of understanding facial musculature in primate taxa, which may hold great taxonomic value. PMID:16441560
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zadeh, Lofti A.
1988-01-01
The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.
Computerized logic design of digital circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sussow, S.; Oglesby, R.
1973-01-01
This manual presents a computer program that performs all the work required for the logic design of digital counters or sequential circuits and the simplification of Boolean logic expressions. The program provides both the experienced and inexperienced logic designer with a comprehensive logic design capability. The manual contains Boolean simplification and sequential design theory, detailed instructions for use of the program, a large number of illustrative design examples, and complete program documentation.
Nucleic acid based logical systems.
Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong
2014-05-12
Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-04-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Hardware verification at Computational Logic, Inc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brock, Bishop C.; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.
1990-01-01
The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) hardware verification; (2) Boyer-Moore logic; (3) core RISC; (4) the FM8502 fabrication, implementation specification, and pinout; (5) hardware description language; (6) arithmetic logic generator; (7) near term expected results; (8) present trends; (9) future directions; (10) collaborations and technology transfer; and (11) technology enablers.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
1999-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.
A verification logic representation of indeterministic signal states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
1991-01-01
The integration of modern CAD tools with formal verification environments require translation from hardware description language to verification logic. A signal representation including both unknown state and a degree of strength indeterminacy is essential for the correct modeling of many VLSI circuit designs. A higher-order logic theory of indeterministic logic signals is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlton, David Bryan
The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly
Notes on stochastic (bio)-logic gates: computing with allosteric cooperativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agliari, Elena; Altavilla, Matteo; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Katz, Evgeny
2015-05-01
Recent experimental breakthroughs have finally allowed to implement in-vitro reaction kinetics (the so called enzyme based logic) which code for two-inputs logic gates and mimic the stochastic AND (and NAND) as well as the stochastic OR (and NOR). This accomplishment, together with the already-known single-input gates (performing as YES and NOT), provides a logic base and paves the way to the development of powerful biotechnological devices. However, as biochemical systems are always affected by the presence of noise (e.g. thermal), standard logic is not the correct theoretical reference framework, rather we show that statistical mechanics can work for this scope: here we formulate a complete statistical mechanical description of the Monod-Wyman-Changeaux allosteric model for both single and double ligand systems, with the purpose of exploring their practical capabilities to express noisy logical operators and/or perform stochastic logical operations. Mixing statistical mechanics with logics, and testing quantitatively the resulting findings on the available biochemical data, we successfully revise the concept of cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity) for allosteric systems, with particular emphasis on its computational capabilities, the related ranges and scaling of the involved parameters and its differences with classical cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity).
Notes on stochastic (bio)-logic gates: computing with allosteric cooperativity.
Agliari, Elena; Altavilla, Matteo; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Katz, Evgeny
2015-01-01
Recent experimental breakthroughs have finally allowed to implement in-vitro reaction kinetics (the so called enzyme based logic) which code for two-inputs logic gates and mimic the stochastic AND (and NAND) as well as the stochastic OR (and NOR). This accomplishment, together with the already-known single-input gates (performing as YES and NOT), provides a logic base and paves the way to the development of powerful biotechnological devices. However, as biochemical systems are always affected by the presence of noise (e.g. thermal), standard logic is not the correct theoretical reference framework, rather we show that statistical mechanics can work for this scope: here we formulate a complete statistical mechanical description of the Monod-Wyman-Changeaux allosteric model for both single and double ligand systems, with the purpose of exploring their practical capabilities to express noisy logical operators and/or perform stochastic logical operations. Mixing statistical mechanics with logics, and testing quantitatively the resulting findings on the available biochemical data, we successfully revise the concept of cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity) for allosteric systems, with particular emphasis on its computational capabilities, the related ranges and scaling of the involved parameters and its differences with classical cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity). PMID:25976626
It’s about This and That: A Description of Anaphoric Expressions in Clinical Text
Wang, Yan; Melton, Genevieve B.; Pakhomov, Serguei
2011-01-01
Although anaphoric expressions are very common in biomedical and clinical documents, little work has been done to systematically characterize their use in clinical text. Samples of ‘it’, ‘this’, and ‘that’ expressions occurring in inpatient clinical notes from four metropolitan hospitals were analyzed using a combination of semi-automated and manual annotation techniques. We developed a rule-based approach to filter potential non-referential expressions. A physician then manually annotated 1000 potential referential instances to determine referent status and the antecedent of each referent expression. A distributional analysis of the three referring expressions in the entire corpus of notes demonstrates a high prevalence of anaphora and large variance in distributions of referential expressions with different notes. Our results confirm that anaphoric expressions are common in clinical texts. Effective co-reference resolution with anaphoric expressions remains an important challenge in medical natural language processing research. PMID:22195211
It's about this and that: a description of anaphoric expressions in clinical text.
Wang, Yan; Melton, Genevieve B; Pakhomov, Serguei
2011-01-01
Although anaphoric expressions are very common in biomedical and clinical documents, little work has been done to systematically characterize their use in clinical text. Samples of 'it', 'this', and 'that' expressions occurring in inpatient clinical notes from four metropolitan hospitals were analyzed using a combination of semi-automated and manual annotation techniques. We developed a rule-based approach to filter potential non-referential expressions. A physician then manually annotated 1000 potential referential instances to determine referent status and the antecedent of each referent expression. A distributional analysis of the three referring expressions in the entire corpus of notes demonstrates a high prevalence of anaphora and large variance in distributions of referential expressions with different notes. Our results confirm that anaphoric expressions are common in clinical texts. Effective co-reference resolution with anaphoric expressions remains an important challenge in medical natural language processing research. PMID:22195211
Sordo, Margarita; Boxwala, Aziz A; Ogunyemi, Omolola; Greenes, Robert A
2004-01-01
A major obstacle to sharing computable clinical knowledge is the lack of a common language for specifying expressions and criteria. Such a language could be used to specify decision criteria, formulae, and constraints on data and action. Al-though the Arden Syntax addresses this problem for clinical rules, its generalization to HL7's object-oriented data model is limited. The GELLO Expression language is an object-oriented language used for expressing logical conditions and computations in the GLIF3 (GuideLine Interchange Format, v. 3) guideline modeling language. It has been further developed under the auspices of the HL7 Clinical Decision Support Technical Committee, as a proposed HL7 standard., GELLO is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL), because it is vendor-independent, object-oriented, and side-effect-free. GELLO expects an object-oriented data model. Although choice of model is arbitrary, standardization is facilitated by ensuring that the data model is compatible with the HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM).
A fuzzy logical model of letter identification.
Oden, G C
1979-05-01
Stimuli were generated by factorially varying two sets of features that distinguish between two letter patterns. Subjects rated the degree to which each stimulus was an instance of one letter rather than the alternative. The obtained ratings were relatively continuous and systematic functions of the feature manipulations. The results were well accounted for by a model in which (a) each feature has an associated fuzzy predicate that is used to independently evaluate the degree to which it is true that the feature is present in the stimulus; (b) the featural truth values are integrated according to fuzzy logical expressions that correspond directly to propositional descriptions of each letter pattern; and (c) the resulting goodness of match to the stimulus for each letter is compared to that of the alternatives to determine the final identification. PMID:528944
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffiths, Robert B.
2014-06-01
It is shown how all the major conceptual difficulties of standard (textbook) quantum mechanics, including the two measurement problems and the (supposed) nonlocality that conflicts with special relativity, are resolved in the consistent or decoherent histories interpretation of quantum mechanics by using a modified form of quantum logic to discuss quantum properties (subspaces of the quantum Hilbert space), and treating quantum time development as a stochastic process. The histories approach in turn gives rise to some conceptual difficulties, in particular the correct choice of a framework (probabilistic sample space) or family of histories, and these are discussed. The central issue is that the principle of unicity, the idea that there is a unique single true description of the world, is incompatible with our current understanding of quantum mechanics.
Quantificational logic of context
Buvac, Sasa
1996-12-31
In this paper we extend the Propositional Logic of Context, to the quantificational (predicate calculus) case. This extension is important in the declarative representation of knowledge for two reasons. Firstly, since contexts are objects in the semantics which can be denoted by terms in the language and which can be quantified over, the extension enables us to express arbitrary first-order properties of contexts. Secondly, since the extended language is no longer only propositional, we can express that an arbitrary predicate calculus formula is true in a context. The paper describes the syntax and the semantics of a quantificational language of context, gives a Hilbert style formal system, and outlines a proof of the system`s completeness.
Fuzzy logic controller optimization
Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael
2004-03-23
A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.
Formally specifying the logic of an automatic guidance controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guaspari, David
1990-01-01
The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) the Penelope Project; (2) the logic of an experimental automatic guidance control system for a 737; (3) Larch/Ada specification; (4) some failures of informal description; (5) description of mode changes caused by switches; (6) intuitive description of window status (chosen vs. current); (7) design of the code; (8) and specifying the code.
Fuzzy branching temporal logic.
Moon, Seong-ick; Lee, Kwang H; Lee, Doheon
2004-04-01
Intelligent systems require a systematic way to represent and handle temporal information containing uncertainty. In particular, a logical framework is needed that can represent uncertain temporal information and its relationships with logical formulae. Fuzzy linear temporal logic (FLTL), a generalization of propositional linear temporal logic (PLTL) with fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states defined on a linear time model, was previously proposed for this purpose. However, many systems are best represented by branching time models in which each state can have more than one possible future path. In this paper, fuzzy branching temporal logic (FBTL) is proposed to address this problem. FBTL adopts and generalizes concurrent tree logic (CTL*), which is a classical branching temporal logic. The temporal model of FBTL is capable of representing fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states, and the order relation among them is represented as a directed graph. The utility of FBTL is demonstrated using a fuzzy job shop scheduling problem as an example. PMID:15376850
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beller, Charley
2013-01-01
The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…
Product Łukasiewicz Quantum Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertini, Cesarino; Leporini, Roberto
2011-02-01
The theory of logical gates in quantum computation has suggested new forms of quantum logic, called quantum computational logics. The basic semantic idea is the following: the meaning of a sentence is identified with a density operator (called qumix). In this framework, any sentence α of the language gives rise to a quantum circuit that transforms the qumix associated to the atomic subformulas of α into the qumix associated to α. In this paper we enrich the language by adding a new connective which expresses truncated sum.
Cosmic logic: a computational model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanchurin, Vitaly
2016-02-01
We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Preston, K., Jr.
1972-01-01
The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.
Foundations of logic programming
Lloyd, J.W.
1987-01-01
This is the second edition of the first book to give an account of the mathematical foundations of Logic Programming. Its purpose is to collect the basic theoretical results of Logic Programming, which have previously only been available in widely scattered research papers. In addition to presenting the technical results, the book also contains many illustrative examples. Many of the examples and problems are part of the folklore of Logic Programming and are not easily obtainable elsewhere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, Ayanna
2005-01-01
The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.
Effects of Message Design Logic on the Communication of Intention.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Keefe, Barbara J.; Lambert, Bruce L.
In producing and comprehending messages, a communicator relies on a "message design logic" embodying an individual's knowledge about how to relate message forms and functions. According to this model, there are three different message design logics: (1) expressive, in which self-expression is the chief function, and affective and idiosyncratic…
Fundamentals of Digital Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noell, Monica L.
This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yopp, David
2010-01-01
Understanding logical necessity is an important component of proof and reasoning for teachers of grades K-8. The ability to determine exactly where young students' arguments are faulty offers teachers the chance to give youngsters feedback as they progress toward writing mathematically valid deductive proofs. As defined, logical necessity is the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
1989-01-01
Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)
Programmable Logic Controllers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen
This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…
Logic via Computer Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wieschenberg, Agnes A.
This paper proposed the question "How do we teach logical thinking and sophisticated mathematics to unsophisticated college students?" One answer among many is through the writing of computer programs. The writing of computer algorithms is mathematical problem solving and logic in disguise and it may attract students who would otherwise stop…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caulfield, H. John
2005-05-01
Progress of optical logic has been anything but uniform or even monotonic. The hope for "all optical computers" was largely abandoned after devastating critiques by Keyes. Over time, optical logic transformed into a very viable niche activity by the needs of optical communication for "all optical" logic and the advent of a critical component: the SOA or Semiconductor Optical Amplifier. I argue that a new phase in this uneven history can be defined - linear (single photon, not multiple entangled photon) quantum optical logic. These can perform conservative, reversible logic operations without energy or time penalties, but cascading requires the irreversible act of measurement, so only single devices or single layers can deliver those advantages.
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-01-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malhas, Othman Qasim
1993-10-01
The concept of “abacus logic” has recently been developed by the author (Malhas, n.d.). In this paper the relation of abacus logic to the concept of fuzziness is explored. It is shown that if a certain “regularity” condition is met, concepts from fuzzy set theory arise naturally within abacus logics. In particular it is shown that every abacus logic then has a “pre-Zadeh orthocomplementation”. It is also shown that it is then possible to associate a fuzzy set with every proposition of abacus logic and that the collection of all such sets satisfies natural conditions expected in systems of fuzzy logic. Finally, the relevance to quantum mechanics is discussed.
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-03-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dinesh, Nikhil
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…
Logical Thinking in College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Brien, Thomas C.
1973-01-01
College students' responses to conditional syllogisms are used to analyze the students' interpretations of implication. Child's Logic'' was used much more frequently than Math Logic'' even after a one-semester course in logic. (JP)
Acquisition of teleological descriptions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franke, David W.
1992-03-01
Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.
Reasoning, logic, and psychology.
Stenning, Keith; van Lambalgen, Michiel
2011-09-01
We argue that reasoning has been conceptualized so narrowly in what is known as 'psychology of reasoning' that reasoning's relevance to cognitive science has become well-nigh invisible. Reasoning is identified with determining whether a conclusion follows validly from given premises, where 'valid' is taken to mean 'valid according to classical logic'. We show that there are other ways to conceptualize reasoning, more in line with current logical theorizing, which give it a role in psychological processes ranging from (verbal) discourse comprehension to (nonverbal) planning. En route we show that formal logic, at present marginalized in cognitive science, can be an extremely valuable modeling tool. In particular, there are cases in which probabilistic modeling must fail, whereas logical models do well. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 555-567 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.134 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levine, Shellie-helane; And Others
1986-01-01
Introduces questions and activities involving soap bubbles which provide students with experiences in prediction and logic. Examines commonly held false conceptions related to the shapes that bubbles take and provides correct explanations for the phenomenon. (ML)
HDL to verification logic translator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.
1992-01-01
The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.
The Impact of Fuzzy Logic on Student Press Law.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCool, Lauralee; Plopper, Bruce L.
2001-01-01
Uses the relatively new science of fuzzy logic to review lower court and appellate court decisions from the last four decades regarding free expression in student publications. Finds pronounced effects, showing that fuzzy sets inherently favor administrators, while students show a strikingly high win/loss ratio when courts avoid fuzzy logic. (SR)
Diagnosable structured logic array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Runtime Analysis of Linear Temporal Logic Specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
This report presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to B chi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.
Benchmarking emerging logic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikonov, Dmitri
2014-03-01
As complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CMOS FET) are being scaled to ever smaller sizes by the semiconductor industry, the demand is growing for emerging logic devices to supplement CMOS in various special functions. Research directions and concepts of such devices are overviewed. They include tunneling, graphene based, spintronic devices etc. The methodology to estimate future performance of emerging (beyond CMOS) devices and simple logic circuits based on them is explained. Results of benchmarking are used to identify more promising concepts and to map pathways for improvement of beyond CMOS computing.
Molecular implementation of simple logic programs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud
2009-11-01
Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) <-- Man(X) (Every Man is Mortal), the system can answer molecular queries such as Mortal(Socrates)? (Is Socrates Mortal?) and Mortal(X)? (Who is Mortal?). This biomolecular computing system compares favourably with previous approaches in terms of expressive power, performance and precision. A compiler translates facts, rules and queries into their molecular representations and subsequently operates a robotic system that assembles the logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.
Molecular implementation of simple logic programs.
Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud
2009-10-01
Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) <-- Man(X) (Every Man is Mortal), the system can answer molecular queries such as Mortal(Socrates)? (Is Socrates Mortal?) and Mortal(X)? (Who is Mortal?). This biomolecular computing system compares favourably with previous approaches in terms of expressive power, performance and precision. A compiler translates facts, rules and queries into their molecular representations and subsequently operates a robotic system that assembles the logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.
Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks
Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming
2016-01-01
The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment. PMID:27382498
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Straumanis, Joan
A major problem in teaching symbolic logic is that of providing individualized and early feedback to students who are learning to do proofs. To overcome this difficulty, a computer program was developed which functions as a line-by-line proof checker in Sentential Calculus. The program, DEMON, first evaluates any statement supplied by the student…
Temporal logics meet telerobotics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutten, Eric; Marce, Lionel
1989-01-01
The specificity of telerobotics being the presence of a human operator, decision assistance tools are necessary for the operator, especially in hostile environments. In order to reduce execution hazards due to a degraded ability for quick and efficient recovery of unexpected dangerous situations, it is of importance to have the opportunity, amongst others, to simulate the possible consequences of a plan before its actual execution, in order to detect these problematic situations. Hence the idea of providing the operator with a simulator enabling him to verify the temporal and logical coherence of his plans. Therefore, the power of logical formalisms is used for representation and deduction purposes. Starting from the class of situations that are represented, a STRIPS (the STanford Research Institute Problem Solver)-like formalism and its underlying logic are adapted to the simulation of plans of actions in time. The choice of a temporal logic enables to build a world representation, on which the effects of plans, grouping actions into control structures, will be transcribed by the simulation, resulting in a verdict and information about the plan's coherence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Tim; Goldstein, Laurence
1984-01-01
Describes computer assisted instruction programs for teaching logic during first year philosophy courses at the University of Hong Kong. These programs include JOHN, which introduces Venn-diagrams for evaluating syllogistic arguments; LUDWIG, which introduces techniques for evaluating arguments in propositional calculus; and TIARA, which provides…
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harding, John; Yang, Taewon
2015-12-01
Since the work of Crown (J. Natur. Sci. Math. 15(1-2), 11-25 1975) in the 1970's, it has been known that the projections of a finite-dimensional vector bundle E form an orthomodular poset ( omp) {P}(E). This result lies in the intersection of a number of current topics, including the categorical quantum mechanics of Abramsky and Coecke (2004), and the approach via decompositions of Harding (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 348(5), 1839-1862 1996). Moreover, it provides a source of omps for the quantum logic program close to the Hilbert space setting, and admitting a version of tensor products, yet having important differences from the standard logics of Hilbert spaces. It is our purpose here to initiate a basic investigation of the quantum logic program in the vector bundle setting. This includes observations on the structure of the omps obtained as {P}(E) for a vector bundle E, methods to obtain states on these omps, and automorphisms of these omps. Key theorems of quantum logic in the Hilbert setting, such as Gleason's theorem and Wigner's theorem, provide natural and quite challenging problems in the vector bundle setting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welty, Gordon A.
The logic of the evaluation of educational and other action programs is discussed from a methodological viewpoint. However, no attempt is made to develop methods of evaluating programs. In Part I, the structure of an educational program is viewed as a system with three components--inputs, transformation of inputs into outputs, and outputs. Part II…
Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Fuzzy logic based robotic controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.
1994-01-01
Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.
Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic
1994-07-21
SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.
Conditional Logic and Primary Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ennis, Robert H.
Conditional logic, as interpreted in this paper, means deductive logic characterized by "if-then" statements. This study sought to investigate the knowledge of conditional logic possessed by primary children and to test their readiness to learn such concepts. Ninety students were designated the experimental group and participated in a 15-week…
Issues in rule identification and logical induction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, C. M.
1985-01-01
The relationship between language and empirical fitting of data is discussed. The production system is presented as an appropriate description of human behavior in Man-Machine systems. Issues arising in the identification of rules from data are examined. Rules identified through logical generalization are shown to be equivocal. Difficulties arising from the use of logic-based procedures with human performance data containing errors are explored. Problems relating to rule sets which are not disjoint are discussed and a solution presented. Significant testing issues are raised for rule identification and a procedure based on controlling contrivedness is presented. A synthesis of data and knowledge-based approaches is suggested as a remedy to many of the difficulties discussed.
Programmable Logic Application Notes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard
1998-01-01
This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.
FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY
The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bitner, Betty L.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the developmental patterns in logical reasoning of students in grades 6-10 over a span of 20 months. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) was administered to the sample (N=84) during the fall of 1986, the fall of 1987, and the spring of 1988. The GALT measures six reasoning modes:…
Delay modeling of bipolar ECL/EFL (Emitter-Coupled Logic/Emitter-Follower-Logic) circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Andrew T.
1986-08-01
This report deals with the development of a delay-time model for timing simulation of large circuits consisting of Bipolar ECL(Emitter-Coupled Logic) and EFL (Emitter-Follower-Logic) networks. This model can provide adequate information on the performance of the circuits with a minimum expenditure of computation time. This goal is achieved by the use of proper circuit transient models on which analytical delay expressions can be derived with accurate results. The delay-model developed in this report is general enough to handle complex digital circuits with multiple inputs or/and multiple levels. The important effects of input slew rate are also included in the model.
Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lipsky, Kevin
This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…
Yong, Chin W
2016-08-22
DL_F Notation is an easy-to-understand, standardized atom typesetting expression for molecular simulations for a range of organic force field (FF) schemes such as OPLSAA, PCFF, and CVFF. It is implemented within DL_FIELD, a software program that facilitates the setting up of molecular FF models for DL_POLY molecular dynamics simulation software. By making use of the Notation, a single core conversion module (the DL_F conversion Engine) implemented within DL_FIELD can be used to analyze a molecular structure and determine the types of atoms for a given FF scheme. Users only need to provide the molecular input structure in a simple xyz format and DL_FIELD can produce the necessary force field file for DL_POLY automatically. In commensurate with the development concept of DL_FIELD, which placed emphasis on robustness and user friendliness, the Engine provides a single-step solution to setup complex FF models. This allows users to switch from one of the above-mentioned FF seamlessly to another while at the same time provides a consistent atom typing that is expressed in a natural chemical sense. PMID:27455451
Managing Medical Logic Modules.
Aguirre, A. R.; Roderer, N. K.
1991-01-01
A key element of IAIMS development at the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC) is the Medical Logic Module (MLM), designed to provide decision support to clinical users. A standard has been established for MLMs, and a number of institutions have agreed in principle to share them. At CPMC, MLMs are under development and MLMs from other institutions are being reviewed. The Columbia Health Sciences Library has developed a management system for MLMs which supports both internal development and sharing of MLMs among institutions. This paper describes the elements of the MLM management system. PMID:1807599
Flexible programmable logic module
Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Adaptive parallel logic networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.
1988-01-01
Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.
Logic brightens my day: Evidence for implicit sensitivity to logical validity.
Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J; Verde, Michael F; Morsanyi, Kinga
2016-09-01
A key assumption of dual process theory is that reasoning is an explicit, effortful, deliberative process. The present study offers evidence for an implicit, possibly intuitive component of reasoning. Participants were shown sentences embedded in logically valid or invalid arguments. Participants were not asked to reason but instead rated the sentences for liking (Experiment 1) and physical brightness (Experiments 2-3). Sentences that followed logically from preceding sentences were judged to be more likable and brighter. Two other factors thought to be linked to implicit processing-sentence believability and facial expression-had similar effects on liking and brightness ratings. The authors conclude that sensitivity to logical structure was implicit, occurring potentially automatically and outside of awareness. They discuss the results within a fluency misattribution framework and make reference to the literature on discourse comprehension. (PsycINFO Database Record
Logic brightens my day: Evidence for implicit sensitivity to logical validity.
Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J; Verde, Michael F; Morsanyi, Kinga
2016-09-01
A key assumption of dual process theory is that reasoning is an explicit, effortful, deliberative process. The present study offers evidence for an implicit, possibly intuitive component of reasoning. Participants were shown sentences embedded in logically valid or invalid arguments. Participants were not asked to reason but instead rated the sentences for liking (Experiment 1) and physical brightness (Experiments 2-3). Sentences that followed logically from preceding sentences were judged to be more likable and brighter. Two other factors thought to be linked to implicit processing-sentence believability and facial expression-had similar effects on liking and brightness ratings. The authors conclude that sensitivity to logical structure was implicit, occurring potentially automatically and outside of awareness. They discuss the results within a fluency misattribution framework and make reference to the literature on discourse comprehension. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26889685
Matalas, N.C.
1991-01-01
What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canaris, J.
1991-01-01
A new logic family, which is immune to single event upsets, is described. Members of the logic family are capable of recovery, regardless of the shape of the upsetting event. Glitch propagation from an upset node is also blocked. Logic diagrams for an Inverter, Nor, Nand, and Complex Gates are provided. The logic family can be implemented in a standard, commercial CMOS process with no additional masks. DC, transient, static power, upset recovery and layout characteristics of the new family, based on a commercial 1 micron CMOS N-Well process, are described.
The music of morality and logic.
Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A
2015-01-01
Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely "happy" and "sad" (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought.
The music of morality and logic
Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H.; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.
2015-01-01
Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely “happy” and “sad” (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought. PMID:26191020
Fuzzy logic and coarse coding using programmable logic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Geoffrey
2009-05-01
Naturally-occurring sensory signal processing algorithms, such as those that inspired fuzzy-logic control, can be integrated into non-naturally-occurring high-performance technology, such as programmable logic devices, to realize novel bio-inspired designs. Research is underway concerning an investigation into using field programmable logic devices (FPLD's) to implement fuzzy logic sensory processing. A discussion is provided concerning the commonality between bio-inspired fuzzy logic algorithms and coarse coding that is prevalent in naturally-occurring sensory systems. Undergraduate design projects using fuzzy logic for an obstacle-avoidance robot has been accomplished at our institution and other places; numerous other successful fuzzy logic applications can be found as well. The long-term goal is to leverage such biomimetic algorithms for future applications. This paper outlines a design approach for implementing fuzzy-logic algorithms into reconfigurable computing devices. This paper is presented in an effort to connect with others who may be interested in collaboration as well as to establish a starting point for future research.
Flammable gas tank exhauster interlock (LFGTEI) computer software design description
Smith, S.O.; Irvitt, R.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford
1997-02-21
Modicon Compact Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The device configuration integrates the isolation and current- carrying capacities of mechanical relays with the logic and programming sophistication of the PLC. This revised document provides descriptions of components and tasks involved in the PLC system for controlling and monitoring the FGTEI. All control functions required by the PLC, and how they are implemented, are described in detail.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true
UTP and Temporal Logic Model Checking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Hugh; Ciobanu, Gabriel; Freitas, Leo
In this paper we give an additional perspective to the formal verification of programs through temporal logic model checking, which uses Hoare and He Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP). Our perspective emphasizes the use of UTP designs, an alphabetised relational calculus expressed as a pre/post condition pair of relations, to verify state or temporal assertions about programs. The temporal model checking relation is derived from a satisfaction relation between the model and its properties. The contribution of this paper is that it shows a UTP perspective to temporal logic model checking. The approach includes the notion of efficiency found in traditional model checkers, which reduced a state explosion problem through the use of efficient data structures
Conceptual and logical level of database modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri
2016-06-01
Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
Schumann, Andrew
2015-03-10
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.
Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita
2003-01-13
Miniaturization has been an essential ingredient in the outstanding progress of information technology over the past fifty years. The next, perhaps ultimate, limit of miniaturization is that of molecules, which are the smallest entities with definite size, shape, and properties. Recently, great effort has been devoted to design and investigate molecular-level systems that are capable of transferring, processing, and storing information in binary form. Some of these nanoscale devices can, in fact, perform logic operations of remarkable complexity. This research--although far from being transferred into technology--is attracting interest, as the nanometer realm seems to be out of reach for the "top-down" techniques currently available to microelectronics industry. Moreover, such studies introduce new concepts in the "old" field of chemistry and stimulate the ingenuity of researchers engaged in the "bottom-up" approach to nanotechnology.
Contingencies, logic, and learning.
Bower, T G
1997-01-01
A logical analysis of operant learning is presented. In total, the analysis makes a number of predictions that are different from the predictions of any other theory. Individual predictions can be explained by other theories, but the pattern of predictions is unique. Some tests of the predictions of the analysis with human newborns are described. The analysis predicts increased variance in sucking with the introduction of continuous reinforcement. This does occur. The analysis predicts a decreased rate of sucking with a shift from continuous to partial reinforcement. This does occur. The analysis predicts an increased rate of sucking with a shift from continuous reinforcement to continuous plus noncontingent reinforcement. Due to methodological deficiencies, we have been unable to test this prediction. However, it has been confirmed by others. The most exciting prediction of the analysis is a rapid way of producing extinction. That has not been tested with newborns; however, there is confirmatory evidence in the literature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita
2003-01-13
Miniaturization has been an essential ingredient in the outstanding progress of information technology over the past fifty years. The next, perhaps ultimate, limit of miniaturization is that of molecules, which are the smallest entities with definite size, shape, and properties. Recently, great effort has been devoted to design and investigate molecular-level systems that are capable of transferring, processing, and storing information in binary form. Some of these nanoscale devices can, in fact, perform logic operations of remarkable complexity. This research--although far from being transferred into technology--is attracting interest, as the nanometer realm seems to be out of reach for the "top-down" techniques currently available to microelectronics industry. Moreover, such studies introduce new concepts in the "old" field of chemistry and stimulate the ingenuity of researchers engaged in the "bottom-up" approach to nanotechnology. PMID:12596465
Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan
These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…
Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
2009-01-01
An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…
Fuzzy logic for fault diagnosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comly, James B.; Bonissone, Piero P.; Dausch, Mark E.
1991-02-01
Advanced real-time digital controls for complex plants or processes will use a model (an " Observer" ) which predicts the values for sensor readings expected from the actual plant these vote as alternate " sensors" if the real ones fail. We are exploring further use of the Observer for real-time embedded diagnostics based on high speed fuzzy logic chips just becoming available. We have established a Fuzzy Inferencing Test Bed for fuzzy logic applications. It uses a set of development tools which allow applications to be built and tested against simulated systems and then ported directly to a high speed fuzzy logic chip. With the Fuzzy Inferencing Test we investigate very high speed fuzzy logic to: isolate faults using static information and early fault information that evolves rapidly in time validate and smooth readings from redundant sensors and smoothly select alternate control modes in intelligent controllers. This paper reports our experience with fuzzy logic in these kinds of applications.
Power optimization in logic isomers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon
1993-01-01
Logic isomers are labeled, 2-isomorphic graphs that implement the same logic function. Logic isomers may have significantly different power requirements even though they have the same number of transistors in the implementation. The power requirements of the isomers depend on the transition activity of the input signals. The power requirements of isomorphic graph isomers of n-input NAND and NOR gates are shown. Choosing the less power-consuming isomer instead of the others can yield significant power savings. Experimental results on a ripple-carry adder are presented to show that the implementation using the least power-consuming isomers requires approximately 10 percent less power than the implementation using the most power-consuming isomers. Simulations of other random logic designs also confirm that designs using less power-consuming isomers can reduce the logic power demand by approximately 10 percent as compared to designs using more power-consuming isomers.
Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2011-11-10
Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.
Rhythms essential to logical communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi
2011-05-01
In the context of quantum theory, recently we distinguished mathematics for expressing evidence from mathematics for explaining evidence. Here this distinction is made in spacetime physics. We offer a system of mathematical thought-or as termed in geodesy a reference system-for evidence, separated out from additional assumptions of a geometry in terms of which to explain that evidence. The offered reference system for evidence, free of any assumption of a particular explanatory geometry, whether Euclidean or general relativistic, amounts to a (theoretical) "assemblage of histories accumulated in the memories of parties to a synchronous communications network." The assemblage of histories gives voice to the known experimental finding, sometimes forgotten by theorists, that any memory device for recording logical symbols must be insensitive to variations in signals in which those symbols are carried. Out of acknowledging this insensitivity comes an appreciation of rhythms essential to the communication of digital symbols and of the need for analog measurements to maintain these rhythms. The separate reference system for evidence reconciles what otherwise is a conflict between the demand in quantum mechanics for repeatable experiments and the lack in spacetime metrics appropriate to the Global Positioning System of any exact symmetry, a lack that rules out an isometry between two spacetime regions for two occurrences of an experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sosa, M.; Grundel, L.; Simini, F.
2016-04-01
Logical reasoning is part of medical practice since its origins. Modern Medicine has included information-intensive tools to refine diagnostics and treatment protocols. We are introducing formal logic teaching in Medical School prior to Clinical Internship, to foster medical practice. Two simple examples (Acute Myocardial Infarction and Diabetes Mellitus) are given in terms of formal logic expression and truth tables. Flowcharts of both diagnostic processes help understand the procedures and to validate them logically. The particularity of medical information is that it is often accompanied by “missing data” which suggests to adapt formal logic to a “three state” logic in the future. Medical Education must include formal logic to understand complex protocols and best practices, prone to mutual interactions.
Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller. I, II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Chuen Chien
1990-01-01
Recent advances in the theory and applications of fuzzy-logic controllers (FLCs) are examined in an analytical review. The fundamental principles of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are recalled; the basic FLC components (fuzzification and defuzzification interfaces, knowledge base, and decision-making logic) are described; and the advantages of FLCs for incorporating expert knowledge into a control system are indicated. Particular attention is given to fuzzy implication functions, the interpretation of sentence connectives (and, also), compositional operators, and inference mechanisms. Applications discussed include the FLC-guided automobile developed by Sugeno and Nishida (1985), FLC hardware systems, FLCs for subway trains and ship-loading cranes, fuzzy-logic chips, and fuzzy computers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David E.; Jonsson, Ari K.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
In recent years, Graphplan style reachability analysis and mutual exclusion reasoning have been used in many high performance planning systems. While numerous refinements and extensions have been developed, the basic plan graph structure and reasoning mechanisms used in these systems are tied to the very simple STRIPS model of action. In 1999, Smith and Weld generalized the Graphplan methods for reachability and mutex reasoning to allow actions to have differing durations. However, the representation of actions still has some severe limitations that prevent the use of these techniques for many real-world planning systems. In this paper, we 1) separate the logic of reachability from the particular representation and inference methods used in Graphplan, and 2) extend the notions of reachability and mutual exclusion to more general notions of time and action. As it turns out, the general rules for mutual exclusion reasoning take on a remarkably clean and simple form. However, practical instantiations of them turn out to be messy, and require that we make representation and reasoning choices.
Kral, M J
1994-01-01
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.
Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitbol, Michel
The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Mapping Physical Formats to Logical Models to Extract Data and Metadata: The Defuddle Parsing Engine
Talbott, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.; Myers, James D.
2006-07-25
Scientists, fueled by the desire for systems-level understanding of phenomena, increasingly need to share their results across multiple disciplines. Accomplishing this requires data to be annotated, contextualized, and readily searchable and translated into other formats. While these requirements can be addressed by custom programming or obviated by community standardization, neither approach has ‘solved’ the problem. In this paper, we describe a complementary approach – a general capability for articulating the format of arbitrary textual and binary data using a logical data model, expressed in XML-Schema, which can be used to provide annotation and context, extract metadata, and enable translation. This work is based on the draft specification for the Data Format Description Language and our open source “Defuddle” parser. We present an overview of the specification, detail the design of Defuddle, and discuss the benefits and challenges of this general approach to enabling discovery and sharing of diverse data sets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Menahem, Yemima
This paper deals with the dependence of directionality in the course of events-or our claims concerning such directionality-on the modes of description we use in speaking of the events in question. I argue that criteria of similarity and individuation play a crucial role in assessments of directionality. This is an extension of Davidson's claim regarding the difference between causal and explanatory contexts. The argument is based on a characterisation of notions of necessity and contingency that differ from their modal logic counterparts on the one hand, and from causality and chance on the other. I show that some types of directionality are perfectly compatible with both determinism and indeterminism at the microscopic level, and that there is no likelihood of, or advantage to, reducing such directionality to other laws or causal processes.
Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zadeh, Lotfi A.
1989-01-01
The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.
Heat exchanger expert system logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cormier, R.
1988-01-01
The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.
Fuzzy logic and neural networks
Loos, J.R.
1994-11-01
Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.
Modular Logic Programming for Web Data, Inheritance and Agents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karali, Isambo
The Semantic Web provides a framework and a set of technologies enabling an effective machine processable information. However, most of the problems that are addressed in the Semantic Web were tackled by the artificial intelligence community, in the past. Within this period, Logic Programming emerged as a complete framework ranging from a sound formal theory, based on Horn clauses, to a declarative description language and an operational behavior that can be executed. Logic programming and its extensions have been already used in various approaches in the Semantic Web or the traditional Web context. In this work, we investigate the use of Modular Logic Programming, i.e. Logic Programming extended with modules, to address issues of the Semantic Web ranging from the ontology layer to reasoning and agents. These techniques provide a uniform framework ranging from the data layer to the higher layers of logic, avoiding the problem of incompatibilities of technologies related with different Semantic Web layers. What is more is that it can operate directly on top of existent World Wide Web sources.
Optically controllable molecular logic circuits
Nishimura, Takahiro Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun
2015-07-06
Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.
STP: A Mechanized Logic for Specification and Verification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shostak, R. E.; Schwartz, R.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.
1983-01-01
A logic and proof theory that was mechanized and successfully applied to prove nontrivial properties of a fully distributed fault tolerant system is described. The system is close to achieving the critical balance in man machine interaction necesary for successful application by users other than the system developers. Motivation for the form of man machine interaction embodied by STP is discussed. A formal description of the logic and the proof theory is contained, and the description illustrated with an example. The use of STP in a large scale effort to prove nontrivial properties on SIFT, a distributed Software Implemented Fault Tolerant operating system for aircraft flight control is discussed. Finally, directions for further work are described.
Logic Dynamics for Deductive Inference -- Its Stability and Neural Basis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuda, Ichiro
2014-12-01
We propose a dynamical model that represents a process of deductive inference. We discuss the stability of logic dynamics and a neural basis for the dynamics. We propose a new concept of descriptive stability, thereby enabling a structure of stable descriptions of mathematical models concerning dynamic phenomena to be clarified. The present theory is based on the wider and deeper thoughts of John S. Nicolis. In particular, it is based on our joint paper on the chaos theory of human short-term memories with a magic number of seven plus or minus two.
Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties in Boolean Logic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herman, Geoffrey L.; Loui, Michael C.; Kaczmarczyk, Lisa; Zilles, Craig
2012-01-01
The ability to reason with formal logic is a foundational skill for computer scientists and computer engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design, debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about their understanding of propositional logic and their ability to translate from English specifications to Boolean expressions, we characterized…
Thomas, R.; Kaufman, M.
2001-03-01
Circuits and their involvement in complex dynamics are described in differential terms in Part I of this work. Here, we first explain why it may be appropriate to use a logical description, either by itself or in symbiosis with the differential description. The major problem of a logical description is to find an adequate way to involve time. The procedure we adopted differs radically from the classical one by its fully asynchronous character. In Sec. II we describe our "naive" logical approach, and use it to illustrate the major laws of circuitry (namely, the involvement of positive circuits in multistationarity and of negative circuits in periodicity) and in a biological example. Already in the naive description, the major steps of the logical description are to: (i) describe a model as a set of logical equations, (ii) derive the state table from the equations, (iii) derive the graph of the sequences of states from the state table, and (iv) determine which of the possible pathways will be actually followed in terms of time delays. In the following sections we consider multivalued variables where required, the introduction of logical parameters and of logical values ascribed to the thresholds, and the concept of characteristic state of a circuit. This generalized logical description provides an image whose qualitative fit with the differential description is quite remarkable. A major interest of the generalized logical description is that it implies a limited and often quite small number of possible combinations of values of the logical parameters. The space of the logical parameters is thus cut into a limited number of boxes, each of which is characterized by a defined qualitative behavior of the system. Our analysis tells which constraints on the logical parameters must be fulfilled in order for any circuit (or combination of circuits) to be functional. Functionality of a circuit will result in multistationarity (in the case of a positive circuit) or in a cycle
An implementation of tautological analysis of some three-valued logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogulski, Daniel; Wesserling, Janusz; Mulawka, Jan
2015-09-01
In this article, we are going to present the issue concerning the tautology for the three-valued logic of beliefs - LB3. The aim of the paper is to present a machine implementation of tautology analysis for the given logic. Due to the presented analysis, we can classify a given LB3 language formula as: tautology, contradiction, or a satisfiable function. We also present the method for decoding LB3 logic expressions, since machine implementation of any aspects related to logical systems require proper coding.
An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream.
Yusupbekov, N R; Marakhimov, A R; Igamberdiev, H Z; Umarov, Sh X
2016-01-01
This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. PMID:27517081
An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream
Marakhimov, A. R.; Igamberdiev, H. Z.; Umarov, Sh. X.
2016-01-01
This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. PMID:27517081
An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream.
Yusupbekov, N R; Marakhimov, A R; Igamberdiev, H Z; Umarov, Sh X
2016-01-01
This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach.
Logic, probability, and human reasoning.
Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P
2015-04-01
This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction.
Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
1993-01-01
Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.
A Logical Approach to Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Abhishek
2016-05-01
In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruspini, Enrique H.
1991-01-01
Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.
A Logical Approach to Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Abhishek
2016-10-01
In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.
Logic programming and metadata specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.
1992-01-01
Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.
Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cinà, Giovanni
The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either of the two languages. This paper explores the interplay of the two formalisms in the peculiar context of Quantum Theory. After a review of some influential abstract frameworks, we show how different modal logic frames can be extracted from the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, connecting the Categorical Quantum Mechanics approach to some modal logics that have been proposed for Quantum Computing. We then apply a general version of the same technique to two other categorical frameworks, the `topos approach' of Doering and Isham and the sheaf-theoretic work on contextuality by Abramsky and Brandenburger, suggesting how some key features can be expressed with modal languages.
Winnicott and Derrida: development of logic-of-play.
Bitan, Shachaf
2012-02-01
In this essay I develop the logic of play from the writings of the British psychoanalyst Donald W. Winnicott and the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. The logic of play serves as both a conceptual framework for theoretical clinical thinking and a space of experiencing in which the therapeutic situation is located and to which it aspires. I argue that both Winnicott and Derrida proposed a playful turn in Western thinking by their attitude towards oppositions, viewing them not as complementary or contradictory, but as 'peacefully-coexisting'. Derrida criticizes the dichotomous structure of Western thought, proposing playful movement as an alternative that does not constitute itself as a mastering construction. I will show that Winnicott, too, proposes playful logic through which he thinks and acts in the therapeutic situation. The therapeutic encounter is understood as a playful space in which analyst and analysand continuously coexist, instead of facing each other as exclusionary oppositions. I therefore propose the logic of play as the basis for the therapeutic encounter. The playful turn, then, is crucial for the thought and praxis expressed by the concept of two-person psychology. I suggest the term playful psychoanalysis to characterize the present perspective of psychoanalysis in the light of the playful turn. I will first present Derrida's playful thought, go on to Winnicott's playful revolutionism, and conclude with an analysis of Winicott's clinical material in the light of the logic of play. PMID:22320134
Gateways to Writing Logical Arguments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCann, Thomas M.
2010-01-01
Middle school and high school students have a conception of what the basic demands of logic are, and they draw on this understanding in anticipating certain demands of parents and teachers when the adolescents have to defend positions. At the same time, many adolescents struggle to "write" highly elaborated arguments. Teaching students lessons in…
The Logic of Research Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scriven, Michael; Coryn, Chris L. S.
2008-01-01
The authors offer suggestions about logical distinctions often overlooked in the evaluation of research, beginning with a strong plea not to treat technology as applied science, and especially not to treat research in technology as important only if it makes a contribution to scientific knowledge. They argue that the frameworks illustrated in this…
2011-05-07
Current mode logic is used in high speed timing systems for particle accelerators due to the fast rise time of the electrical signal. This software provides the necessary documentation to produce multiple copies of a single input for distribution to multiple devices. This software supports the DOE mission by providing a method for producing high speed signals in accelerator timing systems.
Olbright, G.R.; Bryan, R.P.; Brennan, T.M.; Lear, K.; Poirier, G.E.; Fu, W.S. ); Jewell, J.L.; Lee, Y.H. )
1990-10-31
We describe a new class of optical logic devices which consist of integrated phototransistors and surface-emitting lasers. The devices function as optical neurons having high gain and, as arrays, are ideal for neural networks, parallel optical signal processing and optical computing applications. 3 refs., 3 figs.
The Logic of Quantum Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto
2013-07-01
We apply our previously developed formalism of contexts of histories, suitable to deal with quantum properties at different times, to the measurement process. We explore the logical implications which are allowed by the quantum theory, about the realization of properties of the microscopic measured system, before and after the measurement process with a given pointer value.
Miniaturization of magnetic logic circuitry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baba, P. D.
1969-01-01
Magnetic logic circuit design features two ferrite materials, with different formulation and magnetic characteristics, which are bonded into a continuous structure by preparing the materials as a slurry and using the doctor blade method to form flexible ferrite sheets. After firing, the sintering process was continuous across the bond.
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edgar, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
Generic physical protection logic trees
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.
Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogan, Hamide
2016-01-01
Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…
Logical Reasoning and Retrieval Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Bryce
1993-01-01
A study of logical reasoning ability of endusers searching a CD-ROM index and its correlation to searching performance was conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Findings showed a correlation between cognitive skills and citation selection and indicated that computer system design can be improved using a cognitive engineering…
Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Needleman, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.
Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois
2011-01-01
Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…
Kull, Kalevi
2015-12-01
We suggest here a model of the origin of the phenomenal world via the naturalization of logical conflict or incompatibility (which is broader than, but includes logical contradiction). Physics rules out the reality of meaning because of the method of formalization, which requires that logical conflicts cannot be part of the model. We argue that (a) meaning-making requires a logical conflict; (b) logical conflict assumes a phenomenal present; (c) phenomenological specious present occurs in living systems as widely as meaning-making; (d) it is possible to provide a physiological description of a system in which the phenomenal present appears and choices are made; (e) logical conflict, or incompatibility itself, is the mechanism of intentionality; (f) meaning-making is assured by scaffolding, which is a product of earlier choices, or decision-making, or interpretation. This model can be seen as a model of semiosis. It also allows putting physiology and phenomenology (or physics and semiotics) into a natural connection.
Learning fuzzy logic control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lung, Leung Kam
1994-01-01
The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the
Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok
1992-01-01
Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.
Set-Theory and Logic in School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kapadia, Ramesh
1976-01-01
The author argues that the emphasis on logic and set theory in the school mathematics program is unnecessary and possibly harmful. He discusses briefly the relationships between semantics and logic. (SD)
Dynamic Frames in Java Dynamic Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattias; Weiß, Benjamin
In this paper we present a realisation of the concept of dynamic frames in a dynamic logic for verifying Java programs. This is achieved by treating sets of heap locations as first class citizens in the logic. Syntax and formal semantics of the logic are presented, along with sound proof rules for modularly reasoning about method calls and heap dependent symbols using specification contracts.
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.
1998-01-01
Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.
The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García Álvarez, Edgardo T.
The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.
An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.
Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.
Hashim, Yasir
2016-06-01
This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly. PMID:27427653
All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2010-09-01
Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.
a Modal Logic of Indiscernibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krause, Décio Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker; Merlussi, Pedro
This paper is a continuation of the authors' attempts to deal with the notion of indistinguishability (or indiscernibility) from a logical point of view. Now we introduce a two-sorted first-order modal logic to enable us to deal with objects of two different species. The intended interpretation is that objects of one of the species obey the rules of standard S5, while the objects of the other species obey only the rules of a weaker notion of indiscernibility. Quantum mechanics motivates the development. The basic idea is that in the `actual' world things may be indiscernible but in another accessible world they may be distinguished in some way. That is, indistinguishability needs not be seen as a necessary relation. Contrariwise, things might be distinguished in the `actual' world, but they may be indiscernible in another world. So, while two quantum systems may be entangled in the actual world, in some accessible world, due to a measurement, they can be discerned, and on the other hand, two initially separated quantum systems may enter in a state of superposition, losing their individualities. Two semantics are sketched for our system. The first is constructed within a standard set theory (the ZFC system is assumed at the metamathematics). The second one is constructed within the theory of quasi-sets, which we believe suits better the purposes of our logic and the mathematical treatment of certain situations in quantum mechanics. Some further philosophically related topics are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven
2006-06-01
Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.
The universal magnetic tunnel junction logic gates representing 16 binary Boolean logic operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Junwoo; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun
2015-05-01
The novel devices are expected to shift the paradigm of a logic operation by their own nature, replacing the conventional devices. In this study, the nature of our fabricated magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that responds to the two external inputs, magnetic field and voltage bias, demonstrated seven basic logic operations. The seven operations were obtained by the electric-field-assisted switching characteristics, where the surface magnetoelectric effect occurs due to a sufficiently thin free layer. The MTJ was transformed as a universal logic gate combined with three supplementary circuits: A multiplexer (MUX), a Wheatstone bridge, and a comparator. With these circuits, the universal logic gates demonstrated 16 binary Boolean logic operations in one logic stage. A possible further approach is parallel computations through a complimentary of MUX and comparator, capable of driving multiple logic gates. A reconfigurable property can also be realized when different logic operations are produced from different level of voltages applying to the same configuration of the logic gate.
Computer-Assisted Instruction in Elementary Logic at the University Level. Technical Report No. 239.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Adele; Suppes, Patrick
Earlier research by the authors in the design and use of computer-assisted instructional systems and curricula for teaching mathematical logic to gifted elementary school students has been extended to the teaching of university-level courses. This report is a description of the curriculum and problem types of a computer-based course offered at…
The Use of Flowcharts and Logic to Teach Conversational Skills in Advanced ESL Classes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Robert Bruce
A description of the use of flowcharts in teaching students of English as a second language (ESL) to "map" dialogue for conversation begins with a review of the literature concerning the flowchart form and content. Conversational form and logic and the discourse chart designed by Mohr and adapted for this study are discussed. The classroom…
Introducing Programmable Logic to Undergraduate Engineering Students in a Digital Electronics Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Todorovich, E.; Marone, J. A.; Vazquez, M.
2012-01-01
Due to significant technological advances and industry requirements, many universities have introduced programmable logic and hardware description languages into undergraduate engineering curricula. This has led to a number of logistical and didactical challenges, in particular for computer science students. In this paper, the integration of some…
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect
Access-Limited Logic: A language for knowledge representation
Crawford, J.M. Jr.
1990-01-01
Access-Limited Logic (ALL) is a language for knowledge representation which formalizes the access limitations inherent in a network structured knowledge-base. Where a deductive method such as resolution would retrieve all assertions that satisfy a given pattern, an access-limited logic retrieves all assertions reachable by following an available access path. The time complexity of inference is thus a polynomial function of the size of the accessible portion of the knowledge-base, rather than the size of the entire knowledge-base. Access-Limited Logic, though incomplete, still has a well defined semantics and a weakened form of completeness, Socratic Completeness, which guarantees that for any query which is a logical consequence of the knowledge-base, there exists a series of queries after which the original query will succeed. The author has implemented ALL in Lisp and it has been used to build several non-trivial systems, including versions of Qualitative Process Theory and Pearl's probability networks. ALL is a step toward providing the properties - clean semantics, efficient inference, expressive power - which will be necessary to build large, effective knowledge bases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pryor, Richard Lee (Inventor)
1977-01-01
A line driver including a pair of complementary transistors having their conduction paths serially connected between an operating and a reference potential and their bases connected through a first switch to a signal input terminal. A second switch is connected between the common base connection and the common connection of the conduction paths. With the second switch open and the first closed, an output voltage, responsive to the input signal, corresponding to first or second binary values is obtained. When the second switch is closed and the first opened, the transistor pair is turned off, disconnecting the line driver from its load, thereby providing tri-state logic operation.
Deoxyribozyme-based logic gates.
Stojanovic, Milan N; Mitchell, Tiffany Elizabeth; Stefanovic, Darko
2002-04-10
We report herein a set of deoxyribozyme-based logic gates capable of generating any Boolean function. We construct basic NOT and AND gates, followed by the more complex XOR gate. These gates were constructed through a modular design that combines molecular beacon stem-loops with hammerhead-type deoxyribozymes. Importantly, as the gates have oligonucleotides as both inputs and output, they open the possibility of communication between various computation elements in solution. The operation of these gates is conveniently connected to a fluorescent readout.
Quantum theory as the most robust description of reproducible experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Michielsen, Kristel
2014-08-01
suggests that quantum theory is a powerful language to describe a certain class of statistical experiments but remains vague about the properties of the class. Similar views were expressed by other fathers of quantum mechanics, e.g., Max Born and Wolfgang Pauli [50]. They can be summarized as "Quantum theory describes our knowledge of the atomic phenomena rather than the atomic phenomena themselves". Our aim is, in a sense, to replace the philosophical components of these statements by well-defined mathematical concepts and to carefully study their relevance for physical phenomena. Specifically, by applying the general formalism of logical inference to a well-defined class of statistical experiments, the present paper shows that quantum theory is indeed the kind of language envisaged by Bohr.Theories such as Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell's electrodynamics, and Einstein's (general) relativity are deductive in character. Starting from a few axioms, abstracted from experimental observations and additional assumptions about the irrelevance of a large number of factors for the description of the phenomena of interest, deductive reasoning is used to prove or disprove unambiguous statements, propositions, about the mathematical objects which appear in the theory.The method of deductive reasoning conforms to the Boolean algebra of propositions. The deductive, reductionist methodology has the appealing feature that one can be sure that the propositions are either right or wrong, and disregarding the possibility that some of the premises on which the deduction is built may not apply, there is no doubt that the conclusions are correct. Clearly, these theories successfully describe a wide range of physical phenomena in a manner and language which is unambiguous and independent of the individual.At the same time, the construction of a physical theory, and a scientific theory in general, from "first principles" is, for sure, not something self-evident, and not even safe. Our basic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laxton, J.; Wyborn, L.
2007-12-01
GeoSciML is being developed as an interchange language for geoscience. The initial scope has been designed to include the information generally shown on geological maps, and some observations, in particular using boreholes. The logical model has been built in UML and the model includes packages for mapped features, geologic units, earth material and geologic structures. The model inherits from GML, for spatial information, and observations and measurements (O&M) in particular. At present the scope of the model is largely interpreted information, but the intention is to extend it to include more observational data. A 'mapped feature' can be considered an occurrence, such as a polygon on a geologic map, of a real-world geologic feature the full extent of which is unknown. Geologic features are associated with geologic events for recording their age, process and environment of formation. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. Geologic units have specialisations for lithostratigraphic units, lithodemic units, chronostratigraphic units and deformation units, but more will be added in the future as required. The model allows for composite geologic units, made up of other geologic units, to be described. Geologic structures include fractures, shear displacement structures, contacts, fold and foliation. The earth material package allows for the description of both individual components such as minerals and compound materials such as rocks or unconsolidated material. The model incorporates a structure for controlled concepts which can be defined in terms of normative descriptions of geologic units or earth materials. These can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons. Two data types of particular use in describing geologic properties have been defined: one allows properties to be recorded with term, number and range values along with a qualifier property for handling the 'fuzziness' of much
Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability
Cooper, J.A.
1984-01-20
A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.
[Continuity and transformation of body logic].
Bolens, Guillemette
2003-01-01
This article is concerned with two distinct corporeal logics. In the first, corporeality is founded on joints, tendons, and mobility; in the second, the envelope and its apertures are considered primordial. The first logic is extant in very few works. Although these texts (e.g. The Iliad, Beowulf) clearly share the same, very specific, conception of the body, they belong to different histories. The corporeal logic of the 'jointed body' (corps articulaire) cannot, therefore, be appraised in terms of longue durée. The texts represent, instead, a moment of transition between the psychodynamics of orality and literacy. A problem correlated to this fact is that readers (ancient and modern) no longer think using the same logic as that pertaining to the jointed body. They tend to translate information regarding the logic of the jointed body into data meaningful in their own logic.
Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2012-01-01
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588
Selection Shapes Transcriptional Logic and Regulatory Specialization in Genetic Networks
Fogelmark, Karl; Peterson, Carsten; Troein, Carl
2016-01-01
Background Living organisms need to regulate their gene expression in response to environmental signals and internal cues. This is a computational task where genes act as logic gates that connect to form transcriptional networks, which are shaped at all scales by evolution. Large-scale mutations such as gene duplications and deletions add and remove network components, whereas smaller mutations alter the connections between them. Selection determines what mutations are accepted, but its importance for shaping the resulting networks has been debated. Methodology To investigate the effects of selection in the shaping of transcriptional networks, we derive transcriptional logic from a combinatorially powerful yet tractable model of the binding between DNA and transcription factors. By evolving the resulting networks based on their ability to function as either a simple decision system or a circadian clock, we obtain information on the regulation and logic rules encoded in functional transcriptional networks. Comparisons are made between networks evolved for different functions, as well as with structurally equivalent but non-functional (neutrally evolved) networks, and predictions are validated against the transcriptional network of E. coli. Principal Findings We find that the logic rules governing gene expression depend on the function performed by the network. Unlike the decision systems, the circadian clocks show strong cooperative binding and negative regulation, which achieves tight temporal control of gene expression. Furthermore, we find that transcription factors act preferentially as either activators or repressors, both when binding multiple sites for a single target gene and globally in the transcriptional networks. This separation into positive and negative regulators requires gene duplications, which highlights the interplay between mutation and selection in shaping the transcriptional networks. PMID:26927540
Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry
2016-01-01
The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133
River Protection Project (RPP) Level 0 Logic
SEEMAN, S.E.
2000-01-20
The following modifications were made to the River Protection Project Level-0 logic in going from Rev. I to Rev. 2. The first change was the change to the heading at the top of the drawing: ''TWRS Program Logic'' to ''River Protection Project Mission Logic''. Note that purely format changes (e.g., fonts, location of boxes, date format, addition of numbers to ''ghost'' boxes) are not discussed. However, the major format change was to show DOE-BNFL Inc. Interface Control Documents (ICDs) on the logic.
Quantum theory as the most robust description of reproducible experiments
De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Michielsen, Kristel
2014-08-15
It is shown that the basic equations of quantum theory can be obtained from a straightforward application of logical inference to experiments for which there is uncertainty about individual events and for which the frequencies of the observed events are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiments are carried out. - Highlights: • It is shown that logical inference, that is, inductive reasoning, provides a rational explanation for the success of quantum theory. • The Schrödinger equation is obtained through logical inference applied to robust experiments. • The singlet and triplet states follow from logical inference applied to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment. • Robustness also leads to the quantum theoretical description of the Stern-Gerlach experiment.
Probabilistic and fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis.
Licata, G
2007-06-01
In this study I have compared classic and fuzzy logic and their usefulness in clinical diagnosis. The theory of probability is often considered a device to protect the classical two-valued logic from the evidence of its inadequacy to understand and show the complexity of world [1]. This can be true, but it is not possible to discard the theory of probability. I will argue that the problems and the application fields of the theory of probability are very different from those of fuzzy logic. After the introduction on the theoretical bases of fuzzy approach to logic, I have reported some diagnostic argumentations employing fuzzy logic. The state of normality and the state of disease often fight their battle on scalar quantities of biological values and it is not hard to establish a correspondence between the biological values and the percent values of fuzzy logic. Accordingly, I have suggested some applications of fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis and in particular I have utilised a fuzzy curve to recognise subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal failure and liver disease. The comparison between classic and fuzzy logic findings seems to indicate that fuzzy logic is more adequate to study the development of biological events. In fact, fuzzy logic is useful when we have a lot of pieces of information and when we dispose to scalar quantities. In conclusion, increasingly the development of technology offers new instruments to measure pathological parameters through scalar quantities, thus it is reasonable to think that in the future fuzzy logic will be employed more in clinical diagnosis.
Programmable Potentials: Approximate N-body potentials from coarse-level logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thakur, Gunjan S.; Mohr, Ryan; Mezić, Igor
2016-09-01
This paper gives a systematic method for constructing an N-body potential, approximating the true potential, that accurately captures meso-scale behavior of the chemical or biological system using pairwise potentials coming from experimental data or ab initio methods. The meso-scale behavior is translated into logic rules for the dynamics. Each pairwise potential has an associated logic function that is constructed using the logic rules, a class of elementary logic functions, and AND, OR, and NOT gates. The effect of each logic function is to turn its associated potential on and off. The N-body potential is constructed as linear combination of the pairwise potentials, where the “coefficients” of the potentials are smoothed versions of the associated logic functions. These potentials allow a potentially low-dimensional description of complex processes while still accurately capturing the relevant physics at the meso-scale. We present the proposed formalism to construct coarse-grained potential models for three examples: an inhibitor molecular system, bond breaking in chemical reactions, and DNA transcription from biology. The method can potentially be used in reverse for design of molecular processes by specifying properties of molecules that can carry them out.
Programmable Potentials: Approximate N-body potentials from coarse-level logic
Thakur, Gunjan S.; Mohr, Ryan; Mezić, Igor
2016-01-01
This paper gives a systematic method for constructing an N-body potential, approximating the true potential, that accurately captures meso-scale behavior of the chemical or biological system using pairwise potentials coming from experimental data or ab initio methods. The meso-scale behavior is translated into logic rules for the dynamics. Each pairwise potential has an associated logic function that is constructed using the logic rules, a class of elementary logic functions, and AND, OR, and NOT gates. The effect of each logic function is to turn its associated potential on and off. The N-body potential is constructed as linear combination of the pairwise potentials, where the “coefficients” of the potentials are smoothed versions of the associated logic functions. These potentials allow a potentially low-dimensional description of complex processes while still accurately capturing the relevant physics at the meso-scale. We present the proposed formalism to construct coarse-grained potential models for three examples: an inhibitor molecular system, bond breaking in chemical reactions, and DNA transcription from biology. The method can potentially be used in reverse for design of molecular processes by specifying properties of molecules that can carry them out. PMID:27671683
Reachability analysis of logic Petri nets using incidence matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yu Yue; Ning, Yu Hui; Qi, Liang
2014-11-01
Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can simplify the net-structure and mitigate the problem of state space explosion. To directly investigate the properties of LPNs, a new analysis method of LPNs is introduced in this paper based on incidence matrix. The enabled conditions of transitions are given, and reachable markings are calculated based on the constructed incidence matrix of LPNs. The state equation of LPNs is defined, and the reachability of LPNs is analysed. Compared with the previous work, the incidence matrix in this paper can contain more information and describes the logic expressions and arcs of LPNs. The computational complexity of LPNs is lower. Finally, the validity, reliability and effectiveness of the proposed method are illustrated by analysing an actual case. The theoretical and practical values of LPNs are enhanced.
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edgar, Scott
2009-02-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch’s account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have political aims, and further suggests that political forces alone cannot explain this view’s rise to dominance during the Cold War, since political forces cannot explain why a philosophy of science with liberal democratic, anti-communist aims did not flourish. The paper then argues that if professionalization is understood in the right way, it might point toward an explanation of the apolitical stance of Cold War philosophy of science.
Moral Particularism and Deontic Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parent, Xavier
The aim of this paper is to strengthen the point made by Horty about the relationship between reason holism and moral particularism. In the literature prima facie obligations have been considered as the only source of reason holism. I strengthen Horty's point in two ways. First, I show that contrary-to-duties provide another independent support for reason holism. Next I outline a formal theory that is able to capture these two sources of holism. While in simple settings the proposed account coincides with Horty's one, this is not true in more complicated or "realistic" settings in which more than two norms collide. My chosen formalism is so-called input/output logic.
Natural Language Description of Emotion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kazemzadeh, Abe
2013-01-01
This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…
A computer program for the generation of logic networks from task chart data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herbert, H. E.
1980-01-01
The Network Generation Program (NETGEN), which creates logic networks from task chart data is presented. NETGEN is written in CDC FORTRAN IV (Extended) and runs in a batch mode on the CDC 6000 and CYBER 170 series computers. Data is input via a two-card format and contains information regarding the specific tasks in a project. From this data, NETGEN constructs a logic network of related activities with each activity having unique predecessor and successor nodes, activity duration, descriptions, etc. NETGEN then prepares this data on two files that can be used in the Project Planning Analysis and Reporting System Batch Network Scheduling program and the EZPERT graphics program.
Strategy: The logic of war and peace
Luttwak, E.N.
1987-01-01
This book expounds a new way of thinking about the conduct of war and the diplomacy of peace, a theory Luttwak calls ''paradoxical logic,'' and illustrates, through abundant historical examples, the failure of commonsense logic in matters of military strategy and international politics. Topics considered include nuclear weapons, military strategy, decision making, historical aspects, political aspects, global aspects, and warfare.
Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken
1999-01-01
This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.
Zeno's arrow and classical phase space logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westmoreland, Michael D.; Schumacher, Benjamin W.
1994-06-01
We analyze the Zeno's familiar paradox of the arrow using recently developed non-Boolean derived logics for classical systems. We show that the paradox depends upon a premise that is identically false in such logics, so that the language of experimental propositions is immune to the paradox.
Natural language understanding and logic programming
Dahl, V.; Saint-Dizier, P.
1985-01-01
Logic programming has been used in many natural language understanding applications, mainly in the areas of analysis, metagrammatical formalisms, logical treatment of linguistic problems, and meaning representations for naturla language. The particular methods and formal systems developed in this context usually exhibit attractive features of logic while remaining in the more pragmatic area of programming: conciseness, modularity, a declarative meaning that is independent from machine behaviour, and logical inference. All of these features, common to logic programming and to logic metagrammars, have been made possible through a chaining of various fundamental ideas. Outstanding among these are the resolution principle. Prolog itself; and interpretation of logic as a programming language. The machines of a relatively near future are likely to incorporate many related capabilities while increasing their speed manyfold. The Japanese Fifth Generation Computer project has triggered efforts towards future generations of computer systems based on these concepts. The potential in understanding natural language through logic programming is growing rapidly, and it might be wise to integrate the various theoretical and practical aspects involved, rather than yielding to the temptation of using all the extra power for programming ad-hoc systems. This conference is an effort toward such an integration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jetli, Priyedarshi
Modern logic begins with Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic when the algebra of logic was developed so that classical logic syllogisms were proven as algebraic equations and the turn from the logic of classes to propositional logic was suggested. The emergence was incomplete as Boole algebraised classical logic. Frege in Begriffsschrift replaced Aristotelian subject-predicate propositions by function and argument and displaced syllogisms with an axiomatic propositional calculus using conditionals, modus ponens and the law of substitution. Further Frege provided the breakthrough to lay down the groundwork for the development of quantified logic as well as the logic of relations. He achieved all of this through his innovative formal notations which have remained underrated. Frege hence completed the emergence of modern logic. Both Boole and Frege mathematised logic, but Frege's goal was to logicise mathematics. However the emergence of modern logic in Frege should be detached from his logicism.
Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mei; Dong, Bin
2016-06-22
In this paper, we report a polymer-based raspberry-like micromotor. Interestingly, the resulting micromotor exhibits multistimuli-responsive motion behavior. Its on-off-on motion can be regulated by the application of stimuli such as H2O2, near-infrared light, NH3, or their combinations. Because of the versatility in motion control, the current micromotor has great potential in the application field of logic gate and logic circuit. With use of different stimuli as the inputs and the micromotor motion as the output, reprogrammable OR and INHIBIT logic gates or logic circuit consisting of OR, NOT, and AND logic gates can be achieved. PMID:27237969
Magnetic tunnel junction based spintronic logic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyle, Andrew Paul
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based technologies will hit their last generation on or near the 16 nm node, which we expect to reach by the year 2025. Thus future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by 'outside the box' designs and new physics, including molecular or DNA based computation, organics, magnonics, or spintronic. This dissertation investigates magnetic logic devices for post-CMOS computation. Three different architectures were studied, each relying on a different magnetic mechanism to compute logic functions. Each design has it benefits and challenges that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on pushing each design from the drawing board to a realistic logic technology. The first logic architecture is based on electrically connected magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) that allow direct communication between elements without intermediate sensing amplifiers. Two and three input logic gates, which consist of two and three MTJs connected in parallel, respectively were fabricated and are compared. The direct communication is realized by electrically connecting the output in series with the input and applying voltage across the series connections. The logic gates rely on the fact that a change in resistance at the input modulates the voltage that is needed to supply the critical current for spin transfer torque switching the output. The change in resistance at the input resulted in a voltage margin of 50--200 mV and 250--300 mV for the closest input states for the three and two input designs, respectively. The two input logic gate realizes the AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic functions. The three input logic function realizes the Majority, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic operations. The second logic architecture utilizes magnetostatically coupled nanomagnets to compute logic functions, which is the basis of
Zhou, Su-Ming; Li, Meng; Yang, Ning; Liu, Shun; Yuan, Xue-Mei; Tao, Zhen; Wang, Guo-Liang
2015-08-01
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that mediates signals induced by the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R). In the present study, the full-length cDNA of TRAF6 (Pt-TRAF6) was identified in a marine crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Pt-TRAF6 ORF is predicted to encode a 599-amino acid protein, including a RING type zinc finger, two TRAF-type zinc fingers, and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. The overall amino acid sequence identity between Pt-TRAF6 and other TRAF6s ranged from 50.9 to 51.3% for shrimp and from 16.1 to 19.4% for insects. The Pt-TRAF6 gene contains six exons and five introns, which is different from the organization of the insect TRAF6 gene. Pt-TRAF6 transcripts were broadly expressed in all tissues tested, and their expression was higher in hemocytes, gills, the intestine, and heart than in muscle. Interestingly, the level of Pt-TRAF6 transcript differed between male and female crabs. After Vibrio alginolyticus or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, the Pt-TRAF6 transcript was down-regulated in hemocytes and up-regulated in gills. Moreover, Pt-TRAF6 expression was altered sooner in the LPS challenge group than in the V. alginolyticus challenge group. These results indicate that Pt-TRAF6 may respond to Gram-negative bacterial infections.
Using Pipelined XNOR Logic to Reduce SEU Risks in State Machines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Le, Martin; Zheng, Xin; Katanyoutant, Sunant
2008-01-01
Single-event upsets (SEUs) pose great threats to avionic systems state machine control logic, which are frequently used to control sequence of events and to qualify protocols. The risks of SEUs manifest in two ways: (a) the state machine s state information is changed, causing the state machine to unexpectedly transition to another state; (b) due to the asynchronous nature of SEU, the state machine's state registers become metastable, consequently causing any combinational logic associated with the metastable registers to malfunction temporarily. Effect (a) can be mitigated with methods such as triplemodular redundancy (TMR). However, effect (b) cannot be eliminated and can degrade the effectiveness of any mitigation method of effect (a). Although there is no way to completely eliminate the risk of SEU-induced errors, the risk can be made very small by use of a combination of very fast state-machine logic and error-detection logic. Therefore, one goal of two main elements of the present method is to design the fastest state-machine logic circuitry by basing it on the fastest generic state-machine design, which is that of a one-hot state machine. The other of the two main design elements is to design fast error-detection logic circuitry and to optimize it for implementation in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture: In the resulting design, the one-hot state machine is fitted with a multiple-input XNOR gate for detection of illegal states. The XNOR gate is implemented with lookup tables and with pipelines for high speed. In this method, the task of designing all the logic must be performed manually because no currently available logic synthesis software tool can produce optimal solutions of design problems of this type. However, some assistance is provided by a script, written for this purpose in the Python language (an object-oriented interpretive computer language) to automatically generate hardware description language (HDL) code from state
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levin-Rozalis, Miri
2010-01-01
Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…
Walcher, Marion; Skvoretz, Rhonda; Montgomery-Fullerton, Megan; Jonas, Vivian; Brentano, Steve
2013-10-01
An apparently rare Neisseria meningitidis isolate containing one copy of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae 16S rRNA gene is described herein. This isolate was identified as N. meningitidis by biochemical identification methods but generated a positive signal with Gen-Probe Aptima assays for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Direct 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the purified isolate revealed mixed bases in signature regions that allow for discrimination between N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. The mixed bases were resolved by sequencing individually PCR-amplified single copies of the genomic 16S rRNA gene. A total of 121 discrete sequences were obtained; 92 (76%) were N. meningitidis sequences, and 29 (24%) were N. gonorrhoeae sequences. Based on the ratio of species-specific sequences, the N. meningitidis strain seems to have replaced one of its four intrinsic 16S rRNA genes with the gonococcal gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes specific for meningococcal and gonococcal rRNA were used to demonstrate the expression of the rRNA genes. Interestingly, the clinical isolate described here expresses both N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae 16S rRNA genes, as shown by positive FISH signals with both probes. This explains why the probes for N. gonorrhoeae in the Gen-Probe Aptima assays cross-react with this N. meningitidis isolate. The N. meningitidis isolate described must have obtained N. gonorrhoeae-specific DNA through interspecies recombination.
Quantum logic gates from Dirac quasiparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, E. C.; Brozeguini, J. C.
2015-03-01
We show that one of the fundamental operations of topological quantum computation, namely the non-Abelian braiding of identical particles, can be physically realized in a general system of Dirac quasiparticles in 1 + 1D. Our method is based on the study of the analytic structure of the different Euclidean correlation functions of Dirac fields, which are conveniently expressed as functions of a complex variable. When the Dirac field is an (Abelian) anyon with statistics parameter s (2s not an integer), we show that the associated Majorana states of such a field present non-Abelian statistics. The explicit form of the unitary, non-commuting (monodromy) matrices generated upon braiding is derived as a function of s and is shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter algebra. For the special case of s = 1/4, we show that the braiding matrices become the logic gates NOT, CNOT,… required in the algorithms of universal quantum computation. We suggest that maybe polyacetylene, alternately doped with alkali and halogen atoms, is a potential candidate for a physical material realization of the system studied here.
Mechanisms and Evolution of Control Logic in Prokaryotic Transcriptional Regulation
van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Medema, Marnix H.; Kuipers, Oscar P.
2009-01-01
Summary: A major part of organismal complexity and versatility of prokaryotes resides in their ability to fine-tune gene expression to adequately respond to internal and external stimuli. Evolution has been very innovative in creating intricate mechanisms by which different regulatory signals operate and interact at promoters to drive gene expression. The regulation of target gene expression by transcription factors (TFs) is governed by control logic brought about by the interaction of regulators with TF binding sites (TFBSs) in cis-regulatory regions. A factor that in large part determines the strength of the response of a target to a given TF is motif stringency, the extent to which the TFBS fits the optimal TFBS sequence for a given TF. Advances in high-throughput technologies and computational genomics allow reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in silico. To optimize the prediction of transcriptional regulatory networks, i.e., to separate direct regulation from indirect regulation, a thorough understanding of the control logic underlying the regulation of gene expression is required. This review summarizes the state of the art of the elements that determine the functionality of TFBSs by focusing on the molecular biological mechanisms and evolutionary origins of cis-regulatory regions. PMID:19721087
Project W-058 monitor and control system logic
ROBERTS, J.B.
1999-05-12
This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console.
Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned
Franz, Nico M.; Pier, Naomi M.; Reeder, Deeann M.; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram
2016-01-01
Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2–317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3–483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across
Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned.
Franz, Nico M; Pier, Naomi M; Reeder, Deeann M; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram
2016-07-01
Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2-317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3-483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across treatments
A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe
2014-10-01
By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that π is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.
Jaegers, Lisa; Dale, Ann Marie; Weaver, Nancy; Buchholz, Bryan; Welch, Laura; Evanoff, Bradley
2013-01-01
Background Intervention studies in participatory ergonomics (PE) are often difficult to interpret due to limited descriptions of program planning and evaluation. Methods In an ongoing PE program with floor layers, we developed a logic model to describe our program plan, and process and summative evaluations designed to describe the efficacy of the program. Results The logic model was a useful tool for describing the program elements and subsequent modifications. The process evaluation measured how well the program was delivered as intended, and revealed the need for program modifications. The summative evaluation provided early measures of the efficacy of the program as delivered. Conclusions Inadequate information on program delivery may lead to erroneous conclusions about intervention efficacy due to Type III error. A logic model guided the delivery and evaluation of our intervention and provides useful information to aid interpretation of results. PMID:24006097
Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.
2001-12-01
Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapit, Eliot
Superconducting qubits are among the most promising platforms for building a quantum computer. However, individual qubit coherence times are not far past the scalability threshold for quantum error correction, meaning that millions of physical devices would be required to construct a useful quantum computer. Consequently, further increases in coherence time are very desirable. In this letter, we blueprint a simple circuit consisting of two transmon qubits and two additional lossy qubits or resonators, which is passively protected against all single qubit quantum error channels through a combination of continuous driving and engineered dissipation. Photon losses are rapidly corrected through two-photon drive fields implemented with driven SQUID couplings, and dephasing from random potential fluctuations is heavily suppressed by the drive fields used to implement the multi-qubit Hamiltonian. Comparing our theoretical model to published noise estimates from recent experiments on flux and transmon qubits, we find that logical state coherence could be improved by a factor of forty or more compared to the individual qubit T1 and T2 using this technique.
The Logic of Reflection: Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "treatise on Logic"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Land, Janet Sanders
Though others discuss Coleridge's interest in science, light imagery, the phenomenon of reflection, and his references to Newton and Opticks,^1 this is the first study to examine Coleridge's art in terms of optics, its developing theories, and the nature-of-light debate. This study examines Coleridge's early predilection for visions, illusions, and the supernatural and demonstrates that he gradually shifts from the supernatural to the scientific aspects of "visions" and "illusions," concentrating on causes of illusions and the effects of their deceptive qualities rather than their mystical features. By the 1820's, his preoccupation with illusions had become an interest in optics, fueled, no doubt, by the increasing controversy of the nature-of-light debate and the number of advances in optics resulting from the efforts of its opponents to prove their theories. Tracing the development of the debate, its escalation in the early nineteenth century, and the formation of Coleridge's opinion concerning key issues of the debate, I outline the evolution of Coleridge's theory of reflection and examine the exposition of that theory in his treatise, Logic (1981). Finally, I analyze the relationship between the advances in optics and Coleridge's concepts of thought and knowledge and his notion of the mind as an instrument of knowledge. These ideas in turn, altered his opinions concerning the validity of knowledge resulting from philosophic debate, scientific experiment, and poetic exploration. ftn^1John Beer, "Coleridge and Wordsworth on Reflection," The Wordsworth Circle 20 (1989): 20-29; Coleridge the Visionary. London: Chatto and Windus, 1959; and Coleridge's Poetic Intelligence. London: Macmillan, 1977 and M. H. Abrams Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. New York: Norton, 1971; and "Coleridge's 'A Light in Sound': Science, Metascience, and Poetic Imagination." The Correspondent Breeze: Essays on English Romanticism. Eds. M. H. Abrams
Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic
Friedman, Joseph S. Querlioz, Damien; Fadel, Eric R.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Sahakian, Alan V.
2015-11-15
A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.
Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berens, Kalynnda
2002-01-01
Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.
Coordination Logic for Repulsive Resolution Maneuvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.
2016-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm for determining the direction an aircraft should maneuver in the event of a potential conflict with another aircraft. The algorithm is implicitly coordinated, meaning that with perfectly reliable computations and information, it will in- dependently provide directional information that is guaranteed to be coordinated without any additional information exchange or direct communication. The logic is inspired by the logic of TCAS II, the airborne system designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS II provides pilots with only vertical resolution advice, while the proposed algorithm, using a similar logic, provides implicitly coordinated vertical and horizontal directional advice.
Ternary logic and mass quantum numbers
Sheppeard, M. D.
2010-06-15
Koide's prediction of the tau mass may be formulated as a condition on the three eigenvalues of a quantum Fourier series, using simple parameters, and similar triplets have been found for neutrino and hadron masses [2]. Assuming these parameters arise from quantum gravity, one would like to understand them from the more abstract context of category theory. In particular, whereas the logic of lepton spin is a linear analogue of the ordinary Boolean logic of the category of sets, mass triplets suggest an analogous ternary logic, requiring higher dimensional categorical structures.
Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Joseph S.; Fadel, Eric R.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Querlioz, Damien; Sahakian, Alan V.
2015-11-01
A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.
Proof theory for locally finite many-valued logics: Semi-projective logics.
Ciabattoni, Agata; Montagna, Franco
2013-04-01
We extend the methodology in Baaz and Fermüller (1999) [5] to systematically construct analytic calculi for semi-projective logics-a large family of (propositional) locally finite many-valued logics. Our calculi, defined in the framework of sequents of relations, are proof search oriented and can be used to settle the computational complexity of the formalized logics. As a case study we derive sequent calculi of relations for Nilpotent Minimum logic and for Hajek's Basic Logic extended with the [Formula: see text]-contraction axiom ([Formula: see text]). The introduced calculi are used to prove that the decidability problem in these logics is Co-NP complete. PMID:23576838
Horai, Z
1977-07-01
In the explanatory text of the ILO U/C International classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis (1971) sent to Japan in 1973, items of its expression on pulmonary asbestosis were analyzed by the author. On the other hand, items of Japanese Asbestosis Classification of Pneumoconiosis Law were also analyzed. The ILO U/C International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis (1971) have some confused words. As to pulmonary asbestosis, an expression of irregular opacities is used, but the fundamental X-ray opacities such as linear opacities are forgot in the description. The X-ray findings of the pulmonary asbestosis are divided into 3 types as s, t and u. It is, however, difficult in practice to divide X-ray findings of the pulmonary asbestosis into such types. The classification of X-ray findings of the pulmonary asbestosis in the Japanese Pneumoconiosis Law is based on the classification worked out by many investigators i; the past, providing for simplicity and ease of handling.
Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement.
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-07-05
Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network.
Hierarchical structure of the logical Internet graph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Zihui; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Jaiswal, Sharad; Gao, Lixin
2001-07-01
The study of the Internet topology has recently received much attention from the research community. In particular, the observation that the network graph has interesting properties, such as power laws, that might be explored in a myriad of ways. Most of the work in characterizing the Internet graph is based on the physical network graph, i.e., the connectivity graph. In this paper we investigate how logical relationships between nodes of the AS graph can be used to gain insight to its structure. We characterize the logical graph using various metrics and identify the presence of power laws in the number of customers that a provider has. Using these logical relationships we define a structural model of the AS graph. The model highlights the hierarchical nature of logical relationships and the preferential connection to larger providers. We also investigate the consistency of this model over time and observe interesting properties of the hierarchical structure.
Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-07-01
Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network.
Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement.
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network. PMID:27377165
Nursing and fuzzy logic: an integrative review.
Jensen, Rodrigo; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes
2011-01-01
This study conducted an integrative review investigating how fuzzy logic has been used in research with the participation of nurses. The article search was carried out in the CINAHL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PubMed and Medline databases, with no limitation on time of publication. Articles written in Portuguese, English and Spanish with themes related to nursing and fuzzy logic with the authorship or participation of nurses were included. The final sample included 21 articles from eight countries. For the purpose of analysis, the articles were distributed into categories: theory, method and model. In nursing, fuzzy logic has significantly contributed to the understanding of subjects related to: imprecision or the need of an expert; as a research method; and in the development of models or decision support systems and hard technologies. The use of fuzzy logic in nursing has shown great potential and represents a vast field for research.
Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2012-07-20
Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.
Procedural and Logic Programming: A Comparison.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watkins, Will; And Others
1988-01-01
Examines the similarities and fundamental differences between procedural programing and logic programing by comparing LogoWriter and PROLOG. Suggests that PROLOG may be a good first programing language for students to learn. (MVL)
Implementing neural nets with programmable logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vidal, Jacques J.
1988-01-01
Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.
Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network. PMID:27377165
Convection automated logic oven control
Boyer, M.A.; Eke, K.I.
1998-03-01
For the past few years, there has been a greater push to bring more automation to the cooling process. There have been attempts at automated cooking using a wide range of sensors and procedures, but with limited success. The authors have the answer to the automated cooking process; this patented technology is called Convection AutoLogic (CAL). The beauty of the technology is that it requires no extra hardware for the existing oven system. They use the existing temperature probe, whether it is an RTD, thermocouple, or thermistor. This means that the manufacturer does not have to be burdened with extra costs associated with automated cooking in comparison to standard ovens. The only change to the oven is the program in the central processing unit (CPU) on the board. As for its operation, when the user places the food into the oven, he or she is required to select a category (e.g., beef, poultry, or casseroles) and then simply press the start button. The CAL program then begins its cooking program. It first looks at the ambient oven temperature to see if it is a cold, warm, or hot start. CAL stores this data and then begins to look at the food`s thermal footprint. After CAL has properly detected this thermal footprint, it can calculate the time and temperature at which the food needs to be cooked. CAL then sets up these factors for the cooking stage of the program and, when the food has finished cooking, the oven is turned off automatically. The total time for this entire process is the same as the standard cooking time the user would normally set. The CAL program can also compensate for varying line voltages and detect when the oven door is opened. With all of these varying factors being monitored, CAL can produce a perfectly cooked item with minimal user input.
Visual setup of logical models of signaling and regulatory networks with ProMoT
Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Mirschel, Sebastian; Hemenway, Rebecca; Klamt, Steffen; Gilles, Ernst Dieter; Ginkel, Martin
2006-01-01
Background The analysis of biochemical networks using a logical (Boolean) description is an important approach in Systems Biology. Recently, new methods have been proposed to analyze large signaling and regulatory networks using this formalism. Even though there is a large number of tools to set up models describing biological networks using a biochemical (kinetic) formalism, however, they do not support logical models. Results Herein we present a flexible framework for setting up large logical models in a visual manner with the software tool ProMoT. An easily extendible library, ProMoT's inherent modularity and object-oriented concept as well as adaptive visualization techniques provide a versatile environment. Both the graphical and the textual description of the logical model can be exported to different formats. Conclusion New features of ProMoT facilitate an efficient set-up of large Boolean models of biochemical interaction networks. The modeling environment is flexible; it can easily be adapted to specific requirements, and new extensions can be introduced. ProMoT is freely available from . PMID:17109765
Abstract Object Creation in Dynamic Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrendt, Wolfgang; de Boer, Frank S.; Grabe, Immo
In this paper we give a representation of a weakest precondition calculus for abstract object creation in dynamic logic, the logic underlying the KeY theorem prover. This representation allows to both specify and verify properties of objects at the abstraction level of the (object-oriented) programming language. Objects which are not (yet) created never play any role, neither in the specification nor in the verification of properties. Further, we show how to symbolically execute abstract object creation.
Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habiballa, Hashim
2016-06-01
The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.
Multiple neural representations of elementary logical connectives.
Baggio, Giosuè; Cherubini, Paolo; Pischedda, Doris; Blumenthal, Anna; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo
2016-07-15
A defining trait of human cognition is the capacity to form compounds out of simple thoughts. This ability relies on the logical connectives AND, OR and IF. Simple propositions, e.g., 'There is a fork' and 'There is a knife', can be combined in alternative ways using logical connectives: e.g., 'There is a fork AND there is a knife', 'There is a fork OR there is a knife', 'IF there is a fork, there is a knife'. How does the brain represent compounds based on different logical connectives, and how are compounds evaluated in relation to new facts? In the present study, participants had to maintain and evaluate conjunctive (AND), disjunctive (OR) or conditional (IF) compounds while undergoing functional MRI. Our results suggest that, during maintenance, the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG, BA44, or Broca's area) represents the surface form of compounds. During evaluation, the left pIFG switches to processing the full logical meaning of compounds, and two additional areas are recruited: the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aIFG, BA47) and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS, BA40). The aIFG shows a pattern of activation similar to pIFG, and compatible with processing the full logical meaning of compounds, whereas activations in IPS differ with alternative interpretations of conditionals: logical vs conjunctive. These results uncover the functions of a basic cortical network underlying human compositional thought, and provide a shared neural foundation for the cognitive science of language and reasoning.
Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore
2001-01-01
We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.
Recognition and processing of logic diagrams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darwish, Ahmed M.; Bashandy, Ahmed R.
1996-03-01
In this paper we present a vision system that is capable of interpreting schematic logic diagrams, i.e. determine the output as a logic function of the inputs. The system is composed of a number of modules each designed to perform a specific subtask. Each module bears a minor contribution in the form of a new mixture of known algorithms or extensions to handle actual real life image imperfections which researchers tend to ignore when they develop their theoretical foundations. The main contribution, thus, is not in any individual module, it is rather in their integration to achieve the target job. The system is organized more or less in a classical fashion. Aside from the image acquisition and preprocessing modules, interesting modules include: the segmenter, the identifier, the connector and the grapher. A good segmentation output is one reason for the success of the presented system. Several novelties exist in the presented approach. Following segmentation the type of each logic gate is determined and its topological connectivity. The logic diagram is then transformed to a directed acyclic graph in which the final node is the output logic gate. The logic function is then determined by backtracking techniques. The system is not only aimed at recognition applications. In fact its main usage may be to target other processing applications such as storage compression and graphics modification and manipulation of the diagram as is explained.
Moving code - Sharing geoprocessing logic on the Web
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Matthias; Bernard, Lars; Kadner, Daniel
2013-09-01
Efficient data processing is a long-standing challenge in remote sensing. Effective and efficient algorithms are required for product generation in ground processing systems, event-based or on-demand analysis, environmental monitoring, and data mining. Furthermore, the increasing number of survey missions and the exponentially growing data volume in recent years have created demand for better software reuse as well as an efficient use of scalable processing infrastructures. Solutions that address both demands simultaneously have begun to slowly appear, but they seldom consider the possibility to coordinate development and maintenance efforts across different institutions, community projects, and software vendors. This paper presents a new approach to share, reuse, and possibly standardise geoprocessing logic in the field of remote sensing. Drawing from the principles of service-oriented design and distributed processing, this paper introduces moving-code packages as self-describing software components that contain algorithmic code and machine-readable descriptions of the provided functionality, platform, and infrastructure, as well as basic information about exploitation rights. Furthermore, the paper presents a lean publishing mechanism by which to distribute these packages on the Web and to integrate them in different processing environments ranging from monolithic workstations to elastic computational environments or "clouds". The paper concludes with an outlook toward community repositories for reusable geoprocessing logic and their possible impact on data-driven science in general.
On schemes of combinatorial transcription logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchler, Nicolas E.; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence
2003-04-01
Cells receive a wide variety of cellular and environmental signals, which are often processed combinatorially to generate specific genetic responses. Here we explore theoretically the potentials and limitations of combinatorial signal integration at the level of cis-regulatory transcription control. Our analysis suggests that many complex transcription-control functions of the type encountered in higher eukaryotes are already implementable within the much simpler bacterial transcription system. Using a quantitative model of bacterial transcription and invoking only specific protein-DNA interaction and weak glue-like interaction between regulatory proteins, we show explicit schemes to implement regulatory logic functions of increasing complexity by appropriately selecting the strengths and arranging the relative positions of the relevant protein-binding DNA sequences in the cis-regulatory region. The architectures that emerge are naturally modular and evolvable. Our results suggest that the transcription regulatory apparatus is a "programmable" computing machine, belonging formally to the class of Boltzmann machines. Crucial to our results is the ability to regulate gene expression at a distance. In bacteria, this can be achieved for isolated genes via DNA looping controlled by the dimerization of DNA-bound proteins. However, if adopted extensively in the genome, long-distance interaction can cause unintentional intergenic cross talk, a detrimental side effect difficult to overcome by the known bacterial transcription-regulation systems. This may be a key factor limiting the genome-wide adoption of complex transcription control in bacteria. Implications of our findings for combinatorial transcription control in eukaryotes are discussed. Abbreviations: TF, transcription factor RNAP, RNA polymerase DNF, disjunctive normal form CNF, conjunctive normal form
On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs
Krupski, Vladimir N
2011-05-31
In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.
On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krupski, Vladimir N.
2011-05-01
In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.
The Temporal Logic of the Tower Chief System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hazelton, Lyman R., Jr.
1990-01-01
The purpose is to describe the logic used in the reasoning scheme employed in the Tower Chief system, a runway configuration management system. First, a review of classical logic is given. Defensible logics, truth maintenance, default logic, temporally dependent propositions, and resource allocation and planning are discussed.
Nonmonotonic Logic for Use in Information Retrieval: An Exploratory Paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hurt, C. D.
1998-01-01
Monotonic logic requires reexamination of the entire logic string when there is a contradiction. Nonmonotonic logic allows the user to withdraw conclusions in the face of contradiction without harm to the logic string, which has considerable application to the field of information searching. Artificial intelligence models and neural networks based…
Design and descriptive tools for systolic architectures
Lewis, P.S.
1984-01-01
Automated design and descriptive tools are essential for the practical application of highly parallel special-purpose hardware such as systolic arrays. The use of special-purpose hardware can greatly increase the capabilities of signal processing systems. However, the more limited applications base makes design costs a critical factor in determining technical and economic viability. Systolic systems can be described at several levels of abstraction, each of which has unique descriptive requirements. This paper focuses on the descriptive issues involved at the system architectural level. Tools at this level must bridge the gap between logic- and circuit-oriented computer-aided design tools and algorithmic descriptions of systolic architectures. Traditionally, hardware description languages (HDLs) have been used at this level to describe conventional computer architectures. Systolic architectures, however, have different requirements. This paper examines these requirements and develops a set of criteria for evaluating HDLs. Four popular HDLs are evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses noted. The final section of the paper summarizes ongoing efforts at Los Alamos to develop a systolic array HDL based on the CONLAN family of languages.
Design and descriptive tools for systolic architectures
Lewis, P.S.
1984-01-01
Automated design and descriptive tools are essential for the practical application of highly parallel special-purpose hardware such as systolic arrays. The use of special-purpose hardware can greatly increase the capabilities of signal processing systems. However, the more limited applications base makes design costs a critical factor in determining technical and economic viability. Systolic systems can be described at several levels of abstraction, each of which has unique descriptive requirements. This paper focuses on the descriptive issues involved at the system architectural level. Tools at this level must bridge the gap between logic- and circuit-oriented computer-aided design tools and algorithmic descriptions of systolic architectures. Traditionally, hardware description languages (HDLs) have been used at this level to describe conventional computer architectures. Systolic architectures, however, have different requirements. This paper examines these requirements and develops a set of criteria for evaluating HDLs. Four popular DHLs are evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses noted. The final section of the paper summarizes ongoing efforts at Los Alamos to develop a systolic array HDL based on the CONLAN family of languages. 14 references.
Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Mohammed N.
1995-08-01
By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.
Qualitative information modeling: The role of fuzzy logic in project economic evaluations
Warnken, P.G.
1995-12-31
Conventional models rely on a precise mathematical formalism to express the quantitative essentials of the system being modeled. In contrast, decisionmakers in the real world employ cognitive skills to process information and arrive at decisions based on judgement and experience. Bridging the gap between the two analytic approaches -- that is, formulating intelligent models -- has met with very limited success using traditional computational methods. The difficulty stems from two problems. First, imprecision, which is the distinguishing feature of qualitative factors, is an information attribute that is not easily computable using the rules of traditional set theory and Boolean (bivalent) logic. Second, cognitive information processing is cumbersome using the numerical rule-based approaches common in today`s expert systems. Fuzzy models overcome these problems by employing new mathematical rules for expressing and processing knowledge. These rules are based on fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic is the formal symbolic language used to represent linguistic terms and verbal rules for computational and modeling purposes. This language provides model builders with the means to incorporate subjective judgements, imprecise information, and human reasoning capabilities as part of a model`s framework. This paper outlines the concepts needed to understand fuzzy modeling systems. The key concepts discussed include fuzzy sets, fuzzy logical operators, linguistic variables, and verbal rules. A simple fuzzy economic rating model for project investments is presented to demonstrate the fuzzy modeling technique. Finally, the paper discusses the role of fuzzy logic in the economic modeling process.
An introduction to mathematical logic and type theory
Andrews, P.B.
1986-01-01
Of the languages of symbolic logic, typed lambda-calculus (a formation of higher-order logic) is the most suitable for use in automated mathematical systems. This book begins with a study of propositional calculus and first-order logic, then provides a complete introduction to typed lambda-calculus. CONTENTS: Introduction. Propositional Calculus. First-Order Logic. Probability and Refutability. Further Topics in First-Order Logic. Type Theory. Formalized Number Theory. Incompleteness and Undecidability. Appendix: Summary of Theorems. Bibliography. Index.
Logic-Based Retrieval: Technology for Content-Oriented and Analytical Querying of Patent Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klampanos, Iraklis Angelos; Wu, Hengzhi; Roelleke, Thomas; Azzam, Hany
Patent searching is a complex retrieval task. An initial document search is only the starting point of a chain of searches and decisions that need to be made by patent searchers. Keyword-based retrieval is adequate for document searching, but it is not suitable for modelling comprehensive retrieval strategies. DB-like and logical approaches are the state-of-the-art techniques to model strategies, reasoning and decision making. In this paper we present the application of logical retrieval to patent searching. The two grand challenges are expressiveness and scalability, where high degree of expressiveness usually means a loss in scalability. In this paper we report how to maintain scalability while offering the expressiveness of logical retrieval required for solving patent search tasks. We present logical retrieval background, and how to model data-source selection and results' fusion. Moreover, we demonstrate the modelling of a retrieval strategy, a technique by which patent professionals are able to express, store and exchange their strategies and rationales when searching patents or when making decisions. An overview of the architecture and technical details complement the paper, while the evaluation reports preliminary results on how query processing times can be guaranteed, and how quality is affected by trading off responsiveness.
Does Logic Feel Good? Testing for Intuitive Detection of Logicality in Syllogistic Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klauer, Karl Christoph; Singmann, Henrik
2013-01-01
Recent research on syllogistic reasoning suggests that the logical status (valid vs. invalid) of even difficult syllogisms can be intuitively detected via small changes in affective state (Morsanyi & Handley, 2012). In a series of 6 experiments, we replicated effects of logical status on liking ratings of difficult syllogisms (although their…
The Propositional Logic Test as a Diagnostic Tool for Misconceptions about Logical Operations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almstrum, Vicki L.
1999-01-01
Describes a simple 16-item instrument, the Propositional Logic Test (PLT), that is based on Piagetian theory and a study that explored the use of the PLT in diagnosing student misunderstandings. Analysis of individual student responses revealed a number of systematic errors in interpreting the logical operations in the PLT items. (Contains 23…
Does logic feel good? Testing for intuitive detection of logicality in syllogistic reasoning.
Klauer, Karl Christoph; Singmann, Henrik
2013-07-01
Recent research on syllogistic reasoning suggests that the logical status (valid vs. invalid) of even difficult syllogisms can be intuitively detected via small changes in affective state (Morsanyi & Handley, 2012). In a series of 6 experiments, we replicated effects of logical status on liking ratings of difficult syllogisms (although their shape differs from that reported by Morsanyi and Handley), and we tested 2 alternative accounts of our and Morsanyi and Handley's findings in terms of surface features accidentally confounded with logical status: the partial-repetition hypothesis and the content-effects hypothesis. The results support the content-effects hypothesis, according to which the effects of logical status reflect differences in mean liking for the presented conclusions rather than effects of logical status itself.
Schaffner, M
1990-01-01
The skill of writing job descriptions begins with an understanding of the advantages, as well as the basic elements, of a well written description. The end result should be approved and updated as needed. Having a better understanding of this process makes writing the job description a challenge rather than a chore.
Zhou, Ming; Du, Yan; Chen, Chaogui; Li, Bingling; Wen, Dan; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang
2010-02-24
This communication demonstrates for the first time the controlled power release of biofuel cells (BFCs) by aptamer logic systems processed according to the Boolean logic operations "programmed" into the biocomputing systems. On the basis of the built-in Boolean NAND logic, the fabricated aptamer-based BFCs logically controlled by biochemical signals enabled us to construct self-powered and intelligent logic aptasensors that can determine whether the two specific targets are both present in a sample.
Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua
2010-11-01
The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.
Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua
2009-09-01
The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.
Fuzzy logic for elimination of redundant information of microarray data.
Huerta, Edmundo Bonilla; Duval, Béatrice; Hao, Jin-Kao
2008-06-01
Gene subset selection is essential for classification and analysis of microarray data. However, gene selection is known to be a very difficult task since gene expression data not only have high dimensionalities, but also contain redundant information and noises. To cope with these difficulties, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic based pre-processing approach composed of two main steps. First, we use fuzzy inference rules to transform the gene expression levels of a given dataset into fuzzy values. Then we apply a similarity relation to these fuzzy values to define fuzzy equivalence groups, each group containing strongly similar genes. Dimension reduction is achieved by considering for each group of similar genes a single representative based on mutual information. To assess the usefulness of this approach, extensive experimentations were carried out on three well-known public datasets with a combined classification model using three statistic filters and three classifiers. PMID:18973862
Aptazyme-based riboswitches and logic gates in mammalian cells.
Nomura, Yoko; Yokobayashi, Yohei
2015-01-01
This chapter describes a screening strategy to engineer synthetic riboswitches that can chemically regulate gene expression in mammalian cells. Riboswitch libraries are constructed by randomizing the key nucleotides that couple the molecular recognition function of an aptamer with the self-cleavage activity of a ribozyme. The allosteric ribozyme (aptazyme) candidates are cloned in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of a reporter gene mRNA. The plasmid-encoded riboswitch candidates are transfected into a mammalian cell line to screen for the desired riboswitch function. Furthermore, multiple aptazymes can be cloned into the 3' UTR of a desired gene to obtain a logic gate response to multiple chemical signals. This screening strategy complements other methods to engineer robust mammalian riboswitches to control gene expression. PMID:25967059
The Nature of Quantum Truth: Logic, Set Theory, & Mathematics in the Context of Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Kimberly
The purpose of this dissertation is to construct a radically new type of mathematics whose underlying logic differs from the ordinary classical logic used in standard mathematics, and which we feel may be more natural for applications in quantum mechanics. Specifically, we begin by constructing a first order quantum logic, the development of which closely parallels that of ordinary (classical) first order logic --- the essential differences are in the nature of the logical axioms, which, in our construction, are motivated by quantum theory. After showing that the axiomatic first order logic we develop is sound and complete (with respect to a particular class of models), this logic is then used as a foundation on which to build (axiomatic) mathematical systems --- and we refer to the resulting new mathematics as "quantum mathematics." As noted above, the hope is that this form of mathematics is more natural than classical mathematics for the description of quantum systems, and will enable us to address some foundational aspects of quantum theory which are still troublesome --- e.g. the measurement problem --- as well as possibly even inform our thinking about quantum gravity. After constructing the underlying logic, we investigate properties of several mathematical systems --- e.g. axiom systems for abstract algebras, group theory, linear algebra, etc. --- in the presence of this quantum logic. In the process, we demonstrate that the resulting quantum mathematical systems have some strange, but very interesting features, which indicates a richness in the structure of mathematics that is classically inaccessible. Moreover, some of these features do indeed suggest possible applications to foundational questions in quantum theory. We continue our investigation of quantum mathematics by constructing an axiomatic quantum set theory, which we show satisfies certain desirable criteria. Ultimately, we hope that such a set theory will lead to a foundation for quantum
Fuzzy logic in autonomous orbital operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant
1991-01-01
Fuzzy logic can be used advantageously in autonomous orbital operations that require the capability of handling imprecise measurements from sensors. Several applications are underway to investigate fuzzy logic approaches and develop guidance and control algorithms for autonomous orbital operations. Translational as well as rotational control of a spacecraft have been demonstrated using space shuttle simulations. An approach to a camera tracking system has been developed to support proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Pattern recognition and object identification algorithms currently under development will become part of this camera system at an appropriate level in the future. A concept to control environment and life support systems for large Lunar based crew quarters is also under development. Investigations in the area of reinforcement learning, utilizing neural networks, combined with a fuzzy logic controller, are planned as a joint project with the Ames Research Center.
Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2015-01-01
Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.
Policy Transfer via Markov Logic Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrey, Lisa; Shavlik, Jude
We propose using a statistical-relational model, the Markov Logic Network, for knowledge transfer in reinforcement learning. Our goal is to extract relational knowledge from a source task and use it to speed up learning in a related target task. We show that Markov Logic Networks are effective models for capturing both source-task Q-functions and source-task policies. We apply them via demonstration, which involves using them for decision making in an initial stage of the target task before continuing to learn. Through experiments in the RoboCup simulated-soccer domain, we show that transfer via Markov Logic Networks can significantly improve early performance in complex tasks, and that transferring policies is more effective than transferring Q-functions.
Quantum Computational Logics and Possible Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; di Francia, Giuliano Toraldo
2008-01-01
In quantum computational logics meanings of formulas are identified with quantum information quantities: systems of qubits or, more generally, mixtures of systems of qubits. We consider two kinds of quantum computational semantics: (1) a compositional semantics, where the meaning of a compound formula is determined by the meanings of its parts; (2) a holistic semantics, which makes essential use of the characteristic “holistic” features of the quantum-theoretic formalism. The compositional and the holistic semantics turn out to characterize the same logic. In this framework, one can introduce the notion of quantum-classical truth table, which corresponds to the most natural way for a quantum computer to calculate classical tautologies. Quantum computational logics can be applied to investigate different kinds of semantic phenomena where holistic, contextual and gestaltic patterns play an essential role (from natural languages to musical compositions).
Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.
1997-01-01
Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.
a Logical Account of Quantum Superpositions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krause, Décio Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker
In this paper we consider the phenomenon of superpositions in quantum mechanics and suggest a way to deal with the idea in a logical setting from a syntactical point of view, that is, as subsumed in the language of the formalism, and not semantically. We restrict the discussion to the propositional level only. Then, after presenting the motivations and a possible world semantics, the formalism is outlined and we also consider within this scheme the claim that superpositions may involve contradictions, as in the case of the Schrödinger's cat, which (it is usually said) is both alive and dead. We argue that this claim is a misreading of the quantum case. Finally, we sketch a new form of quantum logic that involves three kinds of negations and present the relationships among them. The paper is a first approach to the subject, introducing some main guidelines to be developed by a `syntactical' logical approach to quantum superpositions.
Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.
Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A
2014-01-01
A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design. PMID:25177713
On Logic and Standards for Structuring Documents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyers, David M.; Jones, Andrew J. I.; Kimbrough, Steven O.
The advent of XML has been widely seized upon as an opportunity to develop document representation standards that lend themselves to automated processing. This is a welcome development and much good has come of it. That said, present standardization efforts may be criticized on a number of counts. We explore two issues associated with document XML standardization efforts. We label them (i) the dynamic point and (ii) the logical point. Our dynamic point is that in many cases experience has shown that the search for a final, or even reasonably permanent, document representation standard is futile. The case is especially strong for electronic data interchange (EDI). Our logical point is that formalization into symbolic logic is materially helpful for understanding and designing dynamic document standards.
Robust Fuzzy Logic Stabilization with Disturbance Elimination
Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A.
2014-01-01
A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design. PMID:25177713
Fuzzy logic and neural network technologies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villarreal, James A.; Lea, Robert N.; Savely, Robert T.
1992-01-01
Applications of fuzzy logic technologies in NASA projects are reviewed to examine their advantages in the development of neural networks for aerospace and commercial expert systems and control. Examples of fuzzy-logic applications include a 6-DOF spacecraft controller, collision-avoidance systems, and reinforcement-learning techniques. The commercial applications examined include a fuzzy autofocusing system, an air conditioning system, and an automobile transmission application. The practical use of fuzzy logic is set in the theoretical context of artificial neural systems (ANSs) to give the background for an overview of ANS research programs at NASA. The research and application programs include the Network Execution and Training Simulator and faster training algorithms such as the Difference Optimized Training Scheme. The networks are well suited for pattern-recognition applications such as predicting sunspots, controlling posture maintenance, and conducting adaptive diagnoses.
Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.
Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A
2014-01-01
A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design.
Logic integer programming models for signaling networks.
Haus, Utz-Uwe; Niermann, Kathrin; Truemper, Klaus; Weismantel, Robert
2009-05-01
We propose a static and a dynamic approach to model biological signaling networks, and show how each can be used to answer relevant biological questions. For this, we use the two different mathematical tools of Propositional Logic and Integer Programming. The power of discrete mathematics for handling qualitative as well as quantitative data has so far not been exploited in molecular biology, which is mostly driven by experimental research, relying on first-order or statistical models. The arising logic statements and integer programs are analyzed and can be solved with standard software. For a restricted class of problems the logic models reduce to a polynomial-time solvable satisfiability algorithm. Additionally, a more dynamic model enables enumeration of possible time resolutions in poly-logarithmic time. Computational experiments are included.
Complete all-optical processing polarization-based binary logic gates and optical processors.
Zaghloul, Y A; Zaghloul, A R M
2006-10-16
We present a complete all-optical-processing polarization-based binary-logic system, by which any logic gate or processor can be implemented. Following the new polarization-based logic presented in [Opt. Express 14, 7253 (2006)], we develop a new parallel processing technique that allows for the creation of all-optical-processing gates that produce a unique output either logic 1 or 0 only once in a truth table, and those that do not. This representation allows for the implementation of simple unforced OR, AND, XOR, XNOR, inverter, and more importantly NAND and NOR gates that can be used independently to represent any Boolean expression or function. In addition, the concept of a generalized gate is presented which opens the door for reconfigurable optical processors and programmable optical logic gates. Furthermore, the new design is completely compatible with the old one presented in [Opt. Express 14, 7253 (2006)], and with current semiconductor based devices. The gates can be cascaded, where the information is always on the laser beam. The polarization of the beam, and not its intensity, carries the information. The new methodology allows for the creation of multiple-input-multiple-output processors that implement, by itself, any Boolean function, such as specialized or non-specialized microprocessors. Three all-optical architectures are presented: orthoparallel optical logic architecture for all known and unknown binary gates, singlebranch architecture for only XOR and XNOR gates, and the railroad (RR) architecture for polarization optical processors (POP). All the control inputs are applied simultaneously leading to a single time lag which leads to a very-fast and glitch-immune POP. A simple and easy-to-follow step-by-step algorithm is provided for the POP, and design reduction methodologies are briefly discussed. The algorithm lends itself systematically to software programming and computer-assisted design. As examples, designs of all binary gates, multiple
Multiple neural representations of elementary logical connectives.
Baggio, Giosuè; Cherubini, Paolo; Pischedda, Doris; Blumenthal, Anna; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo
2016-07-15
A defining trait of human cognition is the capacity to form compounds out of simple thoughts. This ability relies on the logical connectives AND, OR and IF. Simple propositions, e.g., 'There is a fork' and 'There is a knife', can be combined in alternative ways using logical connectives: e.g., 'There is a fork AND there is a knife', 'There is a fork OR there is a knife', 'IF there is a fork, there is a knife'. How does the brain represent compounds based on different logical connectives, and how are compounds evaluated in relation to new facts? In the present study, participants had to maintain and evaluate conjunctive (AND), disjunctive (OR) or conditional (IF) compounds while undergoing functional MRI. Our results suggest that, during maintenance, the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG, BA44, or Broca's area) represents the surface form of compounds. During evaluation, the left pIFG switches to processing the full logical meaning of compounds, and two additional areas are recruited: the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aIFG, BA47) and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS, BA40). The aIFG shows a pattern of activation similar to pIFG, and compatible with processing the full logical meaning of compounds, whereas activations in IPS differ with alternative interpretations of conditionals: logical vs conjunctive. These results uncover the functions of a basic cortical network underlying human compositional thought, and provide a shared neural foundation for the cognitive science of language and reasoning. PMID:27138210
Development of ferrite logic devices for an arithmetic processor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heckler, C. H., Jr.
1972-01-01
A number of fundamentally ultra-reliable, all-magnetic logic circuits are developed using as a basis a single element ferrite structure wired as a logic delay element. By making minor additions or changes to the basic wiring pattern of the delay element other logic functions such as OR, AND, NEGATION, MAJORITY, EXCLUSIVE-OR, and FAN-OUT are developed. These logic functions are then used in the design of a full-adder, a set/reset flip-flop, and an edge detector. As a demonstration of the utility of all the developed devices, an 8-bit, all-magnetic, logic arithmetic unit capable of controlled addition, subtraction, and multiplication is designed. A new basic ferrite logic element and associated complementary logic scheme with the potential of improved performance is also described. Finally, an improved batch process for fabricating joint-free power drive and logic interconnect conductors for this basic class of all-magnetic logic is presented.
Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic
Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.
1980-01-01
A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.
Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits
Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John. F.; Ditto, William L.
2015-01-01
We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two. PMID:26029096
Rebuilding mathematics on a quantum logical foundation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeJonghe, Richard J., III
We construct a rich first-order quantum logic which generalizes the standard classical predicate logic used in the development of virtually all of modern mathematics, and we use this quantum logic to build the foundations of a new quantum mathematics. First, we prove both soundness and completeness for the quantum logic we develop, and also prove a powerful new completeness result which heretofore had been known to hold for classical, but not quantum, first-order logic. We then use our quantum logic to develop multiple areas of mathematics, including abstract algebra, axiomatic set theory, and arithmetic. In some preliminary investigations into quantum mathematics, Dunn found that the Peano axioms for arithmetic yield the same theorems using either classical or quantum logic. We prove a similar result for certain classes of abstract algebras, and then show that Dunn's result is not generic by presenting examples of quantum monoids, groups, lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras, all which differ from their classical counterparts. Moreover, we find natural classes of quantum lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras which all have a beautiful inter-relationship, and make some preliminary investigations into using these structures as a basis for a new mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. We also develop a quantum set theory (equivalent to ZFC under classical logic) which is far more tractable than quantum set theory previously developed. We then use this set theory to construct a quantum version of the natural numbers, and develop an arithmetic of these numbers based upon an alternative to Peano's axioms (which avoids Dunn's theorem). Surprisingly, we find that these "quantum natural numbers" satisfy our arithmetical axioms if and only if the underlying truth values form a modular lattice, giving a new arithmetical characterization of this important lattice-theoretic property. Finally, we show that these numbers have a natural interpretation as
Refining fuzzy logic controllers with machine learning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berenji, Hamid R.
1994-01-01
In this paper, we describe the GARIC (Generalized Approximate Reasoning-Based Intelligent Control) architecture, which learns from its past performance and modifies the labels in the fuzzy rules to improve performance. It uses fuzzy reinforcement learning which is a hybrid method of fuzzy logic and reinforcement learning. This technology can simplify and automate the application of fuzzy logic control to a variety of systems. GARIC has been applied in simulation studies of the Space Shuttle rendezvous and docking experiments. It has the potential of being applied in other aerospace systems as well as in consumer products such as appliances, cameras, and cars.
Universal programmable logic gate and routing method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An universal and programmable logic gate based on G.sup.4-FET technology is disclosed, leading to the design of more efficient logic circuits. A new full adder design based on the G.sup.4-FET is also presented. The G.sup.4-FET can also function as a unique router device offering coplanar crossing of signal paths that are isolated and perpendicular to one another. This has the potential of overcoming major limitations in VLSI design where complex interconnection schemes have become increasingly problematic.
Generalizing Atoms in Constraint Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Page, C. David, Jr.; Frisch, Alan M.
1991-01-01
This paper studies the generalization of atomic formulas, or atoms, that are augmented with constraints on or among their terms. The atoms may also be viewed as definite clauses whose antecedents express the constraints. Atoms are generalized relative to a body of background information about the constraints. This paper first examines generalization of atoms with only monadic constraints. The paper develops an algorithm for the generalization task and discusses algorithm complexity. It then extends the algorithm to apply to atoms with constraints of arbitrary arity. The paper also presents semantic properties of the generalizations computed by the algorithms, making the algorithms applicable to such problems as abduction, induction, and knowledge base verification. The paper emphasizes the application to induction and presents a pac-learning result for constrained atoms.
Molecular Computing And The Chemical Elements Of Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Forrest L.
1986-02-01
Future developments in molecular electronicsi-b not only offer the possibility of high density archival memories, 1015 to 1018 gates/cc, but also new routes to fabrication of high levels of parallel processors (> 106) and hence to new computer architectures. A central theme of molecular electronics is that information can be stored as conformational changes in chemical moieties or functional groups. Further, these functional units are chosen or designed so that their structure facilitates the storage of information via reversible conformational changes, either in bond distances or in bond angles, or both. In exploring possible switching and information storage mechanisms at the molecular-size level, it has become apparent that there are many analogues or alternatives possible for any logical function which might be desired. It is even more exciting to realize that some structural chemical units or configurations offer completely new functional or logical capabilities. The example offered below is the molecular analogue of the CASE statement in PASCAL (proposed by an NRL summer student employee7). As suggested in the title, one of the purposes of this article is to enhance the appreciation of the universality of the 'chemical' or 'molecular' systems to express logical functions. The literature on molecular electronic concepts is growing and some reviews are available1-4. Two Molecular Electronic Device (MED) workshops5-6 have been held in Washington, D.C. (1981 and 1983) and an International Symposium on Bioelectric and Molecular Electronic Devices 8 was held in Tokyo, 20-21 November 1985. Beyond the strong interest current in Japan9, interest is also developing in England and Soviet block11.
Kull, Kalevi
2015-12-01
We suggest here a model of the origin of the phenomenal world via the naturalization of logical conflict or incompatibility (which is broader than, but includes logical contradiction). Physics rules out the reality of meaning because of the method of formalization, which requires that logical conflicts cannot be part of the model. We argue that (a) meaning-making requires a logical conflict; (b) logical conflict assumes a phenomenal present; (c) phenomenological specious present occurs in living systems as widely as meaning-making; (d) it is possible to provide a physiological description of a system in which the phenomenal present appears and choices are made; (e) logical conflict, or incompatibility itself, is the mechanism of intentionality; (f) meaning-making is assured by scaffolding, which is a product of earlier choices, or decision-making, or interpretation. This model can be seen as a model of semiosis. It also allows putting physiology and phenomenology (or physics and semiotics) into a natural connection. PMID:26260779
The logic of automated glycan assembly.
Seeberger, Peter H
2015-05-19
Carbohydrates are the most abundant biopolymers on earth and part of every living creature. Glycans are essential as materials for nutrition and for information transfer in biological processes. To date, in few cases a detailed correlation between glycan structure and glycan function has been established. A molecular understanding of glycan function will require pure glycans for biological, immunological, and structural studies. Given the immense structural complexity of glycans found in living organisms and the lack of amplification methods or expression systems, chemical synthesis is the only means to access usable quantities of pure glycan molecules. While the solid-phase synthesis of DNA and peptides has become routine for decades, access to glycans has been technically difficult, time-consuming and confined to a few expert laboratories. In this Account, the development of a comprehensive approach to the automated synthesis of all classes of mammalian glycans, including glycosaminoglycans and glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchors, as well as bacterial and plant carbohydrates is described. A conceptual advance concerning the logic of glycan assembly was required in order to enable automated execution of the synthetic process. Based on the central glycosidic bond forming reaction, a general concept for the protecting groups and leaving groups has been developed. Building blocks that can be procured on large scale, are stable for prolonged periods of time, but upon activation result in high yields and selectivities were identified. A coupling-capping and deprotection cycle was invented that can be executed by an automated synthesis instrument. Straightforward postsynthetic protocols for cleavage from the solid support as well as purification of conjugation-ready oligosaccharides have been established. Introduction of methods to install selectively a wide variety of glycosidic linkages has enabled the rapid assembly of linear and branched oligo- and
System design description for sampling fuel in K basins
Baker, R.B.
1996-02-09
This System Design Description provides: (1) statements of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Projects (SNFP) needs requiring sampling of fuel in the K East and K West Basins, (2) the sampling equipment functions and requirements, (3) a general work plan and the design logic being followed to develop the equipment, and (4) a summary description of the design for the sampling equipment. The report summarizes the integrated application of both the subject equipment and the canister sludge sampler in near-term characterization campaigns at K Basins.
Approaches to efficient execution of logic programs
Huang, T.L.
1989-01-01
Execution efficiency of logic programs can be improved in two major directions: parallel processing for more computation power and control guidance for less non-determinism. Parallel execution of a logic program represented in connection graph has to be guarded against the problems of logical inconsistency. Enforcing Bernstein conditions can prevent such problems buy results in an unacceptable reduction of parallelism. A subcycle-level parallel procedure with step-wise purity deletions is designed to remedy such problems. The concurrent step-wise purity deletion has been shown to preserve much of the deletion power of the sequential purity deletion. Recursion is what makes a logic program non-trivial. Fact propagation is proposed to reduce the run-time recursive interaction by a compile-time analysis of the recursive loops. Herbrand expansion tree provide a concise organization for the increasingly large number of unit clauses during the propagation. Symbolic execution through the loops reveals that if the effects of the routes in a simple recursive loop are either all non-destructive or all destructive, the exact control sequence can be derived by a context-free language parsing technique. For coupling recursive loops, similar techniques can be applied at segment level instead of route level.
A Symbolic Logic for Representing Linear Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Charles E.
A set of symbols is presented along with logical operators which represent the possible manipulations of the linear model. The use of these symbols and operators is to simplify the representation of analysis of variance models, correlation models and factor analysis models. (Author)
Preservice Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Logical Inference
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hauk, Shandy; Judd, April Brown; Tsay, Jenq Jong; Barzilai, Harel; Austin, Homer
2009-01-01
This article reports on the logical reasoning efforts of five prospective elementary school teachers as they responded to interview prompts involving nonsense, natural, and mathematical representations of conditional statements. The interview participants evinced various levels of reliance on personal relevance, linguistic contextualization, and…
Giving Programming Students a Logical Step Up.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, David W.
1990-01-01
Presents a method to enhance the teaching of computer programing to secondary students that establishes a connection between logic, truth tables, switching circuits, gating symbols, flow charts, and pseudocode. The author asserts that the method prepares students for thinking processes related to programing. (MDH)
Teleology as Logical Phenomenology: Some Therapeutic Implications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rychlak, Joseph F.
Phenomenology is an important force in the development of psychological theory, rather than a variant type of counseling method. A distinction must be drawn between the sensory phenomenology in which gestaltists focus on sensory receptors, and logical pheomenology in which the grounding of belief or self-identity is viewed as a prediction or…
Interacting institutional logics in general dental practice.
Harris, Rebecca; Holt, Robin
2013-10-01
We investigate the organisational field of general dental practice and how agents change or maintain the institution of values associated with the everyday work of health care provision. Our dataset comprise archival literature and policy documents, interview data from field level actors, as well as service delivery level interview data and secondary data gathered (2011-12) from 16 English dental practices. Our analysis provides a typology of institutional logics (prevailing systems of value) experienced in the field of dental practice. Confirming current literature, we find two logics dominate how care is assessed: business-like health care and medical professionalism. We advance the literature by finding the business-like health care logic further distinguished by values of commercialism on the one hand and those of accountability and procedural diligence on the other. The logic of professionalism we also find is further distinguished into a commitment to clinical expertise and independence in delivering patient care on the one hand, and concerns for the autonomy and sustainability of a business enterprise on the other. PMID:23931946
Mapping individual logical processes in information searching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smetana, F. O.
1974-01-01
An interactive dialog with a computerized information collection was recorded and plotted in the form of a flow chart. The process permits one to identify the logical processes employed in considerable detail and is therefore suggested as a tool for measuring individual thought processes in a variety of situations. A sample of an actual test case is given.
New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi
1982-12-01
It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.
Interacting institutional logics in general dental practice☆
Harris, Rebecca; Holt, Robin
2013-01-01
We investigate the organisational field of general dental practice and how agents change or maintain the institution of values associated with the everyday work of health care provision. Our dataset comprise archival literature and policy documents, interview data from field level actors, as well as service delivery level interview data and secondary data gathered (2011–12) from 16 English dental practices. Our analysis provides a typology of institutional logics (prevailing systems of value) experienced in the field of dental practice. Confirming current literature, we find two logics dominate how care is assessed: business-like health care and medical professionalism. We advance the literature by finding the business-like health care logic further distinguished by values of commercialism on the one hand and those of accountability and procedural diligence on the other. The logic of professionalism we also find is further distinguished into a commitment to clinical expertise and independence in delivering patient care on the one hand, and concerns for the autonomy and sustainability of a business enterprise on the other. PMID:23931946
Can Mathematics be Justified by Natural Logic?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreiber, Lothar; Sommer, Hanns
2010-11-01
Charles Darwin claimed that the forms and the behaviour of living beings can be explained from their will to survive. But what are the consequences of this idea for humans knowledge, their theories of nature and their mathematics?. We discuss the view that even Plato's objective world of mathematical objects does not exist absolutely, without the intentions of mathematicians. Using Husserl's Phenomenological Method, cognition can be understood as a process by which meaning is deduced from empirical data relative to intentions. Thereby the essential structure of any cognition process can be detected and this structure is mirrored in logic. A natural logic becomes the direct result of cognition. Only in a second step, mathematics is obtained by abstraction from natural logic. In this way mathematics gains a well-defined foundation and is no longer part of a dubious 'a-priori knowledge' (Kant). This access to mathematics offers a new look on many old problems, e.g. the Petersburg problem and the problem 'P = NP?'. We demonstrate that this new justification of mathematics has also important applications in Artificial Intelligence. Our method provides a procedure to construct an adequate logic to solve most efficiently the problems of a given problem class. Thus, heuristics can be tailor-made for the necessities of applications.
Demonstrating Boolean Logic Using Simple Electrical Circuits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McElhaney, Kevin W.
2004-01-01
While exploring the subject of geometric proofs, boolean logic operators AND and OR can be used to allow students to visualize their true-or-false patterns. An activity in the form of constructing electrical circuits is illustrated to explain the concept.
Faster Evolution of More Multifunctional Logic Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo
2005-01-01
A modification in a method of automated evolutionary synthesis of voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits makes it possible to synthesize more circuits in less time. Prior to the modification, the computations for synthesizing a four-function logic circuit by this method took about 10 hours. Using the method as modified, it is possible to synthesize a six-function circuit in less than half an hour. The concepts of automated evolutionary synthesis and voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits were described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A circuit is designed to perform one of several different logic functions, depending on the value of an applied control voltage. The circuit design is synthesized following an automated evolutionary approach that is so named because it is modeled partly after the repetitive trial-and-error process of biological evolution. In this process, random populations of integer strings that encode electronic circuits play a role analogous to that of chromosomes. An evolved circuit is tested by computational simulation (prior to testing in real hardware to verify a final design). Then, in a fitness-evaluation step, responses of the circuit are compared with specifications of target responses and circuits are ranked according to how close they come to satisfying specifications. The results of the evaluation provide guidance for refining designs through further iteration.
Multiplexed logic controls solar-heating system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Currie, J. R.
1981-01-01
Four inexpensive thermocouples monitor temperatures at key points. On command from logic circuitry, dampers open and close to direct airflow, and fan and auxiliary heater shut on or off. Controlling complex arranges heating system in any one of four operating configurations.
Young Children's Comprehension of Logical Connectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suppes, Patrick; Feldman, Shirley
To determine to what extent children of preschool age comprehend the meaning of logical connectives, 64 5- and 6-year-olds were told to hand differently colored and shaped wooden blocks to an experimenter. The commands involved various English idioms used for conjunction (e.g. both black and round), disjunction (either black or round), and…
Fuzzy logic mode switching in helicopters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherman, Porter D.; Warburton, Frank W.
1993-01-01
The application of fuzzy logic to a wide range of control problems has been gaining momentum internationally, fueled by a concentrated Japanese effort. Advanced Research & Development within the Engineering Department at Sikorsky Aircraft undertook a fuzzy logic research effort designed to evaluate how effective fuzzy logic control might be in relation to helicopter operations. The mode switching module in the advanced flight control portion of Sikorsky's motion based simulator was identified as a good candidate problem because it was simple to understand and contained imprecise (fuzzy) decision criteria. The purpose of the switching module is to aid a helicopter pilot in entering and leaving coordinated turns while in flight. The criteria that determine the transitions between modes are imprecise and depend on the varied ranges of three flight conditions (i.e., simulated parameters): Commanded Rate, Duration, and Roll Attitude. The parameters were given fuzzy ranges and used as input variables to a fuzzy rulebase containing the knowledge of mode switching. The fuzzy control program was integrated into a real time interactive helicopter simulation tool. Optimization of the heading hold and turn coordination was accomplished by interactive pilot simulation testing of the handling quality performance of the helicopter dynamic model. The fuzzy logic code satisfied all the requirements of this candidate control problem.
Quantum logic gates for superconducting resonator qudits
Strauch, Frederick W.
2011-11-15
We study quantum information processing using superpositions of Fock states in superconducting resonators as quantum d-level systems (qudits). A universal set of single and coupled logic gates is theoretically proposed for resonators coupled by superconducting circuits of Josephson junctions. These gates use experimentally demonstrated interactions and provide an attractive route to quantum information processing using harmonic oscillator modes.
Learning Probabilistic Logic Models from Probabilistic Examples.
Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José
2008-10-01
We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples.
Development of Logical Search Skills in Infancy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haake, Robert J.; Somerville, Susan C.
1985-01-01
Nine- to 18-month-old infants were presented with simple two-location manual search tasks involving invisible displacements of objects with sequence of displacements occurring before infants search. Results provided insights into age differences associated with development of logical search strategies, information-processing skills, and temporal…
Probabilistic Planning with Imperfect Sensing Actions Using Hybrid Probabilistic Logic Programs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saad, Emad
Effective planning in uncertain environment is important to agents and multi-agents systems. In this paper, we introduce a new logic based approach to probabilistic contingent planning (probabilistic planning with imperfect sensing actions), by relating probabilistic contingent planning to normal hybrid probabilistic logic programs with probabilistic answer set semantics [24]. We show that any probabilistic contingent planning problem can be encoded as a normal hybrid probabilistic logic program. We formally prove the correctness of our approach. Moreover, we show that the complexity of finding a probabilistic contingent plan in our approach is NP-complete. In addition, we show that any probabilistic contingent planning problem, \\cal PP, can be encoded as a classical normal logic program with answer set semantics, whose answer sets corresponds to valid trajectories in \\cal PP. We show that probabilistic contingent planning problems can be encoded as SAT problems. We present a new high level probabilistic action description language that allows the representation of sensing actions with probabilistic outcomes.
Multimedia content description framework
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)
2003-01-01
A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.
The Three Rs of Teaching Logic: Revelation, Relevance, and Reinforcement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Covel, Robert C.
2010-01-01
Covel offers a primer on logic and describes how students react when they realize what a useful resource it can be in their real lives. His article includes useful definitions of critical concepts and logical fallacies. (Contains 2 figures.)
The Role of Symbolic Logic in a Student's Mathematical Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharlow, John F.
1981-01-01
The relationship between logic and mathematics is examined. Four basic concepts inherent in symbolic logic that are typically included in ninth- and tenth-grade mathematics programs are reviewed. Symbolic logic is advocated for all students who will study algebra and/or geometry. (MP)
Teaching to the Test: A Pragmatic Approach to Teaching Logic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vannatta, Seth C.
2014-01-01
The proper goal of an introductory logic course, teaching critical thinking, is best achieved by maintaining the principle of continuity between student experiences and the curriculum. To demonstrate this I explain Dewey's naturalistic approach to logic and the process of inquiry, one which presents the elements of traditional logic in the…
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...
76 FR 14392 - GeoLogics Corporation; Transfer of Data
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-03-16
... AGENCY GeoLogics Corporation; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to GeoLogics Corporation in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). GeoLogics Corporation has been awarded a contract...
Institutional Logics, Indie Software Developers and Platform Governance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qiu, Yixin
2013-01-01
This two-essay dissertation aims to study institutional logics in the context of Apple's independent third-party software developers. In essay 1, I investigate the embedded agency aspect of the institutional logics theory. It builds on the premise that logics constrain preferences, interests and behaviors of individuals and organizations, thereby…
Electronics. Module 3: Digital Logic Application. Instructor's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Ed; Murphy, Mark
This guide contains instructor's materials for a 10-unit secondary school course on digital logic application. The units are introduction to digital, logic gates, digital integrated circuits, combination logic, flip-flops, counters and shift registers, encoders and decoders, arithmetic circuits, memory, and analog/digital and digital/analog…
Logic system aids in evaluation of project readiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maris, S. J.; Obrien, T. J.
1966-01-01
Measurement Operational Readiness Requirements /MORR/ assignments logic is used for determining the readiness of a complex project to go forward as planned. The system used logic network which assigns qualities to all important criteria in a project and establishes a logical sequence of measurements to determine what the conditions are.
Logical Connectives as Catalysts for Interactive L2 Reading.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozono, Shuichi; Ito, Harumi
2003-01-01
Focuses on logical connectives as catalysts for interactive reading. Clarifies how text comprehension can be affected by the types of logical relations and by the levels of proficiency in English as a Second Language, using Japanese university students as the subjects for experimentation and focusing on three logical connectives: "for…
15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is an... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601...
Provocative Opinion: Descriptive Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bent, Henry A.; Bent, Brian E.
1987-01-01
Discusses many of the distinctions that chemists draw between theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry, along with the tendency for chemical educators to adopt the type of chemistry they feel is most important to teach. Uses examples to argue that theoretical chemistry and descriptive chemistry are, at the bottom line, the same. (TW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand, Josef
1979-01-01
In this experiment in description, students in a high school honors English class were asked to select a surrealistic painting and capture it in writing. Their compositions were given to art students who tried to reproduce the paintings from the written descriptions. (SJL)
Physics 3204. Course Description.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.
A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…
Miller, Larry
2014-01-01
The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.
Optical soliton-based logic gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, Steven M.
1998-09-01
With the advent of high-bandwidth optical communications, the need for switching technologies capable of handling this information flow becomes imperative. Optical switches are the natural technology to investigate because they eliminate the optical/electronic conversion and their operation can scale with the data rate, unlike electronics. Additional capabilities can be provided through the development of optical logic gates, which have the further properties of data regeneration, gain, cascadability, and the ability to implement more complex operations than possible with a simple switch. The goal of this work is to study in-depth an implementation of optical logic gates based on spatial and spatio-temporal solitons. Optical solitons propagate long distances without change and have additional properties that are beneficial for the representation of binary data such as stability to perturbations and existence above a threshold power or energy. The non- diffracting nature of spatial optical solitons lends to their use in a class of angular deflection logic gates in which a weak signal can alter the propagation of a strong pump in order to change the device state from high to low, thereby implementing a controlled inverter which is cascadable to produce logically-complete, multi-input NOR. A significant portion of this work is devoted to developing a theoretical and numerical framework to describe general, multi-dimensional, nonlinear spatio- temporal wave phenomena. This is accomplished by starting directly from Maxwell's equations and deriving via the multiple-scales perturbation technique a first-order, fully-vectorial, nonlinear wave equation, that is valid beyond the standard slowly-varying amplitude, slowly- varying envelope, and paraxial approximations. In addition to coupling with the orthogonal transverse field, vector coupling with the weak longitudinally- projected field is also treated, along with the cascaded interaction with a weak third-harmonic wave
Photonic encryption using all optical logic.
Blansett, Ethan L.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tang, Jason D.; Robertson, Perry J.; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tarman, Thomas David; Pierson, Lyndon George
2003-12-01
With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines two classes of all optical logic (SEED, gain competition) and how each discrete logic element can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of the SEED and gain competition devices in an optical circuit were modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model of the SEED or gain competition device takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay characteristics. These 'black box' models are interconnected and cascaded in an
Quantum logic as superbraids of entangled qubit world lines
Yepez, Jeffrey
2010-02-15
Presented is a topological representation of quantum logic that views entangled qubit spacetime histories (or qubit world lines) as a generalized braid, referred to as a superbraid. The crossing of world lines can be quantum-mechanical in nature, most conveniently expressed analytically with ladder-operator-based quantum gates. At a crossing, independent world lines can become entangled. Complicated superbraids are systematically reduced by recursively applying quantum skein relations. If the superbraid is closed (e.g., representing quantum circuits with closed-loop feedback, quantum lattice gas algorithms, loop or vacuum diagrams in quantum field theory), then one can decompose the resulting superlink into an entangled superposition of classical links. Thus, one can compute a superlink invariant, for example, the Jones polynomial for the square root of a classical knot.
Modelling protein side-chain conformations using constraint logic programming.
Swain, M T; Kemp, G J
2001-12-01
Side-chain placement is an important sub-task in protein modelling. Selecting conformations for side-chains is a difficult problem because of the large search space to be explored. This problem can be addressed using constraint logic programming (CLP), which is an artificial intelligence technique developed to solve large combinatorial search problems. The side-chain placement problem can be expressed as a CLP program in which rotamer conformations are used as values for finite domain variables, and bad steric contacts involving rotamers are represented as constraints. This paper introduces the concept of null rotamers, and shows how these can be used in implementing a novel iterative approach. We present results that compare the accuracy of models constructed using different rotamer libraries and different domain variable enumeration heuristics. The results obtained using this CLP-based approach compare favourably with those obtained by other methods.
ECO Logic has developed a thermal desorption unit 0"DU) for the treatment of soils contaminated with hazardous organic contaminants. This TDU has been designed to be used in conjunction with Eco Logic's patented gas-phase chemical reduction reactor. The Eco Logic reactor is the s...
Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications
You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.
2001-01-01
A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.
Spin wave nonreciprocity for logic device applications
Jamali, Mahdi; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Seo, Soo-Man; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Yang, Hyunsoo
2013-01-01
The utilization of spin waves as eigenmodes of the magnetization dynamics for information processing and communication has been widely explored recently due to its high operational speed with low power consumption and possible applications for quantum computations. Previous proposals of spin wave Mach-Zehnder devices were based on the spin wave phase, a delicate entity which can be easily disrupted. Here, we propose a complete logic system based on the spin wave amplitude utilizing the nonreciprocal spin wave behavior excited by microstrip antennas. The experimental data reveal that the nonreciprocity of magnetostatic surface spin wave can be tuned by the bias magnetic field. Furthermore, engineering of the device structure could result in a high nonreciprocity factor for spin wave logic applications. PMID:24196318
Neurocontrol and fuzzy logic: Connections and designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Werbos, Paul J.
1991-01-01
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic are complementary technologies. ANNs extract information from systems to be learned or controlled, while fuzzy techniques mainly use verbal information from experts. Ideally, both sources of information should be combined. For example, one can learn rules in a hybrid fashion, and then calibrate them for better whole-system performance. ANNs offer universal approximation theorems, pedagogical advantages, very high-throughput hardware, and links to neurophysiology. Neurocontrol - the use of ANNs to directly control motors or actuators, etc. - uses five generalized designs, related to control theory, which can work on fuzzy logic systems as well as ANNs. These designs can copy what experts do instead of what they say, learn to track trajectories, generalize adaptive control, and maximize performance or minimize cost over time, even in noisy environments. Design tradeoffs and future directions are discussed throughout.
Spin wave nonreciprocity for logic device applications.
Jamali, Mahdi; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Seo, Soo-Man; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Yang, Hyunsoo
2013-01-01
The utilization of spin waves as eigenmodes of the magnetization dynamics for information processing and communication has been widely explored recently due to its high operational speed with low power consumption and possible applications for quantum computations. Previous proposals of spin wave Mach-Zehnder devices were based on the spin wave phase, a delicate entity which can be easily disrupted. Here, we propose a complete logic system based on the spin wave amplitude utilizing the nonreciprocal spin wave behavior excited by microstrip antennas. The experimental data reveal that the nonreciprocity of magnetostatic surface spin wave can be tuned by the bias magnetic field. Furthermore, engineering of the device structure could result in a high nonreciprocity factor for spin wave logic applications.
Program Logics for Homogeneous Meta-programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Martin; Tratt, Laurence
A meta-program is a program that generates or manipulates another program; in homogeneous meta-programming, a program may generate new parts of, or manipulate, itself. Meta-programming has been used extensively since macros were introduced to Lisp, yet we have little idea how formally to reason about meta-programs. This paper provides the first program logics for homogeneous meta-programming - using a variant of MiniML_e^{square} by Davies and Pfenning as underlying meta-programming language. We show the applicability of our approach by reasoning about example meta-programs from the literature. We also demonstrate that our logics are relatively complete in the sense of Cook, enable the inductive derivation of characteristic formulae, and exactly capture the observational properties induced by the operational semantics.
Fuzzy logic and its applications in medicine.
Phuong, N H; Kreinovich, V
2001-07-01
Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic are a highly suitable and applicable basis for developing knowledge-based systems in medicine for tasks such as the interpretation of sets of medical findings, syndrome differentiation in Eastern medicine, diagnosis of diseases in Western medicine, mixed diagnosis of integrated Western and Eastern medicine, the optimal selection of medical treatments integrating Western and Eastern medicine, and for real-time monitoring of patient data. This was verified by trials with the following systems that were developed by our group in Vietnam: a fuzzy Expert System for Syndromes Differentiation in Oriental Traditional Medicine, an Expert System for Lung Diseases using fuzzy logic, Case Based Reasoning for Medical Diagnosis using fuzzy set theory, a diagnostic system combining disease diagnosis of Western Medicine with syndrome differentiation of Oriental Traditional Medicine, a fuzzy system for classification of Western and Eastern medicaments and finally, a fuzzy system for diagnosis and treatment of integrated Western and Eastern Medicine. PMID:11470619
Nanoeletromechanical switch and logic circuits formed therefrom
Nordquist, Christopher D.; Czaplewski, David A.
2010-05-18
A nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is formed on a substrate with a source electrode containing a suspended electrically-conductive beam which is anchored to the substrate at each end. This beam, which can be formed of ruthenium, bows laterally in response to a voltage applied between a pair of gate electrodes and the source electrode to form an electrical connection between the source electrode and a drain electrode located near a midpoint of the beam. Another pair of gate electrodes and another drain electrode can be located on an opposite side of the beam to allow for switching in an opposite direction. The NEM switch can be used to form digital logic circuits including NAND gates, NOR gates, programmable logic gates, and SRAM and DRAM memory cells which can be used in place of conventional CMOS circuits, or in combination therewith.
DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.
Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr
2014-01-01
The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula.
DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.
Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr
2014-01-01
The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula. PMID:24211259
Logic gates based on ion transistors.
Tybrandt, Klas; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus
2012-01-01
Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits. PMID:22643898
Logic gates based on ion transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tybrandt, Klas; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus
2012-05-01
Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.
Logic programming: Functions, relations and equations
DeGroot, D.
1985-01-01
This collection of articles describes and explains the major approaches used to combine logic programming and functional programming. It examines both theory and details of implementations, emphasizing relationships, and prospects for fruitful combination in the future. It introduces functional syntax and semantics, and equational theories, using a variety of methods. It provides several actual program codes, to allow readers to begin experimenting immediately using standard Prolog-language interpreters.
Fuzzy logic controller to improve powerline communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tirrito, Salvatore
2015-12-01
The Power Line Communications (PLC) technology allows the use of the power grid in order to ensure the exchange of data information among devices. This work proposes an approach, based on Fuzzy Logic, that dynamically manages the amplitude of the signal, with which each node transmits, by processing the master-slave link quality measured and the master-slave distance. The main objective of this is to reduce both the impact of communication interferences induced and power consumption.
Bimetal switches in an AND logic gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lubrica, Joel V.; Lubrica, Quantum Yuri B.
2016-09-01
In this frontline, we use bimetal switches to provide inputs in an electrical AND logic gate. These switches can be obtained from the pre-heat starters of fluorescent lamps, by safely removing the glass enclosure. They may be activated by small open flames. This frontline has a historical aspect because fluorescent lamps, together with pre-heat starters, are now being replaced by compact fluorescent, halogen, and LED lamps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akiba, Sumitaka; Sato, Taisuke
In this paper, we describe the completeness of a calculation procedure of logic programs. The procedure is the combination of two procedures, a replacement procedure of atoms in the goal by the bodies or the negation of the bodies of rules in the program, and a transformation procedure of equations to disjunctive normal forms (DNF) equivalent under Clark's Equational Theory (CET). To combine replacement of atoms in the goal to logical formulae determined from the program and transformation of equations to DNF equivalent under CET is a method by which procedures with the capability of expressing answers in DNF can be build, so it is a leading method for expressing answers in a form including negation. Some procedures based on the method are devised, and their calculation capabilities are shown by applying the theory of completed programs. However, the procedure that uses the bodies or the negation of the bodies of rules for replacement has higher calculation capability, and is intuitively more natural than they. Therefore, to clarify the calculation capability of the procedure is considered an important subject for research into calculation procedures of logic programs with the capability for expressing answers in a form including negation. Moreover, since the completeness is realized by standing on the viewpoint of treating the implication symbol as a different implication symbol from usual, and interpreting logic programs in three-valued logic, examples which support the viewpoint are also described.
Universal Approximation of Mamdani Fuzzy Controllers and Fuzzy Logical Controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, Bo; Klir, George J.
1997-01-01
In this paper, we first distinguish two types of fuzzy controllers, Mamdani fuzzy controllers and fuzzy logical controllers. Mamdani fuzzy controllers are based on the idea of interpolation while fuzzy logical controllers are based on fuzzy logic in its narrow sense, i.e., fuzzy propositional logic. The two types of fuzzy controllers treat IF-THEN rules differently. In Mamdani fuzzy controllers, rules are treated disjunctively. In fuzzy logic controllers, rules are treated conjunctively. Finally, we provide a unified proof of the property of universal approximation for both types of fuzzy controllers.
The Propositional Logic Induced by Means of Basic Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chajda, I.
2015-12-01
A propositional logic induced by means of commutative basic algebras was already described by M. Botur and R. Halaš. It turns out that this is a kind of non-associative fuzzy logic which can be used e.g. in expert systems. Unfortunately, there are other important classes of basic algebras which are not commutative, e.g. orthomodular lattices which are used as an axiomatization of the logic of quantum mechanics. This motivated us to develop another axioms and derivation rules which form a propositional logic induced by basic algebras in general. We show that this logic is algebraizable in the sense of W. J. Blok and D. Pigozzi.
Explicit Logic Circuits Discriminate Neural States
Yoder, Lane
2009-01-01
The magnitude and apparent complexity of the brain's connectivity have left explicit networks largely unexplored. As a result, the relationship between the organization of synaptic connections and how the brain processes information is poorly understood. A recently proposed retinal network that produces neural correlates of color vision is refined and extended here to a family of general logic circuits. For any combination of high and low activity in any set of neurons, one of the logic circuits can receive input from the neurons and activate a single output neuron whenever the input neurons have the given activity state. The strength of the output neuron's response is a measure of the difference between the smallest of the high inputs and the largest of the low inputs. The networks generate correlates of known psychophysical phenomena. These results follow directly from the most cost-effective architectures for specific logic circuits and the minimal cellular capabilities of excitation and inhibition. The networks function dynamically, making their operation consistent with the speed of most brain functions. The networks show that well-known psychophysical phenomena do not require extraordinarily complex brain structures, and that a single network architecture can produce apparently disparate phenomena in different sensory systems. PMID:19127299
Design of a Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen
2003-01-01
A programmable logic gate array has been designed utilizing ferroelectric field effect transistors. The design has only a small number of gates, but this could be scaled up to a more useful size. Using FFET's in a logic array gives several advantages. First, it allows real-time programmability to the array to give high speed reconfiguration. It also allows the array to be configured nearly an unlimited number of times, unlike a FLASH FPGA. Finally, the Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array (FPLGA) can be implemented using a smaller number of transistors because of the inherent logic characteristics of an FFET. The device was only designed and modeled using Spice models of the circuit, including the FFET. The actual device was not produced. The design consists of a small array of NAND and NOR logic gates. Other gates could easily be produced. They are linked by FFET's that control the logic flow. Timing and logic tables have been produced showing the array can produce a variety of logic combinations at a real time usable speed. This device could be a prototype for a device that could be put into imbedded systems that need the high speed of hardware implementation of logic and the complexity to need to change the logic algorithm. Because of the non-volatile nature of the FFET, it would also be useful in situations that needed to program a logic array once and use it repeatedly after the power has been shut off.
Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology
Faraj, Daniel A.
2014-07-01
Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.
Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology
Faraj, Daniel A.
2014-07-22
Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.
Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate
López-Suárez, M.; Neri, I.
2016-01-01
In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input–output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed. PMID:27350333
Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate.
López-Suárez, M; Neri, I; Gammaitoni, L
2016-01-01
In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input-output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed. PMID:27350333
Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Suárez, M.; Neri, I.; Gammaitoni, L.
2016-06-01
In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input-output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed.
Logic Models for Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation: Workshop Toolkit. REL 2015-057
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakman, Karen; Rodriguez, Sheila M.
2015-01-01
The Logic Model Workshop Toolkit is designed to help practitioners learn the purpose of logic models, the different elements of a logic model, and the appropriate steps for developing and using a logic model for program evaluation. Topics covered in the sessions include an overview of logic models, the elements of a logic model, an introduction to…
Hardware description languages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tucker, Jerry H.
1994-01-01
Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.
McCune, W.; Shumsky, O.
2000-02-04
IVY is a verified theorem prover for first-order logic with equality. It is coded in ACL2, and it makes calls to the theorem prover Otter to search for proofs and to the program MACE to search for countermodels. Verifications of Otter and MACE are not practical because they are coded in C. Instead, Otter and MACE give detailed proofs and models that are checked by verified ACL2 programs. In addition, the initial conversion to clause form is done by verified ACL2 code. The verification is done with respect to finite interpretations.
Expanded all-optical programmable logic array based on multi-input/output canonical logic units.
Lei, Lei; Dong, Jianji; Zou, Bingrong; Wu, Zhao; Dong, Wenchan; Zhang, Xinliang
2014-04-21
We present an expanded all-optical programmable logic array (O-PLA) using multi-input and multi-output canonical logic units (CLUs) generation. Based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), two-input and three-input CLUs are simultaneously achieved in five different channels with an operation speed of 40 Gb/s. Clear temporal waveforms and wide open eye diagrams are successfully observed. The effectiveness of the scheme is validated by extinction ratio and optical signal-to-noise ratio measurements. The computing capacity, defined as the total amount of logic functions achieved by the O-PLA, is discussed in detail. For a three-input O-PLA, the computing capacity of the expanded CLUs-PLA is more than two times as large as that of the standard CLUs-PLA, and this multiple will increase to more than three and a half as the idlers are individually independent.
An Introduction to the Resource Description Framework.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Eric
1998-01-01
Explains the Resource Description Framework (RDF), an infrastructure developed under the World Wide Web Consortium that enables the encoding, exchange, and reuse of structured metadata. It is an application of Extended Markup Language (XML), which is a subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), and helps with expressing semantics.…
Descriptive Discourse: Topic Familiarity and Disfluencies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merlo, Sandra; Mansur, Leticia Lessa
2004-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to address questions about topic familiarity and disfluencies during oral descriptive discourse of adult speakers. Participants expressed more attributes when the topic was familiar than when it was unfamiliar. Fillers and lexical pauses were the most frequent disfluencies. The mean duration of each hesitation…
An evidential path logic for multi-relational networks
Rodriguez, Marko A; Geldart, Joe
2008-01-01
Multi-relational networks are used extensively to structure knowledge. Perhaps the most popular instance, due to the widespread adoption of the Semantic Web, is the Resource Description Framework (RDF). One of the primary purposes of a knowledge network is to reason; that is, to alter the topology of the network according to an algorithm that uses the existing topological structure as its input. There exist many such reasoning algorithms. With respect to the Semantic Web, the bivalent, axiomatic reasoners of the RDF Schema (RDFS) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL) are the most prevalent. However, nothing prevents other forms of reasoning from existing in the Semantic Web. This article presents a non-bivalent, non-axiomatic, evidential logic and reasoner that is an algebraic ring over a multi-relational network and two binary operations that can be composed to perform various forms of inference. Given its multi-relational grounding, it is possible to use the presented evidential framework as another method for structuring knowledge and reasoning in the Semantic Web. The benefits of this framework are that it works with arbitrary, partial, and contradictory knowledge while, at the same time, supporting a tractable approximate reasoning process.
Protein secondary structure prediction using logic-based machine learning.
Muggleton, S; King, R D; Sternberg, M J
1992-10-01
Many attempts have been made to solve the problem of predicting protein secondary structure from the primary sequence but the best performance results are still disappointing. In this paper, the use of a machine learning algorithm which allows relational descriptions is shown to lead to improved performance. The Inductive Logic Programming computer program, Golem, was applied to learning secondary structure prediction rules for alpha/alpha domain type proteins. The input to the program consisted of 12 non-homologous proteins (1612 residues) of known structure, together with a background knowledge describing the chemical and physical properties of the residues. Golem learned a small set of rules that predict which residues are part of the alpha-helices--based on their positional relationships and chemical and physical properties. The rules were tested on four independent non-homologous proteins (416 residues) giving an accuracy of 81% (+/- 2%). This is an improvement, on identical data, over the previously reported result of 73% by King and Sternberg (1990, J. Mol. Biol., 216, 441-457) using the machine learning program PROMIS, and of 72% using the standard Garnier-Osguthorpe-Robson method. The best previously reported result in the literature for the alpha/alpha domain type is 76%, achieved using a neural net approach. Machine learning also has the advantage over neural network and statistical methods in producing more understandable results. PMID:1480619
Knowledge discovery for pancreatic cancer using inductive logic programming.
Qiu, Yushan; Shimada, Kazuaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Maeshiro, Kensei; Ching, Wai-Ki; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Furuta, Koh
2014-08-01
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease and predicting the status of the patients becomes an important and urgent issue. The authors explore the applicability of inductive logic programming (ILP) method in the disease and show that the accumulated clinical laboratory data can be used to predict disease characteristics, and this will contribute to the selection of therapeutic modalities of pancreatic cancer. The availability of a large amount of clinical laboratory data provides clues to aid in the knowledge discovery of diseases. In predicting the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer, using the ILP model, three rules are developed that are consistent with descriptions in the literature. The rules that are identified are useful to detect the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer and therefore contributed significantly to the decision of therapeutic strategies. In addition, the proposed method is compared with the other typical classification techniques and the results further confirm the superiority and merit of the proposed method. PMID:25075529
Knowledge discovery for pancreatic cancer using inductive logic programming.
Qiu, Yushan; Shimada, Kazuaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Maeshiro, Kensei; Ching, Wai-Ki; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Furuta, Koh
2014-08-01
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease and predicting the status of the patients becomes an important and urgent issue. The authors explore the applicability of inductive logic programming (ILP) method in the disease and show that the accumulated clinical laboratory data can be used to predict disease characteristics, and this will contribute to the selection of therapeutic modalities of pancreatic cancer. The availability of a large amount of clinical laboratory data provides clues to aid in the knowledge discovery of diseases. In predicting the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer, using the ILP model, three rules are developed that are consistent with descriptions in the literature. The rules that are identified are useful to detect the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer and therefore contributed significantly to the decision of therapeutic strategies. In addition, the proposed method is compared with the other typical classification techniques and the results further confirm the superiority and merit of the proposed method.
Plainchont, Bertrand; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Rodrigues, Gilberto V; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Scotti, Marcus T; Emerenciano, Vicente P
2010-05-01
This article describes the integration of the LSD (Logic for Structure Determination) and SISTEMAT expert systems that were both designed for the computer-assisted structure elucidation of small organic molecules. A first step has been achieved towards the linking of the SISTEMAT database with the LSD structure generator. The skeletal descriptions found by the SISTEMAT programs are now easily transferred to LSD as substructural constraints. Examples of the synergy between these expert systems are given for recently reported natural products.
Reliability concerns with logical constants in Xilinx FPGA designs
Quinn, Heather M; Graham, Paul; Morgan, Keith; Ostler, Patrick; Allen, Greg; Swift, Gary; Tseng, Chen W
2009-01-01
In Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays logical constants, which ground unused inputs and provide constants for designs, are implemented in SEU-susceptible logic. In the past, these logical constants have been shown to cause the user circuit to output bad data and were not resetable through off-line rcconfiguration. In the more recent devices, logical constants are less problematic, though mitigation should still be considered for high reliability applications. In conclusion, we have presented a number of reliability concerns with logical constants in the Xilinx Virtex family. There are two main categories of logical constants: implicit and explicit logical constants. In all of the Virtex devices, the implicit logical constants are implemented using half latches, which in the most recent devices are several orders of magnitudes smaller than configuration bit cells. Explicit logical constants are implemented exclusively using constant LUTs in the Virtex-I and Virtex-II, and use a combination of constant LUTs and architectural posts to the ground plane in the Virtex-4. We have also presented mitigation methods and options for these devices. While SEUs in implicit and some types of explicit logical constants can cause data corrupt, the chance of failure from these components is now much smaller than it was in the Virtex-I device. Therefore, for many cases, mitigation might not be necessary, except under extremely high reliability situations.
Two- and three-input TALE-based AND logic computation in embryonic stem cells.
Lienert, Florian; Torella, Joseph P; Chen, Jan-Hung; Norsworthy, Michael; Richardson, Ryan R; Silver, Pamela A
2013-11-01
Biological computing circuits can enhance our ability to control cellular functions and have potential applications in tissue engineering and medical treatments. Transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) represent attractive components of synthetic gene regulatory circuits, as they can be designed de novo to target a given DNA sequence. We here demonstrate that TALEs can perform Boolean logic computation in mammalian cells. Using a split-intein protein-splicing strategy, we show that a functional TALE can be reconstituted from two inactive parts, thus generating two-input AND logic computation. We further demonstrate three-piece intein splicing in mammalian cells and use it to perform three-input AND computation. Using methods for random as well as targeted insertion of these relatively large genetic circuits, we show that TALE-based logic circuits are functional when integrated into the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells. Comparing construct variants in the same genomic context, we modulated the strength of the TALE-responsive promoter to improve the output of these circuits. Our work establishes split TALEs as a tool for building logic computation with the potential of controlling expression of endogenous genes or transgenes in response to a combination of cellular signals.
The design and testing of a first-order logic-based stochastic modeling language.
Pless, Daniel J.; Rammohan, Roshan; Chakrabarti, Chayan; Luger, George F.
2005-06-01
We have created a logic-based, Turing-complete language for stochastic modeling. Since the inference scheme for this language is based on a variant of Pearl's loopy belief propagation algorithm, we call it Loopy Logic. Traditional Bayesian networks have limited expressive power, basically constrained to finite domains as in the propositional calculus. Our language contains variables that can capture general classes of situations, events and relationships. A first-order language is also able to reason about potentially infinite classes and situations using constructs such as hidden Markov models(HMMs). Our language uses an Expectation-Maximization (EM) type learning of parameters. This has a natural fit with the Loopy Belief Propagation used for inference since both can be viewed as iterative message passing algorithms. We present the syntax and theoretical foundations for our Loopy Logic language. We then demonstrate three examples of stochastic modeling and diagnosis that explore the representational power of the language. A mechanical fault detection example displays how Loopy Logic can model time-series processes using an HMM variant. A digital circuit example exhibits the probabilistic modeling capabilities, and finally, a parameter fitting example demonstrates the power for learning unknown stochastic values.
Genetic programs constructed from layered logic gates in single cells
Moon, Tae Seok; Lou, Chunbo; Tamsir, Alvin; Stanton, Brynne C.; Voigt, Christopher A.
2014-01-01
Genetic programs function to integrate environmental sensors, implement signal processing algorithms and control expression dynamics1. These programs consist of integrated genetic circuits that individually implement operations ranging from digital logic to dynamic circuits2–6, and they have been used in various cellular engineering applications, including the implementation of process control in metabolic networks and the coordination of spatial differentiation in artificial tissues. A key limitation is that the circuits are based on biochemical interactions occurring in the confined volume of the cell, so the size of programs has been limited to a few circuits1,7. Here we apply part mining and directed evolution to build a set of transcriptional AND gates in Escherichia coli. Each AND gate integrates two promoter inputs and controls one promoter output. This allows the gates to be layered by having the output promoter of an upstream circuit serve as the input promoter for a downstream circuit. Each gate consists of a transcription factor that requires a second chaperone protein to activate the output promoter. Multiple activator–chaperone pairs are identified from type III secretion pathways in different strains of bacteria. Directed evolution is applied to increase the dynamic range and orthogonality of the circuits. These gates are connected in different permutations to form programs, the largest of which is a 4-input AND gate that consists of 3 circuits that integrate 4 inducible systems, thus requiring 11 regulatory proteins. Measuring the performance of individual gates is sufficient to capture the behaviour of the complete program. Errors in the output due to delays (faults), a common problem for layered circuits, are not observed. This work demonstrates the successful layering of orthogonal logic gates, a design strategy that could enable the construction of large, integrated circuits in single cells. PMID:23041931
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelkar, Nikhal; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.
1997-09-01
Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of a modular autonomous mobile robot controller. The controller incorporates a fuzzy logic approach for steering and speed control, a neuro-fuzzy approach for ultrasound sensing (not discussed in this paper) and an overall expert system. The advantages of a modular system are related to portability and transportability, i.e. any vehicle can become autonomous with minimal modifications. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. This cart has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and obstacle avoidance using ultrasonic sensors. The speed and steering fuzzy logic controller is supervised by a 486 computer through a multi-axis motion controller. The obstacle avoidance system is based on a micro-controller interfaced with six ultrasonic transducers. This micro- controller independently handles all timing and distance calculations and sends a steering angle correction back to the computer via the serial line. This design yields a portable independent system in which high speed computer communication is not necessary. Vision guidance is accomplished with a CCD camera with a zoom lens. The data is collected by a vision tracking device that transmits the X, Y coordinates of the lane marker to the control computer. Simulation and testing of these systems yielded promising results. This design, in its modularity, creates a portable autonomous fuzzy logic controller applicable to any mobile vehicle with only minor adaptations.
CDMBE: A Case Description Model Based on Evidence.
Zhu, Jianlin; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Jing
2015-01-01
By combining the advantages of argument map and Bayesian network, a case description model based on evidence (CDMBE), which is suitable to continental law system, is proposed to describe the criminal cases. The logic of the model adopts the credibility logical reason and gets evidence-based reasoning quantitatively based on evidences. In order to consist with practical inference rules, five types of relationship and a set of rules are defined to calculate the credibility of assumptions based on the credibility and supportability of the related evidences. Experiments show that the model can get users' ideas into a figure and the results calculated from CDMBE are in line with those from Bayesian model. PMID:26421006
CDMBE: A Case Description Model Based on Evidence
Zhu, Jianlin; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Jing
2015-01-01
By combining the advantages of argument map and Bayesian network, a case description model based on evidence (CDMBE), which is suitable to continental law system, is proposed to describe the criminal cases. The logic of the model adopts the credibility logical reason and gets evidence-based reasoning quantitatively based on evidences. In order to consist with practical inference rules, five types of relationship and a set of rules are defined to calculate the credibility of assumptions based on the credibility and supportability of the related evidences. Experiments show that the model can get users' ideas into a figure and the results calculated from CDMBE are in line with those from Bayesian model. PMID:26421006
Improving Cooperative PSO using Fuzzy Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afsahi, Zahra; Meybodi, Mohammadreza
PSO is a population-based technique for optimization, which simulates the social behaviour of the fish schooling or bird flocking. Two significant weaknesses of this method are: first, falling into local optimum and second, the curse of dimensionality. In this work we present the FCPSO-H to overcome these weaknesses. Our approach was implemented in the cooperative PSO, which employs fuzzy logic to control the acceleration coefficients in velocity equation of each particle. The proposed approach is validated by function optimization problem form the standard literature simulation result indicates that the approach is highly competitive specifically in its better general convergence performance.
Cyclic groups and quantum logic gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pourkia, Arash; Batle, J.; Raymond Ooi, C. H.
2016-10-01
We present a formula for an infinite number of universal quantum logic gates, which are 4 by 4 unitary solutions to the Yang-Baxter (Y-B) equation. We obtain this family from a certain representation of the cyclic group of order n. We then show that this discrete family, parametrized by integers n, is in fact, a small sub-class of a larger continuous family, parametrized by real numbers θ, of universal quantum gates. We discuss the corresponding Yang-Baxterization and related symmetries in the concomitant Hamiltonian.
Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Steven W.
1990-01-01
Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.
Fuzzy logic and guidance algorithm design
Leng, G.
1994-12-31
This paper explores the use of fuzzy logic for the design of a terminal guidance algorithm for an air to surface missile against a stationary target. The design objectives are (1) a smooth transition, at lock-on, (2) large impact angles and (3) self-limiting acceleration commands. The method of reverse kinematics is used in the design of the membership functions and the rule base. Simulation results for a Mach 0.8 missile with a 6g acceleration limit are compared with a traditional proportional navigation scheme.
Introduction to Categories and Categorical Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramsky, S.; Tzevelekos, N.
The aim of these notes is to provide a succinct, accessible introduction to some of the basic ideas of category theory and categorical logic. The notes are based on a lecture course given at Oxford over the past few years. They contain numerous exercises, and hopefully will prove useful for self-study by those seeking a first introduction to the subject, with fairly minimal prerequisites. The coverage is by no means comprehensive, but should provide a good basis for further study; a guide to further reading is included.
A Logical Model of Private International Law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dung, Phan Minh; Sartor, Giovanni
We provide a logical analysis of private international law, the body of law establishing when courts of a country should decide a case (jurisdiction) and what legal system they should apply to this purpose (choice of law). A formal model of the resulting interaction among multiple legal systems is proposed based on modular argumentation. It is argued that this model may be useful for understanding this rather esoteric, but increasingly important, domain of the law. Moreover, it might be useful for modelling the way in which interactions between heterogeneous agents, belonging to different and differently regulated virtual societies, can be governed without recourse to a central regulatory agency.
Entanglement and Quantum Logical Gates. Part II.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Leporini, R.; Sergioli, G.
2015-12-01
We introduce the notion of proper unitary connective-gate and we prove that entanglement cannot be characterized by such gates. We consider then a larger class of gates (called pseudo-unitary gates), which contains both the unitary and the anti-unitary quantum operations. By using a mixed language (a proper extension of the standard quantum computational language), we show how a logical characterization of entanglement is possible in the framework of a mixed semantics, which generalizes both the unitary and the pseudo-unitary quantum computational semantics.
Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant
1992-01-01
A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.
Efficient dynamic optimization of logic programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laird, Phil
1992-01-01
A summary is given of the dynamic optimization approach to speed up learning for logic programs. The problem is to restructure a recursive program into an equivalent program whose expected performance is optimal for an unknown but fixed population of problem instances. We define the term 'optimal' relative to the source of input instances and sketch an algorithm that can come within a logarithmic factor of optimal with high probability. Finally, we show that finding high-utility unfolding operations (such as EBG) can be reduced to clause reordering.
Hu, Yidan; Yang, Yun; Katz, Evgeny; Song, Hao
2015-03-11
An AND logic gate based on a synthetic quorum-sensing (QS) module was constructed in a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mtrA knockout mutant. The presence of two input signals activated the expression of a periplasmic decaheme cytochrome MtrA to regenerate the extracellular electron transfer conduit, enabling the construction of AND-gated microbial fuel cells.
Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics.
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208
Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208
The "self-similarity logic" applied to the development of the vascular system.
Guidolin, Diego; Crivellato, Enrico; Ribatti, Domenico
2011-03-01
From a structural standpoint, living systems exhibit a hierarchical pattern of organization in which structures are nested within one another. From a temporal point of view, this type of organization is the outcome of a 'history' resulting from a set of developmental steps. Recently, it has been suggested that some auto similarity prevails at each nested level or time step and a principle of "self-similarity logic" has been proposed to convey the concept of a multi-level organization in which very similar rules (logic) apply at each level. In this study, the hypothesis is put forward that such a principle is particularly apparent in many morphological and developmental aspects of the vascular system. In fact, not only the morphology of the vascular system exhibits a high degree of geometrical self-similarity, but its remodelling processes also seem to be characterized by the application of almost the same rules, from the macroscopic to the endothelial cell to the sub-cellular levels, potentially allowing a unitary description of features such as sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis, and phenotypic differences of endothelial cells. The influence of the "self-similarity logic" shaping the vascular system on the organogenesis has been also discussed. PMID:21215741
Logical Reloading. What is it and What is a Profit from it?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rylov, Yuri A.
2014-07-01
Logical reloading is a replacement of basic statements of a conception by equivalent statements of the same conception. The logical reloading does not change the conception, but it changes the mathematical formalism and changes results of this conception generalization. In the paper two examples of the logical reloading are considered. (1) Generalization of the deterministic particle dynamics on the case of the stochastic particle dynamics. As a result the unified formalism for description of particles of all kinds appears. This formalism admits one to explain freely quantum dynamics in terms of the classical particle dynamics. In particular, one discovers κ-field responsible for pair production. (2) Generalization of the proper Euclidean geometry which contains such space-time geometries, where free particles move stochastically. As a result such a conception of elementary particle dynamics arises, where one can investigate the elementary particles arrangement, but not only systematize elementary particles, ascribing quantum numbers to them. Besides, one succeeds to expand the general relativity on the non-Riemannian space-time geometries.
Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.
1984-03-01
The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.
Symbolic Models for Single-Conclusion Proof Logics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krupski, Vladimir N.
Symbolic semantics for logics of proofs based on Mkrtychev models covers the the case of multi-conclusion proof logics. We propose symbolic models for single-conclusion proof logics (FLP and its extensions). The corresponding soundness and completeness theorems are proven. The developed symbolic model technique is used to establish the consistency of contexts required for proof internalization. In particular, we construct an extension of FLP that enjoys the strong proof internalization property with empty context.
Specifying Imperative ML-Like Programs Using Dynamic Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maingaud, Séverine; Balat, Vincent; Bubel, Richard; Hähnle, Reiner; Miquel, Alexandre
We present a logical system suited for specification and verification of imperative ML programs. The specification language combines dynamic logic (DL), explicit state updates and second-order functional arithmetic. Its proof system is based on a Gentzen-style sequent calculus (adapted to modal logic) with facilities for symbolic evaluation. We illustrate the system with some example, and give a full Kripke-style semantics in order to prove its correctness.
Four logic states using two resonant tunnelling diodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hoof, C.; Genoe, J.; van Hove, M.; van Rossum, M.; Mertens, R.
1989-02-01
Using a series connection of two specially designed resonant tunneling diodes, three negative differential resistance regions, resulting in four possible logic states, were observed. This behavior can be expanded, at least in theory, to n tunneling diodes, resulting in 2 exp n - 1 times switching and 2 exp n logic states. These new devices can be used for analog/digital conversion and multivalued logic or as multistate memory cells using only a minimum in device area.
Superlogic manifolds and geometric approach to quantum logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Costa, Newton; Kouneiher, Joseph
2016-10-01
The main purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to logic or what we will call superlogic. This approach constitutes a new way of looking at the connection between quantum mechanics and logic. It is a geometrization of the quantum logic. Note that this superlogic is not distributive reflecting a good propriety to describe quantum mechanics, non-commutative spaces and contains a nilpotent element.
Logic-Operated Mathematical Morphology and Its Optical Implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Hongmei; Liu, Liren; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Changhe
1999-09-01
A more powerful tool for binary image processing, i.e., logic-operated mathematical morphology (LOMM), is proposed. With LOMM the image and the structuring element (SE) are treated as binary logical variables, and the multiply between the image and the SE in correlation is replaced with 16 logical operations. A total of 12 LOMM operations are obtained. The optical implementation of LOMM is described. The application of LOMM and its experimental results are also presented.
Multilevel programmable logic array schemes for microprogrammed automata
Barkalov, A.A.
1995-03-01
Programmable logic arrays (PLAs) provide an efficient tool for implementation of logic schemes of microprogrammed automata (MPA). The number of PLAs in the MPA logic scheme can be minimized by increasing the number of levels. In this paper, we analyze the structures of multilevel schemes of Mealy automata, propose a number of new structures, consider the corresponding correctness conditions, and examine some problems that must be solved in order to satisfy these conditions.
Quantum theory as a description of robust experiments: Derivation of the Pauli equation
De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Donker, Hylke C.; Michielsen, Kristel
2015-08-15
It is shown that the Pauli equation and the concept of spin naturally emerge from logical inference applied to experiments on a charged particle under the conditions that (i) space is homogeneous (ii) the observed events are logically independent, and (iii) the observed frequency distributions are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiment is carried out. The derivation does not take recourse to concepts of quantum theory and is based on the same principles which have already been shown to lead to e.g. the Schrödinger equation and the probability distributions of pairs of particles in the singlet or triplet state. Application to Stern–Gerlach experiments with chargeless, magnetic particles, provides additional support for the thesis that quantum theory follows from logical inference applied to a well-defined class of experiments. - Highlights: • The Pauli equation is obtained through logical inference applied to robust experiments on a charged particle. • The concept of spin appears as an inference resulting from the treatment of two-valued data. • The same reasoning yields the quantum theoretical description of neutral magnetic particles. • Logical inference provides a framework to establish a bridge between objective knowledge gathered through experiments and their description in terms of concepts.
Application of fuzzy logic in robot control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemppainen, Seppo; Roening, Juha
1992-11-01
During the past several years, fuzzy control has emerged as a suitable control strategy for many complex and nonlinear control problems. The control provided by fuzzy logic is both smooth and accurate. Also the 'if-then' rules of fuzzy control systems are easy to understand and relatively easy to develop. This paper presents a toolkit which is used in the implementation of fuzzy control system. The toolkit consists of C++ class library which computes inferences in fuzzy logic. The toolkit is used to implement a fuzzy control system which controls the movement of a simulated mobile robot. The proposed architecture consists of several rulesets. Each ruleset specializes in some control task, for example, there are rulesets for going around an obstacle, avoiding a moving obstacle, going through a door, etc. The multiple ruleset fuzzy control system is used to guide the simulated mobile robot to a given goal in an unknown environment. With the proposed multiple ruleset architecture complex control problems can be solved while single rulesets remain simple and efficient.
Logical modelling of Drosophila signalling pathways.
Mbodj, Abibatou; Junion, Guillaume; Brun, Christine; Furlong, Eileen E M; Thieffry, Denis
2013-09-01
A limited number of signalling pathways are involved in the specification of cell fate during the development of all animals. Several of these pathways were originally identified in Drosophila. To clarify their roles, and possible cross-talk, we have built a logical model for the nine key signalling pathways recurrently used in metazoan development. In each case, we considered the associated ligands, receptors, signal transducers, modulators, and transcription factors reported in the literature. Implemented using the logical modelling software GINsim, the resulting models qualitatively recapitulate the main characteristics of each pathway, in wild type as well as in various mutant situations (e.g. loss-of-function or gain-of-function). These models constitute pluggable modules that can be used to assemble comprehensive models of complex developmental processes. Moreover, these models of Drosophila pathways could serve as scaffolds for more complicated models of orthologous mammalian pathways. Comprehensive model annotations and GINsim files are provided for each of the nine considered pathways.
Reliable switching in MRAM and multiferroic logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munira, Kamaram; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Chen, Eugene; Ghosh, Avik W.
2012-02-01
Low reliable writing in spintronic devices limits their applicability in the automotive and defense industries. Coupling stochastic macromagnetic simulator with quantum transport, we show how greater reliable switching can be achieved in MRAM and multiferroic logic. Using a combination of spin-transfer torque and small applied perpendicular field in MRAM, the error rate can be considerably reduced for a given voltage pulse. In multiferroic logic, strain plays the role of the magnetic field. Information is passed along an array of nanomagnets (NM) (magnetostrictive + piezoelectric layers) through dipole coupling with neighboring NMs. A low voltage applied to the piezoelectric element causes the NM's magnetization to switch to its hard axis. Upon releasing the stress, the magnetization of the NM relaxes to the easy axis, with its final orientation determined by the dipolar coupling with the left NM, thus achieving a low power Bennett clocked computation. In the face of stagnation points along the potential energy landscape, the success rate of the straintronic switching can be controlled with by how fast the stress is removed from the NM. (Funding: DARPA, GRANDIS, NSF-NEB).
Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree
Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin
2012-01-01
The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time‐dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic‐tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground‐motion‐prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next‐generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.
Logical obstacles in learning planetary motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dileep, V.; Sathe, D. V.
Daniel Schaffer wrote now-a-days scientists and particularly theoretical physicists are not held in unquestioned esteem in his editorial This became the starting point of my presentation which was dedicated to the memory of Abdus Salam 1 Had he survived to witness the IYP he would have become surprised on knowing that Frank Wilczek had maximum trouble in learning classical mechanics 2 These facts require us to restudy learning O level physics from the logical point of view - in order to attract promising young students to take up challenges of physics and astronomy of the 21 st century Newton s laws of motion are known for more than 300 years and so there should not be any problems in learning and teaching these laws now in the 21 st century But findings of educators reported in the last 30 years show that there are some serious and global problems I have shown that there are some logical obstacles which make adverse effect on the comprehension of circular motion and related topics 3 In this presentation relevant aspects are discussed References begin enumerate item D V Sathe August 2001 Chemical Education International http www iupac org publications cei vol2 0201x0026 html item Frank Wilczek October 2004 Physics Today p 11 item D V Sathe December 2001 COSPAR Info Bulletin 152 p 53 end enumerate
Modifications in CMOS Dynamic Logic Style: A Review Paper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meher, Preetisudha; Mahapatra, Kamalakanta
2015-12-01
Dynamic logic style is used in high performance circuit design because of its fast speed and less transistors requirement as compared to CMOS logic style. But it is not widely accepted for all types of circuit implementations due to its less noise tolerance and charge sharing problems. A small noise at the input of the dynamic logic can change the desired output. Domino logic uses one static CMOS inverter at the output of dynamic node which is more noise immune and consuming very less power as compared to other proposed circuit. In this paper, an overview and classification of these techniques are first presented and then compared according to their performance.
The influence of logical positivism on nursing practice.
Whall, A L
1989-01-01
While logical positivism has been said to have had major influence on the development of nursing theory, whether this influence pervades other aspects of the discipline has not been discussed. One central aspect of logical positivism, the verificationist perspective, was used to examine texts, curricular guides and standards of practice that guided nursing practice in the decades in which logical positivism had influence on nursing theory construction. This review of the literature does not support the influence of logical positivism, as exemplified by the verificationist perspective, on nursing practice guidelines. PMID:2807333
LOGIC ANALYSIS: TESTING PROGRAM THEORY TO BETTER EVALUATE COMPLEX INTERVENTIONS
Rey, Lynda; Brousselle, Astrid; Dedobbeleer, Nicole
2016-01-01
Evaluating complex interventions requires an understanding of the program’s logic of action. Logic analysis, a specific type of program theory evaluation based on scientific knowledge, can help identify either the critical conditions for achieving desired outcomes or alternative interventions for that purpose. In this article, we outline the principles of logic analysis and its roots. We then illustrate its use with an actual evaluation case. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting logic analysis prior to other types of evaluations. This article will provide evaluators with both theoretical and practical information to help them in conceptualizing their evaluations. PMID:27239095
McKone, Thomas E.; Deshpande, Ashok W.
2004-06-14
In modeling complex environmental problems, we often fail to make precise statements about inputs and outcome. In this case the fuzzy logic method native to the human mind provides a useful way to get at these problems. Fuzzy logic represents a significant change in both the approach to and outcome of environmental evaluations. Risk assessment is currently based on the implicit premise that probability theory provides the necessary and sufficient tools for dealing with uncertainty and variability. The key advantage of fuzzy methods is the way they reflect the human mind in its remarkable ability to store and process information which is consistently imprecise, uncertain, and resistant to classification. Our case study illustrates the ability of fuzzy logic to integrate statistical measurements with imprecise health goals. But we submit that fuzzy logic and probability theory are complementary and not competitive. In the world of soft computing, fuzzy logic has been widely used and has often been the ''smart'' behind smart machines. But it will require more effort and case studies to establish its niche in risk assessment or other types of impact assessment. Although we often hear complaints about ''bright lines,'' could we adapt to a system that relaxes these lines to fuzzy gradations? Would decision makers and the public accept expressions of water or air quality goals in linguistic terms with computed degrees of certainty? Resistance is likely. In many regions, such as the US and European Union, it is likely that both decision makers and members of the public are more comfortable with our current system in which government agencies avoid confronting uncertainties by setting guidelines that are crisp and often fail to communicate uncertainty. But some day perhaps a more comprehensive approach that includes exposure surveys, toxicological data, epidemiological studies coupled with fuzzy modeling will go a long way in resolving some of the conflict, divisiveness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brashers, H. C.
1968-01-01
As the inexperienced writer becomes aware of the issues involved in the composition of effective descriptive prose, he also develops a consistent control over his materials. The persona he chooses, if coherently thought out, can function as an index of many choices, helping him to manipulate the tone, intent, and mood of this style; to regulate…
The Quantification of Consistent Subjective Logic Tree Branch Weights for PSHA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Runge, A. K.; Scherbaum, F.
2012-04-01
The development of quantitative models for the rate of exceedance of seismically generated ground motion parameters is the target of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). In regions of low to moderate seismicity, the selection and evaluation of source- and/or ground-motion models is often a major challenge to hazard analysts and affected by large epistemic uncertainties. In PSHA this type of uncertainties is commonly treated within a logic tree framework in which the branch weights express the degree-of-belief values of an expert in the corresponding set of models. For the calculation of the distribution of hazard curves, these branch weights are subsequently used as subjective probabilities. However the quality of the results depends strongly on the "quality" of the expert knowledge. A major challenge for experts in this context is to provide weight estimates which are logically consistent (in the sense of Kolmogorov's axioms) and to be aware of and to deal with the multitude of heuristics and biases which affect human judgment under uncertainty. For example, people tend to give smaller weights to each branch of a logic tree the more branches it has, starting with equal weights for all branches and then adjusting this uniform distribution based on his/her beliefs about how the branches differ. This effect is known as pruning bias.¹ A similar unwanted effect, which may even wrongly suggest robustness of the corresponding hazard estimates, will appear in cases where all models are first judged according to some numerical quality measure approach and the resulting weights are subsequently normalized to sum up to one.2 To address these problems, we have developed interactive graphical tools for the determination of logic tree branch weights in form of logically consistent subjective probabilities, based on the concepts suggested in Curtis and Wood (2004).3 Instead of determining the set of weights for all the models in a single step, the computer driven
Block QCA Fault-Tolerant Logic Gates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Firjany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarres, Katayoon
2003-01-01
Suitably patterned arrays (blocks) of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed as fault-tolerant universal logic gates. These block QCA gates could be used to realize the potential of QCA for further miniaturization, reduction of power consumption, increase in switching speed, and increased degree of integration of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) electronic circuits. The limitations of conventional VLSI circuitry, the basic principle of operation of QCA, and the potential advantages of QCA-based VLSI circuitry were described in several NASA Tech Briefs articles, namely Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42; Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20855) Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 32; Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20869), Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 35; and Hybrid VLSI/QCA Architecture for Computing FFTs (NPO-20923), which follows this article. To recapitulate the principle of operation (greatly oversimplified because of the limitation on space available for this article): A quantum-dot cellular automata contains four quantum dots positioned at or between the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the quantummechanical sense) between neighboring dots within the cell. The Coulomb repulsion between the two electrons tends to make them occupy antipodal dots in the cell. For an isolated cell, there are two energetically equivalent arrangements (denoted polarization states) of the extra electrons. The cell polarization is used to encode binary information. Because the polarization of a nonisolated cell depends on Coulomb-repulsion interactions with neighboring cells, universal logic gates and binary wires could be constructed, in principle, by arraying QCA of suitable design in suitable patterns. Heretofore, researchers have recognized two major obstacles to realization of QCA
Energy-Efficient Wide Datapath Integer Arithmetic Logic Units Using Superconductor Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayala, Christopher Lawrence
Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology is currently the most widely used integrated circuit technology today. As CMOS approaches the physical limitations of scaling, it is unclear whether or not it can provide long-term support for niche areas such as high-performance computing and telecommunication infrastructure, particularly with the emergence of cloud computing. Alternatively, superconductor technologies based on Josephson junction (JJ) switching elements such as Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic and especially its new variant, Energy-Efficient Rapid Single Flux Quantum (ERSFQ) logic have the capability to provide an ultra-high-speed, low power platform for digital systems. The objective of this research is to design and evaluate energy-efficient, high-speed 32-bit integer Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) implemented using RSFQ and ERSFQ logic as the first steps towards achieving practical Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) complexity in digital superconductor electronics. First, a tunable VHDL superconductor cell library is created to provide a mechanism to conduct design exploration and evaluation of superconductor digital circuits from the perspectives of functionality, complexity, performance, and energy-efficiency. Second, hybrid wave-pipelining techniques developed earlier for wide datapath RSFQ designs have been used for efficient arithmetic and logic circuit implementations. To develop the core foundation of the ALU, the ripple-carry adder and the Kogge-Stone parallel prefix carry look-ahead adder are studied as representative candidates on opposite ends of the design spectrum. By combining the high-performance features of the Kogge-Stone structure and the low complexity of the ripple-carry adder, a 32-bit asynchronous wave-pipelined hybrid sparse-tree ALU has been designed and evaluated using the VHDL cell library tuned to HYPRES' gate-level characteristics. The designs and techniques from this research have been implemented using
Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) system description
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moik, J. G.
1973-01-01
The Small Interactive Image Processing System (SMIPS) operates under control of the IBM-OS/MVT operating system and uses an IBM-2250 model 1 display unit as interactive graphic device. The input language in the form of character strings or attentions from keys and light pen is interpreted and causes processing of built-in image processing functions as well as execution of a variable number of application programs kept on a private disk file. A description of design considerations is given and characteristics, structure and logic flow of SMIPS are summarized. Data management and graphic programming techniques used for the interactive manipulation and display of digital pictures are also discussed.
Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) functional description and interface document
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belcher, R. C.; Shank, D. E.
1984-01-01
This document presents a functional description of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) and of interfaces between FEDS and external hardware and software. FEDS is a modification of the Automated Orbit Determination System (AODS). FEDS has been developed to support a ground demonstration of microprocessor-based onboard orbit determination. This document provides an overview of the structure and logic of FEDS and details the various operational procedures to build and execute FEDS. It also documents a microprocessor interface between FEDS and a TDRSS user transponder and describes a software simulator of the interface used in the development and system testing of FEDS.
Andrzejewski, D; Zhu, X; Craven, M; Recht, B
2011-01-18
Topic models have been used successfully for a variety of problems, often in the form of application-specific extensions of the basic Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model. Because deriving these new models in order to encode domain knowledge can be difficult and time-consuming, we propose the Fold-all model, which allows the user to specify general domain knowledge in First-Order Logic (FOL). However, combining topic modeling with FOL can result in inference problems beyond the capabilities of existing techniques. We have therefore developed a scalable inference technique using stochastic gradient descent which may also be useful to the Markov Logic Network (MLN) research community. Experiments demonstrate the expressive power of Fold-all, as well as the scalability of our proposed inference method.
Fuzzy logic and image processing techniques for the interpretation of seismic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orozco-del-Castillo, M. G.; Ortiz-Alemán, C.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.
2011-06-01
Since interpretation of seismic data is usually a tedious and repetitive task, the ability to do so automatically or semi-automatically has become an important objective of recent research. We believe that the vagueness and uncertainty in the interpretation process makes fuzzy logic an appropriate tool to deal with seismic data. In this work we developed a semi-automated fuzzy inference system to detect the internal architecture of a mass transport complex (MTC) in seismic images. We propose that the observed characteristics of a MTC can be expressed as fuzzy if-then rules consisting of linguistic values associated with fuzzy membership functions. The constructions of the fuzzy inference system and various image processing techniques are presented. We conclude that this is a well-suited problem for fuzzy logic since the application of the proposed methodology yields a semi-automatically interpreted MTC which closely resembles the MTC from expert manual interpretation.
Digital Poetry: A Narrow Relation between Poetics and the Codes of the Computational Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurentiz, Silvia
The project "Percorrendo Escrituras" (Walking Through Writings Project) has been developed at ECA-USP Fine Arts Department. Summarizing, it intends to study different structures of digital information that share the same universe and are generators of a new aesthetics condition. The aim is to search which are the expressive possibilities of the computer among the algorithm functions and other of its specific properties. It is a practical, theoretical and interdisciplinary project where the study of programming evolutionary language, logic and mathematics take us to poetic experimentations. The focus of this research is the digital poetry, and it comes from poetics of permutation combinations and culminates with dynamic and complex systems, autonomous, multi-user and interactive, through agents generation derivations, filtration and emergent standards. This lecture will present artworks that use some mechanisms introduced by cybernetics and the notion of system in digital poetry that demonstrate the narrow relationship between poetics and the codes of computational logic.
Erbas-Cakmak, Sundus; Akkaya, Engin U
2013-10-18
Logical progress: Independent molecular logic gates have been designed and characterized. Then, the individual molecular logic gates were coerced to work together within a micelle. Information relay between the two logic gates was achieved through the intermediacy of singlet oxygen. Working together, these concatenated logic gates result in a self-reporting and activatable photosensitizer. GSH=glutathione. PMID:24030974
Logic: A Unit for 4-8 Graders, Especially Gifted and Talented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Runkle, Susan; Tansey, Pam
The unit on logic is intended to teach critical thinking for gifted and talented students in grades 4-8. Sections are presented separately for students in grades 4-5 and 6-8. The younger students are instructed in such areas as scientific logic, math logic, spatial reasoning, deductive logic, inductive logic, and reasoning with analogies. The…
Fuzzy Logic: A New Tool for the Analysis and Organization of International Business Communications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sondak, Norman E.; Sondak, Eileen M.
Classical western logic, built on a foundation of true/false, yes/no, right/wrong statements, leads to many difficulties and inconsistencies in the logical analysis and organization of international business communications. This paper presents the basic principles of classical logic and of fuzzy logic, a type of logic developed to allow for…
Prototype Conflict Alerting Logic for Free Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Lee C.; Kuchar, James K.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses the development of a prototype alerting system for a conceptual Free Flight environment. The concept assumes that datalink between aircraft is available and that conflicts are primarily resolved on the flight deck. Four alert stages are generated depending on the likelihood of a conflict. If the conflict is not resolved by the flight crews, Air Traffic Control is notified to take over separation authority. The alerting logic is based on probabilistic analysis through modeling of aircraft sensor and trajectory uncertainties. Monte Carlo simulations were used over a range of encounter situations to determine conflict probability. The four alert stages were then defined based on probability of conflict and on the number of avoidance maneuvers available to the flight crew. Preliminary results from numerical evaluations and from a piloted simulator study at NASA Ames Research Center are summarized.
Granular acoustic switches and logic elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara
2014-10-01
Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.
Measure Landscape Diversity with Logical Scout Agents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirth, E.; Szabó, G.; Czinkóczky, A.
2016-06-01
The Common Agricultural Policy reform of the EU focuses on three long-term objectives: viable food production, sustainable management of natural resources and climate action with balanced territorial development. To achieve these goals, the EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity. Current paper introduces an agent-based method to calculate the potential of landscape diversity. The method tries to catch the nature of heterogeneity using logic and modelling as opposed to the traditional statistical reasoning. The outlined Random Walk Scouting algorithm registers the land cover crossings of the scout agents to a Monte Carlo integral. The potential is proportional with the composition and the configuration (spatial character) of the landscape. Based on the measured points a potential map is derived to give an objective and quantitative basis to the stakeholders (policy makers, farmers).
Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Digital PIV Processing Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
1999-01-01
Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) is an instantaneous, planar velocity measurement technique that is ideally suited for studying transient flow phenomena in high speed turbomachinery. DPIV is being actively used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to study both stable and unstable operating conditions in a high speed centrifugal compressor. Commercial PIV systems are readily available which provide near real time feedback of the PIV image data quality. These commercial systems are well designed to facilitate the expedient acquisition of PIV image data. However, as with any general purpose system, these commercial PIV systems do not meet all of the data processing needs required for PIV image data reduction in our compressor research program. An in-house PIV PROCessing (PIVPROC) code has been developed for reducing PIV data. The PIVPROC software incorporates fuzzy logic data validation for maximum information recovery from PIV image data. PIVPROC enables combined cross-correlation/particle tracking wherein the highest possible spatial resolution velocity measurements are obtained.
Logic of discovery or psychology of invention?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodward, James F.
1992-02-01
It is noted that Popper separates the creation of concepts, conjectures, hypotheses and theories—the context of invention—from the testing thereof—the context of justification—arguing that only the latter is susceptible of rigorous logical analysis. Efforts on the part of others to shift or eradicate the demarcation established by this distinction are discussed and the relationship of these considerations to the claims of “strong artificial intelligence” is pointed out. It is argued that the mode of education of scientists, as well as reports of celebrated scientists, support Popper's judgement in this matter. An historical episode from Faraday's later career is used to illustrate the historiographical strength of Lakatos' “methodology of research programs.”
Logic elements for reactor period meter
McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.
1976-01-01
Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.
Artificial intelligence: Theory, logic and application
Brule, J.F.
1986-01-01
This book discusses the principles and applications of artificial intelligence. It provides the details on the most prominent languages currently being used to develop artificial intelligence, LISP and Prolog. It is shown how the computer is made to understand knowledge and how it can retrieve and manipulate that knowledge through frames, semantic networks, state space, belief systems, and the LEAP data base. Once the fundamentals are discussed, the author delves deeper, explaining: how computers are able to make logical deductions...methods used to move the computer through a knowledge base...and even shows readers what takes place as a computer attempts to solve problems. A series of programming exercises are also provided that illustrate all the important concepts learned from each chapter.
Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Eric D.
1989-01-01
The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.
Betz, J.W.; Blanco, M.A.; Cahn, C.R.; Dafesh, P.A.; Hegarty, C.J.; Hudnut, K.W.; Kasemsri, V.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L.S.; Ma, H.H.; Rushanan, J.J.; Sklar, D.; Stansell, T.A.; Wang, C.C.; Yi, S.K.
2006-01-01
Detailed design of the modernized LI civil signal (L1C) signal has been completed, and the resulting draft Interface Specification IS-GPS-800 was released in Spring 2006. The novel characteristics of the optimized L1C signal design provide advanced capabilities while offering to receiver designers considerable flexibility in how to use these capabilities. L1C provides a number of advanced features, including: 75% of power in a pilot component for enhanced signal tracking, advanced Weilbased spreading codes, an overlay code on the pilot that provides data message synchronization, support for improved reading of clock and ephemeris by combining message symbols across messages, advanced forward error control coding, and data symbol interleaving to combat fading. The resulting design offers receiver designers the opportunity to obtain unmatched performance in many ways. This paper describes the design of L1C. A summary of LIC's background and history is provided. The signal description then proceeds with the overall signal structure consisting of a pilot component and a carrier component. The new L1C spreading code family is described, along with the logic used for generating these spreading codes. Overlay codes on the pilot channel are also described, as is the logic used for generating the overlay codes. Spreading modulation characteristics are summarized. The data message structure is also presented, showing the format for providing time, ephemeris, and system data to users, along with features that enable receivers to perform code combining. Encoding of rapidly changing time bits is described, as are the Low Density Parity Check codes used for forward error control of slowly changing time bits, clock, ephemeris, and system data. The structure of the interleaver is also presented. A summary of L 1C's unique features and their benefits is provided, along with a discussion of the plan for L1C implementation.
Two Medical Literatures That Are Logically But Not Bibliographically Connected.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanson, Don R.
1987-01-01
Describes a study which demonstrates that unintended logical connections within scientific literature, which potentially reveal new knowledge, are unmarked by reference citations or other bibliographic clues. Citation analysis of two separate literatures in biomedicine that have a logical link is used to support this hypothesis. (Author/CLB)
Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Logical Reasoning Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marchis, Iuliana
2013-01-01
Logical reasoning skills are important for a successful mathematical learning and in students' future career. These skills are essential for a primary school teacher, because they need to explain solving methods and solutions to their pupils. In this research we studied pre-service primary school teachers' logical reasoning skills. The results…
The Development of Logical Structures for E-Learning Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tudevdagva, Uranchimeg; Hardt, Wolfram; Dolgor, Jargalmaa
2013-01-01
This paper deals with development of logical structures for e-learning evaluation. Evaluation is a complex task into which many different groups of people are involved. As a rule these groups have different understanding and varying expectations on e-learning evaluation. Using logical structures for e-learning evaluation we can join the different…
"Hence"--An Iconoclastic Study of Logic, Language and Argumentation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van der Auwera, Johan
An analysis of the role of the word "hence" and its near-synonyms examines the relationship between logic as a science, as a natural language, and as argumentation. The analysis is done in the context of elementary propositional logic. The first section is a limited discussion of the standard logician's treatment relegating "hence" to the realm of…
Evidence that logical reasoning depends on conscious processing.
DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Masicampo, E J
2008-09-01
Humans, unlike other animals, are equipped with a powerful brain that permits conscious awareness and reflection. A growing trend in psychological science has questioned the benefits of consciousness, however. Testing a hypothesis advanced by [Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert, D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflection and reflexion: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional inference. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 199-249], four studies suggested that the conscious, reflective processing system is vital for logical reasoning. Substantial decrements in logical reasoning were found when a cognitive load manipulation preoccupied conscious processing, while hampering the nonconscious system with consciously suppressed thoughts failed to impair reasoning (Experiment 1). Nonconscious activation (priming) of the idea of logical reasoning increased the activation of logic-relevant concepts, but failed to improve logical reasoning performance (Experiments 2a-2c) unless the logical conclusions were largely intuitive and thus not reliant on logical reasoning (Experiment 3). Meanwhile, stimulating the conscious goal of reasoning well led to improvements in reasoning performance (Experiment 4). These findings offer evidence that logical reasoning is aided by the conscious, reflective processing system.
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3483.6 - Special logical mining unit rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special logical mining unit rules. 3483.6... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Diligence Requirements § 3483.6 Special logical mining unit rules. (a) Production anywhere...
43 CFR 3475.6 - Logical mining unit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logical mining unit. 3475.6 Section 3475.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 3475.6 Logical mining unit. (a) Criteria for approving or directing establishment of an LMU shall...
Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality
2003-09-01
Otter 3.3 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.
Implementation of field programmable logic arrays. Final report
Anderson, J.D.
1981-03-01
Field Programmable Logic Arrays (FPLAs) were incorporated into a fire set tester and a development tester used to test a signal generator's logic boards. Other circuits were designed using the FPLA in code conversion and sequential control applications. A Curtiss Electro Devices FPLA programmer was purchased to program Signetics 82S100 and 82S101 devices.
Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1966-01-01
Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.
Exploring the Common Ground of Rhetoric and Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamb, Catherine E.
In teaching the principles of rational discourse in advanced expository writing, it is necessary to clarify the similarities and differences between the logic and rhetoric of Aristotle and to identify a common ground between the two. The study of logic within rhetoric focuses on the inductive standards used to support two kinds of argument: the…
Early Learning of Logic and Geometry Using Microcomputers: Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piestrup, Ann M.
This document primarily consists of source code listings for software developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Education (NSF/NIE). The code contains the following learning games: (1) Turn and Match; (2) Logic Arcade; and (3) Logic Gates. Also included are an assembler for the 6502 microprocessor…
Ideal Knowing: Logics of Knowledge in Primary School Curricula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macknight, Vicki
2011-01-01
This paper is written to draw attention to the ideal knower and the logic of knowledge embedded in curricula. New logics and new knowers, I argue, are conjured with the hope they will be capable of succeeding in curriculum designers' imagined future. I frame this discussion in terms of debates about the place of knowledge in the sociology of…
Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bird, Lillian
2010-01-01
Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…
Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality
2001-06-01
Otter 3.2 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.
"Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas
2009-01-01
This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.
The Influence of Fuzzy Logic Theory on Students' Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Semerci, Çetin
2004-01-01
As science and technology develop, the use's areas of Fuzzy Logic Theory develop too. Measurement and evaluation in education is one of these areas. The purpose of this research is to explain the influence of fuzzy logic theory on students' achievement. An experimental method is employed in the research. The traditional achievement marks and The…
A Logic Programming Testbed for Inductive Thought and Specification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neff, Norman D.
This paper describes applications of logic programming technology to the teaching of the inductive method in computer science and mathematics. It discusses the nature of inductive thought and its place in those fields of inquiry, arguing that a complete logic programming system for supporting inductive inference is not only feasible but necessary.…
The Application of Logic Programming to Communication Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanford, David L.
Recommending that communication students be required to learn to use computers not merely as number crunchers, word processors, data bases, and graphics generators, but also as logical inference makers, this paper examines the recently developed technology of logical programing in computer languages. It presents two syllogisms and shows how they…
Leveraging Structure: Logical Necessity in the Context of Integer Arithmetic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Whitacre, Ian; Schappelle, Bonnie P.
2016-01-01
Looking for, recognizing, and using underlying mathematical structure is an important aspect of mathematical reasoning. We explore the use of mathematical structure in children's integer strategies by developing and exemplifying the construct of logical necessity. Students in our study used logical necessity to approach and use numbers in a…
Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Formation in Reconfigurable Logic
DUDLEY,PETER A.
2001-06-01
This paper studies the implementation of polar format, synthetic aperture radar image formation in modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA's). The polar format algorithm is described in rough terms and each of the processing steps is mapped to FPGA logic. This FPGA logic is analyzed with respect to throughput and circuit size for compatibility with airborne image formation.
SDLDS--System for Digital Logic Design and Simulation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanisavljevic, Z.; Pavlovic, V.; Nikolic, B.; Djordjevic, J.
2013-01-01
This paper presents the basic features of a software system developed to support the teaching of digital logic, as well as the experience of using it in the Digital Logic course taught at the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Serbia. The system has been used for several years, both by students for self-learning and…
Translating a Dependently-Typed Logic to First-Order Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sojakova, Kristina; Rabe, Florian
DFOL is a logic that extends first-order logic with dependent types. We give a translation from DFOL to FOL formalized as an institution comorphism and show that it admits the model expansion property. This property together with the borrowing theorem implies the soundness of borrowing — a result that enables us to reason about entailment in DFOL by using automated tools for FOL. In addition, the translation permits us to deduce properties of DFOL such as completeness, compactness, and existence of free models from the corresponding properties of FOL, and to regard DFOL as a fragment of FOL. We give an example that shows how problems about DFOL can be solved by using the automated FOL prover Vampire. Future work will focus on the integration of the translation into the specification and translation tool HeTS.
Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams
Fellows, R.L.
1993-02-26
The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.
Spacelab J experiment descriptions
Miller, T.Y.
1993-08-01
Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.
Spacelab J experiment descriptions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)
1993-01-01
Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.
Hermenegildo, M.V.
1986-01-01
The term Logic Programming refers to a variety of computer languages and execution models based on the traditional concept of Symbolic Logic. The expressive power of these languages offers promise to be of great assistance in facing the programming challenges of present and future symbolic processing applications in artificial intelligence, knowledge-based systems, and many other areas of computing. This dissertation presents an efficient parallel execution model for logic programs. The model is described from the source language level down to an Abstract Machine level, suitable for direct implementation on existing parallel systems or for the design of special purpose parallel architectures. Few assumptions are made at the source language level and, therefore, the techniques developed and the general Abstract Machine design are applicable to a variety of logic (and also functional) languages. These techniques offer efficient solutions to several areas of parallel Logic Programming implementation previously considered problematic or a source of considerable overhead, such as the detection and handling of variable binding conflicts in AND-parallelism, the specification of control and management of the execution tree, the treatment of distributed backtracking, and goal scheduling and memory management issues, etc. A parallel Abstract Machine design is offered, specifying data areas, operation, and a suitable instruction set.
Management control system description
Bence, P. J.
1990-10-01
This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.
Logical Modeling and Dynamical Analysis of Cellular Networks
Abou-Jaoudé, Wassim; Traynard, Pauline; Monteiro, Pedro T.; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Helikar, Tomáš; Thieffry, Denis; Chaouiya, Claudine
2016-01-01
The logical (or logic) formalism is increasingly used to model regulatory and signaling networks. Complementing these applications, several groups contributed various methods and tools to support the definition and analysis of logical models. After an introduction to the logical modeling framework and to several of its variants, we review here a number of recent methodological advances to ease the analysis of large and intricate networks. In particular, we survey approaches to determine model attractors and their reachability properties, to assess the dynamical impact of variations of external signals, and to consistently reduce large models. To illustrate these developments, we further consider several published logical models for two important biological processes, namely the differentiation of T helper cells and the control of mammalian cell cycle. PMID:27303434
Fuzzy forecasting based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups.
Chen, Shyi-Ming; Wang, Nai-Yi
2010-10-01
In this paper, we present a new method to predict the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups (FTLRGs). The proposed method divides fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs based on the trend of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of fuzzy logical relationships. First, we apply an automatic clustering algorithm to cluster the historical data into intervals of different lengths. Then, we define fuzzy sets based on these intervals of different lengths. Then, the historical data are fuzzified into fuzzy sets to derive fuzzy logical relationships. Then, we divide the fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs for forecasting the TAIEX. Moreover, we also apply the proposed method to forecast the enrollments and the inventory demand, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed method gets higher average forecasting accuracy rates than the existing methods.
Logical Modeling and Dynamical Analysis of Cellular Networks.
Abou-Jaoudé, Wassim; Traynard, Pauline; Monteiro, Pedro T; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Helikar, Tomáš; Thieffry, Denis; Chaouiya, Claudine
2016-01-01
The logical (or logic) formalism is increasingly used to model regulatory and signaling networks. Complementing these applications, several groups contributed various methods and tools to support the definition and analysis of logical models. After an introduction to the logical modeling framework and to several of its variants, we review here a number of recent methodological advances to ease the analysis of large and intricate networks. In particular, we survey approaches to determine model attractors and their reachability properties, to assess the dynamical impact of variations of external signals, and to consistently reduce large models. To illustrate these developments, we further consider several published logical models for two important biological processes, namely the differentiation of T helper cells and the control of mammalian cell cycle.
Logic as Marr's Computational Level: Four Case Studies.
Baggio, Giosuè; van Lambalgen, Michiel; Hagoort, Peter
2015-04-01
We sketch four applications of Marr's levels-of-analysis methodology to the relations between logic and experimental data in the cognitive neuroscience of language and reasoning. The first part of the paper illustrates the explanatory power of computational level theories based on logic. We show that a Bayesian treatment of the suppression task in reasoning with conditionals is ruled out by EEG data, supporting instead an analysis based on defeasible logic. Further, we describe how results from an EEG study on temporal prepositions can be reanalyzed using formal semantics, addressing a potential confound. The second part of the article demonstrates the predictive power of logical theories drawing on EEG data on processing progressive constructions and on behavioral data on conditional reasoning in people with autism. Logical theories can constrain processing hypotheses all the way down to neurophysiology, and conversely neuroscience data can guide the selection of alternative computational level models of cognition. PMID:25417838
Photonic ququart logic assisted by the cavity-QED system.
Luo, Ming-Xing; Deng, Yun; Li, Hui-Ran; Ma, Song-Ya
2015-01-01
Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions of qubit systems, we investigate the possibility of ququart systems (four-dimensional states) dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We propose some useful one-parameter four-dimensional quantum transformations for the construction of universal ququart logic gates. The interface between the spin of a photon and an electron spin confined in a quantum dot embedded in a microcavity is applied to build universal ququart logic gates on the photon system with two freedoms. Our elementary controlled-ququart gates cost no more than 8 CNOT gates in a qubit system, which is far less than the 104 CNOT gates required for a general four-qubit logic gate. The ququart logic is also used to generate useful hyperentanglements and hyperentanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting code, which may be available in modern physical technology. PMID:26272869
Logic as Marr's Computational Level: Four Case Studies.
Baggio, Giosuè; van Lambalgen, Michiel; Hagoort, Peter
2015-04-01
We sketch four applications of Marr's levels-of-analysis methodology to the relations between logic and experimental data in the cognitive neuroscience of language and reasoning. The first part of the paper illustrates the explanatory power of computational level theories based on logic. We show that a Bayesian treatment of the suppression task in reasoning with conditionals is ruled out by EEG data, supporting instead an analysis based on defeasible logic. Further, we describe how results from an EEG study on temporal prepositions can be reanalyzed using formal semantics, addressing a potential confound. The second part of the article demonstrates the predictive power of logical theories drawing on EEG data on processing progressive constructions and on behavioral data on conditional reasoning in people with autism. Logical theories can constrain processing hypotheses all the way down to neurophysiology, and conversely neuroscience data can guide the selection of alternative computational level models of cognition.
Coloured Logic Petri Nets and analysis of their reachable trees
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jing; Du, YuYue; Yu, ShuXia
2015-11-01
Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyse the batch processing function and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems, and alleviate the state space explosion problem. However, the indeterminate data of logical output transitions cannot be described explicitly in LPNs. Therefore, Coloured Logic Petri nets (CLPNs) are defined in this paper. It can determine the indeterminate data of logic output transitions in LPNs, i.e., the indeterminate data can be represented definitely in CLPNs. A vector matching method is proposed to judge the enabling transitions and analyse CLPNs. From the marking equation and the proposed reachable tree generation algorithm of CLPNs, a reachable tree can be built, and reachable markings are calculated. The advantage of CLPNs can be shown based on the number of leaf nodes of the reachability tree, and CLPNs can solve the indeterminate data of logical output transitions. Finally, an example shows that CLPNs can further reduce the dimensionality of reachable markings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nobbs, Steven G.
1995-01-01
An overview of the performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm and details of the important components of the algorithm are given. The onboard propulsion system models, the linear programming optimization, and engine control interface are described. The PSC algorithm receives input from various computers on the aircraft including the digital flight computer, digital engine control, and electronic inlet control. The PSC algorithm contains compact models of the propulsion system including the inlet, engine, and nozzle. The models compute propulsion system parameters, such as inlet drag and fan stall margin, which are not directly measurable in flight. The compact models also compute sensitivities of the propulsion system parameters to change in control variables. The engine model consists of a linear steady state variable model (SSVM) and a nonlinear model. The SSVM is updated with efficiency factors calculated in the engine model update logic, or Kalman filter. The efficiency factors are used to adjust the SSVM to match the actual engine. The propulsion system models are mathematically integrated to form an overall propulsion system model. The propulsion system model is then optimized using a linear programming optimization scheme. The goal of the optimization is determined from the selected PSC mode of operation. The resulting trims are used to compute a new operating point about which the optimization process is repeated. This process is continued until an overall (global) optimum is reached before applying the trims to the controllers.
Logical Framework of Forensic Identification: Ability to Resist Fabricated DNA.
Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Hu, Zhen; Zhu, Ruxin; Lu, Daru; Li, Chengtao
2015-12-01
Over the past 30 years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science and has become the most useful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Today, DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat markers is widely employed and accepted in the courts due to its high discriminating power and reliability. However, an artificial bloodstain purposefully created using molecular biology techniques succeeded in tricking a leading forensic DNA laboratory. The disturbing possibility that a forensic DNA profile can be faked shocked the general public and the mass media, and generated serious discussion about the credibility of DNA evidence. Herein, we present two exemplary assays based on tissue-specific methylation patterns and cell-specific mRNA expression, respectively. These two assays can be integrated into the DNA analysis pipelines without consumption of additional samples. We show that the two assays can not only distinguish between artificial and genuine samples, but also provide information on tissue origin. The two assays were tested on natural and artificial bloodstains (generated by polymerase chain reaction and whole genome amplification technique) and the results illustrated that the logical framework of forensic identification is still useful for forensic identification with the high credibility.
Morsanyi, Kinga; Handley, Simon J
2012-05-01
When people evaluate syllogisms, their judgments of validity are often biased by the believability of the conclusions of the problems. Thus, it has been suggested that syllogistic reasoning performance is based on an interplay between a conscious and effortful evaluation of logicality and an intuitive appreciation of the believability of the conclusions (e.g., Evans, Newstead, Allen, & Pollard, 1994). However, logic effects in syllogistic reasoning emerge even when participants are unlikely to carry out a full logical analysis of the problems (e.g., Shynkaruk & Thompson, 2006). There is also evidence that people can implicitly detect the conflict between their beliefs and the validity of the problems, even if they are unable to consciously produce a logical response (e.g., De Neys, Moyens, & Vansteenwegen, 2010). In 4 experiments we demonstrate that people intuitively detect the logicality of syllogisms, and this effect emerges independently of participants' conscious mindset and their cognitive capacity. This logic effect is also unrelated to the superficial structure of the problems. Additionally, we provide evidence that the logicality of the syllogisms is detected through slight changes in participants' affective states. In fact, subliminal affective priming had an effect on participants' subjective evaluations of the problems. Finally, when participants misattributed their emotional reactions to background music, this significantly reduced the logic effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Bezrukov, S. M.; Khatri, S. P.; Gingl, Z.; Sethuraman, S.
When noise dominates an information system, like in nano-electronic systems of the foreseeable future, a natural question occurs: Can we perhaps utilize the noise as information carrier? Another question is: Can a deterministic logic scheme be constructed that may explain how the brain efficiently processes information, with random neural spike trains of less than 100 Hz frequency, and with a similar number of human brain neurons as the number of transistors in a 16 GB Flash dive? The answers to these questions are yes. Related developments indicate reduced power consumption with noise-based deterministic Boolean logic gates and the more powerful multivalued logic versions with an arbitrary number of logic values. Similar schemes as the Hilbert space of quantum informatics can also be constructed with noise-based logic by utilizing the noise-bits and their multidimensional hyperspace without the limitations of quantum-collapse of wavefunctions. A noise-based string search algorithm faster than Grover's quantum search algorithm can be obtained, with the same hardware complexity class as the quantum engine. This logic hyperspace scheme has also been utilized to construct the noise-based neuro-bits and a deterministic multivalued logic scheme for the brain. Some of the corresponding circuitry of neurons is shown. Some questions and answers about a chip realization of such a random spike based deterministic multivalued logic scheme are presented.
The Fuzzy Logic of MicroRNA Regulation: A Key to Control Cell Complexity.
Ripoli, Andrea; Rainaldi, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Milena; Mercatanti, Alberto; Pitto, Letizia
2010-08-01
Genomic and clinical evidence suggest a major role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression, with a clear impact on development and physiology; miRNAs are a class of endogenous 22-25 nt single-stranded RNA molecules, that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, by imperfect base pairing with the 3' UTR of the corresponding mRNA target. Because of this imperfection, each miRNA can bind multiple targets, and multiple miRNAs can bind the same mRNA target; although digital, the miRNAs control mechanism is characterized by an imprecise action, naturally understandable in the theoretical framework of fuzzy logic.A major practical application of fuzzy logic is represented by the design and the realization of efficient and robust control systems, even when the processes to be controlled show chaotic, deterministic as well unpredictable, behaviours. The vagueness of miRNA action, when considered together with the controlled and chaotic gene expression, is a hint of a cellular fuzzy control system. As a demonstration of the possibility and the effectiveness of miRNA based fuzzy mechanism, a fuzzy cognitive map -a mathematical formalism combining neural network and fuzzy logic- has been developed to study the apoptosis/proliferation control performed by the miRNA-17-92 cluster/E2F1/cMYC circuitry.When experimentally demonstrated, the concept of fuzzy control could modify the way we analyse and model gene expression, with a possible impact on the way we imagine and design therapeutic intervention based on miRNA silencing.
Inference of Disease-Related Molecular Logic from Systems-Based Microarray Analysis
Varadan, Vinay; Anastassiou, Dimitris
2006-01-01
Computational analysis of gene expression data from microarrays has been useful for medical diagnosis and prognosis. The ability to analyze such data at the level of biological modules, rather than individual genes, has been recognized as important for improving our understanding of disease-related pathways. It has proved difficult, however, to infer pathways from microarray data by deriving modules of multiple synergistically interrelated genes, rather than individual genes. Here we propose a systems-based approach called Entropy Minimization and Boolean Parsimony (EMBP) that identifies, directly from gene expression data, modules of genes that are jointly associated with disease. Furthermore, the technique provides insight into the underlying biomolecular logic by inferring a logic function connecting the joint expression levels in a gene module with the outcome of disease. Coupled with biological knowledge, this information can be useful for identifying disease-related pathways, suggesting potential therapeutic approaches for interfering with the functions of such pathways. We present an example providing such gene modules associated with prostate cancer from publicly available gene expression data, and we successfully validate the results on additional independently derived data. Our results indicate a link between prostate cancer and cellular damage from oxidative stress combined with inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms normally triggered by such damage. PMID:16789819
ABEL description and implementation of cyber net system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jiyuan; Jing, Liang
2013-03-01
Cyber net system is a subclass of Petri Nets. It has more powerful description capability and more complex properties compared with P/T system. Due to its nonlinear relation, it can't use analysis techniques of other net systems directly. This influences the research on cyber net system. In this paper, the author uses hardware description language to describe cyber net system. Simulation analysis is carried out through EDA software tools to disclose properties of the system. This method is introduced in detail through cyber net system model of computing Fibonacci series. ABEL source codes and simulation wave are also presented. The source codes are compiled, optimized, fit design and downloaded to the Programmable Logic Device. Thus ASIC of computing Fibonacci series is obtained. It will break a new path for the analysis and application study of cyber net system.
Surface-confined assemblies and polymers for molecular logic.
de Ruiter, Graham; van der Boom, Milko E
2011-08-16
Stimuli responsive materials are capable of mimicking the operation characteristics of logic gates such as AND, OR, NOR, and even flip-flops. Since the development of molecular sensors and the introduction of the first AND gate in solution by de Silva in 1993, Molecular (Boolean) Logic and Computing (MBLC) has become increasingly popular. In this Account, we present recent research activities that focus on MBLC with electrochromic polymers and metal polypyridyl complexes on a solid support. Metal polypyridyl complexes act as useful sensors to a variety of analytes in solution (i.e., H(2)O, Fe(2+/3+), Cr(6+), NO(+)) and in the gas phase (NO(x) in air). This information transfer, whether the analyte is present, is based on the reversible redox chemistry of the metal complexes, which are stable up to 200 °C in air. The concurrent changes in the optical properties are nondestructive and fast. In such a setup, the input is directly related to the output and, therefore, can be represented by one-input logic gates. These input-output relationships are extendable for mimicking the diverse functions of essential molecular logic gates and circuits within a set of Boolean algebraic operations. Such a molecular approach towards Boolean logic has yielded a series of proof-of-concept devices: logic gates, multiplexers, half-adders, and flip-flop logic circuits. MBLC is a versatile and, potentially, a parallel approach to silicon circuits: assemblies of these molecular gates can perform a wide variety of logic tasks through reconfiguration of their inputs. Although these developments do not require a semiconductor blueprint, similar guidelines such as signal propagation, gate-to-gate communication, propagation delay, and combinatorial and sequential logic will play a critical role in allowing this field to mature. For instance, gate-to-gate communication by chemical wiring of the gates with metal ions as electron carriers results in the integration of stand-alone systems: the
The TSO Logic and G2 Software Product
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Derrick D.
2014-01-01
This internship assignment for spring 2014 was at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in NASAs Engineering and Technology (NE) group in support of the Control and Data Systems Division (NE-C) within the Systems Hardware Engineering Branch. (NEC-4) The primary focus was in system integration and benchmarking utilizing two separate computer software products. The first half of this 2014 internship is spent in assisting NE-C4s Electronics and Embedded Systems Engineer, Kelvin Ruiz and fellow intern Scott Ditto with the evaluation of a newly piece of software, called G2. Its developed by the Gensym Corporation and introduced to the group as a tool used in monitoring launch environments. All fellow interns and employees of the G2 group have been working together in order to better understand the significance of the G2 application and how KSC can benefit from its capabilities. The second stage of this Spring project is to assist with an ongoing integration of a benchmarking tool, developed by a group of engineers from a Canadian based organization known as TSO Logic. Guided by NE-C4s Computer Engineer, Allen Villorin, NASA 2014 interns put forth great effort in helping to integrate TSOs software into the Spaceport Processing Systems Development Laboratory (SPSDL) for further testing and evaluating. The TSO Logic group claims that their software is designed for, monitoring and reducing energy consumption at in-house server farms and large data centers, allows data centers to control the power state of servers, without impacting availability or performance and without changes to infrastructure and the focus of the assignment is to test this theory. TSOs Aaron Rallo Founder and CEO, and Chris Tivel CTO, both came to KSC to assist with the installation of their software in the SPSDL laboratory. TSOs software is installed onto 24 individual workstations running three different operating systems. The workstations were divided into three groups of 8 with each group having its
Application of fuzzy logic in nuclear reactor control Part I: An assessment of state-of-the-art
Herger, A.S.; Jamshidl, M.; Alang-Rashid, N.K.
1995-10-01
This article discusses the application of fuzzy logic to nuclear reactor control. The method has been suggested by many investigators in many control applications. Reviews of the application of fuzzy logic in process control are given by Tong and Sugeno. Because fuzzy logic control (FLC) provides a pathway for transforming human abstractions into the numerical domain, it has the potential to assist nuclear reactor operators in the control room. With this transformation, linguistically expressed control principles can be coded into the fuzzy controller rule base. Having acquired the skill of the operators, the FLC can assist an operator in controlling the complex system. The thrust of FLC is to derive a conceptual model of the control operation, without expressing the process as mathematical equations, to assist the human operator in interpreting incoming plant variables and arriving at a proper control action. To introduce the concept of FLC in nuclear reactor operation, an overview of the mythology and a review of its application in both nuclear and nonnuclear control application domains are presented along with subsequent discussion of fuzzy logic controllers, their structures, and their method of information processing. The article concludes with the application of a tunable FLC to a typical reactor control problem.
Application of fuzzy logic in nuclear reactor control: Part 1: An assessment of state-of-the-art
Heger, A.S.; Alang-Rashid, N.K.; Jamshidi, M.
1995-01-01
This article discusses the application of fuzzy logic of nuclear reactor control. The method has been suggested by many investigators in many control applications. Reviews of the application of fuzzy logic in process control are given by Tong and Sugeno. Because fuzzy logic control (FLC) provides a pathway for transforming human abstractions into the numerical domain, it has the potential to assist nuclear reactor operators in the control room. With this transformation, linguistically expressed control principles can be coded into the fuzzy controller rule base. Having acquired the skill of he operators, the FLC can assist an operator in controlling the complex system. The thrust of FLC is to derive a conceptual model of the control operation, without expressing the process as mathematical equations, to assist the human operator in interpreting incoming plant variables and arriving at a proper control action. To introduce the concept of FLC in nuclear reactor operation, an overview of the mythology and a review of its application in both nuclear and nonnuclear control application domains are presented along with subsequent discussion of fuzzy logic controllers, their structures, and their method of information processing. The article concludes with the application of a tunable FLC to a typical reactor control problem. 49 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.
Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction
Tang, Yu; Wu, Kung C.
1996-12-31
A zeroth level introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single- degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.
Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction
Tang, Y.
1995-07-01
An introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single-degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.
Operating principle and integration of in-plane gate logic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komatsuzaki, Y.; Saba, K.; Onomitsu, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Horikoshi, Y.
2011-12-01
Logic devices based on in-plane gate (IPG) transistors are realized and their electrical characteristics and integration are investigated. We present logic devices based on lateral gate structures using an additional IPG transistor as a load resistance. These logic devices show clear input-output characteristics and voltage transfer curves as a logic device and the Hi/Low ratio is high enough for reliable logic operations. Furthermore, the IPG logic devices operate at low current levels. Monolithic NOT-gate is demonstrated and the number of terminals and wiring are considerably reduced by using our IPG logic devices compared to logic devices based on CMOS transistors.
The Case for Descriptive Writing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hauck, Marian K.
An approach to teaching descriptive writing and its values are discussed. Benefits derived from a descriptive writing unit are said to be the following: (1) Descriptive writing is fun; (2) It enables the instructor to demonstrate that the first word that pops into the writer's mind is often not the best one; (3) There is no easier way in which to…
Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Svensson, Lennart
This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodgers, T. E.; Johnson, J. F.
1977-01-01
The logic and methodology for a preliminary grouping of Spacelab and mixed-cargo payloads is proposed in a form that can be readily coded into a computer program by NASA. The logic developed for this preliminary cargo grouping analysis is summarized. Principal input data include the NASA Payload Model, payload descriptive data, Orbiter and Spacelab capabilities, and NASA guidelines and constraints. The first step in the process is a launch interval selection in which the time interval for payload grouping is identified. Logic flow steps are then taken to group payloads and define flight configurations based on criteria that includes dedication, volume, area, orbital parameters, pointing, g-level, mass, center of gravity, energy, power, and crew time.
Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene
2002-01-01
The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.
Astronomical pipeline processing using fuzzy logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamir, Lior
In the past few years, pipelines providing astronomical data have been becoming increasingly important. The wide use of robotic telescopes has provided significant discoveries, and sky survey projects such as SDSS and the future LSST are now considered among the premier projects in the field astronomy. The huge amount of data produced by these pipelines raises the need for automatic processing. Astronomical pipelines introduce several well-defined problems such as astronomical image compression, cosmic-ray hit rejection, transient detection, meteor triangulation and association of point sources with their corresponding known stellar objects. We developed and applied soft computing algorithms that provide new or improved solutions to these growing problems in the field of pipeline processing of astronomical data. One new approach that we use is fuzzy logic-based algorithms, which enables the automatic analysis of the astronomical pipelines and allows mining the data for not-yet-known astronomical discoveries such as optical transients and variable stars. The developed algorithms have been tested with excellent results on the NightSkyLive sky survey, which provides a pipeline of 150 astronomical pictures per hour, and covers almost the entire global night sky.
Hybrid Programmable Logic Controller for Load Automation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahzad, Aamir; Farooq, Hashim; Abbar, Sofia; Yousaf, Mushtaq; Hafeez, Kamran; Hanif, M.
The purpose of this study is to design a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to command 8-relays to control and automate ac loads via PC parallel port. In this project, the PLC is connected to the Personal Computer called hybrid PLC and this PC controls all the field ac loads via parallel printer port. Eight signals of different sequences are sent on parallel port via computer keyboard, which activate the microcontroller as inputs. Microcontroller responds according to these inputs and its user programming, which then commands 8-relays to control (on/off) different electronic appliances. Microcontroller memory makes easier to store its programming permanently. This hybrid PLC is applicable for controlling and monitoring industrial processes particularly of small to medium scale manufacturing processes and may be used for home automation as well. Parallel port is accessed by a program written in C++ language and microcontroller is programmed in assembly language. Ac load of any kind, whether resistive or inductive can be controlled with the help of this project.
Multifunction minimization for programmable logic arrays
Campbell, J.A.
1984-01-01
The problem of minimizing two-level AND/OR Boolean algebraic functions of n inputs and m outputs for implementation on programmable logic arrays (PLA) is examined. The theory of multiple-output functions as well as the historically alternative approaches to reckoning the cost of an equation implementation are reviewed. The PLA is shown to be a realization of the least product gate equation cost criterion. The multi-function minimization is dealt with in the context of a directed tree search algorithm developed in previous research. The PLA oriented minimization is shown to alter the nature of each of the basic tenets of multiple-output minimization used in earlier work. The concept of a non-prime but selectable implicant is introduced. A new cost criterion, the quantum cost, is discussed, and an approximation algorithm utilizing this criterion is developed. A timing analysis of a cyclic resolution algorithm for PLA based functions is presented. Lastly, the question of efficiency in automated minimization algorithms is examined. The application of the PLA cost criterion is shown to exhibit intrinsic increases in computational efficiency. A minterm classification algorithm is suggested and a PLA minimization algorithm is implemented in the FORTRAN language.
The Wave Logic of Consciousness: A Hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlov, Yuri F.
1982-01-01
A physical model is proposed for volitional decision making. It is postulated that consciousness reduces doubt states of the brain into labels by a quantum-mechanical measurement act of free choice. Elementary doubt states illustrate analogical encodement of information having “insufficient resolution” from a classical viewpoint. Measures of certitude (inner conviction) and doubt are formulated. “Adequate propositions” for nonclassical statements, e.g., Hamlet's soliloquy, are constructed. A role is proposed for the superposition principle in imagination and creativity. Experimental predictions are offered for positive and negative interference of doubts. Necessary criteria are made explicit for doubting sense information. Wholeness of perception is illustrated using irreducible, unitary representations of n-valued logics. The interpreted formalism includes nonclassical features of doubt, e.g., scalor representations for imprecise propositions and state changes due to self-reflection. The “liar paradox” is resolved. An internal origin is suggested for spinor dichotomies, e.g., “true-false” and “good-bad,” analogous to particle production.
Slime mould processors, logic gates and sensors.
Adamatzky, A
2015-07-28
A heterotic, or hybrid, computation implies that two or more substrates of different physical nature are merged into a single device with indistinguishable parts. These hybrid devices then undertake coherent acts on programmable and sensible processing of information. We study the potential of heterotic computers using slime mould acting under the guidance of chemical, mechanical and optical stimuli. Plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a gigantic single cell visible to the unaided eye. The cell shows a rich spectrum of behavioural morphological patterns in response to changing environmental conditions. Given data represented by chemical or physical stimuli, we can employ and modify the behaviour of the slime mould to make it solve a range of computing and sensing tasks. We overview results of laboratory experimental studies on prototyping of the slime mould morphological processors for approximation of Voronoi diagrams, planar shapes and solving mazes, and discuss logic gates implemented via collision of active growing zones and tactile responses of P. polycephalum. We also overview a range of electronic components--memristor, chemical, tactile and colour sensors-made of the slime mould.
Fuzzy Logic Connectivity in Semiconductor Defect Clustering
Gleason, S.S.; Kamowski, T.P.; Tobin, K.W.
1999-01-24
In joining defects on semiconductor wafer maps into clusters, it is common for defects caused by different sources to overlap. Simple morphological image processing tends to either join too many unrelated defects together or not enough together. Expert semiconductor fabrication engineers have demonstrated that they can easily group clusters of defects from a common manufacturing problem source into a single signature. Capturing this thought process is ideally suited for fuzzy logic. A system of rules was developed to join disconnected clusters based on properties such as elongation, orientation, and distance. The clusters are evaluated on a pair-wise basis using the fuzzy rules and are joined or not joined based on a defuzzification and threshold. The system continuously re-evaluates the clusters under consideration as their fuzzy memberships change with each joining action. The fuzzy membership functions for each pair-wise feature, the techniques used to measure the features, and methods for improving the speed of the system are all developed. Examples of the process are shown using real-world semiconductor wafer maps obtained from chip manufacturers. The algorithm is utilized in the Spatial Signature Analyzer (SSA) software, a joint development project between Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) and SEMATECH.
Towards woven logic from organic electronic fibres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamedi, Mahiar; Forchheimer, Robert; Inganäs, Olle
2007-05-01
The use of organic polymers for electronic functions is mainly motivated by the low-end applications, where low cost rather than advanced performance is a driving force. Materials and processing methods must allow for cheap production. Printing of electronics using inkjets or classical printing methods has considerable potential to deliver this. Another technology that has been around for millennia is weaving using fibres. Integration of electronic functions within fabrics, with production methods fully compatible with textiles, is therefore of current interest, to enhance performance and extend functions of textiles. Standard polymer field-effect transistors require well defined insulator thickness and high voltage, so they have limited suitability for electronic textiles. Here we report a novel approach through the construction of wire electrochemical transistor (WECT) devices, and show that textile monofilaments with 10-100μm diameters can be coated with continuous thin films of the conducting polythiophene poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and used to create micro-scale WECTs on single fibres. We also demonstrate inverters and multiplexers for digital logic. This opens an avenue for three-dimensional polymer micro-electronics, where large-scale circuits can be designed and integrated directly into the three-dimensional structure of woven fibres.
Improvements to the adaptive maneuvering logic program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burgin, George H.
1986-01-01
The Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) computer program simulates close-in, one-on-one air-to-air combat between two fighter aircraft. Three important improvements are described. First, the previously available versions of AML were examined for their suitability as a baseline program. The selected program was then revised to eliminate some programming bugs which were uncovered over the years. A listing of this baseline program is included. Second, the equations governing the motion of the aircraft were completely revised. This resulted in a model with substantially higher fidelity than the original equations of motion provided. It also completely eliminated the over-the-top problem, which occurred in the older versions when the AML-driven aircraft attempted a vertical or near vertical loop. Third, the requirements for a versatile generic, yet realistic, aircraft model were studied and implemented in the program. The report contains detailed tables which make the generic aircraft to be either a modern, high performance aircraft, an older high performance aircraft, or a previous generation jet fighter.
Bio-logic builder: a non-technical tool for building dynamical, qualitative models.
Helikar, Tomáš; Kowal, Bryan; Madrahimov, Alex; Shrestha, Manish; Pedersen, Jay; Limbu, Kahani; Thapa, Ishwor; Rowley, Thaine; Satalkar, Rahul; Kochi, Naomi; Konvalina, John; Rogers, Jim A
2012-01-01
Computational modeling of biological processes is a promising tool in biomedical research. While a large part of its potential lies in the ability to integrate it with laboratory research, modeling currently generally requires a high degree of training in mathematics and/or computer science. To help address this issue, we have developed a web-based tool, Bio-Logic Builder, that enables laboratory scientists to define mathematical representations (based on a discrete formalism) of biological regulatory mechanisms in a modular and non-technical fashion. As part of the user interface, generalized "bio-logic" modules have been defined to provide users with the building blocks for many biological processes. To build/modify computational models, experimentalists provide purely qualitative information about a particular regulatory mechanisms as is generally found in the laboratory. The Bio-Logic Builder subsequently converts the provided information into a mathematical representation described with Boolean expressions/rules. We used this tool to build a number of dynamical models, including a 130-protein large-scale model of signal transduction with over 800 interactions, influenza A replication cycle with 127 species and 200+ interactions, and mammalian and budding yeast cell cycles. We also show that any and all qualitative regulatory mechanisms can be built using this tool.
Autonomous Boolean models for logic, timing, and stability in regulatory networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Socolar, Joshua E. S.
2011-03-01
The dynamics of gene expression in a cell is controlled by a dizzying array of biochemical processes. Natural selection, however, has created regulatory systems with a level of logical organization that can be modeled without detailed knowledge of the biochemistry. In cases where graded responses are not relevant, autonomous Boolean network (ABN) models can effectively represent the logic of gene regulation. These are models in which Boolean logic governs the output value of each node and the timing of updates is determined according to delay parameters associated with each link. An advantage of ABNs over synchronous or random asynchronous Boolean networks is that noise associated with molecular concentrations or transport times can be represented through fluctuations in the timing of updates. We have used ABN models to investigate the stability of oscillations in a model of transcriptional oscillations in yeast and the parameter constraints in a model of segment polarity maintenance in the fly embryo, and also to characterize chaotic dynamics observed in a free--running digital electronic circuit. The yeast study highlights architectural and dynamical features of oscillators that rely on pulse transmission rather than a frustrated feedback loop; the fly study reveals timing constraints that are hidden in ODE models; and the electronics study shows that Boolean chaos can occur if and only if time delays are history dependent. Joint work with V. Sevim, X. Gong, X. Cheng, M. Sun, D. Gauthier, H. Cavalcante, and R. Zhang. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-0417372 and NIH Grant P50-GM081883.
Obstacle detection for mobile vehicle using neural network and fuzzy logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Huaijiang; Yang, Jingyu
2001-09-01
In our mobile vehicle project, sensors for environment modeling are a CCD color camera and two line-scan laser range finders. The CCD color camera is used to detect road edges. The two line-scan laser range finders are used to detect obstacles. Only two line-scan laser range finders increase processing speed, but there are blind zones for low obstacles, especially near the vehicle. In this paper, neural network and fuzzy logic are used to cluster and fuse obstacle points provided by two line-scan laser range finders. There is an assumption that obstacles missed by laser radar in some instant must be detected previously. A circle Adaptive Resonance neural network algorithm is used to incrementally cluster obstacle points provided by laser range finders into candidate obstacles. Every candidate obstacle is expressed by a circle, and is assigned a belief by a fuzzy logic system. Inputs of the fuzzy logic system are radius and number of points. Fuzzy rules are provided by human and can be fine-tuned with training data. The final true obstacle is the nearest one chosen from candidate obstacles whose beliefs exceed a threshold. Experiment results indicate that our mobile vehicle can safely follow road and avoid obstacles.