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Sample records for extended criteria livers

  1. Extended Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vodkin, Irine; Kuo, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Mortality rates on the liver transplant waiting list are increasing. The shortage of organs has resulted in higher utilization of extended criteria donors (ECDs), with centers pushing the limits of what is acceptable for transplantation. Donor quality is more appropriately represented as a continuum of risk, and careful selection and matching of ECD grafts with recipients may lead to excellent outcomes. Although there is no precise definition for what constitutes an ECD liver, this review focuses on frequently cited characteristics, including donor age, steatosis, donation after cardiac death, and donors with increased risk of disease transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hot topics in liver transplantation: organ allocation--extended criteria donor--living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Müllhaupt, Beat; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gerlach, J Tilman; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation has become the mainstay for the treatment of end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular cancer and some metabolic disorders. Its main drawback, though, is the disparity between the number of donors and the patients needing a liver graft. In this review we will discuss the recent changes regarding organ allocation, extended donor criteria, living donor liver transplantation and potential room for improvement. The gap between the number of donors and patients needing a liver graft forced the transplant community to introduce an objective model such as the modified model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) in order to obtain a transparent and fair organ allocation system. The use of extended criteria donor livers such as organs from older donors or steatotic grafts is one possibility to reduce the gap between patients on the waiting list and available donors. Finally, living donor liver transplantation has become a standard procedure in specialized centers as another possibility to reduce the donor shortage. Recent data clearly indicate that center experience is of major importance in achieving good results. Great progress has been made in recent years. However, further research is needed to improve results in the future.

  3. Utility of pre-procurement bedside liver biopsy in the deceased extended-criteria liver donor.

    PubMed

    Mangus, Richard S; Borup, Tim C; Popa, Sam; Saxena, Romil; Cummings, Oscar; Tector, A Joseph

    2014-12-01

    The Indiana Organ Procurement Organization (IOPO) utilizes preoperative bedside liver biopsies in certain extended-criteria donors (ECDs), obtained by the on-site coordinator, to determine the utility of pursuing donation. This study reports the clinical and financial outcomes for this management strategy. All bedside liver biopsies obtained in ECDs over a five-yr period were reviewed. Study variables included the following: indication for biopsy, biopsy results, taking the case to the operating room, transplantation of the donor liver, and graft survival. All biopsies were processed at a single university center. There were 110 donors biopsied. Primary indications included the following: old age (29%), extensive/current alcohol abuse (26%), hepatitis C-positive serology (21%), obesity (25%), and severely elevated liver function enzymes (18%). Biopsy results demonstrated a potentially transplantable liver in 73 cases (66%), all of whom were taken to the OR (while 37 ruled out for donation based upon liver biopsy [34%]). Of all biopsied livers, 49 ultimately were transplanted (45%). Intra-operative decisions included the following: transplant 51/73 (70%), surgeon decision to exclude 20/73 (27%), nonuse due to finding of malignancy two (3%). Bedside liver biopsy may be a valuable tool to determine the utility in pursuing donation in ECDs, particularly with liver-only donors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Extended-criteria donors in liver transplantation Part II: reviewing the impact of extended-criteria donors on the complications and outcomes of liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Balázs; Gámán, György; Polak, Wojciech G; Gelley, Fanni; Hara, Takanobu; Ono, Shinichiro; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Piros, Laszlo; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    Extended-criteria donors (ECDs) have an impact on early allograft dysfunction (EAD), biliary complications, relapse of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and survivals. Early allograft dysfunction was frequently seen in grafts with moderate and severe steatosis. Donors after cardiac death (DCD) have been associated with higher rates of graft failure and biliary complications compared to donors after brain death. Extended warm ischemia, reperfusion injury and endothelial activation trigger a cascade, leading to microvascular thrombosis, resulting in biliary necrosis, cholangitis, and graft failure. The risk of HCV recurrence increased by donor age, and associated with using moderately and severely steatotic grafts. With the administration of protease inhibitors sustained virological response was achieved in majority of the patients. Donor risk index and EC donor scores (DS) are reported to be useful, to assess the outcome. The 1-year survival rates were 87% and 40% respectively, for donors with a DS of 0 and 3. Graft survival was excellent up to a DS of 2, however a DS >2 should be avoided in higher-risk recipients. The 1, 3 and 5-year survival of DCD recipients was comparable to optimal donors. However ECDs had minor survival means of 85%, 78.6%, and 72.3%. The graft survival of split liver transplantation (SLT) was comparable to that of whole liver orthotopic liver transplantation. SLT was not regarded as an ECD factor in the MELD era any more. Full-right-full-left split liver transplantation has a significant advantage to extend the high quality donor pool. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion can be applied clinically in DCD liver grafts. Feasibility and safety were confirmed. Reperfusion injury was also rare in machine perfused DCD livers.

  5. Extended criteria donors in liver transplantation: adapting donor quality and recipient.

    PubMed

    Gastaca, M

    2009-04-01

    Despite the progressive increase in the number of liver transplantations, the mortality on the waiting list remains between 5% and 10%, and patients have to deal with longer waiting periods. Facing this situation, transplant centers have developed alternatives to increase the number of grafts by accepting donors who were previously considered to be inadequate, because they are at higher risk of initial poor function and graft failure or may cause disease transmission. Currently, some marginal donors are being routinely used: elderly donors, steatotic grafts, non-heart-beating donors, hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+) or hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors. These so-called marginal or extended-criteria donors were initially used in high-risk or urgent recipients; however, the number of marginal grafts has significantly increased, forcing the transplant community toward their more rationale use to maintain excellent results of liver transplantation. In this new scenario, the adequacy between donor and recipient may be paramount. Advanced donor age seems to be related to a greater graft failure rate in HCV+ recipients. Early survival seems to be significantly reduced when steatotic grafts are used in recipients with high Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores. Moreover, a decreased survival has been observed among high-risk patients receiving organs from marginal donors. No benefit seems to exist when high-donor risk index grafts are transplanted into recipients with low MELD Scores. The recognition of various donor groups according to their quality and the need for good donor and recipient selection must lead us to define new policies for organ allocation of marginal grafts that may come into conflict with current policies of organ allocation according to the risk of death among patients awaiting a liver transplantation.

  6. Extended criteria donors in liver transplantation Part I: reviewing the impact of determining factors.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Balázs; Gámán, György; Polak, Wojciech G; Gelley, Fanni; Hara, Takanobu; Ono, Shinichiro; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Piros, Laszlo; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    The definition and factors of extended criteria donors have already been set; however, details of the various opinions still differ in many respects. In this review, we summarize the impact of these factors and their clinical relevance. Elderly livers must not be allocated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) positives, or patients with acute liver failure. In cases of markedly increased serum transaminases, donor hemodynamics is an essential consideration. A prolonged hypotension of the donor does not always lead to an increase in post-transplantation graft loss if post-OLT care is proper. Hypernatremia of less than 160 mEq/L is not an absolute contraindication to accept a liver graft per se. The presence of steatosis is an independent and determinant risk factor for the outcome. The gold standard of the diagnosis is the biopsy. This is recommended in all doubtful cases. The use of HCV+ grafts for HCV+ recipients is comparable in outcome. The leading risk factor for HCV recurrence is the actual RNA positivity of the donor. The presence of a proper anti-HBs level seems to protect from de novo HBV infection. A favourable outcome can be expected if a donation after cardiac death liver is transplanted in a favourable condition, meaning, a warm ischemia time < 30 minutes, cold ischemia time < 8-10 hours, and donor age 50-60 years. The pathway of organ quality assessment is to obtain the most relevant information (e.g. biopsy), consider the co-existing donor risk factors and the reserve capacity of the recipient, and avoid further technical issues.

  7. Experience using extended criteria donors in first 100 cases of deceased donor liver transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, H; Taniguchi, M; Fujiyoshi, M; Oota, M

    2012-03-01

    Because of the serious organ shortage in Japan, the use of extended criteria (EC) donors is inevitable to increase the number of deceased donors. However, the influence of this practice on recipient outcomes has not been clarified yet. We analyzed donor and recipient factors to determine whether those factors, especially from EC donors impacted early recipient outcomes. From February 1999 to January 2011, 100 deceased liver transplantations were performed in Japan, including 85 consecutive adult cases (age≥18 years) who were studied to evaluate whether 6 recipient and 16 donor factors affected 3-month (90-day) recipient survival. Upon univariate analysis, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score≥25 (P=.018), donor age≥55 years (P=.040), and cold ischemia time (CIT)≥10 hours (P=.00013) significantly reduced 3-month survival. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent contributions of, three adverse factors including MELD score≥25 (P=.0133, odds ratio [OR]=12.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.7-90.3), donor age≥55 years (P=.013, OR=14.0, 95% CI=1.6-119.5), and CIT≥10 hours (P=.0024, OR=67.6, 95% CI=4.5-1024.9). Three-month recipient survivals with 0, 1, 2, and 3 positive factors were 100% (n=34), 94.4% (n=36), 53.8% (n=13), and 0% (n=2), respectively (P<.0001). In conclusion, to improve recipient short-term survivals, minimizing CIT is the first priority. In the long-term, we must promote deceased donation to reduce recipient MELD scores by shortening the waiting time, and revise the allocation system to minimize CIT by giving priority to the local area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The postoperative Model for End stage Liver Disease score as a predictor of short-term outcome after transplantation of extended criteria donor livers.

    PubMed

    Benko, Tamas; Gallinat, Anja; Minor, Thomas; Saner, Fuat H; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Paul, Andreas; Hoyer, Dieter P

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the postoperative Model for End stage Liver Disease score (POPMELD) was suggested as a definition of postoperative graft dysfunction and a predictor of outcome after liver transplantation (LT). The aim of the present study was to validate this concept in the context of extended criteria donor (ECD) organs. Single-center prospectively collected data (OPAL study/01/11-12/13) of 116 ECD LTs were utilized. For each recipient, the Model for End stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was calculated for 7 postoperative days (PODs). The ability of international normalized ratio, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, Donor Risk Index, a recent definition of early allograft dysfunction, and the POPMELD was compared to predict 90-day graft loss. Predictive abilities were compared by receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivity and specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. The median Donor Risk Index was 1.8. In all, 60.3% of recipients were men [median age of 54 (23-68) years]. The median POD1-7 peak-aspartate aminotransferase value was 1052 (194-17 577) U/l. The rate of early allograft dysfunction was 22.4%. The 90-day graft survival was 89.7%. Out of possible predictors of the 90-day graft loss MELD on POD5 was the best predictor of outcome (area under the curve=0.84). A MELD score of 16 or more on POD5 predicted the 90-day graft loss with a specificity of 80.8%, a sensitivity of 81.8%, and a positive and negative predictive value of 31 and 97.7%. A MELD score of 16 or more on POD5 is an excellent predictor of outcome in ECD donor LT. Routine evaluation of POPMELD scores might support clinical decision-making and should be reported routinely in clinical trials.

  9. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (HOPE) for orthotopic liver transplantation of human liver allografts from extended criteria donors (ECD) in donation after brain death (DBD): a prospective multicentre randomised controlled trial (HOPE ECD-DBD).

    PubMed

    Czigany, Zoltan; Schöning, Wenzel; Ulmer, Tom Florian; Bednarsch, Jan; Amygdalos, Iakovos; Cramer, Thorsten; Rogiers, Xavier; Popescu, Irinel; Botea, Florin; Froněk, Jiří; Kroy, Daniela; Koch, Alexander; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Tolba, Rene H; Hein, Marc; Koek, Ger H; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Neumann, Ulf Peter; Lurje, Georg

    2017-10-10

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has emerged as the mainstay of treatment for end-stage liver disease. In an attempt to improve the availability of donor allografts and reduce waiting list mortality, graft acceptance criteria were extended increasingly over the decades. The use of extended criteria donor (ECD) allografts is associated with a higher incidence of primary graft non-function and/or delayed graft function. As such, several strategies have been developed aiming at reconditioning poor quality ECD liver allografts. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (HOPE) has been successfully tested in preclinical experiments and in few clinical series of donation after cardiac death OLT. HOPE ECD-DBD is an investigator-initiated, open-label, phase-II, prospective multicentre randomised controlled trial on the effects of HOPE on ECD allografts in donation after brain death (DBD) OLT. Human whole organ liver grafts will be submitted to 1-2 hours of HOPE (n=23) via the portal vein before implantation and are going to be compared with a control group (n=23) of patients transplanted after conventional cold storage. Primary (peak and Δ peak alanine aminotransferase within 7 days) and secondary (aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin and international normalised ratio, postoperative complications, early allograft dysfunction, duration of hospital and intensive care unit stay, 1-year patient and graft survival) endpoints will be analysed within a 12-month follow-up. Extent of ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury will be assessed using liver tissue, perfusate, bile and serum samples taken during the perioperative phase of OLT. The study was approved by the institutional review board of the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany (EK 049/17). The current paper represent the pre-results phase. First results are expected in 2018. NCT03124641. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  10. Optimal Utilization of Donor Grafts With Extended Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Andrew M.; Ghobrial, R Mark; Yersiz, Hasan; Farmer, Douglas G.; Lipshutz, Gerald S.; Gordon, Sherilyn A.; Zimmerman, Michael; Hong, Johnny; Collins, Thomas E.; Gornbein, Jeffery; Amersi, Farin; Weaver, Michael; Cao, Carlos; Chen, Tony; Hiatt, Jonathan R.; Busuttil, Ronald W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Severely limited organ resources mandate maximum utilization of donor allografts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This work aimed to identify factors that impact survival outcomes for extended criteria donors (ECD) and developed an ECD scoring system to facilitate graft-recipient matching and optimize utilization of ECDs. Methods: Retrospective analysis of over 1000 primary adult OLTs at UCLA. Extended criteria (EC) considered included donor age (>55 years), donor hospital stay (>5 days), cold ischemia time (>10 hours), and warm ischemia time (>40 minutes). One point was assigned for each extended criterion. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 1153 allografts considered in the study, 568 organs exhibited no extended criteria (0 score), while 429, 135 and 21 donor allografts exhibited an EC score of 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Overall 1-year patient survival rates were 88%, 82%, 77% and 48% for recipients with EC scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively (P < 0.001). Adjusting for recipient age and urgency at the time of transplantation, multivariate analysis identified an ascending mortality risk ratio of 1.4 and 1.8 compared to a score of 0 for an EC score of 1, and 2 (P < 0.01) respectively. In contrast, an EC score of 3 was associated with a mortality risk ratio of 4.5 (P < 0.001). Further, advanced recipient age linearly increased the death hazard ratio, while an urgent recipient status increased the risk ratio of death by 50%. Conclusions: Extended criteria donors can be scored using readily available parameters. Optimizing perioperative variables and matching ECD allografts to appropriately selected recipients are crucial to maintain acceptable outcomes and represent a preferable alternative to both high waiting list mortality and to a potentially futile transplant that utilizes an ECD for a critically ill recipient. PMID:16772778

  11. Expanded Criteria for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Liver Transplant.

    PubMed

    Haberal, Mehmet; Akdur, Aydıncan; Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Özçay, Figen; Selçuk, Haldun; Özdemir, Handan

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is the third highest cause of malignancy-related death. Because of its typically late diagnosis, median survival is approximately 6 to 20 months, with 5-year survival of < 12%. Hepatocellular carcinoma typically arises in the background of cirrhosis, with liver transplant regarded as the optimal therapy for selected patients. Initially, orthotopic liver transplant was limited to patients with extensive unresectable tumors, resulting in uniformly dismal outcomes due to high tumor recurrence rates. Here, we evaluated our long-term results with expanded-criteria liver transplant. From December 1988 to January 2017, we performed 552 liver transplants at Baskent University. In candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma, our expanded criteria for liver transplant is applied regardless of tumor size and number, includes those without major vascular invasion and without distant metastasis, and those with negative cytology (if the patient has ascites). Since 1994, of 61 liver transplants for hepatocellular carcinoma, 36 patients received transplants according to our expanded criteria. Of 36 expanded-criteria patients, 11 were children and 25 were adults. Sixteen patients (4 pediatric, 12 adult) were within our expanded criteria both radiologically and pathologically before transplant. The other 20 patients (7 pediatric, 13 adult) were within Milan criteria radiologically before transplant; however, after liver transplant, when pathologic specimens were evaluated, patients were found to be within our center's expanded criteria. During follow-up, 9/36 patients (25%) had hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. In pediatric patients, 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 90%; in adults, 5-year survival was 58.7% and 10-year survival was 49.7%. Overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 71.7% and 62.7%. Liver transplant is safe and effective in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in combination with

  12. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Suspected Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harmeet; Hindman, Nicole M; Al-Refaie, Waddah B; Arif-Tiwari, Hina; Cash, Brooks D; Chernyak, Victoria; Farrell, James; Grajo, Joseph R; Horowitz, Jeanne M; McNamara, Michelle M; Noto, Richard B; Qayyum, Aliya; Lalani, Tasneem; Kamel, Ihab R

    2017-05-01

    Liver metastases are the most common malignant liver tumors. The accurate and early detection and characterization of liver lesions is the key to successful treatment strategies. Increasingly, surgical resection in combination with chemotherapy is effective in significantly improving survival if all metastases are successfully resected. MRI and multiphase CT are the primary imaging modalities in the assessment of liver metastasis, with the relative preference toward multiphase CT or MRI depending upon the clinical setting (ie, surveillance or presurgical planning). The optimization of imaging parameters is a vital factor in the success of either modality. PET/CT, intraoperative ultrasound are used to supplement CT and MRI. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An extended fatty liver index to predict non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kantartzis, K; Rettig, I; Staiger, H; Machann, J; Schick, F; Scheja, L; Gastaldelli, A; Bugianesi, E; Peter, A; Schulze, M B; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2017-06-01

    In clinical practice, there is a strong interest in non-invasive markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our hypothesis was that the fold-change in plasma triglycerides (TG) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (fold-change TG OGTT ) in concert with blood glucose and lipid parameters, and the rs738409 C>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PNPLA3 might improve the power of the widely used fatty liver index (FLI) to predict NAFLD. The liver fat content of 330 subjects was quantified by 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Blood parameters were measured during fasting and after a 2-h OGTT. A subgroup of 213 subjects underwent these measurements before and after 9 months of a lifestyle intervention. The fold-change TG OGTT was closely associated with liver fat content (r=0.51, P<0.0001), but had less power to predict NAFLD (AUROC=0.75) than the FLI (AUROC=0.79). Not only was the fold-change TG OGTT independently associated with liver fat content and NAFLD, but so also were the 2-h blood glucose level and rs738409 C>G SNP in PNPLA3. In fact, a novel index (extended FLI) generated from these and the usual FLI parameters considerably increased its power to predict NAFLD (AUROC=0.79-0.86). The extended FLI also increased the power to predict changes in liver fat content with a lifestyle intervention (n=213; standardized beta coefficient: 0.23-0.29). This study has provided novel data confirming that the OGTT-derived fold-change TG OGTT and 2-h glucose level, together with the rs738409 C>G SNP in PNPLA3, allow calculation of an extended FLI that considerably improves its power to predict NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Autoimmune acute liver failure: proposed clinical and histological criteria.

    PubMed

    Stravitz, R Todd; Lefkowitch, Jay H; Fontana, Robert J; Gershwin, M Eric; Leung, Patrick S C; Sterling, Richard K; Manns, Michael P; Norman, Gary L; Lee, William M

    2011-02-01

    Identifying autoimmune hepatitis as the etiology of acute liver failure (ALF) is potentially important, because administering corticosteroids might avoid the need for liver transplantation. However, clinical and histological criteria of autoimmune ALF (AI-ALF) have not been defined. Liver sections (biopsies and explants) from a 72-patient subset of the ALF Study Group Registry with indeterminate ALF were reviewed by a pathologist blinded to all clinical data and were diagnosed with probable AI-ALF based on four features suggestive of an autoimmune pathogenesis: distinctive patterns of massive hepatic necrosis (present in 42% of sections), presence of lymphoid follicles (32%), a plasma cell-enriched inflammatory infiltrate (63%), and central perivenulitis (65%). Forty-two sections (58%) were considered probable for AI-ALF; this group demonstrated higher serum globulins (3.7 ± 0.2 g/dL versus 3.0 ± 0.2 g/dL; P = 0.037) and a higher prevalence of antinuclear and/or anti-smooth muscle antibodies (73% versus 48%; P = 0.034) compared to those without histology suggestive of probable AI-ALF. Thirty patients concordant for autoantibodies and probable AI-ALF upon histological analysis were more likely to have the classical autoimmune hepatitis phenotype (female predominance [72% versus 48%; P < 0.05], higher globulins [3.9 ± 0.2 g/dL versus 3.0 ± 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.005], and higher incidence of chronic hepatitis in long-term follow-up [67% versus 17%, P = 0.019]) compared to the population without concordant AI-ALF histology and autoantibodies. Patients with indeterminate ALF often have features of autoimmune disease by histological analysis, serological testing, and clinical recurrence during follow-up. In contrast to classical autoimmune hepatitis, histological features of AI-ALF predominate in the centrilobular zone. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma beyond Milan Criteria: Multidisciplinary Approach to Improve Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kornberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the Milan criteria (MC) in 1996 has dramatically improved prognosis after liver transplantation (LT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver transplantation has, thereby, become the standard therapy for patients with “early-stage” HCC on liver cirrhosis. The MC were consequently adopted by United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) and Eurotransplant for prioritization of patients with HCC. Recent advancements in the knowledge about tumor biology, radiographic imaging techniques, locoregional interventional treatments, and immunosuppressive medications have raised a critical discussion, if the MC might be too restrictive and unjustified keeping away many patients from potentially curative LT. Numerous transplant groups have, therefore, increasingly focussed on a stepwise expansion of selection criteria, mainly based on tumor macromorphology, such as size and number of HCC nodules. Against the background of a dramatic shortage of donor organs, however, simple expansion of tumor macromorphology may not be appropriate to create a safe extended criteria system. In contrast, rather the implementation of reliable prognostic parameters of tumor biology into selection process prior to LT is mandatory. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach of pre-, peri-, and posttransplant modulating of the tumor and/or the patient has to be established for improving prognosis in this special subset of patients. PMID:27335840

  16. Pathologic Criteria to Estimate the State of the Liver in Potential Donors.

    PubMed

    Shaimardanova, Caliya; Fedotovskikh, Galina; Savchuk, Aleksandr; Doszhan, Ainura; Smagulova, Aigerim; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The pathologic evaluation of the liver is one of the most important issues in liver transplants. We evaluated the histopathological condition of livers in potential donors. After liver biopsy, 37 potential donor livers were histologically studied. Liver tissue was stained by hematoxylin and eosin as well as Masson Trichrome. The results of the study showed the morphologic criteria used to estimate the state of the liver in potential donors is not only steatosis and fibrosis, but other important histologic criteria, such as proteinosis, necrosis of hepatocytes, endotheliitis of central veins, inflammatory infiltration, endarteritis in portal tracts and phlebitis in portal tracts, proliferation of the bile ducts, and cholestasis. Results of the study showed that the morphologic criteria to estimate the state of the liver in potential donors includes not only steatosis and fibrosis, but other important histologic criteria as well.

  17. Extended normothermic extracorporeal perfusion of isolated human liver after warm ischaemia: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Marino, Bruno; Starkey, Graeme; Fink, Michael; Wang, Bao Zhong; Eastwood, Glenn M; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Houston, Shane; Skene, Alison; Opdam, Helen; Jones, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) livers are at markedly increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to transplant DCD livers and may allow their use for artificial extracorporeal liver support of patients with fulminant liver failure. We conducted two proof-of-concept experiments using human livers after DCD to assess the feasibility and functional efficacy of NELP over an extended period. We applied extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, parenteral nutrition, separate hepatic artery and portal vein perfusion and physiological perfusion pressures to two livers obtained after DCD. We achieved NELP and evidence of liver function (bile production, paracetamol removal and maintenance of normal lactate levels) in both livers; one for 24 hours and the other for 43 hours. Histological examination showed areas of patchy ischaemia but preserved biliary ducts and canaliculi. Our experiments justify further investigations of the feasibility and efficacy of extended DCD liver preservation by ex-vivo perfusion.

  18. Laparoscopic extended liver resection: are postoperative outcomes different?

    PubMed

    Pietrasz, Daniel; Fuks, David; Subar, Daren; Donatelli, Gianfranco; Ferretti, Carlotta; Lamer, Christian; Portigliotti, Luca; Ward, Marc; Cowan, Jane; Nomi, Takeo; Beaussier, Marc; Gayet, Brice

    2018-05-16

    Although laparoscopic major hepatectomy (LMH) is becoming increasingly common in specialized centers, data regarding laparoscopic extended major hepatectomies (LEMH) and their outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to compare the perioperative characteristics and postoperative outcomes of LEMH to standard LMH. All patients who underwent purely laparoscopic anatomical right or left hepatectomy and right or left trisectionectomy between February 1998 and January 2016 are enrolled. Demographic, clinicopathological, and perioperative factors were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Perioperative characteristics and postoperative outcomes in LEMH were compared to those of standard LMH. Among 195 patients with LMH, 47 (24.1%) underwent LEMH, colorectal liver metastases representing 66.7% of all indications. Preoperative portal vein embolization was undertaken in 31 (15.9%) patients. Despite more frequent vascular clamping, blood loss was higher in LEMH group (400 vs. 214 ml; p = 0.006). However, there was no difference in intraoperative transfusion requirements. Thirty-one patients experienced liver failure with no differences between LMH and LEMH groups. Postoperative mortality was comparable in the two groups [3 (2.5%) LMH patients vs. 2 (5%) LEMH patients (p = 0.388)]. Overall morbidity was higher in the LEMH group [49 LMH patients (41.5%) vs. 24 LEMH patients (60%) (p = 0.052)]. Patients treated with left LEMH experienced more biliary leakage (p = 0.011) and more major pulmonary complications (p = 0.015) than left LMH. LEMH is feasible at the price of important morbidity, with manageable and acceptable outcomes. These exigent procedures require high-volume centers with experienced surgeons.

  19. Can living donor liver transplantation offer similar outcomes to deceased donor liver transplantation using expanded selection criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Ping; Li, Chuan; Wen, Tian-Fu; Yan, Lu-Nan; Li, Bo; Yang, Jia-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) versus deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in different selection criteria. Methods: Data of patients with HCC who underwent liver transplantation between 2005 and 2013 at our center were reviewed. Clinical data of LDLT recipients and DDLT recipients were compared. The postoperative recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate after LDLT versus DDLT were compared in the Milan recipients, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) recipients, the up-to-seven recipients, the Hangzhou recipients and the Chengdu recipients. Results: Data of 255 patients were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Seventeen DDLT recipient and 9 LDLT recipients died during the perioperative period. Among the remaining 229 recipients (NLDLT=66, NDDLT=163), 96 patients met the Milan criteria, 123 recipients met the UCSF criteria, 135 patients met the up-to-seven criteria, 216 patients met the Hangzhou criteria, and 229 recipients met the Chengdu criteria. The overall RFS and OS rates of the Milan recipients, the UCSF recipients, the up-to-seven recipients, the Hangzhou recipients and the Chengdu recipients after LDLT and DDLT were all similar. Conclusion: Using well-studied selection criteria, LDLT offers similar outcomes to DDLT for patient with HCC, even using expanded selection criteria. PMID:26430399

  20. Can living donor liver transplantation offer similar outcomes to deceased donor liver transplantation using expanded selection criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ping; Li, Chuan; Wen, Tian-Fu; Yan, Lu-Nan; Li, Bo; Yang, Jia-Yin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) versus deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in different selection criteria. Data of patients with HCC who underwent liver transplantation between 2005 and 2013 at our center were reviewed. Clinical data of LDLT recipients and DDLT recipients were compared. The postoperative recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate after LDLT versus DDLT were compared in the Milan recipients, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) recipients, the up-to-seven recipients, the Hangzhou recipients and the Chengdu recipients. Data of 255 patients were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Seventeen DDLT recipient and 9 LDLT recipients died during the perioperative period. Among the remaining 229 recipients (NLDLT=66, NDDLT=163), 96 patients met the Milan criteria, 123 recipients met the UCSF criteria, 135 patients met the up-to-seven criteria, 216 patients met the Hangzhou criteria, and 229 recipients met the Chengdu criteria. The overall RFS and OS rates of the Milan recipients, the UCSF recipients, the up-to-seven recipients, the Hangzhou recipients and the Chengdu recipients after LDLT and DDLT were all similar. Using well-studied selection criteria, LDLT offers similar outcomes to DDLT for patient with HCC, even using expanded selection criteria.

  1. Downstaging therapy followed by liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young; Stahl, Christopher C; Makramalla, Abouelmagd; Olowokure, Olugbenga O; Ristagno, Ross L; Dhar, Vikrom K; Schoech, Michael R; Chadalavada, Seetharam; Latif, Tahir; Kharofa, Jordan; Bari, Khurram; Shah, Shimul A

    2017-12-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation is a curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma within Milan criteria, but these criteria preclude many patients from transplant candidacy. Recent studies have demonstrated that downstaging therapy can reduce tumor burden to meet conventional criteria. The present study reports a single-center experience with tumor downstaging and its effects on post-orthotopic liver transplantation outcomes. All patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were evaluated by our multidisciplinary liver services team from 2012 to 2016 were identified (N = 214). Orthotopic liver transplantation candidates presenting outside of Milan criteria at initial radiographic diagnosis and/or an initial alpha-fetoprotein >400 ng/mL were categorized as at high risk for tumor recurrence and post-transplant mortality. Of the 214 patients newly diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma, 73 (34.1%) eventually underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. The majority of patients who did not undergo orthotopic liver transplantation were deceased or lost to follow-up (47.5%), with 14 of 141 (9.9%) currently listed for transplantation. Among transplanted patients, 21 of 73 (28.8%) were considered high-risk candidates. All 21 patients were downstaged to within Milan criteria with an alpha-fetoprotein <400 ng/mL before orthotopic liver transplantation, through locoregional therapies. Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher but acceptable between downstaged high-risk and traditional candidates (9.5% vs 1.9%; P > .05) at a median follow-up period of 17 months. Downstaged high-risk candidates had a similar overall survival compared with those transplanted within Milan criteria (log-rank P > .05). In highly selected cases, patients with hepatocellular carcinoma outside of traditional criteria for orthotopic liver transplantation may undergo downstaging therapy in a multidisciplinary fashion with excellent post-transplant outcomes. These data support an

  2. Review article: liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - a critical appraisal of the current worldwide listing criteria.

    PubMed

    Menon, K V; Hakeem, A R; Heaton, N D

    2014-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) plays an important role in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although early results following LT for HCC were poor, since the introduction of the Milan criteria in 1996 morphological criteria have since been well established. Thereafter, various expansions of the Milan criteria were introduced worldwide. Listing criteria for LT for HCC in the United Kingdom (UK) initially conformed to the Milan criteria but were re-defined in 2009 by expansion of the Milan criteria. To look at the evidence in literature on listing criteria and management of HCC worldwide in comparison with the UK. Secondly, we aim to review worldwide vs. UK literature on prioritisation models, loco-regional therapy protocols and role of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in LT for HCC. An electronic literature search with Medline was carried out to identify articles related to LT for HCC. Although various expansions of the Milan criteria have been described, they remain the gold standard against which other criteria are measured. The UK criteria are an expansion of the Milan criteria that go beyond Milan and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria. The current UK listing criteria for LT for HCC when compared to the worldwide criteria have a worse survival benefit (projected 5-year survival between 35-50%) when plotted on the metroticket calculator. In keeping with most transplant centres worldwide, the UK have adopted expansions to Milan to allow more patients to benefit from LT. However, currently, as it stands the UK criteria when plotted in the modification of the Metroticket model project worse survival that would seem unjustified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Long-Term Outcomes and Discard Rate of Kidneys by Decade of Extended Criteria Donor Age

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Maria; Diena, Davide; Dellepiane, Sergio; Guzzo, Gabriella; Lo Sardo, Luca; Fop, Fabrizio; Segoloni, Giuseppe P.; Amoroso, Antonio; Magistroni, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Extended criteria donors represent nowadays a main resource for kidney transplantation, and recovery criteria are becoming increasingly inclusive. However, the limits of this approach are not clear as well as the effects of extreme donor ages on long-term kidney transplantation outcomes. To address these issues, we performed a retrospective study on extended criteria donor kidney transplantation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In total, 647 consecutive extended criteria donor kidney transplantations performed over 11 years (2003–2013) were included. Donor, recipient, and procedural variables were classified according to donor age decades (group A, 50–59 years old [n=91]; group B, 60–69 years old [n=264]; group C, 70–79 years old [n=265]; and group D, ≥80 years old [n=27]). Organs were allocated in single- or dual-kidney transplantation after a multistep evaluation including clinical and histologic criteria. Long-term outcomes and main adverse events were analyzed among age groups and in either single- or dual-kidney transplantation. Kidney discard rate incidence and causes were evaluated. Results Median follow-up was 4.9 years (25th; 75th percentiles: 2.7; 7.6 years); patient and graft survival were comparable among age groups (5-year patient survival: group A, 87.8%; group B, 88.1%; group C, 88.0%; and group D, 90.1%; P=0.77; graft survival: group A, 74.0%; group B, 74.2%; group C, 75.2%; and group D, 65.9%; P=0.62) and between dual-kidney transplantation and single-kidney transplantation except for group D, with a better survival for dual-kidney transplantation (P=0.04). No difference was found analyzing complications incidence or graft function over time. Kidney discard rate was similar in groups A, B, and C (15.4%, 17.7%, and 20.1%, respectively) and increased in group D (48.2%; odds ratio, 5.1 with A as the reference group; 95% confidence interval, 2.96 to 8.79). Conclusions Discard rate and long-term outcomes

  4. Long-Term Outcomes and Discard Rate of Kidneys by Decade of Extended Criteria Donor Age.

    PubMed

    Messina, Maria; Diena, Davide; Dellepiane, Sergio; Guzzo, Gabriella; Lo Sardo, Luca; Fop, Fabrizio; Segoloni, Giuseppe P; Amoroso, Antonio; Magistroni, Paola; Biancone, Luigi

    2017-02-07

    Extended criteria donors represent nowadays a main resource for kidney transplantation, and recovery criteria are becoming increasingly inclusive. However, the limits of this approach are not clear as well as the effects of extreme donor ages on long-term kidney transplantation outcomes. To address these issues, we performed a retrospective study on extended criteria donor kidney transplantation. In total, 647 consecutive extended criteria donor kidney transplantations performed over 11 years (2003-2013) were included. Donor, recipient, and procedural variables were classified according to donor age decades (group A, 50-59 years old [n=91]; group B, 60-69 years old [n=264]; group C, 70-79 years old [n=265]; and group D, ≥80 years old [n=27]). Organs were allocated in single- or dual-kidney transplantation after a multistep evaluation including clinical and histologic criteria. Long-term outcomes and main adverse events were analyzed among age groups and in either single- or dual-kidney transplantation. Kidney discard rate incidence and causes were evaluated. Median follow-up was 4.9 years (25th; 75th percentiles: 2.7; 7.6 years); patient and graft survival were comparable among age groups (5-year patient survival: group A, 87.8%; group B, 88.1%; group C, 88.0%; and group D, 90.1%; P=0.77; graft survival: group A, 74.0%; group B, 74.2%; group C, 75.2%; and group D, 65.9%; P=0.62) and between dual-kidney transplantation and single-kidney transplantation except for group D, with a better survival for dual-kidney transplantation (P=0.04). No difference was found analyzing complications incidence or graft function over time. Kidney discard rate was similar in groups A, B, and C (15.4%, 17.7%, and 20.1%, respectively) and increased in group D (48.2%; odds ratio, 5.1 with A as the reference group; 95% confidence interval, 2.96 to 8.79). Discard rate and long-term outcomes are similar among extended criteria donor kidney transplantation from donors ages 50-79 years old

  5. Donor selection criteria for liver transplantation in Argentina: are current standards too rigorous?

    PubMed

    Dirchwolf, Melisa; Ruf, Andrés E; Biggins, Scott W; Bisigniano, Liliana; Hansen Krogh, Daniela; Villamil, Federico G

    2015-02-01

    Organ shortage is the major limitation for the growth of deceased donor liver transplant worldwide. One strategy to ameliorate this problem is to maximize the liver utilization rate. To assess predictors of liver utilization in Argentina. The national database was used to analyze transplant activity in 2010. Donor, recipient, and transplant variables were evaluated as predictors of graft utilization of number of rejected donor offers before grafting and with the occurrence of primary nonfunction (PNF) or early post-transplant mortality (EM). Of the 582 deceased donors, 293 (50.3%) were recovered for liver transplant. Variables associated with the nonrecovery of the liver were age ≥46 years, umbilical perimeter ≥92 cm, organ procurement outside Gran Buenos Aires, AST ≥42 U/l and ALT ≥29 U/l. The median number of rejected offers before grafting was 4, and in 71 patients (25%), there were ≥13. The only independent predictor for the occurrence of PNF (3.4%) or EM (5.2%) was the recipient's emergency status. During 2010 in Argentina, the liver was recovered in only half of donors. The low incidence of PNF and EM and the characteristics of the nonrecovered liver donors suggest that organ acceptance criteria should be less rigorous. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  6. Validity criteria for the diagnosis of fatty liver by M probe-based controlled attenuation parameter.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Petta, Salvatore; Hiriart, Jean-Baptiste; Cammà, Calogero; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Marra, Fabio; Vergniol, Julien; Chan, Anthony Wing-Hung; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Merrouche, Wassil; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Le Bail, Brigitte; Arena, Umberto; Craxì, Antonio; de Lédinghen, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) can be performed together with liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by transient elastography (TE) and is often used to diagnose fatty liver. We aimed to define the validity criteria of CAP. CAP was measured by the M probe prior to liver biopsy in 754 consecutive patients with different liver diseases at three centers in Europe and Hong Kong (derivation cohort, n=340; validation cohort, n=414; 101 chronic hepatitis B, 154 chronic hepatitis C, 349 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, 37 autoimmune hepatitis, 49 cholestatic liver disease, 64 others; 277 F3-4; age 52±14; body mass index 27.2±5.3kg/m 2 ). The primary outcome was the diagnosis of fatty liver, defined as steatosis involving ≥5% of hepatocytes. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUROC) for CAP diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.88). The interquartile range (IQR) of CAP had a negative correlation with CAP (r=-0.32, p<0.001), suggesting the IQR-to-median ratio of CAP would be an inappropriate validity parameter. In the derivation cohort, the IQR of CAP was associated with the accuracy of CAP (AUROC 0.86, 0.89 and 0.76 in patients with IQR of CAP <20 [15% of patients], 20-39 [51%], and ≥40dB/m [33%], respectively). Likewise, the AUROC of CAP in the validation cohort was 0.90 and 0.77 in patients with IQR of CAP <40 and ≥40dB/m, respectively (p=0.004). The accuracy of CAP in detecting grade 2 and 3 steatosis was lower among patients with body mass index ≥30kg/m 2 and F3-4 fibrosis. The validity of CAP for the diagnosis of fatty liver is lower if the IQR of CAP is ≥40dB/m. Lay summary: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is measured by transient elastography (TE) for the detection of fatty liver. In this large study, using liver biopsy as a reference, we show that the variability of CAP measurements based on its interquartile range can reflect the accuracy of fatty liver diagnosis. In contrast, other clinical factors such

  7. Report of the Paris consensus meeting on expanded criteria donors in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Durand, François; Renz, John F; Alkofer, Barbara; Burra, Patrizia; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Porte, Robert J; Freeman, Richard B; Belghiti, Jacques

    2008-12-01

    Because of organ shortage and a constant imbalance between available organs and candidates for liver transplantation, expanded criteria donors are needed. Experience shows that there are wide variations in the definitions, selection criteria, and use of expanded criteria donors according to different geographic areas and different centers. Overall, selection criteria for donors have tended to be relaxed in recent years. Consensus recommendations are needed. This article reports the conclusions of a consensus meeting held in Paris in March 2007 with the contribution of experts from Europe, the United States, and Asia. Definitions of expanded criteria donors with respect to donor variables (including age, liver function tests, steatosis, infections, malignancies, and heart-beating versus non-heart-beating, among others) are proposed. It is emphasized that donor quality represents a continuum of risk rather than "good or bad." A distinction is made between donor factors that generate increased risk of graft failure and factors independent of graft function, such as transmissible infectious disease or donor-derived malignancy, that may preclude a good outcome. Updated data concerning the risks associated with different donor variables in different recipient populations are given. Recommendations on how to safely expand donor selection criteria are proposed.

  8. Inflammatory markers as selection criteria of hepatocellular carcinoma in living-donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Na, Gun Hyung; Kim, Dong Goo; Han, Jae hyun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Soo Ho; Hong, Tae Ho; You, Young Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate that inflammatory markers can predict accurately the prognosis of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) patients in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: From October 2000 to November 2011, 224 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation for HCC at our institution were enrolled in this study. We analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after LT in patients with HCC and designed a new score model using pretransplant neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). RESULTS: The DFS and OS in patients with an NLR level ≥ 6.0 or CRP level ≥ 1.0 were significantly worse than those of patients with an NLR level < 6.0 or CRP level < 1.0 (P = 0.049, P = 0.003 for NLR and P = 0.010, P < 0.001 for CRP, respectively). Using a new score model using the pretransplant NLR and CRP, we can differentiate HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria with a good prognosis from those with a poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Combined with the Milan criteria, new score model using NLR and CRP represent new selection criteria for LDLT candidates with HCC, especially beyond the Milan criteria. PMID:24914382

  9. Inflammatory markers as selection criteria of hepatocellular carcinoma in living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Na, Gun Hyung; Kim, Dong Goo; Han, Jae Hyun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Soo Ho; Hong, Tae Ho; You, Young Kyoung

    2014-06-07

    To investigate that inflammatory markers can predict accurately the prognosis of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) patients in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). From October 2000 to November 2011, 224 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation for HCC at our institution were enrolled in this study. We analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) after LT in patients with HCC and designed a new score model using pretransplant neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The DFS and OS in patients with an NLR level ≥ 6.0 or CRP level ≥ 1.0 were significantly worse than those of patients with an NLR level < 6.0 or CRP level < 1.0 (P = 0.049, P = 0.003 for NLR and P = 0.010, P < 0.001 for CRP, respectively). Using a new score model using the pretransplant NLR and CRP, we can differentiate HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria with a good prognosis from those with a poor prognosis. Combined with the Milan criteria, new score model using NLR and CRP represent new selection criteria for LDLT candidates with HCC, especially beyond the Milan criteria.

  10. Biliary diseases as main causes of pyogenic liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Hua; Feng, Xiao-Ning; Lai, Ming-Chun; Kong, Hai-Shen; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about aetiology and morbidity and clinical characteristics of pyogenic liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. An analysis between pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and those caused by non-extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was performed. Among 817 pyogenic liver abscess patients, there were 176 patients (21.5%) with pyogenic liver abscess of biliary origin, and 67 pyogenic liver abscess patients (8.2%) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Of 176 pyogenic liver abscess patients related to biliary disorders, there were 48 pyogenic liver abscess patients (27.3%) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Within 67 pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, the occurrences of 48 pyogenic liver abscess patients (71.6%) were associated with biliary disorders. When compared with pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by non-extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, there were significantly greater incidences of polymicrobial infections, bacteremia, pulmonary infection, recurrence and death in pyogenic liver abscess patients caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenems remain mainstay drugs against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Independent risk factors for occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were biliary disorders including extra- and intrahepatic cholangiolithiasis and an abnormal bilioenteric communication between bile and gut, a treatment history of malignancy such as operation and chemotherapy, pulmonary infection, and diabetes mellitus

  11. Hepatobiliary MRI as novel selection criteria in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Yeong; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Kon; Kang, Tae Wook; Ha, Sang Yun; Park, Chul Keun; Choi, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Man; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Min-Ji; Sohn, Insuk; Jung, Sin-Ho; Paik, Seung Woon; Lee, Won Jae

    2018-06-01

    Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides additional information beyond the size and number of tumours, and may have prognostic implications. We examined whether pretransplant radiological features on MRI could be used to stratify the risk of tumour recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 100 patients who had received a liver transplant and who had undergone preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, including the hepatobiliary phase (HBP), were reviewed for tumour size, number, and morphological type (e.g. nodular, nodular with perinodular extension, or confluent multinodular), satellite nodules, non-smooth tumour margins, peritumoural enhancement in arterial phase, peritumoural hypointensity on HBP, and apparent diffusion coefficients. The primary endpoint was time to recurrence. In a multivariable adjusted model, the presence of satellite nodules [hazard ratio (HR) 3.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-8.24] and peritumoural hypointensity on HBP (HR 4.53; 95% CI 1.52-13.4) were identified as independent factors associated with tumour recurrence. Having either of these radiological findings was associated with a higher tumour recurrence rate (72.5% vs. 15.4% at three years, p <0.001). When patients were stratified according to the Milan criteria, the presence of these two high-risk radiological findings was associated with a higher tumour recurrence rate in both patients transplanted within the Milan criteria (66.7% vs. 11.6% at three years, p <0.001, n = 68) and those who were transplanted outside the Milan criteria (75.5% vs. 28.6% at three years, p <0.001, n = 32). Radiological features on preoperative hepatobiliary MRI can stratify the risk of tumour recurrence in patients who were transplanted either within or outside the Milan criteria. Therefore, hepatobiliary MRI can be a useful way to select potential candidates for LT. High-risk radiological findings on preoperative

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells correct haemodynamic dysfunction associated with liver injury after extended resection in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Brückner, Sandra; Uder, Christiane; Erler, Silvio; Hempel, Madlen; von Bergen, Martin; Brach, Janine; Winkler, Sandra; Pankow, Franziska; Gittel, Claudia; Baunack, Manja; Lange, Undine; Broschewitz, Johannes; Dollinger, Matthias; Bartels, Michael; Pietsch, Uta; Amann, Kerstin; Christ, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    In patients, acute kidney injury (AKI) is often due to haemodynamic impairment associated with hepatic decompensation following extended liver surgery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) supported tissue protection in a variety of acute and chronic diseases, and might hence ameliorate AKI induced by extended liver resection. Here, 70% liver resection was performed in male pigs. MSCs were infused through a central venous catheter and haemodynamic parameters as well as markers of acute kidney damage were monitored under intensive care conditions for 24 h post-surgery. Cytokine profiles were established to anticipate the MSCs' potential mode of action. After extended liver resection, hyperdynamic circulation, associated with hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia, an increase in serum aldosterone and low urine production developed. These signs of hepatorenal dysfunction and haemodynamic impairment were corrected by MSC treatment. MSCs elevated PDGF levels in the serum, possibly contributing to circulatory homeostasis. Another 14 cytokines were increased in the kidney, most of which are known to support tissue regeneration. In conclusion, MSCs supported kidney and liver function after extended liver resection. They probably acted through paracrine mechanisms improving haemodynamics and tissue homeostasis. They might thus provide a promising strategy to prevent acute kidney injury in the context of post-surgery acute liver failure.

  13. Criteria for extending the operation periods of thermoelectric converters based on IV-VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadia, Yatir; Ohaion-Raz, Tsion; Ben-Yehuda, Ohad; Korngold, Meidad; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2016-09-01

    The recent energy demands affected by the dilution of conventional energy resources and the growing awareness of environmental considerations, had positioned the research of renewable energy conversion methods in general and of thermoelectric direct conversion of thermal into electrical energies in particular, in the forefront of the currently active applicative sciences. IV-VI thermoelectric compounds (e.g. GeTe, PbTe and SnTe) and their alloys comprise some of the most efficient thermoelectric compositions ever reported. Yet a proper utilization of such materials in practical thermoelectric devices, still requires an overcoming the so-called technological "valley of death", including among others, transport properties' degradation, due to sublimation of volatile Te rich species, while being subjected to elevated temperatures for long periods of time. In an attempt to establish practical operation criteria for extending the operation periods of such thermoelectric converters, it is currently shown based on thermal gravimetric and metallurgical considerations that such harmful sublimation can be practically bridged over by limiting the maximal operating temperatures to the 410-430 °C range for GeTe rich alloys and to 510-530 °C for PbTe and SnTe rich alloys, depending of the thermoelectric leg's diameter.

  14. Criteria for extending the operation periods of thermoelectric converters based on IV-VI compounds

    SciT

    Sadia, Yatir, E-mail: yatttir@yahoo.com; Ohaion-Raz, Tsion; Ben-Yehuda, Ohad

    The recent energy demands affected by the dilution of conventional energy resources and the growing awareness of environmental considerations, had positioned the research of renewable energy conversion methods in general and of thermoelectric direct conversion of thermal into electrical energies in particular, in the forefront of the currently active applicative sciences. IV-VI thermoelectric compounds (e.g. GeTe, PbTe and SnTe) and their alloys comprise some of the most efficient thermoelectric compositions ever reported. Yet a proper utilization of such materials in practical thermoelectric devices, still requires an overcoming the so-called technological “valley of death”, including among others, transport properties' degradation, duemore » to sublimation of volatile Te rich species, while being subjected to elevated temperatures for long periods of time. In an attempt to establish practical operation criteria for extending the operation periods of such thermoelectric converters, it is currently shown based on thermal gravimetric and metallurgical considerations that such harmful sublimation can be practically bridged over by limiting the maximal operating temperatures to the 410–430 °C range for GeTe rich alloys and to 510–530 °C for PbTe and SnTe rich alloys, depending of the thermoelectric leg's diameter. - Graphical abstract: Evaporation rate in the GeTe and PbTe system showing the measured evaporation rates and the maximal operating temperatures for different compositions. In addition, the microstructure after evaporation is shown for PbTe, TAGS-85, and doped Pb{sub 0.13}Ge{sub 087}Te. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Evaporation rates of GeTe and PbTe based thermoelectric compounds were determined. • A criterion for their maximum operating temperature was established. • The materials showed phase separations and off-stoichiometry compositions.« less

  15. Preimplantation Kidney Biopsies of Extended Criteria Donors Have a Heavier Inflammatory Burden Than Kidneys From Standard Criteria Donors

    PubMed Central

    Mazeti-Felicio, Camila M.; Caldas, Heloisa C.; Fernandes-Charpiot, Ida M.M.; Dezotti, Camila Z.; Baptista, Maria A.S.F.; Abbud-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Background Donors after brain death develop a systemic proinflammatory state that may predispose the kidneys to injury after transplantation. Because it is not known whether this inflammatory environment similarly affects the kidneys from expanded criteria donor (ECD) and standard criteria donors (SCD), we sought to evaluate differences in the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in preimplantation biopsies (PIBx) from ECD and SCD kidneys. Methods Cytokines gene expression was measured in 80 PIBx (SCD, 52; ECD, 28) and associated with donor variables. Results Normal histology and chronic histological lesions were not different between both types of kidneys. ECD kidneys showed significant increase in the transcripts of MCP-1, RANTES, TGF-β1, and IL-10 when compared with SCD. Kidneys presenting normal histology had similar inflammatory profile except by a higher expression of RANTES observed in ECD (P = 0.04). Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy ≥ 1) were associated with higher expression of TGF-β1, RANTES, and IL-10 in ECD compared with SCD kidneys. Cold ischemia time of 24 hours or longer was significantly associated with upregulation of FOXP3, MCP-1, RANTES, and IL10, whereas longer duration of donor hospitalization significantly increased gene expression of all markers. High FOXP3 expression was also associated with lower level of serum creatinine at 1 year. Donor age was not associated with any of the transcripts studied. Conclusions PIBx of ECD exhibit a higher gene expression of inflammatory cytokines when compared with SCD kidneys. This molecular profile may be a specific ECD kidney response to brain death and may help to predict the posttransplant outcomes of ECD recipients. PMID:28706983

  16. Primary graft dysfunction of the liver: definitions, diagnostic criteria and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Neves, Douglas Bastos; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Salvalaggio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Primary graft dysfunction is a multifactorial syndrome with great impact on liver transplantation outcomes. This review article was based on studies published between January 1980 and June 2015 and retrieved from PubMed database using the following search terms: "primary graft dysfunction", "early allograft dysfunction", "primary non-function" and "liver transplantation". Graft dysfunction describes different grades of graft ischemia-reperfusion injury and can manifest as early allograft dysfunction or primary graft non-function, its most severe form. Donor-, surgery- and recipient-related factors have been associated with this syndrome. Primary graft dysfunction definition, diagnostic criteria and risk factors differ between studies. RESUMO A disfunção primária do enxerto hepático é uma síndrome multifatorial com grande impacto no resultado do transplante de fígado. Foi realizada uma ampla revisão da literatura, consultando a base de dados PubMed, em busca de estudos publicados entre janeiro de 1980 e junho de 2015. Os termos descritivos utilizados foram: "primary graft dysfunction", "early allograft dysfunction", "primary non-function" e "liver transplantation". A disfunção traduz graus diferentes da lesão de isquemia e reperfusão do órgão, e pode se manifestar como disfunção precoce ou, na forma mais grave, pelo não funcionamento primário do enxerto. Fatores relacionados ao doador, ao transplante e ao receptor contribuem para essa síndrome. Existem definições diferentes na literatura quanto ao diagnóstico e aos fatores de risco associados à disfunção primária.

  17. Extending the Scope of Speaking Assessment Criteria in a Specific-Purpose Language Test: Operationalizing a Health Professional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagan, Sally; Pill, John; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Criticism of specific-purpose language (LSP) tests is often directed at their limited ability to represent fully the demands of the target language use situation. Such criticisms extend to the criteria used to assess test performance, which may fail to capture what matters to participants in the domain of interest. This paper reports on the…

  18. The number of lung transplants can be safely doubled using extended criteria donors; a single-center review.

    PubMed

    Meers, Caroline; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Verleden, Geert M; Coosemans, Willy; Decaluwe, Herbert; De Leyn, Paul; Nafteux, Philippe; Lerut, Toni

    2010-06-01

    Relaxing the standard lung donor criteria may significantly increase the reported 15% organ yield but post-transplant recipient outcome should be carefully monitored. Charts from all consecutive deceased organ donors within our hospital network were reviewed over a 2-year period. Reasons for lung refusals and number of lungs transplanted were analysed. Hospital outcome including early recipient survival was compared between standard- and extended criteria donors. Out of 283 referrals, 164 (58%) qualified as donor of any organ. The majority (65.9%) of these effective donors were declined for lung donation because of chest X-ray abnormalities (20%), age >70 years (13%), poor oxygenation (10%), or aspiration (9%). Out of 56 (34.1%) accepted lung donors, 50 transplants were performed at our center, 23 from standard criteria donors versus 27 from extended criteria donors. There were no significant differences in hospital outcome and in early survival between lung recipients from both donor groups. Lung acceptance rate (34.1%) in our donor network is 10-20% higher than reported figures. The number of lung transplants in our center doubled by accepting extended criteria donors. This policy did not negatively influence our results after lung transplantation.

  19. Predictors of liver donation without kidney recovery in a cohort of expanded criteria donors: identifying opportunities to improve expanded criteria donor kidney utilization.

    PubMed

    White, S L; Leichtman, A B; O'Connor, K; Lipkowitz, G; Pietroski, R; Stoff, J S; Luskin, R S; Belcher, J; Meyer, K; Merion, R M; Port, F K; Delmonico, F L

    2012-09-01

    To maximize deceased donation, it is necessary to facilitate organ recovery from expanded criteria donors (ECDs). Utilization of donors meeting the kidney definition for ECDs increases access to kidney transplantation and reduces waiting times; however, ECDs often do not proceed to kidney recovery. Based on a prospective study of three Organ Procurement Organizations in the United States, we describe the characteristics of donors meeting the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) ECD kidney definition (donor age 60+ or donor age 50-60 years with two of the following: final serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL, history of hypertension, or death from cerebral vascular accident) who donated a liver without kidney recovery. ECDs with organs recovered between February 2003 and September 2005 by New England Organ Bank, Gift of Life Michigan, and LifeChoice Donor Services were studied (n = 324). All donors were declared dead by neurological criteria. Data on a wide range of donor characteristics were collected, including donor demographics, medical history, cause of death, donor status during hospitalization, serological status, and donor kidney quality. Logistic regression models were used to identify donor characteristics predictive of liver-alone donation. Seventy-four of the 324 donors fulfilling the ECD definition for kidneys donated a liver alone (23%). History of diabetes, final serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL, age 70+, and presence of proteinuria were associated with liver-alone donation in univariate models. On multivariate analysis, only final serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and age 70+ were independently predictive of liver donation alone. Older age and elevated serum creatinine may be perceived as stronger contraindications to kidney donation than the remaining elements of the ECD definition. It is likely that at least a proportion of these liver-alone donors represent missed opportunities for kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Adult-Derived Human Liver Stem/Progenitor Cells Infused 3 Days Postsurgery Improve Liver Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Extended Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Astrid; Prigent, Julie; Lombard, Catherine; Rosseels, Valérie; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Breckpot, Karine; Najimi, Mustapha; Deblandre, Gisèle; Sokal, Etienne M.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cell therapy constitutes a promising strategy for liver regenerative medicine. In the setting of hepatic cancer treatments, cell therapy could prove a useful therapeutic approach for managing the acute liver failure that occurs following extended hepatectomy. In this study, we examined the influence of delivering adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) at two different early time points in an immunodeficient mouse model (Rag2−/-IL2Rg-/-) that had undergone a 70% hepatectomy procedure. The hepatic mesenchymal cells were intrasplenically infused either immediately after surgery (n = 26) or following a critical 3-day period (n = 26). We evaluated the cells' capacity to engraft at day 1 and day 7 following transplantation by means of human Alu qPCR quantification, along with histological assessment of human albumin and α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, cell proliferation (anti-mouse and human Ki-67 staining) and murine liver weight were measured in order to evaluate liver regeneration. At day 1 posttransplantation, the ratio of human to mouse cells was similar in both groups, whereas 1 week posttransplantation this ratio was significantly improved (p < 0.016) in mice receiving ADHLSC injection at day 3 posthepatectomy (1.7%), compared to those injected at the time of surgery (1%). On the basis of liver weight, mouse liver regeneration was more extensive 1 week posttransplantation in mice transplanted with ADHLSCs (+65.3%) compared to that of mice from the sham vehicle group (+42.7%). In conclusion, infusing ADHLSCs 3 days after extensive hepatectomy improves the cell engraftment and murine hepatic tissue regeneration, thereby confirming that ADHLSCs could be a promising cell source for liver cell therapy and hepatic tissue repair. PMID:27657746

  1. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having "very high susceptibility", with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having "high susceptibility".

  2. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping

    PubMed Central

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having “very high susceptibility”, with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having “high susceptibility”. PMID:26089577

  3. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping.

    PubMed

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having "very high susceptibility", with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having "high susceptibility".

  4. Section 4. Further expanding the criteria for HCC in living donor liver transplantation: the Tokyo University experience.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Sumihito; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-04-27

    In Asia, evidence-based guidelines for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have evolved, including the option of liver transplantation. Because of the continuing serious organ shortage, however, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remains the mainstream in Japan. Unlike deceased donor transplantation, living donor transplantation is not always limited by the restrictions imposed by the nationwide organ allocation system. The decision for transplantation may depend on institutional or case-by-case considerations, balancing the will of the donor, the operative risk, and the overall survival benefit. Cumulative data from the Japanese national multicenter registry analysis as well as individual center experiences suggest further expanding the criteria for LDLT for HCC from the Milan criteria is feasible with acceptable outcomes.

  5. Graft selection strategy in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation: When both hemiliver grafts meet volumetric criteria.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Takeshi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Ikegami, Toru; Itoh, Shinji; Harimoto, Norifumi; Ninomiya, Mizuki; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Okabe, Hirohisa; Kimura, Koichi; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-07-01

    To ensure donor safety in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), the left and caudate lobe (LL) is the preferred graft choice. However, patient prognosis may still be poor even if graft volume (GV) selection criteria are met. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of right lobe (RL) donation when the LL graft selection criteria are met. Consecutive donors (n = 135) with preoperative LL graft volumetric GV/standard liver volume (SLV) of ≥35% and RL remnant of ≥35% were retrospectively studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups: LL graft and RL graft. Recipient's body surface area (BSA), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and the donor's age were higher in the RL group. The donor's BSA and preoperative volumetric GV/SLV of the LL graft were smaller in the RL group. The predicted score (calculated using data for graft size, donor age, MELD score, and the presence of portosystemic shunt, which correlated well with graft function and with 6-month graft survival) of the RL group, was significantly lower if the LL graft were used, but using the actual RL graft improved the score equal to that of the LL group. Six-month and 12-month graft survival rates did not differ between the 2 groups. In patients with a poor prognosis, a larger RL graft improved the predicted score and survival was equal to that of patients who received LL grafts. In conclusion, graft selection by GV, donor age, and recipient MELD score improves outcomes in LDLT. Liver Transplantation 22 914-922 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. NCCN Guidelines as a Model of Extended Criteria for Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    McKee, Brady J; Regis, Shawn; Borondy-Kitts, Andrea K; Hashim, Jeffrey A; French, Robert J; Wald, Christoph; McKee, Andrea B

    2018-04-01

    Background: This review assessed the performance of patients in NCCN high-risk group 2 in a clinical CT lung screening (CTLS) program. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed screening results for all patients from our institution undergoing clinical CTLS from January 2012 through December 2016, with follow-up through June 2017. To qualify for screening, patients had to meet the NCCN Guidelines high-risk criteria for CTLS, have a physician order for screening, be asymptomatic, be lung cancer-free for 5 years, and have no known metastatic disease. We compared demographics and screening performance of NCCN high-risk groups 1 and 2 across >4 rounds of screening. Screening metrics assessed included rates of positive and suspicious examinations, significant incidental and infectious/inflammatory findings, false negatives, and cancer detection. We also compared cancer stage and histology detected in each NCCN high-risk group. Results: A total of 2,927 individuals underwent baseline screening, of which 698 (24%) were in NCCN group 2. On average, group 2 patients were younger (60.6 vs 63.1 years), smoked less (38.8 vs 50.8 pack-years), had quit longer (18.1 vs 6.3 years), and were more often former smokers (61.4% vs 44.2%). Positive and suspicious examination rates, false negatives, and rates of infectious/inflammatory findings were equivalent in groups 1 and 2 across all rounds of screening. An increased rate of cancer detection was observed in group 2 during the second annual (T2) screening round (2.7% vs 0.5%; P =.005), with no difference in the other screening rounds: baseline (T0; 2% vs 2.3%; P =.61), first annual (T1; 1.2% vs 1.7%; P =.41), and third annual and beyond (≥T3; 1.2% vs 1.1%; P =1.00). Conclusions: CTLS appears to be equally effective in both NCCN high-risk groups. Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of liver resection versus transplantation for early hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kheng Choon; Wang, Vivian W; Siddiqui, Fahad J; Shi, Luming; Chan, Edwin S Y; Oh, Hong Choon; Tan, Say Beng; Chow, Pierce K H

    2015-01-01

    Both liver resection (LR) and cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) are potentially curative treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria and with adequate liver function. Adopting either as a first-line therapy carries major cost and resource implications. The objective of this study was to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of LR against CLT for patients with HCC within the Milan criteria using a decision analytic model. A Markov cohort model was developed to simulate a cohort of patients aged 55 years with HCC within the Milan criteria and Child-Pugh A/B cirrhosis, undergoing LR or CLT, and followed up over their remaining life expectancy. Analysis was performed in different geographical cost settings: the USA, Switzerland and Singapore. Transition probabilities were obtained from systematic literature reviews, supplemented by databases from Singapore and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (USA). Utility and cost data were obtained from open sources. LR produced 3.9 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) while CLT had an additional 1.4 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CLT versus LR ranged from $111,821/QALY in Singapore to $156,300/QALY in Switzerland, and was above thresholds for cost-effectiveness in all three countries. Sensitivity analysis revealed that CLT-related 5-year cumulative survival, one-time cost of CLT, and post-LR 5-year cumulative recurrence rates were the most sensitive parameters in all cost scenarios. ICERs were reduced below threshold when CLT-related 5-year cumulative survival exceeded 84.9% and 87.6% in Singapore and the USA, respectively. For Switzerland, the ICER remained above the cost-effectiveness threshold regardless of the variations. In patients with HCC within the Milan criteria and Child-Pugh A/B cirrhosis, LR is more cost-effective than CLT across three different costing scenarios: the USA, Switzerland, Singapore. © 2014 by the American

  8. A dual validation approach to detect anthelmintic residues in bovine liver over an extended concentration range

    This paper describes a method for the detection and quantification of 38 of the most widely used anthelmintics (including benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones and flukicides) in bovine liver at MRL and non-MRL level. A dual validation approach was adapted to reliably detect anthelmintic residues ov...

  9. Importance of liver biopsy findings in immunosuppression management: biopsy monitoring and working criteria for patients with operational tolerance.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    Obstacles to morbidity-free long-term survival after liver transplantation (LT) include complications of immunosuppression (IS), recurrence of the original disease and malignancies, and unexplained chronic hepatitis and graft fibrosis. Many programs attempt to minimize chronic exposure to IS by reducing dosages and stopping steroids. A few programs have successfully weaned a highly select group of recipients from all IS without apparent adverse consequences, but long-term follow-up is limited. Patients subjected to adjustments in IS are usually followed by serial liver chemistry tests, which are relatively insensitive methods for detecting allograft damage. Protocol biopsy has largely been abandoned for hepatitis C virus-negative recipients, at least in part because of the inability to integrate routine histopathological findings into a rational clinical management algorithm. Recognizing a need to more precisely categorize and determine the clinical significance of findings in long-term biopsy samples, the Banff Working Group on Liver Allograft Pathology has reviewed the literature, pooled the experience of its members, and proposed working definitions for biopsy changes that (1) are conducive to lowering IS and are compatible with operational tolerance (OT) and (2) raise concern for closer follow-up and perhaps increased IS during or after IS weaning. The establishment of guidelines should help us to standardize analyses of the effects of various treatments and/or weaning protocols and more rigorously categorize patients who are assumed to show OT. Long-term follow-up using standardized criteria will help us to determine the consequences of lowering IS and to define and determine the incidence and robustness of OT in liver allografts. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Causality Assessment: Criteria and Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Paul H

    2016-02-04

    Hepatotoxicity due to drugs, herbal or dietary supplements remains largely a clinical diagnosis based on meticulous history taking and exclusion of other causes of liver injury. In 2004, the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) was created under the auspices of the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases with the aims of establishing a large registry of cases for clinical, epidemiological and mechanistic study. From inception, the DILIN has used an expert opinion process that incorporates consensus amongst three different DILIN hepatologists assigned to each case. It is the most well-established, well-described and vigorous expert opinion process for DILI to date, and yet it is an imperfect standard. This review will discuss the DILIN expert opinion process, its strengths and weaknesses, psychometric performance and future.

  11. Surgical resection versus liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma within the Hangzhou criteria: a preoperative nomogram-guided treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ruan, Dan-Yun; Jia, Chang-Chang; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Guo-Ying; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Nan

    2017-10-15

    With the expansion of surgical criteria, the comparative efficacy between surgical resection (SR) and liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma is inconclusive. This study aimed to develop a prognostic nomogram for predicting recurrence-free survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients after resection and explored the possibility of using nomogram as treatment algorithm reference. From 2003 to 2012, 310 hepatocellular carcinoma patients within Hangzhou criteria undergoing resection or liver transplantation were included. Total tumor volume, albumin level, HBV DNA copies and portal hypertension were included for constructing the nomogram. The resection patients were stratified into low- and high-risk groups by the median nomogram score of 116. Independent risk factors were identified and a visually orientated nomogram was constructed using a Cox proportional hazards model to predict the recurrence risk for SR patients. The low-risk SR group had better outcomes compared with the high-risk SR group (3-year recurrence-free survival rate, 71.1% vs 35.9%; 3-year overall survival rate, 89.8% vs 78.9%, both P<0.001). The high-risk SR group was associated with a worse recurrence-free survival rate but similar overall survival rate compared with the transplantation group (3-year recurrence-free survival rate, 35.9% vs 74.1%, P<0.001; 3-year overall survival rate, 78.9% vs 79.6%, P>0.05). This nomogram offers individualized recurrence risk evaluation for hepatocellular carcinoma patients within Hangzhou criteria receiving resection. Transplantation should be considered the first-line treatment for high-risk patients. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extended criteria donor kidney transplantation: comparative outcome analysis between single versus double kidney transplantation at 5 years.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, G; Bettocchi, C; Battaglia, M; Impedovo, S V; Vavallo, A; Grandaliano, G; Castellano, G; Schena, F P; Selvaggi, F P; Ditonno, P

    2010-05-01

    Dual kidney transplantation (DKT), using extended criteria donor (ECD) grafts not suitable for single kidney transplantation (SKT), has been suggested to expand the kidney donor pool. Herein, we reviewed the long-term outcomes of DKT to assess its results versus a control group of 179 ECD SKTs. The allocation policy was based on a Remuzzi score obtained from a pretransplant biopsy. We analyzed SKT in 179 (31.8%) and DKT in 41 (7.3%) of 563 cadaveric transplants from 2000 to 2008. Patients with DKT versus SKT showed mean recipient ages of 54 versus 51 years. We performed 17 ipsilateral and 24 bilateral DKT. The mean score was 2.78 for SKT and 4.3/4.6 for DKT. Delayed graft function requiring dialysis occurred in 23 (56.1%) DKT and 70 (39.1%) SKT recipients. Primary nonfunction was observed in 1 (2.4%) DKT and 7 (3.9%) SKT recipients respectively. One DKT patient underwent monolateral transplantectomy. In the DKT versus SKT group, patient survivals were 92% versus 95%, 89% versus 93%, and 89 versus 91% at 12, 36, and 60 months, respectively (P = .3). Graft survivals were 100% versus 94%, 95% versus 90%, and 89% versus 78% at 12, 36, and 60 months, respectively (P < .001). We observed a lower incidence of chronic allograft nephropathy (P = .01) and a higher incidence of surgical adverse events (P = .04) in DKT. ECD graft survival using DKT provided better results compared with SKT, despite the use of organs from higher-risk donors. At 5 years follow-up, DKT was a safe strategy to face the organ shortage. To optimize the use of available kidneys, the criteria for DKT require further refinement and standardization. Preimplantation evaluation must maximize transplant success and protect recipients from receiving organs at increased risk of premature failure. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydatid cyst of the liver-criteria for the selection of appropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Menezes da Silva, A

    2003-02-01

    The appropriate treatment of hydatid cysts of the liver is determined by several factors, namely the patient, the cyst, the therapeutic resources and the physician. Characteristics of cysts, can be described by ultrasonography (US). Based on US images, we can classify hydatid cysts, according the evolutionary phase of the larval parasite and to choose the most appropriate therapeutic approach. US is also important to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. Concerning the therapeutic methods, surgery had long been the only treatment available for the hydatid cyst of the liver. Beginning the 1970s benzimidazoles, Mebendazole and Albendazole, have been used for the treatment of the hydatid disease and in the early 1980s, with the development of diagnostic US, the deliberate puncture of abdominal cysts, particularly those in the liver, was evaluated this lead to puncture/aspiration, followed by injection of a scolicide which became a therapeutic method known as puncture, aspiration, injection and re-aspiration (PAIR). So, according to the cyst's characteristics based on US evaluation we can establish a therapeutic strategy: cysts type 1 and 3 may be treated by chemotherapy. Alternative treatment should be PAIR but only if the cysts cannot be treated with benzimidazoles. If there are contraindications for PAIR and chemotherapy the treatment should be surgical. Type 2 hydatid cysts can be treated by PAIR following initial treatment with benzimidazoles. If PAIR is not feasible or there is no evidence of degenerative changes after chemotherapy, surgery is indicated. Type 4 cysts are usually inactive and, in these cases, treatment is not indicated. If there is evidence that the cysts contents are still viable PAIR may be indicate. If PAIR is not possible, surgery is the method of choice. Cysts type 5 do not require treatment.

  14. Rate of tumor growth predicts recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation in patients beyond Milan or UCSF criteria.

    PubMed

    Hanouneh, I A; Macaron, C; Lopez, R; Aucejo, F; Zein, N N

    2011-12-01

    It is likely that some patients whose tumor burdens exceed the current transplant criteria have favorable tumor biology, and that these patients would have low risk of tumor recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). To assess the rate of tumor growth as selection criteria for LT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We identified all patients who underwent LT for HCC in our institution from 2002 to 2008. Total tumor volume (TTV) was calculated as the sum of the volumes of all tumors on pretransplantation imaging [(4/3)πr3, where r is the maximum radius of each HCC]. The rate of tumor growth was calculated as per-month change in TTV on sequential pretransplantation imaging before any locoregional therapy. A Kaplan-Meier plot was constructed and Cox regression analysis performed. Ninety-two patients were included in the study. The median follow-up was 19.5 (range 10.7-30.7) months during which 12 patients (13%) experienced recurrence of HCC. Twenty-four patients (26%) had HCC beyond the Milan criteria, and the overall survival rate of the entire group was 72%. Higher pre-LT alpha-fetoprotein (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01; P=.001), poorly differentiated tumors (HR 13; P=.039), the presence of microvascular invasion (HR 7.9; P=.001), higher TTV (HR 1.03; P<.001), and faster tumor growth (HR 1.09; P<.001) were significantly associated with the risk of recurrence. A cutoff value of tumor growth of 1.61 cm3/mo was chosen on the basis of the risk of recurrence with the use of a receiver operating characteristic curve. Patients beyond the Milan criteria with tumor growth<1.61 cm3/mo experienced less recurrence (11% vs 58%; P=.023) than those beyond the Milan criteria with tumor growth>1.61 cm3/mo. Similarly, rate of tumor growth predicted HCC recurrence in those beyond the University of California of San Francisco (UCSF) criteria. Patients with slowly growing tumor who would be currently excluded from LT because tumor burden exceeds traditional Milan and UCSF

  15. Risk of venous congestion in live donors of extended right liver graft

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Arnold; Sgourakis, George; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Beckebaum, Susanne; Cicinnati, Vito R; Schmidt, Hartmut; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Broelsch, Christoph E; Malagó, Massimo; Schroeder, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate middle hepatic vein (MHV) management in adult living donor liver transplantation and safer remnant volumes (RV). METHODS: There were 59 grafts with and 12 grafts without MHV (including 4 with MHV-5/8 reconstructions). All donors underwent our five-step protocol evaluation containing a preoperative protocol liver biopsy Congestive vs non-congestive RV, remnant-volume-body-weight ratios (RVBWR) and postoperative outcomes were evaluated in 71 right graft living donors. Dominant vs non-dominant MHV anatomy in total liver volume (d-MHV/TLV vs nd-MHV/TLV) was constellated with large/small congestion volumes (CV-index). Small for size (SFS) and non-SFS remnant considerations were based on standard cut-off- RVBWR and RV/TLV. Non-congestive RVBWR was based on non-congestive RV. RESULTS: MHV and non-MHV remnants showed no significant differences in RV, RV/TLV, RVBWR, total bilirubin, or INR. SFS-remnants with RV/TLV < 30% and non-SFS-remnants with RV/TLV ≥ 30% showed no significant differences either. RV and RVBWR for non-MHV (n = 59) and MHV-containing (n = 12) remnants were 550 ± 95 mL and 0.79 ± 0.1 mL vs 568 ± 97 mL and 0.79 ± 0.13, respectively (P = 0.423 and P = 0.919. Mean left RV/TLV was 35.8% ± 3.9%. Non-MHV (n = 59) and MHV-containing (n = 12) remnants (34.1% ± 3% vs 36% ± 4% respectively, P = 0.148. Eight SFS-remnants with RVBWR < 0.65 had a significantly smaller RV/TLV than 63 non-SFS-remnants with RVBWR ≥ 0.65 [SFS: RV/TLV 32.4% (range: 28%-35.7%) vs non-SFS: RV/TLV 36.2% (range: 26.1%-45.5%), P < 0.009. Six SFS-remnants with RV/TLV < 30% had significantly smaller RVBWR than 65 non-SFS-remnants with RV/TLV ≥ 30% (0.65 (range: 0.6-0.7) vs 0.8 (range: 0.6-1.27), P < 0.01. Two (2.8%) donors developed reversible liver failure. RVBWR and RV/TLV were concordant in 25%-33% of SFS and in 92%-94% of non-SFS remnants. MHV management options including complete MHV vs MHV-4A selective retention were necessary in n = 12 vs n = 2 remnants

  16. The use of extended criteria donors decreases one-year survival in high-risk lung recipients: A review of the United Network of Organ Sharing Database.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Matthew J; Sanchez, Pablo G; Evans, Charles F; Wang, Yan; Kon, Zachary N; Rajagopal, Keshava; Iacono, Aldo T; Gammie, James S; Griffith, Bartley P; Pham, Si M

    2016-09-01

    The study objective was to investigate the impact of matching donor quality to recipient severity on survival after lung transplant. By using the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing dataset, we analyzed lung transplant recipients from May 4, 2005, to December 31, 2012. By using adjusted Cox regressions, we identified extended criteria donors as those who had 1 or more of the following: age 65 years or more, smoking history of 20 pack-years or more, diabetes mellitus, or African-American race. All other donors were considered standard donors. Recipients were categorized by lung allocation score: lung allocation score less than 70 and lung allocation score 70 or greater. Our primary outcome was 1-year survival after lung transplantation. Of the 10,995 lung recipients, 3792 (34%) received extended criteria donor organs. Extended criteria donors were associated with an increased hazard of death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.56; P < .001). One-year survival was 87% and 82% (P < .001) for recipients with a lung allocation score less than 70 and 80% and 72% (P = .017) for recipients with a lung allocation score 70 or greater who received standard donor and extended criteria donor organs, respectively. In Cox regression models, the hazard of death was increased for recipients with a lung allocation score less than 70 + extended criteria donor (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.27-1.60; P < .001), recipients with a lung allocation score 70 or greater + standard donor (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.71; P = .005), and was the highest for recipients with a lung allocation score 70 or greater + extended criteria donor (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.40-2.33; P < .001) compared with recipients with a lung allocation score less than 70 + standard donor. Extended criteria donors are associated with reduced 1-year survival, and recipients with a lung allocation score 70 or greater who receive extended criteria donor

  17. Outcome following right-extended split liver transplantation in the recent transplant era: Single-centre analysis of a German transplant centre.

    PubMed

    Herden, Uta; Fischer, Lutz; Koch, Martina; Li, Jun; Achilles, Eike-Gert; Nashan, Björn

    2018-05-20

    When a sufficiently high-quality liver is available, classic liver graft splitting is performed. In such cases, a small child receives the left-lateral split graft, with subsequent transplantation of the right-extended graft in an adult. We analysed 64 patients who received right-extended liver grafts from 2007-2015, and compared outcomes between cases of external versus in-house graft splitting. We found excellent donor data and comparable recipient characteristics. Cold ischemic time was significantly longer for external (14±2 h; n=38) versus internal (12±2 h; n=26) liver graft splitting. Compared to the internal splitting group, the external liver graft splitting group showed significantly reduced 1- and 5-year patient survival (100% versus 84%; P=.035) and higher rates of biliary (24% versus 12%) and vascular (8% versus 0%) complications. The outcomes following right-extended split LTX are disappointing given the excellent organ quality. External liver graft splitting was associated with worse outcome and surgical complication rates. This may be related to the prolonged cold ischemic time due to two-fold transportation, as well as the ignorance of the splitting procedure details and related pitfalls. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Proposal for new selection criteria considering pre-transplant muscularity and visceral adiposity in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Yuhei; Kaido, Toshimi; Okumura, Shinya; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Shirai, Hisaya; Yao, Siyuan; Yagi, Shintaro; Kamo, Naoko; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2018-04-01

    The significance of pre-operative body composition has recently attracted much attention in various diseases. However, cut-off values for these parameters remain undetermined, and these factors are not currently included in selection criteria for recipients of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Using computed tomography of 657 donors for LDLT, skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity were evaluated by using skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR). Sex-specific cut-offs for SMI, IMAC, and VSR were determined, and correlations with outcomes after LDLT in 277 recipients were examined with the aim of establishing new selection criteria for LDLT. On the basis of younger donor data, we determined sex-specific cut-off values for low SMI, high IMAC, and high VSR (mean ± 2 standard deviations). Patients with all three factors showed the lowest survival rate after LDLT (1 year survival rate, 41.2%; P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, low SMI (P = 0.002), high IMAC (P = 0.002), and high VSR (P = 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for mortality after LDLT. Based on these findings, we have excluded patients showing all three factors (low SMI, high IMAC, and high VSR) as candidates for LDLT since October 2016. Using cut-off values determined from healthy donors, we have established new selection criteria for LDLT including body composition, which should improve post-transplant outcomes. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  19. Selective hypertrophy of the lobus caudatus as a novel approach enabling extended right hepatectomy in the presence of a non-perfused left lateral liver lobe.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Georgi; Schmelzle, Moritz; Thelen, Armin; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Krenzien, Felix; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Moche, Michael; Jonas, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a well-established technique to enhance functional hepatic reserves of segments II and III before curative extended right hepatectomy for tumors of the right liver lobe. However, an adequate hepatopetal flow of the left lateral portal vein branches is required for a sufficient PVE-associated hypertrophy. Here, we report a 65-year old patient suffering from a locally advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the right liver lobe and segment IV. A curative extended right hepatectomy after preoperative PVE of liver segments IV-VIII was initially impossible because of partial thrombosis of the left lateral portal vein branches resulting in an ischemic-type atrophy of segments II and III. However, due to a massive hypertrophy of the caudate lobe following PVE of liver segments IV-VIII, subsequent extended right hepatectomy with intraoperative thrombectomy of segments II and III was made possible. To our knowledge this is the first case in which an extended right hepatectomy for a liver malignancy, in the presence of atrophic left lateral section, was made possible by a massive PVE-associated hypertrophy of the caudate lobe.

  20. Modular degradable dendrimers enable small RNAs to extend survival in an aggressive liver cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kejin; Nguyen, Liem H.; Miller, Jason B.; Yan, Yunfeng; Kos, Petra; Xiong, Hu; Li, Lin; Hao, Jing; Minnig, Jonathan T.; Siegwart, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    RNA-based cancer therapies are hindered by the lack of delivery vehicles that avoid cancer-induced organ dysfunction, which exacerbates carrier toxicity. We address this issue by reporting modular degradable dendrimers that achieve the required combination of high potency to tumors and low hepatotoxicity to provide a pronounced survival benefit in an aggressive genetic cancer model. More than 1,500 dendrimers were synthesized using sequential, orthogonal reactions where ester degradability was systematically integrated with chemically diversified cores, peripheries, and generations. A lead dendrimer, 5A2-SC8, provided a broad therapeutic window: identified as potent [EC50 < 0.02 mg/kg siRNA against FVII (siFVII)] in dose–response experiments, and well tolerated in separate toxicity studies in chronically ill mice bearing MYC-driven tumors (>75 mg/kg dendrimer repeated dosing). Delivery of let-7g microRNA (miRNA) mimic inhibited tumor growth and dramatically extended survival. Efficacy stemmed from a combination of a small RNA with the dendrimer’s own negligible toxicity, therefore illuminating an underappreciated complication in treating cancer with RNA-based drugs. PMID:26729861

  1. King’s College Hospital criteria for non-acetaminophen induced acute liver failure in an international cohort of children

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vinay; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Dhawan, Anil; Ng, Vicky L.; Im, Kyungah; Belle, Steven; Squires, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To validate King’s College Hospital criteria (KCHC) in children with non-acetaminophen (APAP) induced pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) and to determine whether re-optimizing the KCHC would improve predictive accuracy. Study design We utilized the PALF study group database. Primary outcomes were survival without liver transplantation (LT) versus death at 21 days following enrollment. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to determine if modification of KCHC parameters would improve classification of death versus survival. Results Among 163 patients who met KCHC, 54 patients (33.1%) died within 21 days. Sensitivity of KCHC in this cohort was significantly lower than in the original study (61% vs 91%, p=0.002), and specificity did not differ significantly. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of KCHC for this cohort was 33% and 88% respectively. CART analysis yielded the following optimized parameters to predict death: grade 2–4 encephalopathy, international normalized ratio >4.02 and total bilirubin >2.02 mg/dL. These parameters did not improve PPV, but NPV was significantly better (88% vs. 92%, p<0.0001). Conclusions KCHC does not reliably predict death in PALF. With a PPV of 33%, twice as many participants who met KCHC recovered spontaneously than died, indicating that using KCHC may cause over utilization of LT. Re-optimized cutpoints for KCHC parameters improved NPV, but not PPV. Parameters beyond the KCHC should be evaluated to create a predictive model for PALF. PMID:22906509

  2. Hepatic artery embolisation with a novel radiopaque polymer causes extended liver necrosis in pigs due to occlusion of the concomitant portal vein.

    PubMed

    Maurer, C A; Renzulli, P; Baer, H U; Mettler, D; Uhlschmid, G; Neuenschwander, P; Suter, U W; Triller, J; Zimmermann, A

    2000-02-01

    In an attempt to overcome some of the problems encountered with the materials available for liver embolisation, we investigated a novel radiopaque polymer of the polyurethane family (Degra-Bloc). Hepatic artery embolisation of one liver lobe using polyurethane was performed in 19 healthy pigs. Microcirculatory changes were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Radiological and pathological examinations of the livers, hearts and lungs removed provided information about the extent and effect of the embolisation. None of the pigs died due to hepatic failure or toxicity of polyurethane. Microcirculation of embolised liver lobes significantly decreased from 106 (+/-15) perfusion units (PU) to 45 (+/-6) PU immediately after embolisation and further to 28 (+/-7) PU before euthanasia. At this time conventional and angiographic X-ray controls demonstrated the radiopaque casts extending up to the peripheral arteries with signs of degradation over time but without formation of collateral vessels. The main pathological findings consisted of destruction of the portal tract structures and also of large areas of liver necrosis. Polyurethane was encountered in arterioles as small as 10-20 microm, but not in liver sinusoids, hearts or lungs. The novel polymer called DegraBloc is a biocompatible, slowly degradable, radiopaque embolic agent. The occlusion of the arterial tree up to the smallest arteriolar diameter combined with concomitant portal vein occlusion leads to sharp segmental necrosis in pig livers without formation of significant collaterals and without systemic embolism. In the treatment of liver tumours polyurethane might provide a promising alternative to conventional embolic materials, provided that it is used with care in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.

  3. Opportunities and challenges of expanded criteria organs in liver and kidney transplantation as a response to organ shortage.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    In 1989, there were 19,000 patients on the UNOS (United Network of Organ Sharing) wait list for organs compared to 110,000 today. Without an equivalent increase in donors, the patients awaiting these organs for transplant face increasing severity of illness and risk of dying without receiving a transplant. This disparity in supply and demand has led to acceptance of organs with lower than expected success rates compared to previous standard donors variously defined as extended criteria donors in order to increase transplantation. The reluctance to wider use of these types of organs is based on the less than expected transplant center graft and patient survival results associated with their use, as well as the increased resources required to care for the patients who receive these organs. The benefits need to be compared to the survival of not receiving a transplant and remaining on the waiting list rather than on outcomes of receiving a standard donor. A lack of a systematic risk outcomes adjustment is one of the most important factors preventing more extensive utilization as transplant centers are held to patient and graft survival statistics as a performance measure by multiple regulatory organizations and insurers. Newer classification systems of such donors may allow a more systematic approach to analyzing the specific risks to individualized patients. Due to changes in donor policies across the country, there has been an increase in Extended Criteria Donors (ECD) organs procured by organ procurement organizations (OPO) but their uneven acceptance by the transplant centers has contributed to an increase in discards and organs not being used. This is one of the reasons that wider sharing of organs is currently receiving much attention. Transplanting ECD organs presents unique challenges and innovative approaches to achieve satisfactory results. Improved logistics and information technology combined strategies for improving donor quality with may prevent discards

  4. A combined model based on spleen stiffness measurement and Baveno VI criteria to rule out high-risk varices in advanced chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Ravaioli, Federico; Marasco, Giovanni; Colli, Agostino; Dajti, Elton; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Pinzani, Massimo; Festi, Davide

    2018-05-03

    Recently, Baveno VI guidelines suggested that esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) can be avoided in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease (cACLD) who have a liver stiffness measurement (LSM) <20 kPa and platelet count >150,000/mm 3 . We aimed to: assess the performance of spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) in ruling out patients with high-risk varices (HRV); validate Baveno VI criteria in a large population and assess how the sequential use of Baveno VI criteria and SSM could safely avoid the need for endoscopy. We retrospectively analyzed 498 patients with cACLD who had undergone LSM/SSM by transient elastography (TE) (FibroScan®), platelet count and EGDs from 2012 to 2016 referred to our tertiary centre. The new combined model was validated internally by a split-validation method, and externally in a prospective multicentre cohort of 115 patients. SSM, LSM, platelet count and Child-Pugh-B were independent predictors of HRV. Applying the newly identified SSM cut-off (≤46 kPa) or Baveno VI criteria, 35.8% and 21.7% of patients in the internal validation cohort could have avoided EGD, with only 2% of HRVs being missed with either model. The combination of SSM with Baveno VI criteria would have avoided an additional 22.5% of EGDs, reaching a final value of 43.8% spared EGDs, with <5% missed HRVs. Results were confirmed in the prospective external validation cohort, as the combined Baveno VI/SSM ≤46 model would have safely spared (0 HRV missed) 37.4% of EGDs, compared to 16.5% when using the Baveno VI criteria alone. A non-invasive prediction model combining SSM with Baveno VI criteria may be useful to rule out HRV and could make it possible to avoid a significantly larger number of unnecessary EGDs compared to Baveno VI criteria only. Spleen stiffness measurement assessed by transient elastography, the most widely used elastography technique, is a non-invasive technique that can help the physician to better stratify the degree of portal

  5. Laparoscopic Splenectomy with Technical Standardization and Selection Criteria for Standard or Hand-Assisted Approach in 390 Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Kinjo, Nao; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Tsutsumi, Norifumi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-08-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is still challenging in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. This study was designed to establish safe and less invasive LS in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. We analyzed 390 patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, who underwent LS between 1993 and 2013. Patients were divided into 3 time periods; early (1993 to 2004, n = 106); middle (2005 to 2008, n = 159); and late (2008 to 2013, n = 125). During the middle time period, standardized technique for LS and selection criteria for hand-assisted LS were adopted. Patients with spleen volume ≥ 1,000 mL by CT volumetry, large perisplenic collateral vessels, and/or Child-Pugh score ≥ 9, underwent hand-assisted LS. During the late time period, the selection criteria were refined and patients with spleen volume ≥ 600 mL underwent hand-assisted LS. Conversion to open splenectomy decreased (10.4% in the early time period, 1.9% in the middle time period, and 3.2% in the late time period, p = 0.004), median blood loss decreased (300g, 87g, and 98g, respectively, p < 0.001), and the success rate of pure LS tended to improve (87.2%, 89.5%, and 98.0%, respectively, p = 0.110). Mortality was 0% in each time period, Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb or more complications tended to decrease (5.7%, 2.5%, and 0.8%, respectively, p = 0.081), and technique-related complications decreased significantly (10.4%, 3.8%, and 2.4%, respectively, p = 0.014). Laparoscopic splenectomy is now a safe and less invasive approach, even in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, because of its technical standardization with the refined selection criteria for pure or hand-assisted LS. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for monitoring future liver remnant function after portal vein embolization and extended hemihepatectomy: A prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Dominik; Raabe, Philip; Lüdemann, Lutz; Malinowski, Maciej; Stockmann, Martin; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate changes in liver function after right portal vein embolization (PVE) and extended right hemihepatectomy using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-DTPA-enhanced (Gd-EOB-DTPA) MRI. In this prospective trial, 37 patients undergoing PVE were examined before and 14 and 28 days after PVE and 10 days after extended hemihepatectomy using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Lobar volume, kinetic growth rate (KGR), relative enhancement (RE) as well as hepatocellular uptake index (HUI) and fat signal fraction (FSF) were calculated for each lobe. RE of the left liver lobe (LLL) was steadily increasing after PVE and decreased to 0.48 ± 0.19 10 days after surgery, which is significantly lower than 14 days and 28 days post PVE (P < 0.05). KGR was 14.06 ± 9.82%/week for the period from PVE to 14 days after PVE. HUI of the LLL increased steadily after PVE and was significantly higher at both 14 and 28 days after PVE compared to pre PVE (P < 0.05). HUI of the residual liver after surgery was lower than before. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may be used to monitor the functional increase in the FLR after PVE and to depict the intraoperative liver injury leading to a decrease in liver remnant function. • The most significant FLR volume increase happens within the first 14 days. • No MRI parameter was able to predict the success of FLR growth. • Our data suggest an early resection about 14 days after PVE. • Routine Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI might be suitable to replace ICG-test.

  7. Comparison of the sequential organ failure assessment score with the King's College Hospital criteria and the model for end-stage liver disease score for the prognosis of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Cholongitas, Evangelos; Theocharidou, Eleni; Vasianopoulou, Panayota; Betrosian, Alex; Shaw, Steve; Patch, David; O'Beirne, James; Agarwal, Banwari; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2012-04-01

    Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex multiorgan illness. An assessment of the prognosis is essential for the accurate identification of patients for whom survival without liver transplantation (LT) is unlikely. The aims of this study were the comparison of prognostic models [King's College Hospital (KCH), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II)] and the identification of independent prognostic indicators of outcome. We evaluated consecutive patients with severe acetaminophen-induced ALF who were admitted to the intensive care unit. At admission, demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were recorded. The discriminative ability of each prognostic score at the baseline was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In addition, using a multiple logistic regression, we assessed independent factors associated with outcome. In all, 125 consecutive patients with acetaminophen-induced ALF were evaluated: 67 patients (54%) survived with conservative medical management (group 1), and 58 patients (46%) either died without LT (28%) or underwent LT (18%; group 2). Group 1 patients had significantly lower median APACHE II (10 versus 14) and SOFA scores (9 versus 12) than group 2 patients (P < 0.001). The independent indicators associated with death or LT were a longer prothrombin time (P = 0.007), the inspiratory oxygen concentration (P = 0.005), and the lactate level at 12 hours (P < 0.001). The KCH criteria had the highest specificity (83%) but the lowest sensitivity (47%), and the SOFA score had the best discriminative ability (AUC = 0.79). In conclusion, for patients with acetaminophen-induced ALF, the SOFA score performed better than the other prognostic scores, and this reflected the presence of multiorgan dysfunction. A further evaluation of SOFA with the KCH criteria is warranted. Copyright © 2012

  8. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular cancer: UCL experience in 137 adult cirrhotic patients. Alpha-foetoprotein level and locoregional treatment as refined selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Olga; Lai, Quirino; Goffette, Pierre; Finet, Patrice; De Reyck, Chantal; Roggen, Francine; Sempoux, Christine; Doffagne, Erik; Reding, Raymond; Lerut, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a validated treatment for selected cirrhotics with hepatocellular cancer (HCC). A retrospective single center study including 137 recipients having proven HCC was done to refine inclusion criteria for LT as well as to look at impact of locoregional treatment (LRT) on outcome. At pre-LT imaging, 42 (30.6%) patients were Milan criteria (MC)-OUT; 28 (20.4%) were University of California San Francisco criteria (UCSFC)-OUT. Pre-LT LRT was performed in 109 (79.6%) patients. Multivariate analysis identified four factors to be independently predictive of recurrence: tumour number >3, AFP level ≥400 ng/ml, microvascular invasion and rejection needing anti-lymphocytic antibodies. When considering pre-transplant variables only, AFP level ≥400 ng/ml (HR = 5.13; P < 0.0001) was the unique risk factor for recurrence; conversely, application of LRT was protective (HR = 0.42; P = 0.04). MC-IN patients having LRT (n = 79) had the best 5-year tumour-free survival (TFS) (91.6%). MC-IN patients without LRT (n = 16) and MC-OUT patients with LRT (n = 30) had similar good TFS (72.7% vs.77.5%); finally MC-OUT patients without LRT (n = 12) had the worst results (45.0%; vs. 1st group: P < 0.0001). Immediate pre-LT AFP and aggressive pre-transplant LRT strategy, especially in MC-OUT patients, are both important elements to further expand inclusion criteria without compromising long-term results of HCC liver recipients. © 2012 The Authors. Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  9. Alpha-fetoprotein and (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography predict tumor recurrence better than Milan criteria in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Geun; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Suh, Suk-Won; Yoo, Tae; Kim, Hyeyoung; Park, Min-Su; Choi, YoungRok; Paeng, Jin Chul; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong

    2016-04-01

    Given the organ shortage for liver transplantation (LT) and the limitations of the current morphology-based selection criteria, improved criteria are needed to achieve the maximum benefit of LT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesized that a combination of biological markers may better predict the prognosis than the Milan criteria. HCC patients (n=123) with preoperative data on serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) positivity underwent live-donor LT between January 2003 and December 2009. The cut-off values for serum AFP levels (200 ng/ml) and (18)F-FDG PET positivity (1.10) for tumor recurrence were determined by c-statistics using receiver operating characteristic curves. Univariate and multivariate analyses with preoperative variables were performed to find pre-transplant prognostic factors. Disease-free survival rates and overall survival rates were analysed with regard to serum AFP levels and (18)F-FDG PET positivity. The 5-year disease-free survival rates and overall survival rates were 80.3% and 81.6% respectively. (18)F-FDG PET positivity (hazard ratio (HR) 9.766, 95% CI 3.557-26.816; p<0.001) and serum AFP level (HR 6.234, 95% CI 2.643-14.707; p<0.001) were the only significant pre-transplant prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis; tumor number and size were not significant. A combination of criteria showed that the biologically high-risk group (AFP level ⩾200 ng/ml and PET-positive) had an HR of 29.069 (95% CI 8.797-96.053; p<0.001) compared with the double-negative group. Use of the Milan criteria yielded an HR of 1.351 (95% CI 0.500-3.652; p=0.553). The combination of the serum AFP level and (18)F-FDG PET data predicted better outcomes than those using the Milan criteria, improving objectivity when adult-to-adult living donor LT is contemplated. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alpha-fetoprotein level > 1000 ng/mL as an exclusion criterion for liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma meeting the Milan criteria.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Bilal; Mehta, Neil; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Roberts, John P; Yao, Francis Y

    2014-08-01

    Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been increasingly recognized as a marker for a poor prognosis after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many published reports, however, have included a large proportion of patients with HCC beyond the Milan criteria, and the effects of incorporating AFP as an exclusion criterion for LT remain unclear. We studied 211 consecutive patients undergoing LT for HCC within the Milan criteria according to imaging under the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease organ allocation system between June 2002 and January 2009. The majority (93.4%) had locoregional therapy before LT. The median follow-up was 4.5 years (minimum = 2 years). The Kaplan-Meier 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 94.3% and 83.4%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, significant predictors of HCC recurrence included vascular invasion [hazard ratio (HR) = 10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.9-26, P < 0.001], a pathological tumor stage beyond the University of California San Francisco criteria (HR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.36-12.6, P = 0.01), an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL (HR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.3-15.3, P = 0.02), and an AFP level > 500 ng/mL (HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.04-9.4, P = 0.04). In a multivariate analysis, vascular invasion was the only significant predictor of tumor recurrence (HR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.9-19, P = 0.02). An AFP level > 1000 ng/mL was the strongest pretransplant variable predicting vascular invasion (odds ratio = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.6-19.1, P = 0.006). The 1- and 5-year rates of survival without recurrence were 90% and 52.7%, respectively, for patients with an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL and 95% and 80.3%, respectively, for patients with an AFP level ≤ 1000 ng/mL (P = 0.026). Applying an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL as a cutoff would have resulted in the exclusion of 4.7% of the patients fr m LT and a 20% reduction in HCC recurrence. In conclusion, an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL may be a surrogate for vascular invasion and may be used to predict

  11. Development of a method to extend by boron neutron capture process the therapeutic possibilities of a liver autograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinelli, Tazio; Altieri, Saverio; Fossati, F.; Zonta, Aris; Prati, U.; Roveda, L.; Nano, Rosanna

    1997-02-01

    We present results on surgical technique, neutron filed and irradiation facility concerning the original treatment of the liver diffused metastases. Our method plans to irradiate the isolated organ at a thermal neutron field soon after having been explanted and boron enriched and before being grafted into the same donor. In particular the crucial point of boron uptake was investigated by a rat model with a relevant number of procedure. We give for the first time statistically significant results on the selective boron absorption by tumor tissues.

  12. In Vitro Drug-Induced Liver Injury Prediction: Criteria Optimization of Efflux Transporter IC50 and Physicochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Yucha, Robert W; He, Kan; Shi, Qin; Cai, Lining; Nakashita, Yukie; Xia, Cindy Q; Liao, Mingxiang

    2017-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a severe drug adverse response, which cannot always be reliably predicted in preclinical or clinical studies. Lack of observation of DILI during preclinical and clinical drug development has led to DILI being a leading cause of drug withdrawal from the market. As DILI is potentially fatal, pharmaceutical companies have been developing in vitro tools to screen for potential liver injury. Screens for physicochemical properties, mitochondrial function, and transport protein inhibition have all been employed to varying degrees of success. In vitro inhibition of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) has become a major risk factor for in vivo DILI predictions, yet discrepancies exist in which methods to use and the extent to which BSEP inhibition predicts clinical DILI. The presented work focuses on optimizing DILI predictions by comparing BSEP inhibition via the membrane vesicle assay and the hepatocyte-based BSEPcyte assay, as well as dual and triple liabilities. BSEP transport inhibition of taurcholic acids and glycocholic acids were similar for up to 29 drugs tested, in both the vesicle and hepatocyte-based assays. Positive and negative DILI predictions were optimized at a 50-µM cutoff value for 50 drugs using both NIH Livertox and PharmaPendium databases. Additionally, dual inhibition of BSEP and other efflux transporters (multidrug resistance-associated protein [MRP]2, MRP3, or MRP4) provided no observable predictive benefit compared with BSEP inhibition alone. Eighty-five percent of drugs with high molecular weight (>600 Da), high cLogP (>3), or a daily dose >100 mg and BSEP inhibition were associated with DILI. Triple liability of BSEP inhibition, high molecular weight, and high cLogP attained a 100% positive prediction rate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Classifying CT/MR findings in patients with suspicion of hepatocellular carcinoma: Comparison of liver imaging reporting and data system and criteria-free Likert scale reporting models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Zhu, Fei-Peng; Xu, Xun; Wang, Qing; Wu, Chen-Jiang; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2016-02-01

    To compare the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) and a criteria-free Likert scale (LS) reporting models for classifying computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MR) findings of suspicious hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Imaging data of 281 hepatic nodules in 203 patients were retrospectively included. Imaging characteristics including diameter, arterial hyperenhancement, washout, and capsule were reviewed independently by two groups of readers using LI-RADS and LS (range, score 1-5). LS is primarily based on the overall impression of image findings without using fixed criteria. Interreader agreement (IRA), intraclass agreement (ICA), and diagnostic performance were determined by Fleiss, Cohen's kappa (κ), and logistic regression, respectively. There were 167 contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) versus 114 MR data. Overall, IRA was moderate (κ = 0.47, 0.52); IRA was moderate-to-good for arterial hyperenhancement, washout, and capsule (κ = 0.56-0.69); excellent for diameter and tumor embolus (κ = 0.99). Overall, ICA between LI-RADS and LS was moderate (κ = 0.44-0.50); ICA was good for scores 1-2 (κ = 0.71-0.90), moderate for scores 3 and 5 (κ = 0.41-0.52), but very poor for score 4 (κ = 0.11-0.19). LI-RADS produced significantly lower accuracy (78.6% vs. 87.2%) and sensitivity (72.1% vs. 92.8%), higher specificity (97.3% vs. 71.2%) and positive likelihood ratio (+LR: 26.32 vs. 3.23) in diagnosis of HCC. CECT produced relatively low IRA, ICA, and diagnostic ability against MR. There were substantial variations in liver observations between LI-RADS and LS. Further study is needed to investigate ICA between CECT and MR. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Overextended Criteria Donors: Experience of an Italian Transplantation Center.

    PubMed

    Nure, E; Lirosi, M C; Frongillo, F; Bianco, G; Silvestrini, N; Fiorillo, C; Sganga, G; Agnes, S

    2015-09-01

    The increasing gap between the number of patients who could benefit from liver transplantation and the number of available donors has fueled efforts to maximize the donor pool using marginal grafts that usually were discarded for transplantation. This study included data of all patients who received decreased donor liver grafts between January 2004 and January 2013 (n = 218) with the use of a prospectively collected database. Patients with acute liver failure, retransplantation, pediatric transplantation, and split liver transplantation were excluded. Donors were classified as standard donor (SD), extended criteria donor (ECD), and overextended criteria donor (OECD). The primary endpoints of the study were early allograft primary dysfunction (PDF), primary nonfunction (PNF), and patient survival (PS), whereas incidence of major postoperative complications was the secondary endpoint. In our series we demonstrated that OECD have similar outcome in terms of survival and incidence of complication after liver transplantation as ideal grafts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Extending the golden hour: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in a highly lethal swine liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rachel M; Williams, Timothy K; Grayson, John Kevin; Lamb, Christopher M; Cannon, Jeremy W; Clement, Nathan F; Galante, Joseph M; Neff, Lucas P

    2016-03-01

    Combat-injured patients may require rapid and sustained support during transport; however, the prolonged aortic occlusion produced by conventional resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) may lead to substantial morbidity. Partial REBOA (P-REBOA) may permit longer periods of occlusion by allowing some degree of distal perfusion. However, the ability of this procedure to limit exsanguination is unclear. We evaluated the impact of P-REBOA on immediate survival and ongoing hemorrhage in a highly lethal swine liver injury model. Fifteen Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized, instrumented, splenectomized, and subjected to rapid 10% total blood loss followed by 30% liver amputation. Coagulopathy was created through colloid hemodilution. Randomized swine received no intervention (control), P-REBOA, or complete REBOA (C-REBOA). Central mean arterial pressure (cMAP), carotid blood flow, and blood loss were recorded. Balloons remained inflated in the P-REBOA and C-REBOA groups for 90 minutes followed by graded deflation. The study ended at 180 minutes from onset of hemorrhage or death of the animal. Survival analysis was performed, and data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc pairwise comparisons. Mean survival times in the control, P-REBOA, and C-REBOA groups were, 25 ± 21, 86 ± 40, and 163 ± 20 minutes, respectively (p < 0.001). Blood loss was greater in the P-REBOA group than the C-REBOA or control groups, but this difference was not significant (4,722 ± 224, 3,834 ± 319, 3,818 ± 37 mL, respectively, p = 0.10). P-REBOA resulted in maintenance of near-baseline carotid blood flow and cMAP, while C-REBOA generated extreme cMAP and prolonged supraphysiologic carotid blood flow. Both experimental groups experienced profound decreases in cMAP following balloon deflation. In the setting of severe ongoing hemorrhage, P-REBOA increased survival time beyond the golden hour while maintaining cMAP and carotid flow

  16. [Classification of Histopathological Findings in the Liver Cited in the Pesticides Risk Assessment Reports Published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan and Thesaurus Construction Based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Umemura, Takashi; Yoshida, Midori

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological findings are important to the understanding of toxicity profiles of pesticides. The liver is often a target organ of chemicals. In the present study, histopathological findings in the liver cited in the pesticides risk assessment reports published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan were classified. The histopathological findings were obtained in repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity studies of mice, rats and dogs and carcinogenicity studies of rodents. After the classification, a thesaurus was constructed based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria. We recommend the use of INHAND criteria in risk assessment reports to improve mutual understanding between applicants and risk assessors.

  17. The phytochemical, EGCG, extends lifespan by reducing liver and kidney function damage and improving age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yucun; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Gong, Liya; Zhao, Yue; Li, Qiang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2013-12-01

    It is known that phytochemicals have many potential health benefits in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term consumption of the phytochemical, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on body growth, disease protection, and lifespan in healthy rats. 68 male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control and EGCG groups. Variables influencing lifespan such as blood pressure, serum glucose and lipids, inflammation, and oxidative stress were dynamically determined from weaning to death. The median lifespan of controls was 92.5 weeks. EGCG increased median lifespan to 105.0 weeks and delayed death by approximately 8-12 weeks. Blood pressure and serum glucose and lipids significantly increased with age in both groups compared with the levels at 0 week. However, there were no differences in these variables between the two groups during the whole lifespan. Inflammation and oxidative stress significantly increased with age in both groups compared with 0 week and were significantly lower in serum and liver and kidney tissues in the EGCG group. Damage to liver and kidney function was significantly alleviated in the EGCG group. In addition, EGCG decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of transcription factor NF-κB and increased the upstream protein expressions of silent mating type information regulation two homolog one (SIRT1) and forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a). In conclusion, EGCG extends lifespan in healthy rats by reducing liver and kidney damage and improving age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling by activating the longevity factors FoxO3a and SIRT1. © 2013 the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Response Evaluation of Malignant Liver Lesions After TACE/SIRT: Comparison of Manual and Semi-Automatic Measurement of Different Response Criteria in Multislice CT.

    PubMed

    Höink, Anna Janina; Schülke, Christoph; Koch, Raphael; Löhnert, Annika; Kammerer, Sara; Fortkamp, Rasmus; Heindel, Walter; Buerke, Boris

    2017-11-01

    -automatically and manually.. Citation Format · Höink AJ, Schülke C, Koch R et al. Response Evaluation of Malignant Liver Lesions After TACE/SIRT: Comparison of Manual and Semi-Automatic Measurement of Different Response Criteria in Multislice CT. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 1067 - 1075. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography as an objective substitute for CT morphologic response criteria in patients undergoing chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Yujiro; Yoshioka, Ryuji; Gonoi, Wataru; Sugawara, Toshitaka; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Hashimoto, Masaji; Shindoh, Junichi

    2018-05-01

    The computed tomography (CT) morphologic response of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) after chemotherapy is reportedly correlated with pathologic response and survival outcomes of patients undergoing surgery. However, they are rather subjective criteria and not evaluable without adequate quality of contrast-enhanced CT images. This study sought the potential use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) as an objective substitute for predicting pathological viability of CLM after chemotherapy. Predictive ability of tumor viability of ≤10% was compared between FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT in 34 patients who underwent curative surgical resection for CLM after chemotherapy. The CT morphology and response were defined according to the reported criteria (Chun YS, JAMA 2009). The mean standard uptake value (SUV-mean) in CLM was significantly lower in patients with group 1 and group 2 CT morphology (median, 2.53 and 3.00, respectively) than in group 3 (median, 3.32). The tumor SUV-mean showed moderate correlation with the tumor pathologic viability (r = 0.660, P < 0.0001). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that both the tumor SUV-mean (area under the curve [AUC], 0.916; the cut-off value, 3.00) and the CT morphology (AUC, 0.882) have excellent predictive power for ≤10% of tumor viability, while degree of tumor shrinkage showed lower predictive power (AUC, 0.692). FDG-PET shows significant correlation with pathologic viability of CLM after chemotherapy and may offer additional objective information for estimating tumor viability when the CT morphologic response is not evaluable.

  20. Ability of King's College Criteria and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Scores to Predict Mortality of Patients With Acute Liver Failure: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Mark J W; Farne, Hugo; Senvar, Naz; Wendon, Julia A; Bernal, William

    2016-04-01

    Several prognostic factors are used to identify patients with acute liver failure (ALF) who require emergency liver transplantation. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the accuracy of King's College criteria (KCC) versus the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores in predicting hospital mortality among patients with ALF. We performed a systematic search of the literature for articles published from 2001 through 2015 that compared the accuracy of the KCC with MELD scores in predicting hospital mortality in patients with ALF. We identified 23 studies (comprising 2153 patients) and assessed the quality of data, and then performed a meta-analysis of pooled sensitivity and specificity values, diagnostic odds ratios (DORs), and summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Subgroups analyzed included study quality, era, location (Europe vs non-Europe), and size; ALF etiology (acetaminophen-associated ALF [AALF] vs nonassociated [NAALF]); and whether or not the study included patients who underwent liver transplantation and if the study center was also a transplant center. The DOR for the KCC was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-7.6; 57% heterogeneity) and the DOR for MELD score was 7.0 (95% CI, 5.1-9.7; 48% heterogeneity), so the MELD score and KCC are comparable in overall accuracy. The summary area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values was 0.76 for the KCC and 0.78 for MELD scores. The KCC identified patients with AALF who died with 58% sensitivity (95% CI, 51%-65%) and 89% specificity (95% CI, 85%-93%), whereas MELD scores identified patients with AALF who died with 80% sensitivity (95% CI, 74%-86%) and 53% specificity (95% CI, 47%-59%). The KCC predicted hospital mortality in patients with NAALF with 58% sensitivity (95% CI, 54%-63%) and 74% specificity (95% CI, 69%-78%), whereas MELD scores predicted hospital mortality in patients with NAALF with 76% sensitivity (95% CI, 72%-80%) and 73% specificity (95% CI, 69%-78%). In

  1. A mutation within the extended X loop abolished substrate-induced ATPase activity of the human liver ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MDR3.

    PubMed

    Kluth, Marianne; Stindt, Jan; Dröge, Carola; Linnemann, Doris; Kubitz, Ralf; Schmitt, Lutz

    2015-02-20

    The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) belongs to the ubiquitous family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. There it flops the phospholipids of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) family from the inner to the outer leaflet. Here, we report the characterization of wild type MDR3 and the Q1174E mutant, which was identified previously in a patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC-3). We expressed different variants of MDR3 in the yeast Pichia pastoris, purified the proteins via tandem affinity chromatography, and determined MDR3-specific ATPase activity in the presence or absence of phospholipids. The ATPase activity of wild type MDR3 was stimulated 2-fold by liver PC or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. Furthermore, the cross-linking of MDR3 with a thiol-reactive fluorophore blocked ATP hydrolysis and exhibited no PC stimulation. Similarly, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin lipids did not induce an increase of wild type MDR3 ATPase activity. The phosphate analogues beryllium fluoride and aluminum fluoride led to complete inhibition of ATPase activity, whereas orthovanadate inhibited exclusively the PC-stimulated ATPase activity of MDR3. The Q1174E mutation is located in the nucleotide-binding domain in direct proximity of the leucine of the ABC signature motif and extended the X loop, which is found in ABC exporters. Our data on the Q1174E mutant demonstrated basal ATPase activity, but PC lipids were incapable of stimulating ATPase activity highlighting the role of the extended X loop in the cross-talk of the nucleotide-binding domain and the transmembrane domain. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. A Mutation within the Extended X Loop Abolished Substrate-induced ATPase Activity of the Human Liver ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter MDR3*

    PubMed Central

    Kluth, Marianne; Stindt, Jan; Dröge, Carola; Linnemann, Doris; Kubitz, Ralf; Schmitt, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) belongs to the ubiquitous family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. There it flops the phospholipids of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) family from the inner to the outer leaflet. Here, we report the characterization of wild type MDR3 and the Q1174E mutant, which was identified previously in a patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC-3). We expressed different variants of MDR3 in the yeast Pichia pastoris, purified the proteins via tandem affinity chromatography, and determined MDR3-specific ATPase activity in the presence or absence of phospholipids. The ATPase activity of wild type MDR3 was stimulated 2-fold by liver PC or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. Furthermore, the cross-linking of MDR3 with a thiol-reactive fluorophore blocked ATP hydrolysis and exhibited no PC stimulation. Similarly, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin lipids did not induce an increase of wild type MDR3 ATPase activity. The phosphate analogues beryllium fluoride and aluminum fluoride led to complete inhibition of ATPase activity, whereas orthovanadate inhibited exclusively the PC-stimulated ATPase activity of MDR3. The Q1174E mutation is located in the nucleotide-binding domain in direct proximity of the leucine of the ABC signature motif and extended the X loop, which is found in ABC exporters. Our data on the Q1174E mutant demonstrated basal ATPase activity, but PC lipids were incapable of stimulating ATPase activity highlighting the role of the extended X loop in the cross-talk of the nucleotide-binding domain and the transmembrane domain. PMID:25533467

  3. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American

  4. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  5. A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciT

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.

    2014-04-07

    A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may bemore » initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.« less

  6. Donor liver histology--a valuable tool in graft selection.

    PubMed

    Flechtenmacher, Christa; Schirmacher, Peter; Schemmer, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Due to a tremendous organ shortage, livers from donors with extended criteria are increasingly considered for transplantation. Pathologists are more and more requested to evaluate these livers histopathologically using frozen sections at high urgency for acceptability. This article reviews the current knowledge on pre-transplant histology in liver transplantation. Prerequisites and conditions for proper pre-transplant evaluation of donor liver tissue are discussed as well as frozen section evaluation and reporting. Data sources include the relevant medical literature, web sites specialized in organ transplantation, and the authors' experiences in liver transplant centers. Pre-transplant histopathological evaluation is a time-effective, accurate, and reliable tool to assess liver quality from candidate deceased donors. Pre-transplant biopsies are of value in the selection of donor livers for transplantation, especially in case of extended criteria donors, and should be performed more frequently in order to avoid unnecessary loss of organs suitable for transplantation and transplantation of inappropriate organs. Correlation of histopathological findings with clinical conditions is essential and requires excellent communication between pathologists, surgeons, and the other members of the transplant team.

  7. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...

  8. Liver transplantation in Asia: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kelvin K; Lo, Chung Mau

    2009-04-01

    With the technical advances and improvements in perioperative management and immunosuppressants, liver transplantation is the standard treatment for patients with end-stage liver diseases. In Asia, a shortage of deceased donor liver grafts is the universal problem to be faced with in all transplant centres. Many surgical innovations are then driven to counteract this problem. This review focuses on 3 issues that denote the development of liver transplantation in Asian countries. These include living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), split liver transplantation (SLT) and liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Minimal graft weight, types of liver graft to donate and the inclusion of the middle hepatic vein with the graft are the main issues to be established in LDLT. The rapid growth and wide dissemination of LDLT has certainly alleviated the supply-and-demand problem of liver grafts in Asia. SLT is another attractive approach. Technical expertise, donor selection and graft allocation are the main determinants for its success. Liver transplantation plays a key role in the management of HCC in Asia. LDLT would be the main strategy in this aspect. The issue of extending the selection criteria for HCC patients for LDLT is still controversial. On the whole, future developments to increase the donor pool for the expanding recipient need in Asia would involve transplantation from non-heart beating donor and ABO incompatible transplantation.

  9. Enhanced distribution and extended elimination of glycyrrhetinic acid in mice liver by mPEG-PLA modified (mPEGylated) liposome.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yu, Hua; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang Ji

    2010-04-06

    A rapid and simple method of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector for the quantification of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) in mice plasma and tissues has been developed and validated. With the established assay method, the pharmacokinetic profiles and tissue distribution of GA in different formulations are compared in mice after intravenous administration of the drug (25mg/kg). The results showed that mPEG-PLA modified (mPEGylated) GA liposome (PL-GA) significantly prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) of GA in mice plasma and liver (MRT: 0.43+/-0.13 and 1.72+/-0.11h, respectively) than the normal GA liposome (L-GA) (MRT: 0.23+/-0.01 and 1.07+/-0.31h, respectively) and GA sodium injection (S-GA) (MRT: 0.13+/-0.01 and 0.95+/-0.08h, respectively). Moreover, PL-GA specifically increased GA uptake in liver (AUC(0-infinity,)(liver) value of 1.6-fold and 1.3-fold higher than that for S-GA and L-GA, respectively) and reduced its distribution into other tissues after dosing. Due to these pharmacokinetic properties, it may be promising to develop PL-GA further as a new pharmaceutical preparation for GA on the treatment of various chronic hepatic diseases. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Liver transplantation: Current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Jadlowiec, Caroline C; Taner, Timucin

    2016-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the field of liver transplantation over the past two decades. This progress, however, also brings up the next set of challenges: First, organ shortage remains a major limitation, and accounts for a large proportion of wait list mortality. While living donation has successfully increased the total number of liver transplants done in Asian countries, the total number of such transplants has been stagnant in the western hemisphere. As such, there has been a significant effort over the past decade to increase the existing deceased donor pool. This effort has resulted in a greater use of liver allografts following donation after cardiac death (DCD) along with marginal and extended criteria donors. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of liver allografts procured after circulatory arrest has not only resulted in better selection and management of DCD donors, but has also helped in the development of mechanical perfusion strategies. Early outcomes demonstrating the clinical applicability of both hypothermic and normothermic perfusion and its potential to impact patient survival and allograft function have generated much interest. Second, long-term outcomes of liver transplant recipients have not improved significantly, as recipients continue to succumb to complications of long-term immunosuppression, such as infection, malignancy and renal failure. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that chronic immune-mediated injury to the liver may also impact graft function. PMID:27182155

  11. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  12. Liver transplantation for metastatic liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Foss, Aksel; Lerut, Jan P

    2014-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a validated treatment of primary hepatobiliary tumours. Over the last decade, a renewed interest for liver transplantation as a curative treatment of colorectal liver metastasis (CR-LM) and neuro-endocrine metastasis (NET-LM) has developed. The ELTR and UNOS analyses showed that liver transplantation may offer excellent disease-free survival (ranging from 30 to 77%) in case of NET-LM, on the condition that stringent selection criteria are implemented. The interest for liver transplantation in the treatment of CR-LM has been fostered by the Norwegian SECA study. Five-year A 5-year survival rate of 60% could be reached. Despite the high recurrence rate (90%), one-third of patients were disease free following pulmonary surgery for metastases. Liver transplantation will take a more prominent place in the therapeutic algorithm of CR-LM and NET-LM. Larger experiences are necessary to improve knowledge about tumour biology and to refine selection criteria. A multimodal approach adding neo and adjuvant medical treatment to the transplant procedure will be key to bring this oncologic transplant project into the clinical arena. The preserved liver function in these patients will allow a more deliberate access to split liver and living donation for these indications.

  13. Extending the Limits of Quantitative Proteome Profiling with Data-Independent Acquisition and Application to Acetaminophen-Treated Three-Dimensional Liver Microtissues*

    PubMed Central

    Bruderer, Roland; Bernhardt, Oliver M.; Gandhi, Tejas; Miladinović, Saša M.; Cheng, Lin-Yang; Messner, Simon; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Zanotelli, Vito; Butscheid, Yulia; Escher, Claudia; Vitek, Olga; Rinner, Oliver; Reiter, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    The data-independent acquisition (DIA) approach has recently been introduced as a novel mass spectrometric method that promises to combine the high content aspect of shotgun proteomics with the reproducibility and precision of selected reaction monitoring. Here, we evaluate, whether SWATH-MS type DIA effectively translates into a better protein profiling as compared with the established shotgun proteomics. We implemented a novel DIA method on the widely used Orbitrap platform and used retention-time-normalized (iRT) spectral libraries for targeted data extraction using Spectronaut. We call this combination hyper reaction monitoring (HRM). Using a controlled sample set, we show that HRM outperformed shotgun proteomics both in the number of consistently identified peptides across multiple measurements and quantification of differentially abundant proteins. The reproducibility of HRM in peptide detection was above 98%, resulting in quasi complete data sets compared with 49% of shotgun proteomics. Utilizing HRM, we profiled acetaminophen (APAP)1-treated three-dimensional human liver microtissues. An early onset of relevant proteome changes was revealed at subtoxic doses of APAP. Further, we detected and quantified for the first time human NAPQI-protein adducts that might be relevant for the toxicity of APAP. The adducts were identified on four mitochondrial oxidative stress related proteins (GATM, PARK7, PRDX6, and VDAC2) and two other proteins (ANXA2 and FTCD). Our findings imply that DIA should be the preferred method for quantitative protein profiling. PMID:25724911

  14. Laser-induced thermotherapy for the treatment of liver metastasis. Correlation of gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MRI with histomorphologic findings to determine criteria for follow-up monitoring.

    PubMed

    Germer, C; Isbert, C M; Albrecht, D; Ritz, J P; Schilling, A; Roggan, A; Wolf, K J; Müller, G; Buhr, H

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate gadolinium (Gd)-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic-acid (DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for follow-up monitoring of laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and to determine a useful examination schedule. LITT of the liver was performed in 55 rabbits using a neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (4-W power output, 840-s exposure time). Gd-DTPA MRI and histologic examinations were performed at different times (0-168 days). Laser-induced lesions underwent regeneration and volume size reduction (69% after 168 days). The correlation coefficient (MR vs. macroscopic analysis) for the mean lesion diameter was r = 0.96. Histology of lesions comprised the four zones that correlated best with MRI findings. Coagulation necroses immediately after LITT was seen as an area of no enhancement on Gd-DTPA MRI. Circular enhancement was first seen 72-96 h after LITT, which was due to early mesenchymal proliferation. Gd-DTPA MRI is a good monitoring procedure for LITT. MRI should be performed 24 and 96 h after LITT.

  15. Normothermic ex-situ liver preservation: the new gold standard.

    PubMed

    Laing, Richard W; Mergental, Hynek; Mirza, Darius F

    2017-06-01

    Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) is a novel technology recently introduced into the practice of liver transplantation. This review recapitulates benefits of normothermic perfusion over conventional static cold storage and summarizes recent publications in this area. The first clinical trials have demonstrated both safety and feasibility of NMP-L. They have shown that machine perfusion can entirely replace cold storage or be commenced following a period of cold ischaemia. The technology currently allows transplant teams to extend the period of organ preservation for up to 24 h. Results from the first randomized control trial comparing NMP-L with static cold storage will be available soon. One major advantage of NMP-L technology over other parallel technologies is the potential to assess liver function during NMP-L. Several case series have suggested parameters usable for liver viability testing during NMP-L including bile production and clearance of lactic acidosis. NMP-L allows viability testing of high-risk livers. It has shown the potential to increase utilization of donor organs and improve transplant procedure logistics. NMP-L is likely to become an important technology that will improve organ preservation as well as have the potential to improve utilization of extended criteria donor livers.

  16. Rescue allocation for liver transplantation within Eurotransplant: the Heidelberg experience.

    PubMed

    Schemmer, Peter; Nickkholgh, Arash; Gerling, Till; Weitz, Jürgen; Büchler, Markus W; Schmidt, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Organ shortage has driven many transplant centers to extend their criteria for organ acceptance. Graft allocation policies have been modified accordingly. This report focuses on the impact of applying the so-called rescue allocation (RA) strategy for liver transplantation (LT) in a single center within the Eurotransplant (ET) area. Liver grafts are considered for RA when the regular organ allocation is declined by at least three centers or is averted because of donor instability/unfavorable logistical reasons, thus entering a competitive or a single-recipient rescue organ offer procedure, respectively. The accepting center has the advantage to select a recipient from its own waiting list for these RA grafts. Among 253 livers accepted at the University of Heidelberg between January 2004 and December 2006, we transplanted 85 (34%) rescue-allocated livers. The indications for LT were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 43%), chronic liver disease (55%), and acute liver failure (2%). Median cold ischemia time for RA grafts was 10 h (range: 4-17). The MELD score (mean +/- SD) was 13 +/- 7 (range: 6-40) and was 12 +/- 7 for recipients with HCC. Three (3.5%) primary non-functions (PNF) occurred after transplantation of RA livers. One-year patient and graft survival were 84% and 75%, respectively. A comparison between the recipients of RA livers and regularly allocated livers revealed no significant difference regarding initial poor function (IPF), PNF, and surgical complications. Furthermore, a median follow-up of 16 months revealed no significant difference regarding patient and graft survival between the two groups. The use of RA organs has increased the donor pool and transplantation dynamics with satisfying results. The unique possibility to match livers with recipients, which is left to the discretion of accepting center, should be judged according to the center's experience to decrease the waiting times for a timely rescue of organs/recipients while avoiding futile

  17. Computational Modeling in Liver Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Bruno; Dahmen, Uta; Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; König, Matthias; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.; Ricken, Tim; Schleicher, Jana; Ole Schwen, Lars; Vlaic, Sebastian; Waschinsky, Navina

    2017-01-01

    The need for extended liver resection is increasing due to the growing incidence of liver tumors in aging societies. Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. Current computational tools provide virtual planning of liver resection by taking into account the spatial relationship between the tumor and the hepatic vascular trees, as well as the size of the future liver remnant. However, size and function of the liver are not necessarily equivalent. Hence, determining the future liver volume might misestimate the future liver function, especially in cases of hepatic comorbidities such as hepatic steatosis. A systems medicine approach could be applied, including biological, medical, and surgical aspects, by integrating all available anatomical and functional information of the individual patient. Such an approach holds promise for better prediction of postoperative liver function and hence improved risk assessment. This review provides an overview of mathematical models related to the liver and its function and explores their potential relevance for computational liver surgery. We first summarize key facts of hepatic anatomy, physiology, and pathology relevant for hepatic surgery, followed by a description of the computational tools currently used in liver surgical planning. Then we present selected state-of-the-art computational liver models potentially useful to support liver surgery. Finally, we discuss the main challenges that will need to be addressed when developing advanced computational planning tools in the context of liver surgery. PMID:29249974

  18. Course Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Allan L.

    In March 1983, the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges mandated the preparation of criteria for the identification of courses that should be ineligible for state support, in lieu of the continuation of specific course deletions. An Ad Hoc Committee on Course Criteria was formed to assist in the identification of the issues and…

  19. Liver Hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  20. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  1. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Hong Kong experience.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kelvin K; Lo, Chung Mau; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2010-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the best treatment option for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the background of cirrhosis since this treatment modality can cure both diseases at once. Over the years, the applicability of OLT for HCC has evolved. In Asia, including Hong Kong, a shortage of deceased donor liver grafts is a universal problem having to be faced in all transplant centers. Living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) has therefore been developed to counteract organ shortage and the high prevalence of HCC. The application of LDLT for HCC is a complex process involving donor voluntarism, selection criteria for the recipient and justification with respect to long-term survival in comparison to the result of deceased donor liver transplant. This article reviews the authors' experience with OLT for HCC patients in Hong Kong, with emphasis on the applicability and outcome of LDLT for HCC. Donor voluntarism has a significant impact on the application of LDLT. "Fast-track" LDLT in the setting of recurrence following curative treatment carries a high risk of recurrence even though the tumor stage fulfills the standard criteria. Although the survival outcome may be worse following LDLT than DDLT for HCC, LDLT is still the main treatment option for patients with transplantable HCC in Hong Kong, and a reasonable survival outcome can be achieved in selected patients with extended indications. It is particularly true that LDLT provides the only hope for patients with advanced HCC under the constricting problem of organ shortage.

  2. Living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma achieves better outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Che; Chen, Chao-Long

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital mainly relies on live donor LT (LDLT). Owing to taking the risk of LD, we are obligated to adopt strict selection criteria for HCC patients and optimize the pre-transplant conditions to ensure a high disease-free survival similar to those without HCC, even better than deceased donor LT (DDLT). Better outcomes are attributed to excellent surgical results and optimal patient selection. The hospital mortality of primary and salvage LDLT are lower than 2% in our center. Although Taiwan Health Insurance Policy extended the Milan to University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria in 2006, selection criteria will not be consolidated to take into account only by the morphologic size/number of tumors but also by their biology. The criteria are divided into modifiable image morphology, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and positron emission tomography (PET) scan with standard uptake value (SUV) and unmodifiable unfavorable pathology such as HCC combined with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), sarcomatoid type, and poor differentiation. Downstaging therapy is necessary for HCC patients beyond criteria to fit all modifiable standards. The upper limit of downstaging treatment seems to be extended by more effective drug eluting transarterial chemoembolization in cases without absolute contraindications. In contrast, the pitfall of unmodifiable tumor pathology should be excluded by the findings of pretransplant core biopsy/resection if possible. More recently, achieving complete tumor necrosis in explanted liver could almost predict no recurrence after transplant. Necrotizing therapy is advised if possible before transplant even the tumor status within criteria to minimize the possibility of tumor recurrence. LDLT with low surgical mortality in experienced centers provides the opportunities of optimizing the pre-transplant tumor conditions and timing of transplant to achieve better

  3. Extended RMS

    2005-08-02

    ISS011-E-11416 (2 August 2005) --- A line of thunderstorms form the backdrop for this view of the extended Space Shuttle Discovery’;s remote manipulator system (RMS) robotic arm while docked to the International Space Station during the STS-114 mission.

  4. Liver and Kidney Transplantation: A Half-Century Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sass, David A; Doyle, Alden M

    2016-05-01

    This article describes the evolution of solid organ kidney and liver transplantation and expounds on the challenges and successes that the early transplant researchers and clinicians encountered. The article highlights the surgical pioneers, delves into the milestones of enhanced immunosuppression protocols, discusses key federal legislative and policy changes, and expounds on the ongoing disparities of organ supply and demand and the need for extended criteria and live donor organs to combat these shortages. Finally, recent changes in organ allocation and distribution policies are discussed. The authors also spotlight novel interventions that will further revolutionize abdominal transplantation in the next 50 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  6. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure.

  7. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  8. Initial Poor Function and Primary Nonfunction in Deceased-Donor Orthotopic Liver Transplantation Maintaining Short Cold Ischemic Time.

    PubMed

    Das, Somak; Swain, Sudeepta Kumar; Addala, Pavan Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Ramakrishnan; Gopakumar, C V; Zirpe, Dinesh; Renganathan, Kirubakaran; Kollu, Harsha; Patel, Darshan; Vibhute, Bipin B; Rao, Prashantha S; Krishnan, Elankumaran; Gopasetty, Mahesh; Khakhar, Anand K; Vaidya, Anil; Ramamurthy, Anand

    2016-12-01

    Nations with emerging deceased-donor liver transplantation programs, such as India, face problems associated with poor donor maintenance. Cold ischemic time (CIT) is typically maintained short by matching donor organ recovery and recipient hepatectomy to achieve maximum favorable outcome. We analyzed different extended criteria donor factors including donor acidosis, which may act as a surrogate marker of poor donor maintenance, to quantify the risk of primary nonfunction (PNF) or initial poor function (IPF). A single-center retrospective outcome analysis of prospectively collected data of patients undergoing deceased-donor liver transplantation over 2 years to determine the impact of different extended criteria donor factors on IPF and PNF. From March 2013 to February 2015, a total of 84 patients underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation. None developed PNF. Thirteen (15.5%) patients developed IPF. Graft macrosteatosis and donor acidosis were only related to IPF ( P = .002 and P = .032, respectively). Cold ischemic time was maintained short (81 cases ≤8 hours, maximum 11 hours) in all cases. Poor donor maintenance as evidenced by donor acidosis and graft macrosteatosis had significant impact in developing IPF when CIT is kept short. Similar study with larger sample size is required to establish extended criteria cutoff values.

  9. Liver anatomy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of elderly donors in living donor liver transplantation: when more is less?

    PubMed

    Dayangac, Murat; Taner, C Burcin; Yaprak, Onur; Demirbas, Tolga; Balci, Deniz; Duran, Cihan; Yuzer, Yildiray; Tokat, Yaman

    2011-05-01

    An accepted definition of donor exclusion criteria has not been established for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The use of elderly donors to expand the living donor pool raises ethical concerns about donor safety. The aims of this study were (1) the comparison of the postoperative outcomes of living liver donors by age (≥ 50 versus < 50 years) and (2) the evaluation of the impact of the extent of right hepatectomy on donor outcomes. The study group included 150 donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy between October 2004 and April 2009. Extended criteria surgery (ECS) was defined as right hepatectomy with middle hepatic vein (MHV) harvesting or right hepatectomy resulting in an estimated remnant liver volume (RLV) less than 35%. The primary endpoints were donor outcomes in terms of donor complications graded according to the Clavien classification. Group 1 consisted of donors who were 50 years old or older (n = 28), and group 2 consisted of donors who were less than 50 years old (n = 122). At least 1 ECS criterion was present in 74% of donors: 57% had 1 criterion, and 17% had 2 criteria. None of the donors had grade 4 complications or died. The overall and major complication rates were similar in the 2 donor age groups [28.6% and 14.3% in group 1 and 32% and 8.2% in group 2 for the overall complication rates (P = 0.8) and the major complication rates (P = 0.2), respectively]. However, there was a significant correlation between the rate of major complications and the type of surgery in donors who were 50 years old or older. In LDLT, extending the limits of surgery comes at the price of more complications in elderly donors. Right hepatectomy with MHV harvesting and any procedure causing an RLV less than 35% should be avoided in living liver donors who are 50 years old or older. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Impact of liver volume and liver function on posthepatectomy liver failure after portal vein embolization- A multivariable cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Alizai, Patrick H; Haelsig, Annabel; Bruners, Philipp; Ulmer, Florian; Klink, Christian D; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Neumann, Ulf P; Schmeding, Maximilian

    2018-01-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening complication after liver resection, and is difficult to predict preoperatively. This retrospective cohort study evaluated different preoperative factors in regard to their impact on posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) after extended liver resection and previous portal vein embolization (PVE). Patient characteristics, liver function and liver volumes of patients undergoing PVE and subsequent liver resection were analyzed. Liver function was determined by the LiMAx test (enzymatic capacity of cytochrome P450 1A2). Factors associated with the primary end point PHLF (according to ISGLS definition) were identified through multivariable analysis. Secondary end points were 30-day mortality and morbidity. 95 patients received PVE, of which 64 patients underwent major liver resection. PHLF occurred in 7 patients (11%). Calculated postoperative liver function was significantly lower in patients with PHLF than in patients without PHLF (67 vs. 109 μg/kg/h; p = 0.01). Other factors associated with PHLF by univariable analysis were age, future liver remnant, MELD score, ASA score, renal insufficiency and heart insufficiency. By multivariable analysis, future liver remnant was the only factor significantly associated with PHLF (p = 0.03). Mortality and morbidity rates were 4.7% and 29.7% respectively. Future liver remnant is the only preoperative factor with a significant impact on PHLF. Assessment of preoperative liver function may additionally help identify patients at risk for PHLF.

  12. Pediatric liver transplant outcome using severe hypernatremic donors.

    PubMed

    Uribe, M; Alba, A; González, G; Hunter, B; Heine, C; Iñiguez, R; Cavallieri, S; Flores, L; Soto, P; Auad, H; Zuleta, R; Acuña, C

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric liver transplantation is limited by donation. In the last 5 years, urgent conditions have forced transplant teams to accept donors with minor suboptimal conditions, termed "extended donor criteria." Among those, the risk of using severe hypernatremic donors (SHD) for liver transplant is not yet well established. The aim of this study is to report the outcome of pediatric patients receiving grafts from SHD. Clinical records of patients transplanted in the last 3 years at Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna, Santiago, Chile, were reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of patient and graft survival and complications potentially associated to the donor condition. Five of 33 deceased donor transplants presented with SHD. All recipients were waiting transplant in an acute condition, one of them in acute liver failure (ALF). No living related donor was available. Donors' serum sodium was 169 to 193 mEq/L before medical management and between 157 and 172 mEq/L at procurement. One patient died from sepsis related to biliary complications, and the patient suffering ALF developed primary graft nonfunction, received a second transplant 2 weeks later, and recovered to stable medical condition. No other complication was registered in these patients. Our findings allow us to postulate that hypernatremic deceased donors may be used for pediatric liver transplant under special circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  14. Liver grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Loggi, Elisabetta; Conti, Fabio; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Ercolani, Giorgio; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-09-21

    The scarcity of available organs and the gap between supply and demand continue to be the main limitations of liver transplantation. To relieve the organ shortage, current transplant strategies have implemented extended criteria, which include the use of liver from patients with signs of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. While the use of liver grafts from donors with evidence of past HBV infection is quite limited, some data have been collected regarding the feasibility of transplanting a liver graft from a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donor. The aim of the present work was to review the literature regarding liver transplants from HBsAg-positive donors. A total of 17 studies were identified by a search in Medline. To date, HBsAg positive grafts have preferentially been allocated to HBsAg positive recipients. The large majority of these patients continue to be HBsAg positive despite the use of immunoglobulin, and infection prevention can only be guaranteed by using antiviral prophylaxis. Although serological persistence is evident, no significant HBV-related disease has been observed, except in patients coinfected with delta virus. Consistently less data are available for HBsAg negative recipients, although they are mostly promising. HBsAg-positive grafts could be an additional organ source for liver transplantation, provided that the risk of reinfection/reactivation is properly prevented.

  15. Optimal future liver remnant in patients treated with extensive preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Shindoh, Junichi; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Aloia, Thomas A; Curley, Steven A; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Wei, Steven H; Huang, Steven Y; Mahvash, Armeen; Gupta, Sanjay; Wallace, Michael J; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    Patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) are increasingly treated with preoperative chemotherapy. Chemotherapy associated liver injury is associated with postoperative hepatic insufficiency (PHI) and mortality. The adequate minimum future liver remnant (FLR) volume in patients treated with extensive chemotherapy remains unknown. All patients with standardized FLR > 20 %, who underwent extended right hepatectomy for CLM from 1993-2011, were divided into three cohorts by chemotherapy duration: no chemotherapy (NC, n = 30), short duration (SD, ≤12 weeks, n = 78), long duration (LD, >12 weeks, n = 86). PHI and mortality were compared by using uni-/multivariate analyses. Optimal FLR for LD chemotherapy was determined using a minimum p-value approach. A total of 194 patients met inclusion criteria. LD chemotherapy was significantly associated with PHI (NC + SD 3.7 vs. LD 16.3%, p = 0.006). Ninety-day mortality rates were 0 % in NC, 1.3 % in SD, and 2.3% in LD patients, respectively (p = 0.95). In patients with FLR > 30 %, PHI occurred in only two patients (both LD, 2/20, 10 %), but all patients with FLR > 30 % survived. The best cutoff of FLR for preventing PHI after chemotherapy >12 weeks was estimated as >30 %. Both LD chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR] 5.4, p = 0.004) and FLR ≤ 30 % (OR 6.3, p = 0.019) were independent predictors of PHI. Preoperative chemotherapy >12 weeks increases the risk of PHI after extended right hepatectomy. In patients treated with long-duration chemotherapy, FLR > 30 % reduces the rate of PHI and may provide enough functional reserve for clinical rescue if PHI develops.

  16. Liver transplantation from a deceased donor with β-thalassemia intermedia is not contraindicated: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Ersin; Abbasoglu, Osman; Tanyel, Cahit; Gumruk, Fatma; Ozen, Hasan; Yuce, Aysel

    2017-05-01

    The use of extended criteria donors who might have previously been deemed unsuitable is an option to increase the organ supply for transplantation. This report presents a pediatric case of a successful liver transplantation from a donor with β-thalassemia intermedia. A patient, 6-year-old female, with a diagnosis of cryptogenic liver cirrhosis underwent deceased donor liver transplantation from a thalassemic donor. Extreme hyperferritinemia was detected shortly after transplantation. The most probable cause of hyperferritinemia was iron overload secondary to transplantation of a hemosiderotic liver. Hepatocellular injury due to acute graft rejection might have contributed to elevated ferritin levels by causing release of stored iron from the hemosiderotic liver graft. Iron chelation and phlebotomy therapies were started simultaneously in the early postoperative period to avoid iron-related organ toxicity and transplant failure. Follow-up with monthly phlebotomies after discharge yielded a favorable outcome with normal transplant functions. Thalassemia intermedia patients can be candidates of liver donors to decrease pretransplant waitlist mortality. After transplantation of a hemosiderotic liver, it is important to monitor the recipient in terms of iron overload and toxicity. Early attempts to lower iron burden including chelation therapy and/or phlebotomy should be considered to avoid organ toxicity and transplant failure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis G Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver ...

  18. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  19. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  20. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  1. Fatty Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, ... fat to accumulate in liver cells by causing the body to synthesize more fat or by processing (metabolizing) and excreting fat more slowly. As a ...

  2. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary biliary cholangitis Pyogenic liver abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Risks Risks may include: Collapsed lung Complications from the sedation Injury to the gallbladder ...

  3. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategies to optimize the use of marginal donors in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pezzati, Daniele; Ghinolfi, Davide; De Simone, Paolo; Balzano, Emanuele; Filipponi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for end stage liver disease, but availability of liver grafts is still the main limitation to its wider use. Extended criteria donors (ECD) are considered not ideal for several reasons but their use has dramatically grown in the last decades in order to augment the donor liver pool. Due to improvement in surgical and medical strategies, results using grafts from these donors have become acceptable in terms of survival and complications; nevertheless a big debate still exists regarding their selection, discharge criteria and allocation policies. Many studies analyzed the use of these grafts from many points of view producing different or contradictory results so that accepted guidelines do not exist and the use of these grafts is still related to non-standardized policies changing from center to center. The aim of this review is to analyze every step of the donation-transplantation process emphasizing all those strategies, both clinical and experimental, that can optimize results using ECD. PMID:26609341

  5. Obesity's effect on asthma extends to diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Lugogo, Njira; Green, Cynthia L; Agada, Noah; Zhang, Siyi; Meghdadpour, Susanne; Zhou, Run; Yang, Siyun; Anstrom, Kevin J; Israel, Elliot; Martin, Richard; Lemanske, Robert F; Boushey, Homer; Lazarus, Stephen C; Wasserman, Stephen I; Castro, Mario; Calhoun, William; Peters, Stephen P; DiMango, Emily; Chinchilli, Vernon; Kunselman, Susan; King, Tonya S; Icitovic, Nikolina; Kraft, Monica

    2018-03-01

    The use of inflammatory biomarkers to delineate the type of lung inflammation present in asthmatic subjects is increasingly common. However, the effect of obesity on these markers is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of obesity on conventional markers of inflammation in asthmatic subjects. We performed secondary analysis of data from 652 subjects previously enrolled in 2 Asthma Clinical Research Network trials. We performed linear correlations between biomarkers and logistic regression analysis to determine the predictive value of IgE levels, blood eosinophil counts, and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide values in relationship to sputum eosinophil counts (>2%), as well as to determine whether cut points existed that would maximize the sensitivity and specificity for predicting sputum eosinophilia in the 3 weight groups. Overall, statistically significant but relatively weak correlations were observed among all 4 markers of inflammation. Within obese subjects, the only significant correlation found was between IgE levels and blood eosinophil counts (r = 0.33, P < .001); furthermore, all other correlations between inflammatory markers were approximately 0, including correlations with sputum eosinophil counts. In addition, the predictive value of each biomarker alone or in combination was poor in obese subjects. In fact, in obese subjects none of the biomarkers of inflammation significantly predicted the presence of high sputum eosinophil counts. Obese asthmatic subjects have lower cut points for IgE levels (268 IU), fraction of exhaled nitric oxide values (14.5 ppb), and blood eosinophil counts (96 cells/μL) than all other groups. In obese asthmatic subjects conventional biomarkers of inflammation are poorly predictive of eosinophilic airway inflammation. As such, biomarkers currently used to delineate eosinophilic inflammation in asthmatic subjects should be approached with caution in these subjects. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extended diagnostic criteria for plasmacytoid dendritic cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Feuillard, Jean; Ferrand, Christophe; Biichle, Sabeha; Trimoreau, Franck; Seilles, Estelle; Salaun, Véronique; Garand, Richard; Lepelley, Pascale; Maynadié, Marc; Kuhlein, Emilienne; Deconinck, Eric; Daliphard, Sylvie; Chaperot, Laurence; Beseggio, Lucille; Foisseaud, Vincent; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Bene, Marie-Christine; Saas, Philippe; Jacob, Marie-Christine

    2009-06-01

    The diagnosis of plasmacytoid dendritic cell leukaemia (pDCL) is based on the immunophenotypic profile: CD4(+) CD56(+) lineage(neg) CD45RA(+)/RO(neg) CD11c(neg) CD116(low) CD123(+) CD34(neg) CD36(+) HLA-DR(+). Several studies have reported pDCL cases that do not express this exact profile or expressing some lineage antigens that could thus be misdiagnosed. This study aimed to validate pDCL-specific markers for diagnosis by flow-cytometry or quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on bone marrow samples. Expression of markers previously found in normal pDC was analysed in 16 pDCL, four pDCL presenting an atypical phenotype (apDCL) and 113 non-pDC - lymphoid or myeloid - acute leukaemia. CD123 was expressed at significantly higher levels in pDCL and apDCL. BDCA-2 was expressed on 12/16 pDCL and on 2/4 apDCL, but was never detected in the 113 non-pDC acute leukaemia cases. BDCA-4 expression was found on 13/16 pDCL, but also in 12% of non-pDC acute leukaemia. High levels of LILRA4 and TCL1A transcripts distinguished pDCL and apDCL from all other acute leukaemia (except B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia for TCL1A). We thus propose a diagnosis strategy, scoring first the CD4(+) CD56(+/-) MPO(neg) cCD3(neg) cCD79a(neg) CD11c(neg) profile and then the CD123(high), BDCA-2 and BDCA-4 expression. Atypical pDCL can be also identified this way and non-pDC acute leukaemia excluded: this scoring strategy is useful for diagnosing pDCL and apDCL.

  7. Can we direct organ allocation based on predicted outcome? Hepatocellular carcinoma outside of UCSF criteria or retransplant?

    PubMed

    Rochon, Caroline; Sheiner, Patricia; Mahadevappa, Basant; Gunasekaran, Ganesh; Sharma, Joyti; Wolf, David C; Facciuto, Marcelo

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we ask between patients with graft failure listed for retransplant and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outside of UCSF criteria, who has the greater survival benefit with transplantation? This is a retrospective analysis, of liver transplant (LT) patients, done between February 2002 and December 2009 at our center. Patients were included in the "extended HCC" group if their tumor was pathologically beyond UCSF criteria at LT and in the "redo" group if they underwent LT for graft failure occurring more than 3 months after the initial LT. Extended criteria donors (ECDs) were defined as donors above 70 years old, DCD, serology positive for HCV, and split grafts. There were 25 redos and 37 extended HCC patients. Use of ECDs or high donor risk index organs was associated with poor outcome in both groups (P = 0.005). Overall, the extended HCC population had a much better survival than redos, both at 1 and 3 years. These two very different but high risk patient populations have very different survival rates. At a time where regulatory agencies demand more and more with regards to transplant outcomes, we think the transplant community has to reflect on whether allocation justice and fair access to transplant are respected if we start allocating organs based on outcomes.

  8. Usage and outcomes of deceased donor liver allografts with preprocurement injury from blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Geenen, Irma Laurentia Antonia; Sosef, Meindert Nico; Shun, Albert; Crawford, Michael; Gallagher, James; Strasser, Simone; Stormon, Michael; McCaughan, Geoff; Verran, Deborah Jean

    2009-03-01

    The use of extended criteria donors is an effective way of reducing the shortage of deceased donor organs. Evidence of significant liver trauma in a deceased donor usually rules out transplantation of the liver. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use and outcomes of donor livers with preprocurement trauma. Records of all 312 deceased donors with a history of trauma between January 1986 and September 2007 were reviewed. Donors with macroscopic liver injuries were identified, and data from recipient medical records were obtained. Data on declined donor offers were also evaluated. The median donor age was 20 (range, 10-57) years, and 9 of 15 (60%) were male. The liver injuries were predominantly lacerations (grades 1-5) and vascular injury. The right lobe was resected because of extensive damage in 3 cases. This resulted in 2 left lobes (back-table cut-down) and 1 left lateral segment allograft (in situ split). For the 15 recipients, the median age was 43 (3-69) years. Primary nonfunction was not seen. There was no difference in survival between whole and partial allografts. Three deaths occurred within 3 months post-transplantation. During the same period, 42 of 1405 donor offers (3%) were declined because of extensive liver trauma or major ongoing intra-abdominal hemorrhage. In conclusion, the use of donor livers with preexisting trauma leads to acceptable outcomes. Strategies to deal with trauma include resection of the right lobe if required. Use of deceased donor livers with injury is a safe way to expand the donor pool.

  9. Early outcomes of liver transplants in patients receiving organs from hypernatremic donors.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Mohammad Bagher; Firoozifar, Mohammad; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Sahmeddini, Mohammad Ali; Eghbal, Mohammad Hossien

    2013-12-01

    Uncorrected hypernatremia in organ donors has been associated with poor graft or patient survival during liver transplants. However, recent studies have found no association between the donor serum sodium and transplant outcome. This study sought to show the negative effect donor hypernatremia has on initial liver allograft function. This is the first study to investigate international normalized ratio and renal factors of patients with normal and those with hypernatremic donor livers. This study was conducted at the Shiraz Transplant Research Center in Shiraz, Iran, between May 2009, and July 2011. Four hundred seven consecutive adult orthotopic liver transplants were performed at the University of Shiraz Medical Center. There were 93 donors in the group with hypernatremia with terminal serum sodium of 155 mEq/L or greater (group 1), and 314 with terminal serum sodium less than 155 mEq/L (group 2). Posttransplant data after 5 days showed that aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, international normalized ratio, and kidney function did not differ between the groups. Hypernatremia is the most important complication after brain death. Previous studies have suggested donor hypernatremia results in a greater incidence of early postoperative graft dysfunction in liver transplant and is considered one of the extended criteria donor. However, in recent years, this hypothesis has been questioned. Our study shows no difference between patients' initial results of liver and kidney functioning with normal and hypernatremic donor livers. This is the first study to investigate international normalized ratio as a fundamental factor in defining early allograft dysfunction and renal factors between patients with normal and hypernatremic donor's livers.

  10. Predictive factors of short term outcome after liver transplantation: A review.

    PubMed

    Bolondi, Giuliano; Mocchegiani, Federico; Montalti, Roberto; Nicolini, Daniele; Vivarelli, Marco; De Pietri, Lesley

    2016-07-14

    Liver transplantation represents a fundamental therapeutic solution to end-stage liver disease. The need for liver allografts has extended the set of criteria for organ acceptability, increasing the risk of adverse outcomes. Little is known about the early postoperative parameters that can be used as valid predictive indices for early graft function, retransplantation or surgical reintervention, secondary complications, long intensive care unit stay or death. In this review, we present state-of-the-art knowledge regarding the early post-transplantation tests and scores that can be applied during the first postoperative week to predict liver allograft function and patient outcome, thereby guiding the therapeutic and surgical decisions of the medical staff. Post-transplant clinical and biochemical assessment of patients through laboratory tests (platelet count, transaminase and bilirubin levels, INR, factor V, lactates, and Insulin Growth Factor 1) and scores (model for end-stage liver disease, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, sequential organ failure assessment and model of early allograft function) have been reported to have good performance, but they only allow late evaluation of patient status and graft function, requiring days to be quantified. The indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate has long been used as a liver function assessment technique and has produced interesting, although not univocal, results when performed between the 1(th) and the 5(th) day after transplantation. The liver maximal function capacity test is a promising method of metabolic liver activity assessment, but its use is limited by economic cost and extrahepatic factors. To date, a consensual definition of early allograft dysfunction and the integration and validation of the above-mentioned techniques, through the development of numerically consistent multicentric prospective randomised trials, are necessary. The medical and surgical management of transplanted patients

  11. Predictive factors of short term outcome after liver transplantation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bolondi, Giuliano; Mocchegiani, Federico; Montalti, Roberto; Nicolini, Daniele; Vivarelli, Marco; De Pietri, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents a fundamental therapeutic solution to end-stage liver disease. The need for liver allografts has extended the set of criteria for organ acceptability, increasing the risk of adverse outcomes. Little is known about the early postoperative parameters that can be used as valid predictive indices for early graft function, retransplantation or surgical reintervention, secondary complications, long intensive care unit stay or death. In this review, we present state-of-the-art knowledge regarding the early post-transplantation tests and scores that can be applied during the first postoperative week to predict liver allograft function and patient outcome, thereby guiding the therapeutic and surgical decisions of the medical staff. Post-transplant clinical and biochemical assessment of patients through laboratory tests (platelet count, transaminase and bilirubin levels, INR, factor V, lactates, and Insulin Growth Factor 1) and scores (model for end-stage liver disease, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, sequential organ failure assessment and model of early allograft function) have been reported to have good performance, but they only allow late evaluation of patient status and graft function, requiring days to be quantified. The indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate has long been used as a liver function assessment technique and has produced interesting, although not univocal, results when performed between the 1th and the 5th day after transplantation. The liver maximal function capacity test is a promising method of metabolic liver activity assessment, but its use is limited by economic cost and extrahepatic factors. To date, a consensual definition of early allograft dysfunction and the integration and validation of the above-mentioned techniques, through the development of numerically consistent multicentric prospective randomised trials, are necessary. The medical and surgical management of transplanted patients

  12. Primum Non Nocere: Organ Donation After Electrocution and Transplantation of Electricity-Damaged Livers: Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Giorgakis, E; Tedeschi, M; Bonaccorsi-Riani, E; Khorsandi, S E; Vilca-Melendez, H; Heaton, N

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation remains the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage liver disease. However, allograft availability continues to be a problem, and extending the criteria for organ acceptance is key. Deceased donors after electrical accidents, as well as electricity-traumatized allografts, are not common but should be considered suitable. This study describes 2 cases of heart-beating organ donors with electrical injury to the liver. In 1 case, the electric shock was the cause of death; in the second case, the injury was caused by defibrillation at organ procurement. Both allografts had sustained sizeable electrical injury, and both resulted in excellent early posttransplant outcomes. These cases demonstrate that electrocution is not a contraindication to donation and that electricity-traumatized allografts may remain transplantable after careful assessment. Education of all staff in the management of such donors can optimize utility of such allografts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Aloia, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    With modern multimodality therapy, patients with resected colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases (CLM) can experience up to 50-60 % 5-year survival. These improved outcomes have become more commonplace via achievements in multidisciplinary care, improved definition of resectability, and advances in technical skill. Even patients with synchronous and/or extensive bilateral disease have benefited from novel surgical strategies. Treatment sequencing of synchronous CRC with CLM can be simplified into the following three paradigms: (classic colorectal-first), simultaneous (combined), or reverse approach (liver-first). The decision of whether to treat the CLM or CRC first depends on which site dominates oncologically and symptomatically. Oxaliplatin with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) and irinotecan with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFIRI) are the foundations of modern chemotherapy. Although each regimen has positively impacted survivals, both have the potential for negative effects on the non-tumor liver. Oxaliplatin is associated with vascular injury (sinusoidal ballooning, microvascular injury, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and long-term fibrosis) but not steatosis. Irinotecan has been associated with steatohepatitis, especially in patients with obesity and diabetes. Steatohepatitis from irinotecan is the only chemotherapy-associated liver injury (CALI) associated with increased mortality from postoperative hepatic insufficiency. Extended duration of preoperative chemotherapy is also associated with CALI. To determine resectability and to prevent overtreatment with systemic therapy, all patients should receive high-quality cross-sectional imaging and be evaluated by a hepatobiliary surgeon before starting chemotherapy. Even as chemotherapy improves, liver surgeons will continue to play a central role in treatment planning by offering the best chance for prolonged survival-safe R0 resection with curative intent.

  14. Left-liver hypertrophy after therapeutic right-liver radioembolization is substantial but less than after portal vein embolization.

    PubMed

    Garlipp, Benjamin; de Baere, Thierry; Damm, Robert; Irmscher, Romy; van Buskirk, Mark; Stübs, Patrick; Deschamps, Frederic; Meyer, Frank; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Amthauer, Holger; Lippert, Hans; Ricke, Jens; Seidensticker, Max

    2014-05-01

    In patients with liver malignancies potentially amenable to curative extended right hepatectomy but insufficient size of the future liver remnant (FLR), portal vein embolization (PVE) of the tumor-bearing liver is used to induce contralateral liver hypertrophy but leaves the tumor untreated. Radioembolization (RE) treats the tumor in the embolized lobe along with contralateral hypertrophy induction. We performed a matched-pair analysis to compare the capacity for hypertrophy induction of these two modalities. Patients with right-hepatic secondary liver malignancies with no or negligible left-hepatic tumor involvement who were treated by right-lobar PVE (n = 141) or RE (n = 35) at two centers were matched for criteria known to influence liver regeneration following PVE: 1) baseline FLR/Total liver volume ratio (<25 versus ≥ 25%); 2) prior platinum-containing systemic chemotherapy; 3) embolization of segments 5-8 versus 4-8; and 4) baseline platelet count (<200 versus ≥ 200 Gpt/L).The primary endpoint was relative change in FLR volume from baseline to follow-up. Twenty-six matched pairs were identified. FLR volume increase from baseline to follow-up (median 33 [24-56] days after PVE or 46 [27-79] days after RE) was significant in both groups but PVE produced significantly more FLR hypertrophy than RE (61.5 versus 29%, P < 0.001). Time between treatment and follow-up was not correlated with the degree of contralateral hypertrophy achieved in both groups. Although group differences in patient history and treatment setting were present and some bias cannot be excluded, this was minimized by the matched-pair design, as remaining group differences after matching were found to have no significant influence on contralateral hypertrophy development. PVE induces significantly more contralateral hypertrophy than RE with therapeutic (nonlobectomy) doses. However, contralateral hypertrophy induced by RE is substantial and RE minimizes the risk of tumor progression in the

  15. The Role of Akt in Chronic Liver Disease and Liver Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Santel, Ansgar; Ribera, Jordi; Jiménez, Wladimiro

    2017-02-01

    The liver is continuously exposed to diverse insults, which may culminate in pathological processes causing liver disease. An effective therapeutic strategy for chronic liver disease should control the causal factors of the disease and stimulate functional liver regeneration. Preclinical studies have shown that interventions aimed at maintaining Akt activity in a dysfunctional liver meet most of the criteria. Although the central function of Akt is cell survival, other cellular aspects such as glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, cell-cycle progression, and lipid metabolism have been shown to be prominent functions of Akt in the context of hepatic physiology. In this review, the authors describe the benefits of the Akt signaling pathway, emphasizing its importance in coordinating proper cellular growth and differentiation during liver regeneration, hepatic function, and liver disease. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  17. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services (C.L.A.S.S.) -- www. ...

  18. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  19. Extended hours hemodialysis and survival: extended hours, extended evidence?

    PubMed

    Wald, Ron; Perl, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Extended-hours hemodialysis presents another approach to the intensification of therapy for maintenance hemodialysis recipients. Smaller studies have demonstrated several potential benefits with this modality, but the impact on patient-centered outcomes has been unclear. We review the largest published study to compare survival among patients who received extended-hours hemodialysis with those who received conventional hemodialysis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Perla Oliveira; Ferreira, Fabio Gonçalves; Nascimento, Maria de Fátima Araújo; Vieira, Andrea; Ribeiro, Mauricio Alves; David, André Ibrahim; Szutan, Luiz Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver cancer, and NAFLD prevalence in different liver tumors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of the clinical, laboratory and histological data of 120 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary hepatic neoplasms and treated at a tertiary center where they underwent hepatic resection and/or liver transplantation, with subsequent evaluation of the explant or liver biopsy. The following criteria were used to exclude patients from the study: a history of alcohol abuse, hepatitis B or C infection, no tumor detected in the liver tissue examined by histological analysis, and the presence of chronic autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, or hepatoblastoma. The occurrence of NAFLD and the association with its known risk factors were studied. The risk factors considered were diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, body mass index, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension. Presence of reticulin fibers in the hepatic neoplasms was assessed by histological analysis using slide-mounted specimens stained with either hematoxylin and eosin or Masson’s trichrome and silver impregnation. Analysis of tumor-free liver parenchyma was carried out to determine the association between NAFLD and its histological grade. RESULTS: No difference was found in the association of NAFLD with the general population (34.2% and 30.0% respectively, 95%CI: 25.8-43.4). Evaluation by cancer type showed that NAFLD was more prevalent in patients with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer than in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (OR = 3.99, 95%CI: 1.78-8.94, P < 0.001 vs OR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.18-2.01, P = 0.406 and OR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.18-2.80, P = 0.613, respectively). There was a higher prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (OR = 3.50, 95%CI: 1.06-11.57, P = 0.032). Evaluation of the

  1. Marshall mix design criteria.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-01-01

    This report discusses the basis of the original Marshall design criteria established by the Waterways Experiment Station and criteria used by the Asphalt Institute and Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation. Marshall test properties are d...

  2. Kidney and liver transplantation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, A I; IJzermans, J N M; Forsythe, J L R; Dor, F J M F

    2016-01-01

    Transplant surgery is facing a shortage of deceased donor organs. In response, the criteria for organ donation have been extended, and an increasing number of organs from older donors are being used. For recipients, the benefits of transplantation are great, and the growing ageing population has led to increasing numbers of elderly patients being accepted for transplantation. The literature was reviewed to investigate the impact of age of donors and recipients in abdominal organ transplantation, and to highlight aspects of the fine balance in donor and recipient selection and screening, as well as allocation policies fair to young and old alike. Overall, kidney and liver transplantation from older deceased donors have good outcomes, but are not as good as those from younger donors. Careful donor selection based on risk indices, and potentially biomarkers, special allocation schemes to match elderly donors with elderly recipients, and vigorous recipient selection, allows good outcomes with increasing age of both donors and recipients. The results of live kidney donation have been excellent for donor and recipient, and there is a trend towards inclusion of older donors. Future strategies, including personalized immunosuppression for older recipients as well as machine preservation and reconditioning of donor organs, are promising ways to improve the outcome of transplantation between older donors and older recipients. Kidney and liver transplantation in the elderly is a clinical reality. Outcomes are good, but can be optimized by using strategies that modify donor risk factors and recipient co-morbidities, and personalized approaches to organ allocation and immunosuppression. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Liver transplantation for severe hepatic trauma: Experience from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Delis, Spiros G; Bakoyiannis, Andreas; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Weppler, Debbie; Levi, David; Tzakis, Andreas G

    2009-01-01

    Liver transplantation has been reported in the literature as an extreme intervention in cases of severe and complicated hepatic trauma. The main indications for liver transplant in such cases were uncontrollable bleeding and postoperative hepatic insufficiency. We here describe four cases of orthotopic liver transplantation after penetrating or blunt liver trauma. The indications were liver failure, extended liver necrosis, liver gangrene and multiple episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension, respectively. One patient died due to postoperative cerebral edema. The other three patients recovered well and remain on immunosuppression. Liver transplantation should be considered as a saving procedure in severe hepatic trauma, when all other treatment modalities fail. PMID:19340909

  4. Space Tethers Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, Donald D.; Faile, Gwyn C.; Hayashida, Kazuo B.; Frost, Cynthia L.; Wagner, Carole Y.; Mitchell, Michael L.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Galuska, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    The small expendable deployable system and tether satellite system programs did not have a uniform written criteria for tethers. The JSC safety panel asked what criteria was used to design the tethers. Since none existed, a criteria was written based on past experience for future tether programs.

  5. Machine perfusion preservation of the non-heart-beating donor rat livers using polysol, a new preservation solution.

    PubMed

    Bessems, M; Doorschodt, B M; van Vliet, A K; van Gulik, T M

    2005-01-01

    The increasing shortage of donor organs has led to a focus on extended criteria donors, including the non-heart-beating donor (NHBD). An optimal preservation method is required to facilitate successful transplantation of these ischemically damaged organs. The recent literature has shown clear advantages of hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) over cold storage (CS). For MP, modified University of Wisconsin perfusion solution (UW-G) is often used, which, however, is known to cause microcirculatory obstruction, is difficult to obtain, and is expensive. Therefore, Polysol was developed as a MP preservation solution that contains specific nutrients for the liver, such as amino acids, energy substrates, and vitamins. The aim of this study was to compare Polysol with UW-G in a NHBD rat liver model. After 24 hours hypothermic MP of NHBD rat livers using UW-G or Polysol, liver damage and function parameters were assessed during 60 minutes of reperfusion with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Control livers were reperfused after 24 hours CS in UW. Liver enzyme release was significantly higher among the CS-UW group compared to MP using UW-G or Polysol. Flow during reperfusion was significantly higher when using Polysol compared to UW-G. Bile production and ammonia clearance were highest when using Polysol compared to UW-G. There was less cellular edema after preservation with Polysol compared to UW-G. MP of NHBD rat livers for 24 hours using UW-G or Polysol resulted in less hepatocellular damage than CS in UW. MP of NHBD livers for 24 hours using Polysol is superior to MP using UW-G.

  6. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure : Comparing Guidelines on the Prediction of Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Umeda, Yuzo; Takaki, Akinobu; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Nobuoka, Daisuke; Kuise, Takashi; Takagi, Kosei; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Takahito; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Determining the indications for and timing of liver transplantation (LT) for acute liver failure (ALF) is essential. The King's College Hospital (KCH) guidelines and Japanese guidelines are used to predict the need for LT and the outcomes in ALF. These guidelines' accuracy when applied to ALF in different regional and etiological backgrounds may differ. Here we compared the accuracy of new (2010) Japanese guidelines that use a simple scoring system with the 1996 Japanese guidelines and the KCH criteria for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We retrospectively analyzed 24 adult ALF patients (18 acute type, 6 sub-acute type) who underwent LDLT in 1998-2009 at our institution. We assessed the accuracies of the 3 guidelines' criteria for ALF. The overall 1-year survival rate was 87.5%. The new and previous Japanese guidelines were superior to the KCH criteria for accurately predicting LT for acute-type ALF (72% vs. 17%). The new Japanese guidelines could identify 13 acute-type ALF patients for LT, based on the timing of encephalopathy onset. Using the previous Japanese guidelines, although the same 13 acute-type ALF patients (72%) had indications for LT, only 4 patients were indicated at the 1st step, and it took an additional 5 days to decide the indication at the 2nd step in the other 9 cases. Our findings showed that the new Japanese guidelines can predict the indications for LT and provide a reliable alternative to the previous Japanese and KCH guidelines.

  7. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of a proteomic approach to identify proteins associated with primary graft non-function after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kornasiewicz, Oskar; Bojarczuk, Kamil; Bugajski, Marek; Golab, Jakub; Krawczyk, Marek

    2012-10-01

    Primary graft non-function (PNF) is a rare, life-threatening complication of liver transplantation. Increasing use of extended criteria donor pools and high-risk recipients seem to influence the incidence of PNF. Primary failure is associated with high patient morbidity and inferior graft survival. The only available treatment for PNF is emergency hepatic retransplantation, which is also correlated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, researchers are working to identify risk factors of diagnostic value to prevent PNF. The current study attempted to explore liver proteomic patterns in patients with PNF. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we compared liver protein homogenates from 3 patients with PNF to those obtained from 6 healthy liver samples to identify potential new biomarkers of PNF. Our comparisons revealed 21 proteins with differential expression (13 upregulated and 8 downregulated). Most of these proteins are involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, peptide cleavage, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Although none of these proteins appeared more than once in separate analyses, this preliminary study shows that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS may allow identification of characteristic proteins to be used as biomarkers of a life-threatening complication of liver transplantation. Larger-scale analyses could improve patient care by finding suitable prognostic and therapeutic options. These data represent the first global proteomic approach to study PNF.

  9. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  10. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    Liver function tests are common tests that are used to see how well the liver is working. Tests include: ... E, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  11. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  12. Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver disease that is not related to heavy alcohol use. There are two kinds: Simple fatty ... disease? Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to heavy alcohol use. Your liver breaks down most of ...

  13. American Liver Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Helpful Links Liver Cancer Information Available in Chinese Learn more about liver cancer HERE . Thanks to ... in Northern California, you can speak to a Chinese speaking agent with your liver cancer questions. Call ...

  14. Liver surgery in cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Christina; Schlitt, Hans J; Renner, Philipp; Lang, Sven A

    2016-03-07

    The prevalence of hepatic cirrhosis in Europe and the United States, currently 250 patients per 100000 inhabitants, is steadily increasing. Thus, we observe a significant increase in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension needing liver resections for primary or metastatic lesions. However, extended liver resections in patients with underlying hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension still represent a medical challenge in regard to perioperative morbidity, surgical management and postoperative outcome. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification recommends to restrict curative liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients to early tumor stages in patients with Child A cirrhosis not showing portal hypertension. However, during the last two decades, relevant improvements in preoperative diagnostic, perioperative hepatologic and intensive care management as well as in surgical techniques during hepatic resections have rendered even extended liver resections in higher-degree cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension possible. However, there are few standard indications for hepatic resections in cirrhotic patients and risk stratifications have to be performed in an interdisciplinary setting for each individual patient. We here review the indications, the preoperative risk-stratifications, the morbidity and the mortality of extended resections for primary and metastatic lesions in cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, we provide a review of literature on perioperative management in cirrhotic patients needing extrahepatic abdominal surgery and an overview of surgical options in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis.

  15. Liver surgery in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hackl, Christina; Schlitt, Hans J; Renner, Philipp; Lang, Sven A

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatic cirrhosis in Europe and the United States, currently 250 patients per 100000 inhabitants, is steadily increasing. Thus, we observe a significant increase in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension needing liver resections for primary or metastatic lesions. However, extended liver resections in patients with underlying hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension still represent a medical challenge in regard to perioperative morbidity, surgical management and postoperative outcome. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification recommends to restrict curative liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients to early tumor stages in patients with Child A cirrhosis not showing portal hypertension. However, during the last two decades, relevant improvements in preoperative diagnostic, perioperative hepatologic and intensive care management as well as in surgical techniques during hepatic resections have rendered even extended liver resections in higher-degree cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension possible. However, there are few standard indications for hepatic resections in cirrhotic patients and risk stratifications have to be performed in an interdisciplinary setting for each individual patient. We here review the indications, the preoperative risk-stratifications, the morbidity and the mortality of extended resections for primary and metastatic lesions in cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, we provide a review of literature on perioperative management in cirrhotic patients needing extrahepatic abdominal surgery and an overview of surgical options in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:26973411

  16. Liver cell therapy and tissue engineering for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vacanti, Joseph P; Kulig, Katherine M

    2014-06-01

    Liver transplantation remains the only definitive treatment for liver failure and is available to only a tiny fraction of patients with end-stage liver diseases. Major limitations for the procedure include donor organ shortage, high cost, high level of required expertise, and long-term consequences of immune suppression. Alternative cell-based liver therapies could potentially greatly expand the number of patients provided with effective treatment. Investigative research into augmenting or replacing liver function extends into three general strategies. Bioartificial livers (BALs) are extracorporeal devices that utilize cartridges of primary hepatocytes or cell lines to process patient plasma. Injection of liver cell suspensions aims to foster organ regeneration or provide a missing metabolic function arising from a genetic defect. Tissue engineering recreates the organ in vitro for subsequent implantation to augment or replace patient liver function. Translational models and clinical trials have highlighted both the immense challenges involved and some striking examples of success. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Liver Transplantation and Donor Body Mass Index >30: Use or Refuse?

    PubMed

    Andert, Anne; Becker, Niklas; Ulmer, Florian; Schöning, Wenzel; Hein, Marc; Rimek, Alexandra; Neumann, Ulf; Schmeding, Maximilian

    2016-03-31

    Organ shortage is a major problem in liver transplantation. The use of extended criteria donors has become the most important strategy for increasing the donor pool. However, the role of donor body mass index has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The aim of our study was to compare outcomes after liver transplantation in patients who received a liver from a donor with a BMI <30, 30-39, and ≥40, with special regard to the incidence of early allograft dysfunction (EAD) and primary non-function (PNF). One hundred and sixty-three patients who underwent liver transplantation at the University Hospital Aachen between June 2010 and January 2014 were included in this analysis. The outcome of liver transplantation was evaluated by the 30-day and 1-year patient and graft survival rates and the incidences of post-reperfusion syndrome (PRS), EAD, and PNF. The BMI 30-39 group had a higher incidence of EAD than the BMI <30 and BMI ≥40 groups. We observed 5 cases of PNF in the BMI <30 group. The incidence of acute renal failure was significantly higher in the BMI 30-39 and BMI ≥40 groups than in the BMI <30 group. Patient and graft survival did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. Based on the findings of this study, grafts from obese donors with a BMI >30 can be safely transplanted. Therefore, the donor pool can be enlarged to include such obese donors without a negative impact on the long-term patient outcome after liver transplantation.

  18. Regenerative liver surgeries: the alphabet soup of emerging techniques.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Maansi; Kluger, Michael D; Griesemer, Adam; Bentley-Hibbert, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    New surgical procedures taking advantage of the regenerative abilities of the liver are being introduced as potential curative therapies to these patients either to provide auxiliary support while the native liver recovers or undergoes hypertrophy. For patients with hepatocellular carcinoma outside of the Milan criteria or bilobar colorectal metastases liver transplantation is not an option. Fulminant hepatic failure can be treated but requires life-long immunosuppression. These complex surgical procedures require high quality and directed imaging.

  19. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis, ascites, choline deficiency, cirrhosis, drug-induced fatty liver, edema, encephalopathy, glycogen storage disorder, gynecomastia, hepatic steatosis, hepatomegaly, hereditary fructose intolerance, homocystinuria, hyperlipidemia, ...

  20. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  1. Extended--and Extending--Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Ellison, Tisha Lewis

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of "Becoming a Nation of Readers: The Report of the Commission on Reading" ("BNR") (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985) with the idea of extending literacy learning beyond the early grades, describing present-day conceptions of secondary-school literacy learning, and calling to "further…

  2. Bioengineered transplantable porcine livers with re-endothelialized vasculature.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Kap; Peng, Li; Peloso, Andrea; Smith, Charesa J; Dhal, Abritee; Deegan, Daniel B; Zimmerman, Cindy; Clouse, Cara; Zhao, Weixin; Shupe, Thomas D; Soker, Shay; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    Donor shortage remains a continued challenge in liver transplantation. Recent advances in tissue engineering have provided the possibility of creating functional liver tissues as an alternative to donor organ transplantation. Small bioengineered liver constructs have been developed, however a major challenge in achieving functional bioengineered liver in vivo is the establishment of a functional vasculature within the scaffolds. Our overall goal is to bioengineer intact livers, suitable for transplantation, using acellular porcine liver scaffolds. We developed an effective method for reestablishing the vascular network within decellularized liver scaffolds by conjugating anti-endothelial cell antibodies to maximize coverage of the vessel walls with endothelial cells. This procedure resulted in uniform endothelial attachment throughout the liver vasculature extending to the capillary bed of the liver scaffold and greatly reduced platelet adhesion upon blood perfusion in vitro. The re-endothelialized livers, when transplanted to recipient pigs, were able to withstand physiological blood flow and maintained for up to 24 h. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that vascularized bioengineered livers, of clinically relevant size, can be transplanted and maintained in vivo, and represents the first step towards generating engineered livers for transplantation to patients with end-stage liver failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary pure choriocarcinoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Fernández Alonso, J; Sáez, C; Pérez, P; Montaño, A; Japón, M A

    1992-04-01

    We report a pure choriocarcinoma of the liver studied at necropsy. The tumour was diagnosed ante-mortem and treated by chemotherapy with no satisfactory response. Previous cases of hepatic choriocarcinoma are reviewed and criteria to diagnose this extragonadal neoplasm are recommended.

  4. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Excessive alcohol use is a common health care problem worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease represents the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation in North America and Europe. The pretransplant evaluation of patients with alcoholic liver disease should aim at identifying those at high risk for posttransplant relapse of alcohol use disorder, as return to excessive drinking can be deleterious to graft and patient survival. Carefully selected patients with alcoholic liver disease, including those with severe alcoholic hepatitis, will have similar short-term and long-term outcomes when compared with other indications for liver transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative intrahepatic HBV cccDNA correlates with histological liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ling-Bo; Zhu, Xia; Yan, Li-Bo; Du, Ling-Yao; Liu, Cong; Liao, Juan; Tang, Hong

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) forming covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA) in liver inflammation in patients infected with HBV with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels under two times the upper limit of normal (2×ULN). After liver biopsy and serum virological and biochemical marker screening, patients diagnosed with chronic HBV infection with serum ALT levels under 2×ULN and histological liver inflammation of less than grade G2 were prospectively recruited into this study. Recruitment took place between March 2009 and November 2010 at the Center of Infectious Disease, Sichuan University. Patient virological and biochemical markers, as well as markers of liver inflammation, were monitored. A total of 102 patients were recruited and 68 met the inclusion criteria; the median follow-up was 4.1 years (range 3.9-5.2 years). During follow-up, 41 patients (60.3%) exhibited signs of inflammation. Baseline HBV cccDNA >1 copy/cell (odds ratio 9.43, p=0.049) and liver inflammation grade ≥G1 (odds ratio 5.77, p=0.046) were both independent predictors of liver inflammation. A higher baseline intrahepatic HBV cccDNA level may increase the risk of liver inflammation. Further investigations will be required to validate HBV cccDNA as an intrahepatic virological marker of patients who require extended outpatient management. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background

    Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

  7. A Review of Organ Transplantation: Heart, Lung, Kidney, Liver, and Simultaneous Liver-Kidney.

    PubMed

    Scheuher, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Heart, lung, kidney, liver, and simultaneous liver-kidney transplants share many features. They all follow the same 7-step process, the same 3 immunosuppressant medications, and the same reason for organ transplantation. Organs are transplanted because of organ failure. The similarities end there. Each organ has its unique causes for failure. Each organ also has its own set of criteria that must be met prior to transplantation. Simultaneous liver-kidney transplant criteria vary per transplant center but are similar in nature. Both the criteria required and the 7-step process are described by the United Network of Organ Sharing, which is a private, nonprofit organization, under contract with the US Department of Health and Human Services. Its function is to increase the number of transplants, improve survival rates after transplantation, promote safe transplant practices, and endorse efficiency. The purpose of this article is to review the reasons transplant is needed, specifically heart, lung, kidney, liver, and simultaneous liver-kidney, and a brief overview of the transplant process including criteria used, contraindications, and medications prescribed.

  8. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2015-01-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs. PMID:25713804

  9. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  10. 5 CFR 575.108 - Approval criteria and written determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.108 Approval criteria and written determination. (a) For each determination to pay a recruitment incentive under this subpart, an agency must document in...

  11. 48 CFR 204.7104-1 - Criteria for establishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 204.7104-1 Criteria for establishing. Contract subline items provide flexibility to further identify..., manufacturer's part number, scope of work, description of services). (3) Unit prices and extended amounts. (i...

  12. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciT

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less thanmore » 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.« less

  13. Alcohol abuse in deceased liver donors: impact on post-transplant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mangus, Richard S; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Fridell, Jonathan A; Pena, Jose M; Frost, Evan M; Joseph Tector, A

    2015-01-01

    Many deceased liver donors with a history of alcohol abuse are excluded based upon medical history alone. This paper summarizes the transplant outcomes for a large number of deceased liver donors with a documented history of alcohol abuse. The records for 1478 consecutive deceased liver donors were reviewed (2001-2012). As per the United Network for Organ Sharing criteria, heavy alcohol use by an organ donor is defined as chronic intake of two or more drinks per day. Donors with a documented history of alcohol abuse were divided into three groups according to duration of abuse (<10 years, 10-24 years and 25 + years). Reperfusion biopsies are reported. Outcomes include biopsy appearance, early graft function and early and late graft survival. There were 161 donors with alcohol abuse: <10 years (29%); 10-24 years (42%); and ≥25 years (29%). Risk of 90-day graft loss for these three groups was: 0%, 3% and 2%, compared to 3% for all other donors (P = 0.62). Graft survival at 1 year for donor grafts with and without alcohol abuse was 89% and 87% (P = 0.52). There was no difference in early graft function. Cox proportional hazards modelling for graft survival demonstrates no statistically significant difference in survival up to 10 years post-transplant. This study demonstrates successful transplantation of a large number of deceased donor liver grafts from donors with a documented history of alcohol abuse (n = 161; 11% of all grafts). These extended criteria donor allografts may, therefore, be utilized successfully with similar outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Machine perfusion in liver transplantation as a tool to prevent non-anastomotic biliary strictures: Rationale, current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Weeder, Pepijn D; van Rijn, Rianne; Porte, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    The high incidence of non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) after transplantation of livers from extended criteria donors is currently a major barrier to widespread use of these organs. This review provides an update on the most recent advances in the understanding of the etiology of NAS. These new insights give reason to believe that machine perfusion can reduce the incidence of NAS after transplantation by providing more protective effects on the biliary tree during preservation of the donor liver. An overview is presented regarding the different endpoints that have been used for assessment of biliary injury and function before and after transplantation, emphasizing on methods used during machine perfusion. The wide spectrum of different approaches to machine perfusion is discussed, including the many different combinations of techniques, temperatures and perfusates at varying time points. In addition, the current understanding of the effect of machine perfusion in relation to biliary injury is reviewed. Finally, we explore directions for future research such as the application of (pharmacological) strategies during machine perfusion to further improve preservation. We stress the great potential of machine perfusion to possibly expand the donor pool by reducing the incidence of NAS in extended criteria organs. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional Extended Redundancy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Suk, Hye Won; Lee, Jang-Han; Moskowitz, D. S.; Lim, Jooseop

    2012-01-01

    We propose a functional version of extended redundancy analysis that examines directional relationships among several sets of multivariate variables. As in extended redundancy analysis, the proposed method posits that a weighed composite of each set of exogenous variables influences a set of endogenous variables. It further considers endogenous…

  16. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-07-07

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), α-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients.

  17. Extended family medicine training

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  18. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  19. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  20. Aquatic Life Criteria - Atrazine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Water Quality Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine (Freshwater and Salt Water). This document contains the safe levels of Atrazine in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  1. Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  2. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  3. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  4. Aquatic Life Criteria - Carbaryl

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2012 Final National Recommended Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Carbaryl in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  5. Aquatic Life Criteria - Lead

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    References and documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Lead. These documents include the safe levels of Lead in water that should protect the majority of species.

  6. Selection of a right posterior sector graft for living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toru; Kimura, Koichi; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-09-01

    Right posterior sector (RPS) grafts have been used to overcome graft size discrepancies, the major concern of living donor liver transplantation. Previous studies have reported the volumetry-based selection of RPS grafts without anatomical exclusion. We reviewed our data and established selection criteria for RPS grafts. The procurement of RPS grafts [conventional (n = 3) and extended (n = 5)] was performed for 8 of 429 recipients at our center. Extended RPS grafts contained the drainage area of the right hepatic vein. The mean graft weight (GW) according to 3-dimensional computed tomography volumetry was 488 g, and the GW/standard liver weight (SLW) ratio was 42.6%. The mean actual GW was 437 g, and the GW/SLW ratio was 38.4%. One donor exhibited standard bifurcation of the right portal vein (PV) and the left PV, and 2 donors exhibited trifurcation of the left PV, the right anterior portal vein (APV), and the posterior PV. The remaining 5 donors exhibited APV branching from the left PV, which is the most suitable anatomy for RPS grafts. Two recipients died of sepsis or small-for-size graft syndrome. One underwent retransplantation because of an intractable bile leak and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Intractable bile duct (BD) stenosis developed in 4 of the 6 survivors. In conclusion, with the significant complications and potential concerns associated with RPS grafts, these grafts should be used very rarely and with extreme caution. Donors with the standard bifurcation of the PV and the posterior BD running through the dorsal side of the posterior PV are not suitable candidates for RPS grafts. Extended RPS graft procurement is recommended for easier parenchymal transection. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Donor hypernatremia before procurement and early outcomes following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kaseje, Neema; McLin, Valerie; Toso, Christian; Poncet, Antoine; Wildhaber, Barbara E

    2015-08-01

    The demand for transplantable organs far outweighs the supply. Recently, efforts have been made to increase the donor pool by adopting extended criteria for livers, including those from hypernatremic donors. Currently, there is no clear evidence that the use of organs from hypernatremic donors has detrimental effects on pediatric liver transplantation (LT) recipients. Our aim was to use the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database to evaluate the effects of donor hypernatremia on 30-day outcomes in pediatric LT recipients. We performed an analysis of 2325 children who underwent whole or partial LT between 2005 and 2010. First, we sought to determine a donor sodium threshold for increased mortality following pediatric LT. Second, we examined rates of mortality and graft failure at 30 days after LT in patients receiving grafts from hypernatremic donors compared to patients receiving grafts from normonatremic donors. Hypernatremia was defined as a donor sodium level of ≥160 µmol/L. The primary outcome measure was mortality at 30 days after transplant. The secondary outcome measure was graft failure at 30 days after transplant. There was no threshold sodium level for increased 30-day mortality following pediatric LT. Mean recipient ages/weights, Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease/Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, and mean cold and warm ischemia times were similar between the 2 study groups. There were no significant differences in mortality rates (3.9% versus 4.5%; P = 0.87) and graft failure rates (2.2% versus 1.9%; P = 1.00) in patients receiving grafts from hypernatremic donors compared to patients receiving grafts from normonatremic donors at 30 days after LT. In conclusion, donor hypernatremia just before procurement does not appear to have negative effects on mortality and graft failure rates at 30 days following pediatric LT. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Deceased donor liver transplant: Experience from a public sector hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Pamecha, Viniyendra; Borle, Deeplaxmi Purushottam; Kumar, Senthil; Bharathy, Kishore Gurumoorthy Subramanya; Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Sasturkar, Shridhar Vasantrao; Sharma, Vibuti; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) is an uncommon procedure in India. We present our experience of DDLT from a public sector teaching hospital. A retrospective analysis of all DDLT was performed from April 2012 till September 2016. Demographics, intraoperative, donor factors, morbidity, and outcome were analyzed. During the study period, 305 liver transplants were performed, of which 36 were DDLT (adult 32, pediatric 4; 35 grafts; 1 split). The median age was 42.5 (1-62) years; 78% were men. The median donor age was 28 (1-77) years; 72.2% were men. About 45% of organs were procured from outside of Delhi and 67% of all grafts used were marginal. Three of 38 liver grafts (7.8%) were rejected due to gross steatosis. Commonest indication was cryptogenic cirrhosis (19.4%). The median model for end-stage liver disease sodium and pediatric end-stage liver disease scores were 23.5 (9-40) and 14.5 (9-22), respectively. Median warm and cold ischemia times were 40 (23-56) and 396 (111-750) min, respectively. Major morbidity of grade III and above occurred in 63.8%. In hospital (90 days), mortality was 16.7% and there were two late deaths because of chronic rejection and biliary sepsis. The overall survival was 77.8% at median follow up of 8.6 (1-54) months. DDLT can be performed with increasing frequency and safety in a public sector hospital. The perioperative and long-term outcomes are acceptable despite the fact that most organs were extended criteria grafts.

  9. The shelf life of chilled sheep livers packed in closed tubs.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Penny, N

    1984-01-01

    Livers incubated at 30°C in closed tubs developed floras dominated by Enterobacteriaceae. At chiller temperatures, floras were ultimately dominated by psychrotrophic lactobacilli. Tub-packed livers can have an extended shelf life similar to that reported for vacuum-packed liver. Copyright © 1984. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Implications of Extended Solar Minima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Davis, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of periodicity in the solar cycle, the historical record of sunspot number has been carefully examined, attempting to make predictions about the next cycle. Much emphasis has been on predicting the maximum amplitude and length of the next cycle. Because current space-based and suborbital instruments are designed to study active phenomena, there is considerable interest in estimating the length and depth of the current minimum. We have developed criteria for the definition of a minimum and applied it to the historical sunspot record starting in 1749. In doing so, we find that 1) the current minimum is not yet unusually long and 2) there is no obvious way of predicting when, using our definition, the current minimum may end. However, by grouping the data into 22- year cycles there is an interesting pattern of extended minima that recurs every fourth or fifth 22-year cycle. A preliminary comparison of this pattern with other records, suggests the possibility of a correlation between extended minima and lower levels of solar irradiance.

  11. Simultaneous Liver-Kidney Transplantation: Impact on Liver Transplant Patients and the Kidney Transplant Waiting List.

    PubMed

    Miles, Clifford D; Westphal, Scott; Liapakis, AnnMarie; Formica, Richard

    2018-01-01

    The number of simultaneous liver-kidney transplants (SLKT) performed in the USA has been rising. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network implemented a new policy governing SLKT that specifies eligibility criteria for candidates to receive a kidney with a liver, and creates a kidney waitlist "safety net" for liver recipients with persistent renal failure after transplant. This review explores potential impacts for liver patients and the kidney waitlist. Factors that have contributed to the rise in SLKT including Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)-based allocation, regional sharing for high MELD candidates, and the rising incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis will continue to increase the number of liver transplant candidates with concurrent renal insufficiency. The effect of center behavior based on the new policy is harder to predict, given wide historic variability in SLKT practice. Continued increase in combined liver/kidney failure is likely, and SLKT and kidney after liver transplant may both increase. Impact of the new policy should be carefully monitored, but influences beyond the policy need to be accounted for.

  12. Digital liver biopsy: Bio-imaging of fatty liver for translational and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Marcello; Summers, Paul; Faita, Francesco; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Callea, Francesco; De Nicola, Andrea; Di Lascio, Nicole; Farinati, Fabio; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Gridelli, Bruno; Mirabelli, Peppino; Neri, Emanuele; Salvadori, Piero A; Rebelos, Eleni; Tiribelli, Claudio; Valenti, Luca; Salvatore, Marco; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2018-02-27

    The rapidly growing field of functional, molecular and structural bio-imaging is providing an extraordinary new opportunity to overcome the limits of invasive liver biopsy and introduce a "digital biopsy" for in vivo study of liver pathophysiology. To foster the application of bio-imaging in clinical and translational research, there is a need to standardize the methods of both acquisition and the storage of the bio-images of the liver. It can be hoped that the combination of digital, liquid and histologic liver biopsies will provide an innovative synergistic tri-dimensional approach to identifying new aetiologies, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the optimization of personalized therapy of liver diseases and liver cancer. A group of experts of different disciplines (Special Interest Group for Personalized Hepatology of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, Institute for Biostructures and Bio-imaging of the National Research Council and Bio-banking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure) discussed criteria, methods and guidelines for facilitating the requisite application of data collection. This manuscript provides a multi-Author review of the issue with special focus on fatty liver.

  13. Digital liver biopsy: Bio-imaging of fatty liver for translational and clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Marcello; Summers, Paul; Faita, Francesco; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Callea, Francesco; De Nicola, Andrea; Di Lascio, Nicole; Farinati, Fabio; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Gridelli, Bruno; Mirabelli, Peppino; Neri, Emanuele; Salvadori, Piero A; Rebelos, Eleni; Tiribelli, Claudio; Valenti, Luca; Salvatore, Marco; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2018-01-01

    The rapidly growing field of functional, molecular and structural bio-imaging is providing an extraordinary new opportunity to overcome the limits of invasive liver biopsy and introduce a “digital biopsy” for in vivo study of liver pathophysiology. To foster the application of bio-imaging in clinical and translational research, there is a need to standardize the methods of both acquisition and the storage of the bio-images of the liver. It can be hoped that the combination of digital, liquid and histologic liver biopsies will provide an innovative synergistic tri-dimensional approach to identifying new aetiologies, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the optimization of personalized therapy of liver diseases and liver cancer. A group of experts of different disciplines (Special Interest Group for Personalized Hepatology of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, Institute for Biostructures and Bio-imaging of the National Research Council and Bio-banking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure) discussed criteria, methods and guidelines for facilitating the requisite application of data collection. This manuscript provides a multi-Author review of the issue with special focus on fatty liver. PMID:29527259

  14. Alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Penny, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 100,000 deaths are attributed to alcohol abuse each year. In 2009, the World Health Organization listed alcohol use as one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease and injury. Alcoholic liver disease, a direct result of chronic alcohol abuse, insidiously destroys the normal functions of the liver. The end result of the disease, cirrhosis, culminates in a dysfunctional and diffusely scarred liver. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, imaging considerations, and treatment of alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Normal liver function, liver hemodynamics, the disease of alcoholism, and the deleterious effects of alcohol also are reviewed.

  15. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2017-05-16

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  16. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  17. Outcome of organs procured from donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support: an analysis of kidney and liver allograft data.

    PubMed

    Carter, Timothy; Bodzin, Adam S; Hirose, Hitoshi; West, Sharon; Hasz, Richard; Maley, Warren R; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C

    2014-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has become rescue therapy for adults with overwhelming cardiac and/or respiratory failure. Not all patients are saved, creating a new cohort of potential organ donors. This study examines the outcomes of liver and kidney allografts procured from donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A retrospective review was conducted through the local organ procurement organization. Donors on ECMO prior to notification were classified into donation after brain death (DBD) and donation after cardiac death (DCD). We compared short-term outcome data against published standards. Between 1995 and 2012, 97 organs were procured from 41 donors supported on ECMO. There were 68 kidneys donated, 51 were transplanted and 17 discarded. Excluding extended criteria donors, 29 DBD and 13 DCD kidneys were transplanted from donors supported on ECMO. Delayed graft function occurred in 34% of DBD kidneys and 38% of DCD kidneys. Kidney allograft survival at one yr was 93%. Twenty-four livers were procured, nine discarded, and 15 transplanted. Ninety-three percent of liver transplant recipients were alive with graft function at one yr. Donation after brain death kidneys procured from donors on ECMO perform similarly to non-ECMO organs with regard to delayed graft function (DGF), one-yr graft survival and function. Livers from ECMO donors have a higher discard rate than non-ECMO donors, but function similarly at six months and one yr. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function.

  19. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function. PMID:26783413

  20. Extending Mondrian Memory Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    a kernel semaphore is locked or unlocked. In addition, we extended the system call interface to receive notifications about user-land locking...operations (such as calls to the mutex and semaphore code provided by the C library). By patching the dynamically loadable GLibC5, we are able to test... semaphores , and spinlocks. RTO-MP-IST-091 10- 9 Extending Mondrian Memory Protection to loading extension plugins. This prevents any untrusted code

  1. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    PubMed

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  2. [Hepatocellular tumours in noncirrhotic liver tissue].

    PubMed

    Goltz, D; Fischer, H-P

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the spectrum of tissue-based diagnostics of hepatocellular tumours has changed due to novel molecular pathological findings. Innovative radiographics filter out small lesions and ambiguous tumours for bioptical sampling. The spectrum of these tumours includes hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatocellular adenomas, focal nodular hyperplasia and macroregenerative nodules. Primarily, morphological analysis should identify the dignity of a lesion. After exclusion of HCC and reactive liver cell nodules, hepatocellular adenomas should be further subclassified based on immunohistochemical/molecular pathological criteria according to the WHO classification of liver tumours. This procedure provides significant additional information regarding the prognosis and therapeutic implications of hepatocellular adenomas.

  3. Probabilistic liver atlas construction.

    PubMed

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E

    2017-01-13

    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  4. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... abscess URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000211.htm Amebic liver abscess To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amebic liver abscess is a collection of pus ...

  5. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  6. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplant and liver disease patients. Pre-Transplant Protein Malnutrition -- Many patients with end stage liver disease do ... to lose weight sensibly and slowly, without causing malnutrition (especially protein malnutrition). Losing excess weight decreases the ...

  7. Criteria for structural test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study to define criteria and techniques of design, analysis and test which permit the use of a single major structural test article for performing dynamic, fatigue, and static testing are presented. The criteria developed is applicable to both space vehicles and aircraft structures operating in the subsonic or supersonic regime. The feasibility of such an approach was demonstrated by defining test interactions, compatibilities and incompatibilities between the three different types of tests. The results of the study indicate that the single test article concept is feasible with a testing sequence of dynamic test followed by a fatigue and static test.

  8. Microbiota and the liver.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ting-Chin David; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos; Rustgi, Vinod K

    2018-04-01

    The gut microbiome outnumbers the human genome by 150-fold and plays important roles in metabolism, immune system education, tolerance development, and prevention of pathogen colonization. Dysbiosis has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as cirrhosis and complications. This article provides an overview of this relationship. Liver Transplantation 24 539-550 2018 AASLD. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview Go ... different types of treatment for patients with childhood liver cancer. Different types of treatments are available for children ...

  10. Extended spider cognition.

    PubMed

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  11. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2016-05-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure.

  12. Acute liver damage and ecstasy ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, A J; Wendon, J A; Portmann, B; Williams, R

    1996-01-01

    Eight cases of ecstasy related acute liver damage referred to a specialised liver unit are described. Two patients presented after collapse within six hours of ecstasy ingestion with hyperthermia, hypotension, fitting, and subsequently disseminated intravascular coagulation with rhabdomyolysis together with biochemical evidence of severe hepatic damage. One patient recovered and the other with evidence of hyperacute liver failure was transplanted but subsequently died, histological examination showing widespread microvesicular fatty change. Four patients presented with acute liver failure without hyperthermia. All four fulfilled criteria for transplantation, one died before a donor organ became available, and two died within one month post-transplantation of overwhelming sepsis. Histological examination showed submassive lobular collapse. Two patients presented with abdominal pain and jaundice and recovered over a period of three weeks; histological examination showed a lobular hepatitis with cholestasis. Patients developing jaundice or with evidence of hepatic failure particularly encephalopathy and prolongation of the international normalised ratio, or both, whether or not preceded by hyperthermia, should be referred to a specialised liver unit as liver transplantation probably provides the only chance of recovery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8675102

  13. Extendable pipe crawler

    SciT

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly andmore » bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.« less

  14. Extendable pipe crawler

    SciT

    Hapstack, M.

    1990-05-01

    A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radically outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm''-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up themore » rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figs.« less

  15. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

  16. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by "inchworm"-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward.

  17. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  18. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  19. Non-operative management of isolated liver trauma.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Yu, Wen-Kui; Wang, Xin-Bo; Ji, Wu; Li, Jie-Shou; Li, Ning

    2014-10-01

    Liver trauma is the most common abdominal emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Now, non-operative management (NOM) is a selective method for liver trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate, mortality and morbidity of NOM for isolated liver trauma. Medical records of 81 patients with isolated liver trauma in our unit were analyzed retrospectively. The success rate, mortality and morbidity of NOM were evaluated. In this series, 9 patients with grade IV-V liver injuries underwent emergent operation due to hemodynamic instability; 72 patients, 6 with grade V, 18 grade IV, 29 grade III, 15 grade II and 4 grade I, with hemodynamic stability received NOM. The overall success rate of NOM was 97.2% (70/72). The success rates of NOM in the patients with grade I-III, IV and V liver trauma were 100%, 94.4% and 83.3%. The complication rates were 10.0% and 45.5% in the patients who underwent NOM and surgical treatment, respectively. No patient with grade I-II liver trauma had complications. All patients who underwent NOM survived. NOM is the first option for the treatment of liver trauma if the patient is hemodynamically stable. The grade of liver injury and the volume of hemoperitoneum are not suitable criteria for selecting NOM. Hepatic angioembolization associated with the correction of hypothermia, coagulopathy and acidosis is important in the conservative treatment for liver trauma.

  20. Predictors of Cardiovascular Events After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Indications for liver transplant have been extended, and older and sicker patients are undergoing transplantation. Infectious, malignant, and cardiovascular diseases account for the most posttransplant deaths. Cirrhotic patients can develop heart disease through systemic diseases affecting the heart and the liver, cirrhosis-specific heart disease, or common cardiovascular. No single factor can predict posttransplant cardiovascular complications. Patients with history of cardiovascular disease, and specific abnormalities on echocardiography, electrocardiography, or serum markers of heart disease seem to be at increased risk of complications. Pretransplant cardiovascular evaluation is essential to detecting these risk factors so their effects can be mitigated through appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immediate postoperative tracheal extubation in a liver transplant recipient with encephalopathy and the Mayo end-stage liver disease score of 41: A CARE-compliant case report revealed meaningful challenge in recovery after surgery (ERAS) for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbo; Wang, Chengdi; Chen, Nan; Song, Jiulin; Sun, Yan; Yao, Qin; Yan, Lunan; Yang, Jiayin

    2017-11-01

    Immediate postoperative tracheal extubation (IPTE) is one of the most important subject in recovery after surgery (ERAS) for liver transplantation. However, the criteria for IPTE is not uniform at present. We reported a successful IPTE in a liver transplant recipient with encephalopathy and a high Mayo end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 41, which beyond the so-called criteria reported in the literature. The patient was 48-year-old man, admitted in September 2016 for end-stage liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B. End-stage liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B with encephalopathy and a high MELD score of 41. He was involved in our ERAS project and was extubated at the end of the liver transplantation in the operating room. As a result, the patient was not reintubated and had an excellent postoperative recovery, staying in intensive care unit (ICU) for just 2 days and discharged home on day 10. We believed IPTE in liver transplant recipients with severe liver dysfunction is a meaningful challenge in ERAS for liver transplantation. Our case and literature review suggest 3 things: IPTE in liver transplantation is generally feasible and safe; the encephalopathy or high MELD score should not be the only limiting factor; and a more systematic predicting system for IPTE in liver transplantation should be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  3. FXR and liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiong-fei; Zhao, Wei-yu; Huang, Wen-dong

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. PMID:25500874

  4. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  5. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  6. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  7. Modelling extended chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the concept that the warm, partially ionized plasma (presently called chromosphere) associated with such stars as Alpha Boo and Rho Per extends outwards at least several photospheric radii. Calculations are presented for the Mg II K line in light of two input model atmospheres. Specific predictions are deduced from the results obtained by each of the two models.

  8. Extended artistic appreciation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    I propose that in at least some cases, objects of artistic appreciation are best thought of not simply as causes of artistic appreciation, but as parts of the cognitive machinery that drives aesthetic appreciation. In effect, this is to say that aesthetic appreciation operates via extended cognitive systems.

  9. Controlled Attenuation Parameter and Liver Stiffness Measurements for Steatosis Assessment in the Liver Transplant of Brain Dead Donors.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Claire; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Carrier, Paul; Naudet, Florian; Bellissant, Eric; Labrousse, François; Pichon, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    One of the main selection criteria of the quality of a liver graft is the degree of steatosis, which will determine the success of the transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of FibroScan and its related methods Controlled Attenuation Parameter and Liver Stiffness to assess objectively steatosis and fibrosis in livers from brain-dead donors to be potentially used for transplantation. Over a period of 10 months, 23 consecutive brain dead donors screened for liver procurement underwent a FibroScan and a liver biopsy. The different predictive models of liver retrievability using liver biopsy as the gold standard have led to the following area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 76.6% (95% confidence intervals [95% CIs], 48.2%-100%) when based solely on controlled attenuation parameter, 75.0% (95% CIs, 34.3%-100%) when based solely on liver stiffness, and 96.7% (95% CIs, 88.7%-100%) when based on combined indices. Our study suggests that a preoperative selection of brain-dead donors based on a combination of both Controlled Attenuation Parameter and Liver Stiffness obtained with FibroScan could result in a good preoperative prediction of the histological status and degree of steatosis of a potential liver graft.

  10. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (Prograf©, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf©, Astagraf XL©) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient’s due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher. PMID:27011912

  11. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-03-24

    Tacrolimus (Prograf(©), Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf(©), Astagraf XL(©)) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient's due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher.

  12. Implementation of an interactive liver surgery planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luyao; Liu, Jingjing; Yuan, Rong; Gu, Shuguo; Yu, Long; Li, Zhitao; Li, Yanzhao; Li, Zhen; Xie, Qingguo; Hu, Daoyu

    2011-03-01

    Liver tumor, one of the most wide-spread diseases, has a very high mortality in China. To improve success rates of liver surgeries and life qualities of such patients, we implement an interactive liver surgery planning system based on contrastenhanced liver CT images. The system consists of five modules: pre-processing, segmentation, modeling, quantitative analysis and surgery simulation. The Graph Cuts method is utilized to automatically segment the liver based on an anatomical prior knowledge that liver is the biggest organ and has almost homogeneous gray value. The system supports users to build patient-specific liver segment and sub-segment models using interactive portal vein branch labeling, and to perform anatomical resection simulation. It also provides several tools to simulate atypical resection, including resection plane, sphere and curved surface. To match actual surgery resections well and simulate the process flexibly, we extend our work to develop a virtual scalpel model and simulate the scalpel movement in the hepatic tissue using multi-plane continuous resection. In addition, the quantitative analysis module makes it possible to assess the risk of a liver surgery. The preliminary results show that the system has the potential to offer an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy, as well as the tumors' location in relation to vessels, and to facilitate liver resection surgeries. Furthermore, we are testing the system in a full-scale clinical trial.

  13. Space Tethers: Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.; Faile, G. C.; Hayashida, K. B.; Frost, C. L.; Wagner, C. Y.; Mitchell, M. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Galuska, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is prepared to provide a systematic process for the selection of tethers for space applications. Criteria arc provided for determining the strength requirement for tether missions and for mission success from tether severing due to micrometeoroids and orbital debris particle impacts. Background information of materials for use in space tethers is provided, including electricity-conducting tethers. Dynamic considerations for tether selection is also provided. Safety, quality, and reliability considerations are provided for a tether project.

  14. Sediment quality criteria: A review with recommendations for developing criteria for the Hanford Site

    SciT

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-05-01

    Criteria for determining the quality of liver sediment are necessary to ensure that concentrations of contaminants in aquatic systems are within acceptable limits for the protection of aquatic and human life. Such criteria should facilitate decision-making about remediation, handling, and disposal of contaminants. Several approaches to the development of sediment quality criteria (SQC) have been described and include both descriptive and numerical methods. However, no single method measures all impacts at all times to all organisms (U.S. EPA 1992b). The U.S. EPA`s interest is primarily in establishing chemically based, numerical SQC that are applicable nation-wide (Shea 1988). Of the approachesmore » proposed for SQC development, only three are being considered for numerical SQC on a national level. These approaches include an Equilibrium Partitioning Approach, a site-specific method using bioassays (the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach), and an approach similar to EPA`s water quality criteria (Pavlou and Weston 1984). Although national (or even regional) criteria address a number of political, litigative, and engineering needs, some researchers feel that protection of benthic communities require site-specific, biologically based criteria (Baudo et al. 1990). This is particularly true for areas where complex mixtures of contaminants are present in sediments. Other scientifically valid and accepted procedures for freshwater SQC include a background concentration approach, methods using field or spiked bioassays, a screening level concentration approach, the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach, the Sediment Quality Triad, the International Joint Commission Sediment Assessment Strategy, and the National Status and Trends Program Approach. The various sediment assessment approaches are evaluated for application to the Hanford Reach and recommendations for Hanford Site sediment quality criteria are discussed.« less

  15. Extended Policies case

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) Extended Policies case includes selected policies that go beyond current laws and regulations. Existing tax credits that have scheduled reductions and sunset dates are assumed to remain unchanged through 2040. Other efficiency policies, including corporate average fuel economy standards, appliance standards, and building codes, are expanded beyond current provisions; and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Power Plan (CPP) regulations that reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electric power generation are tightened after 2030.

  16. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  17. extendFromReads

    SciT

    Williams, Kelly P.

    2013-10-03

    This package assists in genome assembly. extendFromReads takes as input a set of Illumina (eg, MiSeq) DNA sequencing reads, a query seed sequence and a direction to extend the seed. The algorithm collects all seed-- ]matching reads (flipping reverse-- ]orientation hits), trims off the seed and additional sequence in the other direction, sorts the remaining sequences alphabetically, and prints them aligned without gaps from the point of seed trimming. This produces a visual display distinguishing the flanks of multi- ]copy seeds. A companion script hitMates.pl collects the mates of seed-- ]hi]ng reads, whose alignment reveals longer extensions from the seed.more » The collect/trim/sort strategy was made iterative and scaled up in the script denovo.pl, for de novo contig assembly. An index is pre-- ]built using indexReads.pl that for each unique 21-- ]mer found in all the reads, records its gfate h of extension (whether extendable, blocked by low coverage, or blocked by branching after a duplicated sequence) and other characteristics. Importantly, denovo.pl records all branchings that follow a branching contig endpoint, providing contig- ]extension information« less

  18. MR elastography of the liver at 3.0 T in diagnosing liver fibrosis grades; preliminary clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Mitsufuji, Toshimichi; Shinagawa, Yoshinobu; Fujimitsu, Ritsuko; Morita, Ayako; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Takano, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    To clarify the usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography (MRE) in diagnosing the histological grades of liver fibrosis using preliminary clinical data. Between November 2012 and March 2014, MRE was applied to all patients who underwent liver MR study at a 3.0-T clinical unit. Among them, those who had pathological evaluation of liver tissue within 3 months from MR examinations were retrospectively recruited, and the liver stiffness measured by MRE was correlated with histological results. Institutional review board approved this study, waiving informed consent. There were 70 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Liver stiffness showed significant correlation with the pathological grades of liver fibrosis (rho = 0.89, p < 0.0001, Spearman's rank correlation). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.93, 0.95, 0.99 and 0.95 for fibrosis score greater than or equal to F1, F2, F3 and F4, with cut-off values of 3.13, 3.85, 4.28 and 5.38 kPa, respectively. Multivariate analysis suggested that grades of necroinflammation also affected liver stiffness, but to a significantly lesser degree as compared to fibrosis. 3.0-T clinical MRE was suggested to be sufficiently useful in assessing the grades of liver fibrosis. MR elastography may help clinicians assess patients with chronic liver diseases. Usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography has rarely been reported. Measured liver stiffness correlated well with the histological grades of liver fibrosis. Measured liver stiffness was also affected by necroinflammation, but to a lesser degree. 3.0-T MRE could be a non-invasive alternative to liver biopsy.

  19. [Liver and sport].

    PubMed

    Watelet, J

    2008-11-01

    The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.

  20. Orchestrating liver development.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Miriam; Evans, Todd; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2015-06-15

    The liver is a central regulator of metabolism, and liver failure thus constitutes a major health burden. Understanding how this complex organ develops during embryogenesis will yield insights into how liver regeneration can be promoted and how functional liver replacement tissue can be engineered. Recent studies of animal models have identified key signaling pathways and complex tissue interactions that progressively generate liver progenitor cells, differentiated lineages and functional tissues. In addition, progress in understanding how these cells interact, and how transcriptional and signaling programs precisely coordinate liver development, has begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this complexity. Here, we review the lineage relationships, signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that orchestrate hepatogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Slack, Andy; Wendon, Julia

    2011-06-01

    ALF is a multisystem disorder necessitating both predictive and reactive management strategies to support and protect organs from the initial and subsequent insults encountered. Early referral to a specialist liver centre with the option of liver transplantation is recommended. Furthermore, a good understanding of the poor prognostic variables is necessary to determine those most at risk of developing ALF in order to facilitate timely, safe transfer and listing for liver transplantation.

  2. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  3. Inequalities of extended beta and extended hypergeometric functions.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Saiful R

    2017-01-01

    We study the log-convexity of the extended beta functions. As a consequence, we establish Turán-type inequalities. The monotonicity, log-convexity, log-concavity of extended hypergeometric functions are deduced by using the inequalities on extended beta functions. The particular cases of those results also give the Turán-type inequalities for extended confluent and extended Gaussian hypergeometric functions. Some reverses of Turán-type inequalities are also derived.

  4. Criteria for software modularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  5. Hybrid procedure in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Soyama, A; Takatsuki, M; Hidaka, M; Adachi, T; Kitasato, A; Kinoshita, A; Natsuda, K; Baimakhanov, Z; Kuroki, T; Eguchi, S

    2015-04-01

    We have previously reported a hybrid procedure that uses a combination of laparoscopic mobilization of the liver and subsequent hepatectomy under direct vision in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We present the details of this hybrid procedure and the outcomes of the procedure. Between January 1997 and August 2014, 204 LDLTs were performed at Nagasaki University Hospital. Among them, 67 recent donors underwent hybrid donor hepatectomy. Forty-one donors underwent left hemihepatectomy, 25 underwent right hemihepatectomy, and 1 underwent posterior sectionectomy. First, an 8-cm subxiphoid midline incision was made; laparoscopic mobilization of the liver was then achieved with a hand-assist through the midline incision under the pneumoperitoneum. Thereafter, the incision was extended up to 12 cm for the right lobe and posterior sector graft and 10 cm left lobe graft procurement. Under direct vision, parenchymal transection was performed by means of the liver-hanging maneuver. The hybrid procedure for LDLT recipients was indicated only for selected cases with atrophic liver cirrhosis without a history of upper abdominal surgery, significant retroperitoneal collateral vessels, or hypertrophic change of the liver (n = 29). For total hepatectomy and splenectomy, the midline incision was sufficiently extended. All of the hybrid donor hepatectomies were completed without an extra subcostal incision. No significant differences were observed in the blood loss or length of the operation compared with conventional open procedures. All of the donors have returned to their preoperative activity level, with fewer wound-related complaints compared with those treated with the use of the conventional open procedure. In recipients treated with the hybrid procedure, no clinically relevant drawbacks were observed compared with the recipients treated with a regular Mercedes-Benz-type incision. Our hybrid procedure was safely conducted with the same quality as the conventional

  6. Metabolic syndrome after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kosola, Silja; Lampela, Hanna; Makisalo, Heikki; Lohi, Jouko; Arola, Johanna; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko

    2014-10-01

    Half of adult liver transplantation (LT) recipients develop metabolic syndrome, but the prevalence after childhood LT remains unknown. We conducted a national cross-sectional study of all living patients who had undergone LT between 1987 and 2007 at an age less than 18 years. We gathered information on blood pressure, body composition, serum lipids, glucose metabolism, and histological liver fat content. The diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome of the American Heart Association and the International Diabetes Federation were used. After a median post-LT follow-up time of 12 years, half of all patients had no components of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 20%, and the prevalence of hypertension was 24%. Serum triglycerides were high in 9%, and high-density lipoprotein levels were low in 23%. Fasting glucose levels were impaired in 14%, but none had diabetes. Altogether, 9 patients (14%) had metabolic syndrome. Moderate liver steatosis found in protocol liver biopsy samples was associated with the accumulation of metabolic syndrome features (P = 0.01). No significant associations were found between immunosuppressive medications and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome after childhood LT is similar to the prevalence in the general population of the same age. Guidelines for the general population, therefore, seem valid for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome after pediatric LT as well. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Autoimune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver cirrhosis or chronic active hepatitis. Risks Slight risks from having blood drawn include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection ( ...

  8. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Buechler, Christa; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-06-29

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively.

  9. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Elisabeth M.; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-01-01

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively. PMID:28661458

  10. Extended cooperative control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

  11. Extended Testability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.

  12. Extended Wordsearches in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Simon

    1998-04-01

    Students can be encouraged to develop their factual knowledge by use of puzzles. One strategy described here is the extended wordsearch, where the wordsearch element generates a number of words or phrases from which the answers to a series of questions are selected. The wordsearch can be generated with the aid of computer programs, though in order to make them suitable for students with dyslexia or other learning difficulties, a simpler form is more appropriate. These problems can be employed in a variety of contexts, for example, as topic tests and classroom end-of-lesson fillers. An example is provided in the area of calcium chemistry. Sources of suitable software are listed.

  13. Pluto in Extended Color

    2015-09-24

    This cylindrical projection map of Pluto, in enhanced, extended color, is the most detailed color map of Pluto ever made by NASA New Horizons. It uses recently returned color imagery from the New Horizons Ralph camera, which is draped onto a base map of images from the NASA's spacecraft's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI). The map can be zoomed in to reveal exquisite detail with high scientific value. Color variations have been enhanced to bring out subtle differences. Colors used in this map are the blue, red, and near-infrared filter channels of the Ralph instrument. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19956

  14. Nonalcoholic fatty liver and the severity of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mikolasevic, I; Orlic, L; Poropat, G; Jakopcic, I; Stimac, D; Klanac, A; Carovic, F; Milic, S

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome on the severity of acute pancreatitis. We hypothesized that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver would have a more severe form of acute pancreatitis. We retrospectively analyzed 822 patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis. We diagnosed acute pancreatitis and determined its severity according the revised Atlanta classification criteria from 2012. We assessed nonalcoholic fatty liver with computed tomography. There were 198 (24.1%) patients out of 822 analyzed who had nonalcoholic fatty liver. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had statistically higher incidence of moderately severe (35.4% vs. 14.6%; p=0.02) and severe acute pancreatitis (20.7% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001) compared to patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver. At the admission patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had higher values of C-reactive protein as well as at day three, higher APACHE II score at admission and significantly higher incidence of organ failure and local complications as well as higher values of computed tomography severity index compared to patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver. We found independent association between the occurrence of moderately severe and severe acute pancreatitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver (OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.236-3.689). Compared to patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver, patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver had a higher death rate, however not statistically significant (5.6% vs. 4.3%; p=NS). Presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver at admission can indicate a higher risk for developing more severe forms of acute pancreatitis and could be used as an additional prognostic tool. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Myopericarditis associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum-caused liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Alexis; Knoll, Bettina

    2015-03-01

    A wide clinical spectrum of bacteremic disease caused by Fusobacterium has been presented in this journal. We wish to extend this spectrum by presenting a case of myopericarditis resulting from a liver abscess caused by F. nucleatum. While F. nucleatum plays an important role in periodontal disease, and has been isolated from skin ulcers, liver abscesses, urinary tract infections, and endocarditis, a single case of F. nucleatum-induced pericarditis is documented in the literature.

  16. Liver failure posthepatectomy and biliary fistula: multidisciplinar treatment.

    PubMed

    Calleja Kempin, Javier; Colón Rodríguez, Arturo; Machado Liendo, Pedro; Acevedo, Agustín; Martín Gil, Jorge; Sánchez Rodríguez, Teresa; Zorrilla Matilla, Laura

    2016-05-01

    The main cause of morbimor-mortality after major liver surgery is the development of liver failure posthepatectomy(LFPH). Treatment must involve multiple options and will be aggressive from the beginning. We report a case of a patient with cholangiocarcinoma perihilar treated with surgery: right hepatectomy extended to sI + IVb with develop of LFPH and biliary fistula and being management successfully in a multidisciplinary way.

  17. Major Challenges Limiting Liver Transplantation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Jason A.; Petrowsky, Henrik; Saab, Sammy; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Busuttil, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the gold standard of care in patients with end-stage liver disease and those with tumors of hepatic origin in the setting of liver dysfunction. From 1988 to 2009, liver transplantation in the United States grew 3.7-fold from 1713 to 6320 transplants annually. The expansion of liver transplantation is chiefly driven by scientific breakthroughs that have extended patient and graft survival well beyond those expected 50 years ago. The success of liver transplantation is now its primary obstacle, as the pool of donor livers fails to keep pace with the growing number of patients added to the national liver transplant waiting list. This review focuses on three major challenges facing liver transplantation in the United States and discusses new areas of investigation that address each issue: 1) the need for an expanded number of useable donor organs, 2) the need for improved therapies to treat recurrent hepatitis C after transplantation and 3) the need for improved detection, risk stratification based upon tumor biology and molecular inhibitors to combat hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:21672146

  18. [Ischemic cholangiopathy induced by extended burns].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Laurence; Angot, Emilie; Goria, Odile; Koning, Edith; François, Arnaud; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Ischemic cholangiopathy is a recently described entity occurring mainly after hepatic grafts. Very few cases after intensive care unit (ICU) for extended burn injury were reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman consulting in an hepatology unit, for a jaundice appearing during a hospitalisation in an intensive care unit and increasing from her leaving from ICU, where she was treated for an extended burn injury. She had no pre-existing biological features of biliary disease. Biological tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of biliary tracts pointed out severe stenosing lesions of diffuse cholangiopathy concerning intrahepatic biliary tract, mainly peri-hilar. Biopsie from the liver confirmed the diagnosis, showing a biliary cirrhosis with bile infarcts. This case is the fourth case of ischemic cholangiopathy after extended burn injury, concerning a patient without a prior history of hepatic or biliary illness and appearing after hospitalisation in intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Anticoagulation and high dose liver radiation. A preliminary report

    SciT

    Lightdale, C.J.; Wasser, J.; Coleman, M.

    Two groups of patients were observed for evidence of acute radiation hepatitis during high dose radiation to the liver. The first group of 18 patients with metastatic liver disease received an average of 4,050 rad to the whole liver. Half received anticoagulation with warfarin. One patient on anticoagulation developed evidence of acute radiation hepatitis while 2 patients did so without anticoagulation. Eleven patients with Hodgkin's disease received 4,000 rad to the left lobe of the liver during extended field radiation. Four of these 11 patients were anticoagulated to therapeutic range. Only one of the fully anticoagulated patients showed changes onmore » liver scan consistent with radiation hepatitis whereas three did so without anticoagulation. No serious sequelae from anticoagulation occurred in either group. These preliminary data suggest that anticoagulation may be safely administered with high dose hepatic radiation and that further trials with anticoagulation are warranted.« less

  20. An extended retinotopic map of mouse cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jun; Ng, Lydia; Williams, Derric; Valley, Matthew; Li, Yang; Garrett, Marina; Waters, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Visual perception and behavior are mediated by cortical areas that have been distinguished using architectonic and retinotopic criteria. We employed fluorescence imaging and GCaMP6 reporter mice to generate retinotopic maps, revealing additional regions of retinotopic organization that extend into barrel and retrosplenial cortices. Aligning retinotopic maps to architectonic borders, we found a mismatch in border location, indicating that architectonic borders are not aligned with the retinotopic transition at the vertical meridian. We also assessed the representation of visual space within each region, finding that four visual areas bordering V1 (LM, P, PM and RL) display complementary representations, with overlap primarily at the central hemifield. Our results extend our understanding of the organization of mouse cortex to include up to 16 distinct retinotopically organized regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18372.001 PMID:28059700

  1. Echinococcosis of the Liver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    and 1b. The lack of internal enhancement confirms the cystic nature of these lesions. Discussion Echinococcosis , also known as Hydatid disease... Echinococcosis of the Liver Radiology Corner Echinococcosis of the Liver Guarantor...abbreviated answer in the March 2007 issue. 1 Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection that poses a potential health threat to military members and

  2. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Cod liver oil contains certain "fatty acids" that prevent the blood from clotting easily. These fatty acids also reduce pain and swelling. ... Morue, Huile de Poisson, Liver Oil, N-3 Fatty Acids, Omega 3, Oméga 3, Omega 3 Fatty Acids, ...

  3. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...

  4. Polyploidization of liver cells.

    PubMed

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, there are a number of exceptions. Organisms containing an increase in DNA content by whole number multiples of the entire set of chromosomes are defined as polyploid. Cells that contain more than two sets of chromosomes were first observed in plants about a century ago and it is now recognized that polyploidy cells form in many eukaryotes under a wide variety of circumstance. Although it is less common in mammals, some tissues, including the liver, show a high percentage of polyploid cells. Thus, during postnatal growth, the liver parenchyma undergoes dramatic changes characterized by gradual polyploidization during which hepatocytes of several ploidy classes emerge as a result of modified cell-division cycles. This process generates the successive appearance of tetraploid and octoploid cell classes with one or two nuclei (mononucleated or binucleated). Liver cells polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence and to lead both to the progressive loss of cell pluripotency and a markedly decreased replication capacity. In adults, liver polyploidization is differentially regulated upon loss of liver mass and liver damage. Interestingly, partial hepatectomy induces marked cell proliferation followed by an increase in liver ploidy. In contrast, during hepatocarcinoma (HCC), growth shifts to a nonpolyploidizing pattern and expansion of the diploid hepatocytes population is observed in neoplastic nodules. Here we review the current state of understanding about how polyploidization is regulated during normal and pathological liver growth and detail by which mechanisms hepatocytes become polyploid.

  5. Diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis.

    PubMed

    MacCollin, M; Chiocca, E A; Evans, D G; Friedman, J M; Horvitz, R; Jaramillo, D; Lev, M; Mautner, V F; Niimura, M; Plotkin, S R; Sang, C N; Stemmer-Rachamimov, A; Roach, E S

    2005-06-14

    The neurofibromatoses are a diverse group of genetic conditions that share a predisposition to the development of tumors of the nerve sheath. Schwannomatosis is a recently recognized third major form of neurofibromatosis (NF) that causes multiple schwannomas without vestibular tumors diagnostic of NF2. Patients with schwannomatosis represent 2.4 to 5% of all patients requiring schwannoma resection and approximately one third of patients with schwannomatosis have anatomically localized disease with tumors limited to a single limb or segment of spine. Epidemiologic studies suggest that schwannomatosis is as common as NF2, but that familial occurrence is inexplicably rare. Patients with schwannomatosis overwhelmingly present with pain, and pain remains the primary clinical problem and indication for surgery. Diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis are needed for both clinicians and researchers, but final diagnostic certainly will await the identification of the schwannomatosis locus itself.

  6. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  7. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning, and

  8. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  9. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health in surface water for approximately 150 pollutants. These criteria provide guidance for states and tribes to use in adopting water quality standards.

  10. Liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gallinger, S.; Biagi, J.J.; Fletcher, G.G.; Nhan, C.; Ruo, L.; McLeod, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    metastases should be seen in consultation with a thoracic surgeon. Combined or staged metastasectomy is recommended when, taking into account anatomic and physiologic considerations, the assessment is that all pulmonary metastases can also be completely removed. Furthermore, liver resection may be indicated in patients who have had a prior lung resection, and vice versa. 1(b). Routine liver resection is not recommended in patients with portal nodal disease. This group includes patients with radiologically suspicious portal nodes or malignant portal nodes found preoperatively or intraoperatively. Liver plus nodal resection, together with perioperative systemic therapy, may be an option—after a full discussion with the patient—in cases with limited nodal involvement and with metastases that can be completely resected. 1(c). Routine liver resection is not recommended in patients with nonpulmonary ehms. Liver plus extrahepatic resection, together with perioperative systemic therapy, may be an option—after a full discussion with the patient—for metastases that can be completely resected. 2(a). Perioperative chemotherapy, either before and after resection, or after resection, is recommended in patients with resectable liver metastatic disease. This recommendation extends to patients with ehms that can be completely resected (R0). Risks and potential benefits of perioperative chemotherapy should be discussed for patients with resectable liver metastases. The data on whether patients with previous oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy or a short interval from completion of adjuvant therapy for primary crc might benefit from perioperative chemotherapy are limited. 2(b). Liver resection is recommended in patients with initially unresectable metastatic liver disease who have a sufficient downstaging response to conversion chemotherapy. If complete resection has been achieved, postoperative chemotherapy should be considered. 3. Surgical resection of all lesions, including lesions with

  11. An extended Lagrangian method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1993-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. The present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multidimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in 1D problems.

  12. An extended Lagrangian method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1992-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method', is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. Meanwhile, it also avoids the inaccuracy incurred due to geometry and variable interpolations used by the previous Lagrangian methods. Unlike the Lagrangian method previously imposed which is valid only for supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows as well as supersonic flows. The method proposed in this paper is robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  13. Criteria for Assessing Naturalistic Inquiries as Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon G.

    Research on the assessment of naturalistic inquiries is reviewed, and criteria for assessment are outlined. Criteria reviewed include early foundational and non-foundational criteria, trustworthiness criteria, axiomatic criteria, rhetorical criteria, action criteria, and application/transferability criteria. Case studies that are reports of…

  14. Small for Size and Flow (SFSF) syndrome: An alternative description for posthepatectomy liver failure.

    PubMed

    Golriz, Mohammad; Majlesara, Ali; El Sakka, Saroa; Ashrafi, Maryam; Arwin, Jalal; Fard, Nassim; Raisi, Hanna; Edalatpour, Arman; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2016-06-01

    Small for Size Syndrome (SFSS) syndrome is a recognizable clinical syndrome occurring in the presence of a reduced mass of liver, which is insufficient to maintain normal liver function. A definition has yet to be fully clarified, but it is a common clinical syndrome following partial liver transplantation and extended hepatectomy, which is characterized by postoperative liver dysfunction with prolonged cholestasis and coagulopathy, portal hypertension, and ascites. So far, this syndrome has been discussed with focus on the remnant size of the liver after partial liver transplantation or extended hepatectomy. However, the current viewpoints believe that the excessive flow of portal vein for the volume of the liver parenchyma leads to over-pressure, sinusoidal endothelial damages and haemorrhage. The new hypothesis declares that in both extended hepatectomy and partial liver transplantation, progression of Small for Size Syndrome is not determined only by the "size" of the liver graft or remnant, but by the hemodynamic parameters of the hepatic circulation, especially portal vein flow. Therefore, we suggest the term "Small for Size and Flow (SFSF)" for this syndrome. We believe that it is important for liver surgeons to know the pathogenesis and manifestation of this syndrome to react early enough preventing non-reversible tissue damages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatty liver in children

    PubMed Central

    Rafeey, Mandana; Mortazavi, Fakhrossadat; Mogaddasi, Nafiseh; Robabeh, Ghergherehchi; Ghaffari, Shamsi; Hasani, Alka

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a referral center of pediatrics in the northwest of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study all subjects aged between six months to 15 years that were referred to the sonography unit, were investigated for fatty liver from March 2005 to August 2006. Patients with fatty liver change underwent detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. Results: From 1500 children who were investigated, 34 subjects with sonographic evidence of fatty liver were enrolled in this study (2.3%). The mean age was 6.53 ± 3.07 years. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was detected in 38.2% and 47.1% of patients, respectively. The mean level of cholesterol was 461 ± 182.23 mg/dl and 94.1% of patients had hypercholesterolemia. Total cholesterol level and serum aminotransferase levels had a significant positive correlation with severity of fatty liver (p < 0.05). Mean body mass index was significantly higher in patients with severe fatty liver (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The epidemiology of pediatric NAFLD should inform future attempts to develop evaluated screening protocols. Moreover, these data should guide efforts to delineate the pathophysiology of fatty liver in children. PMID:19536316

  16. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-06-21

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions.

  17. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions. PMID:24966602

  18. Challenges in transplantation for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berlakovich, Gabriela A

    2014-07-07

    Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist's assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the key

  19. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Angevine, Peter D; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fries, Ian Blair; Holly, Langston T; Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaqulle; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; O'Toole, John E; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; West, O Clark; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms may have a number of causative intradural and extradural etiologies, including disc degenerative diseases, spinal masses, infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular compromise, and vertebral fracture. Patients may present acutely or insidiously and may progress toward long-term paralysis if not treated promptly and effectively. Noncontrast CT is the most appropriate first examination in acute trauma cases to diagnose vertebral fracture as the cause of acute myelopathy. In most nontraumatic cases, MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the location, severity, and causative etiology of spinal cord myelopathy, and predicts which patients may benefit from surgery. Myelopathy from spinal stenosis and spinal osteoarthritis is best confirmed without MRI intravenous contrast. Many other myelopathic conditions are more easily visualized after contrast administration. Imaging performed should be limited to the appropriate spinal levels, based on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CDTI target selection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, C. L.; Davis, C. M.; Jackson, C. B.; Mcclellan, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    A Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is a cockpit instrument which provides information to the aircrew on the relative location of aircraft traffic in the vicinity of their aircraft (township). In addition, the CDTI may provide information to assist in navigation and in aircraft control. It is usually anticipated that the CDTI will be integrated with a horizontal situation indicator used for navigational purposes and/or with a weather radar display. In this study, several sets of aircraft traffic data are analyzed to determine statistics on the number of targets that will be displayed on a CDTI using various target selection criteria. Traffic data were obtained from an Atlanta Terminal Area Simulation and from radar tapes recorded at the Atlanta and Miami terminal areas. Results are given in the form of plots showing the average percentage of time (or probability) that an aircraft equipped with a CDTI would observe from 0 to 10 other aircraft on the display for range settings on the CDTI up to 30 n. mi. and using various target discrimination techniques.

  1. Liver transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Egawa, Hiroto

    2016-10-01

    As of December 31, 2014, 7937 liver transplants (7673 living donor transplants and 264 deceased donor liver transplantations [DDLTs; 261 from heart-beating donors and 3 from non-heart-beating donors]) have been performed in 67 institutions in Japan. The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan came into effect in July 2010, which allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent if the patient had not previously refused organ donation. However, the number of deceased donor organ donations has not increased as anticipated. The rate of deceased organ donations per million population (pmp) has remained at less than 1. To maximize the viability of the limited numbers of donated organs, a system has been adopted that includes the partnership of well-trained transplant consultant doctors and local doctors. For compensating for the decreased opportunity of on-site training, an educational system regarding quality organ procurement for transplant surgeons has also been established. Furthermore, experts in the field of liver transplantation are currently discussing adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for allocation, promoting split-liver transplantation, arranging in-house coordinators, and improving the frequency of proposing the option to donate organs to the families. To overcome the shortage of donors during efforts to promote organ donation, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been developed in Japan. Continuous efforts to increase DDLT in addition to the successful experience of LDLT will increase the benefits of liver transplantation for more patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1401-1407 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Propelling Extended Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local force that directly propels each part of the object. Those gradients resemble the ones created in objects by their weights. An example of the latter is the compressive stress in a column of a building increasing steadily toward its lower end. That gradient occurs because each horizontal section through the column supports all of the weight above it, including the load force pushing down on the column's upper end. The gradient resembles the pressure in a container of liquid increasing with depth in it. Likewise, the weight of a vertically hanging cable causes its tension and tensile stress to increase toward its upper end.

  3. An Extended Lagrangian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  4. Extending juvenility in grasses

    SciT

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstratemore » altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.« less

  5. Extended use of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair beyond EVEREST (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair) criteria: 30-day and 12-month clinical and echocardiographic outcomes from the GRASP (Getting Reduction of Mitral Insufficiency by Percutaneous Clip Implantation) registry.

    PubMed

    Attizzani, Guilherme F; Ohno, Yohei; Capodanno, Davide; Cannata, Stefano; Dipasqua, Fabio; Immé, Sebastiano; Mangiafico, Sarah; Barbanti, Marco; Ministeri, Margherita; Cageggi, Anna; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Giaquinta, Sandra; Farruggio, Silvia; Chiarandà, Marta; Ronsivalle, Giuseppe; Schnell, Audrey; Scandura, Salvatore; Tamburino, Corrado; Capranzano, Piera; Grasso, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to compare, in high-risk patients with 3+ to 4+ mitral regurgitation (MR) dichotomized by baseline echocardiographic features, acute, 30-day, and 12-month outcomes following percutaneous mitral valve repair using the MitraClip. The feasibility and mid-term outcomes after MitraClip implantation in patients with echocardiographic features different from the EVEREST (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair) I and II trials have been scarcely studied. Clinical and echocardiographic outcomes through 12-month follow-up of consecutive patients who underwent MitraClip implantation were obtained from an ongoing prospective registry. Two different groups, divided according to baseline echocardiographic criteria (investigational group [EVERESTOFF] and control group [EVERESTON]), were compared. Seventy-eight patients were included in EVERESTOFF and 93 patients in EVERESTON groups. Important and comparable acute reductions in MR and no clip-related complications were revealed. The primary safety endpoint at 30 days was comparable between groups (2.6% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p = 0.204); in addition, MR reduction was mostly sustained, whereas equivalent improvement in New York Heart Association functional class were demonstrated. Kaplan-Meier freedom from death, surgery for mitral valve dysfunction, or grade ≥3+ MR at 12 months was demonstrated in 71.4% and 76.2%, respectively, in the EVERESTOFF and EVERESTON groups (log rank p = 0.378). Significant improvements in ejection fraction and reduction in left ventricle volumes were demonstrated in both groups over time, but the baseline between-group differences were sustained. MitraClip implantation in patients with expanded baseline echocardiographic features, compared with the control group, was associated with similar rates of safety and efficacy through 12-month follow-up. Further validation of our findings is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  6. The Natural Course of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla Bertot, Luis; Adams, Leon Anton

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease in the world, paralleling the epidemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD exhibits a histological spectrum, ranging from “bland steatosis” to the more aggressive necro-inflammatory form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may accumulate fibrosis to result in cirrhosis. Emerging data suggests fibrosis, rather than NASH per se, to be the most important histological predictor of liver and non-liver related death. Nevertheless, only a small proportion of individuals develop cirrhosis, however the large proportion of the population affected by NAFLD has led to predictions that NAFLD will become a leading cause of end stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and indication for liver transplantation. HCC may arise in non-cirrhotic liver in the setting of NAFLD and is associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male gender. The MetS and its components also play a key role in the histological progression of NAFLD, however other genetic and environmental factors may also influence the natural history. The importance of NAFLD in terms of overall survival extends beyond the liver where cardiovascular disease and malignancy represents additional important causes of death. PMID:27213358

  7. Metabolic Syndrome: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not one of the defining criteria for metabolic syndrome, it is a common hepatic manifestation. NAFLD includes a spectrum of histologic findings ranging from simple steatosis, known as nonalcoholic fatty liver, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To make the diagnosis of NAFLD, other etiologies of steatosis or hepatitis, such as hepatotoxic drugs, excessive alcohol intake, congenital errors of metabolism, or viral hepatitis, must be ruled out. After ruling out other conditions, the diagnosis of NAFLD often is made clinically, but a definitive diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy. As with other complications of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance is thought to be an underlying etiology of NAFLD. Management strategies attempt to reverse or improve insulin resistance while minimizing liver damage. The strongest evidence supports lifestyle modifications with weight loss, but there is some evidence to support bariatric surgery, medical therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents, and/or pharmacotherapy to promote weight loss. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD, so management must include modification of cardiovascular risk factors. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. Adaptive remodeling of the biliary tree: the essence of liver progenitor cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    The liver progenitor cell population has long been thought to exist within the liver. However, there are no standardized criteria for defining the liver progenitor cells, and there has been intense debate about the origin of these cells in the adult liver. The characteristics of such cells vary depending on the disease model used and also on the method of analysis. Visualization of three-dimensional biliary structures has revealed that the emergence of liver progenitor cells essentially reflects the adaptive remodeling of the hepatic biliary network in response to liver injury. We propose that the progenitor cell exists as a subpopulation in the biliary tree and show that the appearance of liver progenitor cells in injured parenchyma is reflective of extensive remodeling of the biliary structure. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - A multisystem disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Milic, Sandra; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Grgic, Ivana; Jakopcic, Ivan; Stimac, Davor; Wensveen, Felix; Orlic, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver and are negatively associated with a range of chronic diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is becoming increasingly clear that these diseases are the result of the same underlying pathophysiological processes associated with MetS, such as insulin resistance, chronic systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia. As a result, they have been shown to be independent reciprocal risk factors. In addition, recent data have shown that NAFLD actively contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of CVD, T2DM, and CKD, as well as several other pathologies. Thus, NAFLD is a direct cause of many chronic diseases associated with MetS, and better detection and treatment of fatty liver disease is therefore urgently needed. As non-invasive screening methods for liver disease become increasingly available, detection and treatment of NAFLD in patients with MetS should therefore be considered by both (sub-) specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:27920470

  10. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  11. Pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089

  12. Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... resulting from the liver disorder and decreased bile flow. A pregnant woman should call her health care provider if she has these symptoms. How common is ICP? In the United States, ICP affects less than 1 percent of women ( ...

  13. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of toxic waste products. Increasing your intake of carbohydrates to be in proportion with the amount of ... severe liver disease include: Eat large amounts of carbohydrate foods. Carbohydrates should be the major source of ...

  14. Axial spondyloarthritis criteria and modified NY criteria: issues and controversies.

    PubMed

    Deodhar, Atul

    2014-06-01

    The Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) developed in 2009 was a major step forward, since the 1984 modified New York (mNY) criteria for classification of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were too insensitive to identify patients with early signs of axial inflammation. In the absence of "diagnostic" criteria for either axSpA or AS, both of these "classification" criteria are routinely used in clinical practice to diagnose patients. However, there is a real danger of "misdiagnosis" if classification criteria are applied erroneously by ticking "yes" or "no" boxes in an undiagnosed patient. This concern was raised and discussed at the FDA Arthritis Advisory Committee meeting in June 2013, and the committee warned that if TNF inhibitors are approved to treat axSpA, such misdiagnosis could lead to serious consequences. To gauge the SPARTAN members' familiarity with these criteria and these issues surrounding them, as well as to investigate how they are using these criteria in daily practice, two questionnaires (one each for mNY and ASAS axSpA criteria) were sent to the "full" members of SPARTAN before the annual meeting. The results showed that more than 60% of the responders used these criteria most of the time in practice to help them diagnose a patient, and nearly three fourth of responders agreed with the FDA Advisory Committee and would like to see some objective signs before prescribing TNF inhibitors to axSpA patients. A majority of responders looked at the sacroiliac joint x-rays themselves to diagnose sacroiliitis, even though they had difficulty in grading the x-rays. In a live vote at the meeting, 88% of the members suggested that SPARTAN should engage in either modifying the existing criteria or develop new diagnostic criteria for axial spondyloarthritis.

  15. Autoimmune liver disease 2007.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Luigi; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists. All these diseases are characterized by an extremely high heterogeneity of presentation, varying from asymptomatic, acute (as in a subset of AIH) or chronic (with aspecific symptoms such as fatigue and myalgia in AIH or fatigue and pruritus in PBC and PSC). The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases. Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.

  16. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-06-07

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible.

  17. Preliminary study on liver function changes after trisectionectomy with versus without prior portal vein embolization.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Maciej; Lock, Johan Friso; Seehofer, Daniel; Gebauer, Bernhard; Schulz, Antje; Demirel, Lina; Bednarsch, Jan; Stary, Victoria; Neuhaus, Peter; Stockmann, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is the major risk factor for mortality after hepatectomy. Preoperative planning of the future liver remnant volume reduces PHLF rates; however, future liver remnant function (FLR-F) might have an even stronger predictive value. In this preliminary study, we used a new method to calculate FLR-F by the LiMAx test and computer tomography-assisted volumetric-analysis to visualize liver function changes after portal vein embolization (PVE) before extended hepatectomy. The subjects included patients undergoing extended right hepatectomy either directly (NO-PVE group) or after PVE (PVE group). Computed tomography (CT) scan and liver function tests (LiMAx) were done before PVE and preoperatively. FLR-F was calculated and correlated with the postoperative liver function. There were 12 patients in the NO-PVE group and 19 patients in the PVE group. FLR-F and postoperative liver function correlated significantly in both groups (p = 0.036, p = 0.011), although postoperative liver function was slightly overestimated, at 32 and 45 µg/kg/min, in the NO-PVE and PVE groups, respectively. LiMAx value did not change after PVE. Volume-function analysis using LiMAx and CT scan enables us to reliably predict early postoperative liver function. Global enzymatic liver function measured by the LiMAx test did not change after PVE, confirming that liver function distribution in the liver stays constant after PVE. An overestimation of FLR-F is needed to compensate for the intraoperative liver injury that occurs in patients undergoing extended hepatectomy.

  18. Outcomes of left split graft transplantation in Europe: report from the European Liver Transplant Registry.

    PubMed

    Angelico, Roberta; Nardi, Alessandra; Adam, René; Nadalin, Silvio; Polak, Wojciech G; Karam, Vincent; Troisi, Roberto I; Muiesan, Paolo

    2018-07-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT) has been widely adopted across Europe, resulting in remarkable reduction in the paediatric waiting-list mortality. Left split graft (LSG) is commonly used for paediatric recipients; however, deceased donor criteria selection are not universal. The aim of this study was to analyse the LSG outcome from the European Liver Transplant Registry and to identify risk factors for graft failure. Data from 1500 children transplanted in 2006-2014 with LSG from deceased donors were retrospectively analysed. Overall, graft losses were 343(22.9%) after 5 years from transplantation, 240(70.0%) occurred within the first 3 months. Estimated patient survival was 89.1% at 3 months and 82.9% at 5 years from SLT. Re-transplantation rate was 11.5%. At multivariable analysis, significant risk factors for graft failure at 3 months included the following: urgent SLT (HR = 1.73, P = 0.0012), recipient body weight ≤6 kg (HR = 1.91, P = 0.0029), donor age >50 years (HR = 1.87, P = 0.0039), and cold ischaemic time (CIT) [HR = 1.07 per hour, P = 0.0227]. LSG has good outcomes and SLT is excellent option for paediatric recipients in the current organ shortage era. We identified practical guidelines for LSG donor and recipient selection criteria: donor age may be safely extended up to 50 years in the absence of additional risk factors; thus, children <6 kg and urgent transplantation need CIT <6 h and appropriate graft/recipient size-matching to achieve good outcomes. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.

  19. Four-Dimensional Dose Reconstruction for Scanned Proton Therapy Using Liver 4DCT-MRI

    SciT

    Bernatowicz, Kinga, E-mail: kinga.bernatowicz@psi.ch; Proton Therapy Center, Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI Villigen; Peroni, Marta

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (4DCT-MRI) is an image-processing technique for simulating many 4DCT data sets from a static reference CT and motions extracted from 4DMRI studies performed using either volunteers or patients. In this work, different motion extraction approaches were tested using 6 liver cases, and a detailed comparison between 4DCT-MRI and 4DCT was performed. Methods and Materials: 4DCT-MRI has been generated using 2 approaches. The first approach used motion extracted from 4DMRI as being “most similar” to that of 4DCT from the same patient (subject-specific), and the second approach used the most similar motion obtained from amore » motion library derived from 4DMRI liver studies of 13 healthy volunteers (population-based). The resulting 4DCT-MRI and 4DCTs were compared using scanned proton 4D dose calculations (4DDC). Results: Dosimetric analysis showed that 93% ± 8% of points inside the clinical target volume (CTV) agreed between 4DCT and subject-specific 4DCT-MRI (gamma analysis: 3%/3 mm). The population-based approach however showed lower dosimetric agreement with only 79% ± 14% points in the CTV reaching the 3%/3 mm criteria. Conclusions: 4D CT-MRI extends the capabilities of motion modeling for dose calculations by accounting for realistic and variable motion patterns, which can be directly employed in clinical research studies. We have found that the subject-specific liver modeling appears more accurate than the population-based approach. The former is particularly interesting for clinical applications, such as improved target delineation and 4D dose reconstruction for patient-specific QA to allow for inter- and/or intra-fractional plan corrections.« less

  20. Acute liver failure in Cuban children.

    PubMed

    Silverio, César E; Smithen-Romany, Chleo Y; Hondal, Norma I; Díaz, Hetzel O; Castellanos, Marlen I; Sosa, Oramis

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure is rare in pediatric patients and is one of the most challenging medical emergencies due to its prognostic and therapeutic implications. The best scientific evidence worldwide comes from multicenter studies in developed countries. In Cuba, there are no prior studies of this disorder in children. Describe the main clinical features of Cuban children treated at a national referral center for acute liver failure, as defined by recognized diagnostic criteria for pediatric patients. A case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with acute liver failure treated from 2005 to 2011 in the hepatology and liver transplant service at Havana's William Soler University Children's Hospital. Variables were age group, etiology of acute liver failure, grade of hepatic encephalopathy, blood chemistry variables, and clinical outcome (whether or not spontaneous recovery of liver function occurred). Associations between variables were assessed using contingency tables, and case fatality was calculated, as well as relative risk with its 95% confidence interval. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means of laboratory test results. Median age of the 31 patients studied (14 boys and 17 girls) was 24 months (range 1-180). Time between symptom onset and diagnosis of acute liver failure was 25.1 days (SD 16.8). Infection was the most common etiology, present in 61.3% of cases (19/31); nonhepatotropic viruses, especially cytomegalovirus, predominated in infants. Spontaneous recovery occurred in 15 patients (48.4%), 3 (9.7%) received transplants, and 13 died, for a case fatality of 41.9%. Outcome was not associated with etiology (p = 0.106), but was statistically associated with degree of hepatic encephalopathy (p <0.01): 77.8% of patients (7/9) with grades III-IV encephalopathy died, for a relative risk of 4.0 (95% CI 1.15-13.8), versus 11.1% (1/9) with grade II or less encephalopathy. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in patients who

  1. Perioperative management of liver surgery-review on pathophysiology of liver disease and liver failure.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, Lukas; Eschertzhuber, Stephan; Tiefenthaler, Werner

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of patients present for liver surgery. Given the complex pathophysiological changes in chronic liver disease (CLD), it is pivotal to understand the fundamentals of chronic and acute liver failure. This review will give an overview on related organ dysfunction as well as recommendations for perioperative management and treatment of liver failure-related symptoms.

  2. Vascular invasion and survival after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: a study from the European Liver Transplant Registry.

    PubMed

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rostved, Andreas A; Adam, René; Thygesen, Lau C; Salizzoni, Mauro; Gómez Bravo, Miguel A; Cherqui, Daniel; Filipponi, Franco; Boudjema, Karim; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Soubrane, Olivier; García-Valdecasas, Juan C; Prous, Joan F; Pinna, Antonio D; O'Grady, John; Karam, Vincent; Duvoux, Christophe; Rasmussen, Allan

    2018-04-02

    Studies suggest that vascular invasion may be a superior prognostic marker compared with traditional selection criteria, e.g. Milan criteria. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of micro and macrovascular invasion in a large database material. Patients liver transplanted for HCC and cirrhosis registered in the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR) database were included. The association between the Milan criteria, Up-to-seven criteria and vascular invasion with overall survival and HCC specific survival was investigated with univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Of 23,124 patients transplanted for HCC, 9324 had cirrhosis and data on explant pathology. Patients without microvascular invasion, regardless of number and size of HCC nodules, had a five-year overall survival of 73.2%, which was comparable with patients inside both Milan and Up-to-seven criteria. Patients without macrovascular invasion had an only marginally reduced survival of 70.7% after five years. Patients outside both Milan and Up-to-seven criteria without micro or macrovascular invasion still had a five-year overall survival of 65.8%. Vascular invasion as a prognostic indicator remains superior to criteria based on size and number of nodules. With continuously improving imaging studies, microvascular invasion may be used for selecting patients for transplantation in the future. Copyright © 2018 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ural, Alattin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…

  4. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  5. Respiratory analysis of coupled mitochondria in cryopreserved liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    García-Roche, Mercedes; Casal, Alberto; Carriquiry, Mariana; Radi, Rafael; Quijano, Celia; Cassina, Adriana

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a cryopreservation method of small liver biopsies for in situ mitochondrial function assessment. Herein we describe a detailed protocol for tissue collection, cryopreservation, high-resolution respirometry using complex I and II substrates, calculation and interpretation of respiratory parameters. Liver biopsies from cow and rat were sequentially frozen in a medium containing dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant and stored for up to 3 months at -80 °C. Oxygen consumption rate studies of fresh and cryopreserved samples revealed that most respiratory parameters remained unchanged. Additionally, outer mitochondrial membrane integrity was assessed adding cytochrome c, proving that our cryopreservation method does not harm mitochondrial structure. In sum, we present a reliable way to cryopreserve small liver biopsies without affecting mitochondrial function. Our protocol will enable the transport and storage of samples, extending and facilitating mitochondrial function analysis of liver biopsies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Case report: liver abscess pyogenic after peritonitis appendix perforation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, E. H.; Ginting, F.

    2018-03-01

    Two of the most common liver abscess is anamoebic liver abscess and pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). PLA could be as singular or multiple abscesses. It is usually caused by Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. Historically, PLA is usually caused by acute appendicitis, but with developed of surgical practice and microbiology, the number of events has decreased. Here we present a case of a39-year-old woman that developed a PLA after she had an appendectomy about six months ago. An ultrasonogram and abdominal scan showed an abscess in the right lobe. We performed paracentesis, and the result from the pus culturewas positive for Escherichia coli with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) (+) that showed the same as the culture from lesion taken from her appendix. This report emphasizes the fact that, nowadays we still found Pyogenic liver abscess after peritonitis appendix perforation.

  7. Circadian Reprogramming in the Liver Identifies Metabolic Pathways of Aging.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shogo; Solanas, Guiomar; Peixoto, Francisca Oliveira; Bee, Leonardo; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Schmidt, Mark S; Brenner, Charles; Masri, Selma; Benitah, Salvador Aznar; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2017-08-10

    The process of aging and circadian rhythms are intimately intertwined, but how peripheral clocks involved in metabolic homeostasis contribute to aging remains unknown. Importantly, caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in several organisms and rewires circadian metabolism. Using young versus old mice, fed ad libitum or under CR, we reveal reprogramming of the circadian transcriptome in the liver. These age-dependent changes occur in a highly tissue-specific manner, as demonstrated by comparing circadian gene expression in the liver versus epidermal and skeletal muscle stem cells. Moreover, de novo oscillating genes under CR show an enrichment in SIRT1 targets in the liver. This is accompanied by distinct circadian hepatic signatures in NAD + -related metabolites and cyclic global protein acetylation. Strikingly, this oscillation in acetylation is absent in old mice while CR robustly rescues global protein acetylation. Our findings indicate that the clock operates at the crossroad between protein acetylation, liver metabolism, and aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gut microbiota and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases. PMID:25684933

  9. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  10. Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, George; Ferral, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of acute and chronic liver disorders. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) was described by Dotter in 1964 and clinically performed for the first time by Hanafee in 1967. TJLB consists of obtaining liver tissue through a rigid cannula introduced into one of the hepatic veins, typically using jugular venous access. The quality of the TJLB specimens has improved so much that the samples obtained by this method are comparable with those obtained with the percutaneous technique. TJLB is indicated for patients with coagulopathy, ascites, peliosis hepatis, morbid obesity, liver transplant, or in patients undergoing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. The technical success rate for a TJLB procedure ranges from 87 to 97%. Sample fragmentation has been reported in 14 to 25% of the TJLB samples. The complication rates are low and range between 1.3% and 6.5%. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of the TJLB procedure, including technique, indications, contraindications, results, and complications. PMID:23729981

  11. [Deceased donor liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Seehofer, D; Schöning, W; Neuhaus, P

    2013-05-01

    Deceased donor liver transplantation is nowadays a routine procedure for the treatment of terminal liver failure and often represents the only chance of a cure. Under given optimal conditions excellent long-term results can be obtained with 15-year survival rates of well above 60 %.In Germany the outcome after liver transplantation has deteriorated since the introduction of an allocation policy, which is based on the medical urgency. At present 25 % of liver graft recipients die within the first year after transplantation. In contrast 1-year survival in most other countries, e.g. in the USA or the United Kingdom is around 90 % and therefore significantly better. Reasons for the inferior results in Germany are on the one hand an increasing number of critically ill recipients and on the other hand an unfavorable situation for organ donation. In comparison with other countries the organ donation rate is low and moreover the risk profile of these donors is above average. This combination of organ shortage and organ allocation represents a big challenge for the future orientation of liver transplantation and creates the potential for conflict. These cannot be solved on a medical basis but require a social consensus.Because of the present inferior results and because of the high expenses of the present system we suggest a discussion on future allocation policies as well as on future centre structures in Germany. In addition to the medical urgency the maximum benefit should also be considered for organ allocation.

  12. Donor Age-Based Analysis of Liver Transplantation Outcomes: Short- and Long-Term Outcomes Are Similar Regardless of Donor Age.

    PubMed

    Chapman, William C; Vachharajani, Neeta; Collins, Kelly M; Garonzik-Wang, Jackie; Park, Yikyung; Wellen, Jason R; Lin, Yiing; Shenoy, Surendra; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Doyle, M B Majella

    2015-07-01

    The shortage of donor organs has led to increasing use of extended criteria donors, including older donors. The upper limit of donor age that produces acceptable outcomes continues to be explored. In liver transplantation, with appropriate selection, graft survival and patient outcomes would be comparable regardless of age. We performed a retrospective analysis of 1,036 adult orthotopic liver transplantations (OLT) from a prospectively maintained database performed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2013. The study focus group was liver transplantations performed using grafts from older (older than 60 years) deceased donors. Deceased donor liver transplantations done during the same time period using grafts from younger donors (younger than 60 years) were analyzed for comparison. Both groups were further divided based on recipient age (less than 60 years and 60 years or older). Donor age was the primary variable. Recipient variables included were demographics, indication for transplantation, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), graft survival, and patient survival. Operative details and postoperative complications were analyzed. Patient demographics and perioperative details were similar between groups. Patient and graft survival rates were similar in the 4 groups. Rates of rejection (p = 0.07), bile leak (p = 0.17), and hepatic artery thrombosis were comparable across all groups (p = 0.84). Hepatitis C virus recurrence was similar across all groups (p = 0.10). Thirty-one young recipients (less than 60 years) received grafts from donors aged 70 or older. Their survival and other complication rates were comparable to those in the young donor to young recipient group. Comparable outcomes in graft and patient survivals were achieved using older donors (60 years or more), regardless of recipient age, without increased rate of complications. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ob/ob Mouse Livers Show Decreased Oxidative Phosphorylation Efficiencies and Anaerobic Capacities after Cold Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tagaloa, Sherry; Zhang, Linda; Dare, Anna J.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Yeong, Mee-Ling; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for graft failure in liver transplantation. Hepatic steatosis shows a greater negative influence on graft function following prolonged cold ischaemia. As the impact of steatosis on hepatocyte metabolism during extended cold ischaemia is not well-described, we compared markers of metabolic capacity and mitochondrial function in steatotic and lean livers following clinically relevant durations of cold preservation. Methods Livers from 10-week old leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob, n = 9) and lean C57 mice (n = 9) were preserved in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution. Liver mitochondrial function was then assessed using high resolution respirometry after 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of storage. Metabolic marker enzymes for anaerobiosis and mitochondrial mass were also measured in conjunction with non-bicarbonate tissue pH buffering capacity. Results Ob/ob and lean mice livers showed severe (>60%) macrovesicular and mild (<30%) microvesicular steatosis on Oil Red O staining, respectively. Ob/ob livers had lower baseline enzymatic complex I activity but similar adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared to lean livers. During cold storage, the respiratory control ratio and complex I-fueled phosphorylation deteriorated approximately twice as fast in ob/ob livers compared to lean livers. Ob/ob livers also demonstrated decreased ATP production capacities at all time-points analyzed compared to lean livers. Ob/ob liver baseline lactate dehydrogenase activities and intrinsic non-bicarbonate buffering capacities were depressed by 60% and 40%, respectively compared to lean livers. Conclusions Steatotic livers have impaired baseline aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to lean livers, and mitochondrial function indices decrease particularly from after 5 hours of cold preservation. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical recommendation of shorter cold storage durations in steatotic donor

  14. Extracorporeal Bioartificial Liver for Treating Acute Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, Anuj; Jain, Shivali

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Liver is a vital organ of the human body performing myriad of essential functions. Liver-related ailments are often life-threatening and dramatically deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Management of acute liver diseases requires adequate support of various hepatic functions. Thus far, liver transplantation has been proven as the only effective solution for acute liver diseases. However, broader application of liver transplantation is limited by demand for lifelong immunosuppression, shortage of organ donors, relative high morbidity, and high cost. Therefore, research has been focused on attempting to develop alternative support systems to treat liver diseases. Earlier attempts have been made to use nonbiological therapies based on the use of conventional detoxification procedures such as filtration and dialysis. However, the absence of liver cells in such techniques reduced the overall survival rate of the patients and led to inadequate essential liver-specific functions. As a result, there has been growing interest in the development of biological therapy-based extracorporeal liver support systems as a bridge to liver transplantation or to support the ailing liver. A bioartificial liver support is an extracorporeal device through which plasma is circulated over living and functionally active hepatocytes packed in a bioreactor with the aim to aid the diseased liver until it regenerates or until a suitable graft for transplantation is available. This review article gives a brief overview of efficacy of various liver support systems that are currently available. Also, the development of advanced liver support systems, which has been analyzed for improving the important system component such as cell source and other culture and circulation conditions for the maintenance of the liver-specific functions, have been described. PMID:22416599

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment is associated with improvement of liver stiffness in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    van der Feen, Cathelijne; van der Doef, Hubert P J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Houwen, Roderick H J

    2016-11-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) might prevent progression of cystic fibrosis liver disease, but objective parameters for its effect are lacking. We used liver stiffness measurements to evaluate the effect of Ursodeoxycholic acid. Paired measurements of liver stiffness were done in 73 patients without UDCA and in 32 patients with UDCA. In the latter group, 6 patients had cirrhosis; in 15 patients, UDCA was started based on Colombo criteria, and in 11 patients for other reasons. In patients without UDCA, liver stiffness increased: 0.19 (-0.03 to 0.59)kPa/year. Liver stiffness also increased in patients with cirrhosis: 4.6 (0.67-12.4)kPa/year. In patients who had UDCA based on Colombo criteria, a decrease of liver stiffness was observed: 0.70 (-1.6 to 0.55)kPa/year (P=0.01). In patients on UDCA for other reasons, liver stiffness increased: 0.23 (-0.20 to 0.51)kPa/year. UDCA reduced liver stiffness in patients with well-defined, mild liver disease. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Ischemic Preconditioning on Outcome in Clinical Liver Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Michael J. J.; Vather, Ryash; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of post-liver-surgery complications. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been demonstrated to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Clinical studies have examined IPC in liver surgery but with conflicting results. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of IPC on outcome in clinical liver surgery. Methods. An electronic search of OVID Medline and Embase databases was performed to identify studies that reported outcomes in patients undergoing liver surgery subjected to IPC. Basic descriptive statistics were used to summarise data from individual clinical studies. Results. 1093 articles were identified, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria. Seven topics were selected and analysed by subgroup. There were 10 studies in cadaveric liver transplantation, 2 in living-related liver transplantation, and 12 in liver resection. IPC decreases hepatocellular damage in liver surgery as determined by transaminases but does not translate to any significant clinical benefit in orthotopic liver transplant or liver resection. Conclusions. Available clinical evidence does not support routine use of IPC in liver surgery as it does not offer any apparent benefit in perioperative outcome. Further clinical studies will need to be carried out to determine the subset of patients that will benefit from IPC. PMID:25756045

  17. Simplified technique for auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation using a whole graft

    PubMed Central

    ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; DUCATTI, Liliana; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBURQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute liver failure is associated with a high mortality rate and the main purposes of treatment are to prevent cerebral edema and infections, which often are responsible for patient death. The orthotopic liver transplantation is the gold standard treatment and improves the 1-year survival. Aim To describe an alternative technique to auxiliary liver transplant on acute liver failure. Method Was performed whole auxiliary liver transplantation as an alternative technique for a partial auxiliary liver transplantation using a whole liver graft from a child removing the native right liver performed a right hepatectomy. The patient met the O´Grady´s criteria and the rational to indicate an auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation was the acute classification without hemodynamic instability or renal failure in a patient with deterioration in consciousness. Results The procedure improved liver function and decreased intracranial hypertension in the postoperative period. Conclusion This technique can overcome some postoperative complications that are associated with partial grafts. As far as is known, this is the first case of auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation in Brazil. PMID:26176253

  18. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  19. Sulphur extended asphalt : research report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-05-01

    Extensive research has been directed toward the addition of sulphur to asphaltic concrete mixes to function as either a quality aggregate or as an asphalt cement extender. By utilizing a high sulphur/asphalt ratio sulphur extended asphalt mix, it was...

  20. Liver natural killer cells: subsets and roles in liver immunity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Wisse, Eddie; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The liver represents a frontline immune organ that is constantly exposed to a variety of gut-derived antigens as a result of its unique location and blood supply. With a predominant role in innate immunity, the liver is enriched with various innate immune cells, among which natural killer (NK) cells play important roles in host defense and in maintaining immune balance. Hepatic NK cells were first described as ‘pit cells' in the rat liver in the 1970s. Recent studies of NK cells in mouse and human livers have shown that two distinct NK cell subsets, liver-resident NK cells and conventional NK (cNK) cells, are present in this organ. Here, we review liver NK cell subsets in different species, revisiting rat hepatic pit cells and highlighting recent progress related to resident NK cells in mouse and human livers, and also discuss the dual roles of NK cells in liver immunity. PMID:26639736

  1. Hepatic Dendritic Cells, the Tolerogenic Liver Environment, and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dou, Lei; Ono, Yoshihiro; Chen, Yi-Fa; Thomson, Angus W; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2018-05-01

    The unique liver immune microenvironment favors resistance to inflammation that promotes normal physiological function. At the same time, it endows the liver with tolerogenic properties that may promote pathological processes. Hepatic dendritic cells (HDCs) initiate and orchestrate immune responses depending on signals they receive from the local environment and are thought to contribute to liver tolerance. Thus, HDCs facilitate impaired T cell responses that are observed in persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatocellular carcinoma progression, and liver allograft transplantation. HDCs also participate in anti-inflammatory responses in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Moreover, they promote the regression of fibrosis from various fibrogenic liver injuries. These findings suggest that HDCs regulate intrahepatic immune responses, allowing the liver to maintain homeostasis and integrity even under pathological conditions. This review focuses on the tolerogenic properties of HDCs based on recent research and in relation to liver disease pathogenesis and its therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S

    2002-12-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  3. Liver and chorion cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Roels, F; De Prest, B; De Pestel, G

    1995-01-01

    Microscopic visualization of peroxisomes in chorionic villus cytotrophoblast and in biopsy and autopsy samples of liver and kidney, the presence of enlarged liver macrophages containing lipid droplets insoluble in acetone and n-hexane as well as polarizing inclusions formed by stacks of trilamellar sheets are of diagnostic value in peroxisomal disorders. Methods are presented for evaluating these structures by light microscopy; trilamellar inclusions are only detected by electron microscopy. Macrophage features are preserved in archival paraffin blocks. In adrenal cortex, insoluble lipid, polarizing inclusions and trilamellar structures should be looked for. The stains are easily reproducible, and all reagents are commercially available.

  4. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Gang (Inventor); Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  5. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  6. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Gang (Inventor); Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  7. Organ Allocation for Liver Transplantation According to the Public Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Danesh, Ahmad; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Asghari, Fariba; Jafarian, Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Background Although liver transplantation is the last resort for treating end stage liver diseases, this medical procedure is not available for all needful patients because of inadequate organ supply. Therefore, guidelines have been developed by medical experts to regulate the process. Some professionals believe that medical criteria are inadequate for organ allocation in all situations and may not secure fairness of organ allocation. Objectives The current study has been designed to identify decision criteria about allocation of donated liver to potential recipients from public points of view. Patients and Methods This is a qualitative study that was conducted through individual interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Individual interviews were conducted among patients’ companions and nurses in one of the two liver transplant centers in Iran. Group discussions were conducted among groups of ordinary people who had not dealt previously with the subject. Data was analyzed by Thematic Analysis method. Results Most of the participants in this study believe that in equal medical conditions, some individual and societal criteria could be used to prioritize patients for receiving donated livers. The criteria include psychological acceptance, ability to pay post-operative care costs, being breadwinner of the family, family support, being socially valued, ability to be instructed, lack of mental disorders, young age of the recipient, being on waiting list for a long time, lack of patient’s role in causing the illness, first time transplant recipient, critical medical condition, high success rate of transplantation, lack of concurrent medical illnesses, not being an inmate at the time of receiving transplant, and bearing Iranian nationality. Conclusions Taking public opinion into consideration may smooth the process of organ allocation to needful patients with equal medical conditions. It seems that considering these viewpoints in drafting organ allocation guidelines

  8. Using on-site liver 3-D reconstruction and volumetric calculations in split liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Trevor W; Fiorello, Brittany; Carmody, Ian; Bohorquez, Humberto; Cohen, Ari; Seal, John; Bruce, David; Loss, George E

    2016-12-01

    Split liver transplantation increases the number of grafts available for transplantation. Pre-recovery assessment of liver graft volume is essential for selecting suitable recipients. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability and feasibility of constructing a 3-D model to aid in surgical planning and to predict graft weight prior to an in situ division of the donor liver. Over 11 months, 3-D volumetric reconstruction of 4 deceased donors was performed using Pathfinder Scout© liver volumetric software. Demographic, laboratory, operative, perioperative and survival data for these patients along with donor demographic data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. The average predicted weight of the grafts from the adult donors obtained from an in situ split procedure were 1130 g (930-1458 g) for the extended right lobe donors and 312 g (222-396 g) for left lateral segment grafts. Actual adult graft weight was 92% of the predicted weight for both the extended right grafts and the left lateral segment grafts. The predicted and actual graft weights for the pediatric donors were 176 g and 210 g for the left lateral segment grafts and 308 g and 280 g for the extended right lobe grafts, respectively. All grafts were transplanted except for the right lobe from the pediatric donors due to the small graft weight. On-site volumetric assessment of donors provides useful information for the planning of an in situ split and for selection of recipients. This information may expand the donor pool to recipients previously felt to be unsuitable due to donor and/or recipient weight.

  9. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    PubMed

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  10. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  11. The Virtual Liver: Modeling Chemical-Induced Liver Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Virtual Liver (v-Liver) project is aimed at modeling chemical-induced processes in hepatotoxicity and simulating their dose-dependent perturbations. The v-Liver embodies an emerging field of research in computational tissue modeling that integrates molecular and cellul...

  12. Split liver transplantation: a reliable approach to expand donor pool.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Qi; Becker, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Li, Hong-Wei; Klempnauer, Juergen

    2005-08-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation as a successful treatment of end-stage liver disease is hampered by a persistent lack of cadaveric organs. Split liver transplantation, which was first successfully performed by Medical School of Hannover in 1988, has become a mature surgical technique to expand the donor pool. Between 1993 and 1999, split liver transplantation activities have increased in Europe from 1.2% to 10.4% in all performed liver transplantations. Current data have strongly supported that the survival rate of patients after split liver transplantation is not significantly different from that of patients after whole-size orthotopic liver transplantation. The most important step of donor graft selection is surgeon's observation judged by the experience of individual transplant center. The paper aims to provide the guideline of donor selection, hepatic graft splitting, and recipient management as well. Medical School of Hannover has accumulated plentiful experience of split liver transplantation for more than 10 cases ever since 1998. Besides that, we also reviewed a variety of literatures from other famous European and American centers specialized in this field for many years. According to our experience combined with the view points of others, the donor should meet the following criteria as well: (1) age less than 50 years; (2) hemodynamics stable; (3) ICU less than 5 days; (4) Na less than 170 mmol/L or better if less than 150 mmol/L. In 1996 and 1997, the Hamburg group and the UCLA group separately introduced a breakthrough technique performing split liver transplantation in situ. Evidently, the in situ technique has been limited by prolonged time of donor organ procurement, coordination with other organ procurement teams, and even extra burden on donor hospital. Some groups, therefore, have restored the ex situ or bench splitting technique, and fortunately the transplant outcomes of the ex situ technique are equivalent to those of the in situ one. Recently

  13. Aquatic Life Criteria - Tributyltin (TBT)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2004 Final Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) for freshwater and saltwater. These documents include the safe levels of TBT that should protect the majority of species.

  14. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  15. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect the majority of species.

  16. Automatic anatomical segmentation of the liver by separation planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltcheva, Dobrina; Passat, Nicolas; Agnus, Vincent; Jacob-Da, Marie-Andrée, , Col; Ronse, Christian; Soler, Luc

    2006-03-01

    Surgical planning in oncological liver surgery is based on the location of the 8 anatomical segments according to Couinaud's definition and tumors inside these structures. The detection of the boundaries between the segments is then the first step of the preoperative planning. The proposed method, devoted to binary images of livers segmented from CT-scans, has been designed to delineate these segments. It automatically detects a set of landmarks using a priori anatomical knowledge and differential geometry criteria. These landmarks are then used to position the Couinaud's segments. Validations performed on 7 clinical cases tend to prove that the method is reliable for most of these separation planes.

  17. Determination of criteria weights in solving multi-criteria problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2014-12-01

    A multi-criteria (MC) problem comprises of units to be analyzed under a set of evaluation criteria. Solving a MC problem is basically the process of finding the overall performance or overall quality of the units of analysis by using certain aggregation method. Based on these overall measures of each unit, a decision can be made whether to sort them, to select the best or to group them according to certain ranges. Prior to solving the MC problems, the weights of the related criteria have to be determined with the assumption that the weights represent the degree of importance or the degree of contribution towards the overall performance of the units. This paper presents two main approaches which are called as subjective and objective approaches, where the first one involves evaluator(s) while the latter approach depends on the intrinsic information contained in each criterion. The subjective and objective weights are defined if the criteria are assumed to be independent with each other, but if they are dependent, there is another type of weight, which is called as monotone measure weight or compound weights which represent degree of interaction among the criteria. The measure of individual weights or compound weights must be addressed in solving multi-criteria problems so that the solutions are more reliable since in the real world, evaluation criteria always come with different degree of importance or are dependent with each other. As the real MC problems have their own uniqueness, it is up to the decision maker(s) to decide which type of weights and which method are the most applicable ones for the problem under study.

  18. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  19. Plants Consumption and Liver Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function. PMID:26221179

  20. Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver disease can cause what is known as “portal hypertension,” meaning increased blood pressure in the veins that ... diagnosed? A specialist can diagnose POPH by identifying portal hypertension (high pressure in the veins of the liver), ...

  1. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vachiat, Ahmed; McCutcheon, Keir; Mahomed, Adam; Schleicher, Gunter; Brand, Liezl; Botha, Jean; Sussman, Martin; Manga, Pravin

    2016-10-23

    A patient with end-stage liver disease developed stress-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation, with haemodynamic instability requiring a left ventricular assist device. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this condition.

  2. About the Operation: Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It weighs about three pounds in adults and is made up ... for life. The liver helps process carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and stores vitamins. It processes ...

  3. Liver stiffness and platelet count for identifying patients with compensated liver disease at low risk of variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Marot, Astrid; Trépo, Eric; Doerig, Christopher; Schoepfer, Alain; Moreno, Christophe; Deltenre, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    The 2015 Baveno VI guidelines recommend against performing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients with compensated cirrhosis who have a liver stiffness <20 kPa and a platelet count >150 000/mm³ because of a low prevalence of varices at risk of bleeding in this population. The aim was to synthesize the available evidence on the usefulness of the combined use of liver stiffness and platelet count to identify patients without oesophageal varices. Meta-analysis of trials evaluating the usefulness of a given cut-off for liver stiffness and platelet count to rule out the presence of oesophageal varices. Fifteen studies were included. All studies excepting five used the Baveno VI criteria. Compared to patients with either high liver stiffness or low platelet count, those with low liver stiffness and normal platelet count had a lower risk of varices at risk of bleeding (OR=0.22, 95% CI=0.13-0.39, P<.001) with low heterogeneity between studies (I 2 =21%). They also had a lower risk of varices (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.17-0.32, P<.001) with moderate heterogeneity between studies (I 2 =28%). In patients with low liver stiffness and normal platelet count, the pooled estimate rates for varices at risk of bleeding was 0.040 (95% CI=0.027-0.059) with low heterogeneity between studies (I 2 =3%). Patients with low liver stiffness and normal platelet count have a lower risk of varices than those with either high liver stiffness or low platelet count. Varices at risk of bleeding are found in no more than 4% of patients when liver stiffness is <20 kPa and platelet count is normal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Coeliac disease and the liver: spectrum of liver histology, serology and treatment response at a tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Kaushik; Sakhuja, Puja; Puri, Amarender Singh; Gaur, Kavita; Haider, Aiman; Gondal, Ranjana

    2018-05-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy diagnosed on the basis of ESPGHAN criteria and clinical response to gluten-free diet (GFD). Histological abnormalities on liver biopsy have been noted in CD but have seldom been described. To assess the histological spectrum of 'coeliac hepatitis' and possibility of reversal of such features after a GFD. Twenty-five patients with concomitant CD and hepatic derangement were analysed for clinical profile, laboratory investigations and duodenal and liver biopsy. A histological comparison of pre- and post-GFD duodenal and liver biopsies was carried out, wherever possible. Fifteen patients presenting with CD subsequently developed abnormal liver function tests; 10 patients presenting with liver disease were found to have tissue positive transglutaminase in 70% and antigliadin antibodies in 60%. Serological markers for autoimmune liver disease (AILD) were positive in eight patients. Liver histology ranged from mild reactive hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, steatosis to cirrhosis. Liver biopsies after a GFD were available in six cases, of which five showed a decrease in steatosis, portal and lobular inflammation and fibrosis score. Coeliac hepatitis could be a distinct entity and the patients may present with either CD or secondary hepatic derangement. Evaluation for the presence of CD is recommended for patients presenting with AILD, unexplained transaminasaemia or anaemia. This is one of the very few studies demonstrating the continuum of liver histological changes in 'coeliac hepatitis'. Trial of a GFD may result in clinicopathological improvement of 'coeliac hepatitis'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Diagnostic criteria for proliferative hepatic lesions in brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus

    Blazer, V.S.; Fournie, J.W.; Wolf, J.C.; Wolfe, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is used as indicator species for contaminant effects at areas of concern (AOC) in the Great Lakes and other areas. One of the beneficial use impairments at numerous AOC is 'fish tumors and other deformities'. An impairment occurs when the prevalence of fish tumors and other deformities exceeds those at unimpacted or control sites or when survey data confirm the presence of neoplastic or preneoplastic liver lesions in bullhead or white sucker Catostomus commersonii. Numerous surveys have been conducted over the years assessing neoplasia in these fishes, both liver and skin tumors. However, a major problem in comparing the results has been a lack of consistent criteria for evaluating histological changes in bullhead livers. As individual AOC develop and implement remedial action plans, realistic and attainable delisting targets need to be specified. For this to occur and be consistent from site to site there must be standardization of the criteria being used to evaluate specific impairments. In this report, specific diagnostic criteria are provided for both non-neoplastic and neoplastic proliferative hepatocellular and biliary lesions. These criteria should assist fish pathologists in describing and categorizing proliferative liver lesions from brown bullhead. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  6. Extended lymphadenectomy in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Dorin, Ryan P; Skinner, Eila C

    2010-09-01

    Radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is the preferred treatment for invasive bladder cancer. It not only results in the best disease-free term survival rates, but also provides the most accurate disease staging and most effective local symptom control. Recent investigations have demonstrated a clinical benefit to performance of an extended PLND, including all lymphatic tissue to the level of the aortic bifurcation. This review will summarize recent findings regarding the clinical benefits of radical cystectomy with extended lymphadenectomy, and will also examine the latest surgical techniques for optimizing the performance of this technically demanding procedure. Recent studies have demonstrated increased recurrence-free survival and overall survival rates in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with extended PLND, even in cases of pathologically lymph node negative disease. The growing use of minimally invasive techniques has prompted interest in robotic radical cystectomy and extended PLND, and recent reports have demonstrated the feasibility of this technique. The standardization of extended PLND templates has also been a focus of contemporary research. Contemporary research strongly suggests that all patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer should undergo concomitant extended PLND. Randomized trials are still needed to confirm the benefits of extended over 'standard' PLND, and to clarify which patients may receive the greatest benefit from this procedure.

  7. A novel bocavirus in canine liver

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC), associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV), associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3). The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1) shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined. PMID:23402347

  8. Coffee and liver health.

    PubMed

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  9. Polyploidization in liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    Polyploidy (alias whole genome amplification) refers to organisms containing more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy was first observed in plants more than a century ago, and it is known that such processes occur in many eukaryotes under a variety of circumstances. In mammals, the development of polyploid cells can contribute to tissue differentiation and, therefore, possibly a gain of function; alternately, it can be associated with development of disease, such as cancer. Polyploidy can occur because of cell fusion or abnormal cell division (endoreplication, mitotic slippage, or cytokinesis failure). Polyploidy is a common characteristic of the mammalian liver. Polyploidization occurs mainly during liver development, but also in adults with increasing age or because of cellular stress (eg, surgical resection, toxic exposure, or viral infections). This review will explore the mechanisms that lead to the development of polyploid cells, our current state of understanding of how polyploidization is regulated during liver growth, and its consequence on liver function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss, and itching. PSC may not improve with medical treatment for IBD and may ultimately require liver transplantation. The cause is not known and there is no effective medication for PSC. To correct severe narrowing of the bile ducts, a balloon-tipped tube may be inserted into the duct ...

  11. The EPA Liver Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The v-Liver is part of a broader EPA effort on Virtual Tissues (VT) aimed at reducing the magnitude and spectrum of animal testing by integrative in silico and in vitro models, which recapitulate the properties of intact organs. The other VT projects include the Virtual Embryo (...

  12. Calcium signaling in liver.

    PubMed

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Thomas, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    In hepatocytes, hormones linked to the formation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) evoke transient increases or spikes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), that increase in frequency with the agonist concentration. These oscillatory Ca2+ signals are thought to transmit the information encoded in the extracellular stimulus to down-stream Ca2+-sensitive metabolic processes. We have utilized both confocal and wide field fluorescence microscopy techniques to study the InsP3-dependent signaling pathway at the cellular and subcellular levels in the intact perfused liver. Typically InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]i spikes manifest as Ca2+ waves that propagate throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, and in the intact liver these [Ca2+]i increases are conveyed through gap junctions to encompass entire lobular units. The translobular movement of Ca2+ provides a means to coordinate the function of metabolic zones of the lobule and thus, liver function. In this article, we describe the characteristics of agonist-evoked [Ca2+]i signals in the liver and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves in the intact organ.

  13. Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Joseph; Liu, Jie; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Cinar, Resat; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Kunos, George

    2010-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators of the same cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of CB receptors, endocannabinoids, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, and is present both in brain and peripheral tissues, including the liver. The hepatic ECS is activated in various liver diseases, which contributes to the underlying pathologies. In cirrhosis of various etiologies, activation of vascular and cardiac CB1 receptors by macrophage- and platelet-derived endocannabinoids contribute to the vasodilated state and cardiomyopathy, which can be reversed by CB1 blockade. In mouse models of liver fibrosis, activation of CB1 receptors on hepatic stellate cells is fibrogenic, and CB1 blockade slows the progression of fibrosis. Fatty liver induced by high-fat diets or chronic alcohol feeding depend on activation of peripheral, including hepatic CB1 receptors, which also contribute to insulin resistance and dyslipidemias. Although the documented therapeutic potential of CB1 blockade is limited by neuropsychiatric side effects, these may be mitigated by using novel, peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists. PMID:21254182

  14. Donor hypernatremia influences outcomes following pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kaseje, Neema; Lüthold, Samuel; Mentha, Gilles; Toso, Christian; Belli, Dominique; McLin, Valérie; Wildhaber, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    With the rising demand for liver transplantations (LTs), and the shortage of organs, extended criteria including donor hypernatremia have been adopted to increase the donor pool. Currently, there is conflicting evidence on the effect of donor hypernatremia on outcomes following LT. Our aim was to investigate differences in outcome in patients receiving grafts from hypernatremic donors compared with patients receiving grafts from normonatremic donors in the pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed 94 pediatric patients with LTs from 1994 to 2011. We divided the patients into two groups: patients receiving organs from donors with sodium levels < 150 µmol/L, n = 67 (group 1), and patients receiving organs from donors with sodium levels ≥ 150 µmol/L, n = 27 (group 2). Using proportions and means, we analyzed patient age, sex, weight, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, primary diagnosis, emergency of procedure, intraoperative transfusion volume, cold ischemia time, donor age, graft type, and postoperative graft function. Rates of mortality, rejection, early biliary, infectious, and vascular complications were calculated. Mean age was 3.9 years in group 1 and 3.7 years in group 2 (p = 0.69). Mean weight and MELD scores were similar in the two study groups (16.0 vs. 15.9 and 21.2 vs. 22.0, respectively). There were no significant differences in mean cold ischemia times 6.4 versus 6.9 hours (p = 0.29), and mean intraoperative transfusion volumes 1,068.5 mL versus 1,068.8 mL (p = 0.89). There were no statistically significant differences in mortality rates (7.3 vs. 11.1%, p = 0.68). Prothrombin time (PT) at day 10 post-LT was significantly lower in group 2 (79 vs. 64, p = 0.017), and there was a higher relative risk (RR) for early thrombotic vascular complications in group 2 (RR = 2.48); however, this was not significant (p = 0.26). No significant differences in RR for rejection (0.97, p = 0.86), viral infections (1.24, p = 0.31), bacterial

  15. [Robot-assisted liver resection].

    PubMed

    Aselmann, H; Möller, T; Kersebaum, J-N; Egberts, J H; Croner, R; Brunner, M; Grützmann, R; Becker, T

    2017-06-01

    Robotic liver resection can overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopic liver surgery; therefore, it is a promising tool to increase the proportion of minimally invasive liver resections. The present article gives an overview of the current literature. Furthermore, the results of a nationwide survey on robotic liver surgery among hospitals in Germany with a DaVinci system used in general visceral surgery and the perioperative results of two German robotic centers are presented.

  16. Nutrition and Liver Health.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan A

    2017-01-01

    Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions. At the level of the whole body, this is achieved through dietary supply and the capacity of the body to transform the substrates and cofactors necessary for metabolism. All of these domains (diet, metabolic capacity, activity of the microbiome, body composition and the level of demand for energy and nutrients) are influenced by levels of physical activity and can vary according to physiological and pathological disease states. The liver plays a central role in establishing and maintaining these regulated processes. Its capacity to achieve and maintain these functional capabilities is established during one's early life. When these capabilities are exceeded and the ability to maintain the milieu interieur is compromised, ill-health supervenes. Stress tests that assess flow through gateway pathways can be used to determine the maximal capacity and functional reserve for critical functions. The inability of the liver to reliably integrate body lipid metabolism and the accumulation of abnormal lipid are obvious manifestations of impaired regulation both in situations of weight loss, for example, the fatty liver of severe malnutrition, and in situations of energy excess, as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The use of stable isotopic probes and the more recent definition of the variability in the metabolome in different nutritional and pathological states indicate the great potential for clinical tools

  17. Extended Lagrangian Excited State Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bjorgaard, J A; Sheppard, D; Tretiak, S; Niklasson, A M N

    2018-02-13

    An extended Lagrangian framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended Lagrangian formulations for ground state Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both for the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. The XL-ESMD approach is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  18. Extended Lagrangian Excited State Molecular Dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Bjorgaard, Josiah August; Sheppard, Daniel Glen; Tretiak, Sergei; ...

    2018-01-09

    In this work, an extended Lagrangian framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended Lagrangian formulations for ground state Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both formore » the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. In conclusion, the XL-ESMD approach is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree–Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).« less

  19. Extended Lagrangian Excited State Molecular Dynamics

    SciT

    Bjorgaard, Josiah August; Sheppard, Daniel Glen; Tretiak, Sergei

    In this work, an extended Lagrangian framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended Lagrangian formulations for ground state Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both formore » the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. In conclusion, the XL-ESMD approach is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree–Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).« less

  20. Molecular Aging of Human Liver: An Epigenetic/Transcriptomic Signature.

    PubMed

    Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Franceschi, Claudio; Gentilini, Davide; Ravaioli, Francesco; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Remondini, Daniel; Pirazzini, Chiara; Giuliani, Cristina; Marasco, Elena; Gensous, Noémie; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Ellis, Ewa; Gramignoli, Roberto; Castellani, Gastone; Capri, Miriam; Strom, Stephen; Nardini, Christine; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Garagnani, Paolo

    2018-03-15

    The feasibility of liver transplantation from old healthy donors suggests that this organ is able to preserve its functionality during aging. To explore the biological basis of this phenomenon, we characterized the epigenetic profile of liver biopsies collected from 45 healthy liver donors ranging from 13 to 90 years old using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. The analysis indicates that a large remodeling in DNA methylation patterns occurs, with 8823 age-associated differentially methylated CpG probes. Notably, these age-associated changes tended to level off after the age of 60, as confirmed by Horvath's clock. Using stringent selection criteria we further identified a DNA methylation signature of aging liver including 75 genomic regions. We demonstrated that this signature is specific for liver compared to other tissues and that it is able to detect biological age-acceleration effects associated with obesity. Finally we combined DNA methylation measurements with available expression data. Although the intersection between the two omic characterizations was low, both approaches suggested a previously unappreciated role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and Wnt signaling pathways in the aging of human liver.

  1. Hepatocyte transplantation for liver-based metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai R; Hughes, Robin D

    2006-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is being investigated as an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with liver-based metabolic disorders. The progress made in this field to date is reviewed. Protocols have been developed using collagenase perfusion to isolate human hepatocytes from unused donor liver tissue. Hepatocytes with a high viability can often be obtained and can be cryopreserved for later use, though with loss of function on thawing. For clinical use, hepatocytes must be prepared in clean GMP conditions with cells meeting criteria of function and lack of microbial contamination before patient use. Hepatocytes are infused intraportally into the patient's liver, where a proportion of cells will engraft and replace the deficient metabolic function without the need for major surgery. Twenty patients have now received hepatocyte transplantation, including eight children at King's College Hospital. There was a range of aetiologies of liver disease: familial hypercholesterolaemia, Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1, urea cycle defects, infantile Refsum disease, glycogen storage disease type Ia, inherited factor VII deficiency and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Clinical improvement and partial correction of the metabolic abnormality was observed in most cases. Considerable progress has been made in developing the technique, but hepatocyte transplantation is limited by the available supply of liver tissue. Hepatocytes derived from stem cells could provide alternative sources of cells in the future.

  2. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent

  3. Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

  4. Alcoholic liver disease: The gut microbiome and liver crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship and consequences for alcoholic liver disease. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593

  5. Topological defects in extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Kolb, Edward W.; Liddle, Andrew R.

    1990-01-01

    The production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models was considered. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large scale structure via cosmic strings.

  6. Extender for securing a closure

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  7. Management of end stage liver disease (ESLD): what is the current role of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT)?

    PubMed

    Miró, José M; Laguno, Montserrat; Moreno, Asuncion; Rimola, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Liver disease due to chronic hepatitis B and C is now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients in the developed world, where classical opportunistic complications of severe immunodeficiency have declined dramatically. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Accumulated experience in North America and Europe in the last 5 years indicates that 3-year survival in selected HIV-infected recipients of liver transplants was similar to that of HIV-negative recipients. So, HIV infection by itself is not therefore a contraindication for liver transplantation. As survival of HIV-infected patients with ESLD is shorter than non-HIV-infected population, the evaluation for OLT should be made after the first liver decompensation. The current selection criteria for HIV-positive transplant candidates include: no history of opportunistic infections or HIV-related neoplasms, CD4 cell count > 100 cells/mm(3), and plasma HIV viral load suppressible with antiretroviral treatment. For drug abusers, a 2-year abstinence from heroin and cocaine is required, although patients can be in a methadone programme. The main problems in the post-transplant period are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between antiretrovirals and immunosuppressive drugs, and the management of relapse of HCV infection. Up to now, experience with pegylated interferon and ribavirin is scarce in this population. Currently, HCV re-infection is the main cause for concern.

  8. The Role of Re-resection for Breast Cancer Liver Metastases-a Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    BacalbaȘa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hepatic re-resection for breast cancer liver metastases. Between January 2004 and December 2014 seven patients were submitted to liver re-resection for breast cancer liver metastases at our Center. The main inclusion criteria were presence of isolated liver metastases and absence of systemic recurrent disease Results: The median age at the time of breast surgery was 51 years (range=39-69 years). The first liver resection was performed after a median period of 34.7 months and consisted of minor hepatectomies in six and major hepatectomy in one patient. The second liver resection was performed after a median interval of 22 months from the first liver resection and consisted of major resection in one case and minor resection in the other six cases. Postoperative complications occurred in a single case after the first liver surgery and in two cases after the second hepatic resection, all cases being successfully managed conservatively. Overall postoperative mortality was 0. The median overall survival after the second liver resection was 28 months. Re-resection for breast cancer liver metastases can be safely performed and may bring survival benefit. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous Liver-Kidney Allocation Policy: A Proposal to Optimize Appropriate Utilization of Scarce Resources.

    PubMed

    Formica, R N; Aeder, M; Boyle, G; Kucheryavaya, A; Stewart, D; Hirose, R; Mulligan, D

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of the Mayo End-Stage Liver Disease score into the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) deceased donor liver allocation policy in 2002 has led to a significant increase in the number of simultaneous liver-kidney transplants in the United States. Despite multiple attempts, clinical science has not been able to reliably predict which liver candidates with renal insufficiency will recover renal function or need a concurrent kidney transplant. The problem facing the transplant community is that currently there are almost no medical criteria for candidacy for simultaneous liver-kidney allocation in the United States, and this lack of standardized rules and medical eligibility criteria for kidney allocation with a liver is counter to OPTN's Final Rule. Moreover, almost 50% of simultaneous liver-kidney organs come from a donor with a kidney donor profile index of ≤0.35. The kidneys from these donors could otherwise be allocated to pediatric recipients, young adults or prior organ donors. This paper presents the new OPTN and United Network of Organ Sharing simultaneous liver-kidney allocation policy, provides the supporting evidence and explains the rationale on which the policy was based. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  11. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-06-07

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  12. Yttrium-90 radioembolization as a bridge to liver transplantation: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Samer; Sukato, Daniel; Chen, Hui-Wei; Amesur, Nikhil; Zajko, Albert B; Humar, Abhinav; Geller, David A; Marsh, James W; Tsung, Allan

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate our experience with the use of yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization in maintaining potential candidacy and, in some instances, downstaging hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that does not meet Milan criteria for liver transplantation. A retrospective review of 20 consecutive patients with HCC who were listed to receive a liver transplant and were treated with (90)Y radioembolization as a sole modality for locoregional "bridge" therapy was performed. Demographics, radiographic and pathologic response, survival, and recurrences were examined. Twenty-two (90)Y treatments were performed in 20 patients before transplantation. Median time from first treatment to transplantation was 3.5 months. HCC in 14 patients met the Milan criteria at the time of the first (90)Y treatment, and HCC in six did not. All cases that originally met the Milan criteria remained within the criteria before transplantation, and two of six patients whose disease did not meet the criteria (33%) had their disease successfully downstaged to meet the criteria. Overall, nine patients (45%) had complete or partial radiologic response to (90)Y radioembolization according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. Complete necrosis of tumor with no evidence of viable tumor on pathologic examination was observed in five patients (36%) whose disease met the Milan criteria. Particularly in regions with long wait list times, (90)Y treatment is effective in maintaining tumor size in potential liver transplantation candidates with HCC. In addition, it can also be considered as a downstaging therapy in select patients before transplantation. © SIR, 2013.

  13. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases.

  14. The liver sieve and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Robin; Cogger, Victoria C; Dobbs, Bruce; Jamieson, Hamish; Warren, Alessandra; Hilmer, Sarah N; Le Couteur, David G

    2012-04-01

    The 'liver sieve' is a term developed to describe the appearance and the role of fenestrations in the liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC). LSECs are gossamer-thin cells that line the hepatic sinusoid and they are perforated with pores called fenestrations clustered in sieve plates. There is growing evidence that fenestrations act like a permselective ultrafiltration system which is important for the hepatic uptake of many substrates, particularly chylomicron remnant lipoproteins. The liver sieve is a very efficient exchange system, however in conditions such as hepatic cirrhosis and fibrosis, diabetes mellitus and old age, there is defenestration of the liver sieve. Such defenestration has been shown to influence the hepatic uptake of various substrates including lipoproteins. In the future, pharmacological manipulation of the liver sieve may play a number of therapeutic roles including the management of dyslipidaemia; increasing the efficiency of liver-targeted gene therapy; and improving regeneration of old livers. (C) 2012 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.

  15. Liver Disease in Mitochondrial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Way S.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Liver involvement, a common feature in childhood mitochondrial hepatopathies, particularly in the neonatal period, may manifest as neonatal acute liver failure, hepatic steatohepatitis, cholestasis, or cirrhosis with chronic liver failure of insidious onset. There are usually significant neuromuscular symptoms, multisystem involvement, and lactic acidemia. The liver disease is usually progressive and eventually fatal. Current medical therapy of mitochondrial hepatopathies is largely ineffective, and the prognosis is usually poor. The role of liver transplantation in patients with liver failure remains poorly defined because of the systemic nature of the disease that does not respond to transplantation. Several specific molecular defects (mutations in nuclear genes such as SCO1, BCS1L, POLG, DGUOK, and MPV17 and deletion or rearrangement of mitochondrial DNA) have been identified in recent years. Prospective, longitudinal multicenter studies will be needed to address the gaps in our knowledge in these rare liver diseases. PMID:17682973

  16. Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

  17. Criteria for Authorship in Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Master, Zubin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing substantially to: (1) identifying a topic, problem, or issue to study; (2) reviewing and interpreting the relevant literature; (3) formulating, analyzing, and evaluating arguments that support one or more theses; (4) responding to objections and counterarguments; and (5) drafting the manuscript and approving the final version. Authors of conceptual publications should participate substantially in at least two of areas (1)–(5). PMID:21943265

  18. Criteria for authorship in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Master, Zubin

    2011-10-01

    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing substantially to: (1) identifying a topic, problem, or issue to study; (2) reviewing and interpreting the relevant literature; (3) formulating, analyzing, and evaluating arguments that support one or more theses; (4) responding to objections and counterarguments; and (5) drafting the manuscript. Authors of conceptual publications should participate substantially in at least two of areas (1)-(5) and also approve the final version. [corrected].

  19. Incidence of abnormal liver biochemical tests in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiffany Y; Shekar, Anshula O; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W; Saab, Sammy; Wilson, Mark; Leung, Angela M

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal serum liver function tests are common in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis, even prior to the initiation of antithyroidal medications that may worsen the severity of the abnormal serum liver biochemistries. There is a wide range of the incidence of these abnormalities in the published literature. The aim of this study was to assess the risks factors and threshold of thyrotoxicosis severity for developing an abnormal liver biochemical test upon the diagnosis of new thyrotoxicosis. Single-institution retrospective cohort study. Patients of ≥18 years old receiving medical care at a large, academic, urban US medical centre between 2002-2016. Inclusion criteria were a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration of <0·3 mIU/l or ICD-9 code for thyrotoxicosis, with thyrotoxicosis confirmed by either a concurrent elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) concentration ([total or free] within 3 months), and an available liver biochemical test(s) within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis. The biochemical liver tests assessed were serum aspartate transaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin concentrations. In this cohort of 1514 subjects, the overall incidence of any biochemical liver test abnormality within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis was 39%. An initial serum TSH concentration <0·02 mIU/l, male gender, and African-American race were significant predictors of an abnormal serum liver biochemical test within 6 months of the diagnosis of new-onset untreated thyrotoxicosis. This study identifies risk factors for patients who develop an abnormal serum liver biochemical test result within 6 months of a diagnosis of untreated thyrotoxicosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A bioartificial liver to treat severe acute liver failure.

    PubMed Central

    Rozga, J; Podesta, L; LePage, E; Morsiani, E; Moscioni, A D; Hoffman, A; Sher, L; Villamil, F; Woolf, G; McGrath, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the safety and efficacy of a bioartificial liver support system in patients with severe acute liver failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors developed a bioartificial liver using porcine hepatocytes. The system was tested in vitro and shown to have differentiated liver functions (cytochrome P450 activity, synthesis of liver-specific proteins, bilirubin synthesis, and conjugation). When tested in vivo in experimental animals with liver failure, it gave substantial metabolic and hemodynamic support. METHODS: Seven patients with severe acute liver failure received a double lumen catheter in the saphenous vein; blood was removed, plasma was separated and perfused through a cartridge containing 4 to 6 x 10(9) porcine hepatocytes, and plasma and blood cells were reconstituted and reinfused. Each treatment lasted 6 to 7 hours. RESULTS: All patients tolerated the procedure(s) well, with neurologic improvement, decreased intracranial pressure (23.0 +/- 2.3 to 7.8 +/- 1.7 mm Hg; p < 0.005) associated with an increase in cerebral perfusion pressure, decreased plasma ammonia (163.3 +/- 21.3 to 112.2 +/- 9.8 microMoles/L; p < 0.01), and increased encephalopathy index (0.60 +/- 0.17 to 1.24 +/- 0.22; p < 0.03). All patients survived, had a liver transplant, and were discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This bioartificial liver is safe and serves as an effective "bridge" to liver transplant in some patients. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8185403

  1. Hepatic encephalopathy in acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guan-Huei

    2015-10-01

    The presence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) within 4 weeks is part of the criteria for defining acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The pathophysiology of HE is complex, and hyperammonemia and cerebral hemodynamic dysfunction appear to be central in the pathogenesis of encephalopathy. Recent data also suggest that inflammatory mediators may have a significant role in modulating the cerebral effect of ammonia. Multiple prospective and retrospective studies have shown that hepatic encephalopathy in ACLF patients is associated with higher mortality, especially in those with grade III-IV encephalopathy, similar to that of acute liver failure (ALF). Although significant cerebral edema detected by CT in ACLF patients appeared to be less common, specialized MRI imaging was able to detect cerebral edema even in low grade HE. Ammonia-focused therapy constitutes the basis of current therapy, as in the treatment of ALF. Emerging treatment strategies focusing on modulating the gut-liver-circulation-brain axis are discussed.

  2. Pediatric pyogenic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Israeli, Rafi; Jule, Jose Ernesto; Hom, Jeffrey

    2009-02-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a rare pediatric disease. Typically, PLA is found in adults with biliary disease. There are no typical physical findings or symptoms. Often, pathogenic organisms are not recovered for identification. This case illustrates a teenager presenting with prolonged episodes of fever and vomiting. With percutaneous drainage and month-long antibiotic therapy, the PLA resolved. This case illustrates that a high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosis.

  3. Liver biopsy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Steatohepatitis represents the sole feature of liver damage.

    PubMed

    Masarone, Mario; Rosato, Valerio; Aglitti, Andrea; Bucci, Tommaso; Caruso, Rosa; Salvatore, Teresa; Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo; Tripodi, Marie Francoise; Persico, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies report a prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) of between 70% and 80% in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nevertheless, it is not possible to differentiate between simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with non-invasive tests. The aim of this study was to differentiate between simple steatosis and NASH by liver biopsy in patients with hypertransaminasemia and MS or T2DM. Two hundred and fifteen patients with increased ALT levels and MS, and 136 patients at their first diagnosis of T2DM regardless of ALT values were consecutively admitted to a tertiary hepatology center between January 2004 and November 2014. Exclusion criteria were other causes of liver disease/ALT increase. Each patient underwent a clinical, laboratory and ultrasound evaluation, and a liver biopsy. Gender distribution, age, and body mass index were similar in the two groups of patients, whereas cholesterol levels, glycemia and blood pressure were significantly different between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was 94.82% in MS patients and 100% in T2DM patients. NASH was present in 58.52% of MS patients and 96.82% of T2DM. Consequently, this study reveals that, by using liver biopsy, almost all patients with T2DM or MS have NAFLD, which in patients with T2DM means NASH. Importantly, it suggests that NASH may be one of the early complications of T2DM due to its pathophysiological correlation with insulin resistance.

  4. Bacteriospermia in extended porcine semen.

    PubMed

    Althouse, Gary C; Lu, Kristina G

    2005-01-15

    Bacteriospermia is a frequent finding in freshly extended porcine semen and can result in detrimental effects on semen quality and longevity if left uncontrolled. The primary source of bacterial contamination is the boar. Other sources that have been identified include environment, personnel, and the water used for extender preparation. A 1-year retrospective study was performed on submissions of extended porcine semen for routine quality control bacteriological screening at the University of Pennsylvania. Out of 250 sample submissions, 78 (31.2%) tested positive for bacterial contamination. The most popular contaminants included Enterococcus spp. (20.5%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15.4%), Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (10.3%), Serratia marcescens (10.3%), Acinetobacter lwoffi (7.7%), Escherichia coli (6.4%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.4%), and others (23.0%). Prudent individual hygiene, good overall sanitation, and regular monitoring can contribute greatly in controlling bacterial load. Strategies that incorporate temperature-dependent bacterial growth and hyperthermic augmentation of antimicrobial activity are valuable for effective control of susceptible bacterial loads. Aminoglycosides remain the most popular antimicrobial class used in porcine semen extenders, with beta-lactam and lincosamide use increasing. With the advent of more novel antimicrobial selection and semen extender compositions in swine, prudent application and understanding of in vitro pharmacodynamics are becoming paramount to industry success in the use of this breeding modality.

  5. Liver repopulation by c-Met-positive stem/progenitor cells isolated from the developing rat liver.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Zheng, Yun-wen; Fukao, Katashi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Self-renewing stem cells responsible for tissue or organ development and regeneration have been recently described. To isolate such cells using flow cytometry, it should be required to find molecules expressing on their cell surfaces. We have previously reported that, on cells fulfilling the criteria for hepatic stem cells, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met is expressed specifically in the developing mouse liver. In this study, to determine whether c-Met is an essential marker for hepatic stem cells in other animal strains, we examined the potential for in vivo liver-repopulation in sorted fetal rat-derived c-Met+ cells using the retrorsine model. Using flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies for c-Met and leukocyte common antigen CD45, fetal rat liver cells were fractionated according to the expression of these molecules. Then, cells in each cell subpopulation were sorted and transplanted into the retrorsine-treated adult rats with two-third hepatectomy. At 9 months post transplant, frequency of liver-repopulation was examined by qualitative and quantitative analyses. When we transplanted c-Met+ CD45- sorted cells, many donor-derived cells formed colonies that included mature hepatocytes expressing albumin and containing abundant glycogen in their cytoplasm. In contrast, c-Met- cells and CD45+ cells could not repopulate damaged recipient livers. High enrichment of liver-repopulating cells was conducted by sorting of c-Met+ cells from the developing rat liver. This result suggests that c-Met/HGF interaction plays a crucial role for stem cell growth, differentiation, and self-renewal in rat liver organogenesis. Since the c-Met is also expressed in the fetal mouse-derived hepatic stem cells, this molecule could be expected to be an essential marker for such cell population in the various animal strains, including human.

  6. Percutaneous ethanol injection for liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Riemsma, Robert P; Bala, Malgorzata M; Wolff, Robert; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-05-31

    Primary liver tumours and liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma are the two most common malignant tumours to affect the liver. The liver is second only to the lymph nodes as the most common site for metastatic disease. More than half of the patients with metastatic liver disease will die from metastatic complications. Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) causes dehydration and necrosis of tumour cells accompanied by small vessel thrombosis, leading to tumour ischaemia and destruction. To study the beneficial and harmful effects of percutaneous ethanol injection compared with no intervention, other ablation methods, or systemic treatments in patients with liver metastases. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS, and CINAHL up to December 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials assessing the beneficial and harmful effects of percutaneous ethanol injection versus no intervention, other ablation methods, or systemic treatments in patients with liver metastases. We extracted the relevant information on participant characteristics, interventions, study outcome measures, and data on the outcome measures for our review, as well as information on the design and methodology of the studies. Quality assessment of the trials fulfilling the inclusion criteria and data extraction from the trials retrieved for final evaluation were done by one author and checked by a second author. One randomised clinical trial was included, comparing transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) + percutaneous intratumour ethanol injection (PEI) versus TACE alone. Forty-eight patients with liver metastases were included; 25 received the intervention with PEI and 23 received TACE alone.Mortality data were not reported. The trial reported the survival data after one, two, and three years. In the TACE + PEI group

  7. Extended Year, Extended Contracts: Increasing Teacher Salary Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Reports on an attempt to raise teacher salaries through an extended contract made possible through year-round school schedules. Teacher satisfaction with the 1987 experiment in three California schools (the Orchard Plan) has been high. Elements that have contributed to job satisfaction are discussed. (SLD)

  8. Extended cognition in science communication.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. THE CONTINUING SEARCH FOR CRITERIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROUDY, H.S.

    EDUCATIONAL CONTROL OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT THERE IS A SUBSTANTIVE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT TEACHING FOR WHICH PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION IS NECESSARY. IF SO, THE TEACHER MUST BE EVALUATED NOT AS A PERSON BUT AS A FUNCTIONARY IN A SPECIAL SITUATION (THE CLASSROOM). FOR THAT PURPOSE, CRITERIA ARE NECESSARY. PERSONALITY…

  10. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  11. Design criteria for maglev structures

    SciT

    Sandberg, H.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Maglev systems represent an entirely new concept in transportation. They will not operate on nor share the right-of-way with any other system. It is important, therefore, that the guideways be designed and constructed so as to be economical, constructable, durable, adaptable, reliable, and readily maintained. Comparisons should be made with the current transportation systems, especially highways and railroads. Since most of the guideway will be elevated, the comparison should be with the bridges. The object of the comparisons should be to avoid the shortcomings of the other systems while building on their strengths. This paper develops in some detail designmore » and construction criteria that will ensure a good, long-lived performance of the maglev guideway. The importance of beauty should have a low priority in comparison to the other design criteria. Clean, simple details meeting other criteria will ensure an acceptable appearance. These criteria were used in evaluating the four maglev concepts developed for the National Maglev Initiative.« less

  12. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  13. SCHOOL LUNCH DESIGN CRITERIA, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, THOMAS D.

    IN ORDER TO SERVE AS A GUIDE FOR ARCHITECTS, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS, AND SCHOOL LUNCH SUPERVISORS, THIS REPORT SPECIFIES CRITERIA FOR SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAMS. AREAS DISCUSSED INCLUDE--(1) SELECTION, PROCUREMENT, AND INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT WITH RESPECT TO THE NUMBER OF MEALS TO BE SERVED, (2) REQUIREMENTS FOR FUTURE EXPANSION, (3) SANITATION AND…

  14. Liver Disease in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijewantha, Hasitha S

    2017-01-01

    Liver disease in Sri Lanka is mainly due to alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In contrast to other South Asian countries, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C is low in Sri Lanka and prevalence of hepatitis A is intermediate. The few reported cases of hepatitis E in Sri Lanka are mainly in people who have traveled to neighboring South Asian countries. Wilson's disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, drug-induced liver disease, and primary biliary cirrhosis are recognized causes of liver disease in Sri Lanka. Pyogenic and amebic liver abscesses and dengue infection are the other causes of liver disease. Some of the commonly used plants as traditional herbal medicine in Sri Lanka have been shown to have deleterious effects on the liver in animal studies. Considering the high popularity of traditional herbal medicine in the country, it is likely that herbal medicine is an etiological factor for liver disease in Sri Lanka, but no published data are available. Address reprint requests to: Wijewantha HS. Liver Disease in Sri Lanka. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):78-81.

  15. WFRC patrners: our extended family

    Connolly, P.; Elliot, D.; Parsley, M.; Winton, J.

    2007-01-01

    For more than five decades the Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has worked with partners to provide research findings to managers of aquatic resources. Those partners form an extended family, a network of clients, colleagues, co-investigators, and customers. Our partners include numerous clients in other Department of Interior bureaus such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and the National Park Service. But there is much more--we have partners in other federal agencies, state agencies, and universities. The extended family includes tribal governments, and non-government organizations such as the Nature Conservancy and the Lower Columbia River Estuary Program.

  16. Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco

    2015-06-01

    We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA).

  17. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  18. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  19. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    PubMed

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year ( n =167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful.

  20. Liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lauterio, Andrea; De Carlis, Riccardo; Di Sandro, Stefano; Ferla, Fabio; Buscemi, Vincenzo; De Carlis, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The place of liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries has not yet been widely discussed in the literature. Bile duct injuries during cholecystectomy represent the leading cause of liver transplantation in this setting, while other indications after abdominal surgery are less common. Urgent liver transplantation for the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injury may-represent a surgical challenge requiring technically difficult and time consuming procedures. A debate is ongoing on the need for centralization of complex surgery in tertiary referral centers. The early referral of patients with severe iatrogenic liver injuries to a tertiary center with experienced hepato-pancreato-biliary and transplant surgery has emerged as the best treatment of care. Despite widespread interest in the use of liver transplantation as a treatment option for severe iatrogenic injuries, reported experiences indicate few liver transplants are performed. This review analyzes the literature on liver transplantation after hepatic injury and discusses our own experience along with surgical advances and future prospects in this uncommon transplant setting. PMID:28932348

  1. Joint impact of donor and recipient parameters on the outcome of liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Frühauf, Nils R; Fischer-Fröhlich, Carl-Ludwig; Kutschmann, Marcus; Schmidtmann, Irene; Kirste, Günter

    2011-12-27

    The shortage of donor organs in Germany has led to the use of organs from donors with extended donor criteria (EDC). EDC have been defined on the basis of expert opinions, but their clinical relevance is controversial. This may cause loss of organs otherwise available for transplantation. We evaluated the impact of donor and recipient factors in liver transplants on patient and graft survival in a nationwide multicenter analysis, with special focus on EDC and donor risk index. A database was created from data on livers donated and transplanted in Germany between 2006 and 2008 as provided by Deutsche Stiftung Organ transplantation and BQS Institute. Cox regression (significance level 5%, risk ratio [95% confidence interval]) was used for calculating the impact on patient survival (n=2095) and on graft survival (n=2175). Patient and graft survival were significantly affected only by donor age (1.012 and 1.011/year), recipient age (1.019 and 1.014/year), creatinine (1.248 and 1.205/mg/dL), bilirubin (1.022 and 1.023/mg/dL), and high urgency status (1.783 and 1.809). Inferior organ quality resulted in lower graft survival (1.243) and donor history of smoking in lower patient survival (1.249). Multiple Cox regression revealed no significant impact of EDC or donor risk index on patient and graft survival except for donor age after donor selection at recovery. Among recipient variables, only age, creatinine and bilirubin, and high urgency status were associated with poorer outcome.

  2. Senescence in chronic liver disease: Is the future in aging?

    PubMed

    Aravinthan, Aloysious D; Alexander, Graeme J M

    2016-10-01

    Cellular senescence is a fundamental, complex mechanism with an important protective role present from embryogenesis to late life across all species. It limits the proliferative potential of damaged cells thus protecting against malignant change, but at the expense of substantial alterations to the microenvironment and tissue homeostasis, driving inflammation, fibrosis and paradoxically, malignant disease if the process is sustained. Cellular senescence has attracted considerable recent interest with recognition of pathways linking aging, malignancy and insulin resistance and the current focus on therapeutic interventions to extend health-span. There are major implications for hepatology in the field of fibrosis and cancer, where cellular senescence of hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, stellate cells and immune cells has been implicated in chronic liver disease progression. This review focuses on cellular senescence in chronic liver disease and explores therapeutic opportunities. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    DOEpatents

    Warren, John L.; Brandt, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole.

  4. Extended memory management under RTOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plummer, M.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extended memory management in ROLM 1666 computers using FORTRAN is presented. A general software system is described for which the technique can be ideally applied. The memory manager interface with the system is described. The protocols by which the manager is invoked are presented, as well as the methods used by the manager.

  5. Engage, Enhance, and Extend Learning!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Kolb, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Educators often say that technology is more than a gimmick or add-on, and that it should engage, enhance, or extend learning in ways that traditional tools do not. Yet they seldom stop to define these terms, and they can be confusing, especially for teachers and preservice teachers. Recently, while collaborating on an English language arts and…

  6. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  7. Differential Changes with Extended Practice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    This project was designed to answer a series of questions involving extended practice on motor skills tasks. The tasks employed were video games , and principal interest was focused on whether: (1) performance late in practice involves fewer underlying factors than early in practice; (2) video games coverge or diverge differentially upon one another; and (3) factorial content of

  8. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  9. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    DOEpatents

    Warren, J.L.; Brandt, J.E.

    1994-08-02

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole. 18 figs.

  10. Teaching Math. Extending Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Lola

    1996-01-01

    Describes four teaching activities to help children extend math problem-solving skills by using their own questions. Activities involve using a chart and symbols to develop equations adding up to 12, going on an imaginary shopping trip, using shapes to represent dollar amounts, using the date on a penny to engage in various mathematical…

  11. 38 CFR 21.57 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Initial and Extended Evaluation § 21.57 Extended evaluation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of an extended... of services. During the extended evaluation, a veteran may be provided: (1) Diagnostic and evaluative...

  12. 38 CFR 21.57 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Initial and Extended Evaluation § 21.57 Extended evaluation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of an extended... of services. During the extended evaluation, a veteran may be provided: (1) Diagnostic and evaluative...

  13. 38 CFR 21.57 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Initial and Extended Evaluation § 21.57 Extended evaluation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of an extended... of services. During the extended evaluation, a veteran may be provided: (1) Diagnostic and evaluative...

  14. 38 CFR 21.57 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Initial and Extended Evaluation § 21.57 Extended evaluation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of an extended... of services. During the extended evaluation, a veteran may be provided: (1) Diagnostic and evaluative...

  15. 38 CFR 21.57 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Initial and Extended Evaluation § 21.57 Extended evaluation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of an extended... of services. During the extended evaluation, a veteran may be provided: (1) Diagnostic and evaluative...

  16. Intestinal microbiota in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Haque, Tanvir R; Barritt, A Sidney

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota have emerged as a topic of intense interest in gastroenterology and hepatology. The liver is on the front line as the first filter of nutrients, toxins and bacterial metabolites from the intestines and we are becoming increasingly aware of interactions among the gut, liver and immune system as important mediators of liver health and disease. Manipulating the microbiota with therapeutic intent is a rapidly expanding field. In this review, we will describe what is known about the contribution of intestinal microbiota to liver homeostasis; the role of dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of liver disease including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; and the therapeutic manifestations of altering intestinal microbiota via antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Folate, Alcohol, and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of alcoholic liver disease based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. PMID:23136133

  18. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research.

  19. PHACE syndrome: new views on diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Poetke, M; Frommeld, T; Berlien, H P

    2002-12-01

    The association of large facial hemangiomas with posterior fossa malformations and vascular anomalies has been termed the PHACE syndrome. It is characterized by the association of posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of the aorta and other cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities. Since most articles focus on isolated case reports, an extended retrospective literature review of all reports of large hemangiomas with associated abnormalities of the central nervous system and other malformations was performed to examine the clinical features, and other not as yet reported associated anomalies. Reports were found on 59 patients with PHACE syndrome, to which we added ten cases of our own. The Dandy-Walker syndrome is the most common CNS abnormality reported in association with PHACE syndrome and was seen in 48 (81 %) patients. Arterial malformations were found in 13 (22 %) cases; only 11 patients (19 %) had structural arterial abnormalities without associated Dandy-Walker complex. As published, about one third of patients (31 %) had further ophthalmologic abnormalities, and cardiac anomalies, including coarctation of the aorta. Subglottic hemangiomas were seen in 4 (7 %) patients and ventral developmental defects also in 3 cases. In seven of 59 patients (12 %) with PHACE syndrome, intracranial hemangiomas were present. This study demonstrates that among other CNS abnormalities, special attention should be given to intracranial hemangiomas which seems to be a peculiar phenotype of PHACE syndrome. We therefore suggest that a sixth criterion should be added to the five minimal inclusion criteria for PHACE syndrome. The inclusion criteria would then be: arterial abnormalities or/and intracranial hemangiomas. On the basis of our experience with our patients and with those previously reported, we stress the importance of using contrast-enhanced imaging to detect intracranial lesions.

  20. The 24-hour normothermic machine perfusion of discarded human liver grafts.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Thomas; Brockmann, Jens G; Quaglia, Alberto; Morovat, Alireza; Jassem, Wayel; Heaton, Nigel D; Coussios, Constantin C; Friend, Peter J

    2017-02-01

    Donor organ shortage necessitates use of less than optimal donor allografts for transplantation. The current cold storage preservation technique fails to preserve marginal donor grafts sufficiently. Evidence from large animal experiments suggests superiority of normothermic machine preservation (NMP) of liver allografts. In this study, we analyze discarded human liver grafts that underwent NMP for the extended period of 24 hours. Thirteen human liver grafts which had been discarded for transplantation were entered into this study. Perfusion was performed with an automated device using an oxygenated, sanguineous perfusion solution at normothermia. Automated control was incorporated for temperature-, flow-, and pressure-regulation as well as oxygenation. All livers were perfused for 24 hours; parameters of biochemical and synthetic liver function as well as histological parameters of liver damage were analyzed. Livers were stratified for expected viability according to the donor's medical history, procurement data, and their macroscopic appearance. Normothermic perfusion preservation of human livers for 24 hours was shown to be technically feasible. Human liver grafts, all of which had been discarded for transplantation, showed levels suggesting organ viability with respect to metabolic and synthetic liver function (to varying degrees). There was positive correlation between instantly available perfusion parameters and generally accepted predictors of posttransplant graft survival. In conclusion, NMP is feasible reliably for periods of at least 24 hours, even in highly suboptimal donor organs. Potential benefits include not only viability testing (as suggested in recent clinical implementations), but also removal of the time constraints associated with the utilization of high-risk livers, and recovery of ischemic and other preretrieval injuries (possibly by enabling therapeutic strategies during NMP). Liver Transplantation 23 207-220 2017 AASLD. © 2016 by the

  1. Effects of Pre-Existing Liver Disease on Acute Pain Management Using Patient-Controlled Analgesia Fentanyl With Parecoxib After Major Liver Resection: A Retrospective, Pragmatic Study.

    PubMed

    Lim, K I; Chiu, Y C; Chen, C L; Wang, C H; Huang, C J; Cheng, K W; Wu, S C; Shih, T H; Yang, S C; Juang, S E; Huang, C E; Jawan, B; Lee, Y E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of pain management with the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) fentanyl with IV parecoxib between patients with healthy liver with patients with diseased liver undergoing major liver resection. Patients with healthy liver undergoing partial hepatectomy as liver donors for liver transplantation (group 1) and patients with liver cirrhosis (Child's criteria A) undergoing major liver resection for hepatoma (group 2) were identified retrospectively. Both groups routinely received post-operative IV PCA fentanyl and a single dose of parecoxib 40 mg. They were followed up for 3 days or until PCA fentanyl was discontinued post-operatively. Daily Visual Analog Scale, PCA fentanyl usage, rescue attempts, and common drug side effects were collected and analyzed with the use of SPSS version 20. One hundred one patients were included in the study: 54 in group 1, and 47 in group 2. There were no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of the daily and total fentanyl usage, VAS resting, and incidence of itchiness. The rate of rescue analgesia on post-operative day (POD) 1 was lower in group 2, with a value of P = .045. VAS dynamics were better on POD 1 and 2 for group 2, with P = .05 and P = .012, respectively. We found that combining a single dose of IV parecoxib 40 mg with PCA fentanyl is an easy and effective method of acute pain control after major liver resection. We propose the careful usage of post-operative fentanyl and parecoxib in patients with diseased liver, given the difference in effect as compared with healthy liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiographical findings in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Elwir, Saleh; Hal, Hassan; Veith, Joshua; Schreibman, Ian; Kadry, Zakiyah; Riley, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication encountered in patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy is not reflected in the current liver transplant allocation system. Correlation was sought between hepatic encephalopathy with findings detected on radiographic imaging studies and the patient's clinical profile. A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients with cirrhosis, who presented for liver transplant evaluation in 2009 and 2010. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, ejection fraction less than 60% and who had a TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting) procedure or who did not complete the evaluation were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed and variables found to be significant on univariate analysis (P < 0.05) were analysed by a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 117 patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into a hepatic encephalopathy group (n = 58) and a control group (n = 59). Univariate analysis found that a smaller portal vein diameter, smaller liver antero-posterior diameter, liver nodularity and use of diuretics or centrally acting medications showed significant correlation with hepatic encephalopathy. This association was confirmed for smaller portal vein, use of diuretics and centrally acting medications in the multivariate analysis. A decrease in portal vein diameter was associated with increased risk of encephalopathy. Identifying patients with smaller portal vein diameter may warrant screening for encephalopathy by more advanced psychometric testing, and more aggressive control of constipation and other factors that may precipitate encephalopathy. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells support hepatocyte function in engineered liver grafts.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshie; Yagi, Hiroshi; Inomata, Kenta; Matsubara, Kentaro; Hibi, Taizo; Abe, Yuta; Kitago, Minoru; Shinoda, Masahiro; Obara, Hideaki; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that organ decellularization is a promising approach to facilitate the clinical application of regenerative therapy by providing a platform for organ engineering. This unique strategy uses native matrices to act as a reservoir for the functional cells which may show therapeutic potential when implanted into the body. Appropriate cell sources for artificial livers have been debated for some time. The desired cell type in artificial livers is primary hepatocytes, but in addition, other supportive cells may facilitate this stem cell technology. In this context, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is an option meeting the criteria for therapeutic organ engineering. Ideally, supportive cells are required to (1) reduce the hepatic cell mass needed in an engineered liver by enhancing hepatocyte function, (2) modulate hepatic regeneration in a paracrine fashion or by direct contact, and (3) enhance the preservability of parenchymal cells during storage. Here, we describe enhanced hepatic function achieved using a strategy of sequential infusion of cells and illustrate the advantages of co-cultivating bone marrow-derived MSCs with primary hepatocytes in the engineered whole-liver scaffold. These co-recellularized liver scaffolds colonized by MSCs and hepatocytes were transplanted into live animals. After blood flow was established, we show that expression of adhesion molecules and proangiogenic factors was upregulated in the graft.

  4. Protothecosis after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Narita, Masashi; Muder, Robert R; Cacciarelli, Thomas V; Singh, Nina

    2008-08-01

    Prototheca species are unicellular algae of low virulence that are rarely associated with human infections. We report a liver transplant recipient with disseminated protothecosis and review the literature on this unusual opportunistic infection in transplant recipients. Of 9 cases, including ours, 5 had a localized infection, and 4 had disseminated protothecosis. Seven cases were due to Prototheca wickerhamii, and 2 were due to Prototheca zopfii. Overall mortality in transplant recipients with Prototheca infections was 88% (7/8). All 4 cases of disseminated protothecosis died despite therapy with amphotericin B. Posttransplant protothecosis is a rare but significant infection that is associated with a grave prognosis.

  5. Extended recency effect extended: blocking, presentation mode, and retention interval.

    PubMed

    Glidden, L M; Pawelski, C; Mar, H; Zigman, W

    1979-07-01

    The effect of blocking of stimulus items on the free recall of EMR adolescents was examined. In Experiment 1 a multitrial free-recall list of 15 pictures was presented either simultaneously in groups of 3, or sequentially, one at a time. Consistent ordering was used in both conditions, so that on each trial, each item in each set of 3 pictures was presented contiguously with the other 2 items from that set. In addition, recall came immediately or after a filled or unfilled delay of 24.5 seconds. Results showed that simultaneous presentation led to higher recall, subjective organization, and clustering than did sequential presentation, but analysis of serial-position curves showed a much reduced extended recency effect in comparison with previous studies. Experiment 2 was designed to determine whether the cause of the reduced extended recency was the use of pictures rather than words as stimuli. Stimuli were presented either as pictures, as pictures with auditory labels, or as words with auditory labels, with both simultaneous and consistent ordering for all conditions. Results indicated a strong extended recency effect for all groups, eliminating presentation mode as a causal factor in the data of Experiment 1. We concluded that blocking leads to increased organization and recall over a variety of presentation modes, rates, and block sizes.

  6. Liver transplantation around the world.

    PubMed

    Trotter, James F

    2017-04-01

    In the past few years, there have been important changes in the development of liver transplantation around the world. In particular, several emerging countries have rapidly developed transplant programs. There have also been important changes in liver allocation, utilization of donors by cardiac death, and living donors. A review of the practices in different countries around the world will help provide the reader with a better appreciation of their own program as well as the recognition of potential areas of improvement based on the experience of their colleagues. A recent series of articles has been published in the journal Liver Transplantation summarizing the practice of liver transplantation from representative countries around the world. The volume of liver transplant varies widely by country and there has been an important growth in volume in emerging countries. Most liver transplant candidates are prioritized for surgery by the Model for Endstage Liver Disease score and with the exception of Germany and the USA most patients are transplanted at Model for Endstage Liver Disease score from 18 to 20. Hepatitis C is the most common indication for liver transplant with the notable exception of several European countries. Innovative strategies to incentivize donation have been developed in several countries.

  7. Liver immunology and herbal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Yasemin H; Aka, Ceylan; Koca-Caliskan, Ufuk

    2017-01-01

    Beyond the metabolic functions, the liver recently has been defined as an organ of immune system (IS), which have central regulatory role for innate and adaptive immunity. The liver keeps a delicate balance between hepatic screening of pathogenic antigens and immune tolerance to self-antigens. Herbal treatments with immunological effects have potential to alter this hepatic immune balance towards either therapeutic side or diseases side by inducing liver injury via hepatotoxicity or initiation of autoimmune diseases. Most commonly known herbal treatments, which have therapeutic effect on liver and IS, have proven via in vitro, in vivo, and/or clinical studies were summarized in this review. PMID:28660010

  8. Gut microbiome and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Tilg, Herbert; Cani, Patrice D; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-12-01

    The gut microbiota has recently evolved as a new important player in the pathophysiology of many intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The liver is the organ which is in closest contact with the intestinal tract, and is exposed to a substantial amount of bacterial components and metabolites. Various liver disorders such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis have been associated with an altered microbiome. This dysbiosis may influence the degree of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis through multiple interactions with the host's immune system and other cell types. Whereas few results from clinical metagenomic studies in liver disease are available, evidence is accumulating that in liver cirrhosis an oral microbiome is overrepresented in the lower intestinal tract, potentially contributing to disease process and severity. A major role for the gut microbiota in liver disorders is also supported by the accumulating evidence that several complications of severe liver disease such as hepatic encephalopathy are efficiently treated by various prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics. A better understanding of the gut microbiota and its components in liver diseases might provide a more complete picture of these complex disorders and also form the basis for novel therapies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  10. Nutritional support for liver disease.

    PubMed

    Koretz, Ronald L; Avenell, Alison; Lipman, Timothy O

    2012-05-16

    Weight loss and muscle wasting are commonly found in patients with end-stage liver disease. Since there is an association between malnutrition and poor clinical outcome, such patients (or those at risk of becoming malnourished) are often given parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or oral nutritional supplements. These interventions have costs and adverse effects, so it is important to prove that their use results in improved morbidity or mortality, or both. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, and oral nutritional supplements on the mortality and morbidity of patients with underlying liver disease. The following computerised databases were searched: the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (January 2012). In addition, reference lists of identified trials and review articles and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Trials identified in a previous systematic handsearch of Index Medicus were also considered. Handsearches of a number of medical journals, including abstracts from annual meetings, were done. Experts in the field and manufacturers of nutrient formulations were contacted for potential references. Randomised clinical trials (parallel or cross-over design) comparing groups of patients with any underlying liver disease who received, or did not receive, enteral or parenteral nutrition or oral nutritional supplements were identified without restriction on date, language, or publication status. Six categories of trials were separately considered: medical or surgical patients receiving parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or supplements. The following data were sought in each report: date of publication; geographical location; inclusion and exclusion criteria; the type of nutritional support and constitution of the nutrient formulation; duration of

  11. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows: (a...

  12. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows: (a...

  13. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows: (a...

  14. Sampling criteria in multicollection searching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilio, A.; Scozzafava, R.; Marchetti, P. G.

    In the first stage of the document retrieval process, no information concerning relevance of a particular document is available. On the other hand, computer implementation requires that the analysis be made only for a sample of retrieved documents. This paper addresses the significance and suitability of two different sampling criteria for a multicollection online search facility. The inevitability of resorting to a logarithmic criterion in order to achieve a "spread of representativeness" from the multicollection is demonstrated.

  15. Quantum cryptography: Security criteria reexamined

    SciT

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Liang, Y.C.; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2004-09-01

    We find that the generally accepted security criteria are flawed for a whole class of protocols for quantum cryptography. This is so because a standard assumption of the security analysis, namely that the so-called square-root measurement is optimal for eavesdropping purposes, is not true in general. There are rather large parameter regimes in which the optimal measurement extracts substantially more information than the square-root measurement.

  16. Incidence of Abnormal Liver Biochemical Tests in Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tiffany Y.; Shekar, Anshula O.; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W.; Saab, Sammy; Wilson, Mark; Leung, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Abnormal serum liver function tests are common in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis, even prior to the initiation of antithyroidal medications that may worsen their severity. There is a wide range of the incidence of these abnormalities in the published literature. The aim of this study was to assess the risks factors and threshold of thyrotoxicosis severity for developing an abnormal liver biochemical test upon the diagnosis of new thyrotoxicosis. Design Single-institution retrospective cohort study. Patients Patients ≥18 years old receiving medical care at a large, academic, urban U.S. medical center between 2002–2016. Measurements Inclusion criteria were a serum thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] concentration < 0.3 mIU/L or ICD-9 code for thyrotoxicosis, with thyrotoxicosis confirmed by either a concurrent elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) and/or thyroxine (T4) concentration [total or free] within 3 months), and an available liver biochemical test(s) within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis. The biochemical liver tests assessed were serum aspartate transaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin concentrations. Results In this cohort of 1,514 subjects, the overall incidence of any biochemical liver test abnormality within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis was 39%. An initial serum TSH concentration <0.02 mIU/L, male gender, and African-American race were significant predictors of an abnormal serum liver biochemical test within 6 months of the diagnosis of new-onset untreated thyrotoxicosis. Conclusions This study identifies risk factors for patients who develop an abnormal serum liver biochemical test result within 6 months of a diagnosis of untreated thyrotoxicosis. PMID:28199740

  17. FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-12-21

    FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Extended Time Observations were conducted in Utah. Relevant ... FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Home Page (tar file) SCAR-B Block:  ...

  18. Neurologic Manifestations of Chronic Liver Disease and Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    The normal functioning of brain is intimately as well as intricately interrelated with normal functioning of the liver. Liver plays a critical role of not only providing vital nutrients to the brain but also of detoxifying the splanchnic blood. Compromised liver function leads to insufficient detoxification thus allowing neurotoxins (such as ammonia, manganese, and other chemicals) to enter the cerebral circulation. In addition, portosystemic shunts, which are common accompaniments of advanced liver disease, facilitate free passage of neurotoxins into the cerebral circulation. The problem is compounded further by additional variables such as gastrointestinal tract bleeding, malnutrition, and concurrent renal failure, which are often associated with liver cirrhosis. Neurologic damage in chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis seems to be multifactorial primarily attributable to the following: brain accumulation of ammonia, manganese, and lactate; altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier; recruitment of monocytes after microglial activation; and neuroinflammation, that is, direct effects of circulating systemic proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, IL-1β, and IL-6. Radiologist should be aware of the conundrum of neurologic complications that can be encountered in liver disease, which include hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocerebral degeneration, hepatic myelopathy, cirrhosis-related parkinsonism, cerebral infections, hemorrhage, and osmotic demyelination. In addition, neurologic complications can be exclusive to certain disorders, for example, Wilson disease, alcoholism (Wernicke encephalopathy, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease, etc). Radiologist should be aware of their varied clinical presentation and radiological appearances as the diagnosis is not always straightforward. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver disease in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Natasha; Surana, Pallavi; Koh, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the current understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of cystic fibrosis-liver disease (CFLD). CFLD has a variety of manifestations. Previously, it was thought that patients progressed from mild cholestatic disease to cirrhosis to decompensated cirrhosis with portal hypertension. Newer evidence suggests that some patients may develop cirrhosis while others develop noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease necessitate modifications to the current diagnostic criteria. Both fibroscan and noninvasive biomarkers can be used to identify patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Ursodeoxycholic acid remains the mainstay of therapy despite a paucity of rigorous studies supporting its use. Novel therapeutic agents such as CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators and potentiators are encouraging but need to be evaluated specifically in CFLD. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of disease is critical to developing more disease-specific diagnostics and therapeutics.

  20. Polycystic Liver Disease

    SciT

    Linda, Nguyen, E-mail: nguyenli@einstein.edu

    A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations.more » The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile.« less

  1. The impact of longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring on liver function in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reinshagen, K; Zahn, K; Buch, C von; Zoeller, M; Hagl, C I; Ali, M; Waag, K-L

    2008-08-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a functional or anatomic loss of major parts of the small bowel leading to severe malnutrition. The limiting factor for the survival of these patients remains parenteral nutrition-related liver damage leading to end-stage liver failure. Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) has been proven to enhance peristalsis, to decrease bacterial overgrowth and to extend the mucosal contact time for the absorption of nutrients. The aim of this study was to show the impact of LILT on the development of parenteral nutrition-related liver damage. A cohort of 55 patients with short bowel syndrome managed with LILT in our institution between 1987 and 2007 was retrospectively reviewed. LILT was performed at a mean age of 24 months (range 4 - 150 months). Mean follow-up time was 83.76 months (range 5 - 240 months). We obtained reliable data from 31 patients with regard to liver enzymes and function parameters in blood samples before LILT and at the present time. Liver biopsy was performed in 14 patients prior to LILT. Liver enzymes ALAT (mean 121 U/l), ASAT (mean 166 U/l) and bilirubin (mean 2.49 mg/dl) were elevated preoperatively in 27/31 children. After the lengthening procedure, ALAT (mean 50 U/l), ASAT (mean 63 U/l) and bilirubin (mean 1.059 mg/dl) normalized except in 5 of 8 patients who could not be weaned from parenteral nutrition after LILT. Liver function parameters such as the international normal ratio (INR) were slightly elevated in 5/31 patients. Albumin was generally low, probably due to parenteral nutrition. Liver biopsy was performed in 14 patients preoperatively, showing 4 patients with low-grade, 6 patients with intermediate and 4 patients with high-grade fibrosis. End-stage liver disease with cirrhosis was an exclusion criterion for LILT. All patients with liver fibrosis showed a normalization of liver enzymes when they were weaned from parenteral nutrition. But patients with higher grade liver fibrosis tend to develop

  2. Living Liver Donor Selection and Resection at the University of Tokyo Hospital.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, N; Kokudo, N

    2016-05-01

    Donor selection and operative procedures for adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation at the University of Tokyo are presented. Donor selection criteria are as follows: age between 20 and 65 years, within 3 degrees of consanguinity, without coercion, free from any major comorbidities, body mass index (BMI) < 30, and ABO blood type identical or compatible. Liver biopsy is indicated for BMI > 25 kg/m(2) or any liver function abnormality, and those with macroscopic steatosis >10% are rejected. Thereafter, an indocyanine green retention test and dynamic computed tomography are evaluated. Graft type is determined based on computed tomography volumetry. An estimated graft volume of 40% to recipient standard liver volume ratio is the lower limit. For donor safety, the left liver is the first choice, provided that it satisfies the lower limit. Otherwise, right liver harvesting is indicated, providing that the estimated remnant liver volume is >30% of the donor's total liver volume. A posterior sector graft is a possible option. Between 1996 and 2014, 462 donor hepatectomies were performed, with 257 right livers, 179 left livers, and 26 posterior sectors. There was no mortality, and the incidence of morbidity grades I, II, IIIa, and IIIb was 16%, 5%, 5%, and 3%, respectively, without a difference between right and left liver grafts. The left liver was used without impairing recipient outcome. Two aborted hepatectomies (0.4%) and 3 near-miss events (0.6%) were encountered. Maximal effort should be applied to donor selection and operation for donor safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system dialysis in patients with acute liver failure who are assessed for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Camus, Christophe; Lavoué, Sylvain; Gacouin, Arnaud; Le Tulzo, Yves; Lorho, Richard; Boudjéma, Karim; Jacquelinet, Christian; Thomas, Rémi

    2006-11-01

    To assess the usefulness of dialysis with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) in patients with acute liver failure who fulfil criteria for liver transplantation. Observational cohort study. ICU at a liver transplantation centre. Twenty-two patients (23 episodes) received MARS dialysis. They were either listed for LT (n=14), delayed (n=1), or not listed (contra-indication, n=7). A total of 56 MARS treatments (median per patient 2; mean duration 7.6+/-2.6h) were performed on haemodialysis. Clinical and biological variables were assessed before and 24[Symbol: see text]h after MARS therapy. The rate of recovery of liver function without transplantation was compared with an expected rate and survival was analysed. Following MARS dialysis, we observed an improvement in the grade of hepatic encephalopathy (P=0.02) and the Glasgow coma score (P=0.02), a decrease in conjugated bilirubin (P=0.05) and INR (P=0.006), and an increase in prothrombin index (P=0.005). Overall, liver function improved in seven patients (32%): four listed patients in whom transplantation could be avoided and three patients among those not listed due to contra-indications. The transplant-free recovery rate in listed patients was 29% (vs. expected 9%, P=0.036). Listed patients (n=14) had a higher 30-day survival rate [86% (12/14) vs 38% (3/8), P=0.05] and a higher long-term survival rate (P=0.02). A statistically significant improvement of liver function was observed after MARS therapy. Transplant-free recovery was more frequent than expected. The apparent benefit of MARS dialysis to treat acute liver failure needs to be confirmed by a controlled study.

  4. Lyapunov modes in extended systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Liu; Radons, Günter

    2009-08-28

    Hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which have recently been observed in many extended systems with translational symmetry, such as hard sphere systems, dynamic XY models or Lennard-Jones fluids, are nowadays regarded as fundamental objects connecting nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics. We review here our recent results on Lyapunov modes in extended system. The solution to one of the puzzles, the appearance of good and 'vague' modes, is presented for the model system of coupled map lattices. The structural properties of these modes are related to the phase space geometry, especially the angles between Oseledec subspaces, and to fluctuations of local Lyapunov exponents. In this context, we report also on the possible appearance of branches splitting in the Lyapunov spectra of diatomic systems, similar to acoustic and optical branches for phonons. The final part is devoted to the hyperbolicity of partial differential equations and the effective degrees of freedom of such infinite-dimensional systems.

  5. Quantitative PET of liver functions.

    PubMed

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro- D -galactose ( 18 F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value ( SUV ) from a static liver 18 F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11 C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [ N -methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood ( K 1 ; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion , SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18 F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET.

  6. Quantitative PET of liver functions

    PubMed Central

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-galactose (18F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value (SUV) from a static liver 18F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood (K 1; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion, SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET. PMID:29755841

  7. Extended time-interval analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fynbo, H. O. U.; Riisager, K.

    2014-01-01

    Several extensions of the halflife analysis method recently suggested by Horvat and Hardy are put forward. Goodness-of-fit testing is included, and the method is extended to cases where more information is available for each decay event which allows applications also for e.g. γ decay data. The results are tested with Monte Carlo simulations and are applied to the decays of 64Cu and 56Mn.

  8. Pesticide exposure and liver cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    VoPham, Trang; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Brooks, Maria M.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Ruddell, Darren; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Weissfeld, Joel L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To review the epidemiologic literature examining pesticide exposure and liver cancer incidence. Methods A search of the MEDLINE and Embase databases was conducted in October 2015. Eligibility criteria included examining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or primary liver cancer, pesticides as an exposure of interest, and individual-level incidence. The review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results Forty-eight papers were assessed for eligibility and 15 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies were conducted in China and Egypt (n=8), used a case-control design (n=14), and examined HCC (n=14). Most studies showed no association between self-reported and/or occupational exposure to pesticides and liver cancer risk. Six studies demonstrated statistically significant positive associations, including three biomarker-based studies (two using pre-diagnostic sera) that reported higher serum levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were associated with increased HCC risk. Studies indirectly measuring pesticide exposure using self-reported exposure, occupation, job-exposure matrices, or geographic residence demonstrated inconsistent results. These studies were limited by exposure assessment methods, lack of confounder information, minimal case confirmation, selection bias, and/or over-adjustment. Conclusions There is mixed evidence suggesting a possible association between specific pesticides and HCC risk, with the strongest evidence observed in biomarker-based studies. In particular, organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, may increase HCC risk. Future research should focus on improved pesticide exposure assessment methods, potentially incorporating multiple approaches including biomonitoring while considering the chemicals of interest, historical exposure to address latency periods, and examining specific chemicals and exposure pathways. PMID:28194594

  9. [Guidelines for the sociomedical assessment of performance in patients suffering from chronic non-malignant diseases of the liver and the bile ducts--for the Medical Assessment Services of the German Pension Fund].

    PubMed

    Horn, S; Irle, H; Knorr, I; Pottins, I; Rohwetter, M; Schuhknecht, P; Timner, K; Becker, E

    2009-06-01

    The following guidelines were developed for the medical assessment services of the German pension fund. Starting from day-to-day practice, criteria and attributes to guide decisions for a systematisation of the sociomedical assessment of performance in diseases of the liver and the bile ducts were compiled. The guidelines aim at standardising the sociomedical assessment of performance and help to make the decision-making process more transparent, e. g., for the assessment of applications for decreased earning capacity benefits. The guidelines summarise the typical manifestations of diseases of the liver and the bile ducts and describe the necessary medical information for the sociomedical assessment of performance. Relevant assessment criteria for the medical history, clinical examination, and for diagnostic tests are illustrated. The assessment of the individual's capacity is outlined, taking occupational factors into account. Following the determination of dysfunctions, the remaining abilities and disabilities, respectively, are deduced and compared with occupational demands. Finally, inferences are drawn regarding the occupational capacity of the individual. The guidelines followed from an extended procedure to attain a wide consensus in the setting of the German Pension Fund and an upgraded evidence base.

  10. Acute Kidney Injury after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Durand, François; Francoz, Claire; Asrani, Sumeet K; Khemichian, Saro; Pham, Thomas A; Sung, Randall S; Genyk, Yuri S; Nadim, Mitra K

    2018-05-29

    Since the implementation of the MELD score-based allocation system, the number of transplant candidates with impaired renal function has increased. The aims of this review are to present new insights in the definitions and predisposing factors that result in acute kidney injury (AKI), and to propose guidelines for the prevention and treatment of post liver transplantation (LT) AKI. This review is based on both systematic review of relevant literature and expert opinion. Pretransplant AKI is associated with posttransplant morbidity, including prolonged post LT AKI which then predisposes to posttransplant chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prevention of posttransplant AKI is essential in the improvement of long term outcomes. Accurate assessment of baseline kidney function at evaluation is necessary, taking into account that serum creatinine overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR). New diagnostic criteria for AKI have been integrated with traditional approaches in patients with cirrhosis to potentially identify AKI earlier and improve outcomes. Delayed introduction or complete elimination of calcineurin inhibitors during the first weeks post LT in patients with early posttransplant AKI may improve GFR in high risk patients but with higher rates of rejection and more adverse events. Biomarkers may in the future provide diagnostic information such as etiology of AKI, and prognostic information on renal recovery post-LT, and potentially impact the decision for simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Overall, more attention should be paid to pretransplant and early posttransplant AKI to reduce the burden of late CKD.

  11. Liver lesions produced by aflatoxins in Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog).

    PubMed

    Grassi, Tony Fernando; Pires, Paulo Wagner; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Pai-Silva, Maeli Dal; Said, Roueda Abou; de Camargo, João Lauro Viana

    2007-09-01

    This study describes alterations induced in Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) liver after extended dietary exposure to aflatoxins (AFs). Bullfrogs of both sexes were fed for 120 days a commercial chow blended with a rice bran-based mixture of AFs containing 667.0, 11.65, 141.74, and 3.53 mg/kg of AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2, respectively. Animals were sacrificed on study days 45, 90, and 120. Severe and progressive liver lesions with structural collapse, increased hepatocyte and biliary duct cell proliferation, appearance of basophilic hepatocytes, and diffuse scarring, were observed at all time points. There were no quantitative alterations in the liver melanomacrophage centers of the AFs-exposed animals. Increased amounts of lipid hydroperoxides, indicative of ongoing oxidative stress, were more evident in the Addutor magnum muscle than in the AFs-damaged livers. No tumors were found in the R. catesbeiana livers after 120 days of exposure to relatively high doses of AFs.

  12. Desferrioxamine in warm reperfusion media decreases liver injury aggravated by cold storage

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Peter G; Niu, Xian-Wa; Huang, Wen-Hua; DeBoer, Bastiaan; Lai, Ching Tat; Rossi, Enrico; Joseph, John; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2013-01-01

    /g liver vs DFO present 8.1 ± 0.9 U/g liver, P < 0.05) and LDH (DFO absent 297 ± 71 U/g liver vs DFO present 56 ± 7 U/g liver, P < 0.05), and increased bile flow (DFO absent 71 ± 8 μL/g liver vs DFO present 237 ± 36 μL/g liver, P < 0.05). DFO was also shown to improve liver morphology after WP. Cellular injury (the release of LDH and AST) was significantly reduced with the addition of DFO in CS medium but to a lesser extent compared to the addition of DFO in WP or WI and perfusion. There was no effect on liver swelling or bile flow when DFO was only added to the CS medium. CONCLUSION: DFO added during WI and perfusion decreased liver perfusion injury aggravated by extended CS. PMID:23429835

  13. Consistency criteria for generalized Cuddeford systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, Luca; Morganti, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    General criteria to check the positivity of the distribution function (phase-space consistency) of stellar systems of assigned density and anisotropy profile are useful starting points in Jeans-based modelling. Here, we substantially extend previous results, and present the inversion formula and the analytical necessary and sufficient conditions for phase-space consistency of the family of multicomponent Cuddeford spherical systems: the distribution function of each density component of these systems is defined as the sum of an arbitrary number of Cuddeford distribution functions with arbitrary values of the anisotropy radius, but identical angular momentum exponent. The radial trend of anisotropy that can be realized by these models is therefore very general. As a surprising byproduct of our study, we found that the `central cusp-anisotropy theorem' (a necessary condition for consistency relating the values of the central density slope and of the anisotropy parameter) holds not only at the centre but also at all radii in consistent multicomponent generalized Cuddeford systems. This last result suggests that the so-called mass-anisotropy degeneracy could be less severe than what is sometimes feared.

  14. Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Treatment of Non-cholestatic Liver Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Jillian; Hussaini, Trana; Alsahafi, Majid; Azalgara, Vladimir Marquez; Erb, Siegfried R; Partovi, Nilufar; Yoshida, Eric M

    2016-09-28

    Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase. No search limits were applied. Additionally, references of the included studies were reviewed to identify additional articles. Results: The literature search yielded articles meeting inclusion criteria for the following indications: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 5); alcoholic liver disease (n = 2); autoimmune hepatitis (n = 6), liver transplant (n = 2) and viral hepatitis (n = 9). Bile acid use was associated with improved normalization of liver biochemistry in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis B and C infections. In contrast, liver biochemistry normalization was inconsistent in alcoholic liver disease and liver transplantation. The majority of studies reviewed showed that normalization of liver biochemistry did not correlate to improvement in histologic disease. In the prospective trials reviewed, adverse effects associated with the bile acids were limited

  15. Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Treatment of Non-cholestatic Liver Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Jillian; Hussaini, Trana; Alsahafi, Majid; Azalgara, Vladimir Marquez; Erb, Siegfried R.; Partovi, Nilufar; Yoshida, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase. No search limits were applied. Additionally, references of the included studies were reviewed to identify additional articles. Results: The literature search yielded articles meeting inclusion criteria for the following indications: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 5); alcoholic liver disease (n = 2); autoimmune hepatitis (n = 6), liver transplant (n = 2) and viral hepatitis (n = 9). Bile acid use was associated with improved normalization of liver biochemistry in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis B and C infections. In contrast, liver biochemistry normalization was inconsistent in alcoholic liver disease and liver transplantation. The majority of studies reviewed showed that normalization of liver biochemistry did not correlate to improvement in histologic disease. In the prospective trials reviewed, adverse effects associated with the bile acids

  16. Patient satisfaction with extended-interval warfarin monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carris, Nicholas W; Hwang, Andrew Y; Smith, Steven M; Taylor, James R; Sando, Karen; Powell, Jason; Rosenberg, Eric I; Zumberg, Marc S; Gums, John G; Dietrich, Eric A; Anderson, Katherine Vogel

    2016-11-01

    Extended-interval monitoring of warfarin has been proposed to reduce follow-up burden and improve patient satisfaction. We aimed to make an initial assessment of anticoagulation satisfaction before and after an extended-interval warfarin monitoring intervention. We conducted a translational prospective single-arm pilot study of extended-interval warfarin monitoring in five pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinics. Patients meeting CHEST guideline criteria for extended-interval warfarin monitoring began progressive extended-interval follow-up (6, 8, and 12 weeks thereafter). The Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale (DASS) was administered at baseline and at end-of-study or study removal (in patients no longer appropriate for extended interval follow-up). Forty-six patients had evaluable pre- and post-intervention DASS survey data. Mean age of patients was 66.5 years, 74 % were non-Hispanic whites, and 48 % were men. Patients completed a mean ± SD of 34 ± 22 weeks of follow-up. Mean ± SD total DASS score at baseline was 45.2 ± 14.2 versus 49.1 ± 14.9 at end-of-study (mean change, +3.9 [95 % CI -0.6-8.4; p = 0.09]), indicating no benefit-and trending toward decrement-to anticoagulation satisfaction. Change in anticoagulation satisfaction varied substantially following extended-interval monitoring, with no evidence of improved satisfaction. Plausible reasons for patients not preferring extended-interval monitoring include increased anxiety and disengagement from self-management activities, both potentially related to less frequent feedback and reassurance during extended interval-monitoring. Additional research is needed to identify who is likely to benefit most from extended-interval monitoring. Anticoagulation satisfaction should be considered with clinical factors and shared-decision making when implementing extended-interval warfarin monitoring.

  17. The Liver, Regulator of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this theme issue is to review the basic physiological, nutritional, and pathological facts pertaining to the liver. It is an educational tool through which university teachers and people in charge of training may enhance their teaching programs. The main liver diseases seen in young children and pregnant women in tropical regions is…

  18. Does acid-base equilibrium correlate with remnant liver volume during stepwise liver resection?

    PubMed

    Golriz, Mohammad; Abbasi, Sepehr; Fathi, Parham; Majlesara, Ali; Brenner, Thorsten; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2017-10-01

    Small for size and flow syndrome (SFSF) is one of the most challenging complications following extended hepatectomy (EH). After EH, hepatic artery flow decreases and portal vein flow increases per 100 g of remnant liver volume (RLV). This causes hypoxia followed by metabolic acidosis. A correlation between acidosis and posthepatectomy liver failure has been postulated but not studied systematically in a large animal model or clinical setting. In our study, we performed stepwise liver resections on nine pigs to defined SFSF limits as follows: step 1: segment II/III resection, step 2: segment IV resection, step 3: segment V/VIII resection (RLV: 75, 50, and 25%, respectively). Blood gas values were measured before and after each step using four catheters inserted into the carotid artery, internal jugular vein, hepatic artery, and portal vein. The pH, [Formula: see text], and base excess (BE) decreased, but [Formula: see text] values increased after 75% resection in the portal and jugular veins. EH correlated with reduced BE in the hepatic artery. Pco 2 values increased after 75% resection in the jugular vein. In contrast, arterial Po 2 increased after every resection, whereas the venous Po 2 decreased slightly. There were differences in venous [Formula: see text], BE in the hepatic artery, and Pco 2 in the jugular vein after 75% liver resection. Because 75% resection is the limit for SFSF, these noninvasive blood evaluations may be used to predict SFSF. Further studies with long-term follow-up are required to validate this correlation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to evaluate acid-base parameters in major central and hepatic vessels during stepwise liver resection. The pH, [Formula: see text], and base excess (BE) decreased, but [Formula: see text] values increased after 75% resection in the portal and jugular veins. Extended hepatectomy correlated with reduced BE in the hepatic artery. Because 75% resection is the limit for small for size and flow

  19. Chylous ascites in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with venoocclusive liver disease.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Scott P; Fontenot, Deidre K; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha A

    2003-12-01

    An 11-yr-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) was diagnosed clinically with hepatic and renal disease and euthanatized after an extended illness. Postmortem examination revealed 8-10 L of milky white fluid in the abdominal cavity and markedly dilated lymphatic vessels within the intestinal mesentery. The abdominal fluid was a chylous effusion based on the cytologic predominance of lymphocytes and macrophages and comparison of cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the fluid and in serum. Gross and histopathologic lesions in the liver were consistent with a diagnosis of venoocclusive liver disease. Chylous ascites is uncommon with human chronic liver disease and is rarely identified in animals.

  20. Management of paediatric liver trauma.

    PubMed

    van As, A B; Millar, Alastair J W

    2017-04-01

    Of all the intra-abdominal solid organs, the liver is the most vulnerable to blunt abdominal trauma. The majority of liver ruptures present in combination with other abdominal or extra-abdominal injuries. Over the last three decades, the management of blunt liver trauma has evolved from obligatory operative to non-operative management in over 90% of cases. Penetrating liver injuries more often require operative intervention and are managed according to adult protocols. The greatest clinical challenge remains the timely identification of the severely damaged liver with immediate and aggressive resuscitation and expedition to laparotomy. The operative management can be taxing and should ideally be performed in a dedicated paediatric surgical centre with experience in dealing with such trauma. Complications can occur early or late and include haemobilia, intrahepatic duct rupture with persistent biliary fistula, bilaemia, intrahepatic haematoma, post-traumatic cysts, vascular outflow obstruction, and gallstones. The prognosis is generally excellent.

  1. [Primary cancer of the liver].

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Mercado, M A

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiologic and pathogenic aspects of primary hepatic malignancies are discussed. The role of viruses in the etiology of the disease is stressed. Imageology methods have a preponderant role for diagnosis and treatment options. Liver resection has a one years survival between 60 and 80% and a five years survival of 20 to 40%. A good surgical results is expected for tumors with no more than 5 cm in diameter, encapsulated and without vascular invasion non-cirrhotic livers, large tumors can also be removed. Surgical resection margin should be of 1 cm. For cirrhotic livers, a good liver function is needed (Child A-B) and no safe major resection can be done. History of bleeding portal hypertension has a negative role in the outcome. Liver transplantation should be limited to selected case, in which the tumors are small and asymptomatic (incidental). For larger tumors, long term results are not good with invariable recurrency of the tumor.

  2. [Surgical techniques in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Chan, Carlos; Plata-Muñoz, Juan José; Franssen, Bernardo

    2005-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is probably the biggest surgical aggression that a patient can endure. It was considered only as a last option in the era of experimental LT, yet it evolved into the definitive treatment for some types of acute and chronic end stage liver disease. In terms of technique LT is the most complex of all types of transplantations. The surgical procedure in itself is well established and has changed little through time. Liver transplantation owes its improvement to better and more systematic anesthetic procedures and to perioperative care more than being due to improvement of the surgical technique. The first surgical procedure was described by Thomas Starzl in 1969. His initial work has been strengthened with the development of venous bypass, the refinement in vascular and biliary reconstruction technique and the development of the split liver. Up to date technical aspects of orthotopic liver transplantation are described in the present article.

  3. Evaluation of High-Speed Civil Transport Handling Qualities Criteria with Supersonic Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Timothy H.; Jackson, Dante W.

    1997-01-01

    Most flying qualities criteria have been developed from data in the subsonic flight regime. Unique characteristics of supersonic flight raise questions about whether these criteria successfully extend into the supersonic flight regime. Approximately 25 years ago NASA Dryden Flight Research Center addressed this issue with handling qualities evaluations of the XB-70 and YF-12. Good correlations between some of the classical handling qualities parameters, such as the control anticipation parameter as a function of damping, were discovered. More criteria have been developed since these studies. Some of these more recent criteria are being used in designing the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). A second research study recently addressed this issue through flying qualities evaluations of the SR-71 at Mach 3. The research goal was to extend the high-speed flying qualities experience of large airplanes and to evaluate more recent MIL-STD-1797 criteria against pilot comments and ratings. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the criteria used for designing the HSCT. XB-70 and YF-12 data from the previous research supplemented the SR-71 data. The results indicate that the criteria used in the HSCT design are conservative and should provide good flying qualities for typical high-speed maneuvering. Additional results show correlation between the ratings and comments and criteria for gradual maneuvering with precision control. Correlation is shown between ratings and comments and an extension of the Neal/Smith criterion using normal acceleration instead of pitch rate.

  4. Preoperative Cholangitis and Future Liver Remnant Volume Determine the Risk of Liver Failure in Patients Undergoing Resection for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Dario; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Aloia, Thomas A; Shindoh, Junichi; Fabio, Forchino; Amisano, Marco; Passot, Guillaume; Ferrero, Alessandro; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The highest mortality rates after liver surgery are reported in patients who undergo resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). In these patients, postoperative death usually follows the development of hepatic insufficiency. We sought to determine the factors associated with postoperative hepatic insufficiency and death due to liver failure in patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCCA. This study included all consecutive patients who underwent hepatectomy with curative intent for HCCA at 2 centers, from 1996 through 2013. Preoperative clinical and operative data were analyzed to identify independent determinants of hepatic insufficiency and liver failure-related death. The study included 133 patients with right or left major (n = 67) or extended (n = 66) hepatectomy. Preoperative biliary drainage was performed in 98 patients and was complicated by cholangitis in 40 cases. In all these patients, cholangitis was controlled before surgery. Major (Dindo III to IV) postoperative complications occurred in 73 patients (55%), with 29 suffering from hepatic insufficiency. Fifteen patients (11%) died within 90 days after surgery, 10 of them from liver failure. On multivariate analysis, predictors of postoperative hepatic insufficiency (all p < 0.05) were preoperative cholangitis (odds ratio [OR] 3.2), future liver remnant (FLR) volume < 30% (OR 3.5), preoperative total bilirubin level >3 mg/dL (OR 4), and albumin level < 3.5 mg/dL (OR 3.3). Only preoperative cholangitis (OR 7.5, p = 0.016) and FLR volume < 30% (OR 7.2, p = 0.019) predicted postoperative liver failure-related death. Preoperative cholangitis and insufficient FLR volume are major determinants of hepatic insufficiency and postoperative liver failure-related death. Given the association between biliary drainage and cholangitis, the preoperative approach to patients with HCCA should be optimized to minimize the risk of cholangitis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. Preoperative Cholangitis and Future Liver Remnant Volume Determine the Risk of Liver Failure in Patients Undergoing Resection for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, Thomas A; Shindoh, Junichi; Fabio, Forchino; Amisano, Marco; Passot, Guillaume; Ferrero, Alessandro; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest mortality rates after liver surgery are reported in patients who undergo resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). In these patients, postoperative death usually follows the development of hepatic insufficiency. We sought to determine the factors associated with postoperative hepatic insufficiency and death due to liver failure in patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCCA. Study Design This study included all consecutive patients who underwent hepatectomy with curative intent for HCCA at two centers from 1996 through 2013. Preoperative clinical and operative data were analyzed to identify independent determinants of i) hepatic insufficiency and ii) liver failure–related death. Results The study included 133 patients with right or left major (n=67) or extended (n=66) hepatectomy. Preoperative biliary drainage was performed in 98 patients and was complicated by cholangitis in 40 cases. In all these patients, cholangitis was controlled before surgery. Major (Dindo III-IV) postoperative complications occurred in 73 patients (55%), with 29 suffering from hepatic insufficiency. Fifteen patients (11%) died within 90 days after surgery, 10 of them of liver failure. On multivariate analysis, predictors of postoperative hepatic insufficiency (all p<0.05) were preoperative cholangitis (odds ratio [OR]=3.2), future liver remnant (FLR) volume <30% (OR=3.5), preoperative total bilirubin level >3 mg/dl (OR=4), and albumin level <3.5 mg/dl (OR=3.3). Only preoperative cholangitis (OR=7.5, p=.016) and FLR volume <30% (OR=7.2, p=.019) predicted postoperative liver failure–related death. Conclusions Preoperative cholangitis and insufficient FLR volume are major determinants of hepatic insufficiency and postoperative liver failure–related death. Given the association between biliary drainage and cholangitis, the preoperative approach to patients with HCCA should be optimized to minimize the risk of cholangitis. PMID:27049784

  6. Preoperative Portal Vein Embolization Tailored to Prepare the Liver for Complex Resections: Initial Experience

    SciT

    Baere, T. de, E-mail: debaere@igr.fr; Robinson, J. M.; Deschamps, F.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) tailored to prepare the liver for complex and extended resections. During the past 5 years, 12 PVEs were performed in noncirrhotic patients with liver metastases from colon cancer (n = 10), choroidal melanoma (n = 1), and leiomyosarcoma (n = 1) to prepare complex anatomical liver resections in patients with small future remnant livers. These liver resections planned to preserve only segment IV in four patients, segments IV, V, and VIII in four patients, segments II, III, VI, and VII in threemore » patients, and segments V and VI in one patient. PVE was performed under general anesthesia with a flow-guided injection of a mixture of cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol using a 5-Fr catheter. All portal branches feeding the liver segments to be resected were successfully embolized with cyanoacrylate except one, which was occluded with coils due to the risk of reflux with cyanoacrylate. After a mean of 32 days, CT volumetry revealed a mean hypertrophy of the unembolized liver of 47 {+-} 25% (range, 21-88%). Liver resections could be performed in 10 patients but were canceled in 2, due to the occurrence of a new hepatic tumor in one and an insufficiently increased volume in the other. Among the 10 patients who underwent the liver resection, 1 died of postoperative sepsis, 3 died 3 to 32 months after surgery, including 1 death unrelated to cancer, and 6 were alive after 6 to 36 months after surgery. In conclusion, in this preliminary report, PVE appears to be feasible and able to induce hypertrophy of the future remnant liver before a complex and extended hepatectomy. Further evaluation is needed in a larger cohort.« less

  7. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia; Zanetto, Alberto; Germani, Giacomo

    2018-02-09

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Genetic background plays also a significant role and specific patterns of gene mutations in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized. Survival is higher in patients who undergo specific surveillance programmes than in patients who do not. However, patients with alcohol cirrhosis present a significantly greater risk of liver decompensation than those with cirrhosis due to other aetiologies. Furthermore, the adherence to screening program can be suboptimal. Liver transplant for patients with Milan-in hepatocellular carcinoma represents the best possible treatment in case of tumour recurrence/progression despite loco-regional or surgical treatments. Long-term result after liver transplantation for alcohol related liver disease is good. However, cardiovascular disease and de novo malignancies can significantly hamper patients' survival and should be carefully considered by transplant team. In this review, we have focused on the evolution of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology and risk factors as well as on liver transplantation in alcoholic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. 38 CFR 21.74 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.74 Extended evaluation. (a) General. An extended evaluation may be... reasonably feasible for the veteran. The services which may be provided during the period of extended...

  9. 38 CFR 21.74 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.74 Extended evaluation. (a) General. An extended evaluation may be... reasonably feasible for the veteran. The services which may be provided during the period of extended...

  10. 38 CFR 21.74 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.74 Extended evaluation. (a) General. An extended evaluation may be... reasonably feasible for the veteran. The services which may be provided during the period of extended...

  11. 38 CFR 21.74 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.74 Extended evaluation. (a) General. An extended evaluation may be... reasonably feasible for the veteran. The services which may be provided during the period of extended...

  12. 38 CFR 21.74 - Extended evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extended evaluation. 21... Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.74 Extended evaluation. (a) General. An extended evaluation may be... reasonably feasible for the veteran. The services which may be provided during the period of extended...

  13. On the development of HSCT tail sizing criteria using linear matrix inequalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminer, Isaac

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to extend existing high speed civil transport (HSCT) tail sizing criteria using linear matrix inequalities (LMI). In particular, the effects of feedback specifications, such as MIL STD 1797 Level 1 and 2 flying qualities requirements, and actuator amplitude and rate constraints on the maximum allowable cg travel for a given set of tail sizes are considered. Results comparing previously developed industry criteria and the LMI methodology on an HSCT concept airplane are presented.

  14. Axelrod Model with Extended Conservativeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej

    2012-11-01

    Similarity of opinions and memory about recent interactions are two main factors determining likelihood of social contacts. Here, we explore the Axelrod model with an extended conservativeness which incorporates not only similarity between individuals but also a preference to the last source of accepted information. The additional preference given to the last source of information increases the initial decay of the number of ideas in the system, changes the character of the phase transition between homogeneous and heterogeneous final states and could increase the number of stable regions (clusters) in the final state.

  15. Renormalization of Extended QCD2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukaya, Hidenori; Yamamura, Ryo

    2015-10-01

    Extended QCD (XQCD), proposed by Kaplan [D. B. Kaplan, arXiv:1306.5818], is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low-energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of 2D (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of a large number of colors N_c, to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low-energy region.

  16. Extending earthquakes' reach through cascading.

    PubMed

    Marsan, David; Lengliné, Olivier

    2008-02-22

    Earthquakes, whatever their size, can trigger other earthquakes. Mainshocks cause aftershocks to occur, which in turn activate their own local aftershock sequences, resulting in a cascade of triggering that extends the reach of the initial mainshock. A long-lasting difficulty is to determine which earthquakes are connected, either directly or indirectly. Here we show that this causal structure can be found probabilistically, with no a priori model nor parameterization. Large regional earthquakes are found to have a short direct influence in comparison to the overall aftershock sequence duration. Relative to these large mainshocks, small earthquakes collectively have a greater effect on triggering. Hence, cascade triggering is a key component in earthquake interactions.

  17. Propylthiouracil-Induced Acute Liver Failure: Role of Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Andres F.; Czul, Frank; Arosemena, Leopoldo R.; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Garcia, Monica T.; Tekin, Akin; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Martin, Paul; Ghanta, Ravi K.

    2010-01-01

    Propylthiouracil- (PTU-) induced hepatotoxicity is rare but potentially lethal with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from asymptomatic elevation of transaminases to fulminant hepatic failure and death. We describe two cases of acute hepatic failure due to PTU that required liver transplantation. Differences in the clinical presentation, histological characteristics, and posttransplant management are described as well as alternative therapeutic options. Frequent monitoring for PTU-induced hepatic dysfunction is strongly advised because timely discontinuation of this drug and implementation of noninvasive therapeutic interventions may prevent progression to liver failure or even death. PMID:21234410

  18. Quantitative and noninvasive assessment of chronic liver diseases using two-dimensional shear wave elastography

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li-Ting; Yan, Chun-Hong; Zhao, Qi-Yu; He, Meng-Na; Jiang, Tian-An

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) is a rapid, simple and novel noninvasive method that has been proposed for assessing hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs) based on measurements of liver stiffness. 2D-SWE can be performed easily at the bedside or in an outpatient clinic and yields immediate results with good reproducibility. Furthermore, 2D-SWE was an efficient method for evaluating liver fibrosis in small to moderately sized clinical trials. However, the quality criteria for the staging of liver fibrosis are not yet well defined. Liver fibrosis is the main pathological basis of liver stiffness and a key step in the progression from CLD to cirrhosis; thus, the management of CLD largely depends on the extent and progression of liver fibrosis. 2D-SWE appears to be an excellent tool for the early detection of cirrhosis and may have prognostic value in this context. Because 2D-SWE has high patient acceptance, it could be useful for monitoring fibrosis progression and regression in individual cases. However, multicenter data are needed to support its use. This study reviews the current status and future perspectives of 2D-SWE for assessments of liver fibrosis and discusses the technical advantages and limitations that impact its effective and rational clinical use. PMID:29531460

  19. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  20. Extending Stability Through Hierarchical Clusters in Echo State Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sarah; Rotter, Stefan; Egert, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Echo State Networks (ESN) are reservoir networks that satisfy well-established criteria for stability when constructed as feedforward networks. Recent evidence suggests that stability criteria are altered in the presence of reservoir substructures, such as clusters. Understanding how the reservoir architecture affects stability is thus important for the appropriate design of any ESN. To quantitatively determine the influence of the most relevant network parameters, we analyzed the impact of reservoir substructures on stability in hierarchically clustered ESNs, as they allow a smooth transition from highly structured to increasingly homogeneous reservoirs. Previous studies used the largest eigenvalue of the reservoir connectivity matrix (spectral radius) as a predictor for stable network dynamics. Here, we evaluate the impact of clusters, hierarchy and intercluster connectivity on the predictive power of the spectral radius for stability. Both hierarchy and low relative cluster sizes extend the range of spectral radius values, leading to stable networks, while increasing intercluster connectivity decreased maximal spectral radius. PMID:20725523

  1. Role of autoimmunity in nonviral chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, D N; Amarapurkar, A D

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and clinical profile of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with chronic liver disease. Four hundred and thirty five consecutive patient with chronic liver disease seen in our department from January 1997 to December 1998 were studied with detailed history and clinical examination. All the patients underwent liver function tests, ultrasonography, isotope liver scanning, viral markers, autoimmune markers ANA, ASMA, LKM1 and AMA (by immunofluorescence technique) and liver histology whenever permissible. Appropriate work up for Wilson's disease was done whenever suspected clinically. Diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis was made by the composite scoring system by international autoimmune hepatitis group. Twenty out of the 435 patients met the criteria of definite autoimmune hepatitis and seven patient had probable autoimmune hepatitis. Forty out of 408 patients showed markers of autoimmunity positive but did not qualify diagnosis of AIH on composite scores. Demographic profile of 27 patients with autoimmune hepatitis was as follows; male:female ratio 1:8, mean age 39.8 +/- 13 years (Range 4-65 years); mode of presentation as cirrhosis 11/27 (40.7%), chronic hepatitis 12/27 (44.4%) and acute hepatitis 4/27 (14.8%). Elevated serum bilirubin levels were seen in 12 (44.4%) patients while mean serum aminotransferases levels were 249 +/- 343 and 262 +/- 418 respectively. Other disease associations seen were as follows: diabetes in 4 (14.8%), rheumatoid arthritis in 3 (11%), hypothyroidism in 2 (7.4%) and ulcerative colitis in 1 (3.7%). The pattern of autoimmune markers was ANA +ve 23/27 (85%) (+ve titres of ANA > 1:80 in adults and 1:20 in children), ASMA +ve in 16/27 (59.2%) (+ve titres of ASMA > 1:40) and LKM1 in 3 patients. AMA in tires less than 1:80 was found in 3 patients. Liver histology changes seen were lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates (100%), bridging necrosis (93%), liver cell rossetting (80%) and fibrosis with or without cirrhosis (50

  2. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  3. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  4. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  5. Hippocampal replay of extended experience

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Thomas J.; Kloosterman, Fabian; Wilson, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary During pauses in exploration, ensembles of place cells in the rat hippocampus re-express firing sequences corresponding to recent spatial experience. Such ‘replay’ co-occurs with ripple events: short-lasting (~50–120 ms), high frequency (~200 Hz) oscillations that are associated with increased hippocampal-cortical communication. In previous studies, rats explored small environments, and replay was found to be anchored to the rat’s current location, and compressed in time such that replay of the complete environment occurred during a single ripple event. It is not known whether or how longer behavioral sequences are replayed in the hippocampus. Here we show, using a neural decoding approach, that firing sequences corresponding to long runs through a large environment are replayed with high fidelity (in both forward and reverse order), and that such replay can begin at remote locations on the track. Extended replay proceeds at a characteristic virtual speed of ~8 m/s, and remains coherent across trains of ripple events. These results suggest that extended replay is composed of chains of shorter subsequences, which may reflect a strategy for the storage and flexible expression of memories of prolonged experience. PMID:19709631

  6. Extended Operation of Stirling Convertors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator 110 (SRG110) is being developed for potential NASA exploration missions. The SRG system efficiency is greater than 20%, making it an attractive candidate power system for deep space missions and unmanned rovers. The Department of Energy SRG110 Project team consists of the System Integrator, Lockheed Martin (LM), Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). One of the GRC roles is to provide Independent Verification and Validation of the Stirling TDC's. At the request of LM, a part of this effort includes the extended operation of the TDC's in the dynamically balanced dual-opposed configuration. Performance data of the Stirling Converters over time is required to demonstrate that an SRG110 can meet long-duration mission requirements. A test plan and test system were developed to evaluate TDC's #13 and #14 steady-state performance for a minimum of 5000 hours and insure safe, round-the-clock operation of the TDC's. This paper will discuss the design and development, and status of the Extended Operation Test.

  7. Extended Operation of Stirling Convertors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen; Schreiber, Jeffery G.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency 110 W Stirling Radioisotope Generator 110 (SRG110) is being developed for potential NASA exploration missions. The SRG system efficiency is greater than 20%, making it an attractive candidate power system for deep space missions and unmanned rovers. The Department of Energy SRG110 Project team consists of the System Integrator, Lockheed Martin (LM), Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). One of the GRC roles is to provide Independent Verification and Validation of the Stirling TDC s. At the request of LM, a part of this effort includes the Extended Operation of the TDC s in the dynamically balanced dual-opposed configuration. Performance data of Stirling Convertors over time is required to demonstrate that an SRG110 can meet long-duration mission requirements. A test plan and test system were developed to evaluate TDC s #13 and #14 steady-state performance for a minimum of 5000 hours. Hardware, software and TDC preparation processes were developed to support this test and insure safe, round-the-clock operation of the TDC s. This paper will discuss the design and development, and status of the Extended Operation Test.

  8. Extended suicide with a pet.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases.

  9. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciT

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1991-04-02

    This invention is comprised of a pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing. between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair laying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is widemore » and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.« less

  10. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciT

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawlmore » through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.« less

  11. Liver precancerous lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Roncalli, Massimo; Terracciano, Luigi; Di Tommaso, Luca; David, Ezio; Colombo, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    The current ability to increase the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) relies upon the surveillance of cirrhotic patients. Surveillance allows HCC precursors (dysplastic nodules) and malignant tumors to be recognized at an earlier stage making cure possible. Radiology plays a major role in HCC diagnosis because HCC is characterized by neoarterial vascularisation with a typical imaging pattern. Current international guidelines have restricted the use of the liver biopsy to the characterization of hepatocellular nodules which remain diagnostically equivocal after imaging. Thus pathologists are today facing very challenging and often well differentiated lesions, leading to difficulties in distinguishing high grade dysplasia and well differentiated HCC. In this scenario novel concepts obtained through international consensus have been proposed with emphasis on HCC of small size (up to 2 cm) which includes 2 distinct types, the early and progressed HCC. In this paper we will report the main histopathological criteria of a biopsy which allow the differentiation of HCC precursors (dysplastic nodules) from well differentiated HCC with attention to the role and weight of both classical histopathological criteria and novel immunocytochemical markers. The second part of the paper is devoted to the histopathology report of HCC on surgical specimens including explanted livers and on the differential diagnosis between HCC and liver metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracellular Matrix and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arriazu, Elena; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Varela-Rey, Marta; Pérez de Obanos, María Pilar; Leung, Tung Ming; Lopategi, Aritz; Benedicto, Aitor; Abraham-Enachescu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic microenvironment that undergoes continuous remodeling, particularly during injury and wound healing. Chronic liver injury of many different etiologies such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, drug-induced liver injury, obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease is characterized by excessive deposition of ECM proteins in response to persistent liver damage. Critical Issues: This review describes the main collagenous and noncollagenous components from the ECM that play a significant role in pathological matrix deposition during liver disease. We define how increased myofibroblasts (MF) from different origins are at the forefront of liver fibrosis and how liver cell-specific regulation of the complex scarring process occurs. Recent Advances: Particular attention is paid to the role of cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and newly identified matricellular proteins in the regulation of fibrillar type I collagen, a field to which our laboratory has significantly contributed over the years. We compile data from recent literature on the potential mechanisms driving fibrosis resolution such as MF’ apoptosis, senescence, and reversal to quiescence. Future Directions: We conclude with a brief description of how epigenetics, an evolving field, can regulate the behavior of MF and of how new “omics” tools may advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which the fibrogenic response to liver injury occurs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1078–1097. PMID:24219114

  13. Size mismatch in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Size mismatch is an unique and inevitable but critical issue in live donor liver transplantation. Unmatched metabolic demand of recipient as well as physiologic mismatch aggravates the damage to liver graft, inevitably leading to graft failure on recipient. Also, an excessive resection of liver graft for better recipient outcome in live donor liver transplant may jeopardize the healthy donor well-being and even put donor life in danger. There is a fine balance between resected graft volume required to meet the recipient's metabolic demand and residual graft volume required for donor safety. The obvious clinical necessity of finding that balance has prompted a clinical need and promoted the improvement of knowledge and development of management strategies for size-mismatched transplants. The development of the size-matching methodology has significantly improved graft outcome and recipient survival in live donor liver transplants. On the other hand, the effect of size mismatch in cadaveric transplants has never been observed as being so pronounced. The importance of matching of the donor recipient size has been unrecognized in cadaveric liver transplant. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current most updated knowledge on the subject, particularly addressing the definition and complications of size-mismatched cadaveric liver transplant, as well as management strategies. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Characterization and differentiation of autoimmune versus viral liver involvement in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Sánchez-Tapias, Jose-María; Parés, Albert; Forns, Xavier; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Nardi, Norma; Vazquez, Pilar; Vélez, Desirée; Arias, Isabel; Bové, Albert; Plaza, Joan; Rodés, Juan; Font, Josep

    2006-08-01

    To analyze the prevalence and clinical significance of liver involvement in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), focusing on the characterization and differentiation of autoimmune versus chronic viral liver disease. We investigated liver involvement (clinical signs, analytical data, chronic viral infections, and autoantibodies) in 475 consecutive patients with SS. All patients fulfilled 4 or more of the 1993 European Community Study Group criteria for SS. Liver involvement was detected in 129 (27%) patients. After ruling out chronic illnesses or use of hepatotoxic drugs, the main etiologies were chronic viral liver disease in 64 (13%) cases [chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 63 and HBV infection in one] and autoimmune liver diseases in 24 (5%; primary biliary cirrhosis in 16 patients and type-1 autoimmune hepatitis in 8). The analytical liver profile was not useful in differentiating between viral and autoimmune liver disease. In contrast, patients with SS and autoimmune liver disease presented higher mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.044), circulating gammaglobulins (p = 0.007), and a higher prevalence of antinuclear antibodies (p < 0.001), antimitochondrial antibodies (p < 0.001), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (p = 0.026), anti-Ro/SSA (p < 0.001), and anti-La/SSB (p = 0.01), while patients with chronic viral liver disease had a higher frequency of cryoglobulinemia (p < 0.001) and hypocomplementemia (p < 0.001). Chronic viral liver disease (associated overwhelmingly with HCV) was the main cause of liver involvement in our patients with SS, with a prevalence of 13%, nearly 3-fold greater than that observed for autoimmune liver involvement. The immunological pattern played a key role in the differentiation of viral (predominance of cryoglobulins and low complement levels) and autoimmune (higher frequency of autoantibodies) liver involvement.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  16. Design criteria monograph on turbopump inducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    State of the art and design criteria for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers are summarized for optimal fabrication. Design criteria optimize hydrodynamic parameters to obtain highest suction specific speed without violating structural and mechanical constraints.

  17. Design Criteria for Adaptive Roadway Lighting

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    This report provides the background and analysis used to develop criteria for the implementation of an adaptive lighting system for roadway lighting. Based on the analysis of crashes and lighting performance, a series of criteria and the associated d...

  18. 45 CFR 1176.3 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES PART-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT § 1176.3 Criteria. Positions becoming vacant... to part-time. Among the criteria which may be used when conducting this review are: (a) Mission...

  19. Nutritional status and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2011-12-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review

  20. Liver Transplantation: East versus West

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Akash; Vadeyar, Hemant; Rela, Mohamed; Shah, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has evolved rapidly since the first successful liver transplant performed in1967. Despite a humble beginning, this procedure gained widespread acceptance in the western world as a suitable option for patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) by the beginning of the 1980s. At present, approximately 25,000 liver transplants are being performed worldwide every year with approximately 90% one year survival. The techniques of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) developed in East Asia in the 1990s to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children and scarcity of deceased donors. While deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) constitutes more than 90% of LT in the western world, in India and other Asian countries, most transplants are LDLT. Despite the initial disparity, outcomes following LDLT in eastern countries have been quite satisfactory when compared to the western programs. The etiologies of liver failure requiring LT vary in different parts of the world. The commonest etiology for acute liver failure (ALF) leading to LT is drugs in the west and acute viral hepatitis in Asia. The most common indication for LT due to ESLD in west is alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), while hepatitis B virus (HBV) predominates in the east. There is a variation in prognostic models for assessing candidature and prioritizing organ allocation across the world. Model for end–stage liver disease (MELD) is followed in United States and some European centers. Other European countries rely on the Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) score. Some parts of Asia still follow chronological order of listing. The debate regarding the best model for organ allocation is far from over. PMID:25755506