Science.gov

Sample records for extended field radiation

  1. Tracing Magnetic Fields by Atomic Alignment in Extended Radiation Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong; Dong, Le

    2015-05-01

    Tracing magnetic field is crucial as magnetic field plays an important role in many astrophysical processes. Earlier studies have demonstrated that ground state alignment (GSA) is an effective way to detect a weak magnetic field (1G≳ B≳ {{10}-15} G) in a diffuse medium. We explore the atomic alignment in the presence of an extended radiation field for both absorption lines and emission lines. The alignment in the circumstellar medium, binary systems, disks, and the local interstellar medium are considered in order to study the alignment in the radiation field where the pumping source has a clear geometric structure. Furthermore, the multipole expansion method is adopted to study GSA induced in the radiation field with unidentified pumping sources. We study the alignment in the dominant radiation components of the general radiation field: the dipole and quadrupole radiation field. We discuss the approximation of GSA in a general radiation field by summing the contribution from the dipole and quadrupole radiation field. We conclude that GSA is a powerful tool for detecting weak magnetic fields in the diffuse medium in general radiation fields.

  2. Preliminary outcome and toxicity report of extended-field, intensity-modulated radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Joseph K. . E-mail: jsalama@radonc.uchicago.edu; Mundt, Arno J.; Roeske, John; Mehta, Neil

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to report a preliminary analysis of our initial clinical experience with extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: Between November 2002 and May 2005, 13 women with gynecologic malignancies were treated with extended-field radiation therapy. Of the women, 7 had endometrial cancer, 4 cervical cancer, 1 recurrent endometrial cancer, and 1 suspected cervical cancer. All women underwent computed tomography planning, with the upper vagina, parametria, and uterus (if present) contoured within the CTV. In addition, the clinical target volume contained the pelvic and presacral lymph nodes as well as the para-aortic lymph nodes. All acute toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v 3.0). All late toxicity was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late toxicity score. Results: The median follow-up was 11 months. Extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for gynecologic malignancies was well tolerated. Two patients experienced Grade 3 or higher toxicity. Both patients were treated with concurrent cisplatin based chemotherapy. Neither patient was planned with bone marrow sparing. Eleven patients had no evidence of late toxicity. One patient with multiple previous surgeries experienced a bowel obstruction. One patient with bilateral grossly involved and unresectable common iliac nodes experienced bilateral lymphedema. Extended-field-IMRT achieved good local control with only 1 patient, who was metastatic at presentation, and 1 patient not able to complete treatment, experiencing in-field failure. Conclusions: Extended-field IMRT is safe and effective with a low incidence of acute toxicity. Longer follow-up is needed to assess chronic toxicity, although early results are promising.

  3. Extended conformal field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    1990-08-01

    Some extended conformal field theories are briefly reviewed. They illustrate how non minimal models of the Virasoro algebra (c≥1) can become minimal with respect to a larger algebra. The accent is put on N-extended superconformal algebras, which are relevant in superstring compactification.

  4. Split-field vs extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans for oropharyngeal cancer: Which spares the larynx? Which spares the thyroid?

    PubMed

    Yu, Yao; Chen, Josephine; Leary, Celeste I; Shugard, Erin; Yom, Sue S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation of the low neck can be accomplished using split-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (sf-IMRT) or extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (ef-IMRT). We evaluated the effect of these treatment choices on target coverage and thyroid and larynx doses. Using data from 14 patients with cancers of the oropharynx, we compared the following 3 strategies for radiating the low neck: (1) extended-field IMRT, (2) traditional split-field IMRT with an initial cord-junction block to 40Gy, followed by a full-cord block to 50Gy, and (3) split-field IMRT with a full-cord block to 50Gy. Patients were planned using each of these 3 techniques. To facilitate comparison, extended-field plans were normalized to deliver 50Gy to 95% of the neck volume. Target coverage was assessed using the dose to 95% of the neck volume (D95). Mean thyroid and larynx doses were computed. Extended-field IMRT was used as the reference arm; the mean larynx dose was 25.7 ± 7.4Gy, and the mean thyroid dose was 28.6 ± 2.4Gy. Split-field IMRT with 2-step blocking reduced laryngeal dose (mean larynx dose 15.2 ± 5.1Gy) at the cost of a moderate reduction in target coverage (D95 41.4 ± 14Gy) and much higher thyroid dose (mean thyroid dose 44.7 ± 3.7Gy). Split-field IMRT with initial full-cord block resulted in greater laryngeal sparing (mean larynx dose 14.2 ± 5.1Gy) and only a moderately higher thyroid dose (mean thyroid dose 31 ± 8Gy) but resulted in a significant reduction in target coverage (D95 34.4 ± 15Gy). Extended-field IMRT comprehensively covers the low neck and achieves acceptable thyroid and laryngeal sparing. Split-field IMRT with a full-cord block reduces laryngeal doses to less than 20Gy and spares the thyroid, at the cost of substantially reduced coverage of the low neck. Traditional 2-step split-field IMRT similarly reduces the laryngeal dose but also reduces low-neck coverage and delivers very high doses to the thyroid.

  5. Radiation comb generation with extended Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, P.; Bosisio, R.; Giazotto, F.

    2015-09-21

    We propose the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on an extended Josephson junction subject to a time dependent magnetic field. The junction critical current shows known diffraction patterns and determines the position of the critical nodes when it vanishes. When the magnetic flux passes through one of such critical nodes, the superconducting phase must undergo a π-jump to minimize the Josephson energy. Correspondingly, a voltage pulse is generated at the extremes of the junction. Under periodic driving, this allows us to produce a comb-like voltage pulses sequence. In the frequency domain, it is possible to generate up to hundreds of harmonics of the fundamental driving frequency, thus mimicking the frequency comb used in optics and metrology. We discuss several implementations through a rectangular, cylindrical, and annular junction geometries, allowing us to generate different radiation spectra and to produce an output power up to 10 pW at 50 GHz for a driving frequency of 100 MHz.

  6. High-Dose and Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage NK/T-Cell Lymphoma of Waldeyer's Ring: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xi-Wen; Li, Ye-Xiong Fang, Hui; Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Song, Yong-Wen; Ren, Hua; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric benefit, treatment outcome, and toxicity of high-dose and extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with early-stage NK/T-cell lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring (WR-NKTCL). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage WR-NKTCL who received extended-field IMRT were retrospectively reviewed. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy to the primary involved regions and positive cervical lymph nodes (planning target volume requiring radical irradiation [PTV{sub 50}]) and 40 Gy to the negative cervical nodes (PTV{sub 40}). Dosimetric parameters for the target volume and critical normal structures were evaluated. Locoregional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median mean doses to the PTV{sub 50} and PTV{sub 40} were 53.2 Gy and 43.0 Gy, respectively. Only 1.4% of the PTV{sub 50} and 0.9% of the PTV{sub 40} received less than 95% of the prescribed dose, indicating excellent target coverage. The average mean doses to the left and right parotid glands were 27.7 and 28.4 Gy, respectively. The 2-year OS, PFS, and LRC rates were 71.2%, 57.4%, and 87.8%. Most acute toxicities were grade 1 to 2, except for grade ≥3 dysphagia and mucositis. The most common late toxicity was grade 1-2 xerostomia, and no patient developed any ≥grade 3 late toxicities. A correlation between the mean dose to the parotid glands and the degree of late xerostomia was observed. Conclusions: IMRT achieves excellent target coverage and dose conformity, as well as favorable survival and locoregional control rates with acceptable toxicities in patients with WR-NKTCL.

  7. Duodenal and Other Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical and Endometrial Cancer Treated With Extended-Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Paraaortic Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Poorvu, Philip D.; Sadow, Cheryl A.; Townamchai, Kanokpis; Damato, Antonio L.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize the rates of acute and late duodenal and other gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities among patients treated for cervical and endometrial cancers with extended-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) to the paraaortic nodes and to analyze dose-volume relationships of GI toxicities. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent EF-IMRT to the paraaortic nodes, of whom 46 met the inclusion criteria for GI toxicity and 45 for duodenal toxicity analysis. The median prescribed dose to the paraaortic nodes was 54 Gy (range, 41.4-65 Gy). The 4 duodenal segments, whole duodenum, small bowel loops, peritoneum, and peritoneum plus retroperitoneal segments of colon were contoured retrospectively, and dosimetric analysis was performed to identify dose-volume relationships to grade ≥3 acute (<90 day) and late (≥90 day) GI toxicity. Results: Only 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced acute grade ≥3 GI toxicity and 3/46 patients (6.5%) experienced late grade ≥3 GI toxicity. The median dose administered to these 6 patients was 50.4 Gy. One of 12 patients who received 63 to 65 Gy at the level of the renal hilum experienced grade 3 GI toxicity. Dosimetric analysis of patients with and without toxicity revealed no differences between the mean absolute or fractional volumes at any 5-Gy interval between 5 Gy and the maximum dose. None of the patients experienced duodenal toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment of paraaortic nodes with IMRT is associated with low rates of GI toxicities and no duodenal-specific toxicity, including patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. This technique may allow sufficient dose sparing of the bowel to enable safe dose escalation to at least 65 Gy.

  8. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  9. Radiation transport modeling using extended quadrature method of moments

    SciTech Connect

    Vikas, V.; Hauck, C.D.; Wang, Z.J.; Fox, R.O.

    2013-08-01

    The radiative transfer equation describes the propagation of radiation through a material medium. While it provides a highly accurate description of the radiation field, the large phase space on which the equation is defined makes it numerically challenging. As a consequence, significant effort has gone into the development of accurate approximation methods. Recently, an extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM) has been developed to solve univariate population balance equations, which also have a large phase space and thus face similar computational challenges. The distinct advantage of the EQMOM approach over other moment methods is that it generates moment equations that are consistent with a positive phase space density and has a moment inversion algorithm that is fast and efficient. The goal of the current paper is to present the EQMOM method in the context of radiation transport, to discuss advantages and disadvantages, and to demonstrate its performance on a set of standard one-dimensional benchmark problems that encompass optically thin, thick, and transition regimes. Special attention is given in the implementation to the issue of realizability—that is, consistency with a positive phase space density. Numerical results in one dimension are promising and lay the foundation for extending the same framework to multiple dimensions.

  10. [Nonionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, J H

    1991-01-01

    Nonionising radiation comprises all kinds of radiation and fields of the electromagnetic spectrum where biological matter is not ionised, as well as mechanical waves such as infrasound and ultrasound. The electromagnetic spectrum is subdivided into individual sections and includes: Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields including technical applications of energy with mains frequency, radio frequency fields, microwaves and optic radiation (infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation including laser). The following categories of persons can be affected by emissions by non-ionising radiation: Persons in the environment and in the household, workers, patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment. If the radiation is sufficiently intense, or if the fields are of appropriate strength, a multitude of effects can occur (depending on the type of radiation), such as heat and stimulating or irritating action, inflammations of the skin or eyes, changes in the blood picture, burns or in some cases cancer as a late sequel. The ability of radiation to penetrate into the human body, as well as the types of interaction with biological tissue, with organs and organisms, differs significantly for the various kinds of nonionising radiation. The following aspects of nonionising radiation are discussed: protection of humans against excessive sunlight rays when sunbathing and when exposed to UV radiation (e.g. in solaria); health risks of radio and microwaves (safety of microwave cookers and mobile radio units); effects on human health by electric and magnetic fields in everyday life.

  11. [Nonionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, J H

    1991-01-01

    Nonionising radiation comprises all kinds of radiation and fields of the electromagnetic spectrum where biological matter is not ionised, as well as mechanical waves such as infrasound and ultrasound. The electromagnetic spectrum is subdivided into individual sections and includes: Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields including technical applications of energy with mains frequency, radio frequency fields, microwaves and optic radiation (infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation including laser). The following categories of persons can be affected by emissions by non-ionising radiation: Persons in the environment and in the household, workers, patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment. If the radiation is sufficiently intense, or if the fields are of appropriate strength, a multitude of effects can occur (depending on the type of radiation), such as heat and stimulating or irritating action, inflammations of the skin or eyes, changes in the blood picture, burns or in some cases cancer as a late sequel. The ability of radiation to penetrate into the human body, as well as the types of interaction with biological tissue, with organs and organisms, differs significantly for the various kinds of nonionising radiation. The following aspects of nonionising radiation are discussed: protection of humans against excessive sunlight rays when sunbathing and when exposed to UV radiation (e.g. in solaria); health risks of radio and microwaves (safety of microwave cookers and mobile radio units); effects on human health by electric and magnetic fields in everyday life. PMID:1837859

  12. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  13. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  14. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  15. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  16. Extended Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Boost for Lymph Node–Positive Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Regional Control and Recurrence Patterns in the Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Era

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, John A.; Kim, Hayeon; Choi, Serah; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Comerci, John T.; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for nodal staging in locally advanced cervical cancer; however the false negative rate for para-aortic disease are 20% to 25% in PET-positive pelvic nodal disease. Unless surgically staged, pelvis-only treatment may undertreat para-aortic disease. We have treated patients with PET-positive nodes with extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to address the para-aortic region prophylactically with concomitant boost to involved nodes. The purpose of this study was to assess regional control rates and recurrence patterns. Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with cervical cancer (stage IBI-IVA) diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 with PET-avid pelvic nodes treated with extended field IMRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant boost to involved nodes to a median of 55 Gy in 25 fractions) with concurrent cisplatin and brachytherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The nodal location was pelvis-only in 41 patients (67%) and pelvis + para-aortic in 20 patients (33%). There were a total of 179 nodes, with a median number of positive nodes of 2 (range, 1-16 nodes) per patient and a median nodal size of 1.8 cm (range, 0.7-4.5 cm). Response was assessed by PET/CT at 12 to 16 weeks. Results: Complete clinical and imaging response at the first follow-up visit was seen in 77% of patients. At a mean follow-up time of 29 months (range, 3-116 months), 8 patients experienced recurrence. The sites of persistent/recurrent disease were as follows: cervix 10 (16.3%), regional nodes 3 (4.9%), and distant 14 (23%). The rate of para-aortic failure in patients with pelvic-only nodes was 2.5%. There were no significant differences in recurrence patterns by the number/location of nodes, largest node size, or maximum node standardized uptake value. The rate of late grade 3+ adverse events was 4%. Conclusions: Extended field IMRT was well tolerated and resulted in low regional recurrence

  17. Extending Gurwitsch's field theory of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Jeff; Vinson, David W

    2015-07-01

    Aron Gurwitsch's theory of the structure and dynamics of consciousness has much to offer contemporary theorizing about consciousness and its basis in the embodied brain. On Gurwitsch's account, as we develop it, the field of consciousness has a variable sized focus or "theme" of attention surrounded by a structured periphery of inattentional contents. As the field evolves, its contents change their status, sometimes smoothly, sometimes abruptly. Inner thoughts, a sense of one's body, and the physical environment are dominant field contents. These ideas can be linked with (and help unify) contemporary theories about the neural correlates of consciousness, inattention, the small world structure of the brain, meta-stable dynamics, embodied cognition, and predictive coding in the brain.

  18. Compact and extended objects from self-interacting phantom fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Makhmudov, Arislan; Urazalina, Ainur; Singleton, Douglas; Scott, John

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate localized and extended objects for gravitating, self-interacting phantom fields. The phantom fields come from two scalar fields with a "wrong-sign" (negative) kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian. This study covers several solutions supported by these phantom fields: phantom balls, traversable wormholes, phantom cosmic strings, and "phantom" domain walls. These four systems are solved numerically, and we try to draw out general, interesting features in each case.

  19. Extended depth of field imaging for high speed object analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortyn, William (Inventor); Basiji, David (Inventor); Frost, Keith (Inventor); Liang, Luchuan (Inventor); Bauer, Richard (Inventor); Hall, Brian (Inventor); Perry, David (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high speed, high-resolution flow imaging system is modified to achieve extended depth of field imaging. An optical distortion element is introduced into the flow imaging system. Light from an object, such as a cell, is distorted by the distortion element, such that a point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system is invariant across an extended depth of field. The distorted light is spectrally dispersed, and the dispersed light is used to simultaneously generate a plurality of images. The images are detected, and image processing is used to enhance the detected images by compensating for the distortion, to achieve extended depth of field images of the object. The post image processing preferably involves de-convolution, and requires knowledge of the PSF of the imaging system, as modified by the optical distortion element.

  20. Fate of Extended States and Localization Transition at Weak Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun

    1997-03-01

    The reconciliation between the nonexistence of extended states in two dimensions in zero magnetic field, and the existence of critical energies in the high field limit, first addressed qualitatively (D. E. Khmelnitskii, Phys. Lett. A 106), 182 (1984); R. B. Laughlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2304 (1984). a decade ago, has reemerged as a subject of considerable interest and debate, following experimental investigations in the two dimensional electron gas at low fields. We have addressed the problem on two fronts. For strong magnetic fields, where Landau level mixing effects are weak, we have developed a systematic analytic expansion in powers of 1\\over B. (F. D. M. Haldane and Kun Yang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), to appear. We find the dominant level repulsion effect (of order 1\\over B^2), lowers the energies of typical states in a Landau band. The critical energies, however, are not affected at this order. In contrast, we find that, the extended state energies levitates to order 1\\over B^3, thus reconciling levitation of extended states with level repulsion due to Landau level mixing. In the regime of weak magnetic field and strong Landau level mixing, where the perturbative approach is not applicable, we have performed a numerical study on lattice models, (Kun Yang and R. N. Bhatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 1316 (1996). which provides evidence for this levitation at weak magnetic field. Furthermore, we obtain a localization transition to an insulating phase at weak field, and a finite size scaling analysis shows that the localization length diverges at this transition with an exponent that is the same as that of the plateau transitions in the strong field regime, ν≈ 2.3. Relations between our theoretical results and experimental findings will be discussed.

  1. New ultrasound image display with extended field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirumalai, Arun P.; Weng, Lee; Grassmann, Alexander; Li, Ming; Marquis, Steve; Sutcliffe, Pat; Gustafson, David; Kim, Jin; Basoglu, Chris; Winter, Thomas C.; Kim, Yongmin

    1997-05-01

    The narrow fields of view obtained from real-time ultrasound transducers, especially with linear array transducers, allow focused evaluation of a specific site but often without any anatomic reference. To allow medical ultrasound imaging to be used in more diverse clinical settings, we have created a new acquisition and display process that allows extended field of view (XFOV) imaging. To produce an XFOV image, extended acoustic slices are obtained by maneuvering the transducer along the body surface or inside. As the images are acquired, they are correlated, aligned, and spliced together into a long composite view, all without the use of a position sensor. This computationally intensive process involves image registration, geometric image transformation, panoramic image construction, and image display. The XFOV process executes in real-time on our programmable ultrasound processing subsystem, the programmable ultrasound image processor, which fits within an existing ultrasound system and supports native ultrasound signal and image processing.

  2. [Radiation protectors within the radiation safety system for extended duration exploration missions].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Vasin, M V

    2011-01-01

    Radiation environment in extended duration exploration missions is scrutinized in the context of the probability of the risks of deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation. Though the probability of severe radiation damage due to solar flare is very low, nonetheless it is requisite that the crew must be provided with appropriate, including pharmacological safeguards. The current nomenclature of radiation protectors composes short-term agents against acute radiation damage. Among the others, preparation B-190 is distinguished by particularly high effectiveness and universal action, and good tolerance even when organism is exposed to the extreme factors of space flight Regimen of B-290 therapy alone and with combination with aminothiol preparations have been developed to render treatment following multiple solar events. Effectiveness of radioprotectors can be increased substantially by local shielding of the abdomen and pelvis. The most promising nonspecific stimulators of total resistance of organism are riboxin (inosin) and combined preparation aminotetravit as well as vitamins tocopherol and retinol. Therapy combining B-190 with riboxin and aminotetravit is also under discussion. Cytokine neipogen is also viewed as a candidate agent for early therapy. Concern is raised about possible development of chronic oxidative stress in long-duration exploration missions. Highlighted is the significance of adequate nutrition supplemented with fresh vegetables as a source of the most valuable bioflavonoids. Antioxidants L-selenomethionine and melatonin proved their effectiveness against heavy nuclei of galactic radiation. An open issue is how to make natural antioxidants beneficial to oxidative stress control and attenuation of low-intensity galactic radiation. PMID:21916244

  3. Coherent transfer functions and extended depth of field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villiger, M.; Pache, C.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo

    2010-02-01

    To preserve the speed advantage of Fourier Domain detection in Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), extended depth of field (DOF) is needed. To assess and improve the DOF and the lateral resolution, we analyzed the coherent transfer function (CTF) of OCM. In the spectral domain detection, each wavelength has its own specific CTF, sampling a different part of the object's spatial frequency spectrum. For classical optics and increasing numerical apertures these regions start to overlap and bend, which limits the depth of field. Bessel-like beams produced by axicon lenses circumvent these detrimental effects, but introduce side lobes. Decoupling the detection and the illumination apertures gives more flexibility in engineering a CTF and optimizes the lateral resolution and the DOF at the same time all while reducing these side lobes. We evaluated different combinations of Gaussian and Bessel-like illumination and detection optics. Using Bessel-like beams as well in the illumination as in the detection paths, but with different side-lobe radii, we obtained a lateral resolution of 2μm invariant over an extended depth of field of more than 300μm, at a signal penalty of only 12dB compared to classical Gaussian optics.

  4. Two-field radiation hydrodynamics in n spatial dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larecki, Wieslaw; Banach, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The two-field radiation hydrodynamics in n spatial dimensions is derived from the kinetic theory of radiation. Both the full-moment (frequency-independent) and spectral (frequency-dependent) formulations of radiation hydrodynamics are considered. The derivation is based on the entropy principle of extended thermodynamics of gases. In the case of the full-moment hydrodynamics, the formulation of the entropy principle introduced by Boillat and Ruggeri (1997 Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. 9 205) is adapted and this suffices to determine the radiation pressure tensor. In the full-moment formulation, the equations of radiation hydrodynamics take the same form for all possible types of radiation statistics. In the spectral formulation, the different radiation pressure tensors are assigned to Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, and consequently the different hydrodynamic equations are obtained for each of those statistics types. In order to derive the equations of the spectral radiation hydrodynamics, the relations for the radiation pressure tensor implied by the entropy principle must be supplemented by the additional conditions. Considering the limit of small heat flux, we arrive at the linearized equations of radiation hydrodynamics which assume the same form in both the full-moment and spectral formulations.

  5. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, T.W.; Dalton, G.R.; Tulenko, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    VRF (virtual radiation fields) was developed to accurately predict the radiation dose received by a person or robotic device with minimum effort. Dose calculations are performed using Monte Carlo techniques while the user interacts with the computer via a user-friendly graphical interface. The code has been utilized for the prediction of radiation doses from the Hanford Reservation waste tanks, particularly tank c-106. This paper describes the features of the code and evaluates it`s application to tank c-106.

  6. Electromagnetic fields radiated from electrostatic discharges: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Perry F.; Ondrejka, Arthur R.; Ma, Mark T.; Ladbury, John M.

    1988-02-01

    The fields radiated by electrostatic discharges (ESD) are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The ESD spark is modeled theoretically as an electrically short, time dependent, linear dipole situated above an infinite ground plane. Experimentally, sparks of varying voltages are generated by a commercially available simulator and used to excite a number of targets including: (1) the extended inner conductor of a coaxial cable mounted in a ground plane, (2) direct discharges to a ground plane, (3) indirect radiation from a large metal plate, (4) a metal chair over a a ground plane, and (5) a metal trash can. Results show that relatively low-voltage sparks (2 to 4 kV) excite the strongest radiated fields. This suggests that the spark fields can pose a significant interference threat to electronic equipment into the gigahertz range.

  7. Cosmological magnetic fields from inflation in extended electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose; Maroto, Antonio L.

    2011-01-15

    In this work we consider an extended electromagnetic theory in which the scalar state which is usually eliminated by means of the Lorenz condition is allowed to propagate. This state has been shown to generate a small cosmological constant in the context of standard inflationary cosmology. Here we show that the usual Lorenz gauge-breaking term now plays the role of an effective electromagnetic current. Such a current is generated during inflation from quantum fluctuations and gives rise to a stochastic effective charge density distribution. Because of the high electric conductivity of the cosmic plasma after inflation, the electric charge density generates currents which give rise to both vorticity and magnetic fields on sub-Hubble scales. Present upper limits on vorticity coming from temperature anisotropies of the CMB are translated into lower limits on the present value of cosmic magnetic fields. We find that, for a nearly scale invariant vorticity spectrum, magnetic fields B{sub {lambda}>}10{sup -12} G are typically generated with coherence lengths ranging from subgalactic scales up to the present Hubble radius. Those fields could act as seeds for a galactic dynamo or even account for observations just by collapse and differential rotation of the protogalactic cloud.

  8. Extending methods: using Bourdieu's field analysis to further investigate taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindel Dimick, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In this commentary on Per Anderhag, Per-Olof Wickman and Karim Hamza's article Signs of taste for science, I consider how their study is situated within the concern for the role of science education in the social and cultural production of inequality. Their article provides a finely detailed methodology for analyzing the constitution of taste within science education classrooms. Nevertheless, because the authors' socially situated methodology draws upon Bourdieu's theories, it seems equally important to extend these methods to consider how and why students make particular distinctions within a relational context—a key aspect of Bourdieu's theory of cultural production. By situating the constitution of taste within Bourdieu's field analysis, researchers can explore the ways in which students' tastes and social positionings are established and transformed through time, space, place, and their ability to navigate the field. I describe the process of field analysis in relation to the authors' paper and suggest that combining the authors' methods with a field analysis can provide a strong methodological and analytical framework in which theory and methods combine to create a detailed understanding of students' interest in relation to their context.

  9. The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R.; Pease, R.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Kosier, S.L.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

  10. Measurements of radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, Stefano; Silari, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of ionising radiation around high-energy particle accelerators is a difficult task due to the complexity of the radiation field, which is made up of neutrons, charged hadrons, muons, photons and electrons, with energy spectra extending over a wide energy range. The dose-equivalent outside a thick shield is mainly owing to neutrons, with some contribution from photons and, to a minor extent, the other particles. Neutron dosimetry and spectrometry are thus of primary importance to correctly evaluate the exposure of personnel. This paper reviews the relevant techniques and instrumentation employed for monitoring radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators, with particular emphasis on the recent development to increase the response of neutron measuring devices > 20 MeV. Rem-counters, pressurised ionisation chambers, superheated emulsions, tissue-equivalent proportional counters and Bonner sphere spectrometers are discussed. PMID:16604662

  11. Studies about space radiation promote new fields in radiation biology.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken

    2002-12-01

    Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams, bystander effects, radioadaptive responses and hormesis which are important fields in radiation biology. In addition, space radiations contain high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. In particular, neutrons may cause reverse effectiveness at a low dose-rate in comparison to ionizing radiation. We are also interested in p53-centered signal transduction pathways involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis induced by space radiations. We must also study whether the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation is affected by microgravity which is another typical component in space. To confirm this, we must prepare centrifuge systems in an International Space Station (ISS). In addition, we must prepare many types of equipment for space experiments in an ISS, because we cannot use conventional equipment from our laboratories. Furthermore, the research for space radiation might give us valuable information about the birth and evolution of life on the Earth. We can also realize the importance of preventing the ozone layer from depletion by the use of exposure equipment to sunlight in an ISS. For these reasons, we desire to educate space researchers of the next generation based on the consideration of the preservation of the Earth from research about space radiation. PMID:12793723

  12. Studies about space radiation promote new fields in radiation biology.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken

    2002-12-01

    Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams, bystander effects, radioadaptive responses and hormesis which are important fields in radiation biology. In addition, space radiations contain high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. In particular, neutrons may cause reverse effectiveness at a low dose-rate in comparison to ionizing radiation. We are also interested in p53-centered signal transduction pathways involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis induced by space radiations. We must also study whether the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation is affected by microgravity which is another typical component in space. To confirm this, we must prepare centrifuge systems in an International Space Station (ISS). In addition, we must prepare many types of equipment for space experiments in an ISS, because we cannot use conventional equipment from our laboratories. Furthermore, the research for space radiation might give us valuable information about the birth and evolution of life on the Earth. We can also realize the importance of preventing the ozone layer from depletion by the use of exposure equipment to sunlight in an ISS. For these reasons, we desire to educate space researchers of the next generation based on the consideration of the preservation of the Earth from research about space radiation.

  13. Volumetric retinal fluorescence microscopic imaging with extended depth of field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zengzhuo; Fischer, Andrew; Li, Wei; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-03-01

    Wavefront-engineered microscope with greatly extended depth of field (EDoF) is designed and demonstrated for volumetric imaging with near-diffraction limited optical performance. A bright field infinity-corrected transmissive/reflective light microscope is built with Kohler illumination. A home-made phase mask is placed in between the objective lens and the tube lens for ease of use. General polynomial function is adopted in the design of the phase plate for robustness and custom merit function is used in Zemax for optimization. The resulting EDoF system achieves an engineered point spread function (PSF) that is much less sensitive to object depth variation than conventional systems and therefore 3D volumetric information can be acquired in a single frame with expanded tolerance of defocus. In Zemax simulation for a setup using 32X objective (NA = 0.6), the EDoF is 20μm whereas a conventional one has a DoF of 1.5μm, indicating a 13 times increase. In experiment, a 20X objective lens with NA = 0.4 was used and the corresponding phase plate was designed and fabricated. Retinal fluorescence images of the EDoF microscope using passive adaptive optical phase element illustrate a DoF around 100μm and it is able to recover the volumetric fluorescence images that are almost identical to in-focus images after post processing. The image obtained from the EDoF microscope is also better in resolution and contrast, and the retinal structure is better defined. Hence, due to its high tolerance of defocus and fine restored image quality, EDoF optical systems have promising potential in consumer portable medical imaging devices where user's ability to achieve focus is not optimal, and other medical imaging equipment where achieving best focus is not a necessary.

  14. Extended quintessence with nonminimally coupled phantom scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycyna, Orest; Szydlowski, Marek

    2007-12-15

    We investigate evolutional paths of an extended quintessence with a nonminimally coupled phantom scalar field {psi} to the Ricci curvature. The dynamical system methods are used to investigate typical regimes of dynamics at the late time. We demonstrate that there are two generic types of evolutional scenarios which approach the attractor (a focus or a node type critical point) in the phase space: the quasioscillatory and monotonic trajectories approach the attractor which represents the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with the cosmological constant. We demonstrate that the dynamical system admits an invariant two-dimensional submanifold and discuss that which cosmological scenario is realized depends on the behavior of the system on the phase plane ({psi},{psi}{sup '}). We formulate simple conditions on the value of the coupling constant {xi} for which trajectories tend to the focus in the phase plane and hence damping oscillations around the mysterious value w=-1. We describe this condition in terms of slow-roll parameters calculated at the critical point. We discover that the generic trajectories in the focus-attractor scenario come from the unstable node. We also investigate the exact form of the parametrization of the equation of state parameter w(z) (directly determined from dynamics) which assumes a different form for both scenarios.

  15. Radiation Entropy and Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation entropy was key to the original derivation of Planck's law of blackbody radiation, in 1900. This discovery opened the door to quantum mechanical theory and Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Thermal radiation plays an important role in incandescent lamps, solar energy utilization, temperature measurements, materials processing, remote sensing for astronomy and space exploration, combustion and furnace design, food processing, cryogenic engineering, as well as numerous agricultural, health, and military applications. While Planck's law has been fruitfully applied to a large number of engineering problems for over 100 years, questions have been raised about its limitation in micro/nano systems, especially at subwavelength distances or in the near field. When two objects are located closer than the characteristic wavelength, wave interference and photon tunneling occurs that can result in significant enhancement of the radiative transfer. Recent studies have shown that the near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, sub-wavelength light source, polariton-assisted nanolithography, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, scanning tunneling thermal microscopy, etc. The concept of entropy has also been applied to explain laser cooling of solids as well as the second law efficiency of devices that utilize thermal radiation to produce electricity. However, little is known as regards the nature of entropy in near-field radiation. Some history and recent advances are reviewed in this presentation with a call for research of radiation entropy in the near field, due to the important applications in the optimization of thermophotovoltaic converters and in the design of practical systems that can harvest photon energies efficiently.

  16. Symmetries of Type N Pure Radiation Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Zafar; Ali, Musavvir

    2015-05-01

    The geometrical symmetries corresponding to the continuous groups of collineations and motions generated by a null vector l are considered. These symmetries have been translated into the language of Newman-Penrose formalism for pure radiation (PR) type N fields. It is seen that for such fields, conformal, special conformal and homothetic motions degenerate to motion. The concept of free curvature, matter curvature and matter affine collineations have been discussed and the conditions under which PR type N fields admit such collineations have been obtained. Moreover, it is shown that the projective collineation degenerate to matter affine, special projective, conformal, special conformal, null geodesic and special null geodesic collineations. It is also seen that type N pure radiation fields admit Maxwell collineation along the propagation vector l.

  17. Hybrid Imaging for Extended Depth of Field Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahreddine, Ramzi Nicholas

    An inverse relationship exists in optical systems between the depth of field (DOF) and the minimum resolvable feature size. This trade-off is especially detrimental in high numerical aperture microscopy systems where resolution is pushed to the diffraction limit resulting in a DOF on the order of 500 nm. Many biological structures and processes of interest span over micron scales resulting in significant blurring during imaging. This thesis explores a two-step computational imaging technique known as hybrid imaging to create extended DOF (EDF) microscopy systems with minimal sacrifice in resolution. In the first step a mask is inserted at the pupil plane of the microscope to create a focus invariant system over 10 times the traditional DOF, albeit with reduced contrast. In the second step the contrast is restored via deconvolution. Several EDF pupil masks from the literature are quantitatively compared in the context of biological microscopy. From this analysis a new mask is proposed, the incoherently partitioned pupil with binary phase modulation (IPP-BPM), that combines the most advantageous properties from the literature. Total variation regularized deconvolution models are derived for the various noise conditions and detectors commonly used in biological microscopy. State of the art algorithms for efficiently solving the deconvolution problem are analyzed for speed, accuracy, and ease of use. The IPP-BPM mask is compared with the literature and shown to have the highest signal-to-noise ratio and lowest mean square error post-processing. A prototype of the IPP-BPM mask is fabricated using a combination of 3D femtosecond glass etching and standard lithography techniques. The mask is compared against theory and demonstrated in biological imaging applications.

  18. Potential theoretic methods for far field sound radiation calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Stenger, Edward J.; Scott, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    In the area of computational acoustics, procedures which accurately predict the far-field sound radiation are much sought after. A systematic development of such procedures are found in a sequence of papers by Atassi. The method presented here is an alternate approach to predicting far field sound based on simple layer potential theoretic methods. The main advantages of this method are: it requires only a simple free space Green's function, it can accommodate arbitrary shapes of Kirchoff surfaces, and is readily extendable to three-dimensional problems. Moreover, the procedure presented here, though tested for unsteady lifting airfoil problems, can easily be adapted to other areas of interest, such as jet noise radiation problems. Results are presented for lifting airfoil problems and comparisons are made with the results reported by Atassi. Direct comparisons are also made for the flat plate case.

  19. On- and off-resonance radiation-atom-coupling matrix elements involving extended atomic wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komninos, Yannis; Mercouris, Theodoros; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of our earlier works, we present results concerning the computation of matrix elements of the multipolar Hamiltonian (MPH) between extended wave functions that are obtained numerically. The choice of the MPH is discussed in connection with the broader issue of the form of radiation-atom (or -molecule) interaction that is appropriate for the systematic solution of various problems of matter-radiation interaction. We derive analytic formulas, in terms of the sine-integral function and spherical Bessel functions of various orders, for the cumulative radial integrals that were obtained and calculated by Komninos, Mercouris, and Nicolaides [Phys. Rev. A 71, 023410 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevA.71.023410]. This development allows the much faster and more accurate computation of such matrix elements, a fact that enhances the efficiency with which the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved nonperturbatively, in the framework of the state-specific expansion approach. The formulas are applicable to the general case where a pair of orbitals with angular parts |ℓ1,m1> and |ℓ2,m2> are coupled radiatively. As a test case, we calculate the matrix elements of the electric field and of the paramagnetic operators for on- and off-resonance transitions, between hydrogenic circular states of high angular momentum, whose quantum numbers are chosen so as to satisfy electric dipole and electric quadrupole selection rules. Because of the nature of their wave function (they are nodeless and the large centrifugal barrier keeps their overwhelming part at large distances from the nucleus), the validity of the electric dipole approximation in various applications where the off-resonance couplings must be considered becomes precarious. For example, for the transition from the circular state with n = 20 to that with n = 21, for which ≈400 a.u., the dipole approximation starts to fail already at XUV wavelengths (λ <125nm).

  20. Dynamics of Cometary Dust Particles in Electromagnetic Radiation Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranen, Joonas; Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    The formation of cometary dust tails and comae is based on solar radiation pressure. The pressure effects of electromagnetic radiation were originally conceptualized in Kepler's observations of the tails of comets and formulated mathematically by Maxwell in 1873. Today, the dynamics of cometary dust are known to be governed by gravity, electromagnetic forces, drag, solar wind, and solar radiation pressure.Solar radiation pressure has its roots in absorption, emission, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation. Due to modern advances in so-called integral equation methods in electromagnetics, a new approach of studying the effect of radiation pressure on cometary dust dynamics can be constructed. We solve the forces and torques due to radiation pressure for an arbitrarily shaped dust particle using volume integral equation methods.We then present a framework for solving the equations of motion of cometary dust particles due to radiative interactions. The solution is studied in a simplified cometary environment, where the radiative effects are studied at different orbits. The rotational and translational equations of motion are solved directly using a quaternion-based integrator. The rotational and translational equations of motion affect dust particle alignment and concentration. This is seen in the polarization of the coma. Thus, our direct dynamical approach can be used in modelling the observed imaging photo-polarimetry of the coma.In future studies, the integrator can be further extended to an exemplary comet environment, taking into account the drag, and the electric and magnetic fields. This enables us to study the dynamics of a single cometary dust particle based on fundamental physics.Acknowledgments. Research supported, in part, bythe European Research Council (ERC, grant Nr. 320773).

  1. Radiation Effects on Current Field Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; LaBel, K.; Wang, J. J.; Cronquist, B.; Koga, R.; Penzin, S.; Swift, G.

    1997-01-01

    Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAS) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar y technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices total dose and single event susceptibilities, including performance degradation effects and temporary or permanent re-configuration faults. Test results will concentrate on recent technologies being used in space flight electronic systems and those being developed for use in the near term. This paper will provide the first extensive study of various configuration memories used in programmable devices. Radiation performance limits and their impacts will be discussed for each design. In addition, the interplay between device scaling, process, bias voltage, design, and architecture will be explored. Lastly, areas of ongoing research will be discussed.

  2. Computational superposition compound eye imaging for extended depth-of-field and field-of-view.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a superposition compound eye imaging system for extending the depth-of-field (DOF) and the field-of-view (FOV) using a spherical array of erect imaging optics and deconvolution processing. This imaging system had a three-dimensionally space-invariant point spread function generated by the superposition optics. A sharp image with a deep DOF and a wide FOV could be reconstructed by deconvolution processing with a single filter from a single captured image. The properties of the proposed system were confirmed by ray-trace simulations.

  3. Haemopoietic cell renewal in radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliedner, T. M.; Nothdurft, W.; Tibken, B.; Hofer, E.; Weiss, M.; Kindler, H.

    1994-10-01

    Space flight activities are inevitably associated with a chronic exposure of astronauts to a complex mixture of ionising radiation. Although no acute radiation consequences are to be expected as a rule, the possibility of Solar Particle Events (SPE) associated with relatively high doses of radiation (1 or more Gray) cannot be excluded. It is the responsibility of physicians in charge of the health of astronauts to evaluate before, during and after space flight activities the functional status of haemopoietic cell renewal. Chronic low level exposure of dogs indicate that daily gamma-exposure doses below about 2 cGy are tolerated for several years as far as blood cell concentrations are concerned. However, the stem cell pool may be severely affected. The maintenance of sufficient blood cell counts is possible only through increased cell production to compensate for the radiation inflicted excess cell loss. This behaviour of haemopoietic cell renewal during chronic low level exposure can be simulated by bioengineering models of granulocytopoiesis. It is possible to define a ``turbulence region'' for cell loss rates, below which an prolonged adaptation to increased radiation fields can be expected to be tolerated. On the basis of these experimental results, it is recommended to develop new biological indicators to monitor haemopoietic cell renewal at the level of the stem cell pool using blood stem cells in addition to the determination of cytokine concentrations in the serum (and other novel approaches). To prepare for unexpected haemopoietic effects during prolonged space missions, research should be increased to modify the radiation sensitivity of haemopoietic stem cells (for instance by the application of certain regulatory molecules). In addition, a ``blood stem cell bank'' might be established for the autologous storage of stem cells and for use in space activities keeping them in a radiation protected container.

  4. Haemopoietic cell renewal in radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Fliedner, T M; Nothdurft, W; Tibken, B; Hofer, E; Weiss, M; Kindler, H

    1994-10-01

    Space flight activities are inevitably associated with a chronic exposure of astronauts to a complex mixture of ionising radiation. Although no acute radiation consequences are to be expected as a rule, the possibility of Solar Particle Events (SPE) associated with relatively high doses of radiation (1 or more Gray) cannot be excluded. It is the responsibility of physicians in charge of the health of astronauts to evaluate before, during and after space flight activities the functional status of haemopoietic cell renewal. Chronic low level exposure of dogs indicate that daily gamma-exposure doses below about 2 cGy are tolerated for several years as far as blood cell concentrations are concerned. However, the stem cell pool may be severely affected. The maintenance of sufficient blood cell counts is possible only through increased cell production to compensate for the radiation inflicted excess cell loss. This behaviour of haemopoietic cell renewal during chronic low level exposure can be simulated by bioengineering models of granulocytopoiesis. It is possible to define a "turbulence region" for cell loss rates, below which an prolonged adaptation to increased radiation fields can be expected to be tolerated. On the basis of these experimental results, it is recommended to develop new biological indicators to monitor haemopoietic cell renewal at the level of the stem cell pool using blood stem cells in addition to the determination of cytokine concentrations in the serum (and other novel approaches). To prepare for unexpected haemopoietic effects during prolonged space missions, research should be increased to modify the radiation sensitivity of haemopoietic stem cells (for instance by the application of certain regulatory molecules). In addition, a "blood stem cell bank" might be established for the autologous storage of stem cells and for use in space activities keeping them in a radiation protected container. PMID:11539991

  5. Plasma wake field XUV radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Prono, Daniel S.; Jones, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    A XUV radiation source uses an interaction of electron beam pulses with a gas to create a plasma radiator. A flowing gas system (10) defines a circulation loop (12) with a device (14), such as a high pressure pump or the like, for circulating the gas. A nozzle or jet (16) produces a sonic atmospheric pressure flow and increases the density of the gas for interacting with an electron beam. An electron beam is formed by a conventional radio frequency (rf) accelerator (26) and electron pulses are conventionally formed by a beam buncher (28). The rf energy is thus converted to electron beam energy, the beam energy is used to create and then thermalize an atmospheric density flowing gas to a fully ionized plasma by interaction of beam pulses with the plasma wake field, and the energetic plasma then loses energy by line radiation at XUV wavelengths Collection and focusing optics (18) are used to collect XUV radiation emitted as line radiation when the high energy density plasma loses energy that was transferred from the electron beam pulses to the plasma.

  6. Radiative instabilities in sheared magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, J. F.; Sparks, L.; Van Hoven, G.

    1988-01-01

    The structure and growth rate of the radiative instability in a sheared magnetic field B have been calculated analytically using the Braginskii fluid equations. In a shear layer, temperature and density perturbations are linked by the propagation of sound waves parallel to the local magnetic field. As a consequence, density clumping or condensation plays an important role in driving the instability. Parallel thermal conduction localizes the mode to a narrow layer where K(parallel) is small and stabilizes short wavelengths k larger-than(c) where k(c) depends on the local radiation and conduction rates. Thermal coupling to ions also limits the width of the unstable spectrum. It is shown that a broad spectrum of modes is typically unstable in tokamak edge plasmas and it is argued that this instability is sufficiently robust to drive the large-amplitude density fluctuations often measured there.

  7. Extended emission wavelength of random dye lasers by exploiting radiative and non-radiative energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Ismail, Wan Zakiah; Goldys, Ewa M.; Dawes, Judith M.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate long-wavelength operation (>700 nm) of random dye lasers (using a methylene blue dye) with the addition of rhodamine 6G and titania, enabled by radiative and non-radiative energy transfer. The pump energy is efficiently absorbed and transferred to the acceptors, to support lasing in random dye lasers in the near infrared. The optimum random laser performance with the highest emission intensity and the lowest lasing threshold was achieved for a concentration of methylene blue as the acceptor equal to 6× the concentration of rhodamine 6G (donor). Excessive levels of methylene blue increased the lasing threshold and broadened the methylene blue emission linewidth due to dye quenching from re-absorption. This is due to competition between the donor emission and energy transfer and between absorption loss and fluorescence quenching. The radiative and non-radiative energy transfer is analyzed as a function of the acceptor concentration and pump energy density, with consideration of the spectral overlap. The dependence of the radiative and non-radiative transfer efficiency on the acceptor concentration is obtained, and the energy transfer parameters, including the radiative and non-radiative energy transfer rate constants ( K R and K NR), are investigated using Stern-Volmer analysis. The analysis indicates that radiative energy transfer is the dominant energy transfer mechanism in this system.

  8. Building Relationships within Extended Field Placements in Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michelle; McCartney, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Researchers, using qualitative methodology, investigated whether an extended model for organizing fieldwork could potentially elevate the skills, knowledge, and dispositions of Elementary (prek-6) teacher candidates in this study. Questionnaires, focus group interviews, and observations from the pre-service and veteran teachers provided data on…

  9. Cellular response to modulated radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claridge Mackonis, E.; Suchowerska, N.; Zhang, M.; Ebert, M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Jackson, M.

    2007-09-01

    Cell survival following exposure to spatially modulated beams, as created by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), is investigated. In vitro experiments were performed using malignant melanoma cells (MM576) exposed to a therapeutic megavoltage photon beam. We compared cell survival in modulated fields with cell survival in uniform control fields. Three different spatial modulations of the field were used: a control 'uniform' field in which all cells in a flask were uniformly exposed; a 'quarter' field in which 25% of cells at one end of the flask were exposed and a 'striped' field in which 25% of cells were exposed in three parallel stripes. The cell survival in both the shielded and unshielded regions of the modulated fields, as determined by a clonogenic assay, were compared to the cell survival in the uniform field. We have distinguished three ways in which cell survival is influenced by the fate of neighbouring cells. The first of these (type I effect) is the previously reported classical Bystander effect, where cell survival is reduced when communicating with irradiated cells. We find two new types of Bystander effect. The type II effect is an observed increase in cell survival when nearby cells receive a lethal dose. The type III effect is an increase in the survival of cells receiving a high dose of radiation, when nearby cells receive a low dose. These observations of the Bystander effects emphasize the need for improved radiobiological models, which include communicated effects and account for the effects of modulated dose distribution.

  10. Limited-field radiation for bifocal germinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lafay-Cousin, Lucie . E-mail: lucie.lafay-cousin@sickkids.ca; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Mabbott, Donald; Spiegler, Brenda; Drake, Jim; Bartels, Ute; Huang, Annie; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To report the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of bifocal germinomas treated with chemotherapy followed by focal radiation. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review. Inclusion criteria included radiologic diagnosis of bifocal germinoma involving the pineal and neurohypophyseal region, no evidence of dissemination on spinal MRI, negative results from cerebrospinal fluid cytologic evaluation, and negative tumor markers. Results: Between 1995 and 2004, 6 patients (5 male, 1 female; median age, 12.8 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All had symptoms of diabetes insipidus at presentation. On MRI, 4 patients had a pineal and suprasellar mass, and 2 had a pineal mass associated with abnormal neurohypophyseal enhancement. All patients received chemotherapy followed by limited-field radiation and achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. The radiation field involved the whole ventricular system (range, 2,400-4,000 cGy) with or without a boost to the primary lesions. All patients remain in complete remission at a median follow-up of 48.1 months (range, 9-73.4 months). Conclusions: This experience suggests that bifocal germinoma can be considered a locoregional rather than a metastatic disease. Chemotherapy and focal radiotherapy might be sufficient to provide excellent outcomes. Staging refinement with new diagnostic tools will likely increase the incidence of the entity.

  11. Radiative processes in external gravitational fields

    SciTech Connect

    Papini, Giorgio

    2010-07-15

    Kinematically forbidden processes may be allowed in the presence of external gravitational fields. These can be taken into account by introducing generalized particle momenta. The corresponding transition probabilities can then be calculated to all orders in the metric deviation from the field-free expressions by simply replacing the particle momenta with their generalized counterparts. The procedure applies to particles of any spin and to any gravitational fields. Transition probabilities, emission power, and spectra are, to leading order, linear in the metric deviation. It is also shown how a small dissipation term in the particle wave equations can trigger a strong backreaction that introduces resonances in the radiative process and deeply affects the resulting gravitational background.

  12. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    As computing power has increased, so too has the ability to model and simulate complex systems and processes. In addition, virtual reality technology has made it possible to visualize and understand many complex scientific and engineering problems. For this reason, a virtual dosimetry program called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF) is developed to model radiation dose rate and cumulative dose to a receptor operating in a virtual radiation environment. With the design and testing of many facilities and products taking place in the virtual world, this program facilitates the concurrent consideration of radiological concerns during the design process. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentation of the radiation environment is made possible through the use of IGRIP, a graphical modeling program developed by Deneb Robotics, Inc. The VRF simulation program was designed to model and display a virtual dosimeter. As a demonstration of the program`s capability, the Hanford tank, C-106, was modeled to predict radiation doses to robotic equipment used to remove radioactive waste from the tank. To validate VRF dose predictions, comparison was made with reported values for tank C-106, which showed agreement to within 0.5%. Graphical information is presented regarding the 3D dose rate variation inside the tank. Cumulative dose predictions were made for the cleanup operations of tank C-106. A four-dimensional dose rate map generated by VRF was used to model the dose rate not only in 3D space but also as a function of the amount of waste remaining in the tank. This allowed VRF to predict dose rate at any stage in the waste removal process for an accurate simulation of the radiological conditions throughout the tank cleanup procedure.

  13. Radiation reaction in strong field QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilderton, Anton; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2013-10-01

    We derive radiation reaction from QED in a strong background field. We identify, in general, the diagrams and processes contributing to recoil effects in the average momentum of a scattered electron, using perturbation theory in the Furry picture: we work to lowest nontrivial order in α. For the explicit example of scattering in a plane wave background, we compare QED with classical electrodynamics in the limit ℏ → 0, finding agreement with the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac and Landau-Lifshitz equations, and with Larmor's formula. The first quantum corrections are also presented.

  14. Enhanced cosmic ray anisotropies and the extended solar magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, D.B.; Saito, T.; Mori, S.

    1981-10-01

    Saito's two-hemisphere model for the three-dimensional magnetic structure of the inner heliomagnetosphere is used to determine the orientation of the two solar magnetic hemispheres. This orientation, as viewed from the earth, varies throughout the year. The orientations during 1974 are presented and are confirmed by satellite data for the interplanetary magnetic field. These data suggest a role for the field component perpendicular to the ecliptic plane B/sub z/ in giving rise to cosmic ray anisotropies detected at the earth. It is shown that an enhanced solar diurnal variation in cosmic ray intensity at the earth can arise from the constructive interference of three cosmic ray anisotropies, two of which depend on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. This is demonstrated by using cosmic ray data from the Nagaya muon telescope and underground muon telescopes in Bolivia, Embudo (New Mexico), and Socorro (New Mexico).

  15. Bessel beam Grueneisen photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junhui; Wang, Lidai; Noordam, Cedric; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    The short focal depth of a Gaussian beam limits the volumetric imaging speed of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM). A Bessel beam, which is diffraction-free, provides a long focal depth, but its side-lobes may deteriorate image quality when the Bessel beam is directly employed to excite photoacoustic signals in ORPAM. Here, we present a nonlinear approach based on the Grueneisen relaxation effect to suppress the side-lobe artifacts in photoacoustic imaging. This method extends the focal depth of OR-PAM and speeds up volumetric imaging. We experimentally demonstrated a 1-mm focal depth with a 7-μm lateral resolution and volumetrically imaged a carbon fiber and red blood cell samples.

  16. Bob West field: Extending upper Wilcox production in south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-05-01

    Discovered in 1990 near the southern limit of the upper Wilcox gas-producing trend in south Texas, Bob West field is the largest pool to date in this trend, with probable reserves of up to 1 Tcf. The field produces from seven major sandstone {open_quotes}packages,{close_quotes} comprising 27 individual reservoirs and distributed over 3500 productive acres. The sandstones represent either fluvial/deltaic deposits or delta-margin barrier bar and strand-plain sediments. Porosities range up to 20%, but permeabilities are low, commonly less than 1.5 md. Artificial stimulation is therefore required to establish commercial rates of production. Bob West lies on a faulted anticline between two major growth-fault structures, with several stages of structural development evident. Such development has directly affected sandstone thickness. Rates of production are higher at Bob West than at other upper Wilcox fields due to commingling of zones, large-scale fracture treatments, and directional drilling. Discovery at Bob West has significant implications for renewed exploration in this part of the upper Wilcox gas trend.

  17. Measurement of displacement vector fields of extended objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, Wolfgang; Jüptner, Werner

    The main effort in laser metrology during the last 15 years has been focussed on the development of high precision phase measurement techniques, since the phase is the primary quantity for interferometrical testing. However, the phase distribution gives only a first impression of the deformation of the surface. In practice, the three-dimensional displacement components are required if the mechanical behaviour of the object under load is to be investigated. To calculate displacement components some further quantities are necessary, e.g. the three coordinates of the object points. Although the contour measurement can also be reduced to a phase measurement problem, the measurement of three-dimensional displacements is more complex than a high precision phase evaluation. From the practical point of view, four main tasks have to be performed: planning of the experiment, design of the interferometer, acquisition of data and evaluation of data. This paper deals with a discussion of the theoretical background of the last three procedures concerning the state of the art and describes some general rules as well as some problems remaining to be solved for the investigation of extended specimens.

  18. Extended depth of field system for long distance iris acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Lin; Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Hung, Kuo-En; Yang, Shi-Wen; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2012-10-01

    Using biometric signatures for identity recognition has been practiced for centuries. Recently, iris recognition system attracts much attention due to its high accuracy and high stability. The texture feature of iris provides a signature that is unique for each subject. Currently most commercial iris recognition systems acquire images in less than 50 cm, which is a serious constraint that needs to be broken if we want to use it for airport access or entrance that requires high turn-over rate . In order to capture the iris patterns from a distance, in this study, we developed a telephoto imaging system with image processing techniques. By using the cubic phase mask positioned front of the camera, the point spread function was kept constant over a wide range of defocus. With adequate decoding filter, the blurred image was restored, where the working distance between the subject and the camera can be achieved over 3m associated with 500mm focal length and aperture F/6.3. The simulation and experimental results validated the proposed scheme, where the depth of focus of iris camera was triply extended over the traditional optics, while keeping sufficient recognition accuracy.

  19. Radiative corrections from heavy fast-roll fields during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.

    2015-06-09

    We investigate radiative corrections to the inflaton potential from heavy fields undergoing a fast-roll phase transition. We find that a logarithmic one-loop correction to the inflaton potential involving this field can induce a temporary running of the spectral index. The induced running can be a short burst of strong running, which may be related to the observed anomalies on large scales in the cosmic microwave spectrum, or extend over many e-folds, sustaining an effectively constant running to be searched for in the future. We implement this in a general class of models, where effects are mediated through a heavy messenger field sitting in its minimum. Interestingly, within the present framework it is a generic outcome that a large running implies a small field model with a vanishing tensor-to-scalar ratio, circumventing the normal expectation that small field models typically lead to an unobservably small running of the spectral index. An observable level of tensor modes can also be accommodated, but, surprisingly, this requires running to be induced by a curvaton. If upcoming observations are consistent with a small tensor-to-scalar ratio as predicted by small field models of inflation, then the present study serves as an explicit example contrary to the general expectation that the running will be unobservable.

  20. A method for characterizing photon radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, J.J.; Hsu, H.H.; Hsieh, F.H.; Borak, T.B.

    1999-04-01

    Uncertainty in dosimetric and exposure rate measurements can increase in areas where multi-directional and low-energy photons (< 100 keV) exist because of variations in energy and angular measurement response. Also, accurate measurement of external exposures in spatially non-uniform fields may require multiple dosimetry. Therefore, knowledge of the photon fields in the workplace is required for full understanding of the accuracy of dosimeters and instruments, and for determining the need for multiple dosimeters. This project was designed to develop methods to characterize photon radiation fields in the workplace, and to test the methods in a plutonium facility. The photon field at selected work locations was characterized using TLDs and a collimated NaI(Tl) detector from which spatial variations in photon energy distributions were calculated from measured spectra. Laboratory results showed the accuracy and utility of the method. Field measurement results combined with observed work patterns suggested the following: (1) workers are exposed from all directions, but not isotropically, (2) photon energy distributions were directionally dependent, (3) stuffing nearby gloves into the glovebox reduced exposure rates significantly, (4) dosimeter placement on the front of the chest provided for a reasonable estimate of the average dose equivalent to workers` torsos, (5) justifiable conclusions regarding the need for multiple dosimetry can be made using this quantitative method, and (6) measurements of the exposure rates with ionization chambers pointed with open beta windows toward the glovebox provided the highest measured rates, although absolute accuracy of the field measurements still needs to be assessed.

  1. Extended magnetohydrodynamic simulations of field reversed configuration formation and sustainment with rotating magnetic field current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Milroy, R. D.; Kim, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2010-06-15

    Three-dimensional simulations of field reversed configuration (FRC) formation and sustainment with rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive have been performed with the NIMROD code [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)]. The Hall term is a zeroth order effect with strong coupling between Fourier components, and recent enhancements to the NIMROD preconditioner allow much larger time steps than was previously possible. Boundary conditions to capture the effects of a finite length RMF antenna have been added, and simulations of FRC formation from a uniform background plasma have been performed with parameters relevant to the translation, confinement, and sustainment-upgrade experiment at the University of Washington [H. Y. Guo, A. L. Hoffman, and R. D. Milroy, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112502 (2007)]. The effects of both even-parity and odd-parity antennas have been investigated, and there is no evidence of a disruptive instability for either antenna type. It has been found that RMF effects extend considerably beyond the ends of the antenna, and that a large n=0 B{sub t}heta can develop in the open-field line region, producing a back torque opposing the RMF.

  2. Extendible-retractable electric field measurement antenna for IMP J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larrick, W.

    1973-01-01

    An antenna dispenser mechanism for the IMP J spacecraft was designed, fabricated, and tested. Upon command the mechanism deploys or retracts a conductor for use as a receiving antenna for an electric field measurement experiment. Five identical units were fabricated and tested to the IMP H & J environmental test specification. Of these, four are designated for flight on the IMP J spacecraft and one as a prototype flight spare. The testing program was successfully completed although certain design modifications were required as problems were uncovered by the testing; particularly thermal vacuum operation. The antenna mechanism functions well under the expected environmental and loading conditions. The wear life and load capability of the dry molybdenum disulphide lubricant originally used on the heavily loaded worm and gear pair were disappointing and a substitute material was applied. The lubricant finally applied performed well; although other problems were generated.

  3. Entanglement negativity in extended systems: a field theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Cardy, John; Tonni, Erik

    2013-02-01

    We report on a systematic approach for the calculation of the negativity in the ground state of a one-dimensional quantum field theory. The partial transpose {\\rho }_{A}^{{T}_{2}} of the reduced density matrix of a subsystem A = A1∪A2 is explicitly constructed as an imaginary-time path integral and from this the replicated traces {Tr}({\\rho }_{A}^{{T}_{2}})^{n} are obtained. The logarithmic negativity E=log \\Vert {\\rho }_{A}^{{T}_{2}}\\Vert is then the continuation to n → 1 of the traces of the even powers. For pure states, this procedure reproduces the known results. We then apply this method to conformally invariant field theories (CFTs) in several different physical situations for infinite and finite systems and without or with boundaries. In particular, in the case of two adjacent intervals of lengths ℓ1,ℓ2 in an infinite system, we derive the result ℰ ∼ (c/4)ln(ℓ1ℓ2/(ℓ1 + ℓ2)), where c is the central charge. For the more complicated case of two disjoint intervals, we show that the negativity depends only on the harmonic ratio of the four end points and so is manifestly scale invariant. We explicitly calculate the scale invariant functions for the replicated traces in the case of the CFT for the free compactified boson, but we have not so far been able to obtain the n → 1 continuation for the negativity even in the limit of large compactification radius. We have checked all our findings against exact numerical results for the harmonic chain which is described by a non-compactified free boson.

  4. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    extended. Additionally, we designed a sound insulator so as to realize a similar distribution of the particle velocity to that obtained using the optimized window function. Sound radiation was suppressed using a sound insulator put above the vibrating surface in the simulation using the three-dimensional finite element method. On the basis of this finding, it was suggested that near-field acoustic communication which suppressed sound radiation can be realized by applying the optimized window function to the particle velocity field.

  5. Quantum theory of extended particle dynamics in the presence of EM radiation-reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a trajectory-based relativistic quantum wave equation is established for extended charged spinless particles subject to the action of the electromagnetic (EM) radiation-reaction (RR) interaction. The quantization pertains the particle dynamics, in which both the external and self EM fields are treated classically. The new equation proposed here is referred to as the RR quantum wave equation. This is shown to be an evolution equation for a complex scalar quantum wave function and to be realized by a first-order PDE with respect to a quantum proper time s . The latter is uniquely prescribed by representing the RR quantum wave equation in terms of the corresponding quantum hydrodynamic equations and introducing a parametrization in terms of Lagrangian paths associated with the quantum fluid velocity. Besides the explicit proper time dependence, the theory developed here exhibits a number of additional notable features. First, the wave equation is variational and is consistent with the principle of manifest covariance. Second, it permits the definition of a strictly positive 4-scalar quantum probability density on the Minkowski space-time, in terms of which a flow-invariant probability measure is established. Third, the wave equation is non-local, due to the characteristic EM RR retarded interaction. Fourth, the RR wave equation recovers the Schrödinger equation in the non-relativistic limit and the customary Klein-Gordon wave equation when the EM RR is negligible or null. Finally, the consistency with the classical RR Hamilton-Jacobi equation is established in the semi-classical limit.

  6. Extending the functions of scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneber, A.; van den Berg, M.; Rogalski, J.; Swider, K.; Braun, K.; Meixner, M.; Meixner, A. J.; Zhang, D.

    2014-08-01

    Advanced optical setups are continuously developed to gain deeper insight into microscopic matter. In this paper we report the expansion of a home-built parabolic mirror assisted scanning, near-field optical microscope (PMSNOM) by introducing four complementary functions. 1) We integrated a scanning tunneling feedback function in addition to an already existent shear-force feedback control mechanism. Hence a scanning tunneling microscope (STM)-SNOM is realized whose performance will be demonstrated by the tip-enhanced Raman peaks of graphene sheets on a copper substrate. 2) We integrated an ultrafast laser system into the microscope which allows us to combine nonlinear optical microscopy with hyperspectral SNOM imaging. This particular expansion was used to study influences of plasmonic resonances on nonlinear optical properties of metallic nanostructures. 3) We implemented a polarization angle resolved detection technique which enables us to analyze the local structural order of α-sexithiophene (α-6T). 4) We combined scanning photocurrent microscopy with the microscope. This allows us to study morphology related optical (Raman and photoluminescence) and electrical properties of optoelectronic systems. Our work demonstrates the great potential of turning a SNOM into an advanced multifunctional microscope.

  7. Radiation field formation and monitoring beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    This brief review comprises the main features of radiation field formation due to galactic (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (SCR) beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) in the inner Solar system. We also consider the similarities and differences of radiation environment models applicable to the Moon and Mars missions, the main requirements for radiation monitoring, warning, and forecasting techniques for deep space missions. Existing modulation models for GCR provide a possibility to estimate easily the GCR contribution to the radiation field in the interplanetary space, at the Lunar or Martian surfaces. The situation with SCR contribution is much more complicated. For space weather purposes, time profiles of the 10-30 MeV protons in the most of solar proton events (SPE), unfortunately, are often complicated by several factors, especially by interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME). In particular, the particle-trapping region around the shock may or may not be the region with the highest intensity of solar energetic particles (SEP), depending on whether shock acceleration continues or diminishes with distance. At distances beyond 1 AU there can be interaction or merging of different transient shocks, and the corotating shocks begin to play a role, possibly by re-accelerating some of the SEPs from transient shocks. Also, the source locations, angular distribution and radial gradient of SEP intensity are very important. In a mission to Mars, for example, the radial distance will vary according to the spacecraft trajectory chosen. The flux of SEPs is expected to vary as a power law with radial distance from the Sun, and a power-law exponent of -3 would be expected from magnetic flux tube geometry. Since the radial distance to Mars is ˜1.5 AU, then the flux at the orbit of Mars would be expected to be about 1/3 of the flux at 1.0 AU along the same spiral path in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). A consideration of these expected variations suggests that

  8. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    SciTech Connect

    André, Philippe; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bielewicz, Pawel; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bonaldi, Anna; Bendo, George; Benoȋt, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; and others

    2014-02-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The data obtained will allow us to precisely measure the absolute sky brightness and polarization of all the components of the sky emission in the observed frequency range, separating the primordial and extragalactic components cleanly from the galactic and zodiacal light emissions. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM, which include: (1) the ultimate galaxy cluster survey using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, detecting approximately 10{sup 6} clusters extending to large redshift, including a characterization of the gas temperature of the brightest ones (through the relativistic corrections to the classic SZ template) as well as a peculiar velocity survey using the kinetic SZ effect that comprises our entire Hubble volume; (2) a detailed characterization of the properties and evolution of dusty galaxies, where the most of the star formation in the universe took place, the faintest population of which constitute the diffuse CIB (Cosmic Infrared Background); (3) a characterization of the B modes from primordial gravity waves generated during inflation

  9. Measurements of dose from secondary radiation outside a treatment field: effects of wedges and blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sherazi, S.; Kase, K.R.

    1985-12-01

    Radiation dose outside the radiotherapy treatment field can be significant and therefore is of clinical interest in estimating organ doses. In a previous paper we reported the results of measurements made using unmodified radiation fields. We have extended this study to include the effects of wedge filters and blocks. For a given dose on the central axis of a radiation field, wedges can cause a factor of 2 to 4 increase in dose at any point outside the field compared with the dose when no wedge is used. Adding blocks to a treatment field can cause an increase in dose at points outside the field, but the effect is much smaller than the effect of a wedge, and generally less than a factor of 2. From the results of these measurements, doses to selected organs outside the field for specified treatment geometries were estimated, and the potential for reducing these organ doses by additional shielding was assessed.

  10. New radiation detectors for field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjie, A.; Quam, W.

    1993-12-31

    Two new types of radiation detectors are discussed; the first is a large area TLD and the second is a high pressure xenon proportional counter. The large area TLD can be used to measure In situ alpha activity with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Some field measurements are presented. The high pressure xenon proportional counter (XGPC) is capable of realtime survey work and monitoring of plutonium (through detection of the 60 keV Americium-241 gamma ray) and uranium. Spectral resolution data from the 8 atmosphere proportional counter are presented. In many applications the counting efficiency penalty due to low stopping power of xenon at higher gamma energies can be offset by increasing gas pressure and using physically long counters.

  11. Radiation field formation and monitoring beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    This brief review comprises the main features of radiation field formation due to galactic (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (SCR) beyond LEO in the inner Solar system. We also consider the similarities and differences of radiation environment models applicable to the Moon and the Mars missions, the main requirements for radiation monitoring, warning and forecasting techniques for deep space missions. Existing modulation models for GCR provide a possibility to estimate easily the GCR contribution to the radiation field in the interplanetary space, at the lunar or Martian surfaces; the situation with SCR contribution is much more complicated. For space weather purposes, time profiles of the 10-30 MeV protons, unfortunately, are often complicated by several factors, especially by interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME). In particular, the particle-trapping region around the shock may or may not be the region with the highest SEP intensity, depending on whether shock acceleration continues or diminishes with distance. At distances beyond 1 AU there can be interaction or merging of different transient shocks, and the corotating shocks begin to play a role, possibly by re-accelerating some of the SEPs from transient shocks. Also, the source locations, angular distribution and radial gradient of SEP intensity are very important. In a mission to Mars, for example, the radial distance will vary according to the spacecraft trajectory chosen. The flux of SEPs is expected to vary as a power law with radial distance from the Sun, and a power-law exponent of -3 would be expected from magnetic flux tube geometry. Since the radial distance to Mars is ˜ 1.5 AU, then the flux at the orbit of Mars would be expected to be about 1/3 of the flux at 1.0 AU along the same spiral path. A consideration of these expected variations suggests that the proton prediction problem for Mars is not dramatically different from the Earth. Autonomous sensors on board the spacecraft

  12. An extended field method solution for a pulse loaded thin plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, B. K.; Starkey, N. B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with a new extension of a weighted residual method of analysis called the extended field method. The extended field method is applied for the first time to the problem of the transient vibration of a uniformly thin elastic plate. Numerical results have been obtained which validate the analysis procedure and show better solution convergence than is obtainable by standard methods of analysis for the same number of degrees of freedom. Further studies are necessary to obtain still better convergence.

  13. Radiation burst from a single {gamma}-photon field

    SciTech Connect

    Shakhmuratov, R. N.; Vagizov, F.; Kocharovskaya, O.

    2011-10-15

    The radiation burst from a single {gamma}-photon field interacting with a dense resonant absorber is studied theoretically and experimentally. This effect was discovered for the fist time by P. Helisto et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2037 (1991)] and it was named the ''gamma echo''. The echo is generated by a 180 Degree-Sign phase shift of the incident radiation field, attained by an abrupt change of the position of the absorber with respect to the radiation source during the coherence time of the photon wave packet. Three distinguishing cases of the gamma echo are considered; i.e., the photon is in exact resonance with the absorber, close to resonance (on the slope of the absorption line), and far from resonance (on the far wings of the resonance line). In resonance the amplitude of the radiation burst is two times larger than the amplitude of the input radiation field just before its phase shift. This burst was explained by Helisto et al. as a result of constructive interference of the coherently scattered field with the phase-shifted input field, both having almost the same amplitude. We found that out of resonance the scattered radiation field acquires an additional component with almost the same amplitude as the amplitude of the incident radiation field. The phase of the additional field depends on the optical thickness of the absorber and resonant detuning. Far from resonance this field interferes destructively with the phase-shifted incident radiation field and radiation quenching is observed. Close to resonance the three fields interfere constructively and the amplitude of the radiation burst is three times larger than the amplitude of the input radiation field.

  14. Extended order parameter and conjugate field for the dynamic phase transition in a Ginzburg-Landau mean-field model in an oscillating field.

    PubMed

    Robb, Daniel T; Ostrander, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    We present numerical evidence for an extended order parameter and conjugate field for the dynamic phase transition in a Ginzburg-Landau mean-field model driven by an oscillating field. The order parameter, previously taken to be the time-averaged magnetization, comprises the deviations of the Fourier components of the magnetization from their values at the critical period. The conjugate field, previously taken to be the time-averaged magnetic field, comprises the even Fourier components of the field. The scaling exponents β and δ associated with the extended order parameter and conjugate field are shown numerically to be consistent with their values in the equilibrium mean-field model.

  15. Novel reference radiation fields for pulsed photon radiation installed at PTB.

    PubMed

    Klammer, J; Roth, J; Hupe, O

    2012-09-01

    Currently, ∼70 % of the occupationally exposed persons in Germany are working in pulsed radiation fields, mainly in the medical sector. It has been known for a few years that active electronic dosemeters exhibit considerable deficits or can even fail completely in pulsed fields. Type test requirements for dosemeters exist only for continuous radiation. Owing to the need of a reference field for pulsed photon radiation and accordingly to the upcoming type test requirements for dosemeters in pulsed radiation, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt has developed a novel X-ray reference field for pulsed photon radiation in cooperation with a manufacturer. This reference field, geared to the main applications in the field of medicine, has been well characterised and is now available for research and type testing of dosemeters in pulsed photon radiation.

  16. Efficient correction for CT image artifacts caused by objects extending outside the scan field of view.

    PubMed

    Ohnesorge, B; Flohr, T; Schwarz, K; Heiken, J P; Bae, K T

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a method of eliminating CT image artifacts generated by objects extending outside the scan field of view, such as obese or inadequately positioned patients. CT projection data are measured only within the scan field of view and thus are abruptly discontinuous at the projection boundaries if the scanned object extends outside the scan field of view. This data discontinuity causes an artifact that consists of a bright peripheral band that obscures objects near the boundary of the scan field of view. An adaptive mathematical extrapolation scheme with low computational expense was applied to reduce the data discontinuity prior to convolution in a filtered backprojection reconstruction. Despite extended projection length, the convolution length was not increased and thus the reconstruction time was not affected. Raw projection data from ten patients whose bodies extended beyond the scan field of view were reconstructed using a conventional method and our extended reconstruction method. Limitations of the algorithm are investigated and extensions for further improvement are discussed. The images reconstructed by conventional filtered backprojection demonstrated peripheral bright-band artifacts near the boundary of the scan field of view. Images reconstructed with our technique were free of such artifacts and clearly showed the anatomy at the periphery of the scan field of view with correct attenuation values. We conclude that bright-band artifacts generated by obese patients whose bodies extend beyond the scan field of view were eliminated with our reconstruction method, which reduces boundary data discontinuity. The algorithm can be generalized to objects with inhomogeneous peripheral density and to true "Region of Interest Reconstruction" from truncated projections.

  17. Activation of extended red emission photoluminescence in carbon solids by exposure to atomic hydrogen and UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furton, Douglas G.; Witt, Adolf N.

    1993-01-01

    We report on new laboratory results which relate directly to the observation of strongly enhanced extended red emission (ERE) by interstellar dust in H2 photodissociation zones. The ERE has been attributed to photoluminescence by hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC). We are demonstrating that exposure to thermally dissociated atomic hydrogen will restore the photoluminescence efficiency of previously annealed HAC. Also, pure amorphous carbon (AC), not previously photoluminescent, can be induced to photoluminesce by exposure to atomic hydrogen. This conversion of AC into HAC is greatly enhanced by the presence of UV irradiation. The presence of dense, warm atomic hydrogen and a strong UV radiation field are characteristic environmental properties of H2 dissociation zones. Our results lend strong support to the HAC photoluminescence explanation for ERE.

  18. Near-field dipole radiation dynamics through FDTD modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzevicius, Stanley J.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Peters, Leon; Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    2003-02-01

    We use finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations to study horizontal dipole radiation mechanisms and patterns near half-space interfaces. Time snapshots illustrating propagation of wavefronts at an instance in time are included with antenna patterns to provide a visualization tool for understanding antenna radiation properties. Near-field radiation patterns are compared with far-field asymptotic solutions and the effects of electrical properties, antenna height, and observation distance are investigated through numerical simulations. Numerical simulations show excellent agreement with measured data collected over a water-filled tank. Near-field H-plane radiation patterns are broader and contain radiation maxima beyond the critical angle predicted by far-field solutions. A large amplitude E-plane radiation lobe is located directly below the antenna in all simulations, while the two large amplitude sidelobes are less distinct and occur at larger incidence angles than predicted by far-field solutions. Radiation patterns resemble far-field solutions by a distance of 10 wavelengths, except near the critical angle where H-plane radiation maxima and E-plane sidelobes occur at larger incidence angles than predicted by far-field solutions.

  19. Radiation field associated with Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    Accuracy of dosimetric estimates can determine the value of the atomic bomb survivor experience in establishing radiation risks. The status of a major revision of this dosimetry, initiated in 1980, is assessed. 3 references, 6 figures.

  20. Supersymmetric extended string field theory in NSn sector and NSn - 1-R sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Masako; Kato, Mitsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    We construct a class of quadratic gauge invariant actions for extended string fields defined on the tensor product of open superstring state space for multiple open string Neveu-Schwarz (NS) sectors with or without one Ramond (R) sector. The basic idea is the same as for the bosonic extended string field theory developed by the authors [1]. The theory for NSn sector and NS n - 1-R sector contains general n-th rank tensor fields and (n - 1)-th rank spinor-tensor fields in the massless spectrum respectively. In principle, consistent gauge invariant actions for any generic type of 10-dimensional massive or massless tensor or spinor-tensor fields can be extracted from the theory. We discuss some simple examples of bosonic and fermionic massless actions.

  1. Tomographic systems for the Helmholtz equation with extended Born field models using conjugate gradient inversion methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Scott Charles

    In this dissertation, new inverse scattering algorithms are derived for the Helmholtz equation using the Extended Born field model (eikonal rescattered field), and the angular spectrum (parabolic) layered field model. These two field models performed the 'best' of all the field models evaluated. Algorithms are solved with conjugate gradient methods. An advanced ultrasonic data acquisition system is also designed. Many different field models for use in a reconstruction algorithm are investigated. 'Layered' field models that mathematically partition the field calculation in layers in space possess the advantage that the field in layer n is calculated from the field in layer n - 1. Several of the 'layered' field models are investigated in terms of accuracy and computational complexity. Field model accuracy using field rescattering is also tested. The models investigated are the eikonal field model, the angular spectrum (AS) field model, and the parabolic field models known as the Split-Step Fast-Fourier Transform and the Crank-Nicolson algorithms. All of the 'layered' field models can be referred to as Extended Born field models since the 'layered' field models are more accurate than the Born approximated total field. The Rescattered Extended Born (eikonal rescattered field) Transmission Mode (REBTM) algorithm with the AS field model and the Nonrescattered AS Reconstruction (NASR) algorithm are tested with several types of objects: a single-layer cylinder, double-layer cylinders, two double-layer cylinders and the breast model. Both algorithms, REBTM and NASR work well; however, the NASR algorithm is faster and more accurate than the REBTM algorithm. The NASR algorithm is matched well with the requirements of breast model reconstructions. A major purpose of new scanner development is to collect both transmission and reflection data from multiple ultrasonic transducer arrays to test the next generation of reconstruction algorithms. The data acquisition system advanced

  2. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER: Spectrum of the barium atom in a laser radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar', I. I.; Suran, V. V.

    1990-08-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the influence of a laser radiation field on the spectrum of barium atoms. The investigation was carried out by the method of three-photon ionization spectroscopy using dye laser radiation (ω = 14 800-18 700 cm - 1). The electric field intensity of the laser radiation was 103-106 V/cm. This laser radiation field had a strong influence on a number of bound and autoionizing states. The nature of this influence depended on the ratio of the excitation frequencies of bound and autoionizing states.

  3. Effects of incident field refraction on scattered field from vertically extended cylindrical targets in range-dependent ocean waveguides.

    PubMed

    Küsel, Elizabeth T; Ratilal, Purnima

    2009-04-01

    The effect of incident field refraction on the scattered field from vertically extended cylindrical targets is investigated. A theoretical model for the total scattered field from a cylindrical target in a range-dependent ocean waveguide is developed from Green's theorem. The locally scattered field on the target surface is estimated as a function of the incident field by applying the appropriate boundary conditions on continuity of acoustic pressure and normal velocity, making the model applicable to general penetrable cylinders. The model can account for depth dependence in medium sound speed and hence refraction in the incident field along the target depth. Numerical implementation is done for a passive acoustic reflector, a long cylindrical air-filled rubber hose, often deployed vertically in experiments to provide calibration and charting consistency for wide-area active sonar systems. Analysis with the model indicates that refraction in the incident field along the target depth must be taken into account to accurately estimate the scattered field level from vertically extended cylindrical targets. It is demonstrated that the standard Ingenito waveguide target scattering model, which assumes that the incident field is planar along the target extent, can lead to significant errors of 10 dB or more in estimating the scattered field level.

  4. Extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation of the earth radiation budget satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1989-01-01

    The design and testing of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for ground attitude determination, misalignment estimation and sensor calibration of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) are described. Attitude is represented by the quaternion of rotation and the attitude estimation error is defined as an additive error. Quaternion normalization is used for increasing the convergence rate and for minimizing the need for filter tuning. The development of the filter dynamic model, the gyro error model and the measurement models of the Sun sensors, the IR horizon scanner and the magnetometers which are used to generate vector measurements are also presented. The filter is applied to real data transmitted by ERBS sensors. Results are presented and analyzed and the EKF advantages as well as sensitivities are discussed. On the whole the filter meets the expected synergism, accuracy and robustness.

  5. Detection of alpha radiation in a beta radiation field

    DOEpatents

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Reese, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting alpha particles in the presence of high activities of beta particles utilizing an alpha spectrometer. The apparatus of the present invention utilizes a magnetic field applied around the sample in an alpha spectrometer to deflect the beta particles from the sample prior to reaching the detector, thus permitting detection of low concentrations of alpha particles. In the method of the invention, the strength of magnetic field required to adequately deflect the beta particles and permit alpha particle detection is given by an algorithm that controls the field strength as a function of sample beta energy and the distance of the sample to the detector.

  6. An extended HLLC Riemann solver for the magneto-hydrodynamics including strong internal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaocheng

    2015-06-01

    By revisiting the derivation of the previously developed HLLC Riemann solver for magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD), the paper presents an extended HLLC Riemann solver specifically designed for the MHD system in which the magnetic field can be decomposed into a strong internal magnetic field and an external component. The derived HLLC Riemann solver satisfies the conservation laws. The numerical tests show that the extended solver deals with the global MHD simulation of the Earth's magnetosphere well, and maintains high numerical resolution. It recovers the previously developed HLLC Riemann solver for the MHD as long as the internal field is set to zero. Thus, it is backward compatible with the previous HLLC solver, and suitable for the MHD simulations no matter whether a strong internal magnetic field is included or not.

  7. Radiative corrections to the Zbb vertex and constraints on extended Higgs sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Heather Erin

    1999-10-01

    We explore the radiative corrections to the process Z-->bb in models with extended Higgs sectors. The observables R b and Ab are sensitive to these corrections. Rb is the hadronic branching fraction of Z bosons to bb,Rb =G(Z-->hadrons) . Ab is the b quark asymmetry, Ab=(g2L- g2 R)/(g2 L+g2R) where gL and gR are the left and right handed couplings of Z to b quarks. We find that in models containing only doublets, singlets, or larger multiplets constrained by a custodial SU(2) c symmetry so that MW=MZcosqW at tree level, the corrections involving charged Higgs bosons always worsen agreement with experiment. The Rb measurement can be used to set lower bounds on the charged Higgs masses in such models. Corrections involving light neutral Higgs bosons in models with enhanced H0bb coupling (large tan β) can improve agreement with experiment over the Standard Model. We present general formulas for the corrections to Rb and Ab in an arbitrary extended Higgs sector, and derive explicit results for a number of specific models.

  8. LCLS Far-Field Spontaneous Radiation

    2004-04-16

    This application (FarFieldDisplay) is a tool for displaying and analyzing far-field spontaneous spectral flux data for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Calculated by Roman Tatchyn (Stanford University). This tool allows the user to view sliced spatial and energy distributions of the fat-field photons selected for specific energies or positions transverse to the beam axis,

  9. Near-field radiative thermal transport: From theory to experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bai Fiorino, Anthony; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-05-15

    Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near-field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near-field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near-field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.

  10. Kidney-Sparing Methods for Extended-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) in Cervical Carcinoma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kunogi, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Nanae; Terao, Yasuhisa; Sasai, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Coplanar extended-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (EF-IMRT) targeting the whole-pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes in patients with advanced cervical cancer results in impaired creatinine clearance. An improvement in renal function cannot be expected unless low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) kidney exposure is reduced. The dosimetric method should be considered during EF-IMRT planning to further reduce low-dose exposure to the kidneys. To assess the usefulness of non-coplanar EF-IMRT with kidney-avoiding beams to spare the kidneys during cervical carcinoma treatment in dosimetric analysis between non-coplanar and coplanar EF-IMRT, we compared the doses of the target organ and organs at risk, including the kidney, in 10 consecutive patients. To estimate the influence of EFRT on renal dysfunction, creatinine clearance values after treatment were also examined in 18 consecutive patients. Of these 18 patients, 10 patients who were included in the dosimetric analysis underwent extended field radiation therapy (EFRT) with concurrent chemotherapy, and eight patients underwent whole-pelvis radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy to treat cervical carcinoma between April 2012 and March 2015 at our institution. In the dosimetric analysis, non-coplanar EF-IMRT was effective at reducing low-dose (approximately 10 Gy) exposure to the kidneys, thus maintaining target coverage and sparing other organs at risk, such as the small bowel, rectum, and bladder, compared with coplanar EF-IMRT. Renal function in all 10 patients who underwent EFRT, including coplanar EF-IMRT (with kidney irradiation), was low after treatment, and differed significantly from that of the eight patients who underwent WPRT (no kidney irradiation) 6 months after the first day of treatment (P = 0.005). In conclusion, non-coplanar EF-IMRT should be considered in patients with advanced cervical cancer, particularly in patients with a long life expectancy or with pre-existing renal dysfunction. PMID

  11. Scalar field radiation from dilatonic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, H.; Saifullah, K.

    2012-12-01

    We study radiation of scalar particles from charged dilaton black holes. The Hamilton-Jacobi method has been used to work out the tunneling probability of outgoing particles from the event horizon of dilaton black holes. For this purpose we use WKB approximation to solve the charged Klein-Gordon equation. The procedure gives Hawking temperature for these black holes as well.

  12. Design of Optical Systems with Extended Depth of Field: An Educational Approach to Wavefront Coding Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferran, C.; Bosch, S.; Carnicer, A.

    2012-01-01

    A practical activity designed to introduce wavefront coding techniques as a method to extend the depth of field in optical systems is presented. The activity is suitable for advanced undergraduate students since it combines different topics in optical engineering such as optical system design, aberration theory, Fourier optics, and digital image…

  13. Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-12-17

    Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer.

  14. Radiation tolerant silicon nitride insulated gate field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.

    1969-01-01

    Metal-Insulated-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor /MISFET/ device uses a silicon nitride passivation layer over a thin silicon oxide layer to enhance the radiation tolerance. It is useful in electronic systems exposed to space radiation environment or the effects of nuclear weapons.

  15. The Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Field through the Hamiltonian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likar, A.; Razpet, N.

    2009-01-01

    The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is…

  16. Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-12-17

    Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer. PMID:26641312

  17. Reconstruction of radiating sound fields using minimum energy method.

    PubMed

    Bader, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    A method for reconstructing a pressure field at the surface of a radiating body or source is presented using recording data of a microphone array. The radiation is assumed to consist of many spherical radiators, as microphone positions are present in the array. These monopoles are weighted using a parameter alpha, which broadens or narrows the overall radiation directivity as an effective and highly intuitive parameter of the radiation characteristics. A radiation matrix is built out of these weighted monopole radiators, and for different assumed values of alpha, a linear equation solver reconstructs the pressure field at the body's surface. It appears that from these many arbitrary reconstructions, the correct one minimizes the reconstruction energy. The method is tested, localizing the radiation points of a Balinese suling flute, reconstructing complex radiation from a duff frame drum, and determining the radiation directivity for the first seven modes of an Usbek tambourine. Stability in terms of measurement noise is demonstrated for the plain method, and additional highly effective algorithm is added for a noise level up to 0 dB. The stability of alpha in terms of minimal reconstruction energy is shown over the whole range of possible values for alpha. Additionally, the treatment of unwanted room reflections is discussed, still leading to satisfactory results in many cases. PMID:20058977

  18. Extended gyrokinetic field theory for time-dependent magnetic confinement fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Nunami, M.

    2014-01-15

    A gyrokinetic system of equations for turbulent toroidal plasmas in time-dependent axisymmetric background magnetic fields is derived from the variational principle. Besides governing equations for gyrocenter distribution functions and turbulent electromagnetic fields, the conditions which self-consistently determine the background magnetic fields varying on a transport time scale are obtained by using the Lagrangian, which includes the constraint on the background fields. Conservation laws for energy and toroidal angular momentum of the whole system in the time-dependent background magnetic fields are naturally derived by applying Noether's theorem. It is shown that the ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work agree with the results from the conventional recursive formulation with the WKB representation except that collisional effects are disregarded here.

  19. Involved field radiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma: The actual dose to breasts in close proximity

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaja, Bouthaina; Wang Zhonglo; Stovall, Marilyn; Baker, Jamie S.; Smith, Susan A.; Khan, Meena; Ballas, Leslie; Salehpour, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the risk of late toxicities in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) (HL), involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) has largely replaced the extended fields. To determine the out-of-field dose delivered from a typical IFRT to surrounding critical structures, we measured the dose at various points in an anthropomorphic phantom. The phantom is divided into 1-inch-thick slices with the ability to insert TLDs at 3-cm intervals grid spacing. Two treatment fields were designed, and a total of 45 TLDs were placed (equally spaced) at the margin of the each of the 2 radiation fields. After performing a computed tomography simulation, 2 treatment plans targeting the mediastinum, a typical treatment field in patients with early stage HL, were generated. A total dose of 3060 cGy was delivered to the gross tumor volume for each field consecutively. The highest measured dose detected at 1 cm from the field edge in the planning target volume was 496 cGy, equivalent to 16% of the isocentric dose. The dose dropped significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. It ranged from 1.1-3.9% of the isocentric dose at a distance of 3.2-4 cm to <1.6% at a distance of >6 cm. Although the computer treatment planning system (CTPS) frequently underestimated the dose delivered, the difference in dose between measured and generated by CTPS was <2.5% in 90 positions measured. The collateral dose of radiation to breasts from IFRT is minimal. The out-of-field dose, although mildly underestimated by CTPS, becomes insignificant at >3 cm from the field edge of the radiation field.

  20. Dosimetry in the space radiation field.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Beaujean, R; Heckeley, N; Obe, G

    1993-09-01

    The results of dosimetric measurements are presented which were performed as part of a German experiment package flown onboard the Russian space station MIR. These results are compared to those of previous missions: the first United States Spacelab mission and the first German Spacelab mission. Detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions, and thermoluminescence dosimeters were exposed in different sections of the Russian space station. The equivalent dose for the astronauts was calculated from the measurements to be 3.9 mSv. Before and after the flight venous blood was taken from the astronauts. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes were analyzed. It was found that the radiation exposure during the spaceflight leads to an elevation of dicentric chromosomes, indicating a radiation burden of the astronauts.

  1. Monitoring of radiation fields in a waste tank model: Virtual radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Tulenko, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Florida (UF) has developed a coupled radiation computation and three-dimensional modeling simulation code package. This package combines the Deneb Robotics` IGRIP three-dimensional solid modeling robotic simulation code with the UF developed VRF (Virtual Radiation Field) Monte Carlo based radiation computation code. The code package allows simulated radiation dose monitors to be placed anywhere on simulated robotic equipment to record the radiation doses which would be sustained when carrying out tasks in radiation environments. Comparison with measured values in the Hanford Waste Tank C-106 shows excellent results. The code shows promise of serving as a major tool in the design and operation of robotic equipment in radiation environments to ensure freedom from radiation caused failure.

  2. Laser speckle contrast imaging with extended depth of field for in-vivo tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Iliya; Gad, Raanan; Caravaca-Aguirre, Antonio M.; Atchia, Yaaseen; Conkey, Donald B.; Piestun, Rafael; Levi, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    This work presents, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of the Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) technique with extended depth of field (DOF). We employ wavefront coding on the detected beam to gain quantitative information on flow speeds through a DOF extended two-fold compared to the traditional system. We characterize the system in-vitro using controlled microfluidic experiments, and apply it in-vivo to imaging the somatosensory cortex of a rat, showing improved ability to image flow in a larger number of vessels simultaneously. PMID:24466481

  3. Extended-gate organic field-effect transistor for the detection of histamine in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamiki, Tsukuru; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-04-01

    As part of our ongoing research program to develop health care sensors based on organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices, we have attempted to detect histamine using an extended-gate OFET. Histamine is found in spoiled or decayed fish, and causes foodborne illness known as scombroid food poisoning. The new OFET device possesses an extended gate functionalized by carboxyalkanethiol that can interact with histamine. As a result, we have succeeded in detecting histamine in water through a shift in OFET threshold voltage. This result indicates the potential utility of the designed OFET devices in food freshness sensing.

  4. The Geomagnetic Field and Radiation in Near-Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This report shows, in detail, how the geomagnetic field interacts with the particle flux of the radiation belts to create a hazard to spacecraft and humans in near-Earth orbit. It illustrates the geometry of the geomagnetic field lines, especially around the area where the field strength is anomalously low in the South Atlantic Ocean. It discusses how the field will probably change in the future and the consequences that may have on hazards in near space.

  5. Gravitational radiation from preheating with many fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jr, John T. Giblin; Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier E-mail: larry@gravity.phys.uwm.edu

    2010-08-01

    Parametric resonances provide a mechanism by which particles can be created just after inflation. Thus far, attention has focused on a single or many inflaton fields coupled to a single scalar field. However, generically we expect the inflaton to couple to many other relativistic degrees of freedom present in the early universe. Using simulations in an expanding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime, in this paper we show how preheating is affected by the addition of multiple fields coupled to the inflaton. We focus our attention on gravitational wave production — an important potential observational signature of the preheating stage. We find that preheating and its gravitational wave signature is robust to the coupling of the inflaton to more matter fields.

  6. Wayward Field Lines Challenge Solar Radiation Models

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video compares the two models for particle distribution over the course of just three hours after an SEP event. The white line represents a magnetic field line, the general path that the SEPs ...

  7. Radiation (absorbing) boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevensee, R. M.; Pennock, S. T.

    1987-01-01

    An important problem in finite difference or finite element computation of the electromagnetic field obeying the space-time Maxwell equations with self-consistent sources is that of truncating the outer numerical boundaries properly to avoid spurious numerical reflection. Methods for extrapolating properly the fields just beyond a numerical boundary in free space have been treated by a number of workers. This report avoids plane wave assumptions and derives boundary conditions more directly related to the source distribution within the region. The Panofsky-Phillips' relations, which enable one to extrapolate conveniently the vector field components parallel and perpendicular to a radial from the coordinate origin chosen near the center of the charge-current distribution are used to describe the space-time fields.

  8. Electron trajectories in pulsed radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Einwohner, T.; Lippmann, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The work reported here analyzes the dynamical behavior of an electron, initially at rest, when subjected to a radiation pulse of arbitrary, but integrable, shape. This is done by a general integration procedure that has been programmed in VAXIMA. Upon choosing a specific shape for the pulse, VAXIMA finds both the space-time trajectory and the four-momentum of the electron. These are obtained in analytic or numerical form - or both - at the choice of the user. Several examples of analytical and numerical solutions, for different pulse shapes, are given.

  9. Variations of melatonin and stress hormones under extended shifts and radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katia Koicheva; Israel, Mishel Salvador

    2005-01-01

    We studied the time-of-day variations in urinary levels of 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin and three stress hormones in operators working fast-rotating extended shifts under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The excretion rate of the hormones was monitored by radioimmunoassay and spectrofluorimetry at 4-hour intervals in a group of 36 male operators comprising 12 broadcasting station operators, 12 TV station operators, and a control group of 12 satellite station operators. Measuring the time-weighted average (TWA) of EMR exposure revealed a high-level of exposure in broadcasting station operators (TWAmean= 3.10 microW/ cm2, TWAmax = 137.00 microW/cm2), a low-level in TV station operators (TWAmean = 1.89 microW/cm2, TWAmax = 5.24 microW/cm2), and a very low level in satellite station operators. The differences among the groups remained the same after confounding factors were taken into account. Radiofrequency EMR had no effect on the typical diurnal pattern of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin. High-level radiofrequency EMR exposure significantly increased the excretion rates of cortisol (p < 0.001), adrenaline (p = 0.028), and noradrenaline (p < 0.000), whereas changes under low-level exposure did not reach significance. The 24-hour excretion of cortisol and noradrenaline correlated with TWAmean and TWAmax. In conclusion, the excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin retained a typical diurnal pattern under fast-rotating extended shifts and radiofrequency EMR, but showed an exposure-effect relation with stress hormones.

  10. Early Clinical Outcome With Concurrent Chemotherapy and Extended-Field, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beriwal, Sushil . E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu; Gan, Gregory N.; Heron, Dwight E.; Selvaraj, Raj N.; Kim, Hayeon; Lalonde, Ron; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the early clinical outcomes with concurrent cisplatin and extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) for carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with Stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with EF-IMRT were evaluated. The pelvic lymph nodes were involved in 19 patients, and of these 19 patients, 10 also had para-aortic nodal disease. The treatment volume included the cervix, uterus, parametria, presacral space, upper vagina, and pelvic, common iliac, and para-aortic nodes to the superior border of L1. Patients were assessed for acute toxicities according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. All late toxicities were scored with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late toxicity score. Results: All patients completed the prescribed course of EF-IMRT. All but 2 patients received brachytherapy. Median length of treatment was 53 days. The median follow-up was 18 months. Acute Grade {>=}3 gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and myelotoxicity were seen in 1, 1, and 10 patients, respectively. Thirty-four patients had complete response to treatment. Of these 34 patients, 11 developed recurrences. The first site of recurrence was in-field in 2 patients (pelvis in 1, pelvis and para-aortic in 1) and distant in 9 patients. The 2-year actuarial locoregional control, disease-free survival, overall survival, and Grade {>=}3 toxicity rates for the entire cohort were 80%, 51%, 65%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: Extended-field IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy was tolerated well, with acceptable acute and early late toxicities. The locoregional control rate was good, with distant metastases being the predominant mode of failure. We are continuing to accrue a larger number of patients and longer follow-up data to further extend our initial observations with this approach.

  11. Fission Product Transmutation in Mixed Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Frank; Burgett, Erick; Starovoitova, Valeriia; Tsveretkov, Pavel

    2015-01-15

    Work under this grant addressed a part of the challenge facing the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle; reducing the radiotoxicity of lived fission products (LLFP). It was based on the possibility that partitioning of isotopes and accelerator-based transmutation on particular LLFP combined with geological disposal may lead to an acceptable societal solution to the problem of management. The feasibility of using photonuclear processes based on the excitation of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) by bremsstrahlung radiation as a cost effective transmutation method was accessed. The nuclear reactions of interest: (γ,xn), (n,γ), (γ,p) can be induced by bremsstrahlung radiation produced by high power electron accelerators. The driver of these processes would be an accelerator that produces a high energy and high power electron beam of ~ 100 MeV. The major advantages of such accelerators for this purpose are that they are essentially available “off the shelf” and potentially would be of reasonable cost for this application. Methods were examined that used photo produced neutrons or the bremsstrahlung photons only, or use both photons and neutrons in combination for irradiations of selected LLFP. Extrapolating the results to plausible engineering scale transmuters it was found that the energy cost for 129I and 99Tc transmutation by these methods are about 2 and 4%, respectively, of the energy produced from 1000MWe.

  12. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on living plants exposed for extended periods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The effects of intense 60-Hz electric fields were studied by exposing plants of five kinds (crops) for extended periods in a special greenhouse where cultural and environmental factors could be controlled. Plant populations and densities simulated field conditions. While exposed, plants of all crops germinated satisfactorily, and plants of sweet corn and wheat completed their life cycles and produced viable seed. Plants of alfalfa and tall fescue were at the early bloom stage when harvested. Exposure of plants of five kinds to electric fields had no statistically significant effects on seed germination, seedling growth, plant growth, phenology, flowering, seed set, biomass production, plant height, leaf area, plant survival, and nodulation. Exposure to 60-Hz electric fields resulted in very limited damage to terminal leaf tips, awns, and corn tassels, particularly at fields of 30 kV/m or greater. 47 refs., 36 figs., 44 tabs.

  13. Field calibration studies for ionisation chambers in mixed high-energy radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Theis, C; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuerstner, M; Mayer, S; Otto, Th; Roesler, S; Vincke, H

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring of ambient doses at work places around high-energy accelerators is a challenging task due the complexity of the mixed stray radiation fields encountered. At CERN, mainly Centronics IG5 high-pressure ionisation chambers are used to monitor radiation exposure in mixed fields. The monitors are calibrated in the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(10) using standard, source-generated photon- and neutron fields. However, the relationship between ionisation chamber reading and ambient dose equivalent in a mixed high-energy radiation field can only be assessed if the spectral response to every component and the field composition is known. Therefore, comprehensive studies were performed at the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility where the spectral fluence for each particle type has been assessed with Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, studies have been performed in an accessible controlled radiation area in the vicinity of a beam loss point of CERN's proton synchrotron. The comparison of measurements and calculations has shown reasonable agreement for most exposure conditions. The results indicate that conventionally calibrated ionisation chambers can give satisfactory response in terms of ambient dose equivalent in stray radiation fields at high-energy accelerators in many cases. These studies are one step towards establishing a method of 'field calibration' of radiation protection instruments in which Monte Carlo simulations will be used to establish a correct correlation between the response of specific detectors to a given high-energy radiation field.

  14. First phantom and in vivo MPI images with an extended field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, I.; Rahmer, J.; Gleich, B.; Kanzenbach, J.; Schmidt, J. D.; Bontus, C.; Woywode, O.; Borgert, J.

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a high-potential new medical imaging modality that has been introduced in 2005. MPI uses the non-linear magnetization behavior of iron-oxide based nano-particles, named tracer, to perform quantitative measurements of their local concentration. Previous publications demonstrated the feasibility of real-time in vivo 3D imaging with clinical concentration of Resovist®. Given MPI's fast and sensitive imaging as well as its overall versatility, it has potential to support various medical applications spanning from diagnostics to therapy. As an example, ongoing research investigates the use of MPI in cardiovascular diagnostics for myocardial perfusion measurement. While previous publications reported results from experimental systems with limited bore size (3cm), this contribution presents first phantom and in vivo images acquired on the next hardware generation, an experimental system with an effective bore size of 12cm. The system is designed for pre-clinical studies and can capture image data from an extended field of view compared to the previous, experimental system. The contribution introduces concepts for the encoding of a larger field of view by means of additional magnetic fields, named focus-fields, and outlines the path to stitching of images from multiple focus field settings, called "multi-station reconstruction". To prove the feasibility of imaging of an extended field of view, volumetric images of a moving phantom as well as of a living rat were acquired.

  15. Spherical-wave expansions of piston-radiator fields.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, R C; Yaghjian, A D

    1991-09-01

    Simple spherical-wave expansions of the continuous-wave fields of a circular piston radiator in a rigid baffle are derived. These expansions are valid throughout the illuminated half-space and are useful for efficient numerical computation in the near-field region. Multipole coefficients are given by closed-form expressions which can be evaluated recursively.

  16. Comparison and testing of extended Kalman filters for attitude estimation of the Earth radiation budget satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Rokni, Mohammad

    1990-01-01

    The testing and comparison of two Extended Kalman Filters (EKFs) developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is described. One EKF updates the attitude quaternion using a four component additive error quaternion. This technique is compared to that of a second EKF, which uses a multiplicative error quaternion. A brief development of the multiplicative algorithm is included. The mathematical development of the additive EKF was presented in the 1989 Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium along with some preliminary testing results using real spacecraft data. A summary of the additive EKF algorithm is included. The convergence properties, singularity problems, and normalization techniques of the two filters are addressed. Both filters are also compared to those from the ERBS operational ground support software, which uses a batch differential correction algorithm to estimate attitude and gyro biases. Sensitivity studies are performed on the estimation of sensor calibration states. The potential application of the EKF for real time and non-real time ground attitude determination and sensor calibration for future missions such as the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and the Small Explorer Mission (SMEX) is also presented.

  17. Instantaneous three-dimensional sensing using spatial light modulator illumination with extended depth of field imaging

    PubMed Central

    Quirin, Sean; Peterka, Darcy S.; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Imaging three-dimensional structures represents a major challenge for conventional microscopies. Here we describe a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) microscope that can simultaneously address and image multiple targets in three dimensions. A wavefront coding element and computational image processing enables extended depth-of-field imaging. High-resolution, multi-site three-dimensional targeting and sensing is demonstrated in both transparent and scattering media over a depth range of 300-1,000 microns. PMID:23842387

  18. Radiation drag in the field of a non-spherical source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, D.; Geralico, A.; Passamonti, A.

    2015-01-01

    The motion of a test particle in the gravitational field of a non-spherical source endowed with both mass and mass quadrupole moment is investigated when a test radiation field is also present. The background is described by the Erez-Rosen solution, which is a static space-time belonging to the Weyl class of solutions to the vacuum Einstein's field equations, and reduces to the familiar Schwarzschild solution when the quadrupole parameter vanishes. The radiation flux has a fixed but arbitrary (non-zero) angular momentum. The interaction with the radiation field is assumed to be Thomson-like, i.e. the particles absorb and re-emit radiation, thus suffering for a friction-like drag force. Such an additional force is responsible for the Poynting-Robertson effect, which is well established in the framework of Newtonian gravity and has been recently extended to the general theory of relativity. The balance between gravitational attraction, centrifugal force and radiation drag leads to the occurrence of equilibrium circular orbits which are attractors for the surrounding matter for every fixed value of the interaction strength. The presence of the quadrupolar structure of the source introduces a further degree of freedom: there exists a whole family of equilibrium orbits parametrized by the quadrupole parameter, generalizing previous works. This scenario is expected to play a role in the context of accretion matter around compact objects.

  19. Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2005-09-15

    Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

  20. An evaluation of RAMS radiation schemes by field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, S; Doran, J C

    1994-02-01

    At present, two radiation schemes are used in RAMS: the Mahrer and Pielke (M-P) scheme and the Chen and Cotton (C-C) scheme. The M-P scheme requires little computational expense, but does not include the radiative effects of liquid water or ice; the C-C scheme accounts for the radiative effects of liquid water and ice but is fairly expensive computationally. For simulations with clouds, the C-C scheme is obviously a better choice, but for clear sky conditions, RAMS users face a decision regarding which radiation scheme to use. It has been noted that the choice of radiation scheme may result in significantly different results for the same case. To examine the differences in the radiative fluxes and the boundary-layer structure corresponding to the two radiation schemes in RAMS we have carried out a study where Rams was used to simulate the same case with two different radiation schemes. The modeled radiative fluxes by the two schemes were then compared with the field measurements. A description of the observations and the case study, a comparison and discussion of the results, and a summary and conclusions follow.

  1. Field Testing of a Portable Radiation Detector and Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Eakle, R.F.

    1998-03-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have developed a man- portable radiation detector and mapping system (RADMAPS) which integrates the accumulation of radiation information with precise ground locations. RADMAPS provides field personnel with the ability to detect, locate, and characterize nuclear material at a site or facility by analyzing the gamma or neutron spectra and correlating them with position. the man-portable field unit records gamma or neutron count rate information and its location, along with date and time, using an embedded Global Positioning System (GPS). RADMAPS is an advancement in data fusion, integrating several off-the-shelf technologies with new computer software resulting in a system that is simple to deploy and provides information useful to field personnel in an easily understandable form. Decisions on subsequent actions can be made in the field to efficiently use available field resources. The technologies employed in this system include: recording GPS, radiation detection (typically scintillation detectors), pulse height analysis, analog-to-digital converters, removable solid-state (Flash or SRAM) memory cards, Geographic Information System (GIS) software and personal computers with CD-ROM supporting digital base maps. RADMAPS includes several field deployable data acquisition systems designed to simultaneously record radiation and geographic positions. This paper summarizes the capabilities of RADMAPS and some of the results of field tests performed with the system.

  2. Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Rajagopal, Krishna; Nickel, Dominik

    2010-06-15

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle {alpha}{approx}1/{gamma}. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.

  3. IAEA programme in the field of radiation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad

    2005-07-01

    Radiation technologies applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material modification are well-established processes. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 electron industrial accelerators in operation worldwide. A new advancement in the field of radiation sources engineering is the development of high power direct e-/X conversion sources based on electron accelerators. Technologies to be developed beside environmental applications could be nanomaterials, structure engineered materials (sorbents, composites, ordered polymers, etc.) and natural polymers' processing. New products based on radiation-processed polysaccharides have already been commercialised in many countries of the East Asia and Pacific Region, especially in those being rich in natural polymers. Very important and promising applications concern environmental protection-radiation technology, being a clean and environment friendly process, helps to curb pollutants' emission as well. Industrial plants for flue gas treatment have been constructed in Poland and China. The pilot plant in Bulgaria using this technology has just started its operation. The Polish plant is equipped with accelerators of over 1 MW power, a breakthrough in radiation technology application. The industrial plant for wastewater treatment is under development in Korea and a pilot plant for sewage sludge irradiation has been in operation in India for many years. Due to recent developments, the Agency has restructured its programme and organized a Technical Meeting (TM) on "Emerging Applications of Radiation Technology for the 21st Century" at its Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, in April 2003, to review the present situation and possible developments of radiation technology to contribute to a sustainable development. This meeting provided the basic input to launch others in the most important fields of radiation technology applications: "Advances in Radiation Chemistry of Polymers" (Notre Dame, USA

  4. Cosmological fluctuations of a random field and radiation fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Moss, Ian G.; Ramos, Rudnei O. E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk E-mail: rudnei@uerj.br

    2014-05-01

    A generalization of the random fluid hydrodynamic fluctuation theory due to Landau and Lifshitz is applied to describe cosmological fluctuations in systems with radiation and scalar fields. The viscous pressures, parametrized in terms of the bulk and shear viscosity coefficients, and the respective random fluctuations in the radiation fluid are combined with the stochastic and dissipative scalar evolution equation. This results in a complete set of equations describing the perturbations in both scalar and radiation fluids. These derived equations are then studied, as an example, in the context of warm inflation. Similar treatments can be done for other cosmological early universe scenarios involving thermal or statistical fluctuations.

  5. Device for remote viewing of objects in ionizing radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, B.I.; Ivanov, N.M.; Malakhov, I.K.; Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.

    1980-10-21

    A device is described for remote viewing of objects in ionizing radiation fields, wherein a fibre-optics channel for transmitting the image of an object under observation beyond the biological shield against ionizing radiation comprises an entrance lens in whose immediate vicinity there is placed one of the ends of a bundle of optic fibres, the other end of the bundle being beyond the biological shield. The fibre-optics channel also comprises a source of heat to maintain at least only the fibre bundle at a temperature ensuring thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of the ionizing radiation.

  6. Radiation of Electron in the Field of Plane Light Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Zelinsky, A.; Drebot, I.V.; Grigorev, Yu.N.; Zvonareva, O.D.; Tatchyn, R.; /SLAC

    2006-02-24

    Results of integration of a Lorentz equation for a relativistic electron moving in the field of running, plane, linear polarized electromagnetic wave are presented in the paper. It is shown that electron velocities in the field of the wave are almost periodic functions of time. For calculations of angular spectrum of electron radiation intensity expansion of the electromagnetic field in a wave zone into generalized Fourier series was used. Expressions for the radiation intensity spectrum are presented in the paper. Derived results are illustrated for electron and laser beam parameters of NSC KIPT X-ray generator NESTOR. It is shown that for low intensity of the interacting electromagnetic wave the results of energy and angular spectrum calculations in the frame of classical electrodynamics completely coincide with calculation results produced using quantum electrodynamics. Simultaneously, derived expressions give possibilities to investigate dependence of energy and angular Compton radiation spectrum on phase of interaction and the interacting wave intensity.

  7. Near field wireless power transfer using curved relay resonators for extended transfer distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Clare, L.; Stark, B. H.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a near field wireless power transfer system that uses curved relay resonator to extend transfer distance. Near field wireless power transfer operates based on the near-field electromagnetic coupling of coils. Such a system can transfer energy over a relatively short distance which is of the same order of dimensions of the coupled coils. The energy transfer distance can be increased using flat relay resonators. Recent developments in printing electronics and e-textiles have seen increasing demand of embedding electronics into fabrics. Near field wireless power transfer is one of the most promising methods to power electronics on fabrics. The concept can be applied to body-worn textiles by, for example, integrating a transmitter coil into upholstery, and a flexible receiver coil into garments. Flexible textile coils take on the shape of the supporting materials such as garments, and therefore curved resonator and receiver coils are investigated in this work. Experimental results showed that using curved relay resonator can effectively extend the wireless power transfer distance. However, as the curvature of the coil increases, the performance of the wireless power transfer, especially the maximum received power, deteriorates.

  8. Extended Depth of Field for High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hovden, Robert; Xin, Huolin L.; Muller, David A.

    2010-12-02

    Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) provide sub-Angstrom lateral resolution; however, the large convergence angle greatly reduces the depth of field. For microscopes with a small depth of field, information outside of the focal plane quickly becomes blurred and less defined. It may not be possible to image some samples entirely in focus. Extended depth-of-field techniques, however, allow a single image, with all areas in focus, to be extracted from a series of images focused at a range of depths. In recent years, a variety of algorithmic approaches have been employed for bright-field optical microscopy. Here, we demonstrate that some established optical microscopy methods can also be applied to extend the ~6 nm depth of focus of a 100 kV 5th-order aberration-corrected STEM (α{sub max} = 33 mrad) to image Pt-Co nanoparticles on a thick vulcanized carbon support. These techniques allow us to automatically obtain a single image with all the particles in focus as well as a complimentary topography map.

  9. Synchrotron radiation with radiation reaction. [relativistic electron motion in strong astrophysical magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira

    1991-01-01

    A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.

  10. Topological magnetoelectric effects in microwave far-field radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, M.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R.

    2016-07-01

    Similar to electromagnetism, described by the Maxwell equations, the physics of magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena deals with the fundamental problem of the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. Despite a formal resemblance between the two notions, they concern effects of different natures. In general, ME-coupling effects manifest in numerous macroscopic phenomena in solids with space and time symmetry breakings. Recently, it was shown that the near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations have the space and time symmetry breakings and the topological properties of these fields are different from the topological properties of the free-space electromagnetic fields. Such MDM-originated fields—called magnetoelectric (ME) fields—carry both spin and orbital angular momenta. They are characterized by power-flow vortices and non-zero helicity. In this paper, we report on observation of the topological ME effects in far-field microwave radiation based on a small microwave antenna with a MDM ferrite resonator. We show that the microwave far-field radiation can be manifested with a torsion structure where an angle between the electric and magnetic field vectors varies. We discuss the question on observation of the regions of localized ME energy in far-field microwave radiation.

  11. Characterization of a CT ionization chamber for radiation field mapping.

    PubMed

    Perini, Ana P; Neves, Lucio P; Vivolo, Vitor; Xavier, Marcos; Khoury, Helen J; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    A pencil-type ionization chamber, developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), was characterized with the objective to verify the possibility of its application in radiation field mapping procedures. The characterization tests were evaluated, and the results were satisfactory. The results obtained for the X radiation field mapping with the homemade chamber were compared with those of a PTW Farmer-type chamber (TN 30011-1). The maximum difference observed in this comparison was only 1.25%, showing good agreement.

  12. Pedagogical systematic derivation of Noether point symmetries in special relativistic field theories and extended gravity cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    A didactic and systematic derivation of Noether point symmetries and conserved currents is put forward in special relativistic field theories, without a priori assumptions about the transformation laws. Given the Lagrangian density, the invariance condition develops as a set of partial differential equations determining the symmetry transformation. The solution is provided in the case of real scalar, complex scalar, free electromagnetic, and charged electromagnetic fields. Besides the usual conservation laws, a less popular symmetry is analyzed: the symmetry associated with the linear superposition of solutions, whenever applicable. The role of gauge invariance is emphasized. The case of the charged scalar particle under external electromagnetic fields is considered, and the accompanying Noether point symmetries determined. Noether point symmetries for a dynamical system in extended gravity cosmology are also deduced.

  13. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges in a Gravitational Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grøn, Øyvind

    The electrodynamics of a radiating charge and its electromagnetic field based upon the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac (LAD) equation are discussed both with reference to an inertial reference frame and a uniformly accelerated reference frame. It is demonstrated that energy and momentum are conserved during runaway motion of a radiating charge and during free fall of a charge in a field of gravity. This does not mean that runaway motion is really happening. It may be an unphysical solution of the LAD equation of motion of a radiating charge due to the unrealistic point particle model of the charge upon which it is based. However it demonstrates the consistency of classical electrodynamics, including the LAD equation which is deduced from Maxwell's equations and the principle of energy-momentum conservation applied to a radiating charge and its electromagnetic field. The decisive role of the Schott energy in this connection is made clear and an answer is given to the question: What sort of energy is the Schott energy and where is it found? It is the part of the electromagnetic field energy which is proportional to (minus) the scalar product of the velocity and acceleration of a moving accelerated charged particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field of a point charge it is localized at the particle. This energy is negative if the acceleration is in the same direction as the velocity and positive if it is in the opposite direction. During runaway motion the Schott energy becomes more and more negative and in the case of a charged particle with finite extension, it is localized in a region with increasing extension surrounding the particle. The Schott energy provides the radiated energy of a freely falling charge. Also it is pointed out that a proton and a neutron fall with the same acceleration in a uniform gravitational field, although the proton radiates and the neutron does not. It is made clear that the question as to whether or not a charge radiates has a reference

  14. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis S.; Eich, Hans Theodor; Girinsky, Theodore; Hoppe, Richard T.; Mauch, Peter; Mikhaeel, N. George; Ng, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the

  15. Radiation Damage of Myoglobin Crystals in Weak Stationary Electric and Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Trame, C B; Dragovic, M; Chiu, H-J

    2014-01-01

    Radiation damage is one of the bottlenecks in the field of structural biology. Cryo-cooling of protein crystals provided a breakthrough in the 1980s and resulted in significant reductions in radiation damage. Other factors positively influencing the progression of damage include the application of radical scavengers and reductions in the experimental beam size. Here we study the impact on radiation damage of applying static magnetic and electric fields during protein diffraction experiments, ultimately probing the Lorenz force effect on primary photoelectrons and secondary Auger electrons, which both contribute to the damage process. The design of a special mounting pin using graphene for applying electric fields on a crystalline sample is described. Analyses of myoglobin protein crystals exposed to the fields of ~40 mT and −300 V show a slower global radiation damage rate and also changes in the progression of specific damage process on the molecular level, in particular at doses extending beyond the Garman limit of 30 MGy. PMID:25089148

  16. Influence of radiation field on Non-LTE Xe plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2011-10-01

    Several experiments, and simulations of Xe were recently reported, due to the possibility of simulating scaled radiative shocks. Extensive and systematic detailed computations using HULLAC were performed for Te around 100eV and several densities, with initial conditions far or near LTE. The radiation is described as a Planckian at Trad multiplied by a dilution factor D. In each case, D is varied between 0 and 3 for Trad=Te, and Trad is varied from 0 to Te*1.5 with D=1. We show that in some cases, the dilution factor has more influence on the average charge Z* than the ratio Trad/Te, Taking into account radiation field is very important for evaluating Z* and non-LTE opacities. We thank the Center for Radiative Shocks (CRASH) of University of Michigan for partial support under a cooperation agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28616.

  17. Note on Modular Reduction in Extended Finite Fields and Polynomial Rings for Simple Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Modular reduction in extended finite fields and polynomial rings is presented, which once implemented works for any random reduction polynomial without changes of the hardware. It is possible to reduce polynomials of whatever degree. Based on the principal defined, two example RTL architectures are designed, and some useful features are noted furthermore. The first architecture is sequential and reduce whatever degree polynomials, taking 2 cycles per term. The second one is Parallel and designed for reduction of polynomials of 2(t -1) degree at most, taking 1 cycle for the whole reduction.

  18. Rainich geometrization extended to electromagnetic fields in (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krongos, Dionisios; Torre, Charles

    2016-03-01

    In four spacetime dimensions the Rainich conditions are a set of equations equivalent to the Einstein-Maxwell equations, but are expressed soley in terms of the metric tensor. We have found the analogous conditions in (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity such that a metric tensor defines a non-null solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations. These conditions can be extended to other theories of (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity. These conditions are obtained by reducing the problem to that of a scalar field, which we have treated elsewhere. We illlustrate these results using the charged BTZ solution.

  19. The Vlasov-Poisson Dynamics as the Mean Field Limit of Extended Charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarovici, Dustin

    2016-10-01

    The paper treats the validity problem of the nonrelativistic Vlasov-Poisson equation in {d ≥ 2} dimensions. It is shown that the Vlasov-Poisson dynamics can be derived as a combined mean field and point-particle limit of an N-particle Coulomb system of extended charges. This requires a sufficiently fast convergence of the initial empirical distributions. If the electron radius decreases slower than {N^{-{1/d(d+2)}}}, the corresponding initial configurations are typical. This result entails propagation of molecular chaos for the respective dynamics.

  20. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    PubMed

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  1. Radiative neutrino decay in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Anikin, R. A. Mikheev, N. V.

    2013-12-15

    The radiative decay of neutrinos in a strong magnetic field that have relatively high energies, E ≫ m{sub e}, is studied with allowance for positronium contribution to the photon polarization operator in the vicinity of the cyclotron resonance. It is shown that the probability for the process ν → νγ increases substantially upon taking into account the positronium contribution.

  2. Extended-Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor-Based Biosensor for Detection of Deoxynivalenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Insu; Lee, Hee-Ho; Choi, Jinhyeon; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Seo, Sang-Ho; Choi, Sung-Wook; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we present an extended-gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET)-based biosensor for the detection of deoxynivalenol using a null-balancing circuit. An extended-gate MOSFET-based biosensor was fabricated by a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and its characteristics were measured. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly, instead of measuring the drain current of the sensor. Au was used as the gate metal, which has a chemical affinity with thiol, which leads to the immobilization of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA). The SAM was used to immobilize the anti-deoxynivalenol antibody. The carboxyl group of the SAM was bound to the anti-deoxynivalenol antibody. The anti-deoxynivalenol antibody and deoxynivalenol were bound by their antigen-antibody reaction. The measurements were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4) solution. A standard Ag/AgCl electrode was employed as a reference electrode. The bindings of a SAM, anti-deoxynivalenol antibody, and deoxynivalenol caused a variation in the output voltage of the extended-gate MOSFET-based biosensor. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement was performed to verify the interaction among the SAM, deoxynivalenol-antibody, and deoxynivalenol.

  3. Nanodosimetric Characterization of Mixed Radiation Fields: Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Reinhard; Bashkirov, Vladimir; Casiraghi, Margherita

    The nanodosimetric characterization of mixed radiation fields containing variable fluences of charged particles, neutrons, and photons with stochastic quantities related to the number of ionizations in biological targets of nanometric size is an active area of research and development. Applications include measurements in low-dose radiation environments, including outer space, for radiation protection as well as characterization of mixed radiation therapy fields present in particle therapy with protons, light ions, or neutrons. Approaches for the nanodosimetric characterization of mixed radiation fields should consist of balance of theoretical Monte Carlo simulations and experimental studies that can inform each other. The former should be carefully benchmarked with the latter, usually employing detectors filled with low-pressure gas in which nanodosimetric studies are possible. Research in experimental nanodosimetry has exploited the principle of low-pressure-gas scaling of mean interaction distances between energy transfer points up to a million-fold, thus allowing to collect single charges (ions or electrons) generated in cylindrical volumes equivalent to a short segment of DNA. When combined with arrival-time selection, position resolution of down to 5 nm, has been achieved for experimental track structure studies. The results of these experimental studies and Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo codes will be summarized. More recently, we have studied a new principle of 2D low-energy ion detection by impact ionization in a hole-pattern detector in combination with a low-pressure time projection chamber. First proof-of-principle and performance studies with this track-imaging detector and corresponding Monte Carlo simulations will be presented. The full potential of nanometric quantities in characterizing radiation quality for dosimetry of ionizing radiation is yet to be explored. The most significant signature of radiation quality may be the size and

  4. Calcium imaging of neural circuits with extended depth-of-field light-sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Quirin, Sean; Vladimirov, Nikita; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael; Ahrens, Misha B

    2016-03-01

    Increasing the volumetric imaging speed of light-sheet microscopy will improve its ability to detect fast changes in neural activity. Here, a system is introduced for brain-wide imaging of neural activity in the larval zebrafish by coupling structured illumination with cubic phase extended depth-of-field (EDoF) pupil encoding. This microscope enables faster light-sheet imaging and facilitates arbitrary plane scanning-removing constraints on acquisition speed, alignment tolerances, and physical motion near the sample. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by performing multi-plane calcium imaging in the fish brain with a 416×832×160  μm field of view at 33 Hz. The optomotor response behavior of the zebrafish is monitored at high speeds, and time-locked correlations of neuronal activity are resolved across its brain. PMID:26974063

  5. Calcium imaging of neural circuits with extended depth-of-field light-sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Quirin, Sean; Vladimirov, Nikita; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Peterka, Darcy S.; Yuste, Rafael; Ahrens, Misha B.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the volumetric imaging speed of light-sheet microscopy will improve its ability to detect fast changes in neural activity. Here, a system is introduced for brain-wide imaging of neural activity in the larval zebrafish by coupling structured illumination with cubic phase extended depth-of-field (EDoF) pupil encoding. This microscope enables faster light-sheet imaging and facilitates arbitrary plane scanning—removing constraints on acquisition speed, alignment tolerances, and physical motion near the sample. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by performing multi-plane calcium imaging in the fish brain with a 416 × 832 × 160 µm field of view at 33 Hz. The optomotor response behavior of the zebrafish is monitored at high speeds, and time-locked correlations of neuronal activity are resolved across its brain. PMID:26974063

  6. Optimization of wavefront-coded infinity-corrected microscope systems with extended depth of field.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingyu; Mauger, Thomas; Li, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    The depth of field of an infinity-corrected microscope system is greatly extended by simply applying a specially designed phase mask between the objective and the tube lens. In comparison with the method of modifying the structure of objective, it is more cost effective and provides improved flexibility for assembling the system. Instead of using an ideal optical system for simulation which was the focus of the previous research, a practical wavefront-coded infinity-corrected microscope system is designed in this paper by considering the various aberrations. Two new optimization methods, based on the commercial optical design software, are proposed to design a wavefront-coded microscope using a non-symmetric phase mask and a symmetric phase mask, respectively. We use polynomial phase mask and rational phase mask as examples of the non-symmetric and symmetric phase masks respectively. Simulation results show that both optimization methods work well for a 32 × infinity-corrected microscope system with 0.6 numerical aperture. The depth of field is extended to about 13 times of the traditional one.

  7. Total variation based image deconvolution for extended depth-of-field microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausser, F.; Beckers, I.; Gierlak, M.; Kahraman, O.

    2015-03-01

    One approach for a detailed understanding of dynamical cellular processes during drug delivery is the use of functionalized biocompatible nanoparticles and fluorescent markers. An appropriate imaging system has to detect these moving particles so as whole cell volumes in real time with high lateral resolution in a range of a few 100 nm. In a previous study Extended depth-of-field microscopy (EDF-microscopy) has been applied to fluorescent beads and tradiscantia stamen hair cells and the concept of real-time imaging has been proved in different microscopic modes. In principle a phase retardation system like a programmable space light modulator or a static waveplate is incorporated in the light path and modulates the wavefront of light. Hence the focal ellipsoid is smeared out and images seem to be blurred in a first step. An image restoration by deconvolution using the known point-spread-function (PSF) of the optical system is necessary to achieve sharp microscopic images of an extended depth-of-field. This work is focused on the investigation and optimization of deconvolution algorithms to solve this restoration problem satisfactorily. This inverse problem is challenging due to presence of Poisson distributed noise and Gaussian noise, and since the PSF used for deconvolution exactly fits in just one plane within the object. We use non-linear Total Variation based image restoration techniques, where different types of noise can be treated properly. Various algorithms are evaluated for artificially generated 3D images as well as for fluorescence measurements of BPAE cells.

  8. From dinosaurs to modern bird diversity: extending the time scale of adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Moen, Daniel; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    What explains why some groups of organisms, like birds, are so species rich? And what explains their extraordinary ecological diversity, ranging from large, flightless birds to small migratory species that fly thousand of kilometers every year? These and similar questions have spurred great interest in adaptive radiation, the diversification of ecological traits in a rapidly speciating group of organisms. Although the initial formulation of modern concepts of adaptive radiation arose from consideration of the fossil record, rigorous attempts to identify adaptive radiation in the fossil record are still uncommon. Moreover, most studies of adaptive radiation concern groups that are less than 50 million years old. Thus, it is unclear how important adaptive radiation is over temporal scales that span much larger portions of the history of life. In this issue, Benson et al. test the idea of a "deep-time" adaptive radiation in dinosaurs, compiling and using one of the most comprehensive phylogenetic and body-size datasets for fossils. Using recent phylogenetic statistical methods, they find that in most clades of dinosaurs there is a strong signal of an "early burst" in body-size evolution, a predicted pattern of adaptive radiation in which rapid trait evolution happens early in a group's history and then slows down. They also find that body-size evolution did not slow down in the lineage leading to birds, hinting at why birds survived to the present day and diversified. This paper represents one of the most convincing attempts at understanding deep-time adaptive radiations.

  9. High field CdS detector for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, R. C.; Robertson, J. B.; Boer, K. W.; Hadley, H. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An infrared radiation detector including a cadmium sulfide platelet having a cathode formed on one of its ends and an anode formed on its other end is presented. The platelet is suitably doped such that stationary high-field domains are formed adjacent the cathode when based in the negative differential conductivity region. A negative potential is applied to the cathode such that a high-field domain is formed adjacent to the cathode. A potential measuring probe is located between the cathode and the anode at the edge of the high-field domain and means are provided for measuring the potential at the probe whereby this measurement is indicative of the infrared radiation striking the platelet.

  10. Radiative self-interaction in classical field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, P.

    The products of mass renormalization in an electromagnetic field were studied in order to construct a classical theory of radiative self-interaction. A constraint was applied to the solution of the Dirac equation to ensure that the rest mass contained an electromagnetic component. The level shifts and decay rates of field states were calculated according to the method of Feynman (1961), and the results are discussed. Some applications of the theoretical results in the fields of laser physics and nonlinear optics are considered.

  11. Field dependent emission rates in radiation damaged GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, R. M.; Myers, S. M.; Wampler, W. R.; Lang, D. V.; Seager, C. H.; Campbell, J. M.

    2014-07-07

    We have measured the temperature and field dependence of emission rates from five traps in electron damaged GaAs. Four of the traps have previously been identified as radiation defects. One of the traps, seen in higher doped diodes, has not been previously identified. We have fit the data to a multiphonon emission theory that allows recombination in GaAs to be characterized over a broad range of temperature and electric field. These results demonstrate an efficient method to calculate field-dependent emission rates in GaAs.

  12. Electrical integrity of oxides in a radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Kinoshita, C.

    1996-04-01

    In the absence of an applied electric field, irradiation generally produces a decrease in the permanent (beam-off) electrical conductivity of ceramic insulators. However, in the past 6 years several research groups have reported a phenomenon known as radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED), which produces significant permanent increases in the electrical conductivity of ceramic insulators irradiated with an applied electric field. RIED has been reported to occur at temperatures between 420 and 800 K with applied electric fields as low as 20 V/mm.

  13. Near-field radiative heat transfer in mesoporous alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Yan-Hui, Feng; Xin-Xin, Zhang; Cong-Liang, Huang; Ge, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of mesoporous material has aroused the great interest of scholars due to its wide applications such as insulation, catalyst, etc. Mesoporous alumina substrate consists of uniformly distributed, unconnected cylindrical pores. Near-field radiative heat transfer cannot be ignored, when the diameters of the pores are less than the characteristic wavelength of thermal radiation. In this paper, near-field radiation across a cylindrical pore is simulated by employing the fluctuation dissipation theorem and Green function. Such factors as the diameter of the pore, and the temperature of the material are further analyzed. The research results show that the radiative heat transfer on a mesoscale is 2˜4 orders higher than on a macroscale. The heat flux and equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation across a cylindrical pore decrease exponentially with pore diameter increasing, while increase with temperature increasing. The calculated equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation is further developed to modify the thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina. The combined thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina is obtained by using porosity weighted dilute medium and compared with the measurement. The combined thermal conductivity of mesoporous silica decreases gradually with pore diameter increasing, while increases smoothly with temperature increasing, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The larger the porosity, the more significant the near-field effect is, which cannot be ignored. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51422601), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB720404), and the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013BAJ01B03).

  14. Quantum driven dissipative parametric oscillator in a blackbody radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Brumer, Paul

    2014-01-15

    We consider the general open system problem of a charged quantum oscillator confined in a harmonic trap, whose frequency can be arbitrarily modulated in time, that interacts with both an incoherent quantized (blackbody) radiation field and with an arbitrary coherent laser field. We assume that the oscillator is initially in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, a non-factorized initial density matrix of the system and the environment, and that at t = 0 the modulation of the frequency, the coupling to the incoherent and the coherent radiation are switched on. The subsequent dynamics, induced by the presence of the blackbody radiation, the laser field, and the frequency modulation, is studied in the framework of the influence functional approach. This approach allows incorporating, in analytic closed formulae, the non-Markovian character of the oscillator-environment interaction at any temperature as well the non-Markovian character of the blackbody radiation and its zero-point fluctuations. Expressions for the time evolution of the covariance matrix elements of the quantum fluctuations and the reduced density-operator are obtained.

  15. Radiative transfer model validations during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert; Breon, Francois-Marie; Gautier, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    Two simple radiative transfer models, the 5S model based on Tanre et al. (1985, 1986) and the wide-band model of Morcrette (1984) are validated by comparing their outputs with results obtained during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment on concomitant radiosonde, aerosol turbidity, and radiation measurements and sky photographs. Results showed that the 5S model overestimates the short-wave irradiance by 13.2 W/sq m, whereas the Morcrette model underestimated the long-wave irradiance by 7.4 W/sq m.

  16. A characteristic scale in radiation fields of fractal clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiscombe, W.; Cahalan, R.; Davis, A.; Marshak, A.

    1996-04-01

    The wavenumber spectrum of Landsat imagery for marine stratocumulus cloud shows a scale break when plotted on a double log plot. We offer an explanation of this scale break in terms of smoothing by horizontal radiative fluxes, which is parameterized and incorporated into an improved pixel approximation. We compute the radiation fields emerging from cloud models with horizontally variable optical depth fractal models. We use comparative spectral and multifractal analysis to qualify the validity of the independent pixel approximation at the largest scales and demonstrate it`s shortcomings on the smallest scales.

  17. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  18. Extending the radial diffusion model of Falthammar to non-dipole background field

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott

    2015-05-26

    A model for radial diffusion caused by electromagnetic disturbances was published by Falthammar (1965) using a two-parameter model of the disturbance perturbing a background dipole magnetic field. Schulz and Lanzerotti (1974) extended this model by recognizing the two parameter perturbation as the leading (non--dipole) terms of the Mead Williams magnetic field model. They emphasized that the magnetic perturbation in such a model induces an electric ield that can be calculated from the motion of field lines on which the particles are ‘frozen’. Roederer and Zhang (2014) describe how the field lines on which the particles are frozen can be calculated by tracing the unperturbed field lines from the minimum-B location to the ionospheric footpoint, and then tracing the perturbed field (which shares the same ionospheric footpoint due to the frozen -in condition) from the ionospheric footpoint back to a perturbed minimum B location. The instantaneous change n Roederer L*, dL*/dt, can then be computed as the product (dL*/dphi)*(dphi/dt). dL*/Dphi is linearly dependent on the perturbation parameters (to first order) and is obtained by computing the drift across L*-labeled perturbed field lines, while dphi/dt is related to the bounce-averaged gradient-curvature drift velocity. The advantage of assuming a dipole background magnetic field, as in these previous studies, is that the instantaneous dL*/dt can be computed analytically (with some approximations), as can the DLL that results from integrating dL*/dt over time and computing the expected value of (dL*)^2. The approach can also be applied to complex background magnetic field models like T89 or TS04, on top of which the small perturbations are added, but an analytical solution is not possible and so a numerical solution must be implemented. In this talk, I discuss our progress in implementing a numerical solution to the calculation of DL*L* using arbitrary background field models with simple electromagnetic

  19. Towards Regional Lunar Gravity Fields Using Lunar Prospector Extended Mission Data - Simulations and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, S.; Visser, P.; Floberghagen, R.; Koop, R.; Ambrosius, B.

    2002-12-01

    Until this date, the lunar gravimetric inverse problem has mainly been posed as a global problem, solving for gravity fields over the whole of the Moon. The asymmetric sampling of the force field requires that some sort of regularisation be applied in order to have a meaningful global solution that does not provide spurious information on the far side. On one hand these global solutions work very well in terms of overall orbit quality and consistency, despite the fact that roughly one half of the surface lacks sampling. On the other hand, excellently sampled regions cannot be determined at maximum spatial resolution without affecting too much the solution on the far side, which in itself is highly unstable. Since the Lunar Prospector mission, there are many of such excellently sampled regions on the near side of the Moon. In order to exhaust the information present in the tracking data of this satellite, regional methods for solving the gravity field of well-sampled areas become interesting. We present a method to extract regional gravity information from Doppler and Range tracking of the Lunar Prospector spacecraft. The method incorporates the GEODYN II software package for tracking data processing and orbit determination, and a software package to analyse the residuals from the orbit determination process, and to transform these residuals into gravity anomalies on the lunar surface by means of a Stokes method. Simulations will show how well a gravity signal in the residuals can be recovered. Results from orbit determination using 20 days of Lunar Prospector Extended Mission data will be shown, to demonstrate the readiness of the method to process real-life satellite data. With missions in the future such as SELENE, which will provide the first global tracking data set of the Moon ever, global and regional methods to solve for gravity field products will remain equally of interest, since they both can give complementary insight into the low and high resolution

  20. Slow-roll extended quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi; Siino, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2010-04-15

    We derive the slow-roll conditions for a nonminimally coupled scalar field (extended quintessence) during the radiation/matter dominated era extending our previous results for thawing quintessence. We find that the ratio {phi}e/3H{phi} becomes constant but negative, in sharp contrast to the ratio for the minimally coupled scalar field. We also find that the functional form of the equation of state of the scalar field asymptotically approaches that of the minimally coupled thawing quintessence.

  1. First Investigation on the Radiation Field of the Spherical Hohlraum.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wen Yi; Li, Zhichao; Chen, Yao-Hua; Xie, Xuefei; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Ren, Guoli; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Yonggang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Yang, Dong; Li, Sanwei; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Lifei; Du, Huabing; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Chaoguang; Zhan, Xiayu; Yuan, Guanghui; Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Baibin; Huang, Lizhen; Du, Kai; Zhao, Runchang; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Su, Jingqin; Ding, Yongkun; He, Xian-Tu; Zhang, Weiyan

    2016-07-01

    The first spherical hohlraum energetics experiment is accomplished on the SGIII-prototype laser facility. In the experiment, the radiation temperature is measured by using an array of flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRDs) through a laser entrance hole at four different angles. The radiation temperature and M-band fraction inside the hohlraum are determined by the shock wave technique. The experimental observations indicate that the radiation temperatures measured by the FXRDs depend on the observation angles and are related to the view field. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the vacuum spherical hohlraum is in the range from 60% to 80%. Although this conversion efficiency is less than the conversion efficiency of the near vacuum hohlraum on the National Ignition Facility, it is consistent with that of the cylindrical hohlraums used on the NOVA and the SGIII-prototype at the same energy scale. PMID:27447512

  2. First Investigation on the Radiation Field of the Spherical Hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Wen Yi; Li, Zhichao; Chen, Yao-Hua; Xie, Xuefei; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Ren, Guoli; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Yonggang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Yang, Dong; Li, Sanwei; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Lifei; Du, Huabing; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Chaoguang; Zhan, Xiayu; Yuan, Guanghui; Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Baibin; Huang, Lizhen; Du, Kai; Zhao, Runchang; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Su, Jingqin; Ding, Yongkun; He, Xian-Tu; Zhang, Weiyan

    2016-07-01

    The first spherical hohlraum energetics experiment is accomplished on the SGIII-prototype laser facility. In the experiment, the radiation temperature is measured by using an array of flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRDs) through a laser entrance hole at four different angles. The radiation temperature and M -band fraction inside the hohlraum are determined by the shock wave technique. The experimental observations indicate that the radiation temperatures measured by the FXRDs depend on the observation angles and are related to the view field. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the vacuum spherical hohlraum is in the range from 60% to 80%. Although this conversion efficiency is less than the conversion efficiency of the near vacuum hohlraum on the National Ignition Facility, it is consistent with that of the cylindrical hohlraums used on the NOVA and the SGIII-prototype at the same energy scale.

  3. Local Gravity Field Determination On The Moon Using GRAIL Extended Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were launched on September 10, 2011, and conducted their primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km. GRAIL's extended mission commenced on August 30 and was completed on December 14, 2012. The average altitude during the extended mission was 23 km above lunar surface. Both primary and extended mission data have been processed at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software, resulting in high-resolution (degree and order 900 in spherical harmonics) gravity field models of high accuracy. However, especially during low-altitude passes, Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data residuals are still well above noise level. Here, we focus on methods to determine local gravity adjustments from KBRR data. We represent gravity in the area of interest as gravity anomaly adjustments with respect to the background spherical harmonics model. We use KBRR data only over the area of interest, and we then perform short-arc orbit determination. Our areas of focus are mainly the Mare Orientale area, where GRAIL achieved its lowest altitude above the lunar surface towards the end of the mission, and the south pole area, where naturally there is a confluence of orbit tracks. We investigate different grids and different smoothing constraints used in the estimation of the anomalies, numerical differentiation with respect to time of the KBRR data to localize its sensitivity further, and we evaluate the solutions in terms of Bouguer anomaly signatures, KBRR data fit, and correlations with local topography.

  4. Dynamics of cell and tissue growth acquired by means of extended field of view lensfree microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Momey, F.; Coutard, J.-G.; Bordy, T.; Navarro, F.; Menneteau, M.; Dinten, J.-M.; Allier, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a new methodology based on lensfree imaging to perform wound healing assay with unprecedented statistics. Our video lensfree microscopy setup is a simple device featuring only a CMOS sensor and a semi coherent illumination system. Yet it is a powerful mean for the real-time monitoring of cultivated cells. It presents several key advantages, e.g. integration into standard incubator, compatibility with standard cell culture protocol, simplicity and ease of use. It can perform the follow-up in a large field of view (25 mm2) of several crucial parameters during the culture of cells i.e. their motility, their proliferation rate or their death. Consequently the setup can gather large statistics both in space and time. Here we uses this facility in the context of wound healing assay to perform label-free measurements of the velocities of the fronts of proliferation of the cell layer as a function of time by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV) processing. However, for such tissue growth experiments, the field of view of 25 mm2 remains not sufficient and results can be biased depending on the position of the device with respect to the recipient of the cell culture. Hence, to conduct exhaustive wound healing assays, we propose to enlarge the field of view up to 10 cm2 through a raster scan, by moving the source/sensor with respect to the Petri dish. We have performed acquisitions of wound healing assay (keratinocytes HaCaT) both in real-time (25 mm2) and in final point (10 cm2) to assess the combination of velocimetry measurements and final point wide field imaging. In the future, we aim at combining directly our extended field of view acquisitions (>10 cm2) with real time ability inside the incubator. PMID:26977359

  5. MOS CCDs for the extended wide-field imager of XEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Andrew D.; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Hutchinson, Ian; Calafell, J.; Turner, Martin J. L.; Lumb, David H.; Pool, Peter J.

    2003-03-01

    XEUS is the post-XMM next generation x-ray observatory which is currently under study by ESA. The mission aims to image the x-ray early universe through the study of feint, high red-shift objects. To provide sufficient photons to enable spectroscopy on these distant objects requires a telescope collecting area greatly in excess of those in use today, and an x-ray optic with collecting area ~100x of XMM is ultimately envisaged. With a focal length of 50m, the plate scale of the optic is 6.5x that of XMM, which using existing focal plane technology will reduce the effective field of view to a few arc minutes. Cryogenic instrumentation, with detector sizes of a few mm can only be used for narrow field studies of target objects, and a wide field instrument is under consideration using a DEPFET pixel array to image out to a diameter of 5 arcminutes, requiring an array of dimension 70mm. Since the useful field of view of the XEUS optic will extend to a diameter of 30 arcminutes, the potential of the optic could be very under-utilized. Here we propose an extension to the wide field imager, the E-WFI, comprised of a ring array of CCDs which will increase the coverage of the focal plane, and greatly increase the serendipitous science resulting from the mission. Here we describe the first design concept for the E-WFI, and discuss the technical advancements in MOS CCD technology which will enhance the science of the mission.

  6. A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Stephen J.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.

  7. Radiation from plasmas with sub-Larmor scale magnetic fields -- generalized jitter radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Mikhail

    2009-11-01

    Radiation produced by relativistic electrons in random magnetic fields of a sub-Larmor scale is referred to as the jitter radiation. It has been predicted to be produced from high- energy density environments which naturally generate such fields via Weibel-type (e.g., streaming) instabilities. Thus, it was argued to be a new diagnostic of Weibel turbulence in relativistic collisionless shocks, in reconnection in electron- positron plasmas and in laser-produced plasmas, the latter is of interest to both laser-plasma applications (e.g., Fast Ignition) and to Laboratory Astrophysics. The spectral characteristics of jitter radiation are markedly different from those of synchrotron and carry information about the magnetic fields structure (e.g., its spatial spectrum). Conventional treatment of jitter radiation assumes negligibly small deflections of particles in the magnetic fields, which is not always the case. Here we relax this assumption and discuss the transition between jitter and synchrotron regimes. Although the full treatment is model-dependent, certain important conclusions can be drawn. We will also address applications to both laboratory studies of the Weibel turbulence and astrophysical phenomena.

  8. THE RADIATIVE TRANSFER OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION THROUGH A COMPRESSED RANDOM MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Cawthorne, T. V.; Hughes, P. A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the radiative transfer of synchrotron radiation in the presence of a magnetic field configuration resulting from the compression of a highly disordered magnetic field. It is shown that, provided Faraday rotation and circular polarization can be neglected, the radiative transfer equations for synchrotron radiation separate for this configuration, and the intensities and polarization values for sources that are uniform on large scales can be found straightforwardly in the case where opacity is significant. Although the emission and absorption coefficients must, in general, be obtained numerically, the process is much simpler than a full numerical solution to the transfer equations. Some illustrative results are given and an interesting effect, whereby the polarization increases while the magnetic field distribution becomes less strongly confined to the plane of compression, is discussed. The results are of importance for the interpretation of polarization near the edges of lobes in radio galaxies and of bright features in the parsec-scale jets of active galactic nuclei, where such magnetic field configurations are believed to exist.

  9. Modelling of radiation field around spent fuel container.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkov, E F; Opalovsky, V A; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Operation of nuclear reactors leads to the production of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). There are two basic strategies of SNF management: ultimate disposal of SNF in geological formations and recycle or repeated utilisation of reprocessed SNF. In both options, there is an urgent necessity to study radiation properties of SNF. Information about SNF radiation properties is required at all stages of SNF management. In order to reach more effective utilisation of nuclear materials, new fuel cycles are under development based on uranium-plutonium, uranium-thorium and some other types of nuclear fuel. These promising types of nuclear fuel are characterised by quite different radiation properties at all the stages of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) listed above. So, comparative analysis is required for radiation properties of different nuclear fuel types at different NFC stages. The results presented here were obtained from the numerical analysis of the radiation field around transport containers of different SNF types and in SNF storage. The calculations are carried out with the application of the computer code packages SCALE-4.3 and MCNP-4C. Comparison of the dose parameters obtained for different models of the transport container with experimental data allowed us to make certain conclusions about the errors of numerical results caused by the approximate geometrical description of the transport container. PMID:16604702

  10. Extending the GMR current measurement range with a counteracting magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Poon, Tin Yan; Tse, Norman Chung Fai; Lau, Ricky Wing Hong

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, current transformers are often used for current measurement in low voltage (LV) electrical networks. They have a large physical size and are not designed for use with power electronic circuits. Semiconductor-based current sensing devices such as the Hall sensor and Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor are advantageous in terms of small size, high sensitivity, wide frequency range, low power consumption, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, the operational characteristics of these devices limit their current measurement range. In this paper, a design based on using counteracting magnetic field is introduced for extending the GMR current measurement range from 9 A (unipolar) to ±45 A. A prototype has been implemented to verify the design and the linear operation of the circuit is demonstrated by experimental results. A microcontroller unit (MCU) is used to provide an automatic scaling function to optimize the performance of the proposed current sensor. PMID:23793022

  11. Recovery of phase inconsistencies in continuously moving table extended field of view magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Kruger, David G; Riederer, Stephen J; Rossman, Phillip J; Mostardi, Petrice M; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Hu, Houchun H

    2005-09-01

    MR images formed using extended FOV continuously moving table data acquisition can have signal falloff and loss of lateral spatial resolution at localized, periodic positions along the direction of table motion. In this work we identify the origin of these artifacts and provide a means for correction. The artifacts are due to a mismatch of the phase of signals acquired from contiguous sampling fields of view and are most pronounced when the central k-space views are being sampled. Correction can be performed using the phase information from a periodically sampled central view to adjust the phase of all other views of that view cycle, making the net phase uniform across each axial plane. Results from experimental phantom and contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA studies show that the correction technique substantially eliminates the artifact for a variety of phase encode orders.

  12. Extending the GMR Current Measurement Range with a Counteracting Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Tin Yan; Tse, Norman Chung Fai; Lau, Ricky Wing Hong

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, current transformers are often used for current measurement in low voltage (LV) electrical networks. They have a large physical size and are not designed for use with power electronic circuits. Semiconductor-based current sensing devices such as the Hall sensor and Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor are advantageous in terms of small size, high sensitivity, wide frequency range, low power consumption, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, the operational characteristics of these devices limit their current measurement range. In this paper, a design based on using counteracting magnetic field is introduced for extending the GMR current measurement range from 9 A (unipolar) to ±45 A. A prototype has been implemented to verify the design and the linear operation of the circuit is demonstrated by experimental results. A microcontroller unit (MCU) is used to provide an automatic scaling function to optimize the performance of the proposed current sensor. PMID:23793022

  13. Measurement of PSF for the extended depth of field of microscope based on liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yujia; Qu, Yufu; Zhu, Shenyu

    2015-08-01

    To obtain the accurate integral PSF of an extended depth of field (EDOF) microscope based on liquid tunable lens and volumetric sampling (VS) method, a method based on statistic and inverse filtering using quantum dot fluorescence nanosphere as a point source is proposed in this paper. First, a number of raw quantum dot images were captured separately when the focus length of the liquid lens was fixed and changed over the exposure time. Second, the raw images were separately added and averaged to obtain two noise-free mean images. Third, the integral PSF was achieved by computing the inverse Fourier transform of the mean image's Fourier transform caught when the focus lens is fixed divided by that when the focus length is changed. Finally, experimental results show that restored image using the measured accumulated PSF has good image quality and no artifacts.

  14. Local field and radiative relaxation rate in a dielectric medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. V.; Roerich, Vl. K.; Gladush, M. G.

    2011-10-01

    The effect of macroscopic parameters of a substance on the optical characteristics of impurity particles is investigated. A generalized control equation is derived for two-level emitters forming an ensemble of optical centers in a transparent dielectric medium. In this equation, the effective values of the acting pump field and the radiative relaxation rate of an optical center are taken into account. The formalism developed here is a completely microscopic approach based on the chain of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon equations for reduced density matrices and correlation operators for material particles and modes of a quantized radiation field. The method used here makes it possible to take into account the effects of individual and collective behavior of emitters, which are associated with the presence of an intermediate medium, consistently without using phenomenological procedures. It is shown that the resultant analytic expression for the effective lifetime of the excited state of an optical center conforms with experimental data.

  15. Cosmological perturbations for an inflaton field coupled to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Visinelli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the interacting fluid formalism, we provide the numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation describing the evolution of an inflaton field coupled to radiation. We study the behavior of the system during the slow-roll regime, in the case in which an additional stochastic source term is included in the set of equations, and we recover the expression for the cosmological perturbations previously obtained in the Warm inflation scenarios.

  16. Impact of magnetic field inhomogeneity on electron cyclotron radiative loss in tokamak reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Minashin, P. V.; Polevoi, A. R.

    2012-03-15

    The potential importance of electron cyclotron (EC) emission in the local electron power balance in the steady-state regimes of ITER operation with high temperatures, as well as in the DEMO reactor, requires accurate calculation of the one-dimensional (over magnetic surfaces) distribution of the net radiated power density, P{sub EC}({rho}). When the central electron temperature increases to {approx}30 keV, the local EC radiative loss comprises a substantial fraction of the heating power from fusion alphas and is close to the total auxiliary NBI heating power, P{sub EC}(0) Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.3P{sub {alpha}}(0) Asymptotically-Equal-To P{sub aux}(0). In the present paper, the model of EC radiative transport in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is extended to the case of an inhomogeneous magnetic field B(R, Z). The impact of such inhomogeneity on local and total power losses is analyzed in the framework of this model by using the CYNEQ code. It is shown that, for the magnetic field B, temperature T{sub e}, density n{sub e}, and wall reflection coefficient R{sub w} expected in ITER and DEMO, accurate simulations of the EC radiative loss require self-consistent 1.5D transport analysis (i.e., one-dimensional simulations of plasma transport and two-dimensional simulations of plasma equilibrium). It is shown that EC radiative transport can be described with good accuracy in the 1D approximation with the surface-averaged magnetic field, B({rho}) = Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket B(R, Z) Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {sub ms}. This makes it possible to substantially reduce the computational time required for time-dependent self-consistent 1.5D transport analysis. Benchmarking of the CYNEQ results with available results of the RAYTEC, EXACTEC, and CYTRAN codes is performed for various approximations of the magnetic field.

  17. Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement.

    PubMed

    Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Kim, Myungki; Dhuey, Scott; Lakhani, Amit; Choo, Hyuck; Schuck, Peter James; Cabrini, Stefano; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Bokor, Jeffrey; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2011-07-13

    Optical antennas have generated much interest in recent years due to their ability to focus optical energy beyond the diffraction limit, benefiting a broad range of applications such as sensitive photodetection, magnetic storage, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. To achieve the maximum field enhancement for an optical antenna, parameters such as the antenna dimensions, loading conditions, and coupling efficiency have been previously studied. Here, we present a framework, based on coupled-mode theory, to achieve maximum field enhancement in optical antennas through optimization of optical antennas' radiation characteristics. We demonstrate that the optimum condition is achieved when the radiation quality factor (Q(rad)) of optical antennas is matched to their absorption quality factor (Q(abs)). We achieve this condition experimentally by fabricating the optical antennas on a dielectric (SiO(2)) coated ground plane (metal substrate) and controlling the antenna radiation through optimizing the dielectric thickness. The dielectric thickness at which the matching condition occurs is approximately half of the quarter-wavelength thickness, typically used to achieve constructive interference, and leads to ∼20% higher field enhancement relative to a quarter-wavelength thick dielectric layer.

  18. Conservation of ζ with radiative corrections from heavy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we address a possible impact of radiative corrections from a heavy scalar field χ on the curvature perturbation ζ. Integrating out χ, we derive the effective action for ζ, which includes the loop corrections of the heavy field χ. When the mass of χ is much larger than the Hubble scale H, the loop corrections of χ only yield a local contribution to the effective action and hence the effective action simply gives an action for ζ in a single field model, where, as is widely known, ζ is conserved in time after the Hubble crossing time. Meanwhile, when the mass of χ is comparable to H, the loop corrections of χ can give a non-local contribution to the effective action. Because of the non-local contribution from χ, in general, ζ may not be conserved, even if the classical background trajectory is determined only by the evolution of the inflaton. In this paper, we derive the condition that ζ is conserved in time in the presence of the radiative corrections from χ. Namely, we show that when the dilatation invariance, which is a part of the diffeomorphism invariance, is preserved at the quantum level, the loop corrections of the massive field χ do not disturb the constant evolution of ζ at super Hubble scales. In this discussion, we show the Ward-Takahashi identity for the dilatation invariance, which yields a consistency relation for the correlation functions of the massive field χ.

  19. Field profile tailoring in a-Si:H radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujieda, I.; Cho, G.; Conti, M.; Drewery, J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Quershi, S.; Wildermuth, D. ); Street, R.A. )

    1990-03-01

    The capability of tailoring the field profile in reverse-biased a-Si:H diodes by doping and/or manipulating electrode shapes opens a way to many interesting device structures. Charge collection in a-Si:H radiation detectors is improved for high LET particle detection by inserting thin doped layers into the i-layer of the usual p-i-n diode. This buried p-i-n structure enables us to apply higher reverse-bias and the electric field is enhanced in the mid i-layer. Field profiles of the new structures are calculated and the improved charge collection process is discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of field profile tailoring by utilizing the fixed space charges in i-layers and/or manipulating electrode shapes of the reverse-biased p-i-n diodes. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  20. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Trompier, François; Ambrozova, Iva; Kubancak, Jan; Matthiä, Daniel; Ploc, Ondrej; Santen, Nicole; Wirtz, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Space weather can strongly affect the complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The assessment of the corresponding radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers has been a challenging task as well as a legal obligation in the European Union for many years. The response of several radiation measuring instruments operated by different European research groups during joint measuring flights was investigated in the framework of the CONCORD (COmparisoN of COsmic Radiation Detectors) campaign in the radiation field at aviation altitudes. This cooperation offered the opportunity to measure under the same space weather conditions and contributed to an independent quality control among the participating groups. The CONCORD flight campaign was performed with the twin-jet research aircraft Dassault Falcon 20E operated by the flight facility Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR). Dose rates were measured at four positions in the atmosphere in European airspace for about one hour at each position in order to obtain acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the measuring flights demonstrates that short-term solar activity did not affect the results which show a very good agreement between the readings of the instruments of the different institutes.

  1. Verification of light & radiation field coincidence quality assurance for radiation therapy by using a-Se based DR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Young; Park, Eun-Tae; Choi, Yun-Seon; Cho, Heung-Lae; Ahn, Ki-Jung; Park, Sung-Kwang; Kim, Ji-Na; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kim, Jin-Seon; Hong, Ju-Yeon; Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Kyo-Tae; Oh, Kyung-Min; Kim, Hyunjung; Jo, Sun-Mi; Oh, Won-Yong; Jin, Seong-Jin; Cho, Woong

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) recommends measuring the surface field size once a week by using an analog film in order to verify light and radiation field coincidence in the Quality Assurance (QA) of radiotherapy. However, the use of the film does not allow for a quantitative method of evaluation, and measuring the light field with radiation field detectors in a 2D array is difficult. Therefore, we used an amorphous-Se (a-Se) digital radiation detection system to measure the light and radiation fields simultaneously for a quantitative QA system, and the feasibility of using such a system was confirmed by ensuring the coincidence of the light and the radiation field measurements. The characteristics of the analog film and the a-Se digital radiation detection system were compared by delivering to each doses of 100, 10 monitor units(MU) of radiation at a rate of 400 MU/min to a radiation field 100 × 100 mm2 in size from a 100 cm source-surface distance (SSD). A 0.5 mm to 0.6 mm difference was measured in the X-axis, and a 0.3 mm difference was measured in the Y-axis. The difference in the measurements of the coincidence of light and the radiation field was less than 0.3 mm, which is relatively insignificant. These results indicate that the use of an a-Se digital radiation detection system is adequate for quality assurance of radiotherapy using light and radiation field coincidence. In addition, the experiment is considered to have provided valuable results in that the a-Se based digital radiation detection system enables simple and accurate QA for clinical radiation therapy by assessing the coincidence in the alignment of the light and the radiation fields.

  2. Radiation pressure and the linear momentum of the electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2004-11-01

    We derive the force of the electromagnetic radiation on material objects by a direct application of the Lorentz law of classical electrodynamics. The derivation is straightforward in the case of solid metals and solid dielectrics, where the mass density and the optical constants of the media are assumed to remain unchanged under internal and external pressures, and where material flow and deformation can be ignored. For metallic mirrors, we separate the contribution to the radiation pressure of the electrical charge density from that of the current density of the conduction electrons. In the case of dielectric media, we examine the forces experienced by bound charges and currents, and determine the contribution of each to the radiation pressure. These analyses reveal the existence of a lateral radiation pressure inside the dielectric media, one that is exerted at and around the edges of a finite-diameter light beam. The lateral pressure turns out to be compressive for s-polarized light and expansive for p-polarized light. Along the way, we derive an expression for the momentum density of the light field inside dielectric media, one that has equal contributions from the traditional Minkowski and Abraham forms. This new expression for the momentum density, which contains both electromagnetic and mechanical terms, is used to explain the behavior of light pulses and individual photons upon entering and exiting a dielectric slab. In all the cases considered, the net forces and torques experienced by material bodies are consistent with the relevant conservation laws. Our method of calculating the radiation pressure can be used in conjunction with numerical simulations to yield the distribution of fields and forces in diverse systems of practical interest.

  3. Higgs-Yukawa model with higher dimension operators via extended mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Using extended mean field theory (EMFT) on the lattice, we study properties of the Higgs-Yukawa model as an approximation of the standard model Higgs sector, and the effect of higher dimension operators. We remark, as has been noted before, that the discussion of vacuum stability is completely modified in the presence of a ϕ6 term, and that the Higgs mass no longer appears fine tuned. We also study the finite temperature transition. Without higher dimension operators the transition is found to be second order (crossover with gauge fields) for the experimental value of the Higgs mass Mh=125 GeV . By taking a ϕ6 interaction in the Higgs potential as a proxy for a UV completion of the standard model, the transition becomes stronger and turns first order if the scale of new physics, i.e., the mass of the lightest mediator particle, is around 1.5 TeV. This implies that electroweak baryogenesis may be viable in models which introduce new particles around that scale.

  4. Cosmic Ray Propagation through the Magnetic Fields of the Galaxy with Extended Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2005-01-01

    In this project we perform theoretical studies of 3-dimensional cosmic ray propagation in magnetic field configurations of the Galaxy with an extended halo. We employ our newly developed Markov stochastic process methods to solve the diffusive cosmic ray transport equation. We seek to understand observations of cosmic ray spectra, composition under the constraints of the observations of diffuse gamma ray and radio emission from the Galaxy. The model parameters are directly are related to properties of our Galaxy, such as the size of the Galactic halo, particle transport in Galactic magnetic fields, distribution of interstellar gas, primary cosmic ray source distribution and their confinement in the Galaxy. The core of this investigation is the development of software for cosmic ray propagation models with the Markov stochastic process approach. Values of important model parameters for the halo diffusion model are examined in comparison with observations of cosmic ray spectra, composition and the diffuse gamma-ray background. This report summarizes our achievement in the grant period at the Florida Institute of Technology. Work at the co-investigator's institution, the University of New Hampshire, under a companion grant, will be covered in detail by a separate report.

  5. An extended cost potential field cellular automata model considering behavior variation of pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fang; Li, Xingli; Kuang, Hua; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-11-01

    The original cost potential field cellular automata describing normal pedestrian evacuation is extended to study more general evacuation scenarios. Based on the cost potential field function, through considering the psychological characteristics of crowd under emergencies, the quantitative formula of behavior variation is introduced to reflect behavioral changes caused by psychology tension. The numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the magnitude of behavior variation, the different pedestrian proportions with different behavior variation and other factors on the evacuation efficiency and process in a room. The spatiotemporal dynamic characteristic during the evacuation process is also discussed. The results show that compared with the normal evacuation, the behavior variation under an emergency does not necessarily lead to the decrease of the evacuation efficiency. At low density, the increase of the behavior variation can improve the evacuation efficiency, while at high density, the evacuation efficiency drops significantly with the increasing amplitude of the behavior variation. In addition, the larger proportion of pedestrian affected by the behavior variation will prolong the evacuation time.

  6. Portable low-coherence interferometry for quantitatively imaging fast dynamics with extended field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Girshovitz, Pinhas; Frenklach, Irena

    2014-06-01

    We present our recent advances in the development of compact, highly portable and inexpensive wide-field interferometric modules. By a smart design of the interferometric system, including the usage of low-coherence illumination sources and common-path off-axis geometry of the interferometers, spatial and temporal noise levels of the resulting quantitative thickness profile can be sub-nanometric, while processing the phase profile in real time. In addition, due to novel experimentally-implemented multiplexing methods, we can capture low-coherence off-axis interferograms with significantly extended field of view and in faster acquisition rates. Using these techniques, we quantitatively imaged rapid dynamics of live biological cells including sperm cells and unicellular microorganisms. Then, we demonstrated dynamic profiling during lithography processes of microscopic elements, with thicknesses that may vary from several nanometers to hundreds of microns. Finally, we present new algorithms for fast reconstruction (including digital phase unwrapping) of off-axis interferograms, which allow real-time processing in more than video rate on regular single-core computers.

  7. THE LARGE APEX BOLOMETER CAMERA SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.; Kovacs, A.; Menten, K. M.; Coppin, K.; Smail, Ian; Greve, T. R.; Walter, F.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Bertoldi, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Cox, P.; De Breuck, C.; Gawiser, E.; Lutz, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2009-12-20

    We present a sensitive 870 mum survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) combining 310 hr of observing time with the Large Apex BOlometer Camera (LABOCA) on the APEX telescope. The LABOCA ECDFS Submillimetre Survey (LESS) covers the full 30' x 30' field size of the ECDFS and has a uniform noise level of sigma{sub 870{sub m}}u{sub m} approx 1.2 mJy beam{sup -1}. LESS is thus the largest contiguous deep submillimeter survey undertaken to date. The noise properties of our map show clear evidence that we are beginning to be affected by confusion noise. We present a catalog of 126 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) detected with a significance level above 3.7sigma, at which level we expect five false detections given our map area of 1260 arcmin{sup 2}. The ECDFS exhibits a deficit of bright SMGs relative to previously studied blank fields but not of normal star-forming galaxies that dominate the extragalactic background light (EBL). This is in line with the underdensities observed for optically defined high redshift source populations in the ECDFS (BzKs, DRGs, optically bright active galactic nucleus, and massive K-band-selected galaxies). The differential source counts in the full field are well described by a power law with a slope of alpha = -3.2, comparable to the results from other fields. We show that the shape of the source counts is not uniform across the field. Instead, it steepens in regions with low SMG density. Towards the highest overdensities we measure a source-count shape consistent with previous surveys. The integrated 870 mum flux densities of our source-count models down to S{sub 870{sub m}}u{sub m} = 0.5 mJy account for >65% of the estimated EBL from COBE measurements. We have investigated the clustering of SMGs in the ECDFS by means of a two-point correlation function and find evidence for strong clustering on angular scales <1' with a significance of 3.4sigma. Assuming a power-law dependence for the correlation function and a typical

  8. An automated system for gamma radiation field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Robert; Tarpinian, James E.; Kenney, Edward S.

    1990-12-01

    Remote radiation survey equipment was sorely needed at Chernobyl but adequate systems did not exist. The current state of the art still consists of a survey meter mounted on a robotic carriage, which scans an area at many points on a grid. This process is both time consuming and somewhat inaccurate. The system we have developed will overcome these limitations, and would provide significant savings in man-hours and man-rem over manual survey techniques. The system we have developed consists of a collimated ionization chamber mounted in a scanning head. The measurement process is similar to that used in medical computed tomography (CT) imaging and consists of a series of collimator rotations and translations. The key to this work is the use of a collimator to provide position information with a position insensitive detector. In addition, an inverse filter image reconstruction technique has been used to reduce the distortion effects due to the scanner and scanning process in the resulting maps. This technique models the distortion as a linear, space invariant degrading function which is removed in a deconvolution process. We have constructed first- and second-generation prototype scanners, and developed software to produce three-dimensional radiation field "iso-dose" maps. The iso-dose maps will be superimposed on three-dimensional computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) drawings of the radiation area, aiding in the characterization of the source of radiation.

  9. Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012, for the primary mission and from August 30, 2012 to December 14, 2012 for the extended mission and endgame. During both mission phases, the twin spacecraft acquired highly precise Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from altitudes of 2.3 to 98.2 km above the lunar surface. We have processed the GRAIL data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program and used the supercomputers of the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at NASA GSFC to accumulate the SRIF arrays and derive the geopotential solutions. During the extended mission, the spacecraft orbits were maintained at a mean altitude of ~23 km, compared to ~50 km during the primary mission. In addition, from December 7 to December 14, 2012, data were acquired from a mean altitude of 11.5 km. With these data, we have derived solutions in spherical harmonics to degree 900. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to very high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 15 km. We discuss the methods we used for the processing of the GRAIL data, and evaluate these solutions with respect to the derived power spectra, Bouguer anomalies, and fits with independent data (such as from the low-altitude phase of the Lunar Prospector mission).

  10. 3D Extended Logging for Geothermal Resources: Field Trials with the Geo-Bilt System

    SciTech Connect

    Mallan, R; Wilt, M; Kirkendall, B; Kasameyer, P

    2002-05-29

    Geo-BILT (Geothermal Borehole Induction Logging Tool) is an extended induction logging tool designed for 3D resistivity imaging around a single borehole. The tool was developed for deployment in high temperature geothermal wells under a joint program funded by the California Energy Commission, Electromagnetic Instruments (EMI) and the U.S. Department of Energy. EM1 was responsible for tool design and manufacture, and numerical modeling efforts were being addressed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) and other contractors. The field deployment was done by EM1 and LLNL. The tool operates at frequencies from 2 to 42 kHz, and its design features a series of three-component magnetic sensors offset at 2 and 5 meters from a three-component magnetic source. The combined package makes it possible to do 3D resistivity imaging, deep into the formation, from a single well. The manufacture and testing of the tool was completed in spring of 2001, and the initial deployment of Geo-BILT occurred in May 2001 at the Lost Hills oil field in southern California at leases operated by Chevron USA. This site was chosen for the initial field test because of the favorable geological conditions and the availability of a number of wells suitable for tool deployment. The second deployment occurred in April 2002 at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, operated by Caithness Power LLC, in central Nevada. This constituted the first test in a high temperature environment. The Chevron site features a fiberglass-cased observation well in the vicinity of a water injector. The injected water, which is used for pressure maintenance and for secondary sweep of the heavy oil formation, has a much lower resistivity than the oil bearing formation. This, in addition to the non-uniform flow of this water, creates a 3D resistivity structure, which is analogous to conditions produced from flowing fractures adjacent to geothermal boreholes. Therefore, it is an excellent site for testing the 3D capability of

  11. Optimized non-integer order phase mask to extend the depth of field of an imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Miao, Erlong; Sui, Yongxin; Yang, Huaijiang

    2016-09-01

    Wavefront coding is an effective optical technique used to extend the depth of field for an incoherent imaging system. Through introducing an optimized phase mask to the pupil plane, the modulated optical transfer function is defocus-invariant. In this paper, we proposed a new form phase mask using non-integer order and signum function to extend the depth of field. The performance of the phase mask is evaluated by comparing defocused modulation transfer function invariant and Fisher information with other phase masks. Defocused imaging simulation is also carried out. The results demonstrate the advantages of non-integer order phase mask and its effectiveness on the depth of field extension.

  12. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  13. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies. PMID:22678613

  14. Evaluation of neutron radiation field in carbon ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun-Kui; Su, You-Wu; Li, Wu-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xi-Meng; Mao, Wang; Pang, Cheng-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Carbon ions have significant advantages in tumor therapy because of their physical and biological properties. In view of the radiation protection, the safety of patients is the most important issue in therapy processes. Therefore, the effects of the secondary particles produced by the carbon ions in the tumor therapy should be carefully considered, especially for the neutrons. In the present work, the neutron radiation field induced by carbon ions was evaluated by using the FLUKA code. The simulated results of neutron energy spectra and neutron dose was found to be in good agreement with the experiment data. In addition, energy deposition of carbon ions and neutrons in tissue-like media was studied, it is found that the secondary neutron energy deposition is not expected to exceed 1% of the carbon ion energy deposition in a typical treatment.

  15. A field test of a simple stochastic radiative transfer model

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, N.

    1995-09-01

    The problem of determining the effect of clouds on the radiative energy balance of the globe is of well-recognized importance. One can in principle solve the problem for any given configuration of clouds using numerical techniques. This knowledge is not useful however, because of the amount of input data and computer resources required. Besides, we need only the average of the resulting solution over the grid scale of a general circulation model (GCM). Therefore, we are interested in estimating the average of the solutions of such fine-grained problems using only coarse grained data, a science or art called stochastic radiation transfer. Results of the described field test indicate that the stochastic description is a somewhat better fit to the data than is a fractional cloud cover model, but more data are needed. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  16. Radiation-like scalar field and gauge fields in cosmology for a theory with dynamical time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benisty, David; Guendelman, E. I.

    2016-09-01

    Cosmological solutions with a scalar field behaving as radiation are obtained, in the context of gravitational theory with dynamical time. The solution requires the spacial curvature of the universe k, to be zero, unlike the standard radiation solutions, which do not impose any constraint on the spatial curvature of the universe. This is because only such k = 0 radiation solutions pose a homothetic Killing vector. This kind of theory can be used to generalize electromagnetism and other gauge theories, in curved spacetime, and there are no deviations from standard gauge field equation (like Maxwell equations) in the case there exist a conformal Killing vector. But there could be departures from Maxwell and Yang-Mills equations, for more general spacetimes.

  17. The influences of solar wind pressure and interplanetary magnetic field on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt electrons

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, J.; Li, L. Y.; Cao, J. B.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H.

    2016-07-22

    Using the Van Allen Probe in situ measured magnetic field and electron data, we examine the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) effects on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt relativistic electrons (≥1.8 MeV). The dynamic pressure enhancements (>2 nPa) cause the dayside magnetic field increase and the nightside magnetic field reduction, whereas the large southward IMFs (Bz-IMF < –2nT) mainly lead to the decrease of the nightside magnetic field. In the dayside increased magnetic field region (magnetic local time (MLT) ~ 06:00–18:00, and L > 4), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons are mainly pancakemore » distributions with a flux peak around 90° (corresponding anisotropic index A > 0.1), and the higher-energy electrons have stronger pancake distributions (the larger A), suggesting that the compression-induced betatron accelerations enhance the dayside pancake distributions. However, in the nighttime decreased magnetic field region (MLT ~ 18:00–06:00, and L ≥ 5), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons become butterfly distributions with two flux peaks around 45° and 135° (A < 0). The spatial range of the nighttime butterfly distributions is almost independent of the relativistic electron energy, but it depends on the magnetic field day-night asymmetry and the interplanetary conditions. The dynamic pressure enhancements can make the nighttime butterfly distribution extend inward. The large southward IMFs can also lead to the azimuthal expansion of the nighttime butterfly distributions. As a result, these variations are consistent with the drift shell splitting and/or magnetopause shadowing effect.« less

  18. The influences of solar wind pressure and interplanetary magnetic field on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Li, L. Y.; Cao, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H.

    2016-07-01

    Using the Van Allen Probe in situ measured magnetic field and electron data, we examine the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) effects on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt relativistic electrons (≥1.8 MeV). The dynamic pressure enhancements (>2 nPa) cause the dayside magnetic field increase and the nightside magnetic field reduction, whereas the large southward IMFs (Bz-IMF < -2nT) mainly lead to the decrease of the nightside magnetic field. In the dayside increased magnetic field region (magnetic local time (MLT) ~ 06:00-18:00, and L > 4), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons are mainly pancake distributions with a flux peak around 90° (corresponding anisotropic index A > 0.1), and the higher-energy electrons have stronger pancake distributions (the larger A), suggesting that the compression-induced betatron accelerations enhance the dayside pancake distributions. However, in the nighttime decreased magnetic field region (MLT ~ 18:00-06:00, and L ≥ 5), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons become butterfly distributions with two flux peaks around 45° and 135° (A < 0). The spatial range of the nighttime butterfly distributions is almost independent of the relativistic electron energy, but it depends on the magnetic field day-night asymmetry and the interplanetary conditions. The dynamic pressure enhancements can make the nighttime butterfly distribution extend inward. The large southward IMFs can also lead to the azimuthal expansion of the nighttime butterfly distributions. These variations are consistent with the drift shell splitting and/or magnetopause shadowing effect.

  19. Treatment of stage i and ii mediastinal Hodgkin disease: a comparison of involved fields, extended fields, and involved fields followed by MOPP in patients stage by laparotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemeister, F.B.; Fuller, L.M.; Sullivan, J.A.; North, L.; Velasquez, W.; Conrad, F.G.; McLaughlin, P.; Butter, J.J.; Shullenberger, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Three treatment programs for Stage I and II mediastinal Hodgkin disease (established by laparotomy) were compared. Involved-field radiotherapy + MOPP gave a disease-free survival rate of 97%, significantly different from 62% and 55% for involved and extended fields, respectively. Corresponding survival figures of 97%, 88%, and 84% were not signiticantly different statistically due to salvage with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Among patients given radiotherapy alone, the survival figure of 94% for limited mediastinal disease was significantly better than 63% for extensive mediastinal and hilar disease; corresponding disease-free figures of 72% and 35% were also significantly different. Constitutional symptoms were an important prognostic factor in disease-free survival following the use of involved fields; hilar disease was important only with large mediastinal masses. Most relapses were intrathoracic; MOPP alone salvaged only 47%. Treatment of State I and II Hodgkin disease should be based on symptoms, extent of mediastinal disease, and hilar involvement.

  20. A modular, extendible and field-tolerant multichannel vector magnetometer based on current sensor SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, J.-H.; Drung, D.; Burghoff, M.; Körber, R.

    2016-09-01

    We present the prototype module of our extendible and robust multichannel SQUID magnetometer system. A large multi-module arrangement can be implemented by using up to 7 modules. The system is intended for high-precision measurements of biomagnetism and spin precession. Further demanding applications are magnetorelaxometry and ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (ULF NMR), where pulsed magnetic fields of up to 100 mT are typically applied. The system is operated inside the Berlin magnetically shielded room (BMSR-2) and equipped with 18 magnetometers consisting of niobium (Nb) wire-wound pick-up coils. A total of 16 small pick-up coils with 17.1 mm diameter form a regular grid with individual channels arranged to ensure system sensitivity covers all three orthogonal spatial directions. Two large hexagonal pick-up coils with an equivalent diameter of 74.5 mm sensitive in z-direction surround the grid at two different heights and are suitable for the detection of deep sources. Each pick-up coil is connected to the input of a thin-film Nb SQUID current sensor via a detachable superconducting contact. The SQUIDs are equipped with integrated input current limiters. Feedback into the pick-up coils is employed to minimise crosstalk between channels. The current sensor chip package includes a superconducting shield of Nb. The field distortion of the prototype and a multi-module arrangement was analysed by numerical simulation. The measured noise of the small magnetometers was between 0.6 and 1.5 fT {{Hz}}-1/2, and well below 1 fT {{Hz}}-1/2 for the large ones. Using a software gradiometer, we achieved a minimum noise level of 0.54 fT {{Hz}}-1/2. We performed ULF NMR experiments, verifying the system’s robustness against pulsed fields, and magnetoencephalographgy (MEG) on somatosensory evoked neuronal activity. The low noise performance of our 18-channel prototype enabled the detection of high-frequency components at around 1 kHz by MEG.

  1. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER{trademark}, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack{trademark} that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant

  2. Field-deployable gamma-radiation detectors for DHS use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2007-09-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS' requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER TM, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack TM that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field1. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant spectral data and

  3. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-31

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS’s requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time and reach back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron’s identiFINDER™, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18-cm x 2.54-cm cylinders) as gamma detector, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack™ that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity (comparable to that of a 7.62-cm x 7.62-cm sodium iodide crystal at low gamma energy ranging from 30 keV to 3,000 keV), better resolution (< 3.0 percent at 662 keV), faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets

  4. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Denker, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Golnik, N.; Hohmann, E.; Leuschner, A.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Manessi, G.; Mayer, S.; Ott, K.; Röhrich, J.; Silari, M.; Trompier, F.; Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M.

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  5. Weiss mean-field approximation for multicomponent stochastic spatially extended systems.

    PubMed

    Kurushina, Svetlana E; Maximov, Valerii V; Romanovskii, Yurii M

    2014-08-01

    We develop a mean-field approach for multicomponent stochastic spatially extended systems and use it to obtain a multivariate nonlinear self-consistent Fokker-Planck equation defining the probability density of the state of the system, which describes a well-known model of autocatalytic chemical reaction (brusselator) with spatially correlated multiplicative noise, and to study the evolution of probability density and statistical characteristics of the system in the process of spatial pattern formation. We propose the finite-difference method for the numerical solving of a general class of multivariate nonlinear self-consistent time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations. We illustrate the accuracy and reliability of the method by applying it to an exactly solvable nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation (NFPE) for the Shimizu-Yamada model [Prog. Theor. Phys. 47, 350 (1972)] and nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation [Desai and Zwanzig, J. Stat. Phys. 19, 1 (1978)] obtained for a nonlinear stochastic mean-field model introduced by Kometani and Shimizu [J. Stat. Phys. 13, 473 (1975)]. Taking the problems indicated above as an example, the accuracy of the method is compared with the accuracy of Hermite distributed approximating functional method [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. E 56, 1197 (1997)]. Numerical study of the NFPE solutions for a stochastic brusselator shows that in the region of Turing bifurcation several types of solutions exist if noise intensity increases: unimodal solution, transient bimodality, and an interesting solution which involves multiple "repumping" of probability density through bimodality. Additionally, we study the behavior of the order parameter of the system under consideration and show that the second type of solution arises in the supercritical region if noise intensity values are close to the values appropriate for the transition from bimodal stationary probability density for the order parameter to the unimodal one. PMID:25215716

  6. Weiss mean-field approximation for multicomponent stochastic spatially extended systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurushina, Svetlana E.; Maximov, Valerii V.; Romanovskii, Yurii M.

    2014-08-01

    We develop a mean-field approach for multicomponent stochastic spatially extended systems and use it to obtain a multivariate nonlinear self-consistent Fokker-Planck equation defining the probability density of the state of the system, which describes a well-known model of autocatalytic chemical reaction (brusselator) with spatially correlated multiplicative noise, and to study the evolution of probability density and statistical characteristics of the system in the process of spatial pattern formation. We propose the finite-difference method for the numerical solving of a general class of multivariate nonlinear self-consistent time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations. We illustrate the accuracy and reliability of the method by applying it to an exactly solvable nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation (NFPE) for the Shimizu-Yamada model [Prog. Theor. Phys. 47, 350 (1972), 10.1143/PTP.47.350] and nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation [Desai and Zwanzig, J. Stat. Phys. 19, 1 (1978), 10.1007/BF01020331] obtained for a nonlinear stochastic mean-field model introduced by Kometani and Shimizu [J. Stat. Phys. 13, 473 (1975), 10.1007/BF01013146]. Taking the problems indicated above as an example, the accuracy of the method is compared with the accuracy of Hermite distributed approximating functional method [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. E 56, 1197 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevE.56.1197]. Numerical study of the NFPE solutions for a stochastic brusselator shows that in the region of Turing bifurcation several types of solutions exist if noise intensity increases: unimodal solution, transient bimodality, and an interesting solution which involves multiple "repumping" of probability density through bimodality. Additionally, we study the behavior of the order parameter of the system under consideration and show that the second type of solution arises in the supercritical region if noise intensity values are close to the values appropriate for the transition from bimodal stationary probability density

  7. Cosmic Accretion and Galaxy Co-Evolution: Lessons from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan

    2011-05-01

    The Chandra deep fields reveal that most cosmic accretion onto supermassive black holes is obscured by gas and dust. The GOODS and MUSYC multiwavelength data show that many X-ray-detected AGN are faint and red (or even undetectable) in the optical but bright in the infrared, as is characteristic of obscured sources. (N.B. The ECDFS is most sensitive to the AGN that constitute the X-ray background, namely, moderate luminosity AGN, with log Lx=43-44, at moderate redshifts, 0.5field, using deep medium-band optical imaging in 18 filters with Subaru's Suprime-Cam, we can derive the color-mass distributions out to z<1.2. (With deep near-IR HST imaging and spectroscopy we can extend this to z 2.5.) After correcting for dust reddening, we find that AGN host galaxies at z 1 are either newly arrived on the red sequence or still forming stars in the blue cloud, while at z 0 most AGN hosts are in the green valley, avoiding the blue cloud. These results suggest two modes of black hole growth: a vigorous initial phase that may be strong enough to turn off star formation, and a later moderate phase, on the red sequence, sufficient to keep gas too hot for star formation. At lower redshifts, this activity has mostly died down, presumably because there is less gas available for star formation or accretion.

  8. Resolving the extended stellar halos of nearby galaxies: the wide-field PISCeS survey†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojević, D.; Sand, D. J.; Caldwell, N.; Guhathakurta, P.; McLeod, B.; Seth, A.; Simon, J. D.; Strader, J.; Toloba, E.

    2016-08-01

    In the wide-field Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), we investigate the resolved stellar halos of two nearby galaxies (the elliptical Centaurus A and the spiral Sculptor, D ~ 3.7 Mpc) out to a projected galactocentric radius of 150 kpc with Magellan/Megacam. The survey has led to the discovery of ~20 faint satellites to date, plus prominent streams and substructures in two environments that are substantially different from the Local Group, i.e. the Centaurus A group dominated by an elliptical and the loose Sculptor group of galaxies. These discoveries clearly attest to the importance of past and ongoing accretion processes in shaping the halos of these nearby galaxies, and provide the first census of their satellite systems down to an unprecedented MV < -8. The detailed characterization of the stellar content, shape and gradients in the extended halos of Sculptor, Centaurus A, and their dwarf satellites provides key constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  9. Broadband quantitative phase microscopy with extended field of view using off-axis interferometric multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Frenklach, Irena; Shaked, Natan T

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new portable imaging configuration that can double the field of view (FOV) of existing off-axis interferometric imaging setups, including broadband off-axis interferometers. This configuration is attached at the output port of the off-axis interferometer and optically creates a multiplexed interferogram on the digital camera, which is composed of two off-axis interferograms with straight fringes at orthogonal directions. Each of these interferograms contains a different FOV of the imaged sample. Due to the separation of these two FOVs in the spatial-frequency domain, they can be fully reconstructed separately, while obtaining two complex wavefronts from the sample at once. Since the optically multiplexed off-axis interferogram is recorded by the camera in a single exposure, fast dynamics can be recorded with a doubled imaging area. We used this technique for quantitative phase microscopy of biological samples with extended FOV. We demonstrate attaching the proposed module to a diffractive phase microscopy interferometer, illuminated by a broadband light source. The biological samples used for the experimental demonstrations include microscopic diatom shells, cancer cells, and flowing blood cells. PMID:26440914

  10. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence elastography using a Bessel beam for extended depth of field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curatolo, Andrea; Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; Wijesinghe, Philip; Fritz, Alexander; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-03-01

    Visualizing stiffness within the local tissue environment at the cellular and sub-cellular level promises to provide insight into the genesis and progression of disease. In this paper, we propose ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography, and demonstrate three-dimensional imaging of local axial strain of tissues undergoing compressive loading. The technique employs a dual-arm extended focus optical coherence microscope to measure tissue displacement under compression. The system uses a broad bandwidth supercontinuum source for ultrahigh axial resolution, Bessel beam illumination and Gaussian beam detection, maintaining sub-2 μm transverse resolution over nearly 100 μm depth of field, and spectral-domain detection allowing high displacement sensitivity. The system produces strain elastograms with a record resolution (x,y,z) of 2×2×15 μm. We benchmark the advances in terms of resolution and strain sensitivity by imaging a suitable inclusion phantom. We also demonstrate this performance on freshly excised mouse aorta and reveal the mechanical heterogeneity of vascular smooth muscle cells and elastin sheets, otherwise unresolved in a typical, lower resolution optical coherence elastography system.

  11. Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM): Combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Flaberg, Emilie; Sabelström, Per; Strandh, Christer; Szekely, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Background Confocal laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized cell biology. However, the technique has major limitations in speed and sensitivity due to the fact that a single laser beam scans the sample, allowing only a few microseconds signal collection for each pixel. This limitation has been overcome by the introduction of parallel beam illumination techniques in combination with cold CCD camera based image capture. Methods Using the combination of microlens enhanced Nipkow spinning disc confocal illumination together with fully automated image capture and large scale in silico image processing we have developed a system allowing the acquisition, presentation and analysis of maximum resolution confocal panorama images of several Gigapixel size. We call the method Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM). Results We show using the EFLCM technique that it is possible to create a continuous confocal multi-colour mosaic from thousands of individually captured images. EFLCM can digitize and analyze histological slides, sections of entire rodent organ and full size embryos. It can also record hundreds of thousands cultured cells at multiple wavelength in single event or time-lapse fashion on fixed slides, in live cell imaging chambers or microtiter plates. Conclusion The observer independent image capture of EFLCM allows quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensities and morphological parameters on a large number of cells. EFLCM therefore bridges the gap between the mainly illustrative fluorescence microscopy and purely quantitative flow cytometry. EFLCM can also be used as high content analysis (HCA) instrument for automated screening processes. PMID:18627634

  12. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron skin in an extended relativistic mean-field model

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, B. K.

    2010-03-15

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy, instrumental in understanding the behavior of the asymmetric nuclear matter, is investigated within the extended relativistic mean-field (ERMF) model, which includes the contributions from the self- and mixed-interaction terms for the scalar-isoscalar ({sigma}), vector-isoscalar ({omega}), and vector-isovector ({rho}) mesons up to the quartic order. Each of the 26 different parametrizations of the ERMF model employed is compatible with the bulk properties of the finite nuclei. The behavior of the symmetry energy for several parameter sets is found to be consistent with the empirical constraints on them as extracted from the analyses of the isospin diffusion data. The neutron-skin thickness in the {sup 208}Pb nucleus for these parameter sets of the ERMF model lies in the range of {approx}0.20-0.24 fm, which is in harmony with the thickness predicted by the Skyrme Hartree-Fock model. We also investigate the role of various mixed-interaction terms that are crucial for the density dependence of the symmetry energy.

  13. Resolving the extended stellar haloes of nearby galaxies: the wide-field PISCeS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojevic, Denija; Sand, David J.; Caldwell, Nelson; Guhathakurta, Puragra; McLeod, Brian A.; Seth, Anil; Simon, Joshua D.; Strader, Jay; Toloba, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from the wide-field Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS): we investigate the resolved stellar haloes of two nearby galaxies (the spiral NGC253 and the elliptical Centaurus A, D~3.7 Mpc) out to a galactocentric radius of 150 kpc with Magellan/Megacam. The survey led to the discovery of ~20 faint satellites and stunning streams/substructures in two environments substantially different from the Local Group, i.e. the loose Sculptor group of galaxies and the Centaurus A group dominated by an elliptical. These discoveries clearly testify the past and ongoing accretion processes shaping the haloes of these nearby galaxies, and provide the first complete census of their satellite systems down to an unprecedented M_V<-8. This effectively enables the first direct comparison of external galaxies' resolved haloes to the PAndAS survey. The detailed characterization of the stellar content, shape and gradients in the extended haloes of NGC253, Centaurus A and in their satellites represent crucial constraints to theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  14. Localisation of atomic populations in the optical radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Efremova, E A; Gordeev, M Yu; Rozhdestvensky, Yu V

    2014-10-31

    The possibility of two-dimensional spatial localisation of atomic populations under the influence of the travelling wave fields in the tripod-configuration of quantum states is studied for the first time. Three travelling waves propagating in the same plane at an angle of 120° to each other form a system of standing waves under the influence of which atomic populations are localised. The size of the region of spatial localisation of the populations, in principle, can be hundredths of a wavelength of optical radiation. (quantum optics)

  15. Cosmic Radiation Fields: Sources in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raue, Martin; Kneiske, Tanja; Horns, Dieter; Elsaesser, Dominik; Hauschildt, Peter

    The workshop "Cosmic Radiation Fields - Sources in the Early Universe" (CRF 2010) focuses on the connection between the extragalactic infrared background and sources in the early universe, in particular stars powered by dark matter burning (Dark Stars; DS). The workshop covers the following topics: the cosmic infrared background, formation of early stars, dark stars, effect of dark matter in the early universe, dark matter halos, primordial star formation rate, and reionization. Further information can be found on the conference webpage: http://www.desy.de/crf2010/. Organizing committee: Tanja Kneiske, Martin Raue, Dominik Elsaesser, Alexander Gewering-Peine, Peter Hausschildt, Dieter Horns, and Andreas Maurer.

  16. Graphene-based field effect transistors for radiation-induced field sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gaspare, Alessandra; Valletta, Antonio; Fortunato, Guglielmo; Larciprete, Rosanna; Mariucci, Luigi; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Cimino, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    We propose the implementation of graphene-based field effect transistor (FET) as radiation sensor. In the proposed detector, graphene obtained via chemical vapor deposition is integrated into a Si-based field effect device as the gate readout electrode, able to sense any change in the field distribution induced by ionization in the underneath absorber, because of the strong variation in the graphene conductivity close to the charge neutrality point. Different 2-dimensional layered materials can be envisaged in this kind of device.

  17. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.E.; Christy, C.E.; Heath, R.E.

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. The system designed in Phase I of this development program monitors gamma radiation using a subsurface cesium iodide scintillator coupled to above-ground detection electronics using optical waveguide. The radiation probe can be installed to depths up to 50 meters using cone penetrometer techniques, and requires no downhole electrical power. Multiplexing, data logging and analysis are performed at a central location. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B&W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics.

  18. Novel properties of the q-analogue quantized radiation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    The 'classical limit' of the q-analog quantized radiation field is studied paralleling conventional quantum optics analyses. The q-generalizations of the phase operator of Susskind and Glogower and that of Pegg and Barnett are constructed. Both generalizations and their associated number-phase uncertainty relations are manifestly q-independent in the n greater than g number basis. However, in the q-coherent state z greater than q basis, the variance of the generic electric field, (delta(E))(sup 2) is found to be increased by a factor lambda(z) where lambda(z) greater than 1 if q not equal to 1. At large amplitudes, the amplitude itself would be quantized if the available resolution of unity for the q-analog coherent states is accepted in the formulation. These consequences are remarkable versus the conventional q = 1 limit.

  19. Development of a Characterized Radiation Field for Evaluating Sensor Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.M.; Coggins, T.L.; Marsh, J.; Mann, St.D.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2008-07-01

    Numerous efforts are funded by US agencies (DOE, DoD, DHS) for development of novel radiation sensing and measurement systems. An effort has been undertaken to develop a flexible shielding system compatible with a variety of sources (beta, X-ray, gamma, and neutron) that can be highly characterized using conventional radiation detection and measurement systems. Sources available for use in this system include americium-beryllium (AmBe), plutonium-beryllium (PuBe), strontium-90 (Sr-90), californium-252 (Cf-252), krypton-85 (Kr-85), americium-241 (Am-241), and depleted uranium (DU). Shielding can be varied by utilization of materials that include lexan, water, oil, lead, and polyethylene. Arrangements and geometries of source(s) and shielding can produce symmetrical or asymmetrical radiation fields. The system has been developed to facilitate accurately repeatable configurations. Measurement positions are similarly capable of being accurately re-created. Stand-off measurement positions can be accurately re-established using differential global positioning system (GPS) navigation. Instruments used to characterize individual measurement locations include a variety of sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) (3 x 3 inch, 4 x 4 x 16 inch, Fidler) and lithium iodide (LiI(Eu)) detectors (for use with multichannel analyzer software) and detectors for use with traditional hand held survey meters such as boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}), helium-3 ({sup 3}He), and Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes. Also available are Global Dosimetry thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), CR39 neutron chips, and film badges. Data will be presented comparing measurement techniques with shielding/source configurations. The system is demonstrated to provide a highly functional process for comparison/characterization of various detector types relative to controllable radiation types and levels. Particular attention has been paid to use of neutron sources and measurements. (authors)

  20. Modulation and amplification of radiative far field heat transfer: Towards a simple radiative thermal transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-03-30

    We show in this article that phase change materials (PCM) exhibiting a phase transition between a dielectric state and a metallic state are good candidates to perform modulation as well as amplification of radiative thermal flux. We propose a simple situation in plane parallel geometry where a so-called radiative thermal transistor could be achieved. In this configuration, we put a PCM between two blackbodies at different temperatures. We show that the transistor effect can be achieved easily when this material has its critical temperature between the two blackbody temperatures. We also see that the more the material is reflective in the metallic state, the more switching effect is realized, whereas the more PCM transition is stiff in temperature, the more thermal amplification is high. We finally take the example of VO{sub 2} that exhibits an insulator-metallic transition at 68 °C. We show that a demonstrator of a radiative transistor could easily be achieved in view of the heat flux levels predicted. Far-field thermal radiation experiments are proposed to back the results presented.

  1. Extending depth of field for hybrid imaging systems via the use of both dark and dot point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Nhu, L V; Fan, Zhigang; Chen, Shouqian; Dang, Fanyang

    2016-09-10

    In this paper, we propose one method based on the use of both dark and dot point spread functions (PSFs) to extend depth of field in hybrid imaging systems. Two different phase modulations of two phase masks are used to generate both dark and dot PSFs. The quartic phase mask (QPM) is used to generate the dot PSF. A combined phase mask between the QPM and the angle for generating the dark PSF is investigated. The simulation images show that the proposed method can produce superior imaging performance of hybrid imaging systems in extending the depth of field. PMID:27661372

  2. Extending depth of field for hybrid imaging systems via the use of both dark and dot point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Nhu, L V; Fan, Zhigang; Chen, Shouqian; Dang, Fanyang

    2016-09-10

    In this paper, we propose one method based on the use of both dark and dot point spread functions (PSFs) to extend depth of field in hybrid imaging systems. Two different phase modulations of two phase masks are used to generate both dark and dot PSFs. The quartic phase mask (QPM) is used to generate the dot PSF. A combined phase mask between the QPM and the angle for generating the dark PSF is investigated. The simulation images show that the proposed method can produce superior imaging performance of hybrid imaging systems in extending the depth of field.

  3. Patterns of Failure and Treatment-Related Toxicity in Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients Treated Using Extended Field Radiotherapy With Curative Intent

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasooriyar, Chrishanthi; Van Dyk, Sylvia; Bernshaw, David; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Barkati, Maroie; Narayan, Kailash

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patterns of failure and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates in cervical cancer patients who had metastatic disease in common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes and were treated with curative intent, using extended field radiotherapy (EFRT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study involving 39 patients treated from January 1996 to June 2007, using EFRT with concurrent chemotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy. EFRT consisted of 45 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Radiation to involved nodes was boosted to a total dose of 50.4 to 54 Gy. Primary tumor radiation was boosted to a dose of 80 Gy using brachytherapy. Results: Overall, 30 patients (77%) have relapsed. The 5-year OS rate was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11-44). The 5-year DFS rate was 19.4% (95% CI, 8-35). Only 3 patients (7.5%) experienced treatment failure exclusively within the treatment field, and 2 patients underwent salvage treatment. Grade 3 to 4 acute bone marrow and gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in 10 (26%) and 7 (18%) patients, respectively. Conclusions: Concurrent chemotherapy and EFRT treatment was well tolerated. Most patients showed failure at multiple sites and outside the treatment field. Only 3/39 patients had failures exclusively within the treatment field, and 2 underwent salvage treatment.

  4. GLOBAL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION POLLUTION: RISK ASSESSMENT FROM FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkopoulou, A. F.; Margaritis, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    The extended use of wireless technology throughout the globe in almost all developed and non-developed countries has forced a large number of scientists to get involved in the investigation of the effects. The major issue is that unlike other forms of radiation exposure, this “non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation” was not present throughout the evolution of life in earth and therefore there are no adaptive mechanisms evolved. All organisms are vulnerable to the possible effects of radiation depending on the actual exposure level. “Safety limits” on the power density have been proposed but ongoing research has shown that these limits are not really safe for humans, not mentioning the entire population of living creatures on earth. The so called “Electrosmog Pollution” originating from the numerous radio and TV stations, communication satellite emission, but most importantly from mobile phone mast antennas, are of major concern, because it is gradually increasing at exponential rate. Therefore the key question is, do living organisms react upon their exposure to fields of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation? To have this question answered extensive research is being performed in various laboratories. One approach of our research includes field measurements within houses and classrooms, since a considerable proportion of the population in each country is exposed to the radiation coming from the nearby mast stations, in order to make a risk assessment. The measurements showed that in many cases the actual radiation present was potentially harmful. In other words, although the measured values were below the national safety levels, nevertheless they were above the levels of other countries. Therefore it has been suggested that a new cellular network should be constructed in order to minimize radiation levels in living areas and schools. Our experimental work is focusing on the elucidation of the effects of non-ionizing EMFs on mice exposed to mobile

  5. SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR RADIO VARIABLES AND TRANSIENTS IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Mooley, K. P.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Frail, D. A.; Ofek, E. O.; Miller, N. A.

    2013-05-10

    We report on an analysis of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) region using archival data from the Very Large Array, with the goal of studying radio variability and transients at the sub-milliJansky level. The 49 epochs of E-CDFS observations at 1.4 GHz sample timescales from 1 day to 3 months. We find that only a fraction (1%) of unresolved radio sources above 40 {mu}Jy are variable at the 4{sigma} level. There is no evidence that the fractional variability changes along with the known transition of radio-source populations below 1 mJy. Optical identifications of the sources show that the variable radio emission is associated with the central regions of an active galactic nucleus or a star-forming galaxy. After a detailed comparison of the efficacy of various source-finding algorithms, we use the best to carry out a transient search. No transients were found. This implies that the areal density of transients with peak flux density greater than 0.21 mJy is less than 0.37 deg{sup -2} (at a confidence level of 95%). This result is approximately an order of magnitude below the transient rate measured at 5 GHz by Bower et al. but it is consistent with more recent upper limits from Frail et al. Our findings suggest that the radio sky at 1.4 GHz is relatively quiet. For multi-wavelength transient searches, such as the electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, this frequency may be optimal for reducing the high background of false positives.

  6. Sensitive Search for Radio Variables and Transients in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooley, K. P.; Frail, D. A.; Ofek, E. O.; Miller, N. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.

    2013-05-01

    We report on an analysis of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) region using archival data from the Very Large Array, with the goal of studying radio variability and transients at the sub-milliJansky level. The 49 epochs of E-CDFS observations at 1.4 GHz sample timescales from 1 day to 3 months. We find that only a fraction (1%) of unresolved radio sources above 40 μJy are variable at the 4σ level. There is no evidence that the fractional variability changes along with the known transition of radio-source populations below 1 mJy. Optical identifications of the sources show that the variable radio emission is associated with the central regions of an active galactic nucleus or a star-forming galaxy. After a detailed comparison of the efficacy of various source-finding algorithms, we use the best to carry out a transient search. No transients were found. This implies that the areal density of transients with peak flux density greater than 0.21 mJy is less than 0.37 deg-2 (at a confidence level of 95%). This result is approximately an order of magnitude below the transient rate measured at 5 GHz by Bower et al. but it is consistent with more recent upper limits from Frail et al. Our findings suggest that the radio sky at 1.4 GHz is relatively quiet. For multi-wavelength transient searches, such as the electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, this frequency may be optimal for reducing the high background of false positives.

  7. Convection electric field effects on outer radiation belt electron precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelpi, C.; Benbrook, J. R.; Sheldon, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A model is presented for the possible diurnal modulation of outer radiation belt electron precipitation by considering the effect of the convection electric field on geomagnetically trapped electrons. The modulation flux is the flux due to electrons in the drift loss cone, i.e., those which drift into the bounce loss cone. The electron flux in the drift loss cone is related to the time allowable for diffusion from the stably trapped population to the drift loss cone for precipitation at a specific geographic location. This time, which is termed the maximum L-shell lifetime, is obtained by computing electron trajectories, using a realistic magnetic field model and a simple model for the electric field. The maximum L-shell lifetimes are taken to be the times between successive entries into the bounce loss cone. Conservation of the first two adiabatic invariants, as electrons are slowly energized by the convection electric field, leads to variations in pitch angle, maximum L-shell lifetimes, and, consequently, to changes in the electron flux in the drift loss cone. These results are compared with observations of precipitating electrons made with sounding rocket payloads.

  8. Characterization of a medical X-ray machine for testing the response of electronic dosimeters in pulsed radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Margarete C.; Da Silva, Teógenes A.

    2014-11-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) based on solid state detectors have been used for personnel monitoring for radiation protection purpose; their use has been extended to practices with pulsed radiation beams although their performance is not well known. Deficiencies in the EPD response in pulsed radiation fields have been reported; they were not detected before since type tests and calibrations of EPDs were established in terms of continuous X and gamma reference radiations. An ISO working group was formed to elaborate a standard for test conditions and performance requirements of EPDs in pulsed beams; the PTB/Germany implemented a special X-ray facility for generating the reference pulsed radiation beams. In this work, an 800 Plus VMI medical X-ray machine of the Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of CDTN/CNEN was characterized to verify its feasibility to perform EPD tests. Characterization of the x-ray beam was done in terms of practical peak voltage, half-value layer, mean energy and air kerma rate. Reference dosimeters used for air kerma measurements were verified as far their metrological coherence and a procedure for testing EDPs was established. Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) have been used for personnel monitoring. EPD use has been extended to pulsed radiation beams. Deficiencies in the EPD response in pulsed beams have been reported. The feasibility of using a medical X-ray machine to perform EPD tests was studied. Reference dosimeters were verified and EPD testing procedure was established.

  9. Measurement of the radiation field surrounding the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    K. Kordas et al.

    2004-01-28

    We present here the first direct and detailed measurements of the spatial distribution of the ionizing radiation surrounding a hadron collider experiment. Using data from two different exposures we measure the effect of additional shielding on the radiation field around the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). Employing a simple model we parameterize the ionizing radiation field surrounding the detector.

  10. Temperature fields of an absorptive medium in a radiating system of arbitrary configuration (the spatial problem)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surinov, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized zonal method based on systems of linear algebraic equations is used to determine the temperature fields in an absorptive grey medium filling a closed radiation system that consists of three boundary zones, of which one is adiabatic and the other two are isothermal. The example calculation considers the case of a solenoidal radiation field of local radiative equilibrium.

  11. Bicircular-laser-field-assisted electron-ion radiative recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odžak, S.; Milošević, D. B.

    2015-11-01

    Electron-ion radiative recombination assisted by a bicircular laser field that consists of two circularly polarized fields counterrotating in the x y plane and having the frequencies r ω and s ω , which are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency ω , is considered using the S -matrix theory. The energy and polarization of soft x rays generated in this process are analyzed as functions of the incident electron energy and incident electron angle with respect to the x axis. Numerical results for the process of direct recombination of electrons with He+ ionic targets are presented. Abrupt cutoffs of the plateau structures in the emitted x-ray energy spectra are explained by classical analysis. Simpler or more complex oscillatory structures in the spectrum may appear as a result of the interference of a different number of classical orbits. Symmetry analysis and the numerical results show that the x-ray power spectrum and ellipticity are invariant with respect to a rotation of the incident electron momentum by the angle 2 π /(r +s ) . We have visualized this by presenting the logarithm of the differential power spectrum and polarization of the emitted x rays in false colors as functions of the incident electron angle and the x-ray energy. We have also shown that the change of the relative phase of the bicircular field is equivalent to the change of the incident electron angle. By controlling this relative phase it is possible to control the polarization of the emitted soft x rays.

  12. Field Comparisons of Direct and Component Measurements of Net Radiation under Clear Skies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchon, Claude E.; Wilk, Gregory E.

    1994-02-01

    applied to simultaneous measurements from the net pyrradiometer, pyranometer, pyrgeometer, and the inner cup temperature, assumed to he at air temperature, to estimate the individual components. Although a substantial difference in shartwave sensitivity was computed using this method, the result was not definitive because of the limited number and the narrow range of longwave observations. Nevertheless, the method can be employed in the field to verify uniform sensitivity of a net pyrradiometer's sensing surfaces to shortwave and longwave radiation. The method may have particular application to Fritschen-type net pyrradiometers of recently improved design after extended field use.

  13. Extended field intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus concurrent nedaplatin treatment in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YUNQIN; YU, JINMING; QIAN, LITING; ZHANG, HONGYAN; MA, JUN

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the efficacy and toxicity of definitive extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) plus concurrent chemotherapy in cervical cancer. A total of 48 patients with cervical cancer received the planning target volume between 39.6 and 50.4 Gy in 1.8–2.0 Gy daily fractions, while the enlarged pelvic and/or para-aortic nodes were treated with a total dose of 55–60 Gy in 2.0–2.4 Gy daily fractions using simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT. All patients underwent high dose-rate brachytherapy. Concurrent to EF-IMRT, nedaplatin was administered weekly at a median dose of 30 mg/m2 (range, 25–40 mg/m2) for 5 weeks with a total of 150 mg/m2. Of the 48 patients, 46 patients exhibited initial complete responses and 2 patients had partial responses, with a response rate of 100%. After 4–24 months of treatment, 12 patients (27.08%) had local and/or distant failure and 39 patients (81.25%) were alive at the last follow-up. The 12-month overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 87.5 and 75.8%, respectively, while the 24-month OS and DFS were 69.7 and 49.7%, respectively. Grade ≥3 acute neutropenia and thrombcytopenia occurred in 20 (41.7%) and 4 (8.3%) patients, respectively, while 2 patients (4.2%) developed grade ≥3 diarrhea and 2 (4.2%) had grade ≥3 late toxicities. However, no patients exhibited grade ≥3 vomiting. Thus, concurrent nedaplatin chemotherapy with definitive EF-IMRT was effective and relatively safe for treating patients with cervical cancer. Furthermore, EF-IMRT was able to deliver ≤60 Gy to enlarged para-aortic and/or pelvic nodes using simultaneous integrated boost without increased acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity. PMID:27123128

  14. The sub-mJy radio population in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzini, M.

    2014-06-01

    Deep radio observations provide a dust unbiased view of both black hole (BH) and star formation (SF) activity and therefore represent a powerful tool to investigate their evolution and their possible mutual influence across cosmic time. Radio astronomy is therefore becoming increasingly important for galaxy evolution studies thanks also to the many new radio facilities under construction or being planned. To maximise the potentiality of these new instruments it is crucial to make predictions on what they will observe and to see how best to complement the radio data with multi-wavelength information. These are the motivations of my Thesis in which I studied a sample of 900 sources detected in one of the deepest radio surveys ever made. The observations have been performed at 1.4 GHz with the Very Large Array on the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. I developed a multi-wavelength method to identify the optical-infrared counterparts of the radio sources and to classify them as radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RL AGNs), radio-quiet (RQ) AGNs, and star forming galaxies (SFGs). I was able for the first time to quantify the relative contribution of these different classes of sources down to a radio flux density limit of ∼30 μJy. I characterized the host galaxy properties (stellar masses, optical colors, and morphology) of the radio sources; RQ AGN hosts and SFGs have similar properties with disk morphology and blue colors while radio-loud AGN hosts are more massive, redder and mostly ellipticals. This suggests that the RQ and RL activity occurs at two different evolutionary stages of the BH-host galaxy co-evolution. The RQ phase occurs at earlier times when the galaxy is still gas rich and actively forming stars while the radio activity of the BH appears when the galaxy has already formed the bulk of its stellar population, the gas supply is lower, and the SF is considerably reduced. I quantified the star formation rate (SFR) of the radio sources using two

  15. Comptonization in Ultra-Strong Magnetic Fields: Numerical Solution to the Radiative Transfer Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceccobello, C.; Farinelli, R.; Titarchuk, L.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the radiative transfer problem in a plane-parallel slab of thermal electrons in the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field (B approximately greater than B(sub c) approx. = 4.4 x 10(exp 13) G). Under these conditions, the magnetic field behaves like a birefringent medium for the propagating photons, and the electromagnetic radiation is split into two polarization modes, ordinary and extraordinary, that have different cross-sections. When the optical depth of the slab is large, the ordinary-mode photons are strongly Comptonized and the photon field is dominated by an isotropic component. Aims. The radiative transfer problem in strong magnetic fields presents many mathematical issues and analytical or numerical solutions can be obtained only under some given approximations. We investigate this problem both from the analytical and numerical point of view, provide a test of the previous analytical estimates, and extend these results with numerical techniques. Methods. We consider here the case of low temperature black-body photons propagating in a sub-relativistic temperature plasma, which allows us to deal with a semi-Fokker-Planck approximation of the radiative transfer equation. The problem can then be treated with the variable separation method, and we use a numerical technique to find solutions to the eigenvalue problem in the case of a singular kernel of the space operator. The singularity of the space kernel is the result of the strong angular dependence of the electron cross-section in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Results. We provide the numerical solution obtained for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the space operator, and the emerging Comptonization spectrum of the ordinary-mode photons for any eigenvalue of the space equation and for energies significantly lesser than the cyclotron energy, which is on the order of MeV for the intensity of the magnetic field here considered. Conclusions. We derived the specific intensity of the

  16. Two-photon coherent states of the radiation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of a two-photon coherent state is introduced for applications in quantum optics. It is a simple generalization of the well-known minimum-uncertainty wave packets. The detailed properties of two-photon coherent states are developed and distinguished from ordinary coherent states. These two-photon coherent states are mathematically generated from coherent states through unitary operators associated with quadratic Hamiltonians. Physically they are the radiation states of ideal two-photon lasers operating far above threshold, according to the self-consistent-field approximation. The mean-square quantum noise behavior of these states, which is basically the same as those of minimum-uncertainty states, leads to applications not obtainable from coherent states or one-photon lasers. The essential behavior of two-photon coherent states is unchanged by small losses in the system. The counting rates or distributions these states generate in photocount experiments also reveal their difference from coherent states.

  17. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.; Christy, C.E.; Heath, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B&W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used to measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ at depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes, measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics. This paper presents a description and the results of the field tests. The results were used to characterize the lower detection limits, precision and bias of the system, which allowed the DOE to judge the monitoring system`s ability to meet its long-term post-closure radiation monitoring needs. Based on the test results, the monitoring system has been redesigned for fabrication and testing in a potential Phase III of this program. If the DOE feels that this system can meet its needs and chooses to continue into Phase III of this program, this redesigned full scale prototype system will be built and tested for a period of approximately a year. Such a system can be used at a variety of radioactively contaminated sites.

  18. Magnetic field and radiative transfer modelling of a quiescent prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Schwartz, P.; Dudík, J.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, P.; Jurčák, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to analyse the multi-instrument observations of the June 22, 2010 prominence to study its structure in detail, including the prominence-corona transition region and the dark bubble located below the prominence body. Methods: We combined results of the 3D magnetic field modelling with 2D prominence fine structure radiative transfer models to fully exploit the available observations. Results: The 3D linear force-free field model with the unsheared bipole reproduces the morphology of the analysed prominence reasonably well, thus providing useful information about its magnetic field configuration and the location of the magnetic dips. The 2D models of the prominence fine structures provide a good representation of the local plasma configuration in the region dominated by the quasi-vertical threads. However, the low observed Lyman-α central intensities and the morphology of the analysed prominence suggest that its upper central part is not directly illuminated from the solar surface. Conclusions: This multi-disciplinary prominence study allows us to argue that a large part of the prominence-corona transition region plasma can be located inside the magnetic dips in small-scale features that surround the cool prominence material located in the dip centre. We also argue that the dark prominence bubbles can be formed because of perturbations of the prominence magnetic field by parasitic bipoles, causing them to be devoid of the magnetic dips. Magnetic dips, however, form thin layers that surround these bubbles, which might explain the occurrence of the cool prominence material in the lines of sight intersecting the prominence bubbles. Movie and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Out-of-Field Cell Survival Following Exposure to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the in-field and out-of-field cell survival of cells irradiated with either primary field or scattered radiation in the presence and absence of intercellular communication. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay in human prostate cancer (DU145) and primary fibroblast (AGO1552) cells following exposure to different field configurations delivered using a 6-MV photon beam produced with a Varian linear accelerator. Results: Nonuniform dose distributions were delivered using a multileaf collimator (MLC) in which half of the cell population was shielded. Clonogenic survival in the shielded region was significantly lower than that predicted from the linear quadratic model. In both cell lines, the out-of-field responses appeared to saturate at 40%-50% survival at a scattered dose of 0.70 Gy in DU-145 cells and 0.24 Gy in AGO1522 cells. There was an approximately eightfold difference in the initial slopes of the out-of-field response compared with the {alpha}-component of the uniform field response. In contrast, cells in the exposed part of the field showed increased survival. These observations were abrogated by direct physical inhibition of cellular communication and by the addition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine known to inhibit intercellular bystander effects. Additional studies showed the proportion of cells irradiated and dose delivered to the shielded and exposed regions of the field to impact on response. Conclusions: These data demonstrate out-of-field effects as important determinants of cell survival following exposure to modulated irradiation fields with cellular communication between differentially irradiated cell populations playing an important role. Validation of these observations in additional cell models may facilitate the refinement of existing radiobiological models and the observations considered important determinants of cell survival.

  20. On the extended depth of focus algorithms for bright field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valdecasas, A G; Marshall, D; Becerra, J M; Terrero, J J

    2001-08-01

    Microscopes offer a limited depth of focus which precludes the observation of a complete image of a three-dimensional (3D) object in a single view. Investigations, by a variety of researchers, have led to the development of extended depth of focus algorithms for serial optical slices of microscopic 3D objects in recent years. However, to date, no quantitative comparison of the different algorithms has been performed, generally leaving the evaluation to the subjective qualitative appreciation of the observer. In this paper we use three different tests for extended depth of focus algorithm evaluation and test 10 different algorithms, some of them have been adapted (by us) for a series of optical slices. However, the main contribution of the paper is a new improved algorithm for computing the extended depth of focus.

  1. A Systematic Global Mapping of the Radiation Field at Aviation Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Brucker, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents early results from aircraft measurements made by a Low-LET Radiation Spectrometer (LoLRS), as part of a long-range effort to study the complex dynamics of the atmospheric radiation field. For this purpose, a comprehensive data base is being generated to enable a multivariable global mapping (and eventually modeling) of doses and Linear-Energy-Transfer (LET) spectra at aviation altitudes. To accomplish this, a methodical collection of data from the LoLRS (and other instruments), is planned over extended periods of time, in a manner that complements some previous isolated and sporadic measurements by other workers, with the objective to generate a detailed long-range description of the cosmic-ray induced particle environment and to study its variability and dependence on atmospheric thickness, magnetic latitude, L-shell or rigidity, space weather, solar particle events, solar cycle effects, magnetic field variation, diurnal and seasonal effects, and atmospheric weather. Analysis of initial data indicates that the dose is rising with increasing altitude and increasing magnetic latitude. Comparison of total doses with predictions is in good agreement.

  2. Extractable proteins from field radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Duclerc F.; Pinto Martins, Carlos Felipe; Collantes, Chirinos H. D.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2005-07-01

    The type I allergy associated with the use of natural rubber latex (NRL) products is caused by the NRL proteins leached by the sweat or other body fluids. Makuuchi's group proposed for the first time the proteins removal by the addition of water-soluble polymers (WSP) on radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) that is a promising process under development in many countries. In this study, Brazilian field natural rubber was irradiated with a 60Co gamma source to reduce the content of WSP in the final product. WSP was used as additive to improve the extraction of protein. After irradiation the RVNRL was centrifuged to extract the WSP and proteins. The analytical methodology for protein content was based on the modified Lowry method according to ASTM D5712. Protein determination was carried out in serum of latex and in the extracts of the gloves. The concentration of extractable water-soluble proteins in serum of irradiated field NRL (NRL1), not irradiated one (NRL2); of twice centrifuged sample with polymer additive NRL (NRL3) and of the glove manufactured (NRLG) are compared with commercial glove (CG). The irradiation process increases the extractable water-soluble proteins, EP, as reported in the literature. In this study the use of polymeric additive on the bi-centrifugation process to remove protein was successful and the EP of the glove obtained in NRL3 was at around 40% of the commercial glove.

  3. Wireless Links in the Radiative Near Field via Bessel Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heebl, Jason D.; Ettorre, Mauro; Grbic, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    The generation of propagating Bessel beams is typically limited to optical frequencies with bulky experimental setups. Recent works have demonstrated Bessel-beam generation at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies utilizing low-profile, planar, leaky-wave antennas. These studies have assumed a single leaky mode in the antenna. In this work, the rigorous analysis of a planar Bessel-beam launcher supporting multiple modes is presented. By employing the mode-matching technique, a complete electromagnetic solution of the structure, its supported modes, and radiated fields is obtained. Additionally, a coupled system of two planar Bessel launchers is analyzed, and it is shown that the system can both transmit and receive Bessel beams. The energy-transfer characteristics of the coupled system are analyzed and discussed. An analysis of the coupled system's even and odd modes of operation show that efficient power transfer is possible, and that an odd mode is preferred since it yields higher field confinement and power-transfer efficiency.

  4. Magnetic Field Generation, Particle Energization and Radiation at Relativistic Shear Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Edison; Fu, Wen; Spisak, Jake; Boettcher, Markus

    2015-11-01

    Recent large scale Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations have demonstrated that in unmagnetized relativistic shear flows, strong transverse d.c. magnetic fields are generated and sustained by ion-dominated currents on the opposite sides of the shear interface. Instead of dissipating the shear flow free energy via turbulence formation and mixing as it is usually found in MHD simulations, the kinetic results show that the relativistic boundary layer stabilizes itself via the formation of a robust vacuum gap supported by a strong magnetic field, which effectively separates the opposing shear flows, as in a maglev train. Our new PIC simulations have extended the runs to many tens of light crossing times of the simulation box. Both the vacuum gap and supporting magnetic field remain intact. The electrons are energized to reach energy equipartition with the ions, with 10% of the total energy in electromagnetic fields. The dominant radiation mechanism is similar to that of a wiggler, due to oscillating electron orbits around the boundary layer.

  5. Physiologically gated microbeam radiation using a field emission x-ray source array

    SciTech Connect

    Chtcheprov, Pavel E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu; Burk, Laurel; Inscoe, Christina; Ger, Rachel; Hadsell, Michael; Lu, Jianping; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses narrow planes of high dose radiation beams to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000 Gy of peak entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during treatment can lead to significant movement of microbeam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), which reduces the effectiveness of MRT. Recently, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of generating microbeam radiation for small animal treatment using a carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The purpose of this study is to incorporate physiological gating to the CNT microbeam irradiator to minimize motion-induced microbeam blurring. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source array with a narrow line focal track was operated at 160 kVp. The x-ray radiation was collimated to a single 280 μm wide microbeam at entrance. The microbeam beam pattern was recorded using EBT2 Gafchromic{sup ©} films. For the feasibility study, a strip of EBT2 film was attached to an oscillating mechanical phantom mimicking mouse chest respiratory motion. The servo arm was put against a pressure sensor to monitor the motion. The film was irradiated with three microbeams under gated and nongated conditions and the full width at half maximums and PVDRs were compared. An in vivo study was also performed with adult male athymic mice. The liver was chosen as the target organ for proof of concept due to its large motion during respiration compared to other organs. The mouse was immobilized in a specialized mouse bed and anesthetized using isoflurane. A pressure sensor was attached to a mouse's chest to monitor its respiration. The output signal triggered the electron extraction voltage of the field emission source such that x-ray was generated only during a

  6. Recommendations for Improving Consistency in the Radiation Fields Used During Testing of Radiation Detection Instruments for Homeland Security Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pibida, L; Mille, M; Norman, B

    2013-01-01

    Several measurements and calculations were performed to illustrate the differences that can be observed in the determination of exposure rate or ambient dose equivalent rate used for testing radiation detection systems against consensus standards. The large variations observed support our recommendation that better consistency in the test radiation fields can be achieved by specifying the source activity and testing distance instead of the field strength. PMID:26401434

  7. Adjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy with involved field radiation in advanced endometrial cancer: A sequential approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lupe, Krystine; Kwon, Janice . E-mail: Janice.kwon@lhsc.on.ca; D'Souza, David; Gawlik, Christine; Stitt, Larry; Whiston, Frances; Nascu, Patricia; Wong, Eugene; Carey, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of adjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy interposed with involved field radiotherapy for women with advanced endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a prospective cohort study of women with Stage III and IV endometrial cancer. Adjuvant therapy consisted of 4 cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m{sup 2}) and carboplatin (350 mg/m{sup 2}) every 3 weeks, followed sequentially by external beam radiotherapy (RT) to the pelvis (45 Gy), followed by an additional two cycles of chemotherapy. Para-aortic RT and/or HDR vault brachytherapy (BT) were added at the discretion of the treating physician. Results: Thirty-three patients (median age, 63 years) received treatment between April 2002 and June 2005. Median follow-up was 21 months. Stage distribution was as follows: IIIA (21%), IIIC (70%), IVB (9%). Combination chemotherapy was successfully administered to 30 patients (91%) and 25 patients (76%), before and after RT respectively. Nine patients (27%) experienced acute Grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy toxicities. All patients completed pelvic RT; 19 (58%) received standard 4-field RT and 14 (42%) received intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Ten (30%) received extended field radiation. Four patients (12%) experienced acute Grade 3 or 4 RT toxicities. Six (18%) patients developed chronic RT toxicity. There were no treatment-related deaths. Two-year disease-free and overall survival rates were both 55%. There was only one pelvic relapse (3%). Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment with combination chemotherapy interposed with involved field radiation in advanced endometrial cancer was well tolerated. This protocol may be suitable for further evaluation in a clinical trial.

  8. Simplified field-in-field technique for a large-scale implementation in breast radiation treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier-Bidoz, Nathalie; Kirova, Youlia M.; Campana, Francois; Dendale, Remi; Fourquet, Alain

    2012-07-01

    We wanted to evaluate a simplified 'field-in-field' technique (SFF) that was implemented in our department of Radiation Oncology for breast treatment. This study evaluated 15 consecutive patients treated with a simplified field in field technique after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer. Radiotherapy consisted of whole-breast irradiation to the total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions, and a boost of 16 Gy in 8 fractions to the tumor bed. We compared dosimetric outcomes of SFF to state-of-the-art electronic surface compensation (ESC) with dynamic leaves. An analysis of early skin toxicity of a population of 15 patients was performed. The median volume receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose was 763 mL (range, 347-1472) for SFF vs. 779 mL (range, 349-1494) for ESC. The median residual 107% isodose was 0.1 mL (range, 0-63) for SFF and 1.9 mL (range, 0-57) for ESC. Monitor units were on average 25% higher in ESC plans compared with SFF. No patient treated with SFF had acute side effects superior to grade 1-NCI scale. SFF created homogenous 3D dose distributions equivalent to electronic surface compensation with dynamic leaves. It allowed the integration of a forward planned concomitant tumor bed boost as an additional multileaf collimator subfield of the tangential fields. Compared with electronic surface compensation with dynamic leaves, shorter treatment times allowed better radiation protection to the patient. Low-grade acute toxicity evaluated weekly during treatment and 2 months after treatment completion justified the pursuit of this technique for all breast patients in our department.

  9. Hot accretion disks with pairs: Effects of magnetic field and thermal cyclocsynchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunose, Masaaki; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    1994-02-01

    We show the effects of thermal cyclosynchrotron radiation and magnetic viscosity on the structure of hot, two-temperature accretion disks. Magnetic field, B, is assumed to be randomly oriented and the ratio of magnetic pressure to either gas pressure, alpha = Pmag/Pgas, or the sum of the gas and radiation pressures, alpha = (Pmag/Pgas + Prad), is fixed. We find those effects do not change the qualitative properties of the disks, i.e., there are still two critical accretion rates related to production of e+/- pairs, (M dot)(Ucr) and (M dot)(Lcr), that affect the number of local and global disk solutions, as recently found by Bjoernsson and Svensson for the case with B = 0. However, a critical value of the alpha-viscosity parameter above which those critical accretion rates disappear becomes smaller than alphacr = 1 found in the case of B = 0, for Pmag = alpha(Pgas + Prad). If Pmag = alpha Pgas, on the other hand, alphacr is still about unity. Moreover, when Comptonized cyclosynchrotron radiation dominates Comptonized bremsstrahlung, radiation from the disk obeys a power law with the energy spectral index of approximately 0.5, in a qualitative agreement with X-ray observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNS) and Galactic black hole candidates. We also extend the hot disk solutions for Pmag = alpha(Pgas + Prad) to the effectively optically thick region, where they merge with the standard cold disk solutions. We find that the mapping method by Bjoernsson and Svensson gives a good approximation to the disk structure in the hot region and show where it breaks in the transition region. Finally, we find a region in the disk parameter space with no solutions due to the inability of Coulomb heating to supply enough energy to electrons.

  10. Reverberation Chamber Uniformity Validation and Radiated Susceptibility Test Procedures for the NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory has developed a capability based on the RTCA/DO-160F Section 20 guidelines for radiated electromagnetic susceptibility testing in reverberation chambers. Phase 1 of the test procedure utilizes mode-tuned stirrer techniques and E-field probe measurements to validate chamber uniformity, determines chamber loading effects, and defines a radiated susceptibility test process. The test procedure is segmented into numbered operations that are largely software controlled. This document is intended as a laboratory test reference and includes diagrams of test setups, equipment lists, as well as test results and analysis. Phase 2 of development is discussed.

  11. Violin f-hole contribution to far-field radiation via patch near-field acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, George; Williams, Earl G; Valdivia, Nicolas

    2007-06-01

    The violin radiates either from dual ports (f-holes) or via surface motion of the corpus (top+ribs+back), with no clear delineation between these sources. Combining "patch" near-field acoustical holography over just the f-hole region of a violin with far-field radiativity measurements over a sphere, it was possible to separate f-hole from surface motion contributions to the total radiation of the corpus below 2.6 kHz. A0, the Helmholtz-like lowest cavity resonance, radiated essentially entirely through the f-holes as expected while A1, the first longitudinal cavity mode with a node at the f-holes, had no significant f-hole radiation. The observed A1 radiation comes from an indirect radiation mechanism, induced corpus motion approximately mirroring the cavity pressure profile seen for violinlike bowed string instruments across a wide range of sizes. The first estimates of the fraction of radiation from the f-holes F(f) indicate that some low frequency corpus modes thought to radiate only via surface motion (notably the first corpus bending modes) had significant radiation through the f-holes, in agreement with net volume changes estimated from experimental modal analysis. F(f) generally trended lower with increasing frequency, following corpus mobility decreases. The f-hole directivity (top/back radiativity ratio) was generally higher than whole-violin directivity. PMID:17552736

  12. Violin f-hole contribution to far-field radiation via patch near-field acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, George; Williams, Earl G; Valdivia, Nicolas

    2007-06-01

    The violin radiates either from dual ports (f-holes) or via surface motion of the corpus (top+ribs+back), with no clear delineation between these sources. Combining "patch" near-field acoustical holography over just the f-hole region of a violin with far-field radiativity measurements over a sphere, it was possible to separate f-hole from surface motion contributions to the total radiation of the corpus below 2.6 kHz. A0, the Helmholtz-like lowest cavity resonance, radiated essentially entirely through the f-holes as expected while A1, the first longitudinal cavity mode with a node at the f-holes, had no significant f-hole radiation. The observed A1 radiation comes from an indirect radiation mechanism, induced corpus motion approximately mirroring the cavity pressure profile seen for violinlike bowed string instruments across a wide range of sizes. The first estimates of the fraction of radiation from the f-holes F(f) indicate that some low frequency corpus modes thought to radiate only via surface motion (notably the first corpus bending modes) had significant radiation through the f-holes, in agreement with net volume changes estimated from experimental modal analysis. F(f) generally trended lower with increasing frequency, following corpus mobility decreases. The f-hole directivity (top/back radiativity ratio) was generally higher than whole-violin directivity.

  13. Electric-field correlation in quantum charged fluids coupled to the radiation field.

    PubMed

    Jancovici, B

    2006-11-01

    In a recent paper [S. El Boustani, P. R. Buenzli, and P. A. Martin, Phys. Rev. E 73, 036113 (2006)] about quantum charges in equilibrium with radiation, among other things the asymptotic form of the electric-field correlation has been obtained by a microscopic calculation. It has been found that this correlation has a long-range algebraic decay of the form 1/r3 (except in the classical limit). The macroscopic approach, in the Course of Theoretical Physics of Landau and Lifshitz, gives no such decay. In this Brief Report we revisit and complete the macroscopic approach of Landau and Lifshitz and suggest that, perhaps, the use of a classical electromagnetic field by El Boustani was not justified.

  14. The use of computed radiography plates to determine light and radiation field coincidence

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, James R.; Anand, Aman

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Photo-stimulable phosphor computed radiography (CR) has characteristics that allow the output to be manipulated by both radiation and optical light. The authors have developed a method that uses these characteristics to carry out radiation field and light field coincidence quality assurance on linear accelerators. Methods: CR detectors from Kodak were used outside their cassettes to measure both radiation and light field edges from a Varian linear accelerator. The CR detector was first exposed to a radiation field and then to a slightly smaller light field. The light impinged on the detector's latent image, removing to an extent the portion exposed to the light field. The detector was then digitally scanned. A MATLAB-based algorithm was developed to automatically analyze the images and determine the edges of the light and radiation fields, the vector between the field centers, and the crosshair center. Radiographic film was also used as a control to confirm the radiation field size. Results: Analysis showed a high degree of repeatability with the proposed method. Results between the proposed method and radiographic film showed excellent agreement of the radiation field. The effect of varying monitor units and light exposure time was tested and found to be very small. Radiation and light field sizes were determined with an uncertainty of less than 1 mm, and light and crosshair centers were determined within 0.1 mm. Conclusions: A new method was developed to digitally determine the radiation and light field size using CR photo-stimulable phosphor plates. The method is quick and reproducible, allowing for the streamlined and robust assessment of light and radiation field coincidence, with no observer interpretation needed. PMID:24320415

  15. Characteristic of the radiation field in low Earth orbit and in deep space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60" latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  16. Characteristic of the radiation field in low Earth orbit and in deep space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60" latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  17. Does the upper main sequence extend across the whole H-R diagram. [radiative opacities of stellar evolution models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.-W.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of using Carson's (1976) radiative opacities in evolutionary sequences of stellar models has been studied over the mass range from 7 to 60 solar masses. The opacities are very large in the outer part of the envelope and induce such enormous radii for masses greater than about 30 solar masses for a heavy-element fraction of 0.02 or about 20 solar masses for a heavy-element fraction of 0.04 that the evolutionary tracks during the phase of core hydrogen burning extend across the whole H-R diagram. The choice of the Schwarschild or Ledoux criterion for convection makes very little difference for the behavior of the tracks. Evolution through the effective-temperature range (in logarithms) of 3.6 to 4.0 occurs in all cases on a rapid (secular) time scale. Core helium burning takes place exclusively in the red-supergiant configuration for stellar masses exceeding 8 solar masses (heavy-element fraction of 0.02) or 6 solar masses (heavy-element fraction of 0.04). These stellar models seem to be in significantly better agreement with the observed distribution of bright stars on the H-R diagram than are the older models based on the Cox-Stewart opacities. It can be inferred that a large envelope opacity (e.g., Carson's) exists and that substantial mass loss takes place in very massive late-type supergiants.

  18. SU-E-T-623: Delivery of 3D Conformal Proton-Therapy Fields at Extended Source- To-Axis Distances

    SciTech Connect

    Kryck, E; Slopsema, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric properties of proton dose distributions delivered at extended source-to-skin distances (SSD). Methods: Radiation was delivered with a gantry-mounted proton double scattering system (Proteus 230, IBA). This system has a maximum field diameter of 24 cm at isocenter and a nominal source-to-axis distance of 230 cm. Dose was measured at nominal SSD as well as at -10, +10, +25, +50, +75, and +100 cm for several range and modulation width combinations. Depth dose distributions were measured with a multi-layer ionization chamber (MLIC), and lateral dose distributions with a 2D ionization chamber array as well as with a diode in a water phantom. Results: The maximum field diameter was found to increase from 24.0 cm at nominal SSD to 29.1 cm and 33.3 cm at +50 cm and +100 cm respectively. Field flatness remained below 3% for all SSD. Tilt in the spread-out Bragg peak depth dose distribution increased with SSD up to 0.4 %-per-g/cm2 at +100 cm. The measured range decreased with 1.1x10-3 g/cm2 per centimeter shift in SSD due to proton energy loss in air, very close to the theoretically calculated value of 1.06x10-3 g/cm3. The output and dose rate decrease with the inverse of the SSD squared as expected. Conclusion: Extending the SSD up to 100 cm increases the maximum field diameter from 24.0 cm to 33.3 cm while the dose uniformity remains acceptable.

  19. A nonequilibrium statistical field theory of swarms and other spatially extended complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M. |

    1993-07-01

    A class of models with applications to swarm behavior as well as many other types of spatially extended complex biological and physical systems is studied. Internal fluctuations can play an active role in the organization of the phase structure of such systems. Consequently, it is not possible to fully understand the behavior of these systems without explicitly incorporating the fluctuations. In particular, for the class of models studied here the effect of internal fluctuations due to finite size is a renormalized decrease in the temperature near the point of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We briefly outline how these models can be applied to the behavior of an ant swarm.

  20. A nonequilibrium statistical field theory of swarms and other spatially extended complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M. Santa Fe Inst., NM )

    1993-01-01

    A class of models with applications to swarm behavior as well as many other types of spatially extended complex biological and physical systems is studied. Internal fluctuations can play an active role in the organization of the phase structure of such systems. Consequently, it is not possible to fully understand the behavior of these systems without explicitly incorporating the fluctuations. In particular, for the class of models studied here the effect of internal fluctuations due to finite size is a renormalized decrease in the temperature near the point of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We briefly outline how these models can be applied to the behavior of an ant swarm.

  1. Vibration analysis and sound field characteristics of a tubular ultrasonic radiator.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Guangping; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Zhengzhong; Lin, Shuyu

    2006-12-01

    A sort of tubular ultrasonic radiator used in ultrasonic liquid processing is studied. The frequency equation of the tubular radiator is derived, and its radiated sound field in cylindrical reactor is calculated using finite element method and recorded by means of aluminum foil erosion. The results indicate that sound field of tubular ultrasonic radiator in cylindrical reactor appears standing waves along both its radial direction and axial direction, and amplitudes of standing waves decrease gradually along its radial direction, and the numbers of standing waves along its axial direction are equal to the axial wave numbers of tubular radiator. The experimental results are in good agreement with calculated results.

  2. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham S; Fahmy, Heba M; Radwan, Nasr M; Elsayed, Anwar A

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  3. Feasibility of EBT Gafchromic films for comparison exercises among standard beta radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Benavente, J A; Meira-Belo, L C; Reynaldo, S R; da Silva, T A

    2012-12-01

    The feasibility of using radiochromic films to verify the metrological coherence among standard beta radiation fields was evaluated. Exercises were done between two Brazilian metrology laboratories in beta fields from (90)Sr/(90)Y, (85)Kr and (147)Pm radiation sources. Results showed that the radiochromic film was useful for field mapping aiming uniformity and alignment verification and it was not reliable for absorbed dose measurements only for (147)Pm beta field.

  4. Effect of extended strain fields on point defect phonon scattering in thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Brenden R; Peng, Haowei; Lopez, Armando; Parilla, Philip A; Lany, Stephan; Toberer, Eric S

    2015-07-15

    The design of thermoelectric materials often involves the integration of point defects (alloying) as a route to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Classically, the point defect scattering strength follows from simple considerations such as mass contrast and the presence of induced strain fields (e.g. radius contrast, coordination changes). While the mass contrast can be easily calculated, the associated strain fields induced by defect chemistry are not readily predicted and are poorly understood. In this work, we use classical and first principles calculations to provide insight into the strain field component of phonon scattering from isoelectronic point defects. Our results also integrate experimental measurements on bulk samples of SnSe and associated alloys with S, Te, Ge, Sr and Ba. These efforts highlight that the strength and extent of the resulting strain field depends strongly on defect chemistry. Strain fields can have a profound impact on the local structure. For example, in alloys containing Ba, the strain fields have significant spatial extent (1 nm in diameter) and produce large shifts in the atomic equilibrium positions (up to 0.5 Å). Such chemical complexity suggests that computational assessment of point defects for thermal conductivity depression should be hindered. However, in this work, we present and verify several computational descriptors that correlate well with the experimentally measured strain fields. Furthermore, these descriptors are conceptually transparent and computationally inexpensive, allowing computation to provide a pivotal role in the screening of effective alloys. The further development of point defect engineering could complement or replace nanostructuring when optimizing the thermal conductivity, offering the benefits of thermodynamic stability, and providing more clearly defined defect chemistry. PMID:26145414

  5. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 27.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment General § 29.1317 High-intensity Radiated Fields...

  11. 47 CFR 2.1053 - Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation. 2.1053 Section 2.1053 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... Procedures Certification § 2.1053 Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation....

  12. 47 CFR 2.1053 - Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation. 2.1053 Section 2.1053 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... Procedures Certification § 2.1053 Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation....

  13. 47 CFR 2.1053 - Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation. 2.1053 Section 2.1053 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... Procedures Certification § 2.1053 Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation....

  14. 47 CFR 2.1053 - Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation. 2.1053 Section 2.1053 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... Procedures Certification § 2.1053 Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in... reduce the capability of the airplane or the ability of the flightcrew to respond to an adverse...

  19. Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junhui; Wang, Lidai; Noordam, Cedric; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-11-01

    The short focal depth of a Gaussian beam limits the volumetric imaging speed of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM). A Bessel beam, which is diffraction free, provides a long focal depth, but its side lobes deteriorate image quality when the Bessel beam is directly employed to excite photoacoustic (PA) signals in OR-PAM. We present a nonlinear approach based on the Grueneisen relaxation effect to suppress the side-lobe artifacts in PA imaging. This method extends the focal depth of OR-PAM and speeds up volumetric imaging. We experimentally demonstrated a 1-mm focal depth with a 7-μm lateral resolution and volumetrically imaged a carbon fiber and red blood cell samples.

  20. Extending the depth-of-field for microscopic imaging by means of multifocus color image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Pérez, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Ortega-Mendoza, G.

    2015-09-01

    In microscopy, the depth of field (DOF) is limited by the physical characteristics of imaging systems. Imaging a scene with the all the field of view in focus can be an impossible task to achieve. In this paper, metal samples are inspected on multiple focal planes by moving the microscope stage along the z - axis and for each z plane, an image is digitalized. Through digital image processing, an image with all the focused regions is generated from a set of multi focus images. The proposed fusion algorithm gives a single sharp image. The merger scheme is simple, fast and virtually free of artifacts or false color. Experimental fusion results are shown.

  1. ESTIMATING SOLAR RADIATION EXPOSURE IN WETLANDS USING RADIATION MODELS, FIELD DATA, AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This seminar will describe development of methods for the estimation of solar radiation doses in wetlands. The methodology presents a novel approach to incorporating aspects of solar radiation dosimetry that have historically received limited attention. These include effects of a...

  2. Comparative investigation of three dose rate meters for their viability in pulsed radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Gotz, M; Karsch, L; Pawelke, J

    2015-06-01

    Pulsed radiation fields, characterized by microsecond pulse duration and correspondingly high pulse dose rates, are increasingly used in therapeutic, diagnostic and research applications. Yet, dose rate meters which are used to monitor radiation protection areas or to inspect radiation shielding are mostly designed, characterized and tested for continuous fields and show severe deficiencies in highly pulsed fields. Despite general awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific limitations of individual instruments is very limited, complicating reliable measurements. We present here the results of testing three commercial dose rate meters, the RamION ionization chamber, the LB 1236-H proportional counter and the 6150AD-b scintillation counter, for their response in pulsed radiation fields of varied pulse dose and duration. Of these three the RamION proved reliable, operating in a pulsed radiation field within its specifications, while the other two instruments were only able to measure very limited pulse doses and pulse dose rates reliably. PMID:25978117

  3. Estimating the Reliability of Electronic Parts in High Radiation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everline, Chester; Clark, Karla; Man, Guy; Rasmussen, Robert; Johnston, Allan; Kohlhase, Charles; Paulos, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Radiation effects on materials and electronic parts constrain the lifetime of flight systems visiting Europa. Understanding mission lifetime limits is critical to the design and planning of such a mission. Therefore, the operational aspects of radiation dose are a mission success issue. To predict and manage mission lifetime in a high radiation environment, system engineers need capable tools to trade radiation design choices against system design and reliability, and science achievements. Conventional tools and approaches provided past missions with conservative designs without the ability to predict their lifetime beyond the baseline mission.This paper describes a more systematic approach to understanding spacecraft design margin, allowing better prediction of spacecraft lifetime. This is possible because of newly available electronic parts radiation effects statistics and an enhanced spacecraft system reliability methodology. This new approach can be used in conjunction with traditional approaches for mission design. This paper describes the fundamentals of the new methodology.

  4. Extended slow-roll conditions and primordial fluctuations: multiple scalar fields and generalized gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: gucci@phys.aoyama.ac.jp

    2009-01-15

    As an extension of our previous study, we derive slow-roll conditions for multiple scalar fields which are non-minimally coupled with gravity and for generalized gravity theories of the form f({phi}, R). We provide simple formulae of the spectral indices of scalar/tensor perturbations in terms of the slow-roll parameters.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE EXTENDED RANGE REM-COUNTER SMARTREM-LINUS IN REFERENCE AND WORKPLACE FIELDS EXPECTED AROUND HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Eike; Trovati, S; Strauch, U; Mayer, S

    2016-09-01

    Radiation survey instrumentation is adequate for the use around high-energy accelerators if capable to measure the dose arising from neutrons with energies ranging from thermal up to a few gigaelectronvolts. The SmartREM-LINUS is a commercial extended range rem-counter, consisting of a central (3)He-proportional counter surrounded by a spherical moderator made of borated polyethylene with an internal shield made of lead. The dose rate indicated by the SmartREM-LINUS was investigated for two different irradiation conditions. The linearity and the angular dependence of the indicated dose rate were investigated using reference neutron fields produced by (241)AmBe and (252)Cf. Additional measurements were performed in two different workplace fields with a component of neutrons with energies >20 MeV, namely the CERN-EU high-energy reference field and near the beam dump of the SwissFEL injector test facility. The measured dose rates were compared to a commercial rem-counter (WENDI2) and the results of Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:27315828

  6. Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Souvatzis, Petros; Niklasson, Anders M. N.

    2013-12-07

    We present an efficient general approach to first principles molecular dynamics simulations based on extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization. The reduction of the optimization requirement reduces the computational cost to a minimum, but without causing any significant loss of accuracy or long-term energy drift. The optimization-free first principles molecular dynamics requires only one single diagonalization per time step, but is still able to provide trajectories at the same level of accuracy as “exact,” fully converged, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. The optimization-free limit of extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics therefore represents an ideal starting point for robust and efficient first principles quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulations.

  7. Effect of the ionizing radiation on the rain-time atmospheric electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Takeda, Masahiko; Makino, Masahiko; Owada, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    The atmospheric electric field, or potential gradient (PG) at Kakioka, 150 southwest of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) shows peculiar behaviors after the accident, March 2012 due to the conductivity enhancement in the air by the ionizing radiation. This means that the PG provides significant information on the dynamics of the radioactive materials. During last EGU assembly 2012, we showed that the fine-weather PG decreased by one-two orders of magnitudes at the arrival of the radioactive plume, and that the PG recovered in various way depending on various types of re-suspension processes in addition to the physical decay of the deposited radioactive materials. We extended this work to the rain-time PG, which is very simple because of high variability of the PG depending on the cloud types and distribution. We yet found a statistical difference between rain-time PGs before and after the Fukushima NPP Accident: one-hour averaged rain-time PG during the first 45 days after the accident is not as much scattered to the negative side as those during the same period of different years or during 40 days before accident. Further examination of one-minute averaged data (1 Hz sampling) during the second half March for 2006-2012 revealed that this difference comes from short time-spans of negative peaks rather than the peak value after the accident compared to those before the accident. On the other hand, characteristics of positive peaks (cloud without rain) are unchanged. The results suggest either (1) the effect on the local charges in the rain cloud is narrowed under high dose of ionized radiation, making positive charges in the cloud less shielded by the negative charges, or (2) negative charge of ionized aerosol decays much faster under higher dose of ionized radiation due to the shortened time constant of the ionized aerosol (? 1-?, where ? is the atmospheric electric conductivity).

  8. Extended phase diagram of the three-dimensional phase field crystal model.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, A; Ala-Nissila, T

    2010-05-26

    We determine the phase diagram of the phase field crystal model in three dimensions by using numerical free energy minimization methods. Previously published results, based on single mode approximations, have indicated that in addition to the uniform (liquid) phase, there would be regions of stability of body-centered cubic, hexagonal and stripe phases. We find that in addition to these, there are also regions of stability of face-centered cubic and hexagonal close packed structures in this model. PMID:21393705

  9. Minimal Extended Flavor Groups, Matter Fields Chiral Representations, and the Flavor Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doff, A.; Pisano, F.

    We show the specific unusual features on chiral gauge anomalies cancellation in the minimal, necessarily 3-3-1, and the largest 3-4-1 weak isospin chiral gauge semisimple group leptoquark-bilepton extensions of the 3-2-1 conventional standard model of nuclear and electromagnetic interactions. In such models a natural answer for the fundamental question of fermion generation replication arises directly from the self-consistency of a local gauge quantum field theory, which constrains the number of the QFD fermion families to the QCD color charges.

  10. Global and Local Gravity Field Models of the Moon Using GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was designed to map the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and to advance the understanding of the Moon's thermal evolution by producing a high-quality, high-resolution map of the gravitational field of the Moon. The mission consisted of two spacecraft, which were launched in September 2011 on a Discovery-class NASA mission. Ka-band tracking between the two satellites was the single science instrument, augmented by tracking from Earth using the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  11. Extended field-of-view in a lensless endoscope using an aperiodic multicore fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivankutty, Siddharth; Tsvirkun, Viktor; Bouwmans, Géraud; Kogan, Dani; Oron, Dan; Andresen, Esben Ravn; Rigneault, Hervé

    2016-08-01

    We investigate lensless endoscopy using coherent beam combining and aperiodic multicore fibers (MCF). We show that diffracted orders, inherent to MCF with periodically arranged cores, dramatically reduce the field of view (FoV) and that randomness in MCF core positions can increase the FoV up to the diffraction limit set by a single fiber core, while maintaining MCF experimental feasibility. We demonstrate experimentally pixelation-free lensless endoscopy imaging over a 120 micron FoV with an aperiodic MCF designed with widely spaced cores. We show that this system is suitable to perform beam scanning imaging by simply applying a tilt to the proximal wavefront.

  12. Extended depth of field in an intrinsically wavefront-encoded biometric iris camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergkoetter, Matthew D.; Bentley, Julie L.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a design process which greatly increases the depth of field of a simple three-element lens system intended for biometric iris recognition. The system is optimized to produce a point spread function which is insensitive to defocus, so that recorded images may be deconvolved without knowledge of the exact object distance. This is essentially a variation on the technique of wavefront encoding, however the desired encoding effect is achieved by aberrations intrinsic to the lens system itself, without the need for a pupil phase mask.

  13. Computation of radiative fields in opposed-flow flame spread in a microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaraza, Jeanie Ray P.

    The purpose of this thesis is to perform radiation computations in opposed-flow flame spread in a microgravity environment. In this work, the flame spread simulations consider a thermally thin, PMMA fuel in a quiescent, microgravity environment or facing low opposed-flow velocities at ambient conditions of 1 atm and 50-50 volumetric mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. The flame spread model, which is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, is used for numerical simulations in combination with a radiation model. The CFD code is written in FORTRAN language, and a Matlab code is developed for plotting results. The temperature and species fields from CFD computations are used as inputs into the radiation model. Radiative quantities are calculated by using a global balance method along with the total transmittance non-homogeneous model. Radiation effect on thermocouple temperature measurement is investigated. Although this topic is well known, performing radiation correction calculations usually considers surface radiation only and not gas radiation. The inclusion of gas radiation is utilized in predicting the gas temperature that a thermocouple would measure. A narrow bed radiation model is used to determine the average incident radiative flux at a specified location from which a thermocouple temperature measurement is predicted. This study focuses on the quiescent microgravity environment only. The effect of parameters such as thermocouple surface emissivity and bead diameter are also studied. For the main part of this thesis, the effect of gas radiation on the mechanism of flame spread over a thermally thin, solid fuel in microgravity is investigated computationally. Generated radiative fields including thermal and species fields are utilized to investigate the nature of the influence of gas radiation on flame structure as well as its role in the mechanism of opposed-flow flame spread. The opposed-flow configuration considers low flow velocities including a quiescent

  14. Virtual radiation fields -- A virtual environment tool for radiological analysis and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, T.W.; Dalton, G.R.; Tulenko, J.S.

    1997-02-01

    A virtual reality system was developed for computational and graphical modeling and simulation of radiation environments. This system, called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF), demonstrates the usefulness of radiological analysis in simulation-based design for predicting radiation doses for robotic equipment and personnel working in a radiation environment. The system was developed for use in determining the radiation doses for robotic equipment to be used in tank-waste retrieval operations at the Hanford National Laboratory. As a reference case, specific application is made to simulate cleanup operations for Hanford tank C-106. A three-dimensional model representation of the tank and its predicted radiation levels are presented and analyzed. Tank cleanup operations were simulated to understand how radiation levels change during the cleanup phase and to predict cumulative radiation doses to robotic equipment to aid in the development of maintenance and replacement schedules.

  15. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2014-06-23

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  16. Near-field radiative thermal control with graphene covered on different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ao; Zheng, Zhiheng; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Based on the structure of double-layer parallel plates, this paper demonstrates that thermal radiation in near field is greatly enhanced due to near-field effects, exceeding Planck‧s blackbody radiation law. To study the effect of graphene on thermal radiation in near field, the authors add graphene layer into the structure and analyze the ability of graphene to control near-field thermal radiation with different materials. The result indicates that the graphene layer effectively suppresses the near-field thermal radiation between metal plates or polar-dielectric plates, having good ability of thermal insulation. But for doped-silicon plates, depending on the specific models, graphene has different control abilities, suppressing or enhancing, and the control abilities mainly depend on the material graphene is attached to. The authors also summarize some common rules about the different abilities of graphene to control the near-field thermal radiation. In consideration of the thickness of 0.34 nm of monolayer graphene, this paper points out that graphene plays a very important role in controlling the near-field thermal radiation.

  17. Selective nitrate detection by an enzymatic sensor based on an extended-gate type organic field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Minami, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Yui; Minamiki, Tsukuru; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Kurita, Ryoji; Niwa, Osamu; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-07-15

    First selective nitrate biosensor device based on an extended-gate type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is reported. The fabricated sensor device consists of the extended-gate electrode functionalized by a nitrate reductase with a mediator (=a bipyridinium derivative) and an OFET-based transducer. The mechanism of the nitrate detection can be explained by an electron-relay on the extended-gate electrode, resulting in changes of the electric properties of the OFET. The detection limit of nitrate in water is estimated to be 45 ppb, which suggests that the sensitivity of our fabricated sensor is comparable to those of some conventional detection methods. As a practical application of the OFET sensor, the nitrate detection in diluted human saliva has been successfully demonstrated; the results agreed well with those by conventional colorimetric measurement. The advantages of OFETs are printability, mechanical flexibility, stretchability and disposability, meaning that the fabricated OFET could open up a new approach for low-cost electronic devices toward on-site detection of nitrate in aqueous media.

  18. A novel reconstruction algorithm to extend the CT scan field-of-view.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J; Chao, E; Thibault, J; Grekowicz, B; Horst, A; McOlash, S; Myers, T J

    2004-09-01

    For various reasons, a projection dataset acquired on a computed tomography (CT) scanner can be truncated. That is, a portion of the scanned object is positioned outside the scan field-of-view (SFOV) and the line integrals corresponding to those regions are not measured. A projection truncation problem causes imaging artifacts that lead to suboptimal image quality. In this paper, we propose a reconstruction algorithm that enables an adequate estimation of the projection outside the SFOV. We make use of the fact that the total attenuation of each ideal projection in a parallel sampling geometry remains constant over views. We use the magnitudes and slopes of the projection samples at the location of truncation to estimate water cylinders that can best fit to the projection data outside the SFOV. To improve the robustness of the algorithm, continuity constraints are placed on the fitting parameters. Extensive phantom and patient experiments were conducted to test the robustness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

  19. New correction procedures for the fast field program which extend its range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, M.; Sack, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    A fast field program (FFP) algorithm was developed based on the method of Lee et al., for the prediction of sound pressure level from low frequency, high intensity sources. In order to permit accurate predictions at distances greater than 2 km, new correction procedures have had to be included in the algorithm. Certain functions, whose Hankel transforms can be determined analytically, are subtracted from the depth dependent Green's function. The distance response is then obtained as the sum of these transforms and the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of the residual k dependent function. One procedure, which permits the elimination of most complex exponentials, has allowed significant changes in the structure of the FFP algorithm, which has resulted in a substantial reduction in computation time.

  20. Extended particle-in-cell schemes for physics in ultrastrong laser fields: Review and developments.

    PubMed

    Gonoskov, A; Bastrakov, S; Efimenko, E; Ilderton, A; Marklund, M; Meyerov, I; Muraviev, A; Sergeev, A; Surmin, I; Wallin, E

    2015-08-01

    We review common extensions of particle-in-cell (PIC) schemes which account for strong field phenomena in laser-plasma interactions. After describing the physical processes of interest and their numerical implementation, we provide solutions for several associated methodological and algorithmic problems. We propose a modified event generator that precisely models the entire spectrum of incoherent particle emission without any low-energy cutoff, and which imposes close to the weakest possible demands on the numerical time step. Based on this, we also develop an adaptive event generator that subdivides the time step for locally resolving QED events, allowing for efficient simulation of cascades. Further, we present a unified technical interface for including the processes of interest in different PIC implementations. Two PIC codes which support this interface, PICADOR and ELMIS, are also briefly reviewed.

  1. Extended field observations of cirrus clouds using a ground-based cloud observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

  2. Epidemiologic studies of electric and magnetic fields and cancer: Strategies for extending knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.

    1993-12-01

    Epidemiologic research concerning electric and magnetic fields in relation to cancer has focused on the potential etiologic roles of residential exposure on childhood cancer and occupational exposure on adult leukemia and brain cancer. Future residential studies must concentrate on exposure assessment that is enhanced by developing models of historical exposure, assessment of the relation between magnetic fields and wire codes, and consideration of alternate exposure indices. Study design issues deserving attention include possible biases in random digit dialing control selection, consideration of the temporal course of exposure and disease, and acquisition of the necessary information to assess the potential value of ecologic studies. Highest priorities are comprehensive evaluation of exposure patterns and sources and examination of the sociology and geography of residential wire codes. Future occupational studies should also concentrate on improved exposure assessment with increased attention to nonutility worker populations and development of historical exposure indicators that are superior to job titles alone. Potential carcinogens in the workplace that could act as confounders need to be more carefully examined. The temporal relation between exposure and disease and possible effect modification by other workplace agents should be incorporated into future studies. The most pressing need is for measurement of exposure patterns in a variety of worker populations and performance of traditional epidemiologic evaluations of cancer occurrence. The principal source of bias toward the null is nondifferential misclassification of exposure with improvements expected to enhance any true etiologic association that is present. Biases away from the null might include biased control selection in residential studies and chemical carcinogens acting as confounders in occupational studies. 51 refs., 1 tab.

  3. An analysis of the radiation from apertures in curved surfaces by the geometrical theory of diffraction. [ray technique for electromagnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathak, P. H.; Kouyoumjian, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper the geometrical theory of diffraction is extended to treat the radiation from apertures of slots in convex perfectly conducting surfaces. It is assumed that the tangential electric field in the aperture is known so that an equivalent infinitesimal source can be defined at each point in the aperture. Surface rays emanate from this source which is a caustic of the ray system. A launching coefficient is introduced to describe the excitation of the surface ray modes. If the field radiated from the surface is desired, the ordinary diffraction coefficients are used to determine the field of the rays shed tangentially from the surface rays. The field of the surface ray modes is not the field on the surface; hence if the mutual coupling between slots is of interest, a second coefficient related to the launching coefficient must be employed. In the region adjacent to the shadow boundary, the component of the field directly radiated from the source is represented by Fock-type functions. In the illuminated region the incident radiation from the source (this does not include the diffracted field components) is treated by geometrical optics. This extension of the geometrical theory of diffraction is applied to calculate the radiation from slots on elliptic cylinders, spheres, and spheroids.

  4. Extended field-of-view and increased-signal 3D holographic illumination with time-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Samuel J; Allen, William E; Kauvar, Isaac; Andalman, Aaron S; Young, Noah P; Kim, Christina K; Marshel, James H; Wetzstein, Gordon; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-12-14

    Phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used for generating multifocal three-dimensional (3D) illumination patterns, but these are limited to a field of view constrained by the pixel count or size of the SLM. Further, with two-photon SLM-based excitation, increasing the number of focal spots penalizes the total signal linearly--requiring more laser power than is available or can be tolerated by the sample. Here we analyze and demonstrate a method of using galvanometer mirrors to time-sequentially reposition multiple 3D holograms, both extending the field of view and increasing the total time-averaged two-photon signal. We apply our approach to 3D two-photon in vivo neuronal calcium imaging.

  5. High Sensitivity pH Sensor Based on Porous Silicon (PSi) Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Al-Hardan, Naif H; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi; Ahmed, Naser M; Jalar, Azman; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Kar Keng, Lim; Chiu, Weesiong; Al-Rawi, Hamzah N

    2016-01-01

    In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions reveal that the PSi has a sensitivity value of 66 mV/pH that is considered a super Nernstian value. The sensor considers stability to be in the pH range of 2 to 12. The hysteresis values of the prepared PSi sensor were approximately 8.2 and 10.5 mV in the low and high pH loop, respectively. The result of this study reveals a promising application of PSi in the field for detecting hydrogen ions in different solutions. PMID:27338381

  6. Extended field-of-view and increased-signal 3D holographic illumination with time-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Samuel J; Allen, William E; Kauvar, Isaac; Andalman, Aaron S; Young, Noah P; Kim, Christina K; Marshel, James H; Wetzstein, Gordon; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-12-14

    Phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used for generating multifocal three-dimensional (3D) illumination patterns, but these are limited to a field of view constrained by the pixel count or size of the SLM. Further, with two-photon SLM-based excitation, increasing the number of focal spots penalizes the total signal linearly--requiring more laser power than is available or can be tolerated by the sample. Here we analyze and demonstrate a method of using galvanometer mirrors to time-sequentially reposition multiple 3D holograms, both extending the field of view and increasing the total time-averaged two-photon signal. We apply our approach to 3D two-photon in vivo neuronal calcium imaging. PMID:26699047

  7. Extended field-of-view and increased-signal 3D holographic illumination with time-division multiplexing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Samuel J.; Allen, William E.; Kauvar, Isaac; Andalman, Aaron S.; Young, Noah P.; Kim, Christina K.; Marshel, James H.; Wetzstein, Gordon; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used for generating multifocal three-dimensional (3D) illumination patterns, but these are limited to a field of view constrained by the pixel count or size of the SLM. Further, with two-photon SLM-based excitation, increasing the number of focal spots penalizes the total signal linearly—requiring more laser power than is available or can be tolerated by the sample. Here we analyze and demonstrate a method of using galvanometer mirrors to time-sequentially reposition multiple 3D holograms, both extending the field of view and increasing the total time-averaged two-photon signal. We apply our approach to 3D two-photon in vivo neuronal calcium imaging. PMID:26699047

  8. High Sensitivity pH Sensor Based on Porous Silicon (PSi) Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hardan, Naif H.; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi; Ahmed, Naser M.; Jalar, Azman; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Kar Keng, Lim; Chiu, Weesiong; Al-Rawi, Hamzah N.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions reveal that the PSi has a sensitivity value of 66 mV/pH that is considered a super Nernstian value. The sensor considers stability to be in the pH range of 2 to 12. The hysteresis values of the prepared PSi sensor were approximately 8.2 and 10.5 mV in the low and high pH loop, respectively. The result of this study reveals a promising application of PSi in the field for detecting hydrogen ions in different solutions. PMID:27338381

  9. High Sensitivity pH Sensor Based on Porous Silicon (PSi) Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Al-Hardan, Naif H; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi; Ahmed, Naser M; Jalar, Azman; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Kar Keng, Lim; Chiu, Weesiong; Al-Rawi, Hamzah N

    2016-01-01

    In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions reveal that the PSi has a sensitivity value of 66 mV/pH that is considered a super Nernstian value. The sensor considers stability to be in the pH range of 2 to 12. The hysteresis values of the prepared PSi sensor were approximately 8.2 and 10.5 mV in the low and high pH loop, respectively. The result of this study reveals a promising application of PSi in the field for detecting hydrogen ions in different solutions.

  10. Scatter radiation intensities around full-field digital mammography units.

    PubMed

    Judge, M A; Keavey, E; Phelan, N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the scatter radiation intensity around digital mammography systems and apply these data to standard shielding calculations to reveal whether shielding design of existing breast screening rooms is adequate for the use of digital mammography systems. Three digital mammography systems from GE Healthcare, Hologic and Philips were employed in the study. A breast-equivalent phantom was imaged under clinical workload conditions and scatter radiation intensities around the digital mammography systems were measured for a range of angles in three planes using an ionisation chamber. The results were compared with those from previous studies of film-screen systems. It may be deduced from the results that scattering in the backward direction is significant for all three systems, while scattering in the forward direction can be significant for some planes around the GE and Hologic systems. Measurements at typical clinical settings on each system revealed the Philips system to have markedly lower scatter radiation intensities than the other systems. Substituting the measured scattered radiation intensity into shielding calculations yielded barrier requirements similar to those already in place at the screening centres operating these systems. Current radiation protection requirements based on film-screen technology remain sufficient when applied to rooms with digital mammography installations and no alteration is required to the structural shielding.

  11. Magnetic field effects on THz radiation from rectangular shape Bi2212 IJJ’s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaki, Kazuhiro; Tsujimoto, Manabu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Minami, Hidetoshi; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2010-12-01

    The effects of magnetic field on terahertz radiation emitted from the rectangular mesa of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ’s) made of Bi2212 single crystals were studied up to 150 Oe. Strong suppression of the radiation power was observed when magnetic field was applied to the c-axis of the sample, while in the case of H//ab-plane, the radiation power showed a weak and broad peak in the weak field region (˜50 Oe), then it decreased and diminished around 150 Oe. These magnetic field effects are interpreted by the strong influence of magnetic field on the I-V curve, which set up the condition for the THz radiation.

  12. Reduction of the Background Magnetic Field Inhibits Ability of Drosophila melanogaster to Survive Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Lucas; Madapatha, Dinu; Martino, Carlos; Hernandez, Mark; Barnes, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The effects of exposure to an environment where the background magnetic field has been reduced were studied on wild-type Drosophila melanogaster by measuring its ability to survive a single exposure to ionizing radiation during its larval stage. The experimental design presented shows a timeframe, ionizing radiation dose and background magnetic field parameters that will cause a significant and reproducible reduction of survival on this insect model. These results suggest that background magnetic fields may play a fundamental role in the recovery or harm of a biological system that is exposed to single doses of ionizing radiation. PMID:22532126

  13. The exact electromagnetic field description of photon emission, absorption, and radiation pattern. II.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Dale M; Grimes, Craig A

    2002-10-01

    This is the second of two articles, the first of which contains a proposed explanation of quantum theory based upon electron nonlocality and classical electrodynamics. In this second article classical field theory is used to describe a unique field set for exchange of radiation between an atomic eigenstate and the far field. The radiation satisfies the thermodynamic condition of reversibility as described by Boltzmann, Planck, and Einstein. The exchanged radiation supports the kinematic properties of photons, and it can be emitted or absorbed by a vanishingly small volume.

  14. Hodgkin's disease in children: Treatment with MOPP and low-dose, extended field irradiation without laparotomy. Late results and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkin, D.; Doyle, J.; Berry, M.; Blanchette, V.; Chan, H.; Doherty, M.; Freedman, M.; Greenberg, M.; Panzarella, T.; Saunders, F. )

    1990-01-01

    The 10 year results of a trial of bimodal treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children with 6 cycles of MOPP and low-dose extended field irradiation, without staging laparotomy, were for 57 children in all stages as follows: survival 85%, relapse-free survival 80%, and survival-free of second relapse 86%. There were three fatal toxic events, two due to viral infection and one to a second malignant tumor (NHL). Three other patients developed a second malignant tumour, and one developed a thyroid adenoma. No patient developed acute leukemia. These results are compared with the results of treatment of surgically staged children by extended field irradiation alone, with bimodal treatment reserved for relapse or advanced disease at diagnosis. Initial bimodal treatment improved the overall 10 year survival free from a second relapse rate by 20% (86% vs. 66%). No major difference in treatment toxicity between these two groups has emerged during the first 10 years of follow-up. We conclude that, except for favourable CS-1 presentations, children with Hodgkin's disease confined to the lymphatic system should be given bimodal treatment, but that the least morbid effective combination remains to be determined.

  15. Alkaline lavas from southern Mendoza, Argentina, extend the Patagonian DUPAL mantle field to the north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soager, N.; Holm, P. M.; Llambias, E.

    2010-12-01

    The lavas sampled around Río Colorado ~37°S at the border of Mendoza and Neuquén provinces, Argentina, define an OIB-like end-member composition for the Pleistocene and Holocene activity in the Payún Matrú volcanic field. Although positioned in the far back-arc of the Andes, only a few lavas show signs of involvement of slab fluids or crustal contamination such as relatively high LILEs relative to Nb. The very low La/Nb (~0.66) and Zr/Nb (~5) and high U/Pb (0.3-0.4) of the end-member composition clearly distinguish the source from normal MORB mantle, while high Ba/Nb (~10) and K/Nb (370-400) compared to FOZO and HIMU type OIBs suggest an EM type of mantle. Overall, the trace element patterns of the Río Colorado lavas are similar to the central and north Patagonian intraplate basalts and to South Atlantic E-MORB affected by the Discovery plume and the LOMU component (le Roux et al., 2002, EPSL 203). The isotopic composition of the Río Colorado component has a 206Pb/204Pb = 18.4, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.58, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.3, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70353 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51285. This composition overlaps the central and north Patagonian intraplate basalts in Pb-isotopic space but is slightly less enriched in Sr and Nd-isotopes. It is distinctly different from the FOZO like composition of the south Patagonian intraplate basalts and the nearby Juan Fernandéz plume but similar to the South Atlantic N-MORB and MORB from the southern Chile Ridge segment 4 (Sturm et al., 1999, JGR 104) described as DUPAL type. The DUPAL-MORB type isotopic composition and the plume-like trace element patterns of the Río Colorado lavas suggest the presence of a weak plume beneath the area. The eruption of the large Payún Matrú volcano and the gigantic Pleistocene flood basalts also calls for a thermal anomaly to produce these melts during a weakly compressive tectonic regime with no significant addition of slab fluids. This was supported by Burd et al. (2008, Abstr., 7th Int. Sym. And. Geo

  16. Raman distributed temperature measurement at CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toccafondo, Iacopo; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Signorini, Alessandro; Guillermain, Elisa; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Brugger, Markus; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a validation of distributed Raman temperature sensing (RDTS) at the CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM), newly developed in order to qualify electronics for the challenging radiation environment of accelerators and connected high energy physics experiments. By investigating the effect of wavelength dependent radiation induced absorption (RIA) on the Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes light components in radiation tolerant Ge-doped multi-mode (MM) graded-index optical fibers, we demonstrate that Raman DTS used in loop configuration is robust to harsh environments in which the fiber is exposed to a mixed radiation field. The temperature profiles measured on commercial Ge-doped optical fibers is fully reliable and therefore, can be used to correct the RIA temperature dependence in distributed radiation sensing systems based on P-doped optical fibers.

  17. Stability of a liquid-film space radiator with internal electrostatic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bankoff, S.G.; Miksis, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    A new concept in light-weight space radiators has been introduced by Kim, Miksis and Bankoff, consisting of a pumped-loop membrane radiator in which leakage of coolant from a puncture, due to micrometeorite or space debris impact, is prevented by the application of an internal electrostatic field. For nuclear space power, the coolant is generally a liquid metal, such as lithium, flowing as a thin film along the interior walls of the hollow radiator. A lightweight fully-modular radiator design is proposed, which is calculated to weight less than 1 kg/m{sup 2}. The feature which makes this thin-membrane radiator practical is the internal electrostatic field system, which can stop radiator leaks from punctures, sudden accelerations or accidental tears.

  18. Hot accretion disks with pairs: Effects of magnetic field and thermal cyclocsynchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusunose, Masaaki; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    1994-01-01

    We show the effects of thermal cyclosynchrotron radiation and magnetic viscosity on the structure of hot, two-temperature accretion disks. Magnetic field, B, is assumed to be randomly oriented and the ratio of magnetic pressure to either gas pressure, alpha = P(sub mag)/P(sub gas), or the sum of the gas and radiation pressures, alpha = (P(sub mag)/P(sub gas) + P(sub rad)), is fixed. We find those effects do not change the qualitative properties of the disks, i.e., there are still two critical accretion rates related to production of e(sup +/-) pairs, (M dot)((sup U)(sub cr)) and (M dot)((sup L)(sub cr)), that affect the number of local and global disk solutions, as recently found by Bjoernsson and Svensson for the case with B = 0. However, a critical value of the alpha-viscosity parameter above which those critical accretion rates disappear becomes smaller than alpha(sub cr) = 1 found in the case of B = 0, for P(sub mag) = alpha(P(sub gas) + P(sub rad)). If P(sub mag) = alpha P(sub gas), on the other hand, alpha(sub cr) is still about unity. Moreover, when Comptonized cyclosynchrotron radiation dominates Comptonized bremsstrahlung, radiation from the disk obeys a power law with the energy spectral index of approximately 0.5, in a qualitative agreement with X-ray observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNS) and Galactic black hole candidates. We also extend the hot disk solutions for P(sub mag) = alpha(P(sub gas) + P(sub rad)) to the effectively optically thick region, where they merge with the standard cold disk solutions. We find that the mapping method by Bjoernsson and Svensson gives a good approximation to the disk structure in the hot region and show where it breaks in the transition region. Finally, we find a region in the disk parameter space with no solutions due to the inability of Coulomb heating to supply enough energy to electrons.

  19. Time-dependent and radiation field effects on collisional-radiative simulations of radiative properties of blast waves launched in clusters of xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Gil, J. M.; Rubiano, J. G.; Mendoza, M. A.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Symes, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Smith, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative shock waves are ubiquitous throughout the universe and play a crucial role in the transport of energy into the interstellar medium. This fact has led to many efforts to scale the astrophysical phenomena to accessible conditions. In some laboratory experiments radiative blast waves are launched in clusters of gases by means of the direct deposition of the laser energy. In this work, by using a collisional-radiative model, we perform an analysis of the plasma level populations and radiative properties of a blast wave launched in a xenon cluster. In particular, for both the shocked and unshocked material, we study the influence of different effects such as LTE, steady-state or time-dependent NLTE simulations, plasma self-absorption or external radiation field in the determination of those properties and also in the diagnosis of the electron temperature of the blast wave.

  20. Television system for verification and documentation of treatment fields during intraoperative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Fraass, B A; Harrington, F S; Kinsella, T J; Sindelar, W F

    1983-09-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) involves direct treatment of tumors or tumor beds with large single doses of radiation. The verification of the area to be treated before irradiation and the documentation of the treated area are critical for IORT, just as for other types of radiation therapy. A television system which allows the target area to be directly imaged immediately before irradiation has been developed. Verification and documentation of treatment fields has made the IORT television system indispensable.

  1. Mixed-radiation-field dosimetry utilizing Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Hintenlang, D.E.; Jamil, K.; Iselin, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation effects on urea, thiourea, guanidine carbonate and guanine sulfate were evaluated for both photon and neutron irradiations. Hydration of these materials typically provides a greatly increased sensitivity to both forms of radiation exposure, although not all materials lend themselves to this treatment without changing the chemical structure of the compound. Urea was found to be the most stable hydrated compound and provides the best sensitivity for quantifying radiation effects using NQR techniques. Urea permits a straight-forward quantification of each of the important parameters of the observed NQR signal, the FID. Several advanced data analysis methods were developed to assist in quantifying NQR spectra, both from urea and materials having more complex molecular structures, such as thiourea and guanidine sulfate. Unfortunately, these analysis techniques are frequently quite time consuming for the complex NQR spectra that result from some of these materials. The simpler analysis afforded by urea has therefore made it the prime candidate for an NQR dosimetry material. The moderate sensitivity of hydrated urea to photon irradiation does not permit this material to achieve the levels of performance required for a personnel dosimeter. It does, however, demonstrate acceptable sensitivity over dose ranges where it could provide a good biological dosimeter for several areas of radiation processing. The demonstrated photon sensitivity could permit hydrated urea to be used in applications such as food irradiation dosimetry. This material also exhibits a good sensitivity to neutron irradiation. The precise correlation between neutron exposure and the parameters of the resulting NQR spectra are currently being developed.

  2. Quantum radiation of Maxwell’s electromagnetic field in nonstationary Kerr-de Sitter black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum radiation properties of nonstationary Kerr-de Sitter (KdS) black hole is investigated using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. The locations of horizons and the temperature of the thermal radiation as well as the maximum energy of the nonthermal radiation are derived. It is found that the surface gravity and the Hawking temperature depend on both time and different angles. An extra coupling effect is obtained in the thermal radiation spectrum of Maxwell’s electromagnetic field equations which is absent in the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particles. Further, the chemical potential derived from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particle has been found to be equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of the scalar particle in the nonthermal radiation for KdS black hole. It is also shown that the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation produces a constant term in the expression of the surface gravity and Hawking temperature.

  3. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Comments on 'Cellular response to modulated radiation fields'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. K.; Klassen, N. V.

    2009-03-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Claridge Mackonis et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 5469-82) measured cell survival in spatially modulated radiation fields. They claim to have identified two new types of radiation-induced bystander effect. We conclude that their claims are not supported by their data.

  4. Tuning near field radiative heat flux through surface excitations with a metal insulator transition.

    PubMed

    van Zwol, P J; Ranno, L; Chevrier, J

    2012-06-01

    The control of heat flow is a formidable challenge due to lack of good thermal insulators. Promising new opportunities for heat flow control were recently theoretically discovered for radiative heat flow in near field, where large heat flow contrasts may be achieved by tuning electronic excitations on surfaces. Here we show experimentally that the phase transition of VO2 entails a change of surface polariton states that significantly affects radiative heat transfer in near field. In all cases the Derjaguin approximation correctly predicted radiative heat transfer in near field, but it underestimated the far field limit. Our results indicate that heat flow contrasts can be realized in near field that can be larger than those obtained in far field. PMID:23003960

  5. Characterization of extended range Bonner Sphere Spectrometers in the CERF high-energy broad neutron field at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Bedogni, R.; Caresana, M.; Charitonidis, N.; Chiti, M.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Severino, C.; Silari, M.

    2012-12-01

    The accurate determination of the ambient dose equivalent in the mixed neutron-photon fields encountered around high-energy particle accelerators still represents a challenging task. The main complexity arises from the extreme variability of the neutron energy, which spans over 10 orders of magnitude or more. Operational survey instruments, which response function attempts to mimic the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficient up to GeV neutrons, are available on the market, but their response is not fully reliable over the entire energy range. Extended range rem counters (ERRC) do not require the exact knowledge of the energy distribution of the neutron field and the calibration can be done with a source spectrum. If the actual neutron field has an energy distribution different from the calibration spectrum, the measurement is affected by an added uncertainty related to the partial overlap of the fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion curve and the response function. For this reason their operational use should always be preceded by an "in-field" calibration, i.e. a calibration made against a reference instrument exposed in the same field where the survey-meter will be employed. In practice the extended-range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) is the only device which can serve as reference instrument in these fields, because of its wide energy range and the possibility to assess the neutron fluence and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) values with the appropriate accuracy. Nevertheless, the experience gained by a number of experimental groups suggests that mandatory conditions for obtaining accurate results in workplaces are: (1) the use of a well-established response matrix, thus implying validation campaigns in reference monochromatic neutrons fields, (2) the expert and critical use of suitable unfolding codes, and (3) the performance test of the whole system (experimental set-up, elaboration and unfolding procedures) in a well

  6. Wave field synthesis of moving virtual sound sources with complex radiation properties.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Jens; Spors, Sascha

    2011-11-01

    An approach to the synthesis of moving virtual sound sources with complex radiation properties in wave field synthesis is presented. The approach exploits the fact that any stationary sound source of finite spatial extent radiates spherical waves at sufficient distance. The angular dependency of the radiation properties of the source under consideration is reflected by the amplitude and phase distribution on the spherical wave fronts. The sound field emitted by a uniformly moving monopole source is derived and the far-field radiation properties of the complex virtual source under consideration are incorporated in order to derive a closed-form expression for the loudspeaker driving signal. The results are illustrated via numerical simulations of the synthesis of the sound field of a sample moving complex virtual source.

  7. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  8. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  9. The extragalactic radiation field and sharp edges to HI disks in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip Richard

    1990-01-01

    Observations of neutral hydrogen (HI) are widely used as a probe of the interstellar medium in galaxies and of galactic kinematics and dynamics. The 21-cm line can be used to determine galactic rotation curves far beyond the optical disk, and is one of the prime sources of evidence for the existence of dark haloes in spiral galaxies. However, a recent attempt to measure the 21-cm emission from NGC 3198 to very low column densities (N sub H approx. equals 5 times 10 to the 18th power) found that the HI disk is very sharply truncated at a column density of a few times 10 to the 19th power (Sancisi 1989, private communication). This discovery reinforces the earlier suggestion (Briggs et al. 1980) that extended, low-column density envelopes of neutral hydrogen are not common around galaxies. Here the author suggests that the sharp edge seen in the HI disk in NGC 3198 is consistent with a model in which a self-gravitating neutral HI disk is photoionized by the extragalactic radiation field. The possibility that the extragalactic background would produce sharp edges to HI disks was first suggested by Silk and Sunyaev (1976).

  10. Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrik, D.; Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S.; Vacik, J.

    2014-01-15

    We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high γ and e{sup −} radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 μm{sup 2}) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin {sup 10}B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10{sup −4}.

  11. VOYAGER OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, Richard Conn; Holberg, Jay B.

    2012-03-01

    The two Voyager spacecraft have completed their planetary exploration mission and are now probing the outer realms of the heliosphere. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers continued to operate well after the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter in 1989. We present a complete database of diffuse radiation observations made by both Voyagers: a total of 1943 spectra (500-1600 A) scattered throughout the sky. These include observations of dust-scattered starlight, emission lines from the hot interstellar medium, and a number of locations where no diffuse radiation was detected, with the very low upper limit of about 25 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1}. Many of these observations were from late in the mission when there was significantly less contribution from interplanetary emission lines and thus less contamination of the interstellar signal.

  12. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amgarou, K.; Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G.; Russo, S.

    2011-10-01

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to E<20 MeV if only polyethylene spheres are used, but can be extended to hundreds of MeV by including metal-loaded spheres (extended range BSS, indicated with ERBSS). With the aim of providing useful data to the scientific community involved in neutron measurements at hadron therapy facilities, an ERBSS experiment was carried out at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) of INFN—LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a proton beam routinely used for ophthalmic cancer treatments is available. The 62 MeV beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0° and 90° with respect to the beam-line. Here the ERBSS of UAB (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona— Grup de Física de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the "forward" and "sideward" proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and independently established and

  13. Phase transition of ionic salts and nuclear reactor radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakeš, D.; Rosenkranz, J.

    The behaviour of HgI 2 electrical conductivity curve at melting temperature was studied in the core of light water reactor. The melting point was found to be shifted regularly by the heat production - 0.3 centigrade per MW. The solidification point was not behaving that regularly and some of factors controlling this process, like the degree of overheating after melting, are discussed. The slope of the jump part of the conductivity curve is not influenced by the core radiation.

  14. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris A. Hodge

    2007-07-12

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named “Anole,” it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

  15. Axial acoustic radiation force on a sphere in Gaussian field

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Rongrong; Liu, Xiaozhou Gong, Xiufen

    2015-10-28

    Based on the finite series method, the acoustical radiation force resulting from a Gaussian beam incident on a spherical object is investigated analytically. When the position of the particles deviating from the center of the beam, the Gaussian beam is expanded as a spherical function at the center of the particles and the expanded coefficients of the Gaussian beam is calculated. The analytical expression of the acoustic radiation force on spherical particles deviating from the Gaussian beam center is deduced. The acoustic radiation force affected by the acoustic frequency and the offset distance from the Gaussian beam center is investigated. Results have been presented for Gaussian beams with different wavelengths and it has been shown that the interaction of a Gaussian beam with a sphere can result in attractive axial force under specific operational conditions. Results indicate the capability of manipulating and separating spherical spheres based on their mechanical and acoustical properties, the results provided here may provide a theoretical basis for development of single-beam acoustical tweezers.

  16. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-08-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign.

  17. Pyridinylidene-phenoxide in strong electric fields: controlling orientation, conical intersection, and radiation-less decay.

    PubMed

    Belz, S; Zilberg, S; Berg, M; Grohmann, T; Leibscher, M

    2012-11-26

    Strong electric fields open new routes for the control of radiation-less decay in molecules with conical intersections. Here, we present quantum chemical and quantum dynamical simulations which demonstrate that the radiation-less decay and related photoisomerization of pyridinylidene-phenoxide can be effectively manipulated with strong electric fields by shifting the conical intersection. Moreover, we show the effects of the electric field on the orientation of the molecules and on the photoexcitation and discuss the conditions for which the field induced coupling between rotational and vibronic states can be neglected.

  18. Electric-field distribution near rectangular microstrip radiators for hyperthermia heating: Theory versus experiment in water

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, H.R. ); Peterson, A.F. ); Magin, R.L. )

    1992-02-01

    A rectangular microstrip antenna radiator is investigated for its near-zone radiation characteristics in water. Calculations of a cavity model theory are compared with the electric-field measurements of a miniature nonperturbing diode dipole E-field probe whose 3 mm tip was positioned by an automatic three-axis scanning system. These comparisons have implications for the use of microstrip antennas in a multielement microwave hyperthermia applicator. Half-wavelength rectangular microstrip patches were designed to radiate in water at 915 MHz. Both low ([epsilon][sub r] = 10) and high ([epsilon][sub r] = 85) dielectric constant substrates were tested. Normal and tangential components of the near-zone radiated electric field were discriminated by appropriate orientation of the E-field probe. Low normal to transverse electric-field ratios ar 3.0 cm depth indicate that the radiators may be useful for hyperthermia heating with an intervening water bolus. Electric-field pattern addition from a three-element linear array of these elements in water indicates that phase and amplitude adjustment can achieve some limited control over the distribution of radiated power.

  19. Electric-field distribution near rectangular microstrip radiators for hyperthermia heating: theory versus experiment in water.

    PubMed

    Underwood, H R; Peterson, A F; Magin, R L

    1992-02-01

    A rectangular microstrip antenna radiator is investigated for its near-zone radiation characteristics in water. Calculations of a cavity model theory are compared with the electric-field measurements of a miniature nonperturbing diode-dipole E-field probe whose 3 mm tip was positioned by an automatic three-axis scanning system. These comparisons have implications for the use of microstrip antennas in a multielement microwave hyperthermia applicator. Half-wavelength rectangular microstrip patches were designed to radiate in water at 915 MHz. Both low (epsilon r = 10) and high (epsilon r = 85) dielectric constant substrates were tested. Normal and tangential components of the near-zone radiated electric field were discriminated by appropriate orientation of the E-field probe. Low normal to transverse electric-field ratios at 3.0 cm depth indicate that the radiators may be useful for hyperthermia heating with an intervening water bolus. Electric-field pattern addition from a three-element linear array of these elements in water indicates that phase and amplitude adjustment can achieve some limited control over the distribution of radiated power.

  20. Electric-field distribution near rectangular microstrip radiators for hyperthermia heating: theory versus experiment in water.

    PubMed

    Underwood, H R; Peterson, A F; Magin, R L

    1992-02-01

    A rectangular microstrip antenna radiator is investigated for its near-zone radiation characteristics in water. Calculations of a cavity model theory are compared with the electric-field measurements of a miniature nonperturbing diode-dipole E-field probe whose 3 mm tip was positioned by an automatic three-axis scanning system. These comparisons have implications for the use of microstrip antennas in a multielement microwave hyperthermia applicator. Half-wavelength rectangular microstrip patches were designed to radiate in water at 915 MHz. Both low (epsilon r = 10) and high (epsilon r = 85) dielectric constant substrates were tested. Normal and tangential components of the near-zone radiated electric field were discriminated by appropriate orientation of the E-field probe. Low normal to transverse electric-field ratios at 3.0 cm depth indicate that the radiators may be useful for hyperthermia heating with an intervening water bolus. Electric-field pattern addition from a three-element linear array of these elements in water indicates that phase and amplitude adjustment can achieve some limited control over the distribution of radiated power. PMID:1612617

  1. Effects of external radiation fields on line emission—application to star-forming regions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatzikos, Marios; Ferland, G. J.; Williams, R. J. R.; Porter, Ryan; Van Hoof, P. A. M.

    2013-12-20

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background, as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus. These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field and show that about 60% of its emission lines are sensitive to background subtraction. We argue that this geometric approach could provide an additional tool toward understanding the complex radiation fields of starburst galaxies.

  2. Physiologically gated micro-beam radiation therapy using electronically controlled field emission x-ray source array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Hadsell, Michael; Burk, Laurel; Ger, Rachel; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Lee, Yueh Z.; Chang, Sha; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2013-03-01

    Micro-beam radiation therapy (MRT) uses parallel planes of high dose narrow (10-100 um in width) radiation beams separated by a fraction of a millimeter to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000Gy of entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during the treatment can result in significant movement of micro beam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), and thus can reduce the effectiveness of the MRT. Recently we have developed the first bench-top image guided MRT system for small animal treatment using a high powered carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The CNT field emission x-ray source can be electronically synchronized to an external triggering signal to enable physiologically gated firing of x-ray radiation to minimize motion blurring. Here we report the results of phantom study of respiratory gated MRT. A simulation of mouse breathing was performed using a servo motor. Preliminary results show that without gating the micro beam full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) can increase by 70% and PVDR can decrease up to 50%. But with proper gating, both the beam width and PVDR changes can be negligible. Future experiments will involve irradiation of mouse models and comparing histology stains between the controls and the gated irradiation.

  3. Screening and nonlocal correlations in the extended Hubbard model from self-consistent combined GW and dynamical mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, Thomas; Biermann, Silke; Werner, Philipp

    2013-03-01

    We describe a recent implementation of the combined GW and dynamical mean field method (GW+DMFT) for the two-dimensional Hubbard model with onsite and nearest-neighbor repulsion. We clarify the relation of the GW+DMFT scheme to alternative approaches in the literature, and discuss the corresponding approximations to the free-energy functional of the model. Furthermore, we describe a numerically exact technique for the solution of the GW+DMFT equations, namely, the hybridization expansion continuous-time algorithm for impurity models with retarded interactions. We compute the low-temperature phase diagram of the half-filled extended Hubbard model, addressing the metal-insulator transition at small intersite interactions and the transition to a charge-ordered state for stronger intersite repulsions. GW+DMFT introduces a nontrivial momentum dependence into the many-body self-energy and polarization. We find that the charge fluctuations included in the present approach have a larger impact on the latter than on the former. Finally, within the GW+DMFT framework, as in extended DMFT, the intersite repulsion translates into a frequency dependence of the local effective interaction. We analyze this dependence and show how it affects the local spectral function.

  4. Exact off-resonance near fields of small-size extended hemielliptic 2-D lenses illuminated by plane waves.

    PubMed

    Boriskin, Artem V; Sauleau, Ronan; Nosich, Alexander I

    2009-02-01

    The near fields of small-size extended hemielliptic lenses made of rexolite and isotropic quartz and illuminated by E- and H-polarized plane waves are studied. Variations in the focal domain size, shape, and location are reported versus the angle of incidence of the incoming wave. The problem is solved numerically in a two-dimensional formulation. The accuracy of results is guaranteed by using a highly efficient numerical algorithm based on the combination of the Muller boundary integral equations, the method of analytical regularization, and the trigonometric Galerkin discretization scheme. The analysis fully accounts for the finite size of the lens as well as its curvature and thus can be considered as a reference solution for other electromagnetic solvers. Moreover, the trusted description of the focusing ability of a finite-size hemielliptic lens can be useful in the design of antenna receivers.

  5. Construction of Extended 3D Field of Views of the Internal Bladder Wall Surface: A Proof of Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hamadou, Achraf; Daul, Christian; Soussen, Charles

    2016-09-01

    3D extended field of views (FOVs) of the internal bladder wall facilitate lesion diagnosis, patient follow-up and treatment traceability. In this paper, we propose a 3D image mosaicing algorithm guided by 2D cystoscopic video-image registration for obtaining textured FOV mosaics. In this feasibility study, the registration makes use of data from a 3D cystoscope prototype providing, in addition to each small FOV image, some 3D points located on the surface. This proof of concept shows that textured surfaces can be constructed with minimally modified cystoscopes. The potential of the method is demonstrated on numerical and real phantoms reproducing various surface shapes. Pig and human bladder textures are superimposed on phantoms with known shape and dimensions. These data allow for quantitative assessment of the 3D mosaicing algorithm based on the registration of images simulating bladder textures.

  6. Testing of Performance of Optical Fibers Under Irradiation in Intense Radiation Fields, When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas; Windl, Wolfgang; Dickerson, Bryan

    2013-01-03

    The primary objective of this project is to measure and model the performance of optical fibers in intense radiation fields when subjected to very high temperatures. This research will pave the way for fiber optic and optically based sensors under conditions expected in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Sensor life and signal-to-noise ratios are susceptible to attenuation of the light signal due to scattering and absorbance in the fibers. This project will provide an experimental and theoretical study of the darkening of optical fibers in high-radiation and high-temperature environments. Although optical fibers have been studied for moderate radiation fluence and flux levels, the results of irradiation at very high temperatures have not been published for extended in-core exposures. Several previous multi-scale modeling efforts have studied irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of materials. However, model-based prediction of irradiation-induced changes in silica's optical transport properties has only recently started to receive attention due to possible applications as optical transmission components in fusion reactors. Nearly all damage-modeling studies have been performed in the molecular-dynamics domain, limited to very short times and small systems. Extended-time modeling, however, is crucial to predicting the long-term effects of irradiation at high temperatures, since the experimental testing may not encompass the displacement rate that the fibers will encounter if they are deployed in the VHTR. The project team will pursue such extended-time modeling, including the effects of the ambient and recrystallization. The process will be based on kinetic MC modeling using the concept of amorphous material consisting of building blocks of defect-pairs or clusters, which has been successfully applied to kinetic modeling in amorphized and recrystallized silicon. Using this procedure, the team will model compensation for rate effects, and the

  7. Extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film for selective inosine determination.

    PubMed

    Iskierko, Zofia; Sosnowska, Marta; Sharma, Piyush Sindhu; Benincori, Tiziana; D'Souza, Francis; Kaminska, Izabela; Fronc, Krzysztof; Noworyta, Krzysztof

    2015-12-15

    A novel recognition unit of chemical sensor for selective determination of the inosine, renal disfunction biomarker, was devised and prepared. For that purpose, inosine-templated molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film was deposited on an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) signal transducing unit. The MIP film was prepared by electrochemical polymerization of bis(bithiophene) derivatives bearing cytosine and boronic acid substituents, in the presence of the inosine template and a thiophene cross-linker. After MIP film deposition, the template was removed, and was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. Subsequently, the film composition was characterized by spectroscopic techniques, and its morphology and thickness were determined by AFM. The finally MIP film-coated extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) was used for signal transduction. This combination is not widely studied in the literature, despite the fact that it allows for facile integration of electrodeposited MIP film with FET transducer. The linear dynamic concentration range of the chemosensor was 0.5-50 μM with inosine detectability of 0.62 μM. The obtained detectability compares well to the levels of the inosine in body fluids which are in the range 0-2.9 µM for patients with diagnosed diabetic nephropathy, gout or hyperuricemia, and can reach 25 µM in certain cases. The imprinting factor for inosine, determined from piezomicrogravimetric experiments with use of the MIP film-coated quartz crystal resonator, was found to be 5.5. Higher selectivity for inosine with respect to common interferents was also achieved with the present molecularly engineered sensing element. The obtained analytical parameters of the devised chemosensor allow for its use for practical sample measurements.

  8. Modeling of cloud liquid water structure and the associated radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Wiscombe, W.

    1995-09-01

    A 0.5{degrees}C global warming should result from every 1% decrease in global albedo. It is therefore necessary to accurately quantify the cloud radiation interaction. Most radiation calculations are one-dimensional and attempt to deal with horizontal variability using a horizontally-averaged optical depth. This study presents detailed scale-by-scale statistical analysis of the cloud liquid water content (LWC) field. The aim is to use this information to provide radiation calculations with more adequate information about inhomogeneity in cloud fields. The radiation community needs to carefully specify the minimum requirements which GCMs must include in order to treat cloud-radiation interaction correctly. This may involve GCMs predicting not only mean cloud quantities but also cloud variability. 3 figs.

  9. On the parameterization of the biological effect in a mixed radiation field.

    PubMed

    Kraft, G; Scholz, M

    1994-10-01

    The exposure of astronauts and electronics to the cosmic radiation especially to the particle component pose a major risk to all space flights. Up to now it is not possible to quantify this risk within acceptable limits of accuracy. This uncertainty is not only caused by difficulties in the more or less exact prediction of the incidence of the cosmic radiation but depends also on the problem of the quantification of the radiation field and the correlation of the biological effect. Usually the biological action of a mixed radiation field is estimated as product of the measured dose with an average quality factor, the relative biological efficiency. Because of the large variation in energy and atomic number of the cosmic particles, average values of the quality factor are not precise for risk estimation. A more appropriate way to treat the biological effects of mixed radiation is the concept of particle fluence and action cross section. PMID:11540044

  10. Basic theory for polarized, astrophysical maser radiation in a magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, William D.

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental alterations in the theory and resulting behavior of polarized, astrophysical maser radiation in the presence of a magnetic field have been asserted based on a calculation of instabilities in the radiative transfer. I reconsider the radiative transfer and find that the relevant instabilities do not occur. Calculational errors in the previous investigation are identified. In addition, such instabilities would have appeared -- but did not -- in the numerous numerical solutions to the same radiative transfer equations that have been presented in the literature. As a result, all modifications that have been presented in a recent series of papers (Elitzur 1991, 1993) to the theory for polarized maser radiation in the presence of a magnetic field are invalid. The basic theory is thus clarified.

  11. Apparatus for scanning and measuring the near-field radiation of an antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier

    1985-11-01

    Apparatus for measuring the near-field radiation of an antenna such that its far-field radiation characteristics can be determined is described. The invention utilizes the principle of the Foucault pendulum. It uses a bob attached to a long pendulum arm that is free to rotate. Rotation of the earth causes an apparent rotation of the swing plane of the pendulum with a period of T = 24/sin (latitude). By attaching a field sensing probe to the pendulum bob and mounting the antenna under the Foucault pendulum, the entire antenna aperture can be scanned without moving the antenna. The motion of the probe covers part of an external sphere centered at the pivot point of the pendulum and having a radius equal to the length of the pendulum. Appropriate transformation of the measured near-field data gives the far-field radiation pattern.

  12. Escape of gravitational radiation from the field of massive bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Richard H.; Pullin, Jorge; Kundu, Prasun K.

    1993-01-01

    We consider a compact source of gravitational waves of frequency omega in or near a massive spherically symmetric distribution of matter or a black hole. Recent calculations have led to apparently contradictory results for the influence of the massive body on the propagation of the waves. We show here that the results are in fact consistent and in agreement with the 'standard' viewpoint in which the high-frequency compact source produces the radiation as if in a flat background, and the background curvature affects the propagation of these waves.

  13. Synchro-curvature radiation of charged particles in the strong curved magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kelner, S. R.; Prosekin, A. Yu.; Aharonian, F. A. E-mail: Anton.Prosekin@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that the radiation of relativistic particles in a curved magnetic field proceeds in either the synchrotron or the curvature radiation modes. In this paper we show that in strong curved magnetic fields a significant fraction of the energy of relativistic electrons can be radiated away in the intermediate, the so-called synchro-curvature regime. Because of the persistent change of the trajectory curvature, the radiation varies with the frequency of particle gyration. While this effect can be ignored in the synchrotron and curvature regimes, the variability plays a key role in the formation of the synchro-curvature radiation. Using the Hamiltonian formalism, we find that the particle trajectory has the form of a helix wound around the drift trajectory. This allows us to calculate analytically the intensity and energy distribution of prompt radiation in the general case of magnetic bremsstrahlung in the curved magnetic field. We show that the transition to the limit of the synchrotron and curvature radiation regimes is determined by the relation between the drift velocity and the component of the particle velocity perpendicular to the drift trajectory. The detailed numerical calculations, which take into account the energy losses of particles, confirm the principal conclusions based on the simplified analytical treatment of the problem, and allow us to analyze quantitatively the transition between different radiation regimes for a broad range of initial pitch angles. These calculations demonstrate that even very small pitch angles may lead to significant deviations from the spectrum of the standard curvature radiation when it is formally assumed that a charged particle moves strictly along the magnetic line. We argue that in the case of realization of specific configurations of the electric and magnetic fields, the gamma-ray emission of the pulsar magnetospheres can be dominated by the component radiated in the synchro-curvature regime.

  14. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Hamilton, Allister B.

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  15. Determination of relevant parameters for the use of electronic dosemeters in pulsed fields of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Zutz, H; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P; Klammer, J

    2012-09-01

    Active electronic dosemeters using counting techniques are used for radioprotection purposes in pulsed radiation fields in X-ray diagnostics or therapy. The disadvantage of the limited maximum measurable dose rate becomes significant in these radiation fields and leads to some negative effects. In this study, a set of relevant parameters for a dosemeter is described, which can be used to decide whether it is applicable in a given radiation field or not. The determination of these relevant parameters-maximum measurable dose rate in the radiation pulse, dead time of the dosemeter, indication per counting event and measurement cycle time-is specified. The results of the first measurements on the determination of these parameters for an electronic personal dosemeter of the type Thermo Fisher Scientific EPD Mk2 are shown.

  16. Use of an electric field in an electrostatic liquid film radiator.

    PubMed

    Bankoff, S G; Griffing, E M; Schluter, R A

    2002-10-01

    Experimental and numerical work was performed to further the understanding of an electrostatic liquid film radiator (ELFR) that was originally proposed by Kim et al.(1) The ELFR design utilizes an electric field that exerts a normal force on the interface of a flowing film. The field lowers the pressure under the film in a space radiator and, thereby, prevents leakage through a puncture in the radiator wall. The flowing film is subject to the Taylor cone instability, whereby a cone of fluid forms underneath an electrode and sharpens until a jet of fluid is pulled toward the electrode and disintegrates into droplets. The critical potential for the instability is shown to be as much as an order of magnitude higher than that used in previous designs.(2) Furthermore, leak stoppage experiments indicate that the critical field is adequate to stop leaks in a working radiator.

  17. Field size effect of radiation quality in carbon therapy using passive method

    SciTech Connect

    Nose, H.; Kase, Y.; Matsufuji, N.; Kanai, T.

    2009-03-15

    The authors have investigated the dependency of radiation quality and absorbed dose on radiation field size in therapeutic carbon beams. The field size of the broad beam, formed using the passive technique, was controlled from 20 to 100 mm per side with a multileaf collimator. The absorbed dose and radiation quality on the beam center were evaluated at several depths in a water phantom using microdosimetric technique in experiments and Monte Carlo simulations. With an increase in the field size, the radiation quality was reduced, although the absorbed dose grew at the center of the field. This indicates that the dose and radiation quality at the center of the broad beam are influenced by particles from the off-center region via large-angle scattering and that such particles have relatively low radiation quality and mainly consist of fragment particles. Because such a tendency appeared to be more remarkable in the deeper region of the water phantom, it is likely that fragment particles that are born in a water phantom have a marked role in determining the field size effect.

  18. A comprehensive spectrometry study of a stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Mares, Vladimir; Romero-Expósito, Maite; Farah, Jad; Trinkl, Sebastian; Domingo, Carles; Dommert, Martin; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Van Ryckeghem, Laurent; Wielunski, Marek; Olko, Pawel; Harrison, Roger M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy considering a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom and a clinically-relevant beam condition. Using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry systems (ERBSS), Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group measured neutron spectra at ten different positions around a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom irradiated for a brain tumor with a scanning proton beam. This study compares the different systems and unfolding codes as well as neutron spectra measured in similar conditions around a water tank phantom. The ten spectra measured with two ERBSS systems show a generally similar thermal component regardless of the position around the phantom while high energy neutrons (above 20 MeV) were only registered at positions near the beam axis (at 0°, 329° and 355°). Neutron spectra, fluence and ambient dose equivalent, H (*)(10), values of both systems were in good agreement (<15%) while the unfolding code proved to have a limited effect. The highest H (*)(10) value of 2.7 μSv Gy(-1) was measured at 329° to the beam axis and 1.63 m from the isocenter where high-energy neutrons (E  ⩾  20 MeV) contribute with about 53%. The neutron mapping within the gantry room showed that H (*)(10) values significantly decreased with distance and angular position with respect to the beam axis dropping to 0.52 μSv Gy(-1) at 90° and 3.35 m. Spectra at angles of 45° and 135° with respect to the beam axis measured here with an anthropomorphic phantom showed a similar peak structure at the thermal, fast and high energy range as in the previous water-tank experiments. Meanwhile, at 90°, small differences at the high-energy range were observed. Using ERBSS systems, neutron spectra mapping was performed to characterize the exposure of scanning proton therapy patients. The ten measured spectra provide precise information about the exposure of healthy organs to

  19. A comprehensive spectrometry study of a stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, Vladimir; Romero-Expósito, Maite; Farah, Jad; Trinkl, Sebastian; Domingo, Carles; Dommert, Martin; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Van Ryckeghem, Laurent; Wielunski, Marek; Olko, Pawel; Harrison, Roger M.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy considering a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom and a clinically-relevant beam condition. Using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry systems (ERBSS), Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group measured neutron spectra at ten different positions around a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom irradiated for a brain tumor with a scanning proton beam. This study compares the different systems and unfolding codes as well as neutron spectra measured in similar conditions around a water tank phantom. The ten spectra measured with two ERBSS systems show a generally similar thermal component regardless of the position around the phantom while high energy neutrons (above 20 MeV) were only registered at positions near the beam axis (at 0°, 329° and 355°). Neutron spectra, fluence and ambient dose equivalent, H *(10), values of both systems were in good agreement (<15%) while the unfolding code proved to have a limited effect. The highest H *(10) value of 2.7 μSv Gy-1 was measured at 329° to the beam axis and 1.63 m from the isocenter where high-energy neutrons (E  ⩾  20 MeV) contribute with about 53%. The neutron mapping within the gantry room showed that H *(10) values significantly decreased with distance and angular position with respect to the beam axis dropping to 0.52 μSv Gy-1 at 90° and 3.35 m. Spectra at angles of 45° and 135° with respect to the beam axis measured here with an anthropomorphic phantom showed a similar peak structure at the thermal, fast and high energy range as in the previous water-tank experiments. Meanwhile, at 90°, small differences at the high-energy range were observed. Using ERBSS systems, neutron spectra mapping was performed to characterize the exposure of scanning proton therapy patients. The ten measured spectra provide precise information about the exposure of healthy organs to thermal

  20. A comprehensive spectrometry study of a stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, Vladimir; Romero-Expósito, Maite; Farah, Jad; Trinkl, Sebastian; Domingo, Carles; Dommert, Martin; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Van Ryckeghem, Laurent; Wielunski, Marek; Olko, Pawel; Harrison, Roger M.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stray neutron radiation field in scanning proton therapy considering a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom and a clinically-relevant beam condition. Using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry systems (ERBSS), Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group measured neutron spectra at ten different positions around a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom irradiated for a brain tumor with a scanning proton beam. This study compares the different systems and unfolding codes as well as neutron spectra measured in similar conditions around a water tank phantom. The ten spectra measured with two ERBSS systems show a generally similar thermal component regardless of the position around the phantom while high energy neutrons (above 20 MeV) were only registered at positions near the beam axis (at 0°, 329° and 355°). Neutron spectra, fluence and ambient dose equivalent, H *(10), values of both systems were in good agreement (<15%) while the unfolding code proved to have a limited effect. The highest H *(10) value of 2.7 μSv Gy‑1 was measured at 329° to the beam axis and 1.63 m from the isocenter where high-energy neutrons (E  ⩾  20 MeV) contribute with about 53%. The neutron mapping within the gantry room showed that H *(10) values significantly decreased with distance and angular position with respect to the beam axis dropping to 0.52 μSv Gy‑1 at 90° and 3.35 m. Spectra at angles of 45° and 135° with respect to the beam axis measured here with an anthropomorphic phantom showed a similar peak structure at the thermal, fast and high energy range as in the previous water-tank experiments. Meanwhile, at 90°, small differences at the high-energy range were observed. Using ERBSS systems, neutron spectra mapping was performed to characterize the exposure of scanning proton therapy patients. The ten measured spectra provide precise information about the exposure of healthy organs to thermal

  1. Multipole radiation fields from the Jefimenko equation for the magnetic field and the Panofsky-Phillips equation for the electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo e Souza, R.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.; Moriconi, M.

    2009-01-01

    We show how to obtain the first multipole contributions to the electromagnetic radiation emitted by an arbitrary localized source directly from the Jefimenko equation for the magnetic field and the Panofsky-Phillips equation for the electric field. This procedure avoids the unnecessary calculation of the electromagnetic potentials.

  2. The LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South - radio and mid-infrared counterparts to submillimetre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Ibar, E.; Wardlow, J. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Smail, Ian; Walter, F.; Weiß, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; De Breuck, C.; Dickinson, M.; Knudsen, K. K.; Mainieri, V.; Menten, K.; Papovich, C.

    2011-06-01

    We present radio and infrared (3.6-24 μm) counterparts to submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South with the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA) 870-μm bolometer camera on the 12-m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment. Using the Very Large Array at 1.4 GHz and Spitzer, we have identified secure counterparts to 79 of the 126 SMGs [signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 3.7, S870 > 4.4 mJy] in the field, 62 via their radio and/or 24-μm emission, the remainder using a colour-flux cut on Infrared Array Camera 3.6- and 5.8-μm sources chosen to maximize the number of secure, coincident radio and 24-μm counterparts. In constructing our radio catalogue, we have corrected for the effects of 'flux boosting', then used the corrected flux densities to estimate the redshifts of the SMGs based on the radio/submm spectral indices. The effect of the boosting correction is to increase the median redshift by 0.2 resulting in a value of ? (1σ errors) for the secure radio counterparts, in agreement with other studies, both spectroscopic and photometric.

  3. Vlasov formalism for extended relativistic mean field models: The crust-core transition and the stellar matter equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, Helena; Providência, Constança

    2016-07-01

    The Vlasov formalism is extended to relativistic mean field hadron models with nonlinear terms up to fourth order and applied to the calculation of the crust-core transition density. The effect of the nonlinear ω ρ and σ ρ coupling terms on the crust-core transition density and pressure and on the macroscopic properties of some families of hadronic stars is investigated. For that purpose, six families of relativistic mean field models are considered. Within each family, the members differ in the symmetry energy behavior. For all the models, the dynamical spinodals are calculated, and the crust-core transition density and pressure and the neutron star mass-radius relations are obtained. The effect on the star radius of the inclusion of a pasta calculation in the inner crust is discussed. The set of six models that best satisfy terrestrial and observational constraints predicts a radius of 13.6 ±0.3 km and a crust thickness of 1.36 ±0.06 km for a 1.4 M⊙ star.

  4. Radiation from Relativistic Jets in Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Niemiec, J.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Mizuno, Y.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    Using our new 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code parallelized with MPI, we have investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with an relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations have been performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. The acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value. Behind the bow shock in the jet shock strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to the afterglow emission. We have calculated the time evolution of the spectrum from two electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique.

  5. [The use of a detector of the extremely weak radiation as a variometer of gravitation field].

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, E S; Bondarenko, E G; Shapovalov, S N; Sokolovskiĭ, V V; Troshichev, O A

    2001-01-01

    It was shown that the detector of extremely weak radiation with selectively increased sensitivity to the nonelectromagnetic, including the gravitational component of the spectrum of active physical fields can be used as the basis for constructing a variometer of gravitational field of a new type.

  6. Fan Noise Prediction System Development: Source/Radiation Field Coupling and Workstation Conversion for the Acoustic Radiation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Acoustic Radiation Code (ARC) is a finite element program used on the IBM mainframe to predict far-field acoustic radiation from a turbofan engine inlet. In this report, requirements for developers of internal aerodynamic codes regarding use of their program output an input for the ARC are discussed. More specifically, the particular input needed from the Bolt, Beranek and Newman/Pratt and Whitney (turbofan source noise generation) Code (BBN/PWC) is described. In a separate analysis, a method of coupling the source and radiation models, that recognizes waves crossing the interface in both directions, has been derived. A preliminary version of the coupled code has been developed and used for initial evaluation of coupling issues. Results thus far have shown that reflection from the inlet is sufficient to indicate that full coupling of the source and radiation fields is needed for accurate noise predictions ' Also, for this contract, the ARC has been modified for use on the Sun and Silicon Graphics Iris UNIX workstations. Changes and additions involved in this effort are described in an appendix.

  7. BOBCAT Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Hodge

    2008-03-01

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as “Pagers.” This test, “Bobcat,” was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  8. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-07-09

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS.

  9. Modern Radiation Therapy for Extranodal Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Hoppe, Richard T.; Li, Ye-Xiong; Tsang, Richard; Wirth, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT.

  10. High field CdS detector for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, R. C.; Boer, K. W.; Hadley, H. C.; Robertson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    New and highly sensitive method of detecting infrared irradiation makes possible solid state infrared detector which is more sensitive near room temperature than usual photoconductive low band gap semiconductor devices. Reconfiguration of high field domains in cadmium sulphide crystals provides basis for discovery.

  11. Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs at shocked regions. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields and particle acceleration. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The jitter'' radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation, which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. We will present detailed spectra for conditions relevant of various astrophysical sites of shock formation via the Weibel instability. In particular we will discuss the application to GRBs and SNRs

  12. Near Field Radiation Characteristics of Implantable Square Spiral Chip Inductor Antennas for Bio-Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Simons, Rainee N.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    The near field radiation characteristics of implantable Square Spiral Chip Inductor Antennas (SSCIA) for Bio-Sensors have been measured. Our results indicate that the measured near field relative signal strength of these antennas agrees with simulated results and confirm that in the near field region the radiation field is fairly uniform in all directions. The effects of parameters such as ground-plane, number of turns and microstrip-gap width on the performance of the SSCIA are presented. Furthermore, the SSCIA antenna with serrated ground plane produce a broad radiation pattern, with a relative signal strength detectable at distances within the range of operation of hand-held devices for self-diagnosis.

  13. THE BLACK HOLE-BULGE MASS RELATION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, Malte; Silverman, John D.

    2013-04-10

    We present results from a study to determine whether relations-established in the local universe-between the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are in place at higher redshifts. We identify a well-constructed sample of 18 X-ray-selected, broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey with 0.5 < z < 1.2. This redshift range is chosen to ensure that Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging is available with at least two filters that bracket the 4000 A break, thus providing reliable stellar mass estimates of the host galaxy by accounting for both young and old stellar populations. We compute single-epoch, virial black hole (BH) masses from optical spectra using the broad Mg II emission line. For essentially all galaxies in our sample, their total stellar mass content agrees remarkably well, given their BH masses, with local relations of inactive galaxies and active SMBHs. We further decompose the total stellar mass into bulge and disk components separately with full knowledge of the HST point-spread function. We find that {approx}80% of the sample is consistent with the local M{sub BH}-M{sub *,{sub Bulge}} relation even with 72% of the host galaxies showing the presence of a disk. In particular, bulge-dominated hosts are more aligned with the local relation than those with prominent disks. We further discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are capable of building up the stellar mass of the bulge from an extended disk of stars over the subsequent 8 Gyr.

  14. Extending human perception of electromagnetic radiation to the UV region through biologically inspired photochromic fuzzy logic (BIPFUL) systems.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Pier Luigi; Rightler, Amanda L; Heron, B Mark; Gabbutt, Christopher D

    2016-01-25

    Photochromic fuzzy logic systems have been designed that extend human visual perception into the UV region. The systems are founded on a detailed knowledge of the activation wavelengths and quantum yields of a series of thermally reversible photochromic compounds. By appropriate matching of the photochromic behaviour unique colour signatures are generated in response differing UV activation frequencies.

  15. Extending human perception of electromagnetic radiation to the UV region through biologically inspired photochromic fuzzy logic (BIPFUL) systems.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Pier Luigi; Rightler, Amanda L; Heron, B Mark; Gabbutt, Christopher D

    2016-01-25

    Photochromic fuzzy logic systems have been designed that extend human visual perception into the UV region. The systems are founded on a detailed knowledge of the activation wavelengths and quantum yields of a series of thermally reversible photochromic compounds. By appropriate matching of the photochromic behaviour unique colour signatures are generated in response differing UV activation frequencies. PMID:26658700

  16. A uniform geometrical optics and an extended uniform geometrical theory of diffraction for evaluating high frequency EM fields near smooth caustics and composite shadow boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniform geometrical optics (UGO) and an extended uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (EUTD) are developed for evaluating high frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields within transition regions associated with a two and three dimensional smooth caustic of reflected rays and a composite shadow boundary formed by the caustic termination or the confluence of the caustic with the reflection shadow boundary (RSB). The UGO is a uniform version of the classic geometrical optics (GO). It retains the simple ray optical expressions of classic GO and employs a new set of uniform reflection coefficients. The UGO also includes a uniform version of the complex GO ray field that exists on the dark side of the smooth caustic. The EUTD is an extension of the classic uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) and accounts for the non-ray optical behavior of the UGO reflected field near caustics by using a two-variable transition function in the expressions for the edge diffraction coefficients. It also uniformly recovers the classic UTD behavior of the edge diffracted field outside the composite shadow boundary transition region. The approach employed for constructing the UGO/EUTD solution is based on a spatial domain physical optics (PO) radiation integral representation for the fields which is then reduced using uniform asymptotic procedures. The UGO/EUTD analysis is also employed to investigate the far-zone RCS problem of plane wave scattering from two and three dimensional polynomial defined surfaces, and uniform reflection, zero-curvature, and edge diffraction coefficients are derived. Numerical results for the scattering and diffraction from cubic and fourth order polynomial strips are also shown and the UGO/EUTD solution is validated by comparison to an independent moment method (MM) solution. The UGO/EUTD solution is also compared with the classic GO/UTD solution. The failure of the classic techniques near caustics and composite shadow boundaries is clearly

  17. Methods for Autonomous Ground-based Real-Time Monitoring and Mapping of CO2 Concentrations Over Extended Two-Dimensional Fields of Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernini, T.; Botos, C.; Dobler, J. T.; Blume, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) combines real-time differential Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (LAS) measurements with a lightweight web-based data acquisition and product generation system to provide autonomous 24/7 monitoring of CO2. The current GreenLITE system is comprised of two transceivers and a series of retro-reflectors that continuously measure the differential transmission over a user-defined set of intersecting line-of-site paths or "chords" that form the plane of interest. These observations are first combined with in situ surface measurements of temperature (T), pressure (P) and relative humidity (RH) to compute the integrated CO2 mixing ratios based on an iterative radiative transfer modeling approach. The retrieved CO2 mixing ratios are then grouped based on observation time and employed in a sparse sample reconstruction method to provide a tomographic- like representation of the 2-D distribution of CO2 over the field of interest. This reconstruction technique defines the field of interest as a set of idealized plumes whose integrated values best match the observations. The GreenLITE system has been deployed at two primary locations; 1) the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) center in Bozeman, Montana, in Aug-Sept 2014, where more than 200 hours of data were collected over a wide range of environmental conditions while utilizing a controlled release of CO2 into a segmented underground pipe, and 2) continuously at a carbon sequestration test facility in Feb-Aug 2015. The system demonstrated the ability to identify persistent CO2 sources at the ZERT test facility and showed strong correlation with an independent measurement using a LI-COR based system. Here we describe the measurement approach, algorithm design and extended study results.

  18. A NUMERICAL TREATMENT OF ANISOTROPIC RADIATION FIELDS COUPLED WITH RELATIVISTIC RESISTIVE MAGNETOFLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Ohsuga, Ken

    2013-08-01

    We develop a numerical scheme for solving fully special relativistic, resistive radiation magnetohydrodynamics. Our code guarantees conservation of total mass, momentum, and energy. The radiation energy density and the radiation flux are consistently updated using the M-1 closure method, which can resolve an anisotropic radiation field, in contrast to the Eddington approximation, as well as the flux-limited diffusion approximation. For the resistive part, we adopt a simple form of Ohm's law. The advection terms are explicitly solved with an approximate Riemann solver, mainly the Harten-Lax-van Leer scheme; the HLLC and HLLD schemes are also solved for some tests. The source terms, which describe the gas-radiation interaction and the magnetic energy dissipation, are implicitly integrated, relaxing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition even in an optically thick regime or a large magnetic Reynolds number regime. Although we need to invert 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 matrices (for the gas-radiation interaction) and 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 matrices (for the magnetic energy dissipation) at each grid point for implicit integration, they are obtained analytically without preventing massive parallel computing. We show that our code gives reasonable outcomes in numerical tests for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, propagating radiation, and radiation hydrodynamics. We also applied our resistive code to the relativistic Petschek-type magnetic reconnection, revealing the reduction of the reconnection rate via radiation drag.

  19. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M; Field, Kevin G; Pape, Yann Le

    2016-01-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) values in the concrete biological shields of the US PWR fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to assure reliable risk assessment for NPPs extended operation.

  20. A terahertz confocal microscope for far-field thermal radiation detection and near-field sub-wavelength imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Qianchun; Yang, Le; Xu, Jie; Qian, Qingbai; Yu, Haochi; Zhang, Bo; An, Zhenghua; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) operating in the terahertz (THz) wavelength. A home-made ultra-high sensitive detector named charge sensitive infrared phototransistor (CSIP, detection wavelength ~15 μm) is equipped for spontaneous thermal radiation detection (external illumination should be avoided). Thermal emission from room-temperature objects is collected by a cassegrain objective lens placed above the sample, and focused to a pinhole (d=250 μm) which is kept in liquid-helium (LHe) temperature(4.2 K). With the background radiation from environment efficiently blocked by the low-temperature pinhole, the detector is only sensitive to the THz radiation from a small spot (~λ) on sample surface (the confocal point). As a result, thermal radiation spontaneously emitted by object itself is measured with an excellent spatial resolution of ~14 μm (diffraction-limit). For overcoming the diffraction limit by detecting the near-field evanescent waves, this THz microscope is combined with a home-built atomic-force microscope (AFM). With sharp AFM tip (<100 nm) scattering the evanescent waves with an improved tip-modulation method, we successfully obtained thermal near-field images with a spatial resolution of ~100 nm, which is already less than 1% of the detection wavelength (15 μm). This THz s-SNOM should be a powerful tool for various material research down to the nanometer scale.

  1. Field size dependent mapping of medical linear accelerator radiation leakage.

    PubMed

    Bezin, Jérémi Vũ; Veres, Attila; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Deutsch, Eric; de Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a graphics library based model for the assessment of linear accelerator radiation leakage. Transmission through the shielding elements was evaluated using the build-up factor corrected exponential attenuation law and the contribution from the electron guide was estimated using the approximation of a linear isotropic radioactive source. Model parameters were estimated by a fitting series of thermoluminescent dosimeter leakage measurements, achieved up to 100 cm from the beam central axis along three directions. The distribution of leakage data at the patient plane reflected the architecture of the shielding elements. Thus, the maximum leakage dose was found under the collimator when only one jaw shielded the primary beam and was about 0.08% of the dose at isocentre. Overall, we observe that the main contributor to leakage dose according to our model was the electron beam guide. Concerning the discrepancies between the measurements used to calibrate the model and the calculations from the model, the average difference was about 7%. Finally, graphics library modelling is a readily and suitable way to estimate leakage dose distribution on a personal computer. Such data could be useful for dosimetric evaluations in late effect studies.

  2. Temperature Measurement of a Miniature Ceramic Heater in the Presence of an Extended Interfering Background Radiation Source Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Temperature measurement of small (millimeter size) objects is generally difficult and demanding. Measurement involving ceramic materials using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which may vary with both temperature and wavelength. Pyrometry applications in an environment with an interfering radiation source of extended dimension adds extra complexity to the process. We show that the multiwavelength pyrometer successfully measured the temperatures of a millimeter (mm) size ceramic heater under these demanding conditions.

  3. Stokes parameters for Thomson scattering in a strong magnetic field with radiation damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chih-Kang; Chen, Hui-Hwa

    1990-12-01

    The effect of a strong magnetic field on Thomson scattering is investigated taking into account radiation damping by using the Abraham-Lorentz equation instead of the Newton-Lorentz equation. The Stokes parameters for Thomson scattering are computed in terms of the state of polarization of the incident wave, the electron-cyclotron frequency, the angle of incidence, and the angle of scattering. It is noted that the Stokes parameters for the scattered radiation show resonance structures.

  4. Effect of synchrotron radiation on the advanced-fueled field-reversed mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of synchrotron radiation on the energy balance of advanced fuels in the field-reversed mirror (FRM) fusion device. The FRM configuration is simulated by the Hill's vortex model. The synchrotron radiant energy loss can be computed by adding the blackbody contribution (O < ..omega.. < ..omega..*) and the transparent contribution (..omega..* < ..omega.. < infinity), where ..omega.. is the radiation frequency and ..cap omega..* is the cutoff frequency.

  5. Spectroscopic investigations of a field emission generated radiative zone: Mass spectroscopic measurements. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterauer, J.

    1981-10-01

    In view of the application of liquid metal field ion sources as electric thrustors for space propulsion, the basic physical features of the field ionization mechanism were analyzed experimentally. An ultrahigh vacuum test chamber and a liquid metal ion source were built. Diagnostic methods, e.g., basic measurements of the emission characteristics, probe measurements of the ion current distribution, mass spectroscopic measurements of the particles emitted from the ion source, and spectroscopic measurements of the visible radiation accompanying field ionization, were developed. Experimental data which can be transferred to prototype field ion thrusters are presented, but experimental facilities limit conclusions regarding theoretical aspects of field ionization.

  6. Technical Note: Response measurement for select radiation detectors in magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, M.; Fallone, B. G.; Rathee, S.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose response to applied magnetic fields for ion chambers and solid state detectors has been investigated previously for the anticipated use in linear accelerator–magnetic resonance devices. In this investigation, the authors present the measured response of selected radiation detectors when the magnetic field is applied in the same direction as the radiation beam, i.e., a longitudinal magnetic field, to verify previous simulation only data. Methods: The dose response of a PR06C ion chamber, PTW60003 diamond detector, and IBA PFD diode detector is measured in a longitudinal magnetic field. The detectors are irradiated with buildup caps and their long axes either parallel or perpendicular to the incident photon beam. In each case, the magnetic field dose response is reported as the ratio of detector signals with to that without an applied longitudinal magnetic field. The magnetic field dose response for each unique orientation as a function of magnetic field strength was then compared to the previous simulation only studies. Results: The measured dose response of each detector in longitudinal magnetic fields shows no discernable response up to near 0.21 T. This result was expected and matches the previously published simulation only results, showing no appreciable dose response with magnetic field. Conclusions: Low field longitudinal magnetic fields have been shown to have little or no effect on the dose response of the detectors investigated and further lend credibility to previous simulation only studies.

  7. Edge diffracted caustic fields. [spacecraft antenna radiation patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The fields near a caustic created by an edge diffraction process are computed using the equivalent current concept. These fields are shown to have the property commonly associated with ray optical analysis or the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD), e.g., a 90 deg phase shift as the ray passes through the caustic. The present effort is directed toward consideration of the caustic created by an edge diffraction process. Particular attention is focused on electromagnetic excitation. The acoustic excitation for the hard boundary condition is outlined in an appendix. In addition, goal is to establish the extent of the caustic region. This is of particular importance when a ray optical solution involves multiply-diffracted terms in that the minimum size of the body that can be analyzed may be restricted by the extent of the caustic, i.e., the 90 deg phase shift used in ray optical analysis may be introduced only if the caustic is contained on the surface being studied.

  8. Modeling and simulation of ionizing radiation effect on ferroelectric field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shaoan; Li, Gang; Guo, Hongxia; Zhao, Wen; Xiong, Ying; Tang, Minghua; Li, Zheng; Xiao, Yongguang; Zhang, Wanli; Lei, Zhifeng

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical model is developed to investigate the ionizing radiation effect on electrical characteristics of a metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structure ferroelectric gate field-effect transistor (MFIS FeFET). Modeling results show that gate capacitance versus gate voltage curves and transfer characteristic curves shift significantly and the memory window becomes worse with the total dose. Moreover, the drain current and I ON/I OFF ratio exhibit a considerable decrease under high incident dose rates. Finally, it is found that radiation-induced degradations can be affected strongly by the insulator layer thickness, and that MFIS FeFETs with a thin insulator buffer layer show a high radiation tolerance.

  9. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulation of plasma formed on a surface by a megagauss field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esaulov, A. A.; Bauer, B. S.; Makhin, V.; Siemon, R. E.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Awe, T. J.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Struve, K. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2008-03-01

    Radiation magnetohydrodynamic modeling is used to study the plasma formed on the surface of a cylindrical metallic load, driven by megagauss magnetic field at the 1MA Zebra generator (University of Nevada, Reno). An ionized aluminum plasma is used to represent the “core-corona” behavior in which a heterogeneous Z -pinch consists of a hot low-density corona surrounding a dense low-temperature core. The radiation dynamics model included simultaneously a self-consistent treatment of both the opaque and transparent plasma regions in a corona. For the parameters of this experiment, the boundary of the opaque plasma region emits the major radiation power with Planckian black-body spectrum in the extreme ultraviolet corresponding to an equilibrium temperature of 16eV . The radiation heat transport significantly exceeds the electron and ion kinetic heat transport in the outer layers of the opaque plasma. Electromagnetic field energy is partly radiated (13%) and partly deposited into inner corona and core regions (87%). Surface temperature estimates are sensitive to the radiation effects, but the surface motion in response to pressure and magnetic forces is not. The general results of the present investigation are applicable to the liner compression experiments at multi-MA long-pulse current accelerators such as Atlas and Shiva Star. Also the radiation magnetohydrodynamic model discussed in the paper may be useful for understanding key effects of wire array implosion dynamics.

  10. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulation of plasma formed on a surface by a megagauss field.

    PubMed

    Esaulov, A A; Bauer, B S; Makhin, V; Siemon, R E; Lindemuth, I R; Awe, T J; Reinovsky, R E; Struve, K W; Desjarlais, M P; Mehlhorn, T A

    2008-03-01

    Radiation magnetohydrodynamic modeling is used to study the plasma formed on the surface of a cylindrical metallic load, driven by megagauss magnetic field at the 1MA Zebra generator (University of Nevada, Reno). An ionized aluminum plasma is used to represent the "core-corona" behavior in which a heterogeneous Z-pinch consists of a hot low-density corona surrounding a dense low-temperature core. The radiation dynamics model included simultaneously a self-consistent treatment of both the opaque and transparent plasma regions in a corona. For the parameters of this experiment, the boundary of the opaque plasma region emits the major radiation power with Planckian black-body spectrum in the extreme ultraviolet corresponding to an equilibrium temperature of 16 eV. The radiation heat transport significantly exceeds the electron and ion kinetic heat transport in the outer layers of the opaque plasma. Electromagnetic field energy is partly radiated (13%) and partly deposited into inner corona and core regions (87%). Surface temperature estimates are sensitive to the radiation effects, but the surface motion in response to pressure and magnetic forces is not. The general results of the present investigation are applicable to the liner compression experiments at multi-MA long-pulse current accelerators such as Atlas and Shiva Star. Also the radiation magnetohydrodynamic model discussed in the paper may be useful for understanding key effects of wire array implosion dynamics.

  11. Extended-gate field-effect transistor packed in micro channel for glucose, urea and protein biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Chu, Chih-Pin; Lin, Chen-Fu; Liao, Hsin-Hao; Tsai, Hann-Huei; Juang, Ying-Zong

    2015-12-01

    This study developed a packaging method to integrate the extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) into a microfluidic chip as a biological sensor. In addition, we present two immobilization approaches for the bio-recognition that are appropriate to this chip, allowing it to measure the concentrations of hydrogen ions, glucose, urea, and specific proteins in a solution. Alginate-calcium microcubes were used to embed the enzymes and magnetic powder (enzyme carrier). When the sensing chip needs the enzyme for the catalytic reaction, the alginate microcubes containing the corresponding enzymes enter through the flow channel and are immobilized on the EGFET surface with an external magnet. High sensing performance of the chip is achieved, with 37.45 mV/mM for measuring hydrogen ions at pH 6-8 with a linearity of 0.9939, 7.00 mV/mM for measuring glucose with a linearity of 0.9962, and 8.01 mV/mM for measuring urea with a linearity of 0.9809. In addition, based on the principle of the immunoassay, the magnetic beads with the specific antibody were used to capture the target protein in the sample. Then, negatively charged DNA fragments bound to a secondary antibody were used to amplify the signal for EGFET measurement. The magnetic beads with completed immune response bonding were then fixed on the surface of the sensor by an external magnetic field. Therefore, the measured object can directly contact the sensor surface, and quantitative detection of the protein concentration can be achieved. Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) was detected as a target protein, with a minimum detection limit of approximately 12.5 ng/mL.

  12. Extended-gate field-effect transistor packed in micro channel for glucose, urea and protein biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Chu, Chih-Pin; Lin, Chen-Fu; Liao, Hsin-Hao; Tsai, Hann-Huei; Juang, Ying-Zong

    2015-12-01

    This study developed a packaging method to integrate the extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) into a microfluidic chip as a biological sensor. In addition, we present two immobilization approaches for the bio-recognition that are appropriate to this chip, allowing it to measure the concentrations of hydrogen ions, glucose, urea, and specific proteins in a solution. Alginate-calcium microcubes were used to embed the enzymes and magnetic powder (enzyme carrier). When the sensing chip needs the enzyme for the catalytic reaction, the alginate microcubes containing the corresponding enzymes enter through the flow channel and are immobilized on the EGFET surface with an external magnet. High sensing performance of the chip is achieved, with 37.45 mV/mM for measuring hydrogen ions at pH 6-8 with a linearity of 0.9939, 7.00 mV/mM for measuring glucose with a linearity of 0.9962, and 8.01 mV/mM for measuring urea with a linearity of 0.9809. In addition, based on the principle of the immunoassay, the magnetic beads with the specific antibody were used to capture the target protein in the sample. Then, negatively charged DNA fragments bound to a secondary antibody were used to amplify the signal for EGFET measurement. The magnetic beads with completed immune response bonding were then fixed on the surface of the sensor by an external magnetic field. Therefore, the measured object can directly contact the sensor surface, and quantitative detection of the protein concentration can be achieved. Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) was detected as a target protein, with a minimum detection limit of approximately 12.5 ng/mL. PMID:26553100

  13. Formation of macroscopic surface layers on Fe(0) electrocoagulation electrodes during an extended field trial of arsenic treatment.

    PubMed

    van Genuchten, Case M; Bandaru, Siva R S; Surorova, Elena; Amrose, Susan E; Gadgil, Ashok J; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-06-01

    Extended field trials to remove arsenic (As) via Fe(0) electrocoagulation (EC) have demonstrated consistent As removal from groundwater to concentrations below 10 μg L(-1). However, the coulombic performance of long-term EC field operation is lower than that of laboratory-based systems. Although EC electrodes used over prolonged periods show distinct passivation layers, which have been linked to decreased treatment efficiency, the spatial distribution and mineralogy of such surface layers have not been investigated. In this work, we combine wet chemical measurements with sub-micron-scale chemical maps and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine the chemical composition and mineral phase of surface layers formed during long-term Fe(0) EC treatment. We analyzed Fe(0) EC electrodes used for 3.5 months of daily treatment of As-contaminated groundwater in rural West Bengal, India. We found that the several mm thick layer that formed on cathodes and anodes consisted of primarily magnetite, with minor fractions of goethite. Spatially-resolved SAED patterns also revealed small quantities of CaCO3, Mn oxides, and SiO2, the source of which was the groundwater electrolyte. We propose that the formation of the surface layer contributes to decreased treatment performance by preventing the migration of EC-generated Fe(II) to the bulk electrolyte, where As removal occurs. The trapped Fe(II) subsequently increases the surface layer size at the expense of treatment efficiency. Based on these findings, we discuss several simple and affordable methods to prevent the efficiency loss due to the surface layer, including alternating polarity cycles and cleaning the Fe(0) surface mechanically or via electrolyte scouring. PMID:27018519

  14. Formation of macroscopic surface layers on Fe(0) electrocoagulation electrodes during an extended field trial of arsenic treatment.

    PubMed

    van Genuchten, Case M; Bandaru, Siva R S; Surorova, Elena; Amrose, Susan E; Gadgil, Ashok J; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-06-01

    Extended field trials to remove arsenic (As) via Fe(0) electrocoagulation (EC) have demonstrated consistent As removal from groundwater to concentrations below 10 μg L(-1). However, the coulombic performance of long-term EC field operation is lower than that of laboratory-based systems. Although EC electrodes used over prolonged periods show distinct passivation layers, which have been linked to decreased treatment efficiency, the spatial distribution and mineralogy of such surface layers have not been investigated. In this work, we combine wet chemical measurements with sub-micron-scale chemical maps and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine the chemical composition and mineral phase of surface layers formed during long-term Fe(0) EC treatment. We analyzed Fe(0) EC electrodes used for 3.5 months of daily treatment of As-contaminated groundwater in rural West Bengal, India. We found that the several mm thick layer that formed on cathodes and anodes consisted of primarily magnetite, with minor fractions of goethite. Spatially-resolved SAED patterns also revealed small quantities of CaCO3, Mn oxides, and SiO2, the source of which was the groundwater electrolyte. We propose that the formation of the surface layer contributes to decreased treatment performance by preventing the migration of EC-generated Fe(II) to the bulk electrolyte, where As removal occurs. The trapped Fe(II) subsequently increases the surface layer size at the expense of treatment efficiency. Based on these findings, we discuss several simple and affordable methods to prevent the efficiency loss due to the surface layer, including alternating polarity cycles and cleaning the Fe(0) surface mechanically or via electrolyte scouring.

  15. TSUBASA (MDS-1) observations of energetic electrons and magnetic field variations in outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Matsuoka, H.; Liu, H.; Koshiishi, H.; Koga, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Goka, T.

    2002-12-01

    We have investigated variations of energetic electrons (> 0.4 MeV) and magnetic field in the radiation belt obtained from the Standard DOse Monitor (SDOM) and the MAgnetoMeter (MAM) of the Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment (SEDA) onboard TSUBASA (the Mission Demonstration Test Satellite (MDS)-1) launched on February 4, 2002. Since TSUBASA is operated in the geostationary transfer orbit, it has provided rare opportunities of directly observing near-equatorial radiation belt plasma particles and magnetic field, having already included several large magnetic storms. The energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt are contributors to the total radiation dose deposited in lightly shielded spacecraft electronics for high altitude orbits and are known to have a drastic variability associated with geomagnetic storm and high speed solar wind streams. The abrupt energetic electron flux decreases in the outside of outer radiation belt show characteristic variations of in situ magnetic field. These observations have implications for the possible mechanisms of the depletion and the following recovery and/or buildup of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt.

  16. Temperature and density dependence of asymmetric nuclear matter and protoneutron star properties within an extended relativistic mean field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Gulshan; Dhiman, Shashi K.

    2011-10-01

    The effect of temperature and density dependence of the asymmetric nuclear matter properties is studied within the extended relativistic mean field (ERMF) model, which includes the contribution from the self and mixed interaction terms by using different parametrizations obtained by varying the neutron skin thickness Δr and ω-meson self-coupling (ζ). We observed that the symmetry energy and its slope and incompressibility coefficients decrease with increasing temperatures up to saturation densities. The ERMF parametrizations were employed to obtain a new set of equations of state (EOS) of the protoneutron star (PNS) with and without inclusion of hyperons. In our calculations, in comparison with cold compact stars, we obtained that the gravitational mass of the protoneutron star with and without hyperons increased by ˜0.4M⊙ and its radius increased by ˜3 km. Whereas in case of the rotating PNS, the mass shedding limit decreased with increasing temperature, and this suggested that the keplerian frequency of the PNS at T=10 MeV should be smaller by 14%-20% for the EOS with hyperon, as compared to the keplerian frequency of a cold compact star.

  17. THE VERY LARGE ARRAY 1.4 GHz SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: SECOND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Neal A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Padovani, Paolo; Rosati, Piero; Fomalont, Edward B.; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Tozzi, Paolo; Vattakunnel, Shaji

    2013-04-01

    Deep radio observations at 1.4 GHz for the Extended Chandra Deep Field South were performed in 2007 June through September and presented in a first data release. The survey was made using six separate pointings of the Very Large Array with over 40 hr of observation per pointing. In the current paper, we improve on the data reduction to produce a second data release (DR2) mosaic image. This DR2 image covers an area of about a third of a square degree, reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 {mu}Jy, and has a typical sensitivity of 7.4 {mu}Jy per 2.''8 by 1.''6 beam. We also present a more comprehensive catalog, including sources down to peak flux densities of five or more times the local rms noise along with information on source sizes and relevant pointing data. We discuss in some detail the consideration of whether sources are resolved under the complication of a radio image created as a mosaic of separate pointings each suffering some degree of bandwidth smearing, and the accurate evaluation of the flux densities of such sources. Finally, the radio morphologies and optical/near-IR counterpart identifications are used to identify 17 likely multiple-component sources and arrive at a catalog of 883 radio sources, which is roughly double the number of sources contained in the first data release.

  18. Quench dynamics and ground state fidelity of the one-dimensional extended quantum compass model in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, R.

    2016-05-01

    We study the ground state fidelity, fidelity susceptibility, and quench dynamics of the extended quantum compass model in a transverse field. This model reveals a rich phase diagram which includes several critical surfaces depending on exchange couplings. We present a characterization of quantum phase transitions in terms of the ground state fidelity between two ground states obtained for two different values of external parameters. We also derive scaling relations describing the singular behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the quantum critical surfaces. Moreover, we study the time evolution of the system after a critical quantum quench using the Loschmidt echo (LE). We find that the revival times of LE are given by {T}{rev}=N/2{v}{max}, where N is the size of the system and v max is the maximum of the lower bound group velocity of quasi-particles. Although the fidelity susceptibility shows the same exponent in all critical surfaces, the structure of the revivals after critical quantum quenches displays two different regimes reflecting different equilibration dynamics.

  19. An efficient and stable hybrid extended Lagrangian/self-consistent field scheme for solving classical mutual induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaugh, Alex; Demerdash, Omar; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    We have adapted a hybrid extended Lagrangian self-consistent field (EL/SCF) approach, developed for time reversible Born Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for quantum electronic degrees of freedom, to the problem of classical polarization. In this context, the initial guess for the mutual induction calculation is treated by auxiliary induced dipole variables evolved via a time-reversible velocity Verlet scheme. However, we find numerical instability, which is manifested as an accumulation in the auxiliary velocity variables, that in turn results in an unacceptable increase in the number of SCF cycles to meet even loose convergence tolerances for the real induced dipoles over the course of a 1 ns trajectory of the AMOEBA14 water model. By diagnosing the numerical instability as a problem of resonances that corrupt the dynamics, we introduce a simple thermostating scheme, illustrated using Berendsen weak coupling and Nose-Hoover chain thermostats, applied to the auxiliary dipole velocities. We find that the inertial EL/SCF (iEL/SCF) method provides superior energy conservation with less stringent convergence thresholds and a correspondingly small number of SCF cycles, to reproduce all properties of the polarization model in the NVT and NVE ensembles accurately. Our iEL/SCF approach is a clear improvement over standard SCF approaches to classical mutual induction calculations and would be worth investigating for application to ab initio molecular dynamics as well.

  20. Enzyme immunoassay using a reusable extended-gate field-effect-transistor sensor with a ferrocenylalkanethiol-modified gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Kamahori, Masao; Ishige, Yu; Shimoda, Maki

    2008-09-01

    A reusable extended-gate field-effect transistor (FET) sensor with an 11-ferrocenyl-1-undecanethiol (11-FUT) modified gold electrode was developed for applying to enzyme immunoassay. It was found that the 11-FUT modified FET sensor detected a thiol compound 50 times or more repeatedly after a treatment with a 5% hydrogen peroxide solution. The gate-voltage shift of the FET sensor showed a fairly good linearity (R(2) = 0.998) within a range from 10(-2) to 10(-6) M on the concentration of 6-hydroxyl-1-hexanethiol, which is a thiol compound, at a Nernstian response of 58.5 mV/decade. The FET-based immunoassay was constructed by combining the 11-FUT modified-FET sensor with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in which the enzyme chemistry of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was used to generate a thiol compound. The 11-FUT modified FET sensor with an AC voltage at 1 MHz superimposed onto the reference electrode detected the AChE-catalyzed product corresponding to a serum concentration of interleukin 1beta from 10 to 5000 pg/mL. In addition, all measurements were successfully performed by using the same FET-sensor chip after a treatment with a 5% hydrogen peroxide solution. PMID:18781015

  1. An efficient and stable hybrid extended Lagrangian/self-consistent field scheme for solving classical mutual induction

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, Alex; Demerdash, Omar; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2015-11-07

    We have adapted a hybrid extended Lagrangian self-consistent field (EL/SCF) approach, developed for time reversible Born Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for quantum electronic degrees of freedom, to the problem of classical polarization. In this context, the initial guess for the mutual induction calculation is treated by auxiliary induced dipole variables evolved via a time-reversible velocity Verlet scheme. However, we find numerical instability, which is manifested as an accumulation in the auxiliary velocity variables, that in turn results in an unacceptable increase in the number of SCF cycles to meet even loose convergence tolerances for the real induced dipoles over the course of a 1 ns trajectory of the AMOEBA14 water model. By diagnosing the numerical instability as a problem of resonances that corrupt the dynamics, we introduce a simple thermostating scheme, illustrated using Berendsen weak coupling and Nose-Hoover chain thermostats, applied to the auxiliary dipole velocities. We find that the inertial EL/SCF (iEL/SCF) method provides superior energy conservation with less stringent convergence thresholds and a correspondingly small number of SCF cycles, to reproduce all properties of the polarization model in the NVT and NVE ensembles accurately. Our iEL/SCF approach is a clear improvement over standard SCF approaches to classical mutual induction calculations and would be worth investigating for application to ab initio molecular dynamics as well.

  2. Extended field of view ultrasound imaging to evaluate Achilles tendon length and thickness: a reliability and validity study

    PubMed Central

    Silbernagel, Karin Gravare; Shelley, Kristen; Powell, Stephen; Varrecchia, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Achilles tendon structural changes are common after injury and correlate with recovery of function. Having simple, inexpensive, yet valid and reliable measures of Achilles tendon structure are useful both in research and clinical. The purpose of this study was to perform reliability and validity measures of extended field of view (EFOV) ultrasound (US) imaging of the Achilles tendon. Methods eight cadavers (16 tendons) were used for the validation study to compare Achilles tendon length measurements from US images with actual measured length from dissected tendons. Nine healthy subjects (18 tendons) were included in the test-retest evaluation. Results the correlation between the US images and cadaveric measurements was excellent (ICC=0.895) for the length between calcaneus and the gastrocnemius and good (ICC=0.744) for the length between the calcaneus and the soleus. The between-limb reliability was excellent (ICC 0.886–0.940) for the tendon length measurements with standard error of measurements (SEM) of 0.64 cm for calcaneus to soleus and 0.67 cm for calcaneus to gastrocnemius. Between-day test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.898–0.944). Conclusion this study supports the use of EFOV US imaging as a reliable and valid method to determine Achilles tendon length and thickness, and using the uninjured limb for comparison. PMID:27331037

  3. Remote sensing strategy at the first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement field site

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.; Griffin, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was initiated in 1990 by the US Department of Energy to improve climate model simulations of radiative energy transport and cloud formation, maintenance, and dissipation. ARM stresses the modeling of phenomena occurring at subgrid scales in general circulation models (GCMs). Measurements to support the modeling research will be made at three primary locations. The central facility, the primary location at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site for study of radiative transfer, uses ground-based remote sensing instrumentation to observe radiation and the atmospheric properties that affect it. Remote sensing instruments and balloon-borne sounding systems installed at several boundary facilities on the perimeter of the overall Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site evaluate vertical profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity. These observations are needed to run single-column models derived from GCMs for a single grid square with an area equivalent to the overall CART area. Observations of local meteorological conditions, air-surface exchange, and solar and infrared radiation at up to 23 extended facilities scattered throughout the CART site provide the surface boundary information needed in the single-column models. Finally, auxiliary facilities at the central facility and at a few locations within 10 km of the central facility will contain whole-sky imaging systems to map cloud characteristics. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the strategy used to obtain remote sensing instrumentation for continuous operation at the central facility.

  4. Radiative properties of a plasma moving across a magnetic field. I - Theoretical analysis. II - Numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Miller, Ronald H.

    1993-01-01

    The early-time evolution of plasmas moving across a background magnetic field is addressed with a 2D model in which a plasma cloud is assumed to have formed instantaneously with a velocity across a uniform background magnetic field and with a Gaussian density profile in the two dimensions perpendicular to the direction of motion. This model treats both the dynamics associated with the formation of a polarization field and the generation and propagation of electromagnetic waves. In general, the results indicate that, to zeroth order, the plasma cloud behaves like a large dipole antenna oriented in the direction of the polarization field which oscillates at frequencies defined by the normal mode of the system. Radiation damping is shown to play an important role in defining the plasma cloud evolution, causing a rapid decay of the polarizaiton field and a loss of plasma kinetic energy and momentum on time scales comprable to several ion gyroperiods. Scaling laws are derived for the plasma momentum and energy loss rates, and predictions for the braking time, the amplitude and spectrum of the radiation field, and the total radiated power are presented for conditions relevant to the recent Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite experiments.

  5. Pion production via proton synchrotron radiation in strong magnetic fields in relativistic field theory: Scaling relations and angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2016-06-01

    We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are ni,f ∼104-105. We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one can infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 1015 G, where ni,f ∼1012-1013, from the results for ni,f ∼104-105. The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed.

  6. Electromagnetic fields radiated from a lightning return stroke - Application of an exact solution to Maxwell's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Meneghini, R.

    1978-01-01

    A solution is presented for the electromagnetic fields radiated by an arbitrarily oriented current filament over a conducting ground plane in the case where the current propagates along the filament at the speed of light, and this solution is interpreted in terms of radiation from lightning return strokes. The solution is exact in the fullest sense; no mathematical approximations are made, and the governing differential equations and boundary conditions are satisfied. The solution has the additional attribute of being specified in closed form in terms of elementary functions. This solution is discussed from the point of view of deducing lightning current wave forms from measurements of the electromagnetic fields and understanding the effects of channel tortuosity on the radiated fields. In addition, it is compared with two approximate solutions, the traditional moment approximation and the Fraunhofer approximation, and a set of criteria describing their applicability are presented and interpreted.

  7. Simulation studies of wide and medium field of view earth radiation data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    A parameter estimation technique is presented to estimate the radiative flux distribution over the earth from radiometer measurements at satellite altitude. The technique analyzes measurements from a wide field of view (WFOV), horizon to horizon, nadir pointing sensor with a mathematical technique to derive the radiative flux estimates at the top of the atmosphere for resolution elements smaller than the sensor field of view. A computer simulation of the data analysis technique is presented for both earth-emitted and reflected radiation. Zonal resolutions are considered as well as the global integration of plane flux. An estimate of the equator-to-pole gradient is obtained from the zonal estimates. Sensitivity studies of the derived flux distribution to directional model errors are also presented. In addition to the WFOV results, medium field of view results are presented.

  8. Organ dose conversion coefficients for pediatric reference computational phantoms in external photon radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lienard A.

    In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to estimate the organ doses to those exposed. In general, it is difficult to measure organ dose directly in the field and therefore dose conversion coefficients (DCC) are needed to convert measurable values such as air kerma to organ dose. Previous work on these coefficients has been conducted mainly for adults with a focus on radiation protection workers. Hence, there is a large gap in the literature for pediatric values. This study coupled a Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code with International Council of Radiological Protection (ICRP)-adopted University of Florida and National Cancer Institute pediatric reference phantoms to calculate a comprehensive list of dose conversion coefficients (mGy/mGy) to convert air-kerma to organ dose. Parameters included ten phantoms (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year old male and female), 28 organs over 33 energies between 0.01 and 20 MeV in six (6) irradiation geometries relevant to a child who might be exposed to a radiological release: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right-lateral (RLAT), left-lateral (LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). Dose conversion coefficients to the red bone marrow over 36 skeletal sites were also calculated. It was hypothesized that the pediatric organ dose conversion coefficients would follow similar trends to the published adult values as dictated by human anatomy, but be of a higher magnitude. It was found that while the pediatric coefficients did yield similar patterns to that of the adult coefficients, depending on the organ and irradiation geometry, the pediatric values could be lower or higher than that of the adult coefficients.

  9. On the magnetic field signal radiated by an atmospheric pressure room temperature plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.; Huang, Q.; Wang, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-01-28

    In this paper, the magnetic field signal radiated from an atmospheric pressure room temperature plasma plume is measured. It's found that the magnetic field signal has similar waveform as the current carried by the plasma plume. By calibration of the magnetic field signal, the plasma plume current is obtained by measuring the magnetic field signal radiated by the plasma plume. In addition, it is found that, when gas flow modes changes from laminar regime to turbulence regime, the magnetic field signal waveforms appears different, it changes from a smooth curve to a curve with multiple spikes. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the plasma plume generated by a single electrode (without ground electrode) plasma jet device carries higher current than that with ground electrode.

  10. [Shaping of electron radiation fields using homogeneous absorbent materials].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M; Reis, A; Kraft, M

    1990-01-01

    Proof of shielding and forming by absorbers was done in water phantom dosimetrically. Alterations of isodose course were measured in dependence of primary energy, as well as of thickness and density of the absorber materials. Piacryl or aluminium are not suitable for forming of irregular electron fields. They only effect a reduction of therapeutic range. For primary energies of 10.0 less than or equal to MeV less than or equal to E0- less than or equal to 20.0 MeV lead rubber and wood metal are to recommended in a thickness of less than or equal to 10 mm or less than or equal to 8 mm respectively.

  11. Ultraviolet radiation penetrating vehicle glass: a field based comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Parisi, A. V.

    1999-04-01

    The solar UV transmitted through automobile glass was measured in the field in two cars using a spectroradiometer. The two cars were identical except that one of the cars had all of the windows (except the windshield) tinted. The measured spectral erythemal UV on a horizontal plane with the windows fully closed was reduced in the tinted car by a factor of 42 when compared with the erythemal UV measured in the untinted car. The ambient UVA irradiances at various locations within four different makes of car and a tractor were also measured with a broad band UVA hand-held meter. The average normalized daily UVA exposure (measured with a broad band UVA meter) was 1.3 times higher in a large family sedan when compared with that in a small hatchback and the UVA exposure in a car with tinted windows was 3.8 times less than in a similar untinted car.

  12. Influence of Preoperative Radiation Field on Postoperative Leak Rates in Esophageal Cancer Patients after Trimodality Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Juloori, Aditya; Tucker, Susan L.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Correa, Arlene M.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Lin, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative morbidities, such as anastomotic leaks, are common after trimodality therapy (chemoradiation followed by surgery) for esophageal cancer. We investigated for factors associated with an increased incidence of anastomotic leaks. Methods Data from 285 esophageal cancer patients treated from 2000–2011 with trimodality therapy was analyzed. Anastomotic location relative to preoperative radiation field was assessed using postoperative computed tomographic imaging. Logistic regression was used to evaluate for factors associated with any or clinically relevant (CR) (≥ grade 2) leaks. Results Overall anastomotic leak rate was 11% (31/285), and CR leak rate was 6% (17/285). Multivariable analysis identified body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.00–1.17; OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.01–1.22), three-field surgery (OR 10.01, 95%CI 3.83–26.21; OR 4.83, 95%CI 1.39–16.71), and within radiation field (“in-field”) anastomosis (OR 5.37, 95%CI 2.21–13.04; OR 8.63, 95%CI 2.90–25.65) as independent predictors of both all grade and CR leaks, respectively. While patients with distal esophageal tumors and Ivor-Lewis surgery had the lowest incidence of all grade (6.5%) and CR leaks (4.2%), most of the leaks were associated with the anastomosis constructed within the field of radiation (in-field: 39% and 30% versus out-of-field: 2.6% and 1.0%, respectively, for total and CR leaks, p<0.0001, Fisher’s Exact test). Conclusions Esophagogastric anastomosis placed within the preoperative radiation field was a very strong predictor for anastomotic leaks in esophageal cancer patients treated with trimodality therapy, among other factors. Surgical planning should include a critical evaluation of the preoperative radiation fields to ensure proper anastomotic placement after chemoradiation therapy. PMID:24736077

  13. NOTE: Intraoperative radiation therapy using a mobile electron linear accelerator: field matching for large-field electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddar, A. S.; Briere, T. M.; Ouzidane, M.

    2006-09-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) consists of delivering a large, single-fraction dose of radiation to a surgically exposed tumour or tumour bed at the time of surgery. With the availability of a mobile linear accelerator in the OR, IORT procedures have become more feasible for medical centres and more accessible to cancer patients. Often the area requiring irradiation is larger than what the treatment applicators will allow, and therefore, two or more adjoining fields are used. Unfortunately, the divergence and scattering of the electron beams may cause significant dose variations in the region of the field junction. Furthermore, because IORT treatments are delivered in a large single fraction, the effects of underdosing or overdosing could be more critical when compared to fractionated external beam therapy. Proper matching of the fields is therefore an important technical aspect of treatment delivery. We have studied the matching region using the largest flat applicator available for three different possibilities: abutting the fields, leaving a small gap or creating an overlap. Measurements were done using film dosimetry for the available energies of 4, 6, 9 and 12 MeV. Our results show the presence of clinically significant cold spots for the low-energy beams when the fields are either gapped or abutted, suggesting that the fields should be overlapped. No fields should be gapped. The results suggest that an optimal dose distribution may be obtained by overlapping the fields at 4 and 6 MeV and simply abutting the fields at 9 and 12 MeV. However, due to uncertainties in the placement of lead shields during treatment delivery, one may wish to consider overlapping the higher energy fields as well.

  14. Nonionizing radiation: Appropriate topic in a physics curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Alois J.

    1983-09-01

    A three-hour, one-semester course in nonionizing radiation for students in the interdisciplinary field of electronics and instrumentation is outlined. Electromagnetic radiation extending from the ultraviolet to the 60-Hz power frequency and ultrasonic radiation were discussed. Emphasis was placed on the nature and sources of the radiation, the biophysical interaction mechanisms, and the instrumentation used to measure nonionizing radiation.

  15. First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Gen

    2011-02-15

    First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation is investigated on the basis of the scalar QED on a homogeneous background of a time-dependent electric field, which is a generalization of a recent work by Higuchi and Walker so as to be extended for an accelerated charged particle in a relativistic motion. We obtain a simple approximate formula for the quantum correction in the limit of the relativistic motion when the direction of the particle motion is parallel to that of the electric field.

  16. The mechanism of the effect of a plasma layer with negative permittivity on the antenna radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunsheng Liu, Hui; Jiang, Binhao; Li, Xueai

    2015-06-15

    A model of a plasma–antenna system is developed to study the mechanism of the effect of the plasma layer on antenna radiation. Results show a plasma layer with negative permittivity is inductive, and thus affects the phase difference between electric and magnetic fields. In the near field of antenna radiation, a plasma layer with proper parameters can compensate the capacitivity of the vacuum and enhance the radiation power. In the far field of antenna radiation, the plasma layer with negative permittivity increases the inductivity of the vacuum and reduces the radiation power.

  17. Transient quantum coherent response to a partially coherent radiation field.

    PubMed

    Sadeq, Zaheen S; Brumer, Paul

    2014-02-21

    The response of an arbitrary closed quantum system to a partially coherent electric field is investigated, with a focus on the transient coherences in the system. As a model we examine, both perturbatively and numerically, the coherences induced in a three level V system. Both rapid turn-on and pulsed turn-on effects are investigated. The effect of a long and incoherent pulse is also considered, demonstrating that during the pulse the system shows a coherent response which reduces after the pulse is over. Both the pulsed scenario and the thermally broadened CW case approach a mixed state in the long time limit, with rates dictated by the adjacent level spacings and the coherence time of the light, and via a mechanism that is distinctly different from traditional decoherence. These two excitation scenarios are also explored for a minimal "toy" model of the electronic levels in pigment protein complex PC645 by both a collisionally broadened CW laser and by a noisy pulse, where unexpectedly long transient coherence times are observed and explained. The significance of environmentally induced decoherence is noted.

  18. A field study of pollutant deposition in radiation fog

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Jacob, D.J.; Munger, J.W.; Hoffman, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    Deposition during fog episodes can make a significant contribution to the overall flux of pollutants in certain ecosystems. Furthermore, when atmospheric stagnation prevents normal ventilation in a region, fog deposition may become the main route of pollutant removal. Fogs can consequently exert dominant control over pollutant levels in certain atmospheres. The southern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California is a region prone to wintertime episodes of atmospheric stagnation. These lead to elevated pollutant concentrations and/or dense, widespread fogs. Major oil-recovery operations plus widespread agricultural and livestock feeding activities are important sources of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub X/ and NH/sub 3/ in the valley. A multifaceted program of field monitoring was conducted in the SJV during the winter 1984-1985, focusing on aspects of pollutant scavenging and removal in the fog-laden atmosphere. Concentrations of major species were measured in gas, dry aerosol and fogwater phases. In addition, depositional fluxes were monitored by surrogate-surface methods. These measurements were employed to directly assess the magnitude of removal enhancement by fog.

  19. Transient quantum coherent response to a partially coherent radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeq, Zaheen S.; Brumer, Paul

    2014-02-21

    The response of an arbitrary closed quantum system to a partially coherent electric field is investigated, with a focus on the transient coherences in the system. As a model we examine, both perturbatively and numerically, the coherences induced in a three level V system. Both rapid turn-on and pulsed turn-on effects are investigated. The effect of a long and incoherent pulse is also considered, demonstrating that during the pulse the system shows a coherent response which reduces after the pulse is over. Both the pulsed scenario and the thermally broadened CW case approach a mixed state in the long time limit, with rates dictated by the adjacent level spacings and the coherence time of the light, and via a mechanism that is distinctly different from traditional decoherence. These two excitation scenarios are also explored for a minimal “toy” model of the electronic levels in pigment protein complex PC645 by both a collisionally broadened CW laser and by a noisy pulse, where unexpectedly long transient coherence times are observed and explained. The significance of environmentally induced decoherence is noted.

  20. SPARTA - Solver for Polarized Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Applications: Introduction and application to Saharan dust fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlakas, Vasileios; Macke, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Non-spherical particles in the atmosphere absorb and scatter solar radiation. They change the polarization state of solar radiation depending on their shape, size, chemical composition and orientation. To quantify polarization effects, a new three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer model, SPARTA (Solver for Polarized Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Applications) is introduced and validated against benchmark results. SPARTA employs the statistical forward Monte Carlo technique for efficient column-response pixel-based radiance calculations including polarization for 3D inhomogeneous cloudless and cloudy atmospheres. A sensitivity study has been carried out and exemplarily results are presented for two lidar-based mineral dust fields. The scattering and absorption properties of the dust particles have been computed for spheroids and irregular shaped particles. Polarized radiance fields in two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) inhomogeneous Saharan dust fields have been calculated at 532 nm wavelength. The domain-averaged results of the normalized reflected radiance are almost identical for the 1D and 2D modes. In the areas with large spatial gradient in optical thickness with expected significant horizontal photon transport, the radiance fields of the 2D mode differ by about ±12% for the first Stokes component (radiance, I) and ±8% for the second Stokes component (linear polarization, Q) from the fields of the 1D mode.

  1. Near-field thermal radiation between homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jui-Yung; Basu, Soumyadipta; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2016-06-01

    Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials with two different material property sets is theoretically analyzed. The near-field radiative heat transfer is calculated using fluctuational electrodynamics incorporated with anisotropic wave optics. The underlying mechanisms, namely, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic surface polariton, electrical hyperbolic mode, and electrical surface polariton, between two homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials are investigated by examining the transmission coefficient and the spectral heat flux. The effect of vacuum gap distance is also studied, which shows that the enhancement at smaller vacuum gap is mainly due to hyperbolic mode and surface plasmon polariton modes. In addition, the results show that the contribution of s-polarized waves is significant and should not be excluded due to the strong magnetic response regardless of vacuum gap distances. The fundamental understanding and insights obtained here will facilitate the finding and application of novel materials for near-field thermal radiation.

  2. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from 0.56+/- 0.05 mm (mean  ±  SD) to 0.05+/- 0.05 mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm.

  3. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James M P; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E; Jaffray, David A

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from [Formula: see text] mm (mean  ±  SD) to [Formula: see text] mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm. PMID:26540304

  4. Near- to far-field characteristics of acoustic radiation through plug flow jets.

    PubMed

    Gabard, G

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports a theoretical study of the radiation of sound through jet exhausts. It focuses on the transition from near field to far field by considering the features of the near-field solution and how these features translate to the far field. The main focus of this work is the importance in some cases of lateral waves radiating from the jet. While the presence of lateral waves has long been recognized, there has been no systematic investigation of the practical consequences of these waves in the prediction of sound propagation through round jets. The physical mechanisms involved in the generation of these waves are presented as well as the conditions under which they become significant. Another issue is the possibility of "channeled waves" inside the jet associated with strong sound radiation in the forward arc. This paper also discusses the validity of the far-field approximation when lateral waves are present. It is shown that the standard far-field approximation can be improved by adding correction terms that account for the presence of the lateral waves and channeled waves. The challenge posed to computational aeroacoustics by these near-field effects is also discussed.

  5. Defeating radiation damping and magnetic field inhomogeneity with spatially encoded noise.

    PubMed

    Michal, Carl A

    2010-11-15

    A simple NMR experiment capable of providing well resolved spectra under conditions where either radiation damping or static magnetic field inhomogeneity would broaden otherwise high-resolution NMR spectra is introduced. The approach involves using a strong pulsed magnetic field gradient and a selective radio-frequency pulse to encode a predetermined noise pattern into the spatial distribution of magnetization. Following readout in a much smaller field gradient, the noise sequence may be deconvolved from the acquired data and a high-resolution spectrum is obtained, eliminating the effects of either radiation damping or the static field inhomogeneity. In the presence of field inhomogeneity a field map is also obtained from the same single transient. A quasi-two-dimensional version of the experiment eliminates the need for deconvolution and produces improved results with simplified processing, but without requiring a full two-dimensional experiment. Example spectra are shown for both radiation damping and one-dimensional field inhomogeneity with improvement in linewidths of more than a factor of 40.

  6. Subdiffraction field localisation in the scattering of femtosecond laser radiation by a dielectric microsphere

    SciTech Connect

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Panina, E K

    2014-01-31

    The time dynamics of the optical field was theoretically considered in the near-field diffraction zone in the scattering of a femtosecond laser pulse by a transparent spherical microparticle. The spatial region of field focusing by the particle (the 'photonic jet' zone) was investigated; the evolution of the jet shape and the peak intensity in this region were analysed. For the first time it was determined that an extremely tight optical field localisation to a subdiffraction size is possible at a certain (resonance) temporal stage of photonic jet development. (radiation scattering)

  7. On Whether Angular Momentum in Electric and Magnetic Fields Radiates to Infinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Francis X.; Knudsen, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The Feynman Disk experiment and a related thought experiment with a static magnetic field and capacitor are studied. The mechanical torque integrated over time (angular impulse) is related to the angular momentum in the electric/magnetic field. This is not called an electromagnetic field since quasi-static as well as electromagnetic effects are included. The angular momentum in the electric/magnetic field is examined to determine its static and radiative components. This comparison was then examined to see if it clarified the Abraham-Minkowski paradox.

  8. Analytic theory for betatron radiation from relativistic electrons in ion plasma channels with magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. C.; Jiang, T. F.

    2010-11-15

    We analytically solve the relativistic equation of motion for an electron in ion plasma channels and calculate the corresponding trajectory as well as the synchrotron radiation. The relativistic effect on a trajectory is strong, i.e., many high-order harmonic terms in the trajectory, when the ratio of the initial transverse velocity (v{sub x0}) to the longitudinal velocity (v{sub z0}) of the electron injected to ion plasma channels is high. Interestingly, these high-order harmonic terms result in a quite broad and intense radiation spectrum, especially at an oblique angle, in contrast to an earlier understanding. As the initial velocity ratio (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}) decreases, the relativistic effect becomes weak; only the first and second harmonic terms remain in the transverse and longitudinal trajectories, respectively, which coincides with the result of Esarey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 056505 (2002)]. Our formalism also allows the description of electron's trajectory in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Critical magnetic fields for cyclotron motions are figured out and compared with semiclassical results. The cyclotron motion leads to more high-order harmonic terms than the trajectory without magnetic fields and causes an immensely broad spectrum with vastly large radiation amplitude for high initial velocity ratios (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}). The radiation from hard x-ray to gamma-ray regions can be generated with a broad radiation angle, thus available for applications.

  9. The creation and propagation of radiation: Fields inside and outside of sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbert, Stanislaw; Belcher, John; Price, Richard H.

    2012-04-01

    We present an algorithm for computing the electromagnetic fields due to currents inside and outside of finite sources with a high degree of spatial symmetry for arbitrary time-dependent currents. The solutions for these fields do not involve the time derivatives of the currents but involve only the currents and their time integrals. We give solutions for moving planar sheets of charge, and a rotating spherical shell carrying a uniform charge density. We show that the general solutions reduce to the standard expressions for magnetic dipole radiation for slow time variations of the currents. If the currents are turned on very quickly, the general solutions show that the amount of energy radiated equals the magnetic energy stored in the static fields a long time after current creation. We give three problems which can be used in undergraduate courses and one problem suitable for graduate courses. These problems illustrate that because the generation of radiation depends on what has happened in the past, a system of currents can radiate even during time intervals when the currents are constant due to radiation associated with earlier acceleration.

  10. Development of a cryogenic radiation detector for mapping radio frequency superconducting cavity field emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Danny Dotson; John Mammosser

    2005-05-01

    Field emissions in a super conducting helium cooled RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-Rays) have been measured externally on cryomodules at Jefferson Lab since 1991. External measurements are limited to radiation energies above 100 keV due to shielding of the stainless steel cryogenic body. To measure the onset of and to map field emissions from a superconducting cavity requires the detecting instrument be inside the shield and within the liquid Helium. Two possible measurement systems are undergoing testing at JLab. A CsI detector array set on photodiodes and an X-Ray film camera with a fixed aperture. Several devices were tested in the cell with liquid Helium without success. The lone survivor, a CsI array, worked but saturated at high power levels due to backscatter. The array was encased in a lead shield with a slit opening set to measure the radiation emitted directly from the cell eliminating a large portion of the backscatter. This is a work in progress and te sting should be complete before the PAC 05. The second system being tested is passive. It is a shielded box with an aperture to expose radiation diagnostic film located inside to direct radiation from the cell. Developing a technique for mapping field emissions in cryogenic cells will assist scientists and engineers in pinpointing any surface imperfections for examination.

  11. Terahertz radiation from carbon nanorings in external collinear constant and varying electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, E. G.; Yanyushkina, N. N.; Belonenko, M. B.

    2013-04-01

    We consider the response of a quasi-one-dimensional ballistic carbon ring to the field of an electromagnetic wave propagating along the normal to the ring plane in the presence of a constant electric field collinear to the field of the wave. The dipole moment and the radiation intensity of the ring are calculated for the ballistic motion of a conduction electron. The possibility of implementation of regular periodic and chaotic regimes of ring emission under the action of external fields is demonstrated. The radiation spectrum of the ring is analyzed, and the dependence of the scattering cross section for an electromagnetic wave incident on the ring on its frequency and amplitude is calculated.

  12. Evaluation of dosimetric characteristics of multi-leaf and conventional collimated radiation fields using a scanning liquid ionization chamber EPID.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, M; Bezak, E

    2008-12-01

    The characteristics of radiation fields set up using conventional and Multi-Leaf collimators were investigated using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber Electronic Portal Imaging Device (SLIC-EPID). Results showed that the radiation fields set up using MLCs are generally larger than those set up using conventional collimators. A significant difference was observed between the penumbra width for conventional and MLC radiation fields. SLIC-EPID was found to be a sensitive device to evaluate the characteristics of the radiation fields generated with MLCs.

  13. Extending measurements in long-term permanent sites using a mobile observation system: Tradeoffs between carbon sequestration and radiation budget across a climatic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramati, Efrat; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Recent observations from the semi-arid region in Israel showed that conversion of the local sparse shrubland to pine forest resulted in greatly increased surface radiation load due to reduced canopy albedo combined with reduced emission of thermal radiations, which overwhelmed the beneficial effects of the relatively high rates of the forest carbon sequestration. Here we extend this study across the local climatic gradient, and test the hypothesis that increased carbon sequestration and reduced differences in surface radiation budgets along the precipitation gradient, diminish the surface effects of forestation while enhancing the benefits of carbon sequestration. We used a custom-built mobile laboratory (for eddy-flux and surface radiation measurements) on a campaign basis (about two weeks per site repeated along the seasonal cycle) to compare surface-atmosphere radiative (short- and long-wave radiation) and non-radiative (net carbon uptake, NEE, evapotranspiration, ET, and sensible heat, H) fluxes in three paired sites of pine forest (Pinus halepensis) and nearby non-forested ecosystems with mean annual precipitation/temperature of 291/19.5, 543/20.8, and 755/16.4 mm/˚C, respectively. Forests NEE and ET increased with increasing precipitation along the gradient from 0.8, to 1.5 gC m-2d-1, and 0.7 to 1.3 mmol H2O m-2s-1. Forests albedo did not changed along the gradient or along the seasonal cycle (αF ~0.12), while shrub land albedo (αS) varied along the gradient and the seasonal cycle due in part to variability in soil types (from 0.31 to 0.19, on average for dry and wet sites). Sensible heat flux did not markedly changed (HF~110 Wm-2 and HS~60 Wm-2), and the net thermal radiation emission along the climatic gradient increased in the forests (-90, to -105 Wm-2) and decreased in the shrub land (-112 to -104 Wm-2). The results showed, on average, enhanced carbon sink associated with forestation of shrub land (ΔNEEF-S) increased with precipitation (from near

  14. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Karim, A.; Menten, Karl M.; Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  15. The NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Wide Field-of-View Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Kathryn A.; Smith, G. Louis; Young, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consisted of wide field-of-view (WFOV) radiometers and scanning radiometers for measuring outgoing longwave radiation and solar radiation reflected from the Earth. These instruments were carried by the dedicated Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and by the NOAA-9 and -10 operational spacecraft. The WFOV radiometers provided data from which instantaneous fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are computed by use of a numerical filter algorithm. Monthly mean fluxes over a 5-degree equal angle grid are computed from the instantaneous TOA fluxes. The WFOV radiometers aboard the NOAA-9 spacecraft operated from February 1985 through December 1992, at which time a failure of the shortwave radiometer ended the usable data after nearly 8 years. This paper examines the monthly mean products from that data set.

  16. Study of shockwave method for diagnosing the radiation fields of laser-driven gold hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongsheng; Lan, Ke; Huo, Wenyi; Lai, Dongxian; Gao, Yaoming; Pei, Wenbing

    2013-11-01

    Besides the routinely used broad-band x-ray spectrometer (Dante or SXS), ablative shock-wave method is often used to diagnose the radiation fields of laser-driven Hohlraums. The x-ray ablation process of Aluminum and Titanium is studied numerically with a 1-D radiation hydrodynamic code RDMG [F. Tinggui et al., Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 16, 199 (1999)], based on which a new scaling relation of the equivalent radiation temperature with the ablative shock velocity in Aluminum plates is proposed, and a novel method is developed for determining simultaneously the radiation temperature and the M-band (2-4 keV) fraction in laser-driven gold Hohlraums.

  17. On Consideration of Radiated Power in RF Field Simulations for MRI

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanzhan; Kao, Chien-ping; Collins, Christopher M.; Smith, Michael B.; Yang, Qing X.

    2012-01-01

    In numerical analyses of RF fields for MRI, RF power is often permitted to radiate out of the problem region. In reality, RF power will be confined by the magnet bore and RF screen enclosing the magnet room. We present numerical calculations at different frequencies for various surface and volume coils, with samples from simple spheres to the human body in environments from free space to a shielded RF room. Results for calculations within a limited problem region show radiated power increases with frequency. When the magnet room RF screen is included, nearly all the power is dissipated in the human subject. For limited problem regions, inclusion of a term for radiation loss results in an underestimation of transmit efficiency compared to results including the complete bore and RF screen. If the term for radiated power is not included, calculated coil efficiencies are slightly overestimated compared to the complete case. PMID:22473620

  18. Quasinormal modes, scattering, and Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman black holes in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkotas, K. D.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.

    2011-01-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the spectrum of proper oscillations (quasinormal modes), transmission/reflection coefficients, and Hawking radiation for a massive charged scalar field in the background of the Kerr-Newman black hole immersed in an asymptotically homogeneous magnetic field. There are two main effects: the Zeeman shift of the particle energy in the magnetic field and the difference of values of an electromagnetic potential between the horizon and infinity, i.e. the Faraday induction. We have shown that 'turning on' the magnetic field induces a stronger energy-emission rate and leads to 'recharging' of the black hole. Thus, a black hole immersed in a magnetic field evaporates much quicker, achieving thereby an extremal state in a shorter period of time. Quasinormal modes are moderately affected by the presence of a magnetic field which is assumed to be relatively small compared to the gravitational field of the black hole.

  19. Radiative transfer equations in broad-band, time-varying fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J.; Zoller, P.

    1984-01-01

    A derivation of the equation of transfer is obtained by starting with Maxwell's equations in the 'slowly varying envelope' form. Particular attention is paid to characterizing the intensity that is 'seen' by the atom (which is found to be related to a Wigner distribution of the electric field). The equation of transfer is found to be valid for 'broad-band' slowly varying radiation fields.

  20. On the electromagnetic fields, Poynting vector, and peak power radiated by lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.

    1992-01-01

    The initial radiation fields, Poynting vector, and total electromagnetic power that a vertical return stroke radiates into the upper half space have been computed when the speed of the stroke, nu, is a significant fraction of the speed of light, c, assuming that at large distances and early times the source is an infinitesimal dipole. The initial current is also assumed to satisfy the transmission-line model with a constant nu and to be perpendicular to an infinite, perfectly conducting ground. The effect of a large nu is to increase the radiation fields by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -1, where beta = nu/c and theta is measured from the vertical, and the Poynting vector by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -2.

  1. Design of organic scintillators for non-standard radiation field dosimetry: experimental setup.

    PubMed

    Norman H, Machado R; Maximiliano, Trujillo T; Javier E, García G; Diana C, Narvaez G; Paula A, Marín M; Róbinson A, Torres V

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental setup designed for sensing the luminescent light coming from an organic plastic scintillator stimulated with ionizing radiation. This device is intended to be a part of a complete dosimeter system for characterization of small radiation fields which is the project of the doctoral thesis of the medical physicist at the Radiation Oncology facility of Hospital San Vicente Fundación in conjunction with the Universidad de Antioquia of Medellín Colombia. Some preliminary results predict a good performance of the unit, but further studies must be conducted in order to have a completed evaluation of the system. This is the first step in the development of an accuracy tool for measurement of non-standard fields in the Radiotherapy or Radiosurgery processes. PMID:24110369

  2. GAMMA-RAY BURST PROMPT EMISSION: JITTER RADIATION IN STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC FIELD REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jirong; Wang Jiancheng

    2011-04-10

    We revisit the radiation mechanism of relativistic electrons in the stochastic magnetic field and apply it to the high-energy emissions of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We confirm that jitter radiation is a possible explanation for GRB prompt emission in the condition of a large electron deflection angle. In the turbulent scenario, the radiative spectral property of GRB prompt emission is decided by the kinetic energy spectrum of turbulence. The intensity of the random and small-scale magnetic field is determined by the viscous scale of the turbulent eddy. The microphysical parameters {epsilon}{sub e} and {epsilon}{sub B} can be obtained. The acceleration and cooling timescales are estimated as well. Due to particle acceleration in magnetized filamentary turbulence, the maximum energy released from the relativistic electrons can reach a value of about 10{sup 14} eV. The GeV GRBs are possible sources of high-energy cosmic-ray.

  3. Cosmic ray pressure driven magnetic field amplification: dimensional, radiative and field orientation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, T. P.; Drury, L. O'C.

    2014-10-01

    Observations of non-thermal emission from several supernova remnants suggest that magnetic fields close to the blastwave are much stronger than would be naively expected from simple shock compression of the field permeating the interstellar medium (ISM). We investigate in some detail a simple model based on turbulence generation by cosmic ray pressure gradients. Previously, this model was investigated using 2D magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Motivated by the well-known qualitative differences between 2D and 3D turbulence, we further our investigations of this model using both 2D and 3D simulations to study the influence of the dimensionality of the simulations on the field amplification achieved. Further, since the model implies the formation of shocks which can, in principle, be efficiently cooled by collisional cooling, we include such cooling in our simulations to ascertain whether it could increase the field amplification achieved. Finally, we examine the influence of different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the normal of the blastwave. We find that dimensionality has a slight influence on the overall amplification achieved, but a significant impact on the morphology of the amplified field. Collisional cooling has surprisingly little impact, primarily due to the short time which any element of the ISM resides in the precursor region for supernova blastwaves. Even allowing for a wide range of orientations of the magnetic field, we find that the magnetic field can be expected to be amplified by, on average, at least an order of magnitude in the precursors of supernova blastwaves.

  4. Interaction between the Kravchuck and Meixner oscillators coherent states and the coherent radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugen Drăgănescu, Gheorghe

    2013-03-01

    To describe a series of phenomena that occur in micro- and nano-systems, we have used the discrete variable Kravchuk and Meixner oscillators for which some sets of coherent states and some squeezed states were established. For a system consisting of molecular oscillators interacting with the coherent radiation field, an oscillatory variation of the refractive index was established.

  5. Radiation and Magnetic Field Effects on New Semiconductor Power Devices for Hl-Lhc Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, S.; Abbate, C.; Baccaro, S.; Busatto, G.; Citterio, M.; Iannuzzo, F.; Lanza, A.; Latorre, S.; Lazzaroni, M.; Sanseverino, A.; Velardi, F.

    2014-06-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Silicon Carbide and Gallium Nitride power MOSFETs is presented in this paper, for Total Ionizing Dose effects and Single Event Effects, under γ, neutrons, protons and heavy ions. Similar tests are discussed for commercial DC-DC converters, also tested in operation under magnetic field.

  6. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General §...

  8. 47 CFR 2.1053 - Measurements required: Field strength of spurious radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization... the measuring instrument antenna located in the far-field at all test frequencies. In the event it is... the transmitter, assuming all emissions are radiated from halfwave dipole antennas. (b)...

  9. An analysis of the radiation field beneath a bank of tubular quartz lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    Equations governing the incident heat flux distribution beneath a lamp-reflector system were developed. Analysis of a particular radiant heating facility showed good agreement between theory and experiment when a lamp power loss correction was used. In addition, the theory was employed to estimate thermal disruption in the radiation field caused by a protruding probe.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... adversely affected during and after the time the airplane is exposed to HIRF environment I, as described...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... adversely affected during and after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to HIRF environment I, as...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... HIRF environment I, as described in appendix J to this part; (2) The system automatically...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... adversely affected during and after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to HIRF environment I, as...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1317 High... that performs a function whose failure would significantly reduce the capability of the airplane or...

  15. Star Formation in the Galaxy and the Fluctuating UV Radiation Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Parravano, A.; McKee, C.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We examine the formation of massive stars in the Galaxy, the resultant fluctuating UV radiation field, and the effect of this Field on the star-forming interstellar medium. Following previous researchers such as Habing (1968), we calculate the average interstellar radiation field at the Solar Circle of the Galaxy. However, our new calculations follow more closely the time dependence of the field at any point. We show that there is a significant difference between the mean field and the median field, and that there are substantial fluctuations of the field (on timescales of order 100 million years) at a given point. Far Ultraviolet Radiation (FUV, photon energies of 6 eV - 13.6 eV) has been recognized as the main source of heating of the neutral interstellar gas. Given the pressure of the interstellar medium (ISM) the FUV field determines whether the thermal balance of the neutral gas results in cold (T approximately 50 - 100 K) clouds (CNM), warm (T about 10,000 K) (WNM), for a combination of the two (the two phase ISM) We present results for the time history of the FUV field for points in the local ISM of the Milky Way Galaxy. The presence of this fluctuating heating rate converts CNM to WNM and vice versa. We show how to calculate the average fractions of the gas in the CNM and WNM when the interstellar gas is subject to this fluctuating FUV field. The knowledge of how these fractions depend on the gas properties (i.e. mean density and composition) and on the FUV-sources (i.e. the star formation rate, or the IMF, or the size distribution of associations) is a basic step in building any detailed model of the large scale behavior of the ISM and the mutual relation between the ISM and the SFR.

  16. The 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North Survey and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Improved Point-source Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Yang, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present improved point-source catalogs for the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N) and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S) Surveys, implementing a number of recent improvements in Chandra source-cataloging methodology. For CDF-N/E-CDF-S, we provide a main catalog that contains 683/1003 X-ray sources detected with wavdetect at a false-positive probability threshold of 10-5 that also satisfy a binomial-probability source-selection criterion of P\\lt 0.004/P < 0.002. Such an approach maximizes the number of reliable sources detected: a total of 196/275 main-catalog sources are new compared to the Alexander et al. CDF-N/Lehmer et al. E-CDF-S main catalogs. We also provide CDF-N/E-CDF-S supplementary catalogs that consist of 72/56 sources detected at the same wavdetect threshold and having P of 0.004-0.1/0.002-0.1 and {K}s≤slant 22.9/{K}s≤slant 22.3 mag counterparts. For all ≈ 1800 CDF-N and E-CDF-S sources, including the ≈ 500 newly detected ones (these being generally fainter and more obscured), we determine X-ray source positions utilizing centroid and matched-filter techniques; we also provide multiwavelength identifications, apparent magnitudes of counterparts, spectroscopic and/or photometric redshifts, basic source classifications, and estimates of observed active galactic nucleus and galaxy source densities around respective field centers. Simulations show that both the CDF-N and E-CDF-S main catalogs are highly reliable and reasonably complete. Background and sensitivity analyses indicate that the on-axis mean flux limits reached represent a factor of ≈ 1.5-2.0 improvement over the previous CDF-N and E-CDF-S limits. We make our data products publicly available.

  17. Evaluation of Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Coverage by Standard Radiation Therapy Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, Rachel Ballonoff, Ari; Newman, Francis M.S.; Finlayson, Christina

    2008-04-01

    Background: Biopsy of the breast sentinel lymph node (SLN) is now a standard staging procedure for early-stage invasive breast cancer. The anatomic location of the breast SLN and its relationship to standard radiation fields has not been described. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of radiotherapy treatment planning data sets was performed in patients with breast cancer who had undergone SLN biopsy, and those with a surgical clip at the SLN biopsy site were identified. The location of the clip was evaluated relative to vertebral body level on an anterior-posterior digitally reconstructed radiograph, treated whole-breast tangential radiation fields, and standard axillary fields in 106 data sets meeting these criteria. Results: The breast SLN varied in vertebral body level position, ranging from T2 to T7 but most commonly opposite T4. The SLN clip was located below the base of the clavicle in 90%, and hence would be excluded from standard axillary radiotherapy fields where the inferior border is placed at this level. The clip was within the irradiated whole-breast tangent fields in 78%, beneath the superior-posterior corner multileaf collimators in 12%, and outside the tangent field borders in 10%. Conclusions: Standard axillary fields do not encompass the lymph nodes at highest risk of containing tumor in breast cancer patients. Elimination of the superior-posterior corner MLCs from the tangent field design would result in inclusion of the breast SLN in 90% of patients treated with standard whole-breast irradiation.

  18. Cosmic radiation and magnetic fields: Exposure assessment and health outcomes among airline flight crews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Joyce Shealy

    Airline flight crews are chronically exposed to cosmic radiation and to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical system. Potential disease risks have been identified in health studies among commercial flight crews outside of the United States and among military pilots within the United States. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify exposure to both cosmic radiation and magnetic fields onboard aircraft, (2) to develop a methodology for estimating career cosmic radiation doses to individual crew members, and (3) to compare mortality among United States commercial pilots and navigators with that of all occupational groups. Cosmic radiation equivalent doses to bone marrow and skeletal tissue were calculated on a flight-by-flight basis. Flight-by-flight calculations were used to develop an estimation methodology for cumulative (career) cosmic radiation doses. Magnetic fields were measured directly onboard aircraft during flight. Health outcomes among United States commercial pilots and navigators were investigated using proportional mortality ratios, proportional cancer mortality ratios, and mortality odds ratios. Based on the sample used in this study, the cosmic radiation equivalent dose to bone marrow and skeletal tissue associated with air travel ranges from 30 to 570 microsieverts per 100 flight hours (not including ground time) depending on altitude, latitude, phase of solar cycle, and flight duration. Magnetic field exposure appears to be characterized by frequencies between 100 and 800 hertz and varies in strength depending on stages of flight, location within the aircraft, and aircraft type. Based on limited measurements, maximum field strengths may increase from 0.6 microtesla in economy class to 1.2 microtesla in first class, suggesting that cockpit exposures may be higher. Potential synergistic effects of cosmic radiation and magnetic fields may be associated with certain cancers found in excess among flight crews, in particular

  19. Electrically tunable near-field radiative heat transfer via ferroelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Chen, Gang

    2014-12-15

    We explore ways to actively control near-field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces that relies on electrical tuning of phonon modes of ferroelectric materials. Ferroelectrics are widely used for tunable electrical devices, such as capacitors and memory devices; however, their tunable properties have not yet been examined for heat transfer applications. We show via simulations that radiative heat transfer between two ferroelectric materials can be enhanced by over two orders of magnitude over the blackbody limit in the near field, and can be tuned as much as 16.5% by modulating the coupling between surface phonon polariton modes at the two surfaces via varying external electric fields. We then discuss how to maximize the modulation contrast for tunable thermal devices using the studied mechanism.

  20. Terahertz radiation induced chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattices with a tilted magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Wang, F; Cao, J C

    2014-09-01

    Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation. PMID:25273189

  1. Terahertz radiation induced chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattices with a tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C. Wang, F.; Cao, J. C.

    2014-09-01

    Chaotic electron transport in semiconductor superlattice induced by terahertz electric field that is superimposed on a dc electric field along the superlattice axis are studied using the semiclassical motion equations including the effect of dissipation. A magnetic field that is tilted relative to the superlattice axis is also applied to the system. Numerical simulation shows that electrons in superlattice miniband exhibit complicate nonlinear oscillating modes with the influence of terahertz radiation. Transitions between frequency-locking and chaos via pattern forming bifurcations are observed with the varying of terahertz amplitude. It is found that the chaotic regions gradually contract as the dissipation increases. We attribute the appearance of complicate nonlinear oscillation in superlattice to the interaction between terahertz radiation and internal cooperative oscillating mode relative to Bloch oscillation and cyclotron oscillation.

  2. Improvement of terahertz field effect transistor detectors by substrate thinning and radiation losses reduction.

    PubMed

    Coquillat, Dominique; Marczewski, Jacek; Kopyt, Pawel; Dyakonova, Nina; Giffard, Benoit; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-01-11

    Phenomena of the radiation coupling to the field effect transistors based terahertz (THz) detectors are studied. We show that in the case of planar metal antennas a significant portion of incoming radiation, instead of being coupled to the transistors, is coupled to an antenna substrate leading to responsivity losses and/or cross-talk effects in the field effect based THz detector arrays. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the responsivity versus substrate thickness are performed. They clearly show how to minimize the losses by the detector/ array substrate thinning. In conclusion simple quantitative rules of losses minimization by choosing a proper substrate thickness of field effect transistor THz detectors are presented for common materials (Si, GaAs, InP, GaN) used in semiconductor technologies. PMID:26832258

  3. The X-Ray Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bell, E. F.; McIntosh, D. H.; Bauer, F. E.; Hasinger, G.; Mainieri, V.; Miyaji, T.; Schneider, D. P.; Steffen, A. T.

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the evolution over the last 6.3 Gyr of cosmic time (i.e., since z~0.7) of the average X-ray properties of early-type galaxies within the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). Our early-type galaxy sample includes 539 objects with red sequence colors and Sérsic indices larger than n=2.5, which were selected jointly from the COMBO-17 (Classifying Objects by Medium-Band Observations in 17 Filters) and GEMS (Galaxy Evolution from Morphologies and SEDs) surveys. We utilize the deep Chandra observations over the E-CDF-S and X-ray stacking analyses to constrain primarily the average X-ray emission from ``normal'' early-type galaxies (i.e., those that are not dominated by luminous AGNs). We study separately optically luminous (LB~1010-1011 LB,solar) and faint (LB~109.3-1010 LB,solar) galaxy samples, which we expect to have soft (0.5-2.0 keV) X-ray emission dominated by hot (~1 keV) interstellar gas and low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations, respectively. The AGN fraction of our optically luminous sample evolves with redshift in a manner consistent with the (1+z)3 evolution observed in other investigations of X-ray-selected AGNs. We find that the X-ray-to-B-band mean luminosity ratio (LX/LB) for normal optically luminous galaxies does not evolve significantly over z~0.0-0.7. This lack of X-ray evolution implies a general balance between the heating and cooling of the hot gas. If transient AGN activity is largely responsible for maintaining this balance, then we infer that mechanical power must be dominating the feedback out to z~0.7. Furthermore, in this scenario the average mechanical AGN power must remain roughly constant over the last half of cosmic time. For our optically faint early-type galaxies, we find suggestive evidence that LX/LB increases with redshift over z~0.0-0.5.

  4. Imaging nanoscale features with plasmon-coupled leakage radiation far-field superlenses.

    PubMed

    Regan, Charles J; Rodriguez, Robier; Gourshetty, Shivkumar C; Grave de Peralta, Luis; Bernussi, Ayrton A

    2012-09-10

    Optical images from nano-scale features were obtained by collection of leakage radiation coupled to surface plasmon polaritons excited by near-field fluorescence. Plasmonic crystals with spatial periods as small as 190 nm and non-periodic features separated by 80 nm, corresponding to ~λ/7, were clearly visible in the real plane images using this far-field technique. We show that the leaked light from the investigated samples carries detailed information to the far-field which is not present in the images obtained with conventional optical microscopy.

  5. Near field of corrugated horns and its influence on dual reflector antenna radiation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hombach, V.; Kuehn, E.

    1985-05-01

    The existing procedures for calculating the near field of the corrugated horns of dual reflector antennas are briefly reviewed, and their disadvantages are pointed out. A new approach to calculating the near field of circular corrugated feed horns is then discussed with specific reference to a Ku-band offset Gregorian antenna developed for the German Telecommunication Satellite DFS scheduled for launch in 1987. The approach, which is based on a physical-optics solution, is shown to provide an accurate description of the actual radiation characteristics. The effect of the near field on the gain, side-lobe level, and cross-polar performance of the antenna is discussed.

  6. Electric field detection of coherent synchrotron radiation in a storage ring generated using laser bunch slicing

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, I.; Shimosato, H.; Bito, M.; Furusawa, K.; Adachi, M.; Zen, H.; Kimura, S.; Katoh, M.; Shimada, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Hosaka, M.; Ashida, M.

    2012-03-12

    The electric field of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) generated by laser bunch slicing in a storage ring has been detected by an electro-optic sampling method. The gate pulses for sampling are sent through a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber. The observed electric field profile of the CSR is in good agreement with the spectrum of the CSR observed using Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometry, indicating good phase stability in the CSR. The longitudinal density profiles of electrons modulated by laser pulses were evaluated from the electric field profile.

  7. Rounded leaf end effect of multileaf collimator on penumbra width and radiation field offset: an analytical and numerical study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Peiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Penumbra characteristics play a significant role in dose delivery accuracy for radiation therapy. For treatment planning, penumbra width and radiation field offset strongly influence target dose conformity and organ at risk sparing. Methods In this study, we present an analytical and numerical approach for evaluation of the rounded leaf end effect on penumbra characteristics. Based on the rule of half-value layer, algorithms for leaf position calculation and radiation field offset correction were developed, which were advantageous particularly in dealing with large radius leaf end. Computer simulation was performed based on the Monte Carlo codes of EGSnrc/BEAMnrc, with groups of leaf end radii and source sizes. Data processing technique of curve fitting was employed for deriving penumbra width and radiation field offset. Results Results showed that penumbra width increased with source size. Penumbra width curves for large radius leaf end were U-shaped. This observation was probably related to the fact that radiation beams penetrated through the proximal and distal leaf sides. In contrast, source size had negligible impact on radiation field offset. Radiation field offsets were found to be constant both for analytical method and numerical simulation. However, the overall resulting values of radiation field offset obtained by analytical method were slightly smaller compared with Monte Carlo simulation. Conclusions The method we proposed could provide insight into the investigation of rounded leaf end effects on penumbra characteristics. Penumbra width and radiation field offset calibration should be carefully performed to commission multileaf collimator for intensity modulated radiotherapy. PMID:26401137

  8. Gamma–Gamma Absorption in the Broad Line Region Radiation Fields of Gamma-Ray Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Markus; Els, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The expected level of γγ absorption in the Broad Line Region (BLR) radiation field of γ-ray loud Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) is evaluated as a function of the location of the γ-ray emission region. This is done self-consistently with parameters inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in a single-zone leptonic EC-BLR model scenario. We take into account all geometrical effects both in the calculation of the γγ opacity and the normalization of the BLR radiation energy density. As specific examples, we study the FSRQs 3C279 and PKS 1510-089, keeping the BLR radiation energy density at the location of the emission region fixed at the values inferred from the SED. We confirm previous findings that the optical depth due to γγ absorption in the BLR radiation field exceeds unity for both 3C279 and PKS 1510-089 for locations of the γ-ray emission region inside the inner boundary of the BLR. It decreases monotonically, with distance from the central engine and drops below unity for locations within the BLR. For locations outside the BLR, the BLR radiation energy density required for the production of GeV γ-rays rapidly increases beyond observational constraints, thus making the EC-BLR mechanism implausible. Therefore, in order to avoid significant γγ absorption by the BLR radiation field, the γ-ray emission region must therefore be located near the outer boundary of the BLR.

  9. Absorption of infrared radiation by electrons in the field of a neutral hydrogen atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical expression for the absorption coefficient is developed from a relationship between the cross-section for inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the cross-section for electron-atom momentum transfer; it is accurate for those photon frequencies v and temperatures such that hv/kT is small. The determination of the absorption of infrared radiation by free-free transitions of the negative hydrogen ion has been extended to higher temperatures. A simple analytical expression for the absorption coefficient has been derived.

  10. EVOLUTION OF X-RAY AND FAR-ULTRAVIOLET DISK-DISPERSING RADIATION FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Miller, Jon; Bergin, Edwin; Hartmann, Lee; Hernandez, Jesus; Briceno, Cesar; Espaillat, Catherine E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu E-mail: jesush@cida.ve E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-04-15

    We present new X-ray and far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations of T Tauri stars covering the age range 1-10 Myr. Our goals are to observationally constrain the intensity of radiation fields responsible for evaporating gas from the circumstellar disk and to assess the feasibility of current photoevaporation models, focusing on X-ray and UV radiation. We greatly increase the number of 7-10 Myr old T Tauri stars observed in X-rays by including observations of the well-populated 25 Ori aggregate in the Orion OB1a subassociation. With these new 7-10 Myr objects, we confirm that X-ray emission remains constant from 1 to 10 Myr. We also show, for the first time, observational evidence for the evolution of FUV radiation fields with a sample of 56 accreting and non-accreting young stars spanning 1 Myr to 1 Gyr. We find that the FUV emission decreases on timescales consistent with the decline of accretion in classical T Tauri stars until reaching the chromospheric level in weak T Tauri stars and debris disks. Overall, we find that the observed strength of high-energy radiation is consistent with that required by photoevaporation models to dissipate the disks in timescales of approximately 10 Myr. Finally, we find that the high-energy fields that affect gas evolution are not similarly affecting dust evolution; in particular, we find that disks with inner clearings, transitional disks, have similar levels of FUV emission as full disks.

  11. Polarized Radiation Diagnostics for Measuring the Magnetic Field of the Outer Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2012-12-01

    The basic idea of optical pumping, for which Alfred Kastler received the 1966 Nobel Prize in physics, is that the absorption and scattering of light that is near-resonant with an optical transition can produce large population imbalances among the magnetic sublevels of atomic ground states as well as in excited states. The degree of this radiatively-induced atomic level polarization, which is very sensitive to the presence of magnetic fields, can be determined by observing the polarization of the scattered or transmitted spectral line radiation. Probably, the most important point for solar physics is that the outer solar atmosphere is indeed an optically pumped vapor and that the polarization of the emergent spectral line radiation can be exploited for detecting magnetic fields that are too weak and/or too tangled so as to produce measurable Zeeman polarization signals. In this talk we review some recent radiative transfer simulations of the polarization produced by optical pumping in selected IR, FUV and EUV spectral lines, showing that their sensitivity to the Hanle effect is very suitable for magnetic field measurements in the outer solar atmosphere. We argue that solar magnetometry using the spectral lines of optically pumped atoms in the chromosphere, transition region and corona should be a high-priority goal for large aperture solar telescopes, such as ATST, EST and SOLAR-C.

  12. Strong field-induced frequency conversion of laser radiation in plasma plumes: recent achievements.

    PubMed

    Ganeev, R A

    2013-01-01

    New findings in plasma harmonics studies using strong laser fields are reviewed. We discuss recent achievements in the growth of the efficiency of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation sources based on frequency conversion of the ultrashort pulses in the laser-produced plasmas, which allowed for the spectral and structural studies of matter through the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy. These studies showed that plasma HHG can open new opportunities in many unexpected areas of laser-matter interaction. Besides being considered as an alternative method for generation of coherent XUV radiation, it can be used as a powerful tool for various spectroscopic and analytical applications.

  13. Development of Near-Field-Enhanced High-Fill-Factor MEMS Radiator with Shared Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Oh, S.; Ueno, A.; Morimoto, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    For precise thermal control in satellites under varying internal heat dissipation and thermal boundary condition, we propose a high-fill factor MEMS radiator enhanced by the near-field effect. We have successfully fabricated a prototype with parylene shared springs and achieved a fill factor of as high as 89%. It is found that at the ON state, the diaphragm temperature is increased from 58.0 °C to 106.4 °C, showing 144% enhancement in the radiation heat flux.

  14. Development of a proposed international standard for certification of aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    1993-01-01

    Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against high intensity radiated fields (HIRF). This paper addresses both the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard as well as the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.

  15. Strong Field-Induced Frequency Conversion of Laser Radiation in Plasma Plumes: Recent Achievements

    PubMed Central

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    New findings in plasma harmonics studies using strong laser fields are reviewed. We discuss recent achievements in the growth of the efficiency of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation sources based on frequency conversion of the ultrashort pulses in the laser-produced plasmas, which allowed for the spectral and structural studies of matter through the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy. These studies showed that plasma HHG can open new opportunities in many unexpected areas of laser-matter interaction. Besides being considered as an alternative method for generation of coherent XUV radiation, it can be used as a powerful tool for various spectroscopic and analytical applications. PMID:23864818

  16. Optical radiation and ionization of hydrogen atoms in heterogeneous exothermal reactions proceeding in an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Lavrent'ev, G. Ya.

    2009-09-01

    Optical radiation related to the Balmer series (Hα, Hβ, Hγ) of hydrogen atoms is discovered when studying the isothermal reaction of trimeric acetone peroxide decomposition on the surface of oxidized tungsten in a static electric field with a strength of up to 4 × 106 V/cm at T = 300 K. The distance from the surface over which desorbing excited hydrogen atoms radiate is determined from the Stark splitting of the lines. Electronically excited atoms remaining on the surface ionize according to the surface ionization mechanism.

  17. A new multistack radiation boundary condition for FDTD based on self-teleportation of fields

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Rodolfo E.; Scherbatko, Igor . E-mail: igor_s@asu.edu

    2005-02-10

    In [Electromagnetics 23 (2003) 187], a technique for injecting perfect plane waves into finite regions of space in FDTD was reported. The essence of the technique, called Field Teleportation, is to invoke the principle of equivalent sources using FDTDs discrete definition of the curl to copy any field propagating in one FDTD domain to a finite region of another domain. In this paper, we apply this technique of Field Teleportation to the original domain itself to create a transparent boundary across which any outward traveling FDTD field produces an exact negative copy of itself. When this copied field is teleported one cell ahead and one cell forward in time it causes significant self-cancelation of the original field. Illustrative experiments in two-dimensions show that a two-layer (10-cell thick) multi-stack Radiation Boundary Condition (RBC) with a simplest Huygens's termination readily yields reflection coefficients of the order of -80 dB up to grazing incidence for all the fields radiated by a harmonic point source ({lambda} = 30 cells) in free space located 20 cells away from the boundary. Similarly low levels of artificial reflection are demonstrated for a case in which the RBC cuts through five different magnetodielectric materials.

  18. Radiation-Hydromagnetic Models of a Z-Pinch Implosion with an Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Terry, R.; Davis, J.; Velikovich, A. L.

    1997-11-01

    Experimental results on a 1MA pulser suggest that axial magnetic fields can stabilize z-pinch implosions and enhance the compression ratio(S. Sorokin and S. Chaikovsky, Dense Z-Pinches, AIP Conf. Proc. 299, p.83 (1993).). The present theoretical work calculates the effects of an axial magnetic field on the plasma and field profiles in an imploding z-pinch. The initial mass configuration is an annular shell of krypton. The 1-D simulation model includes: resistive diffusion (skin effect) for both the azimuthal and axial fields, ionization dynamics, and non-LTE radiation transport. Unlike the constant pulser current of self-similar models for the screw-pinch, a transmission line is used to model the circuit of a realistic ~10MA pulser. The implosion dynamics resulting from an axial field generated by a twisted return current cage will be compared with results due to an initial field from external Helmholtz coils. The dependence of the radiative performance on compression ratio, which in turn is a function of inital field strength or cage twist, will be discussed.

  19. Characterisation of radiation field for irradiation of biological samples at nuclear reactor-comparison of twin detector and recombination methods.

    PubMed

    Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A; Kowalska, M; Meronka, K; Tulik, P

    2014-10-01

    Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection is involved in achieving scientific project on biological dosimetry. The project includes irradiation of blood samples in radiation fields of nuclear reactor. A simple facility for irradiation of biological samples has been prepared at horizontal channel of the nuclear reactor MARIA in NCBJ in Poland. The radiation field, composed mainly of gamma radiation and thermal neutrons, has been characterised in terms of tissue kerma using twin-detector technique and recombination chambers.

  20. Would Larger Radiation Fields Lead to a Faster Onset of Pain Relief in the Palliation of Bone Metastases?

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Edward Makhani, Leila; Culleton, Shaelyn; Makhani, Nadiya; Davis, Lori; Campos, Sarah; Sinclair, Emily

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Hemibody irradiation has been shown to relieve bony metastatic pain within 24-48 hours of treatment, whereas for local external beam radiation, onset of pain relief is 1-4 weeks after radiation. The primary objective of this study is to examine whether there is a relationship between the areas of radiation treatment and onset of pain relief. Methods and Materials: From Jan 1999 to Jan 2002, a total of 653 patients with symptomatic bone metastases were treated with external beam radiation. Pain scores and analgesic consumption were recorded at baseline and Weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. The areas of radiation treatment for all patients were calculated, then correlated with the response and analyzed in various ways. We first compared pain score alone with mean radiation field size. Second, we combined pain score and analgesic consumption. Last, we implemented the International Consensus end points for pain score and analgesic intake. Results: Assessment of 653 patients showed no significant correlation comparing pain scores alone with radiation field area, with the exception of Week 4 for partial responders. Again, no significant correlation was found when combining both analgesic intake and pain score against radiation field size. Even when implementing the International Consensus end point definitions for radiation response, the only significant correlation between radiation field size and response was observed in Week 2 for partial response. Conclusion: There was no statistical significance between mean areas of radiation treatment with the onset of pain relief.

  1. Application of an Extended Parabolic Equation to the Calculation of the Mean Field and the Transverse and Longitudinal Mutual Coherence Functions Within Atmospheric Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Solutions are derived for the generalized mutual coherence function (MCF), i.e., the second order moment, of a random wave field propagating through a random medium within the context of the extended parabolic equation. Here, "generalized" connotes the consideration of both the transverse as well as the longitudinal second order moments (with respect to the direction of propagation). Such solutions will afford a comparison between the results of the parabolic equation within the pararaxial approximation and those of the wide-angle extended theory. To this end, a statistical operator method is developed which gives a general equation for an arbitrary spatial statistical moment of the wave field. The generality of the operator method allows one to obtain an expression for the second order field moment in the direction longitudinal to the direction of propagation. Analytical solutions to these equations are derived for the Kolmogorov and Tatarskii spectra of atmospheric permittivity fluctuations within the Markov approximation.

  2. A study of the biological effects of modulated 6 MV radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2010-03-01

    The delivery of spatially modulated radiation fields has been shown to impact on in vitro cell survival responses. To study the effect of modulated fields on cell survival, dose response curves were determined for human DU-145 prostate, T98G glioma tumour cells and normal primary AGO-1552 fibroblast cells exposed to modulated and non-modulated field configurations delivered using a 6 MV Linac with multi-leaf collimator. When exposed to uniform fields delivered as a non-modulated or modulated configuration, no significant differences in survival were observed with the exception of DU-145 cells at a dose of 8 Gy (p = 0.024). Survival responses were determined for exposure to non-uniform-modulated beams in DU-145 and T98G and showed no deviation from the survival response observed following uniform non-modulated exposures. The results of these experiments indicate no major deviation in response to modulated fields compared to uniform exposures.

  3. Matching Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy to an Anterior Low Neck Field

    SciTech Connect

    Amdur, Robert J. Liu, Chihray; Li, Jonathan; Mendenhall, William; Hinerman, Russell

    2007-10-01

    When using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to treat head and neck cancer with the primary site above the level of the larynx, there are two basic options for the low neck lymphatics: to treat the entire neck with IMRT, or to match the IMRT plan to a conventional anterior 'low neck' field. In view of the potential advantages of using a conventional low neck field, it is important to look for ways to minimize or manage the problems of matching IMRT to a conventional radiotherapy field. Treating the low neck with a single anterior field and the standard larynx block decreases the dose to the larynx and often results in a superior IMRT plan at the primary site. The purpose of this article is to review the most applicable studies and to discuss our experience with implementing a technique that involves moving the position of the superior border of the low neck field several times during a single treatment fraction.

  4. Internal Electric Field Behavior of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Radiation Detectors Under High Carrier Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.H.; Gul, R.; and James, R.B.

    2010-10-26

    The behavior of the internal electric-field of nuclear-radiation detectors substantially affects the detector's performance. We investigated the distribution of the internal field in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors under high carrier injection. We noted the build-up of a space charge region near the cathode that produces a built-in field opposing the applied field. Its presence entails the collapse of the electric field in the rest of detector, other than the portion near the cathode. Such a space-charge region originates from serious hole-trapping in CZT. The device's operating temperature greatly affects the width of the space-charge region. With increasing temperature from 5 C to 35 C, its width expanded from about 1/6 to 1/2 of the total depth of the detector.

  5. Quantizing remote sensing radiation field research based on J-C model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Ming; Bi, Siwen

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing provides a powerful tool for human to explore the environment around us from multidimensional perspective and macroscopic view. As marrow of remote sensing, remote sensing information is about the message of light or electromagnetic wave obtained by remote sensing platform. Quantum remote sensing reveals remote sensing theories and methods in quantum level. Quantum remote sensing information is about how to express and transmit information by quantum state. Quantizing remote sensing radiation field is its main basis. Based on J-C model, which describes interaction between single mode light field and a two-level atom, expressions of operators correlated with light field can be obtained through state vector of atom-light field coupling system and Schrodinger equation. Both analysis and calculations show that quantum fluctuation of the light field can be squeezed. Numerical simulation is used to study the variation of quantum fluctuation, which deepens our understanding of quantum remote sensing information.

  6. Multi-band near-field radiative heat transfer between two anisotropic fishnet metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Jiang, Yongyuan; Liu, Linhua

    2015-06-01

    We study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metal-insulator-metal sandwiched-like fishnet metamaterials (FMMs) by fluctuation electrodynamics. Results show that multi-band heat flux between the fishnet metamaterials is achieved, which is attributed to the thermally excited surface modes within the FMM. Apart from the electric response mode of the near-field heat flux, magnetic modes are also existed, which are related with the excitations of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating on the outer surface of metal (external SPPs) and along the inner metal-dielectric interface (internal SPPs). Moreover, we show that the electromagnetic parameters of this anisotropic fishnet metamaterial depend on the angles θ of the incident light when heating the fishnet metamaterial, and thus the overall effect of the anisotropic FMM parameters is considered to predict the near-field radiative heat transfer. Different external-SPPs and internal-SPPs modes are excited at different frequencies which is attributed to the anisotropic electromagnetic response of FMM, which open new frequency channels of the near-field radiative heat transfer. This kind of anisotropic metamaterial should assist in thermal management in nanoscale.

  7. The electric field changes and UHF radiations caused by the triggered lightning in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawasaki, Zen-Ichiro; Kanao, Tadashi; Matsuura, Kenji; Nakano, Minoru; Horii, Kenji; Nakamura, Koichi

    1991-01-01

    In the rocket triggered lightning experiment of fiscal 1989, researchers observed electromagnetic field changes and UHF electromagnetic radiation accompanying rocket triggered lightning. It was found that no rapid changes corresponding to the return stroke of natural lightning were observed in the electric field changes accompanying rocket triggered lightning. However, continuous currents were present. In the case of rocket triggered lightning to the tower, electromagnetic field changes corresponding to the initiation of triggered lightning showed a bipolar pulse of a relatively large amplitude. In contrast, the rocket triggered lightning to the ground did not have such a bipolar pulse. The UHF radiation accompanying the rocket triggered lightning preceded the waveform portions corresponding to the first changes in electromagnetic fields. The number of isolated pulses in the UHF radiation showed a correlation with the time duration from rocket launching up to triggered lightning. The time interval between consecutive isolated pulses tended to get shorter with the passage of time, just like the stepped leaders of natural lightning.

  8. Assessment of radiation-induced second cancer risks in proton therapy and IMRT for organs inside the primary radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganetti, Harald; Athar, Basit S.; Moteabbed, Maryam; Adams, Judith A.; Schneider, Uwe; Yock, Torunn I.

    2012-10-01

    There is clinical evidence that second malignancies in radiation therapy occur mainly within the beam path, i.e. in the medium or high-dose region. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk for developing a radiation-induced tumor within the treated volume and to compare this risk for proton therapy and intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT). Instead of using data for specific patients we have created a representative scenario. Fully contoured age- and gender-specific whole body phantoms (4 year and 14 year old) were uploaded into a treatment planning system and tumor volumes were contoured based on patients treated for optic glioma and vertebral body Ewing's sarcoma. Treatment plans for IMRT and proton therapy treatments were generated. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) for developing a second malignancy were calculated using a risk model considering cell kill, mutation, repopulation, as well as inhomogeneous organ doses. For standard fractionation schemes, the LAR for developing a second malignancy from radiation therapy alone was found to be up to 2.7% for a 4 year old optic glioma patient treated with IMRT considering a soft-tissue carcinoma risk model only. Sarcoma risks were found to be below 1% in all cases. For a 14 year old, risks were found to be about a factor of 2 lower. For Ewing's sarcoma cases the risks based on a sarcoma model were typically higher than the carcinoma risks, i.e. LAR up to 1.3% for soft-tissue sarcoma. In all cases, the risk from proton therapy turned out to be lower by at least a factor of 2 and up to a factor of 10. This is mainly due to lower total energy deposited in the patient when using proton beams. However, the comparison of a three-field and four-field proton plan also shows that the distribution of the dose, i.e. the particular treatment plan, plays a role. When using different fractionation schemes, the estimated risks roughly scale with the total dose difference in%. In conclusion, proton therapy can

  9. Radiation hardening of MOS devices by boron. [for stabilizing gate threshold potential of field effect device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchenko, V. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for radiation hardening of MOS devices and specifically for stabilizing the gate threshold potential at room temperature of a radiation subjected MOS field-effect device with a semiconductor substrate, an insulating layer of oxide on the substrate, and a gate electrode disposed on the insulating layer. The boron is introduced within a layer of the oxide of about 100 A-300 A thickness immediately adjacent the semiconductor-insulator interface. The concentration of boron in the oxide layer is preferably maintained on the order of 10 to the 18th power atoms/cu cm. The technique serves to reduce and substantially annihilate radiation induced positive gate charge accumulations.

  10. Impact of an external radiation field on handheld XRF measurements for nuclear forensics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Steeb, Jennifer L.; Mertz, Carol J.; Finck, Martha R.; Engelstad, Gary; Carney, Kevin P.; Chamberlain, David B.

    2015-03-28

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is an attractive technique for nuclear forensics applications. We evaluated a handheld, portable XRF device by applying an external radiation field (10 mR/h to 17 R/h) using two types of radiography sources: a 60Co radiography camera to observe effects from high-energy gamma emissions and an 192Ir radiography camera to observe effects from several low-energy gamma (0.604, 0.468, and 0.317 MeV) and decay daughter x-ray emissions. External radiation tests proved that radiation, in general, has a significant effect on the dead time or background at dose rates over 1 R/hr for both the 192Ir and 60Co sources.

  11. Performance analysis of a filtered wide field-of-view radiometer for earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. E.; Luther, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System (ERBSS) of the 1980's will include a wide field-of-view (WFOV) fixed axes earth radiator discriminator consisting of a shortwave channel and a total (unfiltered) channel. The broadband spectral isolation required for the shortwave channel is achieved by use of a hemispherical fused silica (Suprasil W) dome filter placed in front of a wire wound thermopile radiation detector. A description is presented of the thermal response of the single-fused silica dome filter in the ERBSS WFOV shortwave channel conceptual design and the impact of that response on the channel measurement. Results from design definition and performance analysis studies are included. Problems associated with achieving the desired levels of confidence in a high accuracy filtered, WFOV radiometer are discussed. Design approaches, ground calibration, and data reduction techniques which minimize measurement uncertainties are explained.

  12. Radiation sensitivity of graphene field effect transistors and other thin film architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazalas, Edward

    An important contemporary motivation for advancing radiation detection science and technology is the need for interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials, which may be used to fabricate weapons of mass destruction. The detection of such materials by nuclear techniques relies on achieving high sensitivity and selectivity to X-rays, gamma-rays, and neutrons. To be attractive in field deployable instruments, it is desirable for detectors to be lightweight, inexpensive, operate at low voltage, and consume low power. To address the relatively low particle flux in most passive measurements for nuclear security applications, detectors scalable to large areas that can meet the high absolute detection efficiency requirements are needed. Graphene-based and thin-film-based radiation detectors represent attractive technologies that could meet the need for inexpensive, low-power, size-scalable detection architectures, which are sensitive to X-rays, gamma-rays, and neutrons. The utilization of graphene to detect ionizing radiation relies on the modulation of graphene charge carrier density by changes in local electric field, i.e. the field effect in graphene. Built on the principle of a conventional field effect transistor, the graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) utilizes graphene as a channel and a semiconducting substrate as an absorber medium with which the ionizing radiation interacts. A radiation interaction event that deposits energy within the substrate creates electron-hole pairs, which modify the electric field and modulate graphene charge carrier density. A detection event in a GFET is therefore measured as a change in graphene resistance or current. Thin (micron-scale) films can also be utilized for radiation detection of thermal neutrons provided nuclides with high neutron absorption cross section are present with appreciable density. Detection in thin-film detectors could be realized through the collection of charge carriers generated within the

  13. Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Mizuno, Y.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Using our new 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, we investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations were performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. Acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value as predicted by hydrodynamic compression. Behind the bow shock, in the jet shock, strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to time dependent afterglow emission. In order to go beyond the standard synchrotron model used in astrophysical objects we have used PIC simulations and calculated radiation based on first principles. We calculated radiation from electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. We also used the technique to calculate emission from electrons based on simulations with a small system. We obtain spectra which are consistent with those generated from electrons propagating in turbulent magnetic fields. This turbulent magnetic field is similar to the magnetic field generated at an early nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability. A fully developed shock within a larger system may generate a jitter/synchrotron spectrum.

  14. Pion production via proton synchrotron radiation in strong magnetic fields in relativistic field theory: Scaling relations and angular distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2016-03-26

    We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one canmore » infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 10(15) G, where n(i, f) similar to 10(12)-10(13), from the results for n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP(3).« less

  15. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M.; Field, Kevin G.; Le Pape, Yann

    2016-02-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC0500OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  16. Angular momentum loss of primordial gas in Lyα radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2014-06-01

    We present results on the radiation drag exerted by an isotropic and homogeneous background of Lyα photons on neutral gas clouds orbiting within H II regions around Population III stars of different masses. The Doppler shift causes a frequency difference between photons moving in the direction of the cloud and opposite to it resulting in a net momentum loss of the cloud in the direction of motion. We find that half of the angular momentum of gas with vθ ≲ 20 km s-1 near (r ≲ 3 kpc) a Population III star of 120 M⊙ at z = 20 is lost within ˜106 yr. The radiation drag is a strong function of cloud velocity that peaks at v ˜ 20 km s-1 reflecting the frequency dependence of the photon cross-section. Clouds moving with velocities larger than ˜100 km s-1 lose their angular momentum on time-scales of ˜108 yr. At lower redshifts radiation drag becomes inefficient as the Lyα photon density in H II regions decreases by a factor (1 + z)3 and angular momentum is lost on time-scales ≳ 108 yr even for low-velocity clouds. Our results suggest that a sweet spot exists for the loss of angular momentum by radiation drag for gas clouds at z > 10 and with v ˜ 20 km s-1. Comparison to dynamical friction forces acting on typical gas clouds suggest that radiation drag is the dominant effect impacting the orbit. We propose that this effect can suppress the formation of extended gas discs in the first galaxies and help gas accretion near galactic centres and central black holes.

  17. Theoretical investigation of non-equilibrium chemistry and optical radiation in hypersonic flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Ellis E.

    1990-01-01

    Future space vehicles returning from distant missions or high earth orbits may enter the upper regions of the atmosphere and use aerodynamic drag to reduce their velocity before they skip out of the atmosphere and enter low earth orbit. The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) is designed to explore the special problems encountered in such entries. A computer code was developed to calculate the radiative transport along line-or-sight in the general 3-D flow field about an arbitrary entry vehicle, if the temperatures and species concentrations along the line-of-sight are known. The radiative heating calculation at the stagnation point of the AFE vehicle along the entry trajectory was performed, including a detailed line-by-line accounting of the radiative transport in the vacuum ultraviolet (below 200 nm) by the atomic N and O lines. A method was developed for making measurements of the haze particles in the Titan atmosphere above 200 km altitude. Several other tasks of a continuing nature, to improve the technical ability to calculate the nonequilibrium gas dynamic flow field and radiative heating of entry vehicles, were completed or advanced.

  18. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

  19. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Sayenko, S. Yu.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Shkuropatenko, V. A.; Tarasov, R. V.; Rybka, A. V.; Zakharchenko, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete's tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  20. EM Modeling of Far-Field Radiation Patterns for Antennas on the GMA-TT UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    2015-01-01

    To optimize communication with the Generic Modular Aircraft T-Tail (GMA-TT) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), electromagnetic (EM) simulations have been performed to predict the performance of two antenna types on the aircraft. Simulated far-field radiation patterns tell the amount of power radiated by the antennas and the aircraft together, taking into account blockage by the aircraft as well as radiation by conducting and dielectric portions of the aircraft. With a knowledge of the polarization and distance of the two communicating antennas, e.g. one on the UAV and one on the ground, and the transmitted signal strength, a calculation may be performed to find the strength of the signal travelling from one antenna to the other and to check that the transmitted signal meets the receiver system requirements for the designated range. In order to do this, the antenna frequency and polarization must be known for each antenna, in addition to its design and location. The permittivity, permeability, and geometry of the UAV components must also be known. The full-wave method of moments solution produces the appropriate dBi radiation pattern in which the received signal strength is calculated relative to that of an isotropic radiator.