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Sample records for extended marine oxygen

  1. Oceanic acidification affects marine carbon pump and triggers extended marine oxygen holes.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Matthias; Schellnhuber, Hans-Joachim

    2009-03-03

    Rising atmospheric CO(2) levels will not only drive future global mean temperatures toward values unprecedented during the whole Quaternary but will also lead to massive acidification of sea water. This constitutes by itself an anthropogenic planetary-scale perturbation that could significantly modify oceanic biogeochemical fluxes and severely damage marine biota. As a step toward the quantification of such potential impacts, we present here a simulation-model-based assessment of the respective consequences of a business-as-usual fossil-fuel-burning scenario where a total of 4,075 Petagrams of carbon is released into the atmosphere during the current millennium. In our scenario, the atmospheric pCO(2) level peaks at approximately 1,750 microatm in the year 2200 while the sea-surface pH value drops by >0.7 units on global average, inhibiting the growth of marine calcifying organisms. The study focuses on quantifying 3 major concomitant effects. The first one is a significant (climate-stabilizing) negative feedback on rising pCO(2) levels as caused by the attenuation of biogenic calcification. The second one is related to the biological carbon pump. Because mineral ballast, notably CaCO(3), is found to play a dominant role in carrying organic matter through the water column, a reduction of its export fluxes weakens the strength of the biological carbon pump. There is, however, a third effect with severe consequences: Because organic matter is oxidized in shallow waters when mineral-ballast fluxes weaken, oxygen holes (hypoxic zones) start to expand considerably in the oceans in our model world--with potentially harmful impacts on a variety of marine ecosystems.

  2. Oceanic acidification affects marine carbon pump and triggers extended marine oxygen holes

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Matthias; Schellnhuber, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 levels will not only drive future global mean temperatures toward values unprecedented during the whole Quaternary but will also lead to massive acidification of sea water. This constitutes by itself an anthropogenic planetary-scale perturbation that could significantly modify oceanic biogeochemical fluxes and severely damage marine biota. As a step toward the quantification of such potential impacts, we present here a simulation-model-based assessment of the respective consequences of a business-as-usual fossil-fuel-burning scenario where a total of 4,075 Petagrams of carbon is released into the atmosphere during the current millennium. In our scenario, the atmospheric pCO2 level peaks at ≈1,750 μatm in the year 2200 while the sea-surface pH value drops by >0.7 units on global average, inhibiting the growth of marine calcifying organisms. The study focuses on quantifying 3 major concomitant effects. The first one is a significant (climate-stabilizing) negative feedback on rising pCO2 levels as caused by the attenuation of biogenic calcification. The second one is related to the biological carbon pump. Because mineral ballast, notably CaCO3, is found to play a dominant role in carrying organic matter through the water column, a reduction of its export fluxes weakens the strength of the biological carbon pump. There is, however, a third effect with severe consequences: Because organic matter is oxidized in shallow waters when mineral-ballast fluxes weaken, oxygen holes (hypoxic zones) start to expand considerably in the oceans in our model world—with potentially harmful impacts on a variety of marine ecosystems. PMID:19218455

  3. Extending the Marine Microcosm Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryswyk, Hal Van; Hall, Eric W.; Petesch, Steven J.; Wiedeman, Alice E.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional range of marine microcosm laboratory experiments is presented as an ideal environment to teach the entire analysis process. The microcosm lab provides student-centered approach with opportunities for collaborative learning and to develop critical communication skills.

  4. Extending the Marine Microcosm Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryswyk, Hal Van; Hall, Eric W.; Petesch, Steven J.; Wiedeman, Alice E.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional range of marine microcosm laboratory experiments is presented as an ideal environment to teach the entire analysis process. The microcosm lab provides student-centered approach with opportunities for collaborative learning and to develop critical communication skills.

  5. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  6. Low head oxygenator performance characterization for marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the effect of temperature (20 and 25 ºC), salinity (10, 15, and 20 ppt), and dissolved oxygen levels within low head oxygenator (LHO) outlet water on oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) of LHOs for a planned marine recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Test results indicated tha...

  7. Dinitrogen fixation in aphotic oxygenated marine environments

    PubMed Central

    Rahav, Eyal; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Ohayon, Sarah; Elifantz, Hila; Belkin, Natalia; Herut, Barak; Mulholland, Margaret R.; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    We measured N2 fixation rates from oceanic zones that have traditionally been ignored as sources of biological N2 fixation; the aphotic, fully oxygenated, nitrate (NO−3)-rich, waters of the oligotrophic Levantine Basin (LB) and the Gulf of Aqaba (GA). N2 fixation rates measured from pelagic aphotic waters to depths up to 720 m, during the mixed and stratified periods, ranged from 0.01 nmol N L−1 d−1 to 0.38 nmol N L−1 d−1. N2 fixation rates correlated significantly with bacterial productivity and heterotrophic diazotrophs were identified from aphotic as well as photic depths. Dissolved free amino acid amendments to whole water from the GA enhanced bacterial productivity by 2–3.5 fold and N2 fixation rates by ~2-fold in samples collected from aphotic depths while in amendments to water from photic depths bacterial productivity increased 2–6 fold while N2 fixation rates increased by a factor of 2 to 4 illustrating that both BP and heterotrophic N2 fixation were carbon limited. Experimental manipulations of aphotic waters from the LB demonstrated a significant positive correlation between transparent exopolymeric particle (TEP) concentrations and N2 fixation rates. This suggests that sinking organic material and high carbon (C): nitrogen (N) micro-environments (such as TEP-based aggregates or marine snow) could support high heterotrophic N2 fixation rates in oxygenated surface waters and in the aphotic zones. Indeed, our calculations show that aphotic N2 fixation accounted for 37 to 75% of the total daily integrated N2 fixation rates at both locations in the Mediterranean and Red Seas with rates equal or greater to those measured from the photic layers. Moreover, our results indicate that that while N2 fixation may be limited in the surface waters, aphotic, pelagic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to new N inputs in other oligotrophic basins, yet it is currently not included in regional or global N budgets. PMID:23986748

  8. Mars atmosphere during the Mariner 9 Extended Mission - Television results.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leovy, C. B.; Briggs, G. A.; Smith, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Extended Mission of Mariner 9 provided data from 23 revolutions and recorded seasonal changes in the atmosphere of Mars during northern spring and early summer. The visibility of the surface was exceptional, indicating atmospheric clarity greater than that previously observed by Mariner 9 or by Mariner 6 and 7. Cloud systems were observed over both polar regions and indicated westerly winds in the -45 to -65 deg latitude zone (southern winter) and easterly winds in the vicinity of +75 deg (northern summer). The puzzling brightening phenomena that recur seasonally and diurnally over Tharsis, Amazonis, and Nix Olympica were seen to be clouds of a generally diffuse character but with some indications of convective activity. These clouds show a remarkable degree of topographic control, and their large-scale patterns are closely duplicated from day to day.

  9. Astrocytic mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization following extended oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Korenić, Andrej; Boltze, Johannes; Deten, Alexander; Peters, Myriam; Andjus, Pavle; Radenović, Lidija

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes can tolerate longer periods of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) as compared to neurons. The reasons for this reduced vulnerability are not well understood. Particularly, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)) in astrocytes, an indicator of the cellular redox state, have not been investigated during reperfusion after extended OGD exposure. Here, we subjected primary mouse astrocytes to glucose deprivation (GD), OGD and combinations of both conditions varying in duration and sequence. Changes in Δψ(m), visualized by change in the fluorescence of JC-1, were investigated within one hour after reconstitution of oxygen and glucose supply, intended to model in vivo reperfusion. In all experiments, astrocytes showed resilience to extended periods of OGD, which had little effect on Δψ(m) during reperfusion, whereas GD caused a robust Δψ(m) negativation. In case no Δψ(m) negativation was observed after OGD, subsequent chemical oxygen deprivation (OD) induced by sodium azide caused depolarization, which, however, was significantly delayed as compared to normoxic group. When GD preceded OD for 12 h, Δψ(m) hyperpolarization was induced by both GD and subsequent OD, but significant interaction between these conditions was not detected. However, when GD was extended to 48 h preceding OGD, hyperpolarization enhanced during reperfusion. This implicates synergistic effects of both conditions in that sequence. These findings provide novel information regarding the role of the two main substrates of electron transport chain (glucose and oxygen) and their hyperpolarizing effect on Δψ(m) during substrate deprivation, thus shedding new light on mechanisms of astrocyte resilience to prolonged ischemic injury.

  10. Oxygen Minimum Zones in Miniature: Microbial Community Diversity, Activity, and Assembly Across Oxygen Gradients in Meromictic Marine Lakes, Palau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beman, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) play a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet our understanding of these changes is limited by a lack of systematic analyses of low-oxygen ecosystems. In particular, forecasting biogeochemical feedbacks to deoxygenation requires detailed knowledge of microbial community assembly and activity as oxygen declines. Marine `lakes'—isolated bodies of seawater surrounded by land—are an ideal comparative system, as they provide a pronounced oxygen gradient extending from well-mixed, holomictic lakes to stratified, meromictic lakes that vary in their extent of anoxia. We examined 13 marine lakes using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, quantitative PCR for nitrogen (N)- and sulfur (S)-cycling functional genes and groups, and N- and carbon (C)-cycling rate measurements. All lakes were inhabited by well-known marine bacteria, demonstrating the broad relevance of this study system. Microbial diversity was typically highest in the anoxic monimolimnion of meromictic lakes, with marine cyanobacteria, SAR11, and other common bacteria replaced by anoxygenic phototrophs, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs), and SAR406 in the monimolimnion. Denitrifier nitrite reductase (nirS) genes were also detected alongside high abundances (>106 ml-1) of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from SRBs in the monimolimnion. Sharp changes in community structure were linked to environmental gradients (constrained variation in redundancy analysis=76%) and deterministic processes dominated community assembly at all depths (nearest taxon index values >4). These results indicate that oxygen is a strong, deterministic driver of microbial community assembly. We also observed enhanced N- and C-cycling rates along the transition from hypoxic to anoxic to sulfidic conditions, suggesting that microbial communities form a positive feedback loop that may accelerate deoxygenation and OMZ expansion.

  11. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciotti, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status.

  12. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle.

    PubMed

    Casciotti, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status.

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species and Autophagy Modulation in Non-Marine Drugs and Marine Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Fayyaz, Sundas; Hou, Ming-Feng; Li, Kun-Tzu; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming more understandable that an existing challenge for translational research is the development of pharmaceuticals that appropriately target reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated molecular networks in cancer cells. In line with this approach, there is an overwhelmingly increasing list of many non-marine drugs and marine drugs reported to be involved in inhibiting and suppressing cancer progression through ROS-mediated cell death. In this review, we describe the strategy of oxidative stress-based therapy and connect the ROS modulating effect to the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, we focus on exploring the function and mechanism of cancer therapy by the autophagy modulators including inhibitors and inducers from non-marine drugs and marine drugs. PMID:25402829

  14. Oxygen diffusion in marine-derived tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, E; Belova, I V; Murch, G E; Boccaccini, A R; Fiedler, T

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses the computation of the effective diffusivity in new bioactive glass (BG) based tissue engineering scaffolds. High diffusivities facilitate the supply of oxygen and nutrients to grown tissue as well as the rapid disposal of toxic waste products. The present study addresses required novel types of bone tissue engineering BG scaffolds that are derived from natural marine sponges. Using the foam replication method, the scaffold geometry is defined by the porous structure of Spongia Agaricina and Spongia Lamella. These sponges present the advantage of attaining scaffolds with higher mechanical properties (2-4 MPa) due to a decrease in porosity (68-76%). The effective diffusivities of these structures are compared with that of conventional scaffolds based on polyurethane (PU) foam templates, characterised by high porosity (>90%) and lower mechanical properties (>0.05 MPa). Both the spatial and directional variations of diffusivity are investigated. Furthermore, the effect of scaffold decomposition due to immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on the diffusivity is addressed. Scaffolds based on natural marine sponges are characterised by lower oxygen diffusivity due to their lower porosity compared with the PU replica foams, which should enable the best oxygen supply to newly formed bone according the numerical results. The oxygen diffusivity of these new BG scaffolds increases over time as a consequence of the degradation in SBF.

  15. Marine oxygen holes as a consequence of oceanic acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Schellnhuber, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    An increase of atmospheric CO2 levels will not only drive future global mean temperatures towards values unprecedented during the whole Quaternary, but will also lead to an acidification of sea water which could harm the marine biota. Here we assess possible impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the marine biological carbon pump by utilizing a business-as-usual emission scenario of anthropogenic CO2. A corresponding release of 4075 Petagrams of Carbon in total has been applied to simulate the current millennium by employing an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC). This work is focused on studying the implications of reduced biogenic calcification caused by an increasing degree of oceanic acidification on the marine biological carbon pump. The attenuation of biogenic calcification imposes a small negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2 levels, tending to stabilize the Earth's climate. Since mineral ballast, notably particulate CaCO3, plays a dominant role in carrying organic matter through the water column, a reduction of its export fluxes weakens the strength of the biological carbon pump. There is, however, a dramatic effect discovered in our model world with severe consequences: since organic matter is oxidized in shallow waters when mineral-ballast fluxes weaken, oxygen holes (hypoxic zones) start to expand considerably in the oceans with potentially harmful impacts on a variety of marine ecosystems. Our study indicates that unbridled ocean acidification would exacerbate the observed hypoxia trends due to various environmental factors as reported in recent empirical studies.

  16. Enzymatic Production of Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species by Marine Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. M.; Andeer, P. F.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as intermediates in a myriad of biogeochemically important processes, including cell signaling pathways, cellular oxidative stress responses, and the transformation of both nutrient and toxic metals such as iron and mercury. Abiotic reactions involving the photo-oxidation of organic matter were once considered the only important sources of ROS in the environment. However, the recent discovery of substantial biological ROS production in marine systems has fundamentally shifted this paradigm. Within the last few decades, marine phytoplankton, including diatoms of the genus Thalassiosira, were discovered to produce ample extracellular quantities of the ROS superoxide. Even more recently, we discovered widespread production of extracellular superoxide by phylogenetically and ecologically diverse heterotrophic bacteria at environmentally significant levels (up to 20 amol cell-1 hr-1), which has introduced the revolutionary potential for substantial "dark" cycling of ROS. Despite the profound biogeochemical importance of extracellular biogenic ROS, the cellular mechanisms underlying the production of this ROS have remained elusive. Through the development of a gel-based assay to identify extracellular ROS-producing proteins, we have recently found that enzymes typically involved in antioxidant activity also produce superoxide when molecular oxygen is the only available electron acceptor. For example, large (~3600 amino acids) heme peroxidases are involved in extracellular superoxide production by a bacterium within the widespread Roseobacter clade. In Thalassiosira spp., extracellular superoxide is produced by flavoproteins such as glutathione reductase and ferredoxin NADP+ reductase. Thus, extracellular ROS production may occur via secreted and/or cell surface enzymes that modulate between producing and degrading ROS depending on prevailing geochemical and/or ecological conditions.

  17. NC10 Bacteria in a Marine Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, C. C.; Bristow, L. A.; Benson, C. R.; Sarode, N. D.; Girguis, P. R.; Glass, J. B.; DiChristina, T. J.; Thamdrup, B.; Stewart, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are key regions of nitrogen cycling and nitrogen loss as N2. The potential for methane cycling to influence OMZ nitrogen budgets remains largely unknown. The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite or nitrate reduction has been shown to be a potential source of methane consumption, N loss, and oxygen production in freshwater sediments, but has not been described for marine pelagic environments. Nitrite-dependent AOM is performed by bacteria of the candidate division NC10 through an intra-aerobic pathway involving the dismutation of nitric oxide to O2 and N2. We explored the potential that NC10-like bacteria are present and active in the anoxic, nitrite-rich OMZ of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Community transcriptome sequencing confirmed the expression of genes with top matches to the NC10 bacterium 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera.' NC10-like transcripts increased in relative abundance with depth into the anoxic OMZ core and included genes of aerobic methanotrophy and denitrification, as well as high numbers of transcripts matching norZ nitric oxide reductase, hypothesized to play a role in the O2-yielding dismutation reaction. Phylogenetic analysis of OMZ particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) and 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered by PCR revealed multiple clades of NC10 phylotypes in the OMZ. Preliminary data from OMZ enrichments revealed methane-dependent nitrite consumption, but further characterization is required to identify the pathways and organisms mediating this process. These findings expand the known environmental range of NC10 and suggest the possibility of previously uncharacterized linkages between OMZ nitrogen and methane cycles.

  18. Microbial cycling, oxidative weathering, and the triple oxygen isotope consequences for marine sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, D. T.; Cowie, B.; Turchyn, A. V.; Antler, G.; Gill, B. C.; Berelson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms are responsible for most geochemical sulfur cycling in the ocean. On both modern and geological time scales, stable isotope ratios often serve as a mechanism to track conspicuous or coupled microbial processes, which in turn inform burial fluxes. The most common example of this approach is the use of sulfur isotopes in sulfate and sulfide (both aqueous and in mineral form) to track everything from rates of microbial processes through to the presence/absence of certain metabolic processes in a given environment. The use of oxygen isotope ratios in sulfate has developed in a similar fashion, providing complementary information to that of sulfur isotopes. Through our current work, we will extend the application of oxygen isotopes to include the trace stable oxygen isotope, 17O. These data are facilitated by a new laser F2 fluorination technique running at Harvard, and accompanied by the calibration of a suite of common sulfate standards. At first blush, 16O - 17O - 18O systematics should carry mass-dependent microbial fractionations with process-specific mass laws that are resolvable at the level of our analytical precision. We look to calibrate these biogeochemical effects through the integrated picture captured in marine pore water sulfate profiles, where the 18O/16O is known to evolve. In compliment, riverine sulfate (the sulfate input to the ocean) is an oxidative weathering product and is posited to carry a memory effect of tropospheric O2. Interestingly, the 17O/16O of that O2 carries a mass-independent signal reflecting the balance between stratospheric reactions and Earth surface biospheric fluxes. Through this presentation, we look to calibrate the controls on the balance between biospheric and atmospheric contributions to the marine sulfate reservoir. This is enabled by a series of isotope mass-balance models and with the ultimate goal of developing the geological triple oxygen isotope records of sulfate as a new environmental proxy for paleo

  19. Biofilm history and oxygen availability interact to affect habitat selection in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcelo E; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-07-01

    In marine systems, oxygen availability varies at small temporal and spatial scales, such that current oxygen levels may not reflect conditions of the past. Different studies have shown that marine invertebrate larvae can select settlement sites based on local oxygen levels and oxygenation history of the biofilm, but no study has examined the interaction of both. The influence of normoxic and hypoxic water and oxygenation history of biofilms on pre-settlement behavior and settlement of the bryozoan Bugula neritina was tested. Larvae used cues in a hierarchical way: the oxygen levels in the water prime larvae to respond, the response to different biofilms is contingent on oxygen levels in the water. When oxygen levels varied throughout biofilm formation, larvae responded differently depending on the history of the biofilm. It appears that B. neritina larvae integrate cues about current and historical oxygen levels to select the appropriate microhabitat and maximize their fitness.

  20. Do low oxygen environments facilitate marine invasions? Relative tolerance of native and invasive species to low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcelo E; Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-02-17

    Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear. We measured water flow and oxygen availability in marinas and piers at the scales relevant to sessile marine invertebrates (mm). We then measured the capacity of invasive and native marine invertebrates to maintain metabolic rates under decreasing levels of oxygen using standard laboratory assays. We found that marinas reduce water flow relative to piers, and that local oxygen levels can be zero in low flow conditions. We also found that for species with erect growth forms, invasive species can tolerate much lower levels of oxygen relative to native species. Integrating the field and laboratory data showed that up to 30% of available microhabitats within low flow environments are physiologically stressful for native species, while only 18% of the same habitat is physiologically stressful for invasive species. These results suggest that invasive species have adapted to low oxygen habitats associated with manmade habitats, and artificial structures may be creating niche opportunities for invasive species.

  1. Extracellular Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Marine Microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R. J.; Roe, K. L.; Voelker, B. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are important to the cycling of trace metals and carbon in marine systems. Previous studies have shown that biological ROS production in the ocean may be significant. We examined the ability of five common species of diatoms to produce and break down ROS in the presence and absence of light by suspending cells on filters and measuring downstream ROS concentrations using chemiluminescence probes. Results show a wide range of rates (undetectable to 7.3 x 10-16 mol cell-1 hr-1) and suggest that extracellular ROS production occurs through a variety of pathways. H2O2 decay appears to be mediated primarily by active cell processes, while O2- appears to occur through a combination of active and passive cell processes. Extracellular H2O2 production and decay were also determined for twelve species of heterotrophic bacteria using two different methodologies. Measured decay rates were consistent despite methodological differences. By contrast, large variability of production rates was observed could vary significantly even among between replicates of the same species measured using the same methodology. Although production rates cannot be stated with certainty, it is likely that extracellular H2O2 production occurs in most bacterial species.

  2. Extending Hydrologic Information Systems to accommodate Arctic marine observations data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersh, Eric S.; Maidment, David R.

    2014-04-01

    The Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) project characterizes the biota and chemistry of the continental shelf ecosystem of a region of the Chukchi Sea to form a baseline survey of environmental conditions before drilling for oil commences. This paper describes the COMIDA CAB project data and processing methods, which provide a novel approach to data tracking and archiving from marine sampling cruises. This approach features an adaptation of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science. Observations Data Model for application with physical, chemical, and biological oceanographic data - a new extension of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System - thus bringing hydroinformatics into the oceanographic realm. Environmental sampling has been carried out by five separate scientific teams who characterize particular classes of physical, chemical and biological variables, and who each have their own methods of processing samples in their laboratories following the two sampling cruises made to the Chukchi Sea in the summers of 2009 and 2010. The results of their observations and analyses are stored in data files, mostly in Excel format, whose structure is defined differently by each scientific team. In all, the 2009 and 2010 COMIDA CAB field efforts yielded a database of 510,405 data values. Of these, 474,129 were derived from continuous in-situ data sonde profiles and 36,276 were derived from non-sonde extracted samples of the sediment, epibenthos, and water column. These data values represent 301 variables measured at 65 sites and originated from 26 different source files. The biological observations represented 519 distinct taxa. The data from these files are transformed and synthesized into a comprehensive project database in which a set of standardized descriptors of each observed data value are specified and each data value is linked to the data file from which it was created to establish a

  3. Extending Marine Species Distribution Maps Using Non-Traditional Sources

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Fabio; Gibeaut, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditional sources of species occurrence data such as peer-reviewed journal articles and museum-curated collections are included in species databases after rigorous review by species experts and evaluators. The distribution maps created in this process are an important component of species survival evaluations, and are used to adapt, extend and sometimes contract polygons used in the distribution mapping process. New information During an IUCN Red List Gulf of Mexico Fishes Assessment Workshop held at The Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, a session included an open discussion on the topic of including other sources of species occurrence data. During the last decade, advances in portable electronic devices and applications enable 'citizen scientists' to record images, location and data about species sightings, and submit that data to larger species databases. These applications typically generate point data. Attendees of the workshop expressed an interest in how that data could be incorporated into existing datasets, how best to ascertain the quality and value of that data, and what other alternate data sources are available. This paper addresses those issues, and provides recommendations to ensure quality data use. PMID:25941453

  4. Respiratory Kinetics of Marine Bacteria Exposed to Decreasing Oxygen Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xianzhe; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Schramm, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During aerobic respiration, microorganisms consume oxygen (O2) through the use of different types of terminal oxidases which have a wide range of affinities for O2. The Km values for O2 of these enzymes have been determined to be in the range of 3 to 200 nmol liter−1. In this study, we examined the time course of development of aerobic respiratory kinetics of four marine bacterial species (Dinoroseobacter shibae, Roseobacter denitrificans, Idiomarina loihiensis, and Marinobacter daepoensis) during exposure to decreasing O2 concentrations. The genomes of all four species have genes for both high-affinity and low-affinity terminal oxidases. The respiration rate of the bacteria was measured by the use of extremely sensitive optical trace O2 sensors (range, 1 to 1,000 nmol liter−1). Three of the four isolates exhibited apparent Km values of 30 to 60 nmol liter−1 when exposed to submicromolar O2 concentrations, but a decrease to values below 10 nmol liter−1 was observed when the respiration rate per cell was lowered and the cell size was decreased due to starvation. The fourth isolate did not reach a low respiration rate per cell during starvation and exhibited apparent Km values of about 20 nmol liter−1 throughout the experiment. The results clearly demonstrate not only that enzyme kinetics may limit O2 uptake but also that even individual cells may be diffusion limited and that this diffusion limitation is the most pronounced at high respiration rates. A decrease in cell size by starvation, due to limiting organic carbon, and thereby more efficient diffusion uptake may also contribute to lower apparent Km values. PMID:26682857

  5. Mariner Venus-Mercury 1973 project. Volume 2: Extended mission-Mercury 2 and 3 encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 mission operations Extended Mission is described. The activities are summarized from shortly after Mercury I through the end of mission. The operational activities are reported by Mission Operations Systems functions providing a brief summary from each discipline. Based on these experiences recommendations for future projects are made.

  6. Competition in benthic marine invertebrates: the unrecognized role of exploitative competition for oxygen.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Nick; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-01-01

    Competition is a ubiquitous structuring force across systems, but different fields emphasize the role of different types of competition. In benthic marine environments, where some of the classic examples of competition were described, there is a strong emphasis on interference competition: marine invertebrates are assumed to compete fiercely for the limiting resource of space. Much of our understanding of the dynamics of this system is based on this assumption, yet empirical studies often find that increases in density can reduce performance despite free space being available. Furthermore, the assumption that space is the exclusively limiting resource raises paradoxes regarding species coexistence in this system. Here, we measure the availability of oxygen in the field and in the laboratory, as well as the tolerance of resident species to low-oxygen conditions. We show that oxygen can be the primary limiting resource in some instances, and that exploitative competition for this resource is very likely among benthic marine invertebrates. Furthermore, growth form (and the associated risk of oxygen limitation) covaries with the ability to withstand oxygen-poor conditions across a wide range of taxa. Oxygen availability at very small scales may influence the distribution and abundance of sessile marine invertebrates more than is currently appreciated. Furthermore, competition for multiple resources (space and oxygen) and trade-offs in competitive ability for each may promote coexistence in this system.

  7. Microbial community diversity, structure and assembly across oxygen gradients in meromictic marine lakes, Palau.

    PubMed

    Meyerhof, Matthew S; Wilson, Jesse M; Dawson, Michael N; Michael Beman, J

    2016-12-01

    Microbial communities consume oxygen, alter biogeochemistry and compress habitat in aquatic ecosystems, yet our understanding of these microbial-biogeochemical-ecological interactions is limited by a lack of systematic analyses of low-oxygen ecosystems. Marine lakes provide an ideal comparative system, as they range from well-mixed holomictic lakes to stratified, anoxic, meromictic lakes that vary in their vertical extent of anoxia. We examined microbial communities inhabiting six marine lakes and one ocean site using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Microbial richness and evenness was typically highest in the anoxic monimolimnion of meromictic lakes, with common marine bacteria present in mixolimnion communities replaced by anoxygenic phototrophs, sulfate-reducing bacteria and SAR406 in the monimolimnion. These sharp changes in community structure were linked to environmental gradients (constrained variation in redundancy analysis = 68%-76%) - particularly oxygen and pH. However, in those lakes with the steepest oxygen gradients, salinity and dissolved nutrients were important secondary constraining variables, indicating that subtle but substantive differences in microbial communities occur within similar low-oxygen habitats. Deterministic processes were a dominant influence on whole community assembly (all nearest taxon index values >4), demonstrating that the strong environmental gradients present in meromictic marine lakes drive microbial community assembly. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phanerozoic atmosphere oxygen cycles revealed by trace elements in marine pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Large, R. R.; Halpin, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is generally accepted that oxygen in the atmosphere rose in two major steps at around 2.4-2.2 and 0.7-0.5 billion years ago. The variation in atmosphere oxygen over the last 500 million years, is considered to have been relatively minor by comparison. Sedimentary pyrite from marine shales efficiently captures many trace elements from the oceans, providing a novel proxy for seawater chemistry. Here we use temporal changes in the selenium and cobalt content of Phanerozoic marine pyrite, coupled with the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in marine carbonate, to argue for five dramatic pO2 cycles, each starting with a period of oxygenation, followed by a period of de-oxygenation. The selenium proxy is based on the premise that increased erosion of continental rocks leads to the release of selenium as both the selenate and selenite species. Under neutral to alkaline, oxygenated conditions the selenate species remains highly soluble, where it can be readily transported via river systems to the ocean. Cobalt on the other hand becomes less soluble under increasing pO2 as the oxidized species Co2+ and CoO are immobilised by Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, that form during weathering. Thus variations in the Se and Co composition of marine pyrite enable us to propose a new oxygenation proxy; the ratio Se/Co, which increases in marine pyrite during periods of increasing pO2 (oxygenation) and decreases during periods of decreasing pO2 (deoxygenation). The first half of each of the five Phanerozoic pO2 cycles involves an increase in atmosphere/ocean oxygenation driven initially by supercontinent dispersal, increased continental erosion and nutrient trace element flux to the oceans. Increased marine productivity leads to carbon and sulphur sequestration, producing metalliferous black shales, and further drives oxygenation to the peak of the cycle. The cycle downside suggests decreasing oxidative erosion and nutrient delivery, resulting in a drop in productivity. Continued drawdown of ocean trace

  9. Oxygen-isotope fractionation between marine biogenic silica and seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Matheney, R.K.; Knauth, L.P. )

    1989-12-01

    A stepwise fluorination technique has been used to selectively react away the water component of hydrous silica in order to better investigate the oxygen-isotope fractionation between biogenic opal and seawater, and to determine whether all taxa produce opal which is suitable for oxygen isotope paleothermometry. {delta}{sup 18}O of the tetrahedrally coordinated silicate oxygen of siliceous sponge spicules grown at a wide variety of temperatures varies independently of temperature. {delta}{sup 18}O from an Eocene radiolarian ooze sample is much more enriched than would be expected from any reasonable isotopic temperature curve, given the probable growing temperature of the sample. {delta}{sup 18}O of diatom samples seems to vary systematically with temperature and to conform approximately to the isotopic temperature curve for diatom frustules obtained by Labeyrie and coworkers using an entirely different analytical technique. Sponges appear to precipitate silica in isotopic disequilibrium with seawater oxygen, and old radiolarian silica may exchange readily with could oceanic bottom water. Neither will apparently be useful for paleoclimate reconstructions. Diatoms maybe useful in deducing ancient surface-water temperatures, but the systematic variation of {alpha} with temperature for diatoms may not be related to the quartz-H{sub 2}O equilibrium isotope fractionation.

  10. Extended time observations of California marine stratocumulus clouds from GOES for July 1983-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Harrison, Edwin F.; Young, David F.

    1990-01-01

    One of the goals of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) is to relate the relatively small scale (spatial and temporal) Intensive Field Observations (IFO) to larger time and space domains embodied in the Extended Time Observations (ETO) phase of the experiment. The data analyzed as part of the ETO are to be used to determine some climatological features of the limited area which encompasses the Marine Stratocumulus IFO which took place between 29 June and 19 July 1987 off the coast of southern California.

  11. DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

  12. DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

  13. The Role of Oxygen in Anaerobic Microbiologically Influenced Marine Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    12) p. 1173-1188. 12. Hamilton WA (2003) Microbially influenced corrosion as a model system for the study of metal microbe interactions: A unifying...enzyme dehydrogenase, anodic depolarization, production of corrosive iron sulphides, release of exopolymers capable of binding metal ions, sulphide...biofilm is greater than the oxygen diffusion rate, the metal /biofilm interface can become anaerobic and provide a niche for sulphide production by SRB

  14. Gaseous oxygenated hydrocarbons in the remote marine troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Arlander, D.W.; Cronn, D.R.; Farmer, J.C.; Menzia, F.A.; Westberg, H.H. )

    1990-09-20

    Measurement of the background levels and study of the chemistry of trace organic carbon species in the remote marine troposphere occurred during an April-July 1987 SAGA II cruise of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Measured compounds included carboxylic acids, formaldehyde, light hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}), and ozone. The results show seasonal, diel, and spatial dependences for the organic acids. Distinct latitudinal gradients are seen for most sampled compounds. Formic acid is well correlated with suspected precursors, formaldehyde and light hydrocarbons. Acetic acid follows a similar pattern as formic acid, although its precursors are as yet undefined. Diel patterns of low amplitude for the organic acids in the remote marine troposphere suggest a natural contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, and to the global carbon cycle as well. For the northern hemisphere Pacific Ocean, the mean formic acid mixing ratio was 0.80 {plus minus} 0.30 ppbv, the mean acetic acid value was 0.78 {plus minus} 0.32 ppbv. For the southern hemisphere Pacific Ocean, formic acid averaged 0.22 {plus minus} 0.13 ppbv, for acetic acid, the mean was 0.28 {plus minus} 0.18 ppbv. For the northern hemisphere Indian Ocean, the mean formic acid mixing ratio was 0.75 {plus minus} 0.24 ppbv, and the mean acetic acid value was 0.69 {plus minus} 0.27 ppbv. For the southern hemisphere Indian Ocean, the mean formic acid value was 0.19 {plus minus} 0.17 ppbv, and the mean acetic acid value was 0.29 {plus minus} 0.16 ppbv. Highest levels of organic acids were encountered near known anthropogenic source regions, in air masses of continental origin, or near regions of naturally produced alkenes (C{sub 2}, C{sub 3}). The ozone-alkene oxidation scheme appears to play a major role in gas phase organic acid production in the remote marine troposphere. Nighttime gas phase deposition of the organic acids onto the ocean surface appears to be a major sink.

  15. New Cytotoxic Oxygenated Sterols from the Marine Bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Hai-Feng; Li, Yu-Shan; Lin, Hou-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Li; Ma, Ning; Yao, Min-Na; Zhang, Ping-Hu

    2011-01-01

    Six new sterols (1-6), together with seven known sterols (7-13), were isolated from the CCl4 extract of the marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana, four (3-6) of which have already been reported as synthetic sterols. This is the first time that these compounds (3-6) are reported as natural sterols. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of the extensive spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR and HR-ESI-MS data. Compounds 1-4, 7 and 10-13 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cell line, and all of the evaluated compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity to HL-60 cells with a range of IC50 values from 14.73 to 22.11 µg/mL except for compounds 12 and 13. PMID:21566793

  16. New cytotoxic oxygenated sterols from the marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Hai-Feng; Li, Yu-Shan; Lin, Hou-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Li; Ma, Ning; Yao, Min-Na; Zhang, Ping-Hu

    2011-01-28

    Six new sterols (1-6), together with seven known sterols (7-13), were isolated from the CCl(4) extract of the marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana, four (3-6) of which have already been reported as synthetic sterols. This is the first time that these compounds (3-6) are reported as natural sterols. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of the extensive spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR and HR-ESI-MS data. Compounds 1-4, 7 and 10-13 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cell line, and all of the evaluated compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity to HL-60 cells with a range of IC(50) values from 14.73 to 22.11 µg/mL except for compounds 12 and 13.

  17. Measurement in a marine environment using low cost sensors of temperature and dissolved oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godshall, F.A.; Cory, R.L.; Phinney, D.E.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous records of physical parameters of the marine environment are difficult as well as expensive to obtain. This paper describes preliminary results of an investigative program with the purpose of developing low cost time integrating measurement and averaging devices for water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Measurements were made in an estuarine area of the Chesapeake Bay over two week periods. With chemical thermometers average water temperature for the two week period was found to be equal to average water temperature measured with thermocouples plus or minus 1.0 C. The slow diffusion of oxygen through the semipermiable sides of plastic bottles permitted the use of water filled bottles to obtain averaged oxygen measurements. Oxygen measurements for two week averaging times using 500 ml polyethylene bottles were found to vary from conventionally measured and averaged dissolved oxygen by about 1.8 mg/l. ?? 1974 Estuarine Research Federation.

  18. NC10 bacteria in marine oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Cory C; Bristow, Laura A; Sarode, Neha; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Gómez Ramírez, Eddy; Benson, Catherine R; Bourbonnais, Annie; Altabet, Mark A; Girguis, Peter R; Thamdrup, Bo; Stewart, Frank J

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria of the NC10 phylum link anaerobic methane oxidation to nitrite denitrification through a unique O2-producing intra-aerobic methanotrophy pathway. A niche for NC10 in the pelagic ocean has not been confirmed. We show that NC10 bacteria are present and transcriptionally active in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) off northern Mexico and Costa Rica. NC10 16S rRNA genes were detected at all sites, peaking in abundance in the anoxic zone with elevated nitrite and methane concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of particulate methane monooxygenase genes further confirmed the presence of NC10. rRNA and mRNA transcripts assignable to NC10 peaked within the OMZ and included genes of the putative nitrite-dependent intra-aerobic pathway, with high representation of transcripts containing the unique motif structure of the nitric oxide (NO) reductase of NC10 bacteria, hypothesized to participate in O2-producing NO dismutation. These findings confirm pelagic OMZs as a niche for NC10, suggesting a role for this group in OMZ nitrogen, methane and oxygen cycling.

  19. Oxygen limitations on marine animal distributions and the collapse of epibenthic community structure during shoaling hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jackson W F; Tunnicliffe, Verena

    2015-08-01

    Deoxygenation in the global ocean is predicted to induce ecosystem-wide changes. Analysis of multidecadal oxygen time-series projects the northeast Pacific to be a current and future hot spot of oxygen loss. However, the response of marine communities to deoxygenation is unresolved due to the lack of applicable data on component species. We repeated the same benthic transect (n = 10, between 45 and 190 m depths) over 8 years in a seasonally hypoxic fjord using remotely operated vehicles equipped with oxygen sensors to establish the lower oxygen levels at which 26 common epibenthic species can occur in the wild. By timing our surveys to shoaling hypoxia events, we show that fish and crustacean populations persist even in severe hypoxia (<0.5 mL L(-1) ) with no mortality effects but that migration of mobile species occurs. Consequently, the immediate response to hypoxia expansion is the collapse of community structure; normally partitioned distributions of resident species coalesced and localized densities increased. After oxygen renewal and formation of steep oxygen gradients, former ranges re-established. High frequency data from the nearby VENUS subsea observatory show the average oxygen level at our site declined by ~0.05 mL L(-1) year(-1) over the period of our study. The increased annual duration of the hypoxic (<1.4 mL L(-1) ) and severely hypoxic periods appears to reflect the oxygen dynamics demonstrated in offshore source waters and the adjacent Strait of Georgia. Should the current trajectory of oxygen loss continue, community homogenization and reduced suitable habitat may become the dominant state of epibenthic systems in the northeast Pacific. In situ oxygen occurrences were not congruent with lethal and sublethal hypoxia thresholds calculated across the literature for major taxonomic groups indicating that research biases toward laboratory studies on Atlantic species are not globally applicable. Region-specific hypoxia thresholds are necessary to

  20. A novel approach to the assess biotic oxygen consumption in marine sediment communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Victor; Queiros, Ana; Widdicombe, Stephen; Stephens, Nick; Lessin, Gennadi; Krause, Stefan; Lewandowski, Joerg

    2016-04-01

    Bioturbation , the mixing of the sediment matrix by burrowing animals impacts sediment metabolism, including respiration through redistribution of particulate organics, changes in bacterial biota diversity and acitivity, as well as via burrowing fauna's own metabolism. Bioturbation, reflecting faunal activity, is also a proxy for the general sedimentary ecosystem health, and can be impacted by many of emerging marine environmental issues such as ocean acidification, warming and the occurrence of heat waves. Sedimentary oxygen consumption is often taken as a proxy for the activity of bioturbating fauna, but determining baselines can be difficult because of the confounding effects of other fauna and microbes present in sediments, as well as irnorganic processes that consume oxygen. Limitations therefore exist in current methodologies, and numerous confounding factors are hampering progress in this area. Here, we present novel method for the assessment of sediment respiration which is expected to be affected only by the biogenic oxygen consumption (namely aerobic respiration). As long as tracer reduction "immune" to inorganic oxygen consumption, so that measurements using this method can be used, alongside traditional methods, to decouple biological respiration from inorganic oxygen consumption reactions. The tracer is easily detectable, non-toxic and can be applied in systems with constant oxygen supply. The latter allow for incubation without the need to to work with unsealed experimental units, bringing procedural advantage over traditional methods. Consequently assessed bioturbating fauna is not exposed to hypoxia and additional stress. Here, we had applied system for the first time to investigate impacts of a common North-Atlantic bioturbator, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis, - on respiration of marine sediments. Two series of experiments were conducted with animals and sediment collected from Cawsand Bay, Plymouth, UK Preliminary results show that tracer

  1. Effect of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification on biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunyun; Hu, Huichao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of shortening kraft pulping (KP) process integrated with extended oxygen delignification (OD) on the biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. Data showed that using kraft pulps with high kappa number could improve the delignification efficiency of OD, reduce hexenuronic acid formation in kraft pulps. Pulp viscosity for a target kappa number of ∼10 was comparable to that obtained from conventional KP and OD process. The energy and alkali consumption in the integrated biorefinery process could be optimized when using a KP pulp with kappa number of ∼27. The process could minimize the overall methanol formation, but greater amounts of carbonate and oxalate were formed. The information from this study will be helpful to the future implementation of short-time KP integrated with extended OD process in actual pulp mill applications for biorefinery, aiming at further improvement in the biorefinery effectiveness of hardwood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Osseous skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the oxygen minimum zone off northern and central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milessi, Andrés C.; Sellanes, Javier; Gallardo, Víctor A.; Lange, Carina B.

    2005-08-01

    The significance of whale falls for the study of the biogeography, evolution and biodiversity of deep-sea biota has been recently recognized by international programs since large carcasses are known to give rise to biogenic chemosynthetic ecosystems. However, the plain accumulation of smaller bone material in the shallower settings of the continental shelf and upper slope under the hypoxic conditions of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), has received much less attention. Here we describe new findings of skeletal material and fish scales in marine sediments under the OMZ off northern and central Chile which, combined with previous reports for the study area, lead us to suggest the existence of a band in the benthos of accumulation of bones and scales extending at least twenty degrees in latitude (18-38° S). Future studies should focus on the characterization of biotic communities living upon these resources in order to elucidate their peculiarities and importance in the Eastern South Pacific.

  3. Quality and reactive oxygen species of extended canine semen after vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Michael, A J; Alexopoulos, C; Pontiki, E A; Hadjipavlou-Litina, D J; Saratsis, Ph; Ververidis, H N; Boscos, C M

    2008-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of extended dog semen processed with diluents containing various concentrations of vitamin C. Ejaculates from five dogs were collected, pooled and evaluated for concentration, sperm motility, rapid steady forward movement (RSF-movement), viability, acrosomal integrity and by the hypo-osmotic swelling test. Also, superoxide (O(2)(-)*) production, hydroxyl radicals (OH*) and total reactive oxygen species (tROS) were determined. The pool was divided in five aliquots, which were diluted to a final concentration of 66 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml with a Tris-glucose-egg yolk extender containing one of the following concentrations of vitamin C (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 or 2.5 mM). The semen aliquots were chilled and preserved at 4 degrees C. Portions of chilled semen were removed at 24 and 72 h, and semen quality was evaluated after rewarming. This process was repeated 10 times in pooled semen of the same origin and data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance. At both times, none of the semen quality parameters were positively influenced (p>0.05) by vitamin C supplementation. At 24 h, none of the reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-)*, OH*, tROS) were significantly altered. At 72 h, significant reductions of O(2)(-)* production were observed by the concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 mM compared with the 0 mM concentration (p=0.049). Also, at 72 h, the 2.5 mM concentration showed significantly lower OH* values in comparison with the control group (p=0.048). In conclusion, addition of vitamin C to semen extenders does not benefit the quality of canine extended spermatozoa.

  4. Extended period of K/T boundary mass extinction in the marine realm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary mass extinction has been widely recognized as a nearly instantaneous catastrophy among marine plankton such as foraminifera. However, the suddenness of this extinction event may have been overemphasized because most pelagic K/T boundary sequences are stratigraphically incomplete and generally lack the earliest Tertiary (Zones P0 and P1a) either due to carbonate dissolution and/or non-deposition. Stratigraphically complete sections appear to be restricted to continental shelf regions with high sedimentation rates and deposition well above the CCD. Such sections have been recovered from El Kef, Tunisia (1) and Brazos River, Texas. Quantitative foraminiferal analysis of these sections indicate an extinction pattern beginning below the K/T boundary and ending above the boundary. These data imply that the mass extinction event was not geologically instantaneous, but occurred over an extended period of time. Evidence supporting this conclusion is discussed.

  5. Think laterally: horizontal gene transfer from symbiotic microbes may extend the phenotype of marine sessile hosts

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Sandie M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the origin of the animal kingdom, marine animals have lived in association with viruses, prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes, often as symbionts. This long and continuous interaction has provided ample opportunity not only for the evolution of intimate interactions such as sharing of metabolic pathways, but also for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of non-metazoan genes into metazoan genomes. The number of demonstrated cases of inter-kingdom HGT is currently small, such that it is not yet widely appreciated as a significant player in animal evolution. Sessile marine invertebrates that vertically inherit bacterial symbionts, that have no dedicated germ line, or that bud or excise pluripotent somatic cells during their life history may be particularly receptive to HGT from their symbionts. Closer scrutiny of the growing number of genomes being accrued for these animals may thus reveal HGT as a regular source of novel variation that can function to extend the host phenotype metabolically, morphologically, or even behaviorally. Taxonomic identification of symbionts will help to address the intriguing question of whether past HGT events may constrain contemporary symbioses. PMID:25477875

  6. The origins of marine bioluminescence: turning oxygen defence mechanisms into deep-sea communication tools.

    PubMed

    Rees, J F; de Wergifosse, B; Noiset, O; Dubuisson, M; Janssens, B; Thompson, E M

    1998-04-01

    Bioluminescence, the emission of ecologically functional light by living organisms, emerged independently on several occasions, yet the evolutionary origins of most bioluminescent systems remain obscure. We propose that the luminescent substrates of the luminous reactions (luciferins) are the evolutionary core of most systems, while luciferases, the enzymes catalysing the photogenic oxidation of the luciferin, serve to optimise the expression of the endogenous chemiluminescent properties of the luciferin. Coelenterazine, a luciferin occurring in many marine bioluminescent groups, has strong antioxidative properties as it is highly reactive with reactive oxygen species such as the superoxide anion or peroxides. We suggest that the primary function of coelenterazine was originally the detoxification of the deleterious oxygen derivatives. The functional shift from its antioxidative to its light-emitting function might have occurred when the strength of selection for antioxidative defence mechanisms decreased. This might have been made possible when marine organisms began colonising deeper layers of the oceans, where exposure to oxidative stress is considerably reduced because of reduced light irradiance and lower oxygen levels. A reduction in metabolic activity with increasing depth would also have decreased the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, in these organisms, mechanisms for harnessing the chemiluminescence of coelenterazine in specialised organs could have developed, while the beneficial antioxidative properties were maintained in other tissues. The full range of graded irradiance in the mesopelagic zone, where the majority of organisms are bioluminescent, would have provided a continuum for the selection and improvement of proto-bioluminescence. Although the requirement for oxygen or reactive oxygen species observed in bioluminescent systems reflects the high energy required to produce visible light, it may suggest that oxygen

  7. Low-Oxygen Culture Conditions Extend the Multipotent Properties of Human Retinal Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Budd A.; Young, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Development of an effective cell-based therapy is highly dependent upon having a reproducible cell source suitable for transplantation. One potential source, isolated from the developing fetal neural retina, is the human retinal progenitor cell (hRPC). One limiting factor for the use of hRPCs is their in vitro expansion limit. As such, the aim of this study was to determine whether culturing hRPCs under 3% O2 would support their proliferative capacity while maintaining multipotency. Methods: To determine the effect of low oxygen on the ability of hRPCs to self-renew, rates of proliferation and apoptosis, telomerase activity, and expression of proliferative, stemness, and differentiation markers were assessed for hRPCs cultured in 3% and 20% oxygen conditions. Results: Culture under 3% oxygen increases the proliferation rate and shifts the proliferation limit of hRPCs to greater 40 divisions. This increased capacity for proliferation is correlated with an upregulation of Ki67, CyclinD1, and telomerase activity and a decrease in p53 expression and apoptosis. Increased expression of cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2 in 3% O2 is correlated with stabilization of both HIF1α and HIF2α. The eye field development markers Pax6, Sox2, and Otx2 are present in hRPCs up to passage 16 in 3% O2. Following in vitro differentiation hRPCs expanded in the 3% O2 were able to generate specialized retinal cells, including rods and cones. Conclusions: Low-oxygen culture conditions act to maintain both multipotency and self-renewal properties of hRPCs in vitro. The extended expansion limits permit the development of a clinical-grade reagent for transplantation. PMID:24320879

  8. Planktonic Marine Iron-Oxidizers Drive Iron(III) Mineralization Under Low Oxygen Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, G. W., III; Field, E.; Findlay, A.; MacDonald, D. J.; Chan, C. S. Y.; Kato, S.

    2016-02-01

    Observations of modern microbes have led to several hypotheses on how microbes precipitated the extensive banded iron formations in the geologic record, but we have yet to resolve the exact microbial contributions. An initial hypotheses was that cyanobacteria produced oxygen that oxidized iron(II) abiotically; however, in modern environments such as microbial mats, where Fe(II) and O2 coexist, we commonly find microaerophilic chemolithotrophic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria producing Fe(III) oxyhydroxides. This suggests that such iron-oxidizers could have inhabited niches in ancient coastal oceans where Fe(II) and O2 coexisted, and therefore contributed to iron deposits, but there is currently little evidence for planktonic marine iron-oxidizers in modern analogs. Here, we demonstrate successful cultivation of planktonic microaerophilic iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria from the Chesapeake Bay during seasonal stratification. Iron-oxidizers were associated with low oxygen concentrations and active iron redox cycling in the oxic-anoxic transition zone (<3 µM O2, <0.2 µM H2S). While cyanobacteria were also detected in this transition zone, oxygen concentrations were too low to support significant rates of abiotic iron oxidation. Instead, cyanobacteria may be providing oxygen for microaerophilic iron(II) oxidation through a symbiotic relationship that promotes oxygen consumption rather than build-up. Our results suggest that once oxygenic photosynthesis evolved, microaerophilic chemolithotrophic iron(II)-oxidizers were likely important drivers of iron(III) mineralization in ancient oceans.

  9. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungall, Emma L.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D.; Liggio, John

    2017-06-01

    Summertime Arctic shipboard observations of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as organic acids, key precursors of climatically active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are consistent with a novel source of OVOCs to the marine boundary layer via chemistry at the sea surface microlayer. Although this source has been studied in a laboratory setting, organic acid emissions from the sea surface microlayer have not previously been observed in ambient marine environments. Correlations between measurements of OVOCs, including high levels of formic acid, in the atmosphere (measured by an online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer) and dissolved organic matter in the ocean point to a marine source for the measured OVOCs. That this source is photomediated is indicated by correlations between the diurnal cycles of the OVOC measurements and solar radiation. In contrast, the OVOCs do not correlate with levels of isoprene, monoterpenes, or dimethyl sulfide. Results from box model calculations are consistent with heterogeneous chemistry as the source of the measured OVOCs. As sea ice retreats and dissolved organic carbon inputs to the Arctic increase, the impact of this source on the summer Arctic atmosphere is likely to increase. Globally, this source should be assessed in other marine environments to quantify its impact on OVOC and SOA burdens in the atmosphere, and ultimately on climate.

  10. Meta-omic signatures of microbial metal and nitrogen cycling in marine oxygen minimum zones

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Jennifer B.; Kretz, Cecilia B.; Ganesh, Sangita; Ranjan, Piyush; Seston, Sherry L.; Buck, Kristen N.; Landing, William M.; Morton, Peter L.; Moffett, James W.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.; Vergin, Kevin L.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential cofactors for microbial metalloenzymes, but little is known about the metalloenyzme inventory of anaerobic marine microbial communities despite their importance to the nitrogen cycle. We compared dissolved O2, NO3−, NO2−, Fe and Cu concentrations with nucleic acid sequences encoding Fe and Cu-binding proteins in 21 metagenomes and 9 metatranscriptomes from Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific oxygen minimum zones and 7 metagenomes from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station. Dissolved Fe concentrations increased sharply at upper oxic-anoxic transition zones, with the highest Fe:Cu molar ratio (1.8) occurring at the anoxic core of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone and matching the predicted maximum ratio based on data from diverse ocean sites. The relative abundance of genes encoding Fe-binding proteins was negatively correlated with O2, driven by significant increases in genes encoding Fe-proteins involved in dissimilatory nitrogen metabolisms under anoxia. Transcripts encoding cytochrome c oxidase, the Fe- and Cu-containing terminal reductase in aerobic respiration, were positively correlated with O2 content. A comparison of the taxonomy of genes encoding Fe- and Cu-binding vs. bulk proteins in OMZs revealed that Planctomycetes represented a higher percentage of Fe genes while Thaumarchaeota represented a higher percentage of Cu genes, particularly at oxyclines. These results are broadly consistent with higher relative abundance of genes encoding Fe-proteins in the genome of a marine planctomycete vs. higher relative abundance of genes encoding Cu-proteins in the genome of a marine thaumarchaeote. These findings highlight the importance of metalloenzymes for microbial processes in oxygen minimum zones and suggest preferential Cu use in oxic habitats with Cu > Fe vs. preferential Fe use in anoxic niches with Fe > Cu. PMID:26441925

  11. Confounding effects of oxygen and temperature on the TEX86 signature of marine Thaumarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Carlson, Laura T.; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Devol, Allan H.; Moffett, James W.; Stahl, David A.; Ingalls, Anitra E.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are among the most abundant of marine microorganisms, spanning nearly the entire water column of diverse oceanic provinces. Historical patterns of abundance are preserved in sediments in the form of their distinctive glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids. The correlation between the composition of GDGTs in surface sediment and the overlying annual average sea surface temperature forms the basis for a paleotemperature proxy (TEX86) that is used to reconstruct surface ocean temperature as far back as the Middle Jurassic. However, mounting evidence suggests that factors other than temperature could also play an important role in determining GDGT distributions. We here use a study set of four marine AOA isolates to demonstrate that these closely related strains generate different TEX86–temperature relationships and that oxygen (O2) concentration is at least as important as temperature in controlling TEX86 values in culture. All of the four strains characterized showed a unique membrane compositional response to temperature, with TEX86-inferred temperatures varying as much as 12 °C from the incubation temperatures. In addition, both linear and nonlinear TEX86–temperature relationships were characteristic of individual strains. Increasing relative abundance of GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 with increasing O2 limitation, at the expense of GDGT-1, led to significant elevations in TEX86-derived temperature. Although the adaptive significance of GDGT compositional changes in response to both temperature and O2 is unclear, this observation necessitates a reassessment of archaeal lipid-based paleotemperature proxies, particularly in records that span low-oxygen events or underlie oxygen minimum zones. PMID:26283385

  12. Marine species in ambient low-oxygen regions subject to double jeopardy impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Stortini, Christine H; Chabot, Denis; Shackell, Nancy L

    2017-06-01

    We have learned much about the impacts of warming on the productivity and distribution of marine organisms, but less about the impact of warming combined with other environmental stressors, including oxygen depletion. Also, the combined impact of multiple environmental stressors requires evaluation at the scales most relevant to resource managers. We use the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, characterized by a large permanently hypoxic zone, as a case study. Species distribution models were used to predict the impact of multiple scenarios of warming and oxygen depletion on the local density of three commercially and ecologically important species. Substantial changes are projected within 20-40 years. A eurythermal depleted species already limited to shallow, oxygen-rich refuge habitat (Atlantic cod) may be relatively uninfluenced by oxygen depletion but increase in density within refuge areas with warming. A more stenothermal, deep-dwelling species (Greenland halibut) is projected to lose ~55% of its high-density areas under the combined impacts of warming and oxygen depletion. Another deep-dwelling, more eurythermal species (Northern shrimp) would lose ~4% of its high-density areas due to oxygen depletion alone, but these impacts may be buffered by warming, which may increase density by 8% in less hypoxic areas, but decrease density by ~20% in the warmest parts of the region. Due to local climate variability and extreme events, and that our models cannot project changes in species sensitivity to hypoxia with warming, our results should be considered conservative. We present an approach to effectively evaluate the individual and cumulative impacts of multiple environmental stressors on a species-by-species basis at the scales most relevant to managers. Our study may provide a basis for work in other low-oxygen regions and should contribute to a growing literature base in climate science, which will continue to be of support for resource managers as climate change

  13. [Stoichiometry of cytochromes and oxygen tension in skeletal muscles of marine fish].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, A A; Parfenova, I A

    2014-01-01

    The character of oxygen tension distribution and peculiarities of cytochromes stoichiometry in skeletal muscles of bottom and pelagic species of marine fish were compared. It is shown, that the limitation of muscle activity increases the number of hypoxic zones in the muscle tissue. The mitochondrial electron-transporting chain then obtain the uncompensated type of organization, expressed in the increase of the share of the terminal complex aa3 on the background of general reduction of cytochromes content in the muscles. The reaction is of an adaptive character and can be implemented by pelagic fish species in conditions of experimental hypokinesia.

  14. Molecular tools for investigating microbial community structure and function in oxygen-deficient marine waters.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Alyse K; Kheirandish, Sam; Mueller, Andreas; Leung, Hilary T C; Norbeck, Angela D; Brewer, Heather M; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Water column oxygen (O2)-deficiency shapes food-web structure by progressively directing nutrients and energy away from higher trophic levels into microbial community metabolism resulting in fixed nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Although respiratory O2 consumption during organic matter degradation is a natural outcome of a productive surface ocean, global-warming-induced stratification intensifies this process leading to oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) expansion. Here, we describe useful tools for detection and quantification of potential key microbial players and processes in OMZ community metabolism including quantitative polymerase chain reaction primers targeting Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota, SUP05, Arctic96BD-19, and SAR324 small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes and protein extraction methods from OMZ waters compatible with high-resolution mass spectrometry for profiling microbial community structure and functional dynamics.

  15. Copper-catalyzed extended Pummerer reactions of ketene dithioacetal monoxides with alkynyl sulfides and ynamides with an accompanying oxygen rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kei; Imoto, Junichi; Matsubara, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Suguru; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Oshima, Koichiro

    2013-04-26

    The first examples of metal-catalyzed extended Pummerer reactions through the activation of sulfoxides are described. The copper-catalyzed reactions of ketene dithioacetal monoxides with alkynyl sulfides and ynamides provided a wide variety of γ,γ-disulfanyl-β,γ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with an accompanying oxygen rearrangement. The products can be easily converted into 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds and substituted heteroaromatics. DFT calculations and mechanistic experiments revealed a new interesting stepwise addition/oxygen rearrangement mechanism.

  16. Changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and volume following extended stimulation of rodent barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Jones, Myles; Berwick, Jason; Mayhew, John

    2002-03-01

    Simultaneous optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry were used in rodent barrel cortex to examine the hemodynamic response to extended electrical stimulation (20 s, 5 Hz) of the whisker pad. Stimulation results in a fast early increase in deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Hbr) followed by a later decrease to a "plateau" phase approximately 4 s after stimulation onset. There was no corresponding decrease in oxyhemoglobin (HbO(2)), which simply increased after stimulation, reaching a plateau at approximately 5 s. The time series of flow and volume had similar onset times and did not differ significantly throughout the presentation of the stimuli. Following stimulation cessation all aspects of the hemodynamic response returned to baseline with a long decay constant (>20 s), CBV doing so at a slower rate than CBF. The time courses of CBF, CBV, Hbr, and HbO(2) were very similar to that produced by a brief stimulus up to peak. The relationship between the flow and the volume changes is well approximated by the expression CBV = CBF(phi). We find phi to be slightly lower under stimulation (0.26 +/- 0.0152) than during hypercapnia (0.32 +/- 0.0172). Saturation and flow data were used to estimate changes in CMRO(2) for a range of baseline oxygen extraction fractions (OEF). In the case of hypercapnia CMRO(2) was biphasic, increasing after onset and sharply decreasing below baseline following cessation. If it is assumed that there is no "net" increase in CMRO(2) (i.e., SigmaDeltaCMRO(2) = 0) following the onset and offset of hypercapnia, then the corresponding estimate of baseline OEF is 0.45. Evidence for increased oxygen consumption was obtained for all stimulation intensities assuming a baseline OEF of 0.45. ©2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  17. The Extended Oxygen Window Concept for Programming Saturation Decompressions Using Air and Nitrox.

    PubMed

    Kot, Jacek; Sicko, Zdzislaw; Doboszynski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Saturation decompression is a physiological process of transition from one steady state, full saturation with inert gas at pressure, to another one: standard conditions at surface. It is defined by the borderline condition for time spent at a particular depth (pressure) and inert gas in the breathing mixture (nitrogen, helium). It is a delicate and long lasting process during which single milliliters of inert gas are eliminated every minute, and any disturbance can lead to the creation of gas bubbles leading to decompression sickness (DCS). Most operational procedures rely on experimentally found parameters describing a continuous slow decompression rate. In Poland, the system for programming of continuous decompression after saturation with compressed air and nitrox has been developed as based on the concept of the Extended Oxygen Window (EOW). EOW mainly depends on the physiology of the metabolic oxygen window--also called inherent unsaturation or partial pressure vacancy--but also on metabolism of carbon dioxide, the existence of water vapor, as well as tissue tension. Initially, ambient pressure can be reduced at a higher rate allowing the elimination of inert gas from faster compartments using the EOW concept, and maximum outflow of nitrogen. Then, keeping a driving force for long decompression not exceeding the EOW allows optimal elimination of nitrogen from the limiting compartment with half-time of 360 min. The model has been theoretically verified through its application for estimation of risk of decompression sickness in published systems of air and nitrox saturation decompressions, where DCS cases were observed. Clear dose-reaction relation exists, and this confirms that any supersaturation over the EOW creates a risk for DCS. Using the concept of the EOW, 76 man-decompressions were conducted after air and nitrox saturations in depth range between 18 and 45 meters with no single case of DCS. In summary, the EOW concept describes physiology of

  18. The Extended Oxygen Window Concept for Programming Saturation Decompressions Using Air and Nitrox

    PubMed Central

    Kot, Jacek; Sicko, Zdzislaw

    2015-01-01

    Saturation decompression is a physiological process of transition from one steady state, full saturation with inert gas at pressure, to another one: standard conditions at surface. It is defined by the borderline condition for time spent at a particular depth (pressure) and inert gas in the breathing mixture (nitrogen, helium). It is a delicate and long lasting process during which single milliliters of inert gas are eliminated every minute, and any disturbance can lead to the creation of gas bubbles leading to decompression sickness (DCS). Most operational procedures rely on experimentally found parameters describing a continuous slow decompression rate. In Poland, the system for programming of continuous decompression after saturation with compressed air and nitrox has been developed as based on the concept of the Extended Oxygen Window (EOW). EOW mainly depends on the physiology of the metabolic oxygen window—also called inherent unsaturation or partial pressure vacancy—but also on metabolism of carbon dioxide, the existence of water vapor, as well as tissue tension. Initially, ambient pressure can be reduced at a higher rate allowing the elimination of inert gas from faster compartments using the EOW concept, and maximum outflow of nitrogen. Then, keeping a driving force for long decompression not exceeding the EOW allows optimal elimination of nitrogen from the limiting compartment with half-time of 360 min. The model has been theoretically verified through its application for estimation of risk of decompression sickness in published systems of air and nitrox saturation decompressions, where DCS cases were observed. Clear dose-reaction relation exists, and this confirms that any supersaturation over the EOW creates a risk for DCS. Using the concept of the EOW, 76 man-decompressions were conducted after air and nitrox saturations in depth range between 18 and 45 meters with no single case of DCS. In summary, the EOW concept describes physiology of

  19. Laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors of oxygen dissolved in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V. L.; Konovalov, B. V.; Mosharov, V. E.; Radchenko, V. N.; Khanaev, S. A.; Khlebnikov, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    The laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors developed at the TsAGI has been conducted to create a highly sensitivity gauge of the oxygen dissolved in seawater. The advantages of the photoluminescent gauge over the electrochemical ones are the following: zero sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, the pH of the water, and the hydrogen sulphide and ions of heavy metals in the water; zero oxygen consumption; and no need for the water to be pumped through the device. A breadboard model of the photoluminescent gauge with LED excitation of the luminescence has been built. The laboratory tests of the model demonstrated the accuracy of the gauge to be as high as 0.05 ml/1 in air at a response time of 0.3 s for 63% relaxation. Comparative field tests of the breadboard model and the SBE 43 electrochemical oxygen gauge (Sea-Bird Electronics Corp.) have shown good agreement of the estimates of the oxygen content in the water and clarified the prospects of model’s performance improvement.

  20. Organelles contribute differentially to reactive oxygen species-related events during extended darkness.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Shilo; Rot, Ilona; Sollner, Evelyn; Meyer, Andreas J; Smith, Yoav; Leviatan, Noam; Fluhr, Robert; Friedman, Haya

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves by extended darkness generates a genetically activated senescence program that culminates in cell death. The transcriptome of leaves subjected to extended darkness was found to contain a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-specific signatures. The levels of transcripts constituting the transcriptome footprints of chloroplasts and cytoplasm ROS stresses decreased in leaves, as early as the second day of darkness. In contrast, an increase was detected in transcripts associated with mitochondrial and peroxisomal ROS stresses. The sequential changes in the redox state of the organelles during darkness were examined by redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein probes (roGFP) that were targeted to specific organelles. In plastids, roGFP showed a decreased level of oxidation as early as the first day of darkness, followed by a gradual increase to starting levels. However, in mitochondria, the level of oxidation of roGFP rapidly increased as early as the first day of darkness, followed by an increase in the peroxisomal level of oxidation of roGFP on the second day. No changes in the probe oxidation were observed in the cytoplasm until the third day. The increase in mitochondrial roGFP degree of oxidation was abolished by sucrose treatment, implying that oxidation is caused by energy deprivation. The dynamic redox state visualized by roGFP probes and the analysis of microarray results are consistent with a scenario in which ROS stresses emanating from the mitochondria and peroxisomes occur early during darkness at a presymptomatic stage and jointly contribute to the senescence program.

  1. When surfacers do not dive: multiple significance of extended surface times in marine turtles.

    PubMed

    Hochscheid, S; Bentivegna, F; Hamza, A; Hays, G C

    2010-04-01

    Marine turtles spend more than 90% of their life underwater and have been termed surfacers as opposed to divers. Nonetheless turtles have been reported occasionally to float motionless at the surface but the reasons for this behaviour are not clear. We investigated the location, timing and duration of extended surface times (ESTs) in 10 free-ranging loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) and the possible relationship to water temperature and diving activity recorded via satellite relay data loggers for 101-450 days. For one turtle that dived only in offshore areas, ESTs contributed 12% of the time whereas for the other turtles ESTs contributed 0.4-1.8% of the time. ESTs lasted on average 90 min but were mostly infrequent and irregular, excluding the involvement of a fundamental regulatory function. However, 82% of the ESTs occurred during daylight, mostly around noon, suggesting a dependence on solar radiation. For three turtles, there was an appreciable (7 degrees C to 10.5 degrees C) temperature decrease with depth for dives during periods when ESTs occurred frequently, suggesting a re-warming function of EST to compensate for decreased body temperatures, possibly to enhance digestive efficiency. A positive correlation between body mass and EST duration supported this explanation. By contrast, night-active turtles that exceeded their calculated aerobic dive limits in 7.6-16% of the dives engaged in nocturnal ESTs, probably for lactate clearance. This is the first evidence that loggerhead turtles may refrain from diving for at least two reasons, either to absorb solar radiation or to recover from anaerobic activity.

  2. The impact of physiological oxygen during culture, and vitrification for cryopreservation, on the outcome of extended culture in human IVF.

    PubMed

    Gardner, David K

    2016-02-01

    Extended culture has facilitated the move to single blastocyst transfer, resulting in significant increases in implantation and live birth rate, while concomitantly reducing fetal loss during pregnancy. However, concerns have been raised regarding subsequent neo-natal outcomes following extended culture. Analysis of the literature reveals differences in outcomes according to geographical region and between individual clinics. A common factor amongst reports of potentially adverse outcomes following blastocyst transfer appears to be that atmospheric (~20%) oxygen was typically employed for embryo culture. Clinics and countries utilizing physiological concentrations of oxygen (~5%) have not reported adverse perinatal outcomes with blastocyst transfer. Atmospheric oxygen imposes significant negative effects upon the embryo's molecular and cellular physiology, and further it increases the sensitivity of the preimplantation embryo to other stressors in the laboratory. With the recent adoption of vitrification for blastocyst cryopreservation, cumulative pregnancy rates per cycle with extended culture will increase significantly. Consequently, rather than perceiving extended culture as a potentially negative procedure, it is concluded that neo-natal data need to be interpreted in light of the conditions used to culture and cryopreserve blastocysts, and that furthermore a policy of embryo culture using 20% oxygen can no longer be justified.

  3. Genome and physiology of a model Epsilonproteobacterium responsible for sulfide detoxification in marine oxygen depletion zones.

    PubMed

    Grote, Jana; Schott, Thomas; Bruckner, Christian G; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Jost, Günter; Teeling, Hanno; Labrenz, Matthias; Jürgens, Klaus

    2012-01-10

    Eutrophication and global climate change lead to expansion of hypoxia in the ocean, often accompanied by the production of hydrogen sulfide, which is toxic to higher organisms. Chemoautotrophic bacteria are thought to buffer against increased sulfide concentrations by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide before its diffusion to oxygenated surface waters. Model organisms from such environments have not been readily available, which has contributed to a poor understanding of these microbes. We present here a detailed study of "Sulfurimonas gotlandica" str. GD1, an Epsilonproteobacterium isolated from the Baltic Sea oxic-anoxic interface, where it plays a key role in nitrogen and sulfur cycling. Whole-genome analysis and laboratory experiments revealed a high metabolic flexibility, suggesting a considerable capacity for adaptation to variable redox conditions. S. gotlandica str. GD1 was shown to grow chemolithoautotrophically by coupling denitrification with oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and dark CO(2) fixation. Metabolic versatility was further suggested by the use of a range of different electron donors and acceptors and organic carbon sources. The number of genes involved in signal transduction and metabolic pathways exceeds those of other Epsilonproteobacteria. Oxygen tolerance and environmental-sensing systems combined with chemotactic responses enable this organism to thrive successfully in marine oxygen-depletion zones. We propose that S. gotlandica str. GD1 will serve as a model organism in investigations that will lead to a better understanding how members of the Epsilonproteobacteria are able to cope with water column anoxia and the role these microorganisms play in the detoxification of sulfidic waters.

  4. Marine phosphate oxygen isotopes and organic matter remineralization in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Colman, Albert S; Blake, Ruth E; Karl, David M; Fogel, Marilyn L; Turekian, Karl K

    2005-09-13

    We show that the isotopic composition of oxygen (delta18O) in dissolved inorganic phosphate (Pi) reveals the balance between Pi transport and biological turnover rates in marine ecosystems. Our delta18Op of Pi (delta18Op) measurements herein indicate the importance of cell lysis in the regeneration of Pi in the euphotic zone. Depth profiles of the delta18Op in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans are near a temperature-dependent isotopic equilibrium with water. Small deviations from equilibrium below the thermocline suggest that P remineralization in the deep ocean is a byproduct of microbial carbon and energy requirements. However, isotope effects associated with phosphohydrolase enzymes involved in P remineralization are quite large and could potentially lead to significant disequilibration of Pi oxygen. The observed near equilibration of deep water Pi likely calls for continued slow rates of microbial uptake and release of Pi and/or extracellular pyrophosphatase-mediated oxygen exchange between water and Pi along the deep water flow path.

  5. Marine phosphate oxygen isotopes and organic matter remineralization in the oceans

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Albert S.; Blake, Ruth E.; Karl, David M.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Turekian, Karl K.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the isotopic composition of oxygen (δ18O) in dissolved inorganic phosphate (Pi) reveals the balance between Pi transport and biological turnover rates in marine ecosystems. Our δ18Op of Pi (δ18Op) measurements herein indicate the importance of cell lysis in the regeneration of Pi in the euphotic zone. Depth profiles of the δ18Op in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans are near a temperature-dependent isotopic equilibrium with water. Small deviations from equilibrium below the thermocline suggest that P remineralization in the deep ocean is a byproduct of microbial carbon and energy requirements. However, isotope effects associated with phosphohydrolase enzymes involved in P remineralization are quite large and could potentially lead to significant disequilibration of Pi oxygen. The observed near equilibration of deep water Pi likely calls for continued slow rates of microbial uptake and release of Pi and/or extracellular pyrophosphatase-mediated oxygen exchange between water and Pi along the deep water flow path. PMID:16141319

  6. Pollen sequence from the Chilean Lake District during the Llanquihue glaciation in marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 4-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, Calvin J.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Heusser, Linda E.; Moreira M., Andrés; Moreira M., Simón

    2000-02-01

    Pollen stratigraphy of a core taken from a fen at Fundo Nueva Braunau (40°17.49S, 73°04.83W), situated 2 km beyond the western border of Llanquihue-age glacial drift, spans an age range from an estimated 60 000-70 000 BP to about 14 000 14C yr BP (marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 4-2). The location at present is in the contact zone of Valdivian Evergreen Forest and Lowland Deciduous Beech Forest. Early and late in the pollen record, as indicated by assemblages of southern beech (Nothofagus dombeyi type) and grass (Gramineae), the site was located in Subantarctic Parkland. Intervening assemblages represent expansion of Valdivian-North Patagonian Evergreen Forest (> 49 355 to about 40 000 14C yr BP) and North Patagonian Evergreen Forest-Subantarctic Parkland (approximately 40 000 to 30 000 14C yr BP).Climate over the time span was under the storm regime of the Southern Westerlies and apparently uninterruptedly wet. When Subantarctic Parkland expanded, cold conditions with summer temperatures estimated at 8-9°C (7°C lower than present) resulted in episodes of glacier maxima. Climate moderated during the period of forest expansion, at which time glaciers were in a state of recession. Contrasting with the continuously wet climate of the Lake District for the period of record, climate in semi-arid-arid, subtropical Chile underwent extended intervals of precipitation. Data from both the terrestrial and marine realm implicate the Southern Westerlies as the cause of intensified storm activity at lower latitudes.

  7. Analyzing Benefits of Extending the PCS Tempo in the Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    have been found between five or more lifetime moves and lower adolescent self - esteem (Hendershott, 1989). 20 Drummet et al. (2003) believe that...refit. 2. How Does the PCS Process Affect Retention? Although Marines understand and agree that PCS is part of being a Marine, spouse and teen -age...Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Hendershott, A.B. (1989). Residential mobility, social support, and adolescent self - concept. Adolescence 24, 217–232

  8. Assessment of nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation during nitrification and its expression in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Casciotti, Karen L; Buchwald, Carolyn; Santoro, Alyson E; Frame, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification is a microbially-catalyzed process whereby ammonia (NH(3)) is oxidized to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and subsequently to nitrate (NO(3)(-)). It is also responsible for production of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), a climatically important greenhouse gas. Because the microbes responsible for nitrification are primarily autotrophic, nitrification provides a unique link between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios have provided insights into where nitrification contributes to the availability of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-), and where it constitutes a significant source of N(2)O. This chapter describes methods for determining kinetic isotope effects involved with ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation, the two independent steps in the nitrification process, and their expression in the marine environment. It also outlines some remaining questions and issues related to isotopic fractionation during nitrification.

  9. Response of phytoplankton and dissolved oxygen and related marine ecological parameters to typhoon tropical cyclone in the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, DanLing

    Typhoons (tropical cyclones, or hurricanes) are strong wind events in the weather system, which influence the upper ocean dynamics and the ecosystem, in particular upwelling, water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and primary production and fish abundances. But little is known about the response of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration to a typhoon in the open ocean. This paper investigates the impact of a typhoon on DO concentration and related ecological parameters using in-situ and remote sensing data. The in-situ data were collected one week after the passage of the super-typhoon Nanmadol in the northern South China Sea in 2011. An increase in DO concentration, accompanied by a decrease in water temperature and an increase in salinity and Chl-a concentration, was measured at sampling stations close to the typhoon track. At these stations, maximum DO concentration was found at a depth of around 5 m and maximum Chl-a concentration at depths between 50 m and 75 m. The layer of high DO concentration extends from the surface to a depth of 35 m and the concentrations stay almost constant down to this depth. Due to the passage of the typhoon, also a large sea level anomaly (21.6 cm) and a high value of Ekman pumping velocity (4.0×10-4 m s-1) are observed, indicating upwelling phenomenon. At the same time, also intrusion of Kuroshio waters in the form of a loop current into the South China Sea (SCS) was observed. We attribute the increase of DO concentration after the passage of the typhoon to three effects:1) entrainment of oxygen from the air into the upper water layer and strong vertical mixing of the water body due to the typhoon winds, 2) upwelling of cold nutrient-rich water which stimulates photosynthesis of phytoplankton and thus the generation of oxygen, which also increases the DO concentration due to cold water since the solubility of oxygen increase with decreasing water temperature, and, possibly, 3) transport of DO enriched waters

  10. Oxygen tension in embryo culture: does a shift to 2% O2 in extended culture represent the most physiologic system?

    PubMed

    Morin, Scott J

    2017-03-01

    There has been much debate regarding the optimal oxygen tension in clinical embryo culture. The majority of the literature to date has compared 5% oxygen to atmospheric levels (20-21%). While the majority of modern IVF labs have accepted the superiority of 5% oxygen tension, a new debate has emerged regarding whether a further reduction after day 3 of development represents the most physiologic system. This new avenue of research is based on the premise that oxygen tension is in fact lower in the uterus than in the oviduct and that the embryo crosses the uterotubal junction sometime on day 3. While data are currently limited, recent experience with ultra-low oxygen (2%) after day 3 of development suggests that the optimal oxygen tension in embryo culture may depend on the stage of development. This review article will consider the current state of the literature and discuss ongoing efforts at studying ultra-low oxygen tension in extended culture.

  11. Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life in multi-model global warming projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, V.; Joos, F.; Steinacher, M.; Frölicher, T. L.; Bopp, L.; Dunne, J.; Gehlen, M.; Heinze, C.; Orr, J.; Oschlies, A.; Schneider, B.; Segschneider, J.; Tjiputra, J.

    2013-03-01

    Decadal-to-century scale trends for a range of marine environmental variables in the upper mesopelagic layer (UML, 100-600 m) are investigated using results from seven Earth System Models forced by a high greenhouse gas emission scenario. The models as a class represent the observation-based distribution of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2), albeit major mismatches between observation-based and simulated values remain for individual models. By year 2100 all models project an increase in SST between 2 °C and 3 °C, and a decrease in the pH and in the saturation state of water with respect to calcium carbonate minerals in the UML. A decrease in the total ocean inventory of dissolved oxygen by 2% to 4% is projected by the range of models. Projected O2 changes in the UML show a complex pattern with both increasing and decreasing trends reflecting the subtle balance of different competing factors such as circulation, production, remineralization, and temperature changes. Projected changes in the total volume of hypoxic and suboxic waters remain relatively small in all models. A widespread increase of CO2 in the UML is projected. The median of the CO2 distribution between 100 and 600m shifts from 0.1-0.2 mol m-3 in year 1990 to 0.2-0.4 mol m-3 in year 2100, primarily as a result of the invasion of anthropogenic carbon from the atmosphere. The co-occurrence of changes in a range of environmental variables indicates the need to further investigate their synergistic impacts on marine ecosystems and Earth System feedbacks.

  12. Enhanced viral activity and dark CO2 fixation rates under oxygen depletion: the case study of the marine Lake Rogoznica.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Petani, Bruna; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Ciglenečki, Irena; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Global change is determining the expansion of marine oxygen-depleted zones, which are hot spots of microbial-driven biogeochemical processes. However, information on the functioning of the microbial assemblages and the role of viruses in such low-oxygen systems remains largely unknown. Here, we used the marine Rogoznica Lake as a natural model to investigate the possible consequences of oxygen depletion on virus-prokaryote interactions and prokaryotic metabolism in pelagic and benthic ecosystems. We found higher bacterial and archaeal abundances in oxygen-depleted than in oxic conditions, associated with higher heterotrophic carbon production, enzymatic activities and dark inorganic carbon fixation (DCF) rates. The oxygen-depleted systems were also characterized by higher viral abundance, production and virus-induced prokaryotic mortality. The highest DCF relative contribution to the whole total C production (> 30%) was found in oxygen-depleted systems, at the highest virus-induced prokaryotic mortality values (> 90%). Our results suggest that the higher rates of viral lysis in oxygen-depleted conditions can significantly enhance DCF by accelerating heterotrophic processes, organic matter cycling, and hence the supply of inorganic reduced compounds fuelling chemosynthesis. These findings suggest that the expansion of low-oxygen zones can trigger higher viral impacts on prokaryotic heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolism, with cascading effects, neglected so far, on biogeochemical processes. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Carbon and oxygen isotopes of Maastrichtian Danian shallow marine carbonates: Yacoraite Formation, northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquillas, Rosa; Sabino, Ignacio; Nobrega Sial, Alcides; Papa, Cecilia del; Ferreira, Valderez; Matthews, Stephen

    2007-04-01

    The Maastrichtian-Danian limestones of the Yacoraite Formation (northwestern Argentina) show carbon and oxygen isotopic values consistent with shallow marine conditions. The members of the formation respond to different sedimentary environments and are characterised by distinctive stable isotopes and geochemistry. The basal Amblayo Member is composed of high-energy dolomitic limestones and limestones with positive isotopic values (+2‰ δ 13C, +2‰ δ 18O). The top of the member reveals an isotopic shift of δ 13C (-5‰) and δ 18O (-10‰), probably related to a descent in the sea level. The sandy Güemes Member has isotopically negative (-2‰ δ 13C, -1‰ δ 18O) limestones, principally controlled by water mixing, decreased organic productivity, and compositional changes in the carbonates. The isotopically lighter limestones are calcitic, with a greater terrigenous contribution and different geochemical composition (high Si-Mn-Fe-Na, low Ca-Mg-Sr). These isotopic and lithological changes relate to the Cretaceous-Palaeogene transition. The Alemanía Member, composed of dolomitic limestones and pelites, represents a return to marine conditions and shows a gradual increase in isotopic values, reaching values similar to those of the Amblayo Member. The Juramento Member, composed of stromatolite limestones, shows isotopic variations that can be correlated with the two well-defined, shallowing-upward sequences of the member.

  14. Oxygen Delivery from Hyperbarically Loaded Microtanks Extends Cell Viability in Anoxic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Colin A.; Hahn, Kathryn C.; Morrissette-McAlmon, Justin B.F.; Grayson, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen diffusion limitations within nascent tissue engineered (TE) grafts lead to the development of hypoxic regions, cell death, and graft failure. Previous efforts have been made to deliver oxygen within TE scaffolds, including peroxide-doping, perfluorocarbons, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, to mitigate these effects and help maintain post transplantation cell viability, but these have suffered from significant drawbacks. Here we present a novel approach utilizing polymeric hollow-core microspheres that can be hyperbarically loaded with oxygen and subsequently provide prolonged oxygen delivery. These oxygen carriers are termed, microtanks. With an interest in orthopedic applications, we combined microtanks within polycaprolactone to form solid phase constructs with oxygen delivery capabilities. The mathematical laws governing oxygen delivery from microtank-loaded constructs are developed along with empirical validation. Constructs achieved periods of oxygen delivery out to 6 days, which was shown to prolong the survival of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as to enhance their cellular morphology under anoxic conditions. The results of this study suggest the microtank approach may be a feasible means of maintaining cell viability in TE scaffolds during the critical period of vascularization in vivo. PMID:25818444

  15. The known and unknown sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in haemocytes of marine bivalve molluscs.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Jauzein, Cécile; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) are naturally produced in all cells and organisms. Modifications of standard conditions alter reactive species generation and may result in oxidative stress. Because of the degradation of marine ecosystems, massive aquaculture productions, global change and pathogenic infections, oxidative stress is highly prevalent in marine bivalve molluscs. Haemocytes of bivalve molluscs produce ROS and RNS as part of their basal metabolism as well as in response to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. However, sources and pathways of reactive species production are currently poorly deciphered in marine bivalves, potentially leading to misinterpretations. Although sources and pathways of ROS and RNS productions are highly conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, some uncommon pathways seem to only exist in marine bivalves. To understand the biology and pathobiology of ROS and RNS in haemocytes of marine bivalves, it is necessary to characterise their sources and pathways of production. The aims of the present review are to discuss the currently known and unknown intracellular sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in marine bivalve molluscs, in light of terrestrial vertebrates, and to expose principal pitfalls usually encountered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantifying seascape structure: Extending terrestrial spatial pattern metrics to the marine realm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedding, L.M.; Christopher, L.A.; Pittman, S.J.; Friedlander, A.M.; Jorgensen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial pattern metrics have routinely been applied to characterize and quantify structural features of terrestrial landscapes and have demonstrated great utility in landscape ecology and conservation planning. The important role of spatial structure in ecology and management is now commonly recognized, and recent advances in marine remote sensing technology have facilitated the application of spatial pattern metrics to the marine environment. However, it is not yet clear whether concepts, metrics, and statistical techniques developed for terrestrial ecosystems are relevant for marine species and seascapes. To address this gap in our knowledge, we reviewed, synthesized, and evaluated the utility and application of spatial pattern metrics in the marine science literature over the past 30 yr (1980 to 2010). In total, 23 studies characterized seascape structure, of which 17 quantified spatial patterns using a 2-dimensional patch-mosaic model and 5 used a continuously varying 3-dimensional surface model. Most seascape studies followed terrestrial-based studies in their search for ecological patterns and applied or modified existing metrics. Only 1 truly unique metric was found (hydrodynamic aperture applied to Pacific atolls). While there are still relatively few studies using spatial pattern metrics in the marine environment, they have suffered from similar misuse as reported for terrestrial studies, such as the lack of a priori considerations or the problem of collinearity between metrics. Spatial pattern metrics offer great potential for ecological research and environmental management in marine systems, and future studies should focus on (1) the dynamic boundary between the land and sea; (2) quantifying 3-dimensional spatial patterns; and (3) assessing and monitoring seascape change. ?? Inter-Research 2011.

  17. The age curves of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in marine sulfate and their mutual interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claypool, George E.; Holser, William T.; Kaplan, Isaac R.; Sakai, Hitoshi; Zak, Israel

    1980-01-01

    Three hundred new samples of marine evaporite sulfate, of world-wide distribution, were analyzed for δ34S, and 60 of these also for δ18O in the sulfate ion. Detailed δ34S age curves for Tertiary—Cretaceous, Permian—Pennsylvanian, Devonian, Cambrian and Proterozoic times document large variations in δ34S. A summary curve forδ18O also shows definite variations, some at different times than δ34S, and always smaller. The measured δ34S and δ18O correspond to variations in these isotopes in sulfate of the world ocean surface. The variations of δ18O are controlled by input and output fluxes of sulfur in the ocean, three of which are the same that control δ34S: deposition and erosion of sulfate, and deposition of sulfide. Erosion of sulfide differs in its effect on the S and O systems. δ18O in the sulfate does not seem to be measurably affected by equilibration with either seawater or with subsurface waters after crystallization. In principle, the simultaneous application of both δ34S and δ18O age curves should help reduce the number of assumptions in calculations of the cycles of sulfur and oxygen through geological time, and a new model involving symmetrical fluxes is introduced here to take advantage of the oxygen data. However, all previously published models as well as this one lead to anomalies, such as unreasonable calcium or oxygen depletions in the ocean—atmosphere system. In addition, most models are incapable of reproducing the sharp rises of the δ34S curve in the late Proterozoic, the Devonian and the Triassic which would be the result of unreasonably fast net sulfide deposition. This fast depletion could result from an ocean that has not always been mixed (as previously assumed in all model calculations).

  18. Genome and physiology of a model Epsilonproteobacterium responsible for sulfide detoxification in marine oxygen depletion zones

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Jana; Schott, Thomas; Bruckner, Christian G.; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Jost, Günter; Teeling, Hanno; Labrenz, Matthias; Jürgens, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Eutrophication and global climate change lead to expansion of hypoxia in the ocean, often accompanied by the production of hydrogen sulfide, which is toxic to higher organisms. Chemoautotrophic bacteria are thought to buffer against increased sulfide concentrations by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide before its diffusion to oxygenated surface waters. Model organisms from such environments have not been readily available, which has contributed to a poor understanding of these microbes. We present here a detailed study of “Sulfurimonas gotlandica” str. GD1, an Epsilonproteobacterium isolated from the Baltic Sea oxic-anoxic interface, where it plays a key role in nitrogen and sulfur cycling. Whole-genome analysis and laboratory experiments revealed a high metabolic flexibility, suggesting a considerable capacity for adaptation to variable redox conditions. S. gotlandica str. GD1 was shown to grow chemolithoautotrophically by coupling denitrification with oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and dark CO2 fixation. Metabolic versatility was further suggested by the use of a range of different electron donors and acceptors and organic carbon sources. The number of genes involved in signal transduction and metabolic pathways exceeds those of other Epsilonproteobacteria. Oxygen tolerance and environmental-sensing systems combined with chemotactic responses enable this organism to thrive successfully in marine oxygen-depletion zones. We propose that S. gotlandica str. GD1 will serve as a model organism in investigations that will lead to a better understanding how members of the Epsilonproteobacteria are able to cope with water column anoxia and the role these microorganisms play in the detoxification of sulfidic waters. PMID:22203982

  19. Oxygen K edge scattering from bulk comb diblock copolymer reveals extended, ordered backbones above lamellar order-disorder transition

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, Jeffrey Barrett; Sun, Jing; Spencer, Ryan K.; Jiang, Xi; Zuckermann, Ronald N.

    2016-12-14

    The evolution of molecular morphology in bulk samples of comb diblock copolymer pNdc12-b-pNte21 across the lamellar order-disorder transition (ODT) is studied using resonant x-ray scattering at the oxygen K edge, with the goal of determining whether the molecules remain extended or collapse above the ODT. The distinct spectral resonances of carbonyl oxygen on the backbone and ether oxygen in the pNte side chains combine with their different site symmetry within the molecule to yield strong differences in bulk structural sensitivity at all temperatures. Comparison with simple models for the disordered phase clearly reveals that disordering at the ODT corresponds to loss of positional order of molecules with extended backbones that retain orientational order, rather than backbone collapse into a locally isotropic disordered phase. This conclusion is facilitated directly by the distinct structural sensitivity at the two resonances. Lastly, we discuss the roles of depolarized scattering in enhancing this sensitivity, and background fluorescence in limiting dynamic range, in oxygen resonant scattering.

  20. Oxygen K edge scattering from bulk comb diblock copolymer reveals extended, ordered backbones above lamellar order-disorder transition

    DOE PAGES

    Kortright, Jeffrey Barrett; Sun, Jing; Spencer, Ryan K.; ...

    2016-12-14

    The evolution of molecular morphology in bulk samples of comb diblock copolymer pNdc12-b-pNte21 across the lamellar order-disorder transition (ODT) is studied using resonant x-ray scattering at the oxygen K edge, with the goal of determining whether the molecules remain extended or collapse above the ODT. The distinct spectral resonances of carbonyl oxygen on the backbone and ether oxygen in the pNte side chains combine with their different site symmetry within the molecule to yield strong differences in bulk structural sensitivity at all temperatures. Comparison with simple models for the disordered phase clearly reveals that disordering at the ODT corresponds tomore » loss of positional order of molecules with extended backbones that retain orientational order, rather than backbone collapse into a locally isotropic disordered phase. This conclusion is facilitated directly by the distinct structural sensitivity at the two resonances. Lastly, we discuss the roles of depolarized scattering in enhancing this sensitivity, and background fluorescence in limiting dynamic range, in oxygen resonant scattering.« less

  1. Advancement in recombinant protein production using a marine oxygen carrier to enhance oxygen transfer in a CHO-S cell line.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Fiona; Bossard, Morgane; Dutheil, Delphine; Rousselot, Morgane; Polard, Valérie; Férec, Claude; Leize, Elisabeth; Delépine, Pascal; Zal, Franck

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant proteins, particularly proteins used as therapeutics, are widely expressed for bioprocessing manufacturing processes. Mammalian cell lines represent the major host cells for bioproduction, according to their capacities of post-translational modifications and folding of secreted proteins. Many parameters can affect cell productivity, especially the rate of oxygen transfer. Dissolved oxygen, in high or low proportions, is a crucial parameter which can affect cell viability and thus productivity. HEMARINA has developed a new technology, commercially proposed as HEMOXCell(®), to improve cell culture at a large production scale. HEMOXCell(®) is a marine oxygen carrier having properties of high oxygen sensitivity, to be used as an oxygen additive during cell culture manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the effects of HEMOXCell(®) on the culture of the commonly used CHO-S cell line. Two main objectives were pursued: 1) cell growth rate and viability during a batch mode process, and 2) the determination of the effect of this oxygen carrier on recombinant protein production from a CHO-transfected cell line. Our results show an increase of CHO-S cellular growth at a rate of more than four-fold in culture with HEMOXCell(®). Moreover, an extension of the growth exponential phase and high cell viability were observed. All of these benefits seem to contribute to the improvement of recombinant protein production. This work underlines several applications using this marine-type oxygen carrier for large biomanufacturing. It is a promising cell culture additive according to the increasing demand for therapeutic products such as monoclonal antibodies.

  2. Experimental investigation of engine emissions with marine gas oil-oxygenate blends.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates the diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil-alternative fuel additive. Marine gas oil (MGO) was selected as base fuel for the engine experiments. An oxygenate, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM), and a biodiesel (BD) jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) with a volume of 10% were blended with the MGO fuel. JOME was derived from inedible jatropha oil. Lower emissions with diesel-BD blends (soybean methyl ester, rapeseed methyl ester etc.) have been established so far, but the effect of MGO-BD (JOME) blends on engine performance and emissions has been a growing interest as JOME (BD) is derived from inedible oil and MGO is frequently used in maritime transports. No phase separation between MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends was found. The neat MGO, MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends are termed as MGO, Ox10 and B10 respectively. The experiments were conducted with a six-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged, direct-injection Scania DC 1102 (DI) diesel engine. The experimental results showed significant reductions in fine particle number and mass emissions, PM and smoke emissions with Ox10 and B10 fuels compared to the MGO fuel. Other emissions including total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and engine noise were also reduced with the Ox10 and B10 fuels, while maintaining similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency with MGO fuel. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, on the other hand, were slightly higher with the Ox10 and B10 fuels at high engine load conditions.

  3. Metagenomic analysis of size-fractionated picoplankton in a marine oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Sangita; Parris, Darren J; DeLong, Edward F; Stewart, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) support diverse microbial communities with roles in major elemental cycles. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition and metabolism of OMZ microorganisms vary between particle-associated and free-living size fractions. We used amplicon (16S rRNA gene) and shotgun metagenome sequencing to compare microbial communities from large (>1.6 μm) and small (0.2–1.6 μm) filter size fractions along a depth gradient in the OMZ off Chile. Despite steep vertical redox gradients, size fraction was a significantly stronger predictor of community composition compared to depth. Phylogenetic diversity showed contrasting patterns, decreasing towards the anoxic OMZ core in the small size fraction, but exhibiting maximal values at these depths within the larger size fraction. Fraction-specific distributions were evident for key OMZ taxa, including anammox planctomycetes, whose coding sequences were enriched up to threefold in the 0.2–1.6 μm community. Functional gene composition also differed between fractions, with the >1.6 μm community significantly enriched in genes mediating social interactions, including motility, adhesion, cell-to-cell transfer, antibiotic resistance and mobile element activity. Prokaryotic transposase genes were three to six fold more abundant in this fraction, comprising up to 2% of protein-coding sequences, suggesting that particle surfaces may act as hotbeds for transposition-based genome changes in marine microbes. Genes for nitric and nitrous oxide reduction were also more abundant (three to seven fold) in the larger size fraction, suggesting microniche partitioning of key denitrification steps. These results highlight an important role for surface attachment in shaping community metabolic potential and genome content in OMZ microorganisms. PMID:24030599

  4. Formation of AN Extended Halo of Hot Oxygen Atoms in the Wake Region of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ying; Ip, Wing Huen

    From the detailed measurements in Venusian ionosphere by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, it was well-known that there is a large day-to-night flow of ionospheric plasma with the horizontal speed reaching a value as high as 5 km/s at 500 km altitude near the terminator. This large-scale anti-sunward convective motion could lead to a significant distortion of the hot oxygen corona maintained by oxygen atoms from {\\text{O}}_2^ + dissociation recombination into a tadpole-like structure. A Monte-Carlo model is developed to simulate the two-dimensional configuration of such a hot oxygen corona.

  5. Extended-wear of high oxygen-permeable quantum contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Kok, J H; Hilbrink, H J; Rosenbrand, R M; Visser, R

    1992-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of extended-wear of rigid aspherical high gas-permeable contact lenses on the cornea. In the study 32 subjects (62 eyes) were followed over a period of 3 to 24 months. A high gas-permeable contact lens (Dk 92), made of fluoro-silicone-acrylate copolymer, was used. Vision remained constant during the studied period. The corneal thickness decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) during the first six months. Significant changes (p less than 0.05) were found after three months in the corneal curvature, especially in the vertical meridian. No further topographical changes were noted in the period between three and six months of extended-wear. Complications, like acute red eye syndrome and bacterial infections, which may be encountered in soft lens extended-wear, were not noticed. At the end of the study 20 subjects (38 eyes, 61%) were still on extended-wear, 9 subjects (18 eyes, 29%) changed to daily wear and 3 subjects (six eyes, 10%) became unavailable for follow-up. Extended-wear of rigid aspherical high gas-permeable contact lenses may be considered as an acceptable alternative for soft lens extended-wear.

  6. Bridging the Gap: Extending the Life of Marine Corps F/A-18 Hornets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-28

    34 Collins, Colonei"Moon" Mullin, Lieutenant Colonei"Wiz" Mayer, Lieutenant Colonei"Norm" Bates, and Major "Spicoli" Hipp . I would also like to...Major Brian "Petie" Schenk USMC, interview with author, January 19, 2011. 76 Major E. B. "Spicoli" Hipp USMC, interview with author, January 28...2011. Major Hipp is an F/A-18 Pilot serving in the F/A-18 shop at Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics Squadron 1. 77 Major Dan "Freeze" Hingley USAF

  7. Microbial competition for N intermediates drives oscillating N loss from marine oxygen deficient zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, J. L.; Weber, T. S.; Deutsch, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Small oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) below the ocean surface play a major role in regulating marine biological productivity, through the removal of bioavailable nitrogen (N). Recent observations have shown diverse microbial communities affecting N metabolic pathways, but the large-scale consequences of this complexity are unknown. Here we investigate the key microbial interactions and their importance for N loss in a circulation and ecosystem model of the largest ODZ, in the North Pacific. The microbial model replicates observed chemical distributions, but exhibits fundamentally distinct behavior from traditional models based on chemistry alone. The ecosystem undergoes local oscillations that create large variability in the regional rate of N loss, even in a steady circulation. These N loss fluctuations occur at the boundary between oxic and anoxic waters, where miniscule fluctuations in scarce resources are driven by competitive dynamics and dramatically shift the balance between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The coexistence of these populations and their competing geochemical effects reduces overall rates of N loss while expanding the scale of anoxic waters. Intrinsic ecosystem oscillations also cause dramatic swings in the ratio of heterotrophic to autotrophic N loss pathways, possibly underlying the wide variations observed in nature.

  8. Protist communities in a marine oxygen minimum zone off Costa Rica by 454 pyrosequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, H.; Rocke, E.; Kong, L.; Xia, X.; Liu, H.; Landry, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    Marine planktonic protists, including microalgae and protistan grazers, are an important contributor to global primary production and carbon and mineral cycles, however, little is known about their population shifts along the oxic-anoxic gradient in the water column. We used 454 pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and gene transcripts to study the community composition of whole and active protists throughout a water column in the Costa Rica Dome, where a stable oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) exists at a depth of 400~700 m. A clear shift of protist composition from photosynthetic Dinoflagellates in the surface to potential parasitic Dinoflagellates and Ciliates in the deeper water was revealed along the vertical profile at both rRNA and rDNA levels. Those protist groups recovered only at the rDNA level represent either lysed aggregates sinking from the upper waters or potential hosts for parasitic groups. UPGMA clustering demonstrated that total and active protists in the anoxic core of OMZ (550 m) were distinct from those in other water depths. The reduced community diversity and presence of a parasitic/symbiotic trophic lifestyle in the OMZ, especially the anoxic core, suggests that OMZs can exert a selective pressure on protist communities. Such changes in community structure and a shift in trophic lifestyle could result in a modulation of the microbial loop and associated biogeochemical cycling.

  9. Nitrox permits direct exit for attendants during extended hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Agneta C; Uusijärvi, Johan; Frånberg, Oskar; Eksborg, Staffan; Lindholm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent breathing of oxygen-enriched air, nitrox (1:1 air:oxygen, 60.5% O2), for attendants in multiplace hyperbaric chambers should enable treatment protocols (HOPAN - hyperbaric oxygen protocol attendants' nitrox) of up to 200 minutes at 2.8 atmospheres absolute (ATA), while retaining the option of a direct decompression and exit. HOPAN with cycles of 15 minutes of nitrox breathing followed by 10 minutes of chamber air for attendants were occasionally used from 2007-2009. HOPAN vs. LTP (local treatment protocols) were evaluated via an anonymous enquiry among attendants; patients' medical records were followed six months post-HBO2 treatment (HBO2T). 88 HOPANs, with 59 chamber attendants assisting 30 patients, were documented. HOPAN duration ranged from 55-167 minutes (median 140 minutes). 31/59 attendants answered the enquiry. Perceived comfort of each protocol (HOPAN vs. LTP) by attendants was reported as equal. Symptoms, both minor (parestesias) and severe (joint pain), were reported in connection with LTP, while only one occurrence (mild joint pain) was reported in connection with HOPAN. No complications were documented among the attendants or the patients. It is suggested that nitrox breathing for chamber attendants provide flexible HBO2T for patients at 2.8 ATA for up to 200 minutes within no-decompression limits, facilitating future studies of HBO2T dosage.

  10. Phosphate oxygen isotope ratio proxy for specific microbial activity in marine sediments (Peru Margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; Blake, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    Oxygen (O) isotope ratios of biogenic apatites have been widely used as paleotemperature and environmental geochemical proxies. With improved knowledge of the phosphate O isotope effects of different P cycling pathways, the δ18O value of inorganic phosphate (δ18OP) has been proposed as a useful proxy and tracer of biological reactions and P cycling in natural environments[1,2,3,4]. Being the only way of removing P from oceanic water, sedimentary P burial is one of the most important processes during biogeochemical cycling of P. The high concentrations of organic matter and pronounced microbial activity at ODP Site 1230 along the Peru Margin result in unusually high interstitial water phosphate concentrations, which provides a unique opportunity to use δ18OP to investigate inorganic phosphate (Pi) regeneration and P cycling pathways in marine sediments. The isotopic measurements of both dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) and bulk sediment Pi show that DIP δ18OP values are affected by three different processes, which are all induced by specific microbial activities present in the sediments. In sediments at ~ 65 to 120 mbsf, porewater DIP is derived from dissolved organophosphorus compounds (DOP) through enzymatic degradation pathways, evidenced by both DIP δ18OP values and interstitial water chemistry. Measured porewater DIP δ18OP values also suggest that 4 to 8% of interstitial water DIP reflects regeneration of Pi from Porg by microbially-synthesized enzymes. Throughout the sediment column and especially at ~ 120 to 150 mbsf, DIP is released from the sediments by microbially-induced reductive dissolution of Fe-oxides, which contributes to the overall high DIP concentrations at Site 1230. The third and dominant process controlling measured DIP δ18OP values is microbial turnover of regenerated Pi. The presence of high microbial activities in organic-rich Site 1230 sediments promotes the remobilization of P and affects marine P cycling by potentially enhancing

  11. Cathodic current enhancement via manganese and oxygen related reactions in marine biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Matthew James

    Corrosion is a threat that has economic, and environmental impacts worldwide. Many types of corrosive attack are the subject of ongoing research. One of these areas of research is microbiologically influenced corrosion, which is the enhancement and/or initiation of corrosion events caused by microorganisms. It is well known that colonies of microorganisms can enhance cathodic currents through biofilm formation. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of manganese in enhancing cathodic currents in the presence of biofilms. Repeated polarizations conducted in Delaware Bay waters, on biofilm coated Cr identified potentially sustainable reduction reactions. The reduction of MnO2 and the enhancement of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were proven to be factors that influence cathodic current enhancement. The removal of ambient oxygen during polarizations resulted in a shutdown of cathodic current enhancement. These field data led to an exploration of the synergistic relationship between MnO2 and the ORR. Laboratory studies of the catalysis of peroxide disproportionation by MnO2 were monitored using a hanging mercury drop electrode. Experiments were run at an ambient sweater pH of 8 and pH 9, which simulated the near-surface conditions typical of cathodes immersed in seawater. Rapid reoxidation at the more basic pH was shown to allow manganese to behave as a persistent catalyst under the typical electrochemical surface conditions of a cathode. As a result a mechanism for ORR enhancement by manganese was proposed as a unique mechanism for cathodic current enhancement in biofilms. A separate field study of Delaware biofilms on stainless steel coupled to a sacrificial Al anode was carried out to identify the ORR enhancement mechanism and sustainable redox reactions at the cathode. Chemical treatments of glutaraldehyde and formaldoxime were applied to cathodes with biofilms to distinguish between enzymatic and MnO2 related ORR enhancement. The results ruled

  12. Induction of reactive oxygen species in marine phytoplankton under crude oil exposure.

    PubMed

    Ozhan, Koray; Zahraeifard, Sara; Smith, Aaron P; Bargu, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    Exposure of phytoplankton to the water-accommodated fraction of crude oil can elicit a number of stress responses, but the mechanisms that drive these responses are unclear. South Louisiana crude oil was selected to investigate its effects on population growth, chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, antioxidative defense, and lipid peroxidation, for the marine diatom, Ditylum brightwellii, and the dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa triquetra, in laboratory-based microcosm experiments. The transcript levels of several possible stress-responsive genes in D. brightwellii were also measured. The microalgae were exposed to crude oil for up to 96 h, and Chl a content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), the glutathione pool (GSH and GSSG), and lipid peroxidation content were analyzed. The cell growth of both phytoplankton species was inhibited with increasing crude oil concentrations. Crude oil exposure did not affect Chl a content significantly in cells. SOD activities showed similar responses in both species, being enhanced at 4- and 8-mg/L crude oil exposure. Only H. triquetra demonstrated enhanced activity in GSSG pool and lipid peroxidation at 8-mg/L crude oil exposure, suggesting that phytoplankton species have distinct physiological responses and tolerance levels to crude oil exposure. This study indicated the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phytoplankton under crude oil exposure; however, the progressive damage in cells is still unknown. Thus, ROS-related damage in nucleic acid, lipids, proteins, and DNA, due to crude oil exposure could be a worthwhile subject of study to better understand crude oil toxicity at the base of the food web.

  13. I See the Light! …Or Maybe Not. Evaluating the Effects of Oxygen and Light on Highly Visual Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, L.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Visual systems have a high metabolic oxygen demand, and in marine organisms with complex eyes, sensitivity to light may be reduced in areas of hypoxia. Oxygen stress may effectively increase the light required for full visual function, therefore limiting organisms that rely on vision to certain areas of the water column where the demands for both oxygen and light are met. This presentation will provide a framework for determining vision-induced effects of hypoxia by discussing the interaction of oxygen, light, and vision in marine organisms with complex eyes. The idea of a "lumoxy scape" will be presented to illustrate temporal and spatial combinations of light and oxygen using long-term field measurements. Organisms will utilize this lumoxy scape based on limits of metabolism and visual sensitivity, and avoid areas where visual function is impaired. As a result, discussion of potential changes in behavior and distribution in visual marine organisms is important during increased deoxygenation and/or hypoxic events.

  14. Nmdmc overexpression extends Drosophila lifespan and reduces levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Suyeun; Jang, Yeogil; Paik, Donggi; Lee, Eunil; Park, Joong-Jean

    2015-10-02

    NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (NMDMC) is a bifunctional enzyme involved in folate-dependent metabolism and highly expressed in rapidly proliferating cells. However, Nmdmc physiological roles remain unveiled. We found that ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced Drosophila lifespan and stress resistance. Interestingly, Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body was sufficient to increase lifespan and tolerance against oxidative stress. In addition, these conditions coincided with significant decreases in the levels of mitochondrial ROS and Hsp22 as well as with a significant increase in the copy number of mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest that Nmdmc overexpression should be beneficial for mitochondrial homeostasis and increasing lifespan. - Highlights: • Ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced lifespan and stress tolerance. • Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body extended longevity. • Fat body-specific Nmdmc overexpression increased oxidative stress resistance. • Nmdmc overexpression decreased Hsp22 transcript levels and ROS. • Nmdmc overexpression increased mitochondrial DNA copy number.

  15. Evaluation of variation in oxygen transmission in rigid contact lens extended wear.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J M; Huff, J W; Bennett, E S; Davis, L J

    1989-01-01

    Variation in thickness is known to affect the Dk/L of rigid gas permeable contact lenses. Our study was designed to evaluate the variability of central and average thickness of Oxyflow EW lenses. In addition, the relationship between overnight swelling of the central cornea and Dk/L was examined to determine whether Dk/L calculated with central lens thickness correlated better with lens-induced edema than Dk/L calculated with average lens thickness. The results showed marked variation among lens center thicknesses for all powers (-6 D, -2 D, +2 D, +6 D) examined, and, as expected, more variation for centrally calculated Dk/L with high minus lenses. Average Dk/L did not vary significantly with power. Average and central Dk/L values had a near 1:1 relationship for -2 D lenses for the base curve (7.8 mm) ordered; but only when power was kept constant was a good correlation seen between central and average Dk/L. A one-patient study evaluating the overnight central swelling response to three +6 D and three -6 D (high, medium, and low center thickness) lenses showed that central Dk/L correlated better with lens-induced edema than average Dk/L. Thus, specifying central thickness on lens orders appears to be a primary variable influencing extended wear edema at night. Peripheral Dk/L, however, may influence corneal physiological variables other than central edema and warrants further study.

  16. Heterogeneous sources of oxygenated hydrocarbons in the tropical free troposphere: Field evidence for a biogeochemical cycle of marine organic carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkamer, R.; Apel, E. C.; Baidar, S.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B. K.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Pierce, R.; Ortega, I.; Romashkin, P.; Wang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Oceans cover 70% of the Earth surface, and the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contained in the world's oceans is comparable to that of atmospheric CO2. Yet oceans are currently believed to be a net-receptor for organic carbon that is emitted over land. Recent our observations of very short-lived and very water soluble oxygenated hydrocarbons, like glyoxal, in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL) above the Pacific Ocean (Sinreich et al., 2010, ACP) remain as of yet unexplained by atmospheric models. Organic carbon is relevant in the atmosphere because it influences the reactive chemical removal pathways of climate active gases (i.e., ozone, methane, dimethyl-sulfide), and can modify aerosols (e.g., secondary organic aerosol, SOA). This presentation provides a comprehensive field evidence that small oxygenated molecules (glyoxal, methyl ethyl ketone, butanal) from marine sources are widespread also in the tropical free troposphere. The data were collected as part of the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange experiment TORERO during Jan/Feb 2012 by means of an innovative payload of optical spectroscopic-, mass spectrometric-, and remote sensing instruments aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft (HIAPER), and aboard a NOAA ship. We have measured oxygenated hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (some 50+ species), aerosol size distributions, photolysis frequencies and other parameters over the full tropospheric air column (0-15km altitude) between 40N to 40S latitude over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. We investigate the source mechanism, present source estimates of the organic carbon flux, and compare it with other sources of organic carbon from marine sources. We also present results from numerical models that suggest a strong impact of these molecules on the oxidative capacity of the tropical free troposphere, where most of tropospheric ozone mass resides, 60-80% of the global methane destruction occurs, and mercury oxidation rates are accelerated at

  17. Reconstructing Holocene bottom water oxygenation and fluvial discharge in the marine environment near Eureka, California using a portable XRF method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtt, D. G.; Addison, J. A.; Foster, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is a method of performing chemical composition analysis of bulk samples. Traditionally, samples are processed gradually over days or weeks to create topographically flat, dry, and homogenous compositions. The current experiment applies this technique for rapid measurement of chemical composition in intact marine sediment cores. We used a handheld Thermo Scientific NitonXL3t-950 XRF to measure the core TN062-O550 (40.867 N, 124.572 W, 550 m water depth), which was collected from 13 km off the coast of Eureka, California. Custom calibrations were developed to accommodate marine sediments, and measurements collected by hand were compared to those taken using a custom-built sediment core stand. Following the initial calibration tests, the portable XRF was used to assess water column oxygen levels within TN062-O550 over the last 4000 years. This assessment was based upon the relatively well-known correspondence between iron and titanium, which can be used to infer the relative abundance of ferric and ferrous minerals, and therefore serve as a proxy for ambient oxygen levels. In addition to testing the oxygenation, these analyses were used to investigate the potential correlation between iron levels and deposition by fluvial discharge and/or surface run-off (rainfall). We found a strongly positive correlation between iron and titanium throughout the length of the core. This correlation suggests that more oxidized iron has accumulated than reduced iron, thus implying oxygenation in the water column and/or upper sediment profile. This is further supported by pervasive bioturbation in the sediment core. These results also have implications for applying these geochemical data as a proxy for regional precipitation and/or fluvial deposition in the marine environment. Based on a preliminary age-depth model developed for TN062-O550, and application of the iron and titanium concentrations as a precipitation proxy, there is a relative maximum

  18. Marine biological production from in situ oxygen measurements on a profiling float in the subarctic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushinsky, Seth M.; Emerson, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the organic carbon flux from the surface ocean to the interior (the marine biological pump) is essential for predictions of ocean carbon cycle feedback to climate change. One approach for determining these fluxes is to measure the concentration of oxygen in the upper ocean over a seasonal cycle, calculate the net O2 flux using an upper ocean model, and then use a stoichiometric relationship between oxygen evolved and organic carbon produced. Applying this tracer in a variety of ocean areas over seasonal cycles requires accurate O2 measurements on autonomous vehicles. Here we demonstrate this approach using an O2 sensor on a profiling float that is periodically calibrated against atmospheric pO2. Using accurate data and a model that includes all physical and biological processes influencing oxygen, we determine an annual net community production of 0.7 ± 0.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the northeast Pacific Ocean (50°N, 145°W) from June 2012 to June 2013. There is a strong seasonal cycle in net biological oxygen production with wintertime fluxes caused by bubble processes critical to determining the annual flux. Approximately 50% of net autotrophic production during summer months is consumed by net respiration during the winter. The result is a biological pump in the subarctic Pacific Ocean that is less than that determined by similar methods in the subtropics to the south. This estimate is significantly lower than that predicted by satellite remote sensing and global circulation models.

  19. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organism’s photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO2. No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs. PMID:20133799

  20. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water.

    PubMed

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-02-09

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organism's photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO(2). No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs.

  1. A Novel Anoxic Pathway for Urea and Cyanate in Marine Oxygen Deficient Zones Revealed by Combined Microbiological and Biogeochemical Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widner, B.; Fuchsman, C. A.; Babbin, A. R.; Ji, Q.; Mulholland, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Urea and cyanate are reduced nitrogen compounds that can serve as nitrogen and carbon sources for marine microbes, and cyanate forms from decomposition of urea. Some marine bacteria, including cyanobacteria, possess genes encoding an ABC-type cyanate transporter and an intracellular cyanate hydratase, and genes for urea uptake and assimilation are widespread. To investigate cyanate distribution and availability in the ocean, we recently developed a nanomolar cyanate assay specific to seawater. In an oxygenated water column, urea and cyanate concentrations are generally low in surface waters and exhibit a concentration maximum near the base of the euphotic zone likely due to production from organic matter degradation. Below the euphotic zone, urea and cyanate concentrations decrease, likely due to oxidation reactions. It has been suggested that simple organic nitrogen compounds may support anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in oxygen deficient zones (ODZs). We mapped urea and cyanate distributions and used stable isotope-labeled urea and cyanate to measure their potential support of anammox and their uptake within the Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific ODZs. We also employed metagenomic techniques to determine the abundance and distribution of genes for the uptake and assimilation of urea and cyanate. The combined data indicate that, in ODZs, urea is used primarily as a nitrogen source while cyanate is used as both a nitrogen source and to generate energy.

  2. Effect of antioxidant supplementation in semen extenders on semen quality and reactive oxygen species of chilled canine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Michael, A J; Alexopoulos, C; Pontiki, E A; Hadjipavlou-Litina, D J; Saratsis, P; Ververidis, H N; Boscos, C M

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate quality of chilled dog semen processed with extenders containing various antioxidants. Single ejaculates from five dogs were always pooled and evaluated for concentration, sperm motility, progressive motility (RSF-movement), viability, acrosomal integrity and by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS)-test. Also, superoxide (O(2)(-)) production, hydroxyl radicals (OH) and total reactive oxygen species (tROS) were determined. Pooled semen was divided in seven aliquots (for control and test conditions), which were diluted to a final concentration of 67x10(6)spermatozoa/ml with TRIS-glucose-egg yolk extender with or without the following supplements: control (without antioxidants), vitamin C (0.5mM), N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC; 0.5mM), taurine (0.2mM), catalase (100u/ml), vitamin E (0.1mM) and 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-2-phenyl-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (B16; 0.1mM). The semen aliquots were chilled and preserved at 4 degrees C. Portions of chilled semen were removed at 24 and 72h, and semen quality was evaluated after rewarming. At 24h the mean (+/-S.E.M.) sperm motility was higher (p<0.001) when vitamin E, taurine and B16 were added in the extender, whereas more spermatozoa with RSF-movement were observed (p<0.001) in the vitamin E, catalase, B16 and taurine groups. Sperm viability was higher (p=0.040) in B16 and vitamin E groups and the percentage of swollen spermatozoa was higher (p=0.002) only in the B16 group. Acrosomal integrity and OH were not significantly influenced by any of the antioxidants tested. Superoxide production was significantly lower when vitamin C, B16 and vitamin E were added in semen extenders compared with the control (p=0.017). All antioxidant groups, except vitamin C and NAC, contained less tROS compared to the control group, but only the B16 group value differed significantly (p=0.05). At 72h sperm motility was higher (p<0.001) when vitamin E, catalase, B16, taurine and NAC were added in the extender. More

  3. Arctic Ocean Cyclostratigraphy: An Alternative to Marine Oxygen Isotope curves as measures of Cryospheric and Sea-Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, T. M.; Marzen, R.; O'Regan, M.; Dwyer, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    Marine benthic and planktic foraminiferal oxygen isotope (δ18O) records, in conjunction with uranium-series dated fossil coral terraces, are often used as proxies of polar ice volume and sea level changes. However, multiple factors affect the δ18O signal in any particular region and corals are subject to large uncertainty due to glacio-isostatic and tectonic processes. An outstanding question is how cyclostratigraphic changes in sediments from central Arctic Ocean (CAO) submarine ridges (Northwind, Mendeleev, Lomonosov) record variations in the cryospheric history of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) on orbital timescales, and whether these changes can be used as a proxy for land ice volume. In this study, we review lithological (grain size, bulk density, color, mineral content), geochemical (manganese, δ18O, Mg/Ca ratios) and microfaunal (planktic, benthic foraminifera, ostracodes) evidence from several dozen CAO cores that, depending on the site, exhibit orbital scale variability back to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 through 17. These proxies are sensitive to changes in land ice, ice shelves, sea ice, nutrient influx and primary productivity, temperature, and surface-to-seafloor organic matter flux. Reconstructed composite CAO records reveal glacial-interglacial changes in ice cover, surface-water productivity, and at some sites post-depositional sediment processes. Results show the Arctic system exhibits a series of interglacials and strong interstadials of roughly equal magnitude seen in spikes in several proxies. It is noteworthy that seasonally sea-ice free conditions during MIS substages (MIS 3, 5a, 5c, 7a, 7c, 9c, 11a) are comparable to those of "peak" interglacials (MIS 5, 7e, 9e, 11c). Warm periods are associated with ice sheet, ice shelf and sea ice cover minima and marine productivity maxima and are spaced at approximately 20-kyr periods. Discrepancies between the Arctic sediment records and extra-Arctic proxies of global ice volume suggest

  4. Organelles Contribute Differentially to Reactive Oxygen Species-Related Events during Extended Darkness1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwasser, Shilo; Rot, Ilona; Sollner, Evelyn; Meyer, Andreas J.; Smith, Yoav; Leviatan, Noam; Fluhr, Robert; Friedman, Haya

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves by extended darkness generates a genetically activated senescence program that culminates in cell death. The transcriptome of leaves subjected to extended darkness was found to contain a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-specific signatures. The levels of transcripts constituting the transcriptome footprints of chloroplasts and cytoplasm ROS stresses decreased in leaves, as early as the second day of darkness. In contrast, an increase was detected in transcripts associated with mitochondrial and peroxisomal ROS stresses. The sequential changes in the redox state of the organelles during darkness were examined by redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein probes (roGFP) that were targeted to specific organelles. In plastids, roGFP showed a decreased level of oxidation as early as the first day of darkness, followed by a gradual increase to starting levels. However, in mitochondria, the level of oxidation of roGFP rapidly increased as early as the first day of darkness, followed by an increase in the peroxisomal level of oxidation of roGFP on the second day. No changes in the probe oxidation were observed in the cytoplasm until the third day. The increase in mitochondrial roGFP degree of oxidation was abolished by sucrose treatment, implying that oxidation is caused by energy deprivation. The dynamic redox state visualized by roGFP probes and the analysis of microarray results are consistent with a scenario in which ROS stresses emanating from the mitochondria and peroxisomes occur early during darkness at a presymptomatic stage and jointly contribute to the senescence program. PMID:21372201

  5. Effect of Monosaccharides in Glycerol-free Tris Extender on Reactive Oxygen Species and Apoptosis in Dog Sperm Cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M A; Park, S H; Yu, I J

    The present study investigated the effect of monosaccharides in a glycerol-free tris (GFT) extender on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and apoptosis in cryopreserved dog spermatozoa. The sperm pellets were resuspended (5 × 10(7) mL(-1)) with GFT containing 172 mM glucose (G), 86 mM glucose + 86 mM fructose (GF), 86 mM glucose + 86 mM galactose (Gg), 172 mM fructose (F), 172 mM galactose (g) or 86 mM fructose + 86 mM galactose (Fg). The sperm (500 µL) were loaded in 0.5 mL straws and cooled for 50 min at 4 degree C. The straws were then frozen 7 cm from the surface of liquid nitrogen (LN2) for 20 min and were finally plunged into LN2. After freezing-thawing, the sperm motility and viability were evaluated. The ROS level (H2O2) and apoptosis index were assessed by using flow cytometry. GFT supplemented with GF resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) progressive sperm motility and viability followed by only G, which had greater ROS reducing capacity. However, sperm cell apoptosis had no significant differences among all the experimental groups. Cryopreservation of dog sperm in GFT containing GF yields more motile and viable sperm followed by only G, which has greater ROS reducing efficiency.

  6. Oxygen isotopes of phosphatic compounds - Application for marine particulate matter, sediments and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, K.; Paytan, A.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.

    2006-01-01

    The phosphate oxygen isotopic composition in naturally occurring particulate phosphatic compounds (??18Op) can be used as a tracer for phosphate sources and to evaluate the cycling of phosphorus (P) in the environment. However, phosphatic compounds must be converted to silver phosphate prior to isotopic analysis, a process that involves digestion of particulate matter in acid. This digestion will hydrolyze some of the phosphatic compounds such that oxygen from the acid solution will be incorporated into the sample as these phosphatic compounds are converted to orthophosphate (PO 43-). To determine the extent of incorporation of reagent oxygen into the sample, we digested various phosphatic compounds in both acid amended with H218O (spiked) and unspiked acid and then converted the samples to silver phosphate for ??18Op analysis. Our results indicate that there is no isotopic fractionation associated with acid digestion at 50??C. Furthermore, we found that reagent oxygen incorporation is a function of the oxygen to phosphorus ratio (O:P) of the digested compound whereby the percentage of reagent oxygen incorporated into the sample is the same as that which is required to convert all of the P-compounds into orthophosphate. Based on these results, we developed a correction for reagent oxygen incorporation using simple mass balance, a procedure that allows for the determination of the ??18O p of samples containing a mixture of phosphatic compounds. We analyzed a variety of environmental samples for ??18O p to demonstrate the utility of this approach for understanding sources and cycling of P. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Dynamic Response of Marine Life to Extreme Temperature and Low Oxygen Events Following the End-Permian Mass Extinction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, C.; Bottjer, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction was the most devastating taxonomic and ecological crisis in the history of life on Earth. The recovery lasted 5 My making it the longest in geologic history, although the cause of the delay is still heavily debated. We find that additional environmental changes during the recovery interval reset the attempts that marine communities made toward ecological complexity, resulting in the overall appearance of a stagnant recovery. The extinction mechanisms during the end-Permian include extreme temperature change and low oxygen environments resulting from the volcanic emission of carbon dioxide and other toxic gasses to the atmosphere. The biotic response to ancient environmental change is a direct analog for the ecological impacts of modern anthropogenic climate change. We applied an ecological recovery rubric to benthic, sea floor dwelling, communities throughout the Early Triassic recovery in two major ocean basins. Newly collected bulk fossil data from the Moenkopi and Thaynes Formations from the Southwest US and the Werfen Formation in Italy were analyzed along with literature data. In Italy, directly following the extinction, low oxygen environments prevented an ecological rebound. Once low oxygen conditions receded, 600 kyr after the extinction, taxonomic diversity, fossil body size, and trace fossil complexity rebounded. A little more than 1 My into the Early Triassic, an extreme temperature event resulted in a reset of community complexity in both Italy and the Southwest US. The body size of gastropods and the repopulation of echinoderms were significantly inhibited as was trace fossil complexity. Low oxygen conditions that developed in the last ~2My of the Early Triassic limited diversity and body size in the Southwest United States. The stagnant recovery is re-interpreted as dynamic resets and rapid rebounds driven by environmental perturbations throughout the Early Triassic.

  8. Purification and characterization of a stable oxygen-evolving Photosystem II complex from a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Ryo; Tomo, Tatsuya; Noguchi, Eri; Nakajima, Saori; Suzuki, Takehiro; Okumura, Akinori; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Mimuro, Mamoru; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Enami, Isao

    2010-02-01

    Oxygen-evolving Photosystem II particles (crude PSII) retaining a high oxygen-evolving activity have been prepared from a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis (Nagao et al., 2007). The crude PSII, however, contained a large amount of fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins (FCP). In this study, a purified PSII complex which was deprived of major components of FCP was isolated by one step of anion exchange chromatography from the crude PSII treated with Triton X-100. The purified PSII was still associated with the five extrinsic proteins of PsbO, PsbQ', PsbV, Psb31 and PsbU, and showed a high oxygen-evolving activity of 2135 micromol O2 (mg Chl a)(-1) h(-1) in the presence of phenyl-p-benzoquinone which was virtually independent of the addition of CaCl2. This activity is more than 2.5-fold higher than the activity of the crude PSII. The activity was completely inhibited by 3-(3,4)-dichlorophenyl-(1,1)-dimethylurea (DCMU). The purified PSII contained 42 molecules of Chl a, 2 molecules of diadinoxanthin and 2 molecules of Chl c on the basis of two molecules of pheophytin a, and showed typical absorption and fluorescence spectra similar to those of purified PSIIs from the other organisms. In this study, we also found that the crude PSII was significantly labile, as a significant inactivation of oxygen evolution, chlorophyll bleaching and degradation of PSII subunits were observed during incubation at 25 degrees C in the dark. In contrast, these inactivation, bleaching and degradation were scarcely detected in the purified PSII. Thus, we succeeded for the first time in preparation of a stable PSII from diatom cells.

  9. In situ fluctuations of oxygen and sulphide in marine microbial sediment ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wit, Rutger; Jonkers, Henk M.; Van Den Ende, Frank P.; Van Gemerden, Hans

    Laminated microbial ecosystems (microbial mats) on the island of Schiermonnikoog (The Netherlands) were studied with respect to variation in oxygen and sulphide profiles, depth distributions of photopigments and viable number and cell volume of purple sulphur bacteria. Cyanobacteria occurred in the top 2 mm, the dominant species being Microcoleus chthonoplastes. The blooming of purple sulphur bacteria below the cyanobacterial layer was observed in autumn, the dominant species being the immotile Thiocapsa roseopersicina. Cell volume of this species is indicative of its growth rate. In situ measurements showed strong diel fluctuations in oxygen and sulphide profiles. Frequently, cyanobacteria and purple sulphur bacteria were exposed to oxygen during the day, and to anoxic conditions at night. Sulphide sometimes reached the layer of the cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria and the purple sulphur bacteria both are very well adapted to these diel fluctuations. In addition, strong seasonal variations were observed, whereas short-term fluctuations of oxygen occurred due to changing light-climate and rainfall. Attention was paid to the unusual occurrence of microbial mats on the North Sea beach during the autumn of 1987.

  10. Microbial eukaryote diversity in the marine oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Darren J.; Ganesh, Sangita; Edgcomb, Virginia P.; DeLong, Edward F.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular surveys are revealing diverse eukaryotic assemblages in oxygen-limited ocean waters. These communities may play pivotal ecological roles through autotrophy, feeding, and a wide range of symbiotic associations with prokaryotes. We used 18S rRNA gene sequencing to provide the first snapshot of pelagic microeukaryotic community structure in two cellular size fractions (0.2–1.6 μm, >1.6 μm) from seven depths through the anoxic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off northern Chile. Sequencing of >154,000 amplicons revealed contrasting patterns of phylogenetic diversity across size fractions and depths. Protist and total eukaryote diversity in the >1.6 μm fraction peaked at the chlorophyll maximum in the upper photic zone before declining by ~50% in the OMZ. In contrast, diversity in the 0.2–1.6 μm fraction, though also elevated in the upper photic zone, increased four-fold from the lower oxycline to a maximum at the anoxic OMZ core. Dinoflagellates of the Dinophyceae and endosymbiotic Syndiniales clades dominated the protist assemblage at all depths (~40–70% of sequences). Other protist groups varied with depth, with the anoxic zone community of the larger size fraction enriched in euglenozoan flagellates and acantharean radiolarians (up to 18 and 40% of all sequences, respectively). The OMZ 0.2–1.6 μm fraction was dominated (11–99%) by Syndiniales, which exhibited depth-specific variation in composition and total richness despite uniform oxygen conditions. Metazoan sequences, though confined primarily to the 1.6 μm fraction above the OMZ, were also detected within the anoxic zone where groups such as copepods increased in abundance relative to the oxycline and upper OMZ. These data, compared to those from other low-oxygen sites, reveal variation in OMZ microeukaryote composition, helping to identify clades with potential adaptations to oxygen-depletion. PMID:25389417

  11. Marine Oxygen-Deficient Zones Harbor Depauperate Denitrifying Communities Compared to Novel Genetic Diversity in Coastal Sediments.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Weisman, David; Yasuda, Michie; Jayakumar, Amal; Morrison, Hilary G; Ward, Bess B

    2015-08-01

    Denitrification is a critically important biogeochemical pathway that removes fixed nitrogen from ecosystems and thus ultimately controls the rate of primary production in nitrogen-limited systems. We examined the community structure of bacteria containing the nirS gene, a signature gene in the denitrification pathway, from estuarine and salt marsh sediments and from the water column of two of the world's largest marine oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs). We generated over 125,000 nirS gene sequences, revealing a large degree of genetic diversity including 1,815 unique taxa, the vast majority of which formed clades that contain no cultured representatives. These results underscore how little we know about the genetic diversity of metabolisms underlying this critical biogeochemical pathway. Marine sediments yielded 1,776 unique taxa when clustered at 95 % sequence identity, and there was no single nirS denitrifier that was a competitive dominant; different samples had different highly abundant taxa. By contrast, there were only 39 unique taxa identified in samples from the two ODZs, and 99 % of the sequences belonged to 5 or fewer taxa. The ODZ samples were often dominated by nirS sequences that shared a 92 % sequence identity to a nirS found in the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) genus Scalindua. This sequence was abundant in both ODZs, accounting for 38 and 59 % of all sequences, but it was virtually absent in marine sediments. Our data indicate that ODZs are remarkably depauperate in nirS genes compared to the remarkable genetic richness found in coastal sediments.

  12. Assessing the impacts of deoxygenation on marine species using blood-oxygen binding thresholds as proxies for hypoxia tolerance in the water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Mislan, A.; Deutsch, C.; Dunne, J. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Oxygen and temperature decrease, often rapidly, from shallow to deeper depths, restricting the ability of marine species to use the vertical habitat. One physiological trait that determines the tolerance of organisms to low oxygen is the oxygen affinity of respiratory pigments, hemoglobin and hemocyanin, in the blood. Oxygen affinity is sensitive to temperature because the reversible reaction between oxygen and blood pigments absorbs or releases energy, called the heat of oxygenation. To quantify the range of oxygen affinities for marine species, we surveyed the literature for measurements of oxygen binding to blood at multiple temperatures. Oxygen affinity is mapped within the ocean environment using the depth at which oxygen pressure decreases to the point at which the blood is 50% oxygenated (P50 depth) as organisms move from the surface to depth in the ocean water column. We calculate P50 depths for hydrographic observations and model simulations and find that vertical gradients in both temperature and oxygen impact the vertical position and areal extent of P50 depths. Shifts in P50 due to temperature cause physiological types with the same P50 in the surface ocean to have different P50 depths and physiological types with different P50's in the surface ocean to have the same P50 depth. The vertical distances between P50 depths are spatially variable, which may determine the frequency of ecological interactions, such as competition and predation. P50 depths provide new insights into the historical and future impacts of changing hypoxic zones on species living in pelagic habitats.

  13. Extending Cassava Root Shelf Life via Reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Production1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zidenga, Tawanda; Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Moon, Hangsik; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2012-01-01

    One of the major constraints facing the large-scale production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots is the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) that occurs within 72 h following harvest. One of the earliest recognized biochemical events during the initiation of PPD is a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We have investigated the source of this oxidative burst to identify possible strategies to limit its extent and to extend cassava root shelf life. We provide evidence for a causal link between cyanogenesis and the onset of the oxidative burst that triggers PPD. By measuring ROS accumulation in transgenic low-cyanogen plants with and without cyanide complementation, we show that PPD is cyanide dependent, presumably resulting from a cyanide-dependent inhibition of respiration. To reduce cyanide-dependent ROS production in cassava root mitochondria, we generated transgenic plants expressing a codon-optimized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial alternative oxidase gene (AOX1A). Unlike cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is cyanide insensitive. Transgenic plants overexpressing AOX exhibited over a 10-fold reduction in ROS accumulation compared with wild-type plants. The reduction in ROS accumulation was associated with a delayed onset of PPD by 14 to 21 d after harvest of greenhouse-grown plants. The delay in PPD in transgenic plants was also observed under field conditions, but with a root biomass yield loss in the highest AOX-expressing lines. These data reveal a mechanism for PPD in cassava based on cyanide-induced oxidative stress as well as PPD control strategies involving inhibition of ROS production or its sequestration. PMID:22711743

  14. Mid-term results of bilateral lung transplant with postoperatively extended intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Salman, Jawad; Ius, Fabio; Sommer, Wiebke; Siemeni, Thierry; Kuehn, Christian; Avsar, Murat; Boethig, Dietmar; Molitoris, Ulrich; Bara, Christoph; Gottlieb, Jens; Welte, Tobias; Haverich, Axel; Hoeper, Marius M; Warnecke, Gregor; Tudorache, Igor

    2017-07-01

    In severe pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle causes significant morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation, which may be successfully reversed using a protocol based on perioperative veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and early extubation. Here, we present echocardiographic data and mid-term outcomes. The records of lung transplanted patients at our institution between May 2010 and January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Echocardiography data were collected preoperatively, at discharge, 3 and 12 months after transplantation. During the study period, 717 patients underwent lung transplantation at our institution, 38 (5%) patients being transplanted for severe pulmonary hypertension. All patients underwent bilateral lung transplantation on veno-arterial ECMO cannulated in the groin, through a sternum sparing thoracotomy in 36 (95%) patients. Extubation was performed early, after a median of 2 days, and awake ECMO was extended for at least 5 days after transplantation. The survival at 3 months, 1 year and 5 years was not different in comparison to patients transplanted for other underlying diseases ( P  = 0.45). At 1 year, tricuspid valve regurgitation had disappeared in all patients. The median of the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension improved from 40 (32-44) mm preoperatively to 45 (44-47) mm at 12 months after lung transplantation ( P  < 0.05). The median of the proximal right ventricular outflow diameter decreased to 25 (23-27) mm after 12 months, compared to 48 (43-51) mm preoperatively ( P  < 0.05). The routine application of a prophylactic postoperative veno-arterial ECMO protocol in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension undergoing lung transplantation decreases postoperative mortality and favours achievement of normal cardiac function after 1 year.

  15. The Influence of Oxygen Percentage, Carbon Dioxide Percentage, and Sea Level on the Mean Size and Diversity of Marine Animals during the Cambrian-Neogene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geronimo, C.; Gao, Y.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2016-12-01

    Throughout the course of time, mean body size and diversity have increased arguably due to relationship with environmental factors. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and sea level are possibly among the most essential environmental factors that influence body size and diversification of marine animals. We test this hypothesis using correlations between animal size and diversity and these environmental variables, but the correlation tests show that oxygen and carbon dioxide levels have no significant relationships with mean body size and diversity in general. According to Pearson's product-moment correlation test, sea level and mean body size of marine animals are inversely related to each other; sea level increases, the mean body sizes decrease or vise versa. Therefore, we looked at trends within individual phyla seeking correlations between the two factors and diversity. Carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are directly related to the diversification of Brachiopoda; sea level is directly related to the diversification of Arthropoda and Echinodermata. Oxygen percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and sea level have influence toward the increase in mean body size and diversity of marine animals in specific phylum, with the exception of inverse relation between sea level and mean body size. Environmental factors do indeed influence the fluctuation of the mean body size and diversification of marine animals during the Cambrian-Neogene transition, which is proven through correlation test.

  16. Sulfur record of rising and falling marine oxygen and sulfate levels during the Lomagundi event

    PubMed Central

    Planavsky, Noah J.; Bekker, Andrey; Hofmann, Axel; Owens, Jeremy D.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonates from approximately 2.3–2.1 billion years ago show markedly positive δ13C values commonly reaching and sometimes exceeding +10‰. Traditional interpretation of these positive δ13C values favors greatly enhanced organic carbon burial on a global scale, although other researchers have invoked widespread methanogenesis within the sediments. To resolve between these competing models and, more generally, among the mechanisms behind Earth’s most dramatic carbon isotope event, we obtained coupled stable isotope data for carbonate carbon and carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS). CAS from the Lomagundi interval shows a narrow range of δ34S values and concentrations much like those of Phanerozoic and modern marine carbonate rocks. The δ34S values are a close match to those of coeval sulfate evaporites and likely reflect seawater composition. These observations are inconsistent with the idea of diagenetic carbonate formation in the methanic zone. Toward the end of the carbon isotope excursion there is an increase in the δ34S values of CAS. We propose that these trends in C and S isotope values track the isotopic evolution of seawater sulfate and reflect an increase in pyrite burial and a crash in the marine sulfate reservoir during ocean deoxygenation in the waning stages of the positive carbon isotope excursion. PMID:23090989

  17. Sulfur record of rising and falling marine oxygen and sulfate levels during the Lomagundi event.

    PubMed

    Planavsky, Noah J; Bekker, Andrey; Hofmann, Axel; Owens, Jeremy D; Lyons, Timothy W

    2012-11-06

    Carbonates from approximately 2.3-2.1 billion years ago show markedly positive δ(13)C values commonly reaching and sometimes exceeding +10‰. Traditional interpretation of these positive δ(13)C values favors greatly enhanced organic carbon burial on a global scale, although other researchers have invoked widespread methanogenesis within the sediments. To resolve between these competing models and, more generally, among the mechanisms behind Earth's most dramatic carbon isotope event, we obtained coupled stable isotope data for carbonate carbon and carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS). CAS from the Lomagundi interval shows a narrow range of δ(34)S values and concentrations much like those of Phanerozoic and modern marine carbonate rocks. The δ(34)S values are a close match to those of coeval sulfate evaporites and likely reflect seawater composition. These observations are inconsistent with the idea of diagenetic carbonate formation in the methanic zone. Toward the end of the carbon isotope excursion there is an increase in the δ(34)S values of CAS. We propose that these trends in C and S isotope values track the isotopic evolution of seawater sulfate and reflect an increase in pyrite burial and a crash in the marine sulfate reservoir during ocean deoxygenation in the waning stages of the positive carbon isotope excursion.

  18. A First Look at Oxygen and Silicon Isotope Variations in Diatom Silica from a Pliocene Antarctic Marine Sediment Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, T.; Dodd, J. P.; Hackett, H.; Scherer, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Coupled oxygen (δ18O) and silicon (δ30Si) isotope variations in diatom silica (opal-A) are increasingly used as a proxy to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions (water temperatures, water mass mixing, nutrient cycling) in marine environments. Diatom silica is a particularly significant paleoenvironmental proxy in high latitude environments, such as the Southern Ocean, where diatom blooms are abundant and diatom frustules are well preserved in the sediment. The Andrill-1B (AND-1B) sediment core from the Ross Sea (Antarctica) preserves several Pliocene ( 4.5 Ma) age diatomite units. Here we present preliminary δ18O and δ30Si values for a diatomite subunit in the AND-1B sediment core. Initial isotope values for the AND-1B diatoms silica record relatively high variability (range δ18O: 36.3‰ to 39.9‰) that could be interpreted as large-scale changes in the water temperature and/or freshwater mixing in the Ross Sea; however, a significant concern with marine sediment of this age is isotope fractionation during diagenesis and the potential formation of opal-CT lepispheres. The effects of clay contamination on the diatom silica δ18O values have been addressed through sample purification and quantified through chemical and physical analyses of the diatom silica. The isotopic effects of opal-CT are not as clearly understood and more difficult to physically separate from the primary diatom silica. In order to better understand the isotope variations in the AND-1B diatoms, we also evaluated silicon and oxygen isotope fractionation during the transition from opal-A to opal-CT in a controlled laboratory experiment. Opal-A from cultured marine diatoms (Thalassiosira weissflogii) was subjected to elevated temperatures (150°C) in acid digestion vessels for 4 weeks to initiate opal-CT precipitation. Quantifying the effects of opal-CT formation on δ18O and δ30Si variations in biogenic silica improves our understanding of the use of diatom silica isotope values a

  19. Effect of oxygen minimum zone formation on communities of marine protists

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, William; Song, Young C; Hallam, Steven; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Changes in ocean temperature and circulation patterns compounded by human activities are leading to oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) expansion with concomitant alteration in nutrient and climate active trace gas cycling. Here, we report the response of microbial eukaryote populations to seasonal changes in water column oxygen-deficiency using Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island British Columbia, as a model ecosystem. We combine small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing approaches with multivariate statistical methods to reveal shifts in operational taxonomic units during successive stages of seasonal stratification and renewal. A meta-analysis is used to identify common and unique patterns of community composition between Saanich Inlet and the anoxic/sulfidic Cariaco Basin (Venezuela) and Framvaren Fjord (Norway) to show shared and unique responses of microbial eukaryotes to oxygen and sulfide in these three environments. Our analyses also reveal temporal fluctuations in rare populations of microbial eukaryotes, particularly anaerobic ciliates, that may be of significant importance to the biogeochemical cycling of methane in OMZs. PMID:22402396

  20. Scavenging Capacity of Marine Carotenoids against Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in a Membrane-Mimicking System

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Eliseu; Mariutti, Lilian R. B.; Mercadante, Adriana Z.

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid intake has been associated with the decrease of the incidence of some chronic diseases by minimizing the in vivo oxidative damages induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS). The carotenoids are well-known singlet oxygen quenchers; however, their capacity to scavenge other reactive species, such as peroxyl radical (ROO•), hydroxyl radical (HO•), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and anion peroxynitrite (ONOO−), still needs to be more extensively studied, especially using membrane-mimicking systems, such as liposomes. Moreover, the identification of carotenoids possessing high antioxidant capacity can lead to new alternatives of drugs or nutritional supplements for prophylaxis or therapy of pathological conditions related to oxidative damages, such as cardiovascular diseases. The capacity to scavenge ROO•, HO•, HOCl and ONOO− of seven carotenoids found in marine organisms was determined in liposomes based on the fluorescence loss of a fluorescent lipid (C11-BODIPY581/591) due to its oxidation by these reactive species. The carotenoid-bearing hydroxyl groups were generally more potent ROS scavengers than the carotenes, whilst β-carotene was the most efficient ONOO− scavenger. The role of astaxanthin as an antioxidant should be highlighted, since it was a more potent scavenger of ROO•, HOCl and ONOO− than α-tocopherol. PMID:23015774

  1. Biogeochemical cycling in an organic-rich coastal marine basin. 7. Sulfur mass balance, oxygen uptake and sulfide retention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chanton, J.P.; Martens, C.S.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur and oxygen fluxes were quantified in the seasonally varying anoxic marine sedimentary system of Cape Lookout Bight, N.C., U.S.A. Over the three year study period, 1981-1983, the mean annual sulfate reduction rate was determined to be 18.2 ?? 1.6 moles ?? m-2 ?? y-1. This value, added to the estimate of the detrital sulfur input of 1.2 ?? 4.4 gave a total sulfur input of 19.4 ?? 4.7 moles ?? m-2 ?? y-1. The sulfide flux to the sediment-water interface, measured in anaerobic benthic chambers was 4.6 ?? 0.5 moles ?? m-2 ?? y-1, and represented 37% of the annual oxygen uptake rate of 25.2 ?? 2.8 moles ?? m-2 ?? y-1. The sulfide burial rate, determined to be 15.5 ?? 3.1 moles ?? m-2 ?? y-1, was within 5% of the value predicted by summing the fluxes at the sediment-water interface. The C S weight ratio of sediment below the depth of diagenetic reaction was determined to be 2.75. The sulfide retention rate in these rapidly accumulating sediments (10 cm/yr) was 77 ?? 19%. Comparison of this result with previous studies shows that rapid sediment accumulation and the lack of bioturbation control this unusually high degree of sulfide retention. ?? 1987.

  2. The relationship between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption in Galapagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) at two different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Butler, Patrick J; Frappell, Peter B; Wang, Tobias; Wikelski, Martin

    2002-07-01

    To enable the use of heart rate (fH) for estimating field metabolic rate (FMR) in free-ranging Galapagos marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus, we determined the relationships between fH and mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption (sVO2) in seven iguanas before and during exercise on a treadmill and during the post-exercise period. The experiments were conducted at 27 and 35 degrees C, which are the temperatures that represent the lowest and highest average body temperatures of these animals in the field during summer. There were linear and significant relationships between fH and sVO2 at both temperatures (r(2)=0.86 and 0.91 at 27 degrees C and 36 degrees C, respectively). The slopes of the two regression lines did not differ, but there were significant differences in their intercepts. Thus, while heart rate can be used to predict FMR, the effects of temperature on the intercept of the regression must be taken into account when converting fH to sVO2. On the basis of our data, this can be achieved by applying the following formula: sVO2=0.0113fH-0.2983Q(10)((T(b)-27)/10). The increase in sVO2 with elevated body temperature results from an increase in fH, with no significant change in mass-specific oxygen pulse (sO(2) pulse; cardiac stroke volume times the difference in oxygen content between arterial and mixed venous blood). However, during exercise at both temperatures, increases in fH are insufficient to provide all of the additional O(2) required and there are also significant increases in the sO(2) pulses. This creates the situation whereby the same fH at the two temperatures can represent different values of sVO2.

  3. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.

  4. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems’ health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour. PMID:26200780

  5. Evidence for enhanced phosphorus regeneration from marine sediments overlain by oxygen depleted waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ingall, E.; Jahnki, R.

    1994-06-01

    Phosphorus regeneration and burial fluxes determined from in situ benthic flux chamber and solid phase measurements at sites on the Californian continental margin, Peruvian continental slope, North Carolina continental slope, and from the Santa Monica basin, California are reported. Comparison of these sites indicates that O{sub 2}-depleted bottomwaters enhance P regeneration from sediments, diminishing overall phosphorus burial efficiency. Based on these observations, a positive feedback, linking ocean anoxia, enhanced benthic phosphorus regeneration, and marine productivity is proposed. On shorter timescales, these results also suggest that O{sub 2} depletion in coastal regions caused by eutrophication may enhance P regeneration from sediments, thereby providing additional P necessary for increased biological productivity. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Novel cytotoxic oxygenated C29 sterols from the Colombian marine sponge Polymastia tenax.

    PubMed

    Santafé, Gilmar; Paz, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Jaime; Jiménez, Carlos

    2002-08-01

    Three new sterols, 5alpha,6alpha-epoxy-24R-ethylcholest-8(14)-en-3beta,7alpha-diol (1), 5alpha,6alpha-epoxy-24R-ethylcholest-8-en-3beta,7alpha-diol (2), and 3beta-hydroxy-24R-ethylcholesta-5,8-dien-7-one (3), have been isolated from the marine sponge Polymastia tenax, collected in the Colombian Caribbean, and their structures established on the basis of extensive NMR and MS studies. Compounds 1 and 2 showed antiproliferative activity toward A-549, HT-29, H-116, MS-1, and PC-3 tumor cells in the range 0.5-10 microg/mL.

  7. Verification and application of the extended spectral deconvolution algorithm (SDA+) methodology to estimate aerosol fine and coarse mode extinction coefficients in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, K. C.; Reid, J. S.; O'Neill, N. T.; Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Eck, T. F.

    2014-10-01

    The spectral deconvolution algorithm (SDA) and SDA+ (extended SDA) methodologies can be employed to separate the fine and coarse mode extinction coefficients from measured total aerosol extinction coefficients, but their common use is currently limited to AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) aerosol optical depth (AOD). Here we provide the verification of the SDA+ methodology on a non-AERONET aerosol product, by applying it to fine and coarse mode nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) data sets collected in the marine boundary layer. Using data sets collected on research vessels by NOAA-PMEL(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory), we demonstrate that with accurate input, SDA+ is able to predict the fine and coarse mode scattering and extinction coefficient partition in global data sets representing a range of aerosol regimes. However, in low-extinction regimes commonly found in the clean marine boundary layer, SDA+ output accuracy is sensitive to instrumental calibration errors. This work was extended to the calculation of coarse and fine mode scattering coefficients with similar success. This effort not only verifies the application of the SDA+ method to in situ data, but by inference verifies the method as a whole for a host of applications, including AERONET. Study results open the door to much more extensive use of nephelometers and PSAPs, with the ability to calculate fine and coarse mode scattering and extinction coefficients in field campaigns that do not have the resources to explicitly measure these values.

  8. Putting oxygen and temperature thresholds of marine animals in context of environmental change in coastal seas: a regional perspective for the Scotian Shelf and Gulf of St. Lawrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Catherine E.; Blanchard, Hannah; Fennel, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed the literature in order to compile reported oxygen, temperature, salinity and depth preferences and thresholds of important marine species found in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Scotian Shelf regions of the northwest North Atlantic. We determined species importance based on the existence of a commercial fishery, a threatened or at risk status, or by meeting the following criteria: bycatch, baitfish, invasive, vagrant, important for ecosystem energy transfer, and predators and prey of the above species. Using the dataset compiled for the 53 regional fishes and macroinvertebrates, we rank species (including for different lifestages) by their maximum thermal limit, as well as by the lowest oxygen concentration tolerated before negative impacts (e.g. physiological stress), 50% mortality or 100% mortality are experienced. Additionally, we compare these thresholds to observed marine deoxygenation trends at multiple sites, and observed surface warming trends. This results in an assessment of which regional species are most vulnerable to future warming and oxygen depletion, and a first-order estimate of the consequences of thermal and oxygen stress on a highly productive marine shelf. If regional multi-decadal oxygen and temperature trends continue through the 21st century, many species will lose favorable oxygen conditions, experience oxygen-stress, or disappear due to insufficient oxygen. Future warming can additionally displace vulnerable species, though we note that large natural variability in environmental conditions may amplify or dampen the effects of anthropogenic surface warming trends. This dataset may be combined with regional ocean model predictions to map future species distributions.

  9. Paleomagnetic record from Academician Ridge, Lake Baikal: a reversal excursion at the base of marine oxygen isotope stage 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ikehara, K.; Nakano, T.; Nishimura, M.; Khlystov, O.

    2002-08-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies on a hydraulic piston core (Ver98-1, St.6) from Academician Ridge, Lake Baikal showed the occurrence of a reversal excursion at 670-696 cm depth, which is at the base of marine oxygen isotope stage 6. A correlation of X-ray CT values, as a proxy of relative density, to the marine oxygen isotope record provides an age of 177-183 ka for this reversal excursion. It can be correlated with other excursion records from Lake Baikal, found in Core 287-K2 from Academician Ridge [King et al., Russ. Geol. Geophys. 34 (1993) 148-162] and in core BDP93-1 drilled on the Buguldeika saddle [BDP-93, Quat. Int. 37 (1997) 3-17]. We correlate the Lake Baikal reversal excursion with a well documented excursion in the Brunhes Chron, the Iceland Basin event (186-189 ka) from ODP Sites 983 and 984 in the North Atlantic [Channell, J. Geophys. Res. 104 (1999) 22937-22951]. Also the relative paleointensity record agrees well with that from ODP Site 983 [Channell, J. Geophys. Res. 104 (1999) 22937-22951]. The Lake Baikal excursion and the Iceland Basin event correspond to the minimum of relative intensity at 188 ka in Sint-800 [Guyodo and Valet, Nature 399 (1999) 249-252]. We argue that it is distinct from the Jamaica/Pringle Falls excursion, estimated at 205-215 ka [Langereis et al., Geophys. J. Int. 129 (1997) 75-94]. This is supported by the recalibration of the age of another excursion found in Core St.16 in Lake Baikal [Sakai et al., Bull. Nagoya Univ. Furukawa Mus. 13 (1997) 11-22] with an age of ˜223 ka, which is close to the age of the Jamaica/Pringle Falls excursion, as suggested earlier [King et al., Russ. Geol. Geophys. 34 (1993) 148-162]. The VGP path of the reversal excursion (177-183 ka) consists of a southward swing through the North Atlantic, followed by a loop through Africa and the Indian Ocean. The path morphology is similar to that of the Iceland Basin event from the North Atlantic [Channell, J. Geophys. Res. 104 (1999) 22937-22951].

  10. Induction of apoptosis by three marine algae through generation of reactive oxygen species in human leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Lan; Wu, Shwu-Li; Liao, Hui-Fen; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Huang, Ray-Ling; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Yang, Yuh-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2005-03-09

    In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of marine algae extracts on human hepatoma and leukemia cells. Ethyl acetate extracts from Colpomenia sinuosa (Cs-EA), Halimeda discoidae (Hd-EA), and Galaxaura oblongata (Go-EA) directly inhibited the growth of human hepatoma HuH-7 cells and leukemia U937 and HL-60 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Specifically, these algae extracts induced apoptosis of U937 and HL-60 cells as evaluated by detection of hypodiploid cells using flow cytometry and observation of condensed and fragmented nuclei in algae extract-treated cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, were increased about 2-3-fold in U937 cells treated with Cs-EA for 3-5 h. Interestingly, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine effectively blocked Cs-EA-, Hd-EA-, and Go-EA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that ROS is a key mediator in the apoptotic signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results show that algae extracts induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells through generation of ROS.

  11. Optimization of marine biogeochemial parameters against climatologies of nutrients and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriest, Iris; Khatiwala, Samar; Sauerland, Volkmar; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Global biogeochemical ocean models usually contain a variety of different biogeochemical components, which are described by many parameters. The values of many of these parameters are empirically difficult to constrain, due to the fact that in the models they represent processes for different groups of organisms. Therefore, these models are subject to a high level of parametric uncertainty. This may be of consequence for their skill with respect to accurately describing the relevant features of the present ocean, as well as their sensitivity to possible environmental changes. We here present a framework for the optimization of global biogeochemical ocean models on short and long time scales. The framework combines an offline approach for transport of biogeochemical tracers with an Estimation of Distribution Algorithm, a type of evolutionary algorithm in which the probability distribution is parameterized. We explore the performance and capability of this framework by optimizations of different biogeochemical parameters against different data sets. Optimization of six parameters, mostly tied to the surface biogeochemical processes, against a climatology of observations of annual mean dissolved nutrients and oxygen, reveals that parameters, that act on large spatial and temporal scales are determined earliest, and with the least spread. Parameters more closely tied to surface biology, which act on shorter time scales, are more difficult to determine. Encouragingly, optimized models show a better fit to estimates of global mean biogeochemical fluxes such as production, export, and grazing, although these fluxes did not enter the misfit function. We finally investigate if, and to what extent, we can achieve an equally good fit to observed tracer fields with a model of strongly reduced biogeochemical complexity.

  12. Verification and application of the extended Spectral Deconvolution Algorithm (SDA+) methodology to estimate aerosol fine and coarse mode extinction coefficients in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, K. C.; Reid, J. S.; O'Neill, N. T.; Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Eck, T. F.

    2014-03-01

    The Spectral Deconvolution Algorithm (SDA) and SDA+ (extended SDA) methodologies can be employed to separate the fine and coarse mode extinction coefficients from measured total aerosol extinction coefficients, but their common use is currently limited to AERONET Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). Here we provide the verification of the SDA+ methodology on a non-AERONET aerosol product, by applying it to fine and coarse mode nephelometer and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) data sets collected in the marine boundary layer. Using datasets collected on research vessels by NOAA PMEL, we demonstrate that with accurate input, SDA+ is able to predict the fine and coarse mode scattering and extinction coefficient partition in global data sets representing a range of aerosol regimes. However, in low-extinction regimes commonly found in the clean marine boundary layer, SDA+ output accuracy is sensitive to instrumental calibration errors. This work was extended to the calculation of coarse and fine mode scattering coefficients with similar success. This effort not only verifies the application of the SDA+ method to in situ data, but by inference verifies the method as a whole for a host of applications, including AERONET. Study results open the door to much more extensive use of nephelometers and PSAPs, with the ability to calculate fine and coarse mode scattering and extinction coefficients in field campaigns that do not have the resources to explicitly measure these values.

  13. Microbial Ecological Niche Partitioning Affects N2 gas Production in the Largest Marine Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchsman, C. A.; Penn, J. L.; Devol, A.; Palevsky, H. I.; Deutsch, C. A.; Keil, R.; Ward, B. B.; Rocap, G.

    2016-02-01

    Up to half of oceanic N2 production occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). In the Eastern Tropical North Pacific OMZ in April 2012, we measured a nine station coast to open ocean transect of N2 gas in the heart of the ETNP OMZ. Depth profiles of excess N2 gas had dual maxima located at the top of the OMZ and at 300m. An ecosystem biogeochemical model of the ETNP was also found to produce dual maxima at stations with a shallow OMZ. The model indicated that high N2 production rates caused the upper N2 maxima while long water residence time caused the deeper maxima. At a low productivity open ocean station where dual N2 maxima were observed, we obtained a depth profile of metagenomic sequences from both free living and >30 μm fractions to determine which N2 producing microbes were living in these three ecological niches. We use a phylogenetically-aware approach to identify metagenomic sequences by placing them on reference trees, which allows us to utilize them in a semi-quantitative manner. Overall, genes for denitrification (napA, nirS, nirK, qnor, nosZ) were enriched on particles while anammox was free-living. However, separation of genes into phylotypes indicated that the system is more complicated. For example, 4 out of 5 N2O reductase denitrifier phylotypes were actually free-living, while the fifth, most abundant phylotype was particle-attached. In the water column, denitrifier and anammox genes were spatially separated with depth with denitrifiers focused on the top section of the OMZ and with anammox becoming abundant slightly deeper and being more dominant at the deep N2 maxima. Interestingly, different phylotypes of denitrifiers have different depth profiles, implying individual adaptations and niches. The presence of measurable ammonia (>200 nM) at the top 20m of the OMZ along with the very low numbers of anammox bacteria is consistent with recent shoaling of the OMZ at the time of sampling. Thus the spatial separation of denitrifiers and anammox at the

  14. Putting Temperature and Oxygen Thresholds of Marine Animals in Context of Environmental Change: A Regional Perspective for the Scotian Shelf and Gulf of St. Lawrence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a literature review of reported temperature, salinity, pH, depth and oxygen preferences and thresholds of important marine species found in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Scotian Shelf region. We classified 54 identified fishes and macroinvertebrates as important either because they support a commercial fishery, have threatened or at risk status, or meet one of the following criteria: bycatch, baitfish, invasive, vagrant, important for ecosystem energy transfer, or predators or prey of the above species. The compiled data allow an assessment of species-level impacts including physiological stress and mortality given predictions of future ocean physical and biogeochemical conditions. If an observed, multi-decadal oxygen trend on the central Scotian Shelf continues, a number of species will lose favorable oxygen conditions, experience oxygen-stress, or disappear due to insufficient oxygen in the coming half-century. Projected regional trends and natural variability are both large, and natural variability will act to alternately amplify and dampen anthropogenic changes. When estimates of variability are included with the trend, species encounter unfavourable oxygen conditions decades sooner. Finally, temperature and oxygen thresholds of adult Atlantic wolffish (Anarhichas lupus) and adult Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are assessed in the context of a potential future scenario derived from high-resolution ocean models for the central Scotian Shelf. PMID:27997536

  15. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on horizontally aligned carbon nanotube thin film as pH-sensing membrane of extended-gate field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuang-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Yang, Po-Yu; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Li, Yu-Ren; Liao, Chan-Yu; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2015-04-01

    The high-performance pH-sensing membrane of extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFET) composed of high-conductivity horizontally aligned carbon nanotube thin films (HACNTFs) after oxygen plasma treatment is successfully demonstrated. The 10-µm-wide catalytic metal lines with 60 µm interspace produced CNT vertical plates, and the plates were mechanically pulled down and densified to form HACNTFs. A large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups are decorated on the CNTs after the oxygen plasma treatment. These functional groups act as the sensing sites and respond to the H+ or OH- ions in solutions with different pH values. Therefore, these functionalized HACNTFs as pH-EGFET-sensing membranes can achieve a high voltage sensitivity of 40 mV/pH and high current sensitivity of 0.78 µA1/2/pH. Moreover, large linearity of 0.998 is measured in a wide sensing range from pH 1 to 13. These results reveal that the oxygen plasma treatment is an effective way to improve the CNT-sensing characteristics in pH-EGFET sensors.

  16. Latitudinal variations of nitrogen and triple oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, S.; Frey, M. M.; Grudzieu, A.; Martins, J.; Savarino, J.

    2007-12-01

    The analysis of the isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3-) in various environments is a fast-growing field of investigation. Atmospheric nitrate oxygen isotopes feature the appealing potential to record a footprint of the cycling between ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), through the transmission of an isotope anomaly (Δ17O=δ17O - 0.52 ×~δ18O) borne by the ozone molecule. This discovery has lead to the idea that the isotopic composition of nitrate preserved in firn and ice of the polar ice caps could be used as a proxy of past ozone chemistry and thus provide the long-awaited link between the climate record from ice cores and the oxidative capacity of ancient atmospheres. To better constrain the relationships between nitrate oxygen isotopes and the oxidative state of the atmosphere, we have carried out a series of ship-borne measurements in the marine boundary layer (MBL) between Cape Town, Rep. South Africa (30°S) and Bremerhaven, Germany (50°N) covering a wide range of meteorological and atmospheric chemistry conditions. Onboard the R/V Polarstern, we measured surface ozone and collected size-segregated aerosols with a latitudinal resolution of 4°. Besides major ions concentrations, nitrate contained in these samples was analyzed for all stable isotopes of its constituents (namely δ15N, δ17O and δ18O), using the denitrifier technique (based on Kaiser et al., Anal. Chem., 2007), thus providing an unprecedented latitudinal profile of nitrate isotopes in the MBL. Variations of nitrate isotopic compositions are studied as a function of particle size and changing MBL background chemistry, ranging from the remote and unpolluted Southern Atlantic Ocean (O3 20 nmol~mol-1) to the polluted English Channel area (O3 45 nmol~mol-1), through air masses influenced by North-African desert dust in the subtropical North Atlantic. Known main chemical mechanisms responsible for the formation of atmospheric nitrate are used to test our understanding of the causes for the

  17. Size-fraction partitioning of community gene transcription and nitrogen metabolism in a marine oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Sangita; Bristow, Laura A; Larsen, Morten; Sarode, Neha; Thamdrup, Bo; Stewart, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The genetic composition of marine microbial communities varies at the microscale between particle-associated (PA; >1.6 μm) and free-living (FL; 0.2–1.6 μm) niches. It remains unclear, however, how metabolic activities differ between PA and FL fractions. We combined rate measurements with metatranscriptomics to quantify PA and FL microbial activity in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific, focusing on dissimilatory processes of the nitrogen (N) cycle. Bacterial gene counts were 8- to 15-fold higher in the FL compared with the PA fraction. However, rates of all measured N cycle processes, excluding ammonia oxidation, declined significantly following particle (>1.6 μm) removal. Without particles, rates of nitrate reduction to nitrite (1.5–9.4nMNd−1) fell to zero and N2 production by denitrification (0.5–1.7nMNd−1) and anammox (0.3–1.9nMNd−1) declined by 53–85%. The proportional representation of major microbial taxa and N cycle gene transcripts in metatranscriptomes followed fraction-specific trends. Transcripts encoding nitrate reductase were uniform among PA and FL fractions, whereas anammox-associated transcripts were proportionately enriched up to 15-fold in the FL fraction. In contrast, transcripts encoding enzymes for N2O and N2 production by denitrification were enriched up to 28-fold in PA samples. These patterns suggest that the majority of N cycle activity, excluding N2O and N2 production by denitrification, is confined to a FL majority that is critically dependent on access to particles, likely as a source of organic carbon and inorganic N. Variable particle distributions may drive heterogeneity in N cycle activity and gene expression in OMZs. PMID:25848875

  18. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age variation in Donax obesulus shells from northern Peru: late Holocene evidence for extended El Niño

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etayo-Cadavid, Miguel F.; Andrus, C. Fred T.; Jones, Kevin B.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Uceda-Castillo, Sandiago; Quilter, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    For at least 6 m.y., El Niño events have posed the greatest environmental risk on the Peruvian coast. A better understanding of El Niño is essential for predicting future risk and growth in this tropical desert. To achieve this we analyzed archaeological and modern pre-bomb shells from the surf clam Donax for the radiocarbon reservoir effect (ΔR) to characterize late Holocene coastal upwelling conditions in northern Peru (8°14′S). Mean ΔR values from these shells suggest that modern upwelling conditions in this region were likely established between A.D. 539 and A.D. 1578. Our radiocarbon data suggest that upwelling conditions ca. A.D. 539 were less intense than those in modern times. The observed coastal water enrichment in 14C may be consequence of frequent strong El Niño events or extended El Niño–like conditions. These ΔR-inferred marine conditions are in agreement with proposed extended El Niño activity in proxy and archaeological records of ca. A.D. 475–530. Extended El Niño conditions have been linked to political destabilization, societal transformation, and collapse of the Moche civilization in northern Peru. A return to such conditions would have significant impacts on the dense population of this region today and in the near future.

  19. Nearest-neighbor oxygen distances in liquid water and ice observed by x-ray Raman based extended x-ray absorption fine structure.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Uwe; Di Cicco, Andrea; Wernet, Philippe; Principi, Emiliano; Glatzel, Pieter; Nilsson, Anders

    2007-11-07

    We report the nearest-neighbor oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function (NN O-O RDF) of room temperature liquid water and polycrystalline ice Ih (-16.8 degrees C) obtained by x-ray Raman based extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The spectra of the two systems were taken under identical experimental conditions using the same procedures to obtain the NN O-O RDFs. This protocol ensured a measurement of the relative distance distribution with very small systematic errors. The NN O-O RDF of water is found to be more asymmetric (tail extending to longer distances) with longer average distance (2.81 A for water and 2.76 A for ice) but a slightly shorter peak position (2.70 A for water and 2.71 A for ice). The refinement also showed a small but significant contribution from the linear O-H-O multiple scattering signal. The high sensitivity to short range distances of the EXAFS probe will set further restrictions to the range of possible models of liquid water.

  20. First extended validation of satellite microwave liquid water path with ship-based observations of marine low clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Painemal, David; Greenwald, Thomas; Cadeddu, Maria; Minnis, Patrickck

    2016-06-28

    We present the first extended validation of satellitemicrowave (MW) liquidwater path (LWP) for low nonprecipitating clouds, from four operational sensors, against ship-borne observations from a three-channel MW radiometer collected along ship transects over the northeast Pacific during May–August 2013. Satellite MW retrievals have an overall correlation of 0.84 with ship observations and a bias of 9.3 g/m2. The bias for broken cloud scenes increases linearly with water vapor path and remains below 17.7 g/m2. In contrast, satelliteMWLWP is unbiased in overcast scenes with correlations up to 0.91, demonstrating that the retrievals are accurate and reliable under these conditions. Satellite MW retrievals produce a diurnal cycle amplitude consistent with ship-based observations (33 g/m2). Observations taken aboard extended ship cruises to evaluate not only satellite MW LWP but also LWP derived from visible/infrared sensors offer a new way to validate this important property over vast oceanic regions.

  1. First extended validation of satellite microwave liquid water path with ship-based observations of marine low clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painemal, David; Greenwald, Thomas; Cadeddu, Maria; Minnis, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We present the first extended validation of satellite microwave (MW) liquid water path (LWP) for low nonprecipitating clouds, from four operational sensors, against ship-borne observations from a three-channel MW radiometer collected along ship transects over the northeast Pacific during May-August 2013. Satellite MW retrievals have an overall correlation of 0.84 with ship observations and a bias of 9.3 g/m2. The bias for broken cloud scenes increases linearly with water vapor path and remains below 17.7 g/m2. In contrast, satellite MW LWP is unbiased in overcast scenes with correlations up to 0.91, demonstrating that the retrievals are accurate and reliable under these conditions. Satellite MW retrievals produce a diurnal cycle amplitude consistent with ship-based observations (33 g/m2). Observations taken aboard extended ship cruises to evaluate not only satellite MW LWP but also LWP derived from visible/infrared sensors offer a new way to validate this important property over vast oceanic regions.

  2. Dynamics of bacterial assemblages and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated coastal marine sediments subjected to contrasted oxygen regimes.

    PubMed

    Militon, Cécile; Jézéquel, Ronan; Gilbert, Franck; Corsellis, Yannick; Sylvi, Léa; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    To study the impact of oxygen regimes on the removal of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oil-spill-affected coastal marine sediments, we used a thin-layer incubation method to ensure that the incubated sediment was fully oxic, anoxic, or was influenced by oxic-anoxic switches without sediment stirring. Hydrocarbon content and microbial assemblages were followed during 60 days to determine PAH degradation kinetics and microbial community dynamics according to the oxygenation regimes. The highest PAH removal, with 69 % reduction, was obtained at the end of the experiment under oxic conditions, whereas weaker removals were obtained under oscillating and anoxic conditions (18 and 12 %, respectively). Bacterial community structure during the experiment was determined using a dual 16S rRNA genes/16S rRNA transcripts approach, allowing the characterization of metabolically active bacteria responsible for the functioning of the bacterial community in the contaminated sediment. The shift of the metabolically active bacterial communities showed that the selection of first responders belonged to Pseudomonas spp. and Labrenzia sp. and included an unidentified Deltaproteobacteria-irrespective of the oxygen regime-followed by the selection of late responders adapted to the oxygen regime. A novel unaffiliated phylotype (B38) was highly active during the last stage of the experiment, at which time, the low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAH biodegradation rates were significant for permanent oxic- and oxygen-oscillating conditions, suggesting that this novel phylotype plays an active role during the restoration phase of the studied ecosystem.

  3. The extended phenotypes of marine symbioses: ecological and evolutionary consequences of intraspecific genetic diversity in coral-algal associations.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, John E; Baums, Iliana B

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals owe much of their success to a symbiosis with dinoflagellate microalgae in the genus Symbiodinium. In this association, the performance of each organism is tied to that of its partner, and together the partners form a holobiont that can be subject to selection. Climate change affects coral reefs, which are declining globally as a result. Yet the extent to which coral holobionts will be able to acclimate or evolve to handle climate change and other stressors remains unclear. Selection acts on individuals and evidence from terrestrial systems demonstrates that intraspecific genetic diversity plays a significant role in symbiosis ecology and evolution. However, we have a limited understanding of the effects of such diversity in corals. As molecular methods have advanced, so too has our recognition of the taxonomic and functional diversity of holobiont partners. Resolving the major components of the holobiont to the level of the individual will help us assess the importance of intraspecific diversity and partner interactions in coral-algal symbioses. Here, we hypothesize that unique combinations of coral and algal individuals yield functional diversity that affects not only the ecology and evolution of the coral holobiont, but associated communities as well. Our synthesis is derived from reviewing existing evidence and presenting novel data. By incorporating the effects of holobiont extended phenotypes into predictive models, we may refine our understanding of the evolutionary trajectory of corals and reef communities responding to climate change.

  4. The extended phenotypes of marine symbioses: ecological and evolutionary consequences of intraspecific genetic diversity in coral–algal associations

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, John E.; Baums, Iliana B.

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals owe much of their success to a symbiosis with dinoflagellate microalgae in the genus Symbiodinium. In this association, the performance of each organism is tied to that of its partner, and together the partners form a holobiont that can be subject to selection. Climate change affects coral reefs, which are declining globally as a result. Yet the extent to which coral holobionts will be able to acclimate or evolve to handle climate change and other stressors remains unclear. Selection acts on individuals and evidence from terrestrial systems demonstrates that intraspecific genetic diversity plays a significant role in symbiosis ecology and evolution. However, we have a limited understanding of the effects of such diversity in corals. As molecular methods have advanced, so too has our recognition of the taxonomic and functional diversity of holobiont partners. Resolving the major components of the holobiont to the level of the individual will help us assess the importance of intraspecific diversity and partner interactions in coral–algal symbioses. Here, we hypothesize that unique combinations of coral and algal individuals yield functional diversity that affects not only the ecology and evolution of the coral holobiont, but associated communities as well. Our synthesis is derived from reviewing existing evidence and presenting novel data. By incorporating the effects of holobiont extended phenotypes into predictive models, we may refine our understanding of the evolutionary trajectory of corals and reef communities responding to climate change. PMID:25202306

  5. Discovery of Lower Pleistocene Shallow-marine Deposits on Mayaguana Island, Bahamas. Implications for Eustatic Sea-Level Curves Derived From Deep-Sea Oxygen-Isotope Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroid, F.; Kindler, P.; Chiaradia, M.; Hasler, C.; Samankassou, E.

    2008-12-01

    87Sr/86Sr-dated marine and beach sediments exposed along the north shore of Mayaguana Island (Bahamas) provide new estimates of the elevation of high sea stands during the Early Pleistocene that will contribute to better calibrate eustatic sea-level curves derived from deep-sea oxygen-isotope records. A newly investigated sea cliff located to the west of Mount Misery Point on the northern coast of Mayaguana, in the SE part of the Bahamian archipelago, includes two vertically stacked sequences of shallow-marine carbonates separated and capped by paleosols and eolianites. The lower unit, reaching up to 5.5 m above modern sea level, consists of coarse laminated calcarenites containing numerous mollusk and red-algal fragments, and large in-situ coral specimens (Diploria strigosa). The second unit, exposed between 7.3 and 10 m, includes bioturbated, coral-rich limestones, overlain by thinly bedded calcarenites characterized by an early generation of fibrous rim cement. 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured from these carbonates range from 0.709123 at the base of the section to 0.709142 at its top. The first unit can be interpreted as a peri-reefal facies deposited when relative sea level was at least 5.5 m above present. The second unit corresponds to one shallowing-upward sequence of subtidal and beach deposits generated when sea level was around 9 m above its actual stand. Sr-isotope ratios indicate that both units were formed during the Early Pleistocene, likely between 1.6 and 1.0 Ma BP. Comparison with existing oxygen-isotope records from deep- sea sediments suggests that the identified sea-level highstands could correspond to negative δ18O peaks estimated at 1.45 and 1.50 Ma BP. Based on the elevation of fossil reefs dating from the last interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage 5e) and the occurrence of Upper Miocene shallow-marine deposits close to modern sea level, Mayaguana can be considered as tectonically stable. The elevation values obtained for these Early Pleistocene

  6. Shotgun metagenomic data reveals significant abundance but low diversity of "Candidatus Scalindua" marine anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Laura; Speth, Daan R; van Alen, Theo; Hoischen, Alexander; Jetten, Mike S M

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are responsible for a significant portion of the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans, making them important players in the global nitrogen cycle. To date, marine anammox bacteria found in both water columns and sediments worldwide belong almost exclusively to "Candidatus Scalindua" species. Recently the genome assembly of a marine anammox enrichment culture dominated by "Candidatus Scalindua profunda" became available and can now be used as a template to study metagenome data obtained from various oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Here, we sequenced genomic DNA from suspended particulate matter recovered at the upper (170 m deep) and center (600 m) area of the OMZ in the Arabian Sea by SOLiD and Ion Torrent technology. The genome of "Candidatus Scalindua profunda" served as a template to collect reads. Based on the mapped reads marine anammox Abundance was estimated to be at least 0.4% in the upper and 1.7% in the center area. Single nucleotide variation (SNV) analysis was performed to assess diversity of the "Candidatus Scalindua" populations. Most highly covered were the two diagnostic anammox genes hydrazine synthase (scal_01318c, hzsA) and hydrazine dehydrogenase (scal_03295, hdh), while other genes involved in anammox metabolism (narGH, nirS, amtB, focA, and ACS) had a lower coverage but could still be assembled and analyzed. The results show that "Candidatus Scalindua" is abundantly present in the Arabian Sea OMZ, but that the diversity within the ecosystem is relatively low.

  7. Re-evaluating origins of Paleozoic orbital-scale and My-scale stratigraphic cyclicity using oxygen isotopes of marine apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrick, M.; Theiling, B. P.; Wallace, Z. A.; Reardon, D.; Labor, W.; Martin, J.

    2012-12-01

    High-frequency (104-105 yr) sedimentary cycles and My-scale depositional sequences in Paleozoic marine strata have been studied for over a century and though debated, their origins are most commonly attributed to sea-level changes. Early studies focused mainly on repetitive shallowing and deepening facies changes, subaerial exposure features, and widespread correlations to argue for eustatic drivers. Subsequent studies utilized 1D and 2D computer models and statistical and time series analysis to argue for eustasy and for Milankovitch-scale periodicities. With increasing high-resolution numeric age control provided by newly discovered ash beds, the durations of many Paleozoic cycles and sequences are found to lie within the Milankovitch-frequency band. Recently the origins of Paleozoic cycles and sequences have been evaluated using oxygen isotopes from marine apatite (conodonts) to specifically test for glacio-eustatic origins. Isotopic trends from well studied Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian marine successions support the hypothesis that the cycles and sequences were generated by glacio-eustasy with decreasing and low isotopic values occurring within deepening and deepest water facies and increasing and high values occurring in shallowing and shallowest water facies. Of particular interest is that the magnitudes of isotopic change and by inference, the magnitude of climatic change, observed across cycles and sequences developed in Paleozoic greenhouse time intervals (Silurian, Devonian) are as large as those observed in icehouse (Neogene, Pennsylvanian) and transitional (Late Ordovician, Early Mississippian) climatic intervals. These oxygen isotope results combined with earlier stratigraphic, modeling, and statistical studies suggest that short- and long-period Milankovitch-forced glacio-eustasy controlled cycle and sequence development throughout the Paleozoic.

  8. Permian-Triassic boundary interval as a model for forcing marine ecosystem collapse by long-term atmospheric oxygen drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidlich, O.; Kiessling, W.; Flügel, E.

    2003-11-01

    Ecological traits of reefs across the Permian-Triassic boundary interval coincide with a modeled decline of atmospheric oxygen throughout the Permian Period. Selective extinction and recovery patterns within the reef system are observed both at the end of the middle Permian (end-Guadalupian) and at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The end-Guadalupian event selectively affected corals and broke down the cool-water carbonate factory. Sponges, however, were largely unaffected and bloomed in reefs toward the end of the Permian. The end-Permian total destruction of the metazoan reef system only left behind poorly diverse microbial communities. The temporal reef patterns are thus similar to spatial patterns of modern benthic communities approaching oxygen minimum zones. This observation suggests that a decline in oxygen concentrations was at least partly involved in the destruction of reefs, even where there is no direct evidence of oceanic anoxia.

  9. Nearest-neighbor nitrogen and oxygen distances in the iron(II)-DNA complex studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure.

    PubMed

    Bertoncini, Clelia R A; Meneghini, Rogerio; Tolentino, Helio

    2010-11-01

    In mammalian cells, DNA-bound Fe(II) reacts with H₂O₂ producing the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (OH) in situ. Since ·OH attacks nearby DNA residue generating oxidative DNA damage, many questions have arisen regarding iron-DNA complex formations and their implication in pre-malignant mutations and aging. In this work, a solid sample of Fe(II)-DNA complex containing one Fe(II) per 10 nucleotides was analyzed from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra collected in a synchrotron radiation light source. Best fitting parameters of the EXAFS signal for the first two shells provide evidence of five oxygen atoms at 1.99 ± 0.02 Å and one nitrogen atom at 2.20 ± 0.02 Å in the inner coordination sphere of the Fe(II)-DNA complex. Considering that both purine base moieties bearing nitrogen atoms are prone to chelate iron, these results are consistent with the previously observed lower levels of DNA damage in cytosine nucleotides relative to adenine and guanine sites in cells under more physiological conditions of Fe(II) Fenton reaction.

  10. Nearest-neighbor nitrogen and oxygen distances in the iron(II)-DNA complex studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoncini, Clelia R. A.; Meneghini, Rogerio; Tolentino, Helio

    2010-11-01

    In mammalian cells, DNA-bound Fe(II) reacts with H 2O 2 producing the highly reactive hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) in situ. Since rad OH attacks nearby DNA residue generating oxidative DNA damage, many questions have arisen regarding iron-DNA complex formations and their implication in pre-malignant mutations and aging. In this work, a solid sample of Fe(II)-DNA complex containing one Fe(II) per 10 nucleotides was analyzed from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra collected in a synchrotron radiation light source. Best fitting parameters of the EXAFS signal for the first two shells provide evidence of five oxygen atoms at 1.99 ± 0.02 Å and one nitrogen atom at 2.20 ± 0.02 Å in the inner coordination sphere of the Fe(II)-DNA complex. Considering that both purine base moieties bearing nitrogen atoms are prone to chelate iron, these results are consistent with the previously observed lower levels of DNA damage in cytosine nucleotides relative to adenine and guanine sites in cells under more physiological conditions of Fe(II) Fenton reaction.

  11. An innovative coupling between column leaching and oxygen consumption tests to assess behavior of contaminated marine dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Couvidat, Julien; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Chatain, Vincent; Zhang, Fan; Bouzahzah, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Contaminated dredged sediments are often considered hazardous wastes, so they have to be adequately managed to avoid leaching of pollutants. The mobility of inorganic contaminants is a major concern. Metal sulfides (mainly framboïdal pyrite, copper, and zinc sulfides) have been investigated in this study as an important reactive metal-bearing phase sensitive to atmospheric oxygen action. An oxygen consumption test (OC-Test) has been adapted to assess the reactivity of dredged sediments when exposed to atmospheric oxygen. An experimental column set-up has been developed allowing the coupling between leaching and oxygen consumption test to investigate the reactivity of the sediment. This reactivity, which consisted of sulfide oxidation, was found to occur for saturation degree between 60 and 90 % and until the 20th testing week, through significant sulfates releases. These latter were assumed to come from sulfide oxidation in the first step of the test, then probably from gypsum dissolution. Confrontation results of OC-Test and leachate quality shows that Cu was well correlated to sulfates releases, which in turn, leads to Ca and Mg dissolution (buffer effect). Cu, and mostly Zn, was associated to organic matter, phyllosilicates, and other minerals through organo-clay complexes. This research confirmed that the OC-Test, originally developed for mine tailings, could be a useful tool in the dredged sediment field which can allow for intrinsic characterization of reactivity of a material suspected to readily reacting with oxygen and for better understanding of geochemical processes that affect pollutants behavior, conversion, and transfer in the environment.

  12. Shotgun metagenomic data reveals significant abundance but low diversity of “Candidatus Scalindua” marine anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Laura; Speth, Daan R.; van Alen, Theo; Hoischen, Alexander; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are responsible for a significant portion of the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans, making them important players in the global nitrogen cycle. To date, marine anammox bacteria found in both water columns and sediments worldwide belong almost exclusively to “Candidatus Scalindua” species. Recently the genome assembly of a marine anammox enrichment culture dominated by “Candidatus Scalindua profunda” became available and can now be used as a template to study metagenome data obtained from various oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Here, we sequenced genomic DNA from suspended particulate matter recovered at the upper (170 m deep) and center (600 m) area of the OMZ in the Arabian Sea by SOLiD and Ion Torrent technology. The genome of “Candidatus Scalindua profunda” served as a template to collect reads. Based on the mapped reads marine anammox Abundance was estimated to be at least 0.4% in the upper and 1.7% in the center area. Single nucleotide variation (SNV) analysis was performed to assess diversity of the “Candidatus Scalindua” populations. Most highly covered were the two diagnostic anammox genes hydrazine synthase (scal_01318c, hzsA) and hydrazine dehydrogenase (scal_03295, hdh), while other genes involved in anammox metabolism (narGH, nirS, amtB, focA, and ACS) had a lower coverage but could still be assembled and analyzed. The results show that “Candidatus Scalindua” is abundantly present in the Arabian Sea OMZ, but that the diversity within the ecosystem is relatively low. PMID:24550902

  13. Preservation of Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 Marine Terrace Deposits along the Southwest Coast of the Osa Peninsula, Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, W. N.; Sak, P. B.

    2007-12-01

    Subduction of the aseismic Cocos Ridge at the Middle American Trench outboard of the Osa Peninsula results in rapid late Quaternary surface uplift. The distribution of surface uplift corresponds with the imaged bathymetric relief. On the Osa Peninsula, inboard of the northwest flank of the Cocos Ridge, exposures of the Late Pleistocene Puerto Armuelles Formation are recognized. The Puerto Armuelles Fm consists of poorly consolidated sands, silts, and muds from shallow marine, estuarine, and mangrove systems. Along the southwest coast, Puerto Armuelles Fm sediment infills paleo-topographic depressions. AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on 4 marine macrofossil samples yield ages ranging from 38.51 ka B.P. to 42.35 ka B.P. Dates obtained on multiple samples from individual sections are internally consistent, recording younger ages at higher stratigraphic levels within two fining upward deposits. The sections are displaced relative to one another across a northeast striking fault. The two measured stratigraphic sections are used to quantify a minimum Late Pleistocene to recent separation rate of 0.54 m ka-1. A suite of 15 radiocarbon dates on exposures of the Puerto Armuelles Fm from the eastern portion of the Osa Peninsula (Gardner et al., 1992) and 14 radiocarbon dates obtained from equivalent strata along the northwestern portions of the Osa Peninsula (Sak et al., 2004) clearly and consistently indicate a Late Pleistocene age of deposition during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3.

  14. Oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance: a matrix for integrating climate-related stressor effects in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pörtner, H-O

    2010-03-15

    The concept of oxygen- and capacity-dependent thermal tolerance in aquatic ectotherms has successfully explained climate-induced effects of rising temperatures on species abundance in the field. Oxygen supply to tissues and the resulting aerobic performance characters thus form a primary link between organismal fitness and its role and functioning at the ecosystem level. The thermal window of performance in water breathers matches their window of aerobic scope. Loss of performance reflects the earliest level of thermal stress, caused by hypoxaemia and the progressive mismatch of oxygen supply and demand at the borders of the thermal envelope. Oxygen deficiency elicits the transition to passive tolerance and associated systemic and cellular stress signals like hormonal responses or oxidative stress as well as the use of protection mechanisms like heat shock proteins at thermal extremes. Thermal acclimatization between seasons or adaptation to a climate regime involves shifting thermal windows and adjusting window widths. The need to specialize on a limited temperature range results from temperature-dependent trade-offs at several hierarchical levels, from molecular structure to whole-organism functioning, and may also support maximized energy efficiency. Various environmental factors like CO(2) (ocean acidification) and hypoxia interact with these principal relationships. Existing knowledge suggests that these factors elicit metabolic depression supporting passive tolerance to thermal extremes. However, they also exacerbate hypoxaemia, causing a narrowing of thermal performance windows and prematurely leading the organism to the limits of its thermal acclimation capacity. The conceptual analysis suggests that the relationships between energy turnover, the capacities of activity and other functions and the width of thermal windows may lead to an integrative understanding of specialization on climate and, as a thermal matrix, of sensitivity to climate change and the

  15. Effect of overlying water pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity and sediment disturbances on metal release and sequestration from metal contaminated marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Clare A; Jolley, Dianne F; Simpson, Stuart L

    2007-11-01

    Experiments were undertaken to examine the key variables affecting metal release and sequestration processes in marine sediments with metal concentrations in sediments reaching up to 86, 240, 700, and 3000 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. The metal release and sequestration rates were affected to a much greater extent by changes in overlying water pH (5.5-8.0) and sediment disturbance (by physical mixing) than by changes in dissolved oxygen concentration (3-8 mg l(-1)) or salinity (15-45 practical salinity units). The physical disturbance of sediments was also found to release metals more rapidly than biological disturbance (bioturbation). The rate of oxidative precipitation of released iron and manganese increased as pH decreased and appeared to greatly influence the sequestration rate of released lead and zinc. Released metals were sequestered less rapidly in waters with lower dissolved oxygen concentrations. Sediments bioturbated by the benthic bivalve Tellina deltoidalis caused metal release from the pore waters and higher concentrations of iron and manganese in overlying waters than non-bioturbated sediments. During 21-day sediment exposures, T. deltoidalis accumulated significantly higher tissue concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc from the metal contaminated sediments compared to controls. This study suggests that despite the fact that lead and zinc were most likely bound as sulfide phases in deeper sediments, the metals maintain their bioavailability because of the continued cycling between pore waters and surface sediments due to physical mixing and bioturbation.

  16. Extended record of 10Be at EPICA Dome C during the last 800 000 years and its synchronization with geomagnetic paleointensity variations from marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquoin, Alexandre; Raisbeck, Grant; Jouzel, Jean; Bard, Edouard; Aster Team

    2013-04-01

    Polar ice cores are exceptional archives that permit the reconstruction of many parameters (variations of temperature, atmospheric composition...) and the reconstitution of the past variations of the Earth climate and environment. They also give access to beryllium-10 (10Be) fallout, an isotope of cosmogenic origin, created by the interaction of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR, constituted of high energy charged particles) with the upper atmosphere. The cosmic rays being modulated by solar activity and Earth's magnetic field intensity, the 10Be production is inversely related to the intensity of these two parameters. Most 10Be produced is quickly removed from the atmosphere (residence time in the stratosphere ~1-2 years) and, on the Antarctic plateau, falls mainly by dry deposition as aerosols. So, 10Be can be used as a proxy of paleointensity. It has allowed the improvement of ice cores chronologies thanks to absolute stratigraphic markers linked to excursions and inversions of the geomagnetic field such as the Laschamp excursion [1] or the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal [2, 3]. EPICA Dome C (75° 06' S, 123° 21' E) is a 3270 meter ice core drilled in East Antarctica in the framework of an international project. It offers a complete climate record over the last 800 000 years. As shown at the IPICS 2012 meeting, for the 355 - 800 ka period [4], a continuous high-resolution (11 cm) 10Be profile in this core can be synchronized with continuous variations of paleointensity (PISO-1500) recorded in marine sediments [5] in order to obtain a continuous relative chronology of climate proxies (δD and δ18O respectively) for these two reservoirs. Here, we extend this synchronization down to 269 ka, thus including termination IV and interstadial MIS 9. [1]. Raisbeck et al. (2007) Clim.Past, 3, 541 - 547. [2]. Raisbeck et al. (2006) Nature, 444, 82 - 84. [3]. Dreyfus et al. (2008) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 274, 151 - 156. [4]. G.Raisbeck et al. (2012) IPICS Open Science Conference

  17. Study on the oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by a cold-tolerant marine strain phylogenetically related to Erythrobacter citreus.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianqiang; Ding, Fei; Sang, Lin; Liu, Jiaquan; Mao, Duolu; Liu, Xingjiang; Xu, Qiang

    2017-09-08

    As the development of marine economy, the submarine battery with the seawater electrolyte has obtained more and more attentions. Owing to the conventional electrochemical catalysts of the cathodes in seawater battery are expensive, it is to seek the new biological catalysts to improve the electrochemical performance of the cathode and reduce the cost of seawater battery. A novel marine bacterial strain (Strain SQ-32) phylogenetically related to the Erythrobactercitreus strain has been isolated from the sea-bed sludge in the Yellow Sea of China successfully. The electrochemical measurements, which include the cyclic voltammetry, potentiostatic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, have been conducted in synthetic seawater. The electrochemical testing results show that the Strain SQ-32 is a cold-tolerant bacterium, which may exhibit a catalytic activity for the ORR in synthetic seawater at a freezing temperature. The SEM photo demonstrates that the Strain SQ-32 displays a rod-shaped characteristic, which has a diameter of 0.4μm and a length of about 1-2.5μm. By the testing of Gram staining, the Strain SQ-32 has been identified as a Gram-negative bacterium. The chemical analytical result reveals that the bacterium cell of Strain SQ-32 contains 1.92mgg(-1) (DCW) of coenzyme Q10, which is a possible impact factor on the electro-catalytic effect on the Strain SQ-32. The exploitation of Strain SQ-32 may boost the development of the biocathode of seawater battery at a low temperature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. How Accurately Can Extended X-ray Absorption Spectra Be Predicted from First Principles? Implications for Modeling the Oxygen-Evolving Complex in Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Martha A; Ames, William; Vila, Fernando D; Krewald, Vera; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Mantel, Claire; Pécaut, Jacques; Gennari, Marcello; Duboc, Carole; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle; Yano, Junko; Rehr, John J; Neese, Frank; DeBeer, Serena

    2015-10-14

    First principle calculations of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data have seen widespread use in bioinorganic chemistry, perhaps most notably for modeling the Mn4Ca site in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). The logic implied by the calculations rests on the assumption that it is possible to a priori predict an accurate EXAFS spectrum provided that the underlying geometric structure is correct. The present study investigates the extent to which this is possible using state of the art EXAFS theory. The FEFF program is used to evaluate the ability of a multiple scattering-based approach to directly calculate the EXAFS spectrum of crystallographically defined model complexes. The results of these parameter free predictions are compared with the more traditional approach of fitting FEFF calculated spectra to experimental data. A series of seven crystallographically characterized Mn monomers and dimers is used as a test set. The largest deviations between the FEFF calculated EXAFS spectra and the experimental EXAFS spectra arise from the amplitudes. The amplitude errors result from a combination of errors in calculated S0(2) and Debye-Waller values as well as uncertainties in background subtraction. Additional errors may be attributed to structural parameters, particularly in cases where reliable high-resolution crystal structures are not available. Based on these investigations, the strengths and weaknesses of using first-principle EXAFS calculations as a predictive tool are discussed. We demonstrate that a range of DFT optimized structures of the OEC may all be considered consistent with experimental EXAFS data and that caution must be exercised when using EXAFS data to obtain topological arrangements of complex clusters.

  19. Variations in stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in atmospheric water vapor in the marine boundary layer across a wide latitude range.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingfeng; Xiao, Cunde; Ding, Minghu; Ren, Jiawen

    2014-11-01

    The newly-developed cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy analyzer with special calibration protocols has enabled the direct measurement of atmospheric vapor isotopes at high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper presents real-time hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope data for atmospheric water vapor above the sea surface, over a wide range of latitudes spanning from 38°N to 69°S. Our results showed relatively higher values of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in the subtropical regions than those in the tropical and high latitude regions, and also a notable decreasing trend in the Antarctic coastal region. By combining the hydrogen and oxygen isotope data with meteoric water line and backward trajectory model analysis, we explored the kinetic fractionation caused by subsiding air masses and related saturated vapor pressure in the subtropics, and the evaporation-driven kinetic fractionation in the Antarctic region. Simultaneous observations of meteorological and marine variables were used to interpret the isotopic composition characteristics and influential factors, indicating that d-excess is negatively correlated with humidity across a wide range of latitudes and weather conditions worldwide. Coincident with previous studies, d-excess is also positively correlated with sea surface temperature and air temperature (Tair), with greater sensitivity to Tair. Thus, atmospheric vapor isotopes measured with high accuracy and good spatial-temporal resolution could act as informative tracers for exploring the water cycle at different regional scales. Such monitoring efforts should be undertaken over a longer time period and in different regions of the world. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Study of a two-stage growth of DHA-producing marine algae Schizochytrium limacinum SR21 with shifting dissolved oxygen level.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; Liu, Yan; Frear, Craig; Chen, Shulin

    2009-01-01

    The culture protocol of Schizochytrium limacinum SR 21, a known docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) producing marine algae was modified in this study to better fit fermentation parameters, particularly control of dissolved oxygen (DO) to the known reproductive and growth biology of the microorganism. The cultures controlled at 50% DO saturation produced a cell density of 181 million cells/ml, whereas cultures with 10% DO produced only 98.4 million cells/ml. A fixed-agitation rate of 150 rpm resulted in an even lower density of 22.5 million cells/ml. Fifty percent DO saturation level led to a decreased pH, as well as a negative correlation with lipid accumulation, while low oxygen concentration was obligatory for lipid accumulation. This study indicated that high DO was preferred for the cells' reproduction via release of zoospores. Thus, the culture of S. limacinum SR21 should be best divided into two stages: (1) a cell-number-increasing stage in which cell reproduction and cell number increase with little increase in the size and weight of each cell; and (2) a cell-size-increasing stage in which cells stop reproduction but cell size enlarges due to lipids accumulation. With such a protocol, the production of algae biomass and DHA was improved to levels of 37.9 g/L and 6.56 g/L, respectively. The two-stage culture process could be potentially used not only for omega-3 PUFA production, but also in other single cell oil (SCO)-producing processes, including biodiesel production from algae.

  1. Rubisco in marine symbiotic dinoflagellates: form II enzymes in eukaryotic oxygenic phototrophs encoded by a nuclear multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, R; Whitney, S M; Fowler, A; Yellowlees, D

    1996-01-01

    Genes encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) were cloned from dinoflagellate symbionts (Symbiodinium spp) of the giant clam Tridacna gigas and characterized. Strikingly, Symbiodinium Rubisco is completely different from other eukaryotic (form I) Rubiscos: it is a form II enzyme that is approximately 65% identical to Rubisco from Rhodospirillum rubrum (Rubisco forms I and II are approximately 25 to 30% identical); it is nuclear encoded by a multigene family; and the predominantly expressed Rubisco is encoded as a precursor polyprotein. One clone appears to contain a predominantly expressed Rubisco locus (rbcA), as determined by RNA gel blot analysis of Symbiodinium RNA and sequencing of purified Rubisco protein. Another contains an enigmatic locus (rbcG) that exhibits an unprecedented pattern of amino acid replacement but does not appear to be a pseudogene. The expression of rbcG has not been analyzed; it was detected only in the minor of two taxa of Symbiodinium that occur together in T. gigas. This study confirms and describes a previously unrecognized branch of Rubisco's evolution: a eukaryotic form II enzyme that participates in oxygenic photosynthesis and is encoded by a diverse, nuclear multigene family. PMID:8721755

  2. Oxygen-poor microzones as potential sites of microbial n(2) fixation in nitrogen-depleted aerobic marine waters.

    PubMed

    Paerl, H W; Prufert, L E

    1987-05-01

    The nitrogen-deficient coastal waters of North Carolina contain suspended bacteria potentially able to fix N(2). Bioassays aimed at identifying environmental factors controlling the development and proliferation of N(2) fixation showed that dissolved organic carbon (as simple sugars and sugar alcohols) and particulate organic carbon (derived from Spartina alterniflora) additions elicited and enhanced N(2) fixation (nitrogenase activity) in these waters. Nitrogenase activity occurred in samples containing flocculent, mucilage-covered bacterial aggregates. Cyanobacterium-bacterium aggregates also revealed N(2) fixation. In all cases bacterial N(2) fixation occurred in association with surficial microenvironments or microzones. Since nitrogenase is oxygen labile, we hypothesized that the aggregates themselves protected their constituent microbes from O(2). Microelectrode O(2) profiles revealed that aggregates had lower internal O(2) tensions than surrounding waters. Tetrazolium salt (2,3,5-triphenyl-3-tetrazolium chloride) reduction revealed that patchy zones existed both within microbes and extracellularly in the mucilage surrounding microbes where free O(2) was excluded. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction also strongly inhibited nitrogenase activity. These findings suggest that N(2) fixation is mediated by the availability of the appropriate types of reduced microzones. Organic carbon enrichment appears to serve as an energy and structural source for aggregate formation, both of which were required for eliciting N(2) fixation responses of these waters.

  3. Oxygen-Poor Microzones as Potential Sites of Microbial N2 Fixation in Nitrogen-Depleted Aerobic Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans W.; Prufert, Leslie E.

    1987-01-01

    The nitrogen-deficient coastal waters of North Carolina contain suspended bacteria potentially able to fix N2. Bioassays aimed at identifying environmental factors controlling the development and proliferation of N2 fixation showed that dissolved organic carbon (as simple sugars and sugar alcohols) and particulate organic carbon (derived from Spartina alterniflora) additions elicited and enhanced N2 fixation (nitrogenase activity) in these waters. Nitrogenase activity occurred in samples containing flocculent, mucilage-covered bacterial aggregates. Cyanobacterium-bacterium aggregates also revealed N2 fixation. In all cases bacterial N2 fixation occurred in association with surficial microenvironments or microzones. Since nitrogenase is oxygen labile, we hypothesized that the aggregates themselves protected their constituent microbes from O2. Microelectrode O2 profiles revealed that aggregates had lower internal O2 tensions than surrounding waters. Tetrazolium salt (2,3,5-triphenyl-3-tetrazolium chloride) reduction revealed that patchy zones existed both within microbes and extracellularly in the mucilage surrounding microbes where free O2 was excluded. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction also strongly inhibited nitrogenase activity. These findings suggest that N2 fixation is mediated by the availability of the appropriate types of reduced microzones. Organic carbon enrichment appears to serve as an energy and structural source for aggregate formation, both of which were required for eliciting N2 fixation responses of these waters. Images PMID:16347337

  4. Anti-Melanogenic Activity of Gagunin D, a Highly Oxygenated Diterpenoid from the Marine Sponge Phorbas sp., via Modulating Tyrosinase Expression and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Yeon; Jang, Eun Jeong; Bae, Song Yi; Jeon, Ju-eun; Park, Hyen Joo; Shin, Jongheon; Lee, Sang Kook

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for melanin synthesis and controls pigmentation in the skin. The inhibition of tyrosinase is currently the most common approach for the development of skin-whitening cosmetics. Gagunin D (GD), a highly oxygenated diterpenoid isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp., has exhibited cytotoxicity toward human leukemia cells. However, the effect of GD on normal cells and the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we identified for the first time the anti-melanogenic activity of GD and its precise underlying mechanisms in mouse melan-a cells. GD significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in the melan-a cells and a reconstructed human skin model. Further analysis revealed that GD suppressed the expression of tyrosinase and increased the rate of tyrosinase degradation. GD also inhibited tyrosinase enzymatic activity. In addition, GD effectively suppressed the expression of proteins associated with melanosome transfer. These findings suggest that GD is a potential candidate for cosmetic formulations due to its multi-functional properties. PMID:27869664

  5. The OCO-2 oxygen A-band response to liquid marine cloud properties from CALIPSO and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark; McDuffie, James; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cronk, Heather Q.; Taylor, Tommy E.

    2017-08-01

    Spectra of reflected sunlight in the oxygen A-band contain information about cloud properties such as cloud top pressure, optical depth, and pressure thickness. Here we show, for the first time, that high-spectral-resolution A-band Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) spectra respond largely as simulated to the optical properties of water clouds over ocean during November 2015 (N = 184,318) using input cloud properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization on Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO). In A-band continuum channels the standard deviation of simulated minus observed radiance is ±37%. Selecting horizontally homogeneous clouds to mitigate three-dimensional cloud effects and collocation error with the other satellites, the standard deviation of the residuals is reduced to ±18%. Using a look-up table developed from simulations, OCO-2's estimated cloud top pressure for low clouds (Ptop > 680 hPa) has a standard deviation of ±61 hPa relative to CALIPSO retrievals, and bias is dependent on assumed cloud pressure thickness, with our smallest value being -5 hPa. Versus MODIS optical depth, the standard deviation is ±9.0 and the bias is -2.0, although these shrink for clouds of τ < 30. These values include collocation error between the different satellites, meaning that they place an upper bound on the OCO-2 retrieval uncertainty. The theoretical precision limit from OCO-2's instrumental uncertainty is shown to be ±2.4 hPa in above-cloud path and ±0.2% in optical depth for a two-channel retrieval. Options for retrieving cloud optical depth, cloud top pressure, and pressure thickness are discussed in the context of a formal OCO-2 cloud property retrieval.

  6. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy study of aliovalent doped ceria to correlate local structural changes with oxygen vacancies clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Shirbhate, S. C.; Acharya, S. A.; Yadav, A. K.

    2016-04-04

    This study provides atomic scale insight to understand the role of aliovalent dopants on oxygen vacancies clustering and dissociation mechanism in ceria system in order to enhance the performance of oxy-ion conductor. Dopants induced microscale changes in ceria are probed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectra, and Raman spectroscopy. The results are explored to establish a correlation between atomic level structural changes (coordination number, interatomic spacing) → formation of dimer and trimer type cation-oxygen vacancies defect complex (intrinsic and extrinsic) → dissociation of oxygen vacancies from defect cluster → ionic conductivity temperature. It is a strategic approach to understand key physics of ionic conductivity mechanism in order to reduce operating temperature of electrolytes for intermediate temperature (300–450 °C) electrochemical devices for the first time.

  7. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi‐events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM‐events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high‐resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long‐term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi‐events can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton‐rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section. PMID:27546980

  8. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi-events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM-events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high-resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long-term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi-events can now be recognized in the δ(18)O record and coincide with plankton-rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section.

  9. Seasonal variation in blood and muscle oxygen stores attributed to diving behavior, environmental temperature and pregnancy in a marine predator, the California sea lion.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Atkinson, Shannon; Paras-Garcia, Alberto; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-08-01

    Survival depends on an animal's ability to find and acquire prey. In diving vertebrates, this ability is directly related to their physiological capability (e.g. oxygen stores). We studied the seasonal variation in oxygen stores, body temperature and body condition in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSL) as a function of seasonal variation in temperature, primary productivity, diving behavior and reproductive stage. During summer, blood oxygen stores were significantly greater and muscle oxygen stores were significantly lower than in winter. Total oxygen stores, body condition and body temperature did not change between seasons but variations in body temperature were greater during summer. Changes in oxygen stores are partly attributed to diving behavior, temperature and pregnancy that could increase oxygen consumption. Blood and muscle oxygen stores appear to be influenced by reproductive state. Blood oxygen stores are more likely influenced by diving behavior and temperature than muscle oxygen stores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

  11. Oxygen Radical Scavenger Activity, EPR, NMR, Molecular Mechanics and Extended-Hückel Molecular Orbital Investigation of the Bis(Piroxicam)Copper(II) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pogni, Rebecca; Basosi, Riccardo; Donati, Alessandro; Rossi, Claudio; Sabadini, Luciano; Rollo, Libertario; Lorenzini, Sauro; Gelli, Renata; Marcolongo, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen radical scavenger activity (ORSA) of [CuII(Pir)2] (HPir = Piroxicam = 4-hydroxy -2- methyl -N-2- pyridyl -2H- 1,2-benzothiazine -3- carboxamide 1,1-dioxide) was determined by chemiluminescence of samples obtained by mixing human neutrophils (from healthy subjects) and [CuII(Pir)2(DMF)2] (DMF = N,N -dimethylformammide) in DMSO/GLY/PBS (2:1:2, v/v) solution (DMSO = dimethylsulfoxide, GLY = 1,2,3-propantriol, PBS = Dulbecco’s buffer salt solution). The ratio of the residual radicals, for the HPir (1.02·10−4M) and [CuII(Pir)2(DMF)2] (1.08·10−5M)/HPir (8.01·10−−5M) systems was higher than 12 (not stimulated) [excess of piroxicam was added (Cu/Pir molar ratio ≈1:10) in order to have most of the metal complexed as bischelate]. In contrast, the ratio of residual radicals for the CuCl2 (1.00·10−5M) and [CuII(Pir)2(DMF)2] (1.08·10−5M)/Hpir (8.01·10−5M)system was 5. The [CuII(Pir)2] compound is therefore a stronger radical scavenger than either HPir or CuCl2. A molecular mechanics (MM) analysis of the gas phase structures of neutral HPir, its zwitterionic (HPir+-) and anionic (Pir-) forms, and some CuII-piroxicam complexes based on X-ray structures allowed calculation of force constants. The most stable structure for HPir has a ZZZ conformation similar to that found in the CuII (and CdII complexes) in the solid state as well as in the gas phase. The structure is stabilized by a strong H bond which involves the N(amide)-H and O(enolic) groups. The MM simulation for the [CuII(Pir)2(DMF)2] complex showed that two high repulsive intramolecular contacts exist between a pyridyl hydrogen atom of one Pir- molecule with the O donor of the other ligand. These interactions activate a transition toward a pseudo-tetrahedral geometry, in the case the apical ligands are removed. On refluxing a suspension of [CuII(Pir)2(DMF)2] in acetone a brown microcystalline solid with the Cu(Pir)2·0.5DMF stoichiometry was in fact prepared. 13C spin-lattice relaxation

  12. On developing a thesis for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellowship: a case study of ultra-low (2%) oxygen tension for extended culture of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Kaser, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    Fellows in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility training are expected to complete 18 months of clinical, basic, or epidemiological research. The goal of this research is not only to provide the basis for the thesis section of the oral board exam but also to spark interest in reproductive medicine research and to provide the next generation of physician-scientists with a foundational experience in research design and implementation. Incoming fellows often have varying degrees of training in research methodology and, likewise, different career goals. Ideally, selection of a thesis topic and mentor should be geared toward defining an "answerable" question and building a practical skill set for future investigation. This contribution to the JARG Young Investigator's Forum revisits the steps of the scientific method through the lens of one recently graduated fellow and his project aimed to test the hypothesis that "sequential oxygen exposure (5% from days 1 to 3, then 2% from days 3 to 5) improves blastocyst yield and quality compared to continuous exposure to 5% oxygen among human preimplantation embryos."

  13. Marine collagen peptides prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) skin extend the life span and inhibit spontaneous tumor incidence in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiang; Pei, Xin-Rong; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Wang, Jun-Bo; Li, Yong

    2010-08-01

    To observe the effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) skin on life span and spontaneous tumor incidence, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets supplemented with MCP at concentrations of 0%, 2.25%, 4.5%, and 9% (wt/wt) from the age of 4 weeks until natural death. There were 40 rats in each group (male:female ratio = 1:1). The results showed that the MCP did not significantly influence body weight or food consumption of rats of either sex throughout the life span; it did dose-dependently inhibit the age-related decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the age-related increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation product in both sexes. MCP notably increased the mean life span, the life span of the last 30% of the survivors, and the maximal life span; it decreased overall spontaneous tumor incidence of both sexes with significance in the 4.5% and 9% MCP-treated male groups and 9% MCP-treated female group. Compared to the control group, the incidence of death from tumors was decreased in MCP groups in comparison with the control group of both sexes. Therefore, we concluded that MCPs dose-dependently increase life span and decrease spontaneous tumor incidence in Sprague-Dawley rats. Moreover, the antioxidative property of MCPs may be responsible for the increased life span and protection against tumor development.

  14. Peroxisomes Extend Peroxules in a Fast Response to Stress via a Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Induction of the Peroxin PEX11a1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Sanz-Fernández, María

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are highly dynamic and metabolically active organelles that play an important role in cellular functions, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Peroxisomal dynamics, such as the proliferation, movement, and production of dynamic extensions called peroxules, have been associated with ROS in plant cells. However, the function and regulation of peroxules are largely unknown. Using confocal microscopy, we have shown that treatment of Arabidopsis leaves with the heavy metal cadmium produces time course-dependent changes in peroxisomal dynamics, starting with peroxule formation, followed by peroxisome proliferation, and finally returning to the normal morphology and number. These changes during Cd treatment were regulated by NADPH oxidase (C and F)-related ROS production. Peroxule formation is a general response to stimuli such as arsenic and is regulated by peroxin 11a (PEX11a), as Arabidopsis pex11a RNAi lines are unable to produce peroxules under stress conditions. The pex11a line showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation content and lower expression of genes involved in antioxidative defenses and signaling, suggesting that these extensions are involved in regulating ROS accumulation and ROS-dependent gene expression in response to stress. Our results demonstrate that PEX11a and peroxule formation play a key role in regulating stress perception and fast cell responses to environmental cues. PMID:27208303

  15. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  16. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    Current control of dissolved organic matter in natural and waste waters is the definition traditionally of chemical oxygen demand (COD) -- one of the basic parameters of quality of water. According to the International Standard (ISO 6060), it requires not less than one hour, while in many cases the operative information about amount of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments have importance for prevention of an emergency. The standard method is applicable to waters with meaning of COD above 30 mg O2/l and, as the chloride ion prevents, it could be difficult for assessment of organic matter in sea water. Besides it is based on dichromate oxidation of the sum of organic substances in strong acid conditions at the presence of silver and mercury, that resulted in formation toxic pollutants. Till now attempts of automation of the COD definition in aquatic system were limited, basically, to duplication of the technology submitted the above standard (automatic COD analyzers "SERES Co."-- France, or "Tsvet Co." - Russia). The system of ozone-chemiluminescence automatic control of organic matter in water (CS COD) is offered and designed. Its based on the ozone oxidation of these substances in flowing water system and measurement arising from luminescent effects. CS COD works in real time. An instrument uses for reaction the atmospheric air, doesn't require fill of reagents and doesn't make new toxic pollutants. The system was tested in laboratory, and biochemical control of organic matter in water samples gathered from the river Neva and other polluted inland water areas and basins in St. Petersburg region was fulfilled (distilled water was used as "zero" media). The results of systematization of these measurements are presented. The new special ozone generator and flowing reactor for real-time running control of different waters in natural conditions were developed, and several series of large - scale field experiments onboard research ship were provided

  17. UV photochemistry of carboxylic acids at the air-sea boundary: A relevant source of glyoxal and other oxygenated VOC in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, R.; Tinel, L.; Gonzalez, L.; Ciuraru, R.; Bernard, F.; George, C.; Volkamer, R.

    2017-01-01

    Photochemistry plays an important role in marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) degradation, but the mechanisms that convert DOC into volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remain poorly understood. We irradiated carboxylic acids (C7-C9) on a simulated ocean surface with UV light (<320 nm) in a photochemical flow reactor and transferred the VOC products into a dark ozone reactor. Glyoxal was detected as a secondary product from heptanoic, octanoic, and nonanoic acid (NA) films, but not from octanol. Primary glyoxal emissions were not observed, nor was glyoxal formed in the absence of ozone. Addition of a photosensitizer had no noticeable effect. The concurrent detection of heptanal in the NA system suggests that the ozonolysis of 2-nonenal is the primary chemical mechanism that produces glyoxal. This source can potentially sustain tens of parts per trillion by volume (pptv) glyoxal over oceans, and helps to explain why glyoxal fluxes in marine air are directed from the atmosphere into the ocean.

  18. Bottom-Water Conditions in a Marine Basin after the Cretaceous–Paleogene Impact Event: Timing the Recovery of Oxygen Levels and Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Montes De Oca, Claudia; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-high-resolution analysis of major and trace element contents from the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary interval in the Caravaca section, southeast Spain, reveals a quick recovery of depositional conditions after the impact event. Enrichment/depletion profiles of redox sensitive elements indicate significant geochemical anomalies just within the boundary ejecta layer, supporting an instantaneous recovery –some 102 years– of pre-impact conditions in terms of oxygenation. Geochemical redox proxies point to oxygen levels comparable to those at the end of the Cretaceous shortly after impact, which is further evidenced by the contemporary macrobenthic colonization of opportunistic tracemakers. Recovery of the oxygen conditions was therefore several orders shorter than traditional proposals (104–105 years), suggesting a probable rapid recovery of deep-sea ecosystems at bottom and in intermediate waters. PMID:24349232

  19. Emergence of modern marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hull, Pincelli M

    2017-06-05

    The structure and function of marine ecosystems are not fixed. Instead, major innovations - from the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, to the evolution of reefs or of deep bioturbation, to the rise of pelagic calcifiers - have changed biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem dynamics. As a result, modern marine ecosystems are fundamentally different from those in the distant past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Micro-trace fossils reveal pervasive reworking of Pliocene sapropels by low-oxygen-adapted benthic meiofauna.

    PubMed

    Löhr, S C; Kennedy, M J

    2015-03-12

    Animal burrowers leave an indelible signature on the sedimentary record in most marine environments, with the seeming exception of low-oxygen environments. In modern sedimentary settings, however, sub-millimetre-sized benthic animals (meiofauna) are adapted to low oxygen and even sulfidic conditions. Almost nothing is known about their impact on ancient marine sediments because they leave few recognizable traces. Here we show, in classic Pliocene-aged anoxic facies from the Mediterranean, the first reported trace fossil evidence of meiofaunal activity and its relation to changing oxygenation. A novel approach utilizing electron imaging of ion-polished samples shows that meiofauna pervasively reworked sediment under oxygen-depleted conditions that excluded macrofauna, fragmenting organic laminae and emplacing 15- to 70-μm-diameter faecal pellets without macroscopically influencing the fabric. The extent of reworking raises the question: how pervasively altered are other sediments presently assumed to lack animal influence and how far into the geological record does this influence extend?

  1. Effect of Oxygen Tension, Mn(II) Concentration, and Temperature on the Microbially Catalyzed Mn(II) Oxidation Rate in a Marine Fjord †

    PubMed Central

    Tebo, Bradley M.; Emerson, Steven

    1985-01-01

    We present evidence that the oxidation of Mn(II) in a zone above the O2/H2S interface in the water column of Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada, is microbially catalyzed. We measured the uptake of 54Mn(II) in water samples under in situ conditions of pH and temperature and in the presence and absence of oxygen. Experiments in the absence of oxygen provided a measure of the exchange of the tracer between the dissolved and solid pools of Mn(II); we interpret the difference between experiments in the presence and absence of oxygen to be a measure of Mn(II) oxidation. Using this method we examined the effect of oxygen tension, Mn(II) concentration, and temperature on the initial in situ Mn(II) oxidation rate (V0). Mn(II) oxidation was almost twice as fast under conditions of 67% air saturation (V0=5.5 nM h−1) as with the in situ concentration of 15 μM (5% air saturation; V0=3.1 nM h−1). Additions of ca. 18 μM Mn(II) completely inhibited all Mn(II) oxidation at three different depths in the oxidizing zone, and there was a temperature optimum for Mn(II) oxidation of around 20°C. These results are consistent with biologically mediated Mn(II) oxidation and indicate that the rate is limited by both oxygen and the concentration of microbial binding sites in this environment. PMID:16346931

  2. Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively. Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria. To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 307, 309, 310, 313. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are four activity units: (1) Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively; (2) Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria; (3) To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment; and (4) Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. All the activities are designed to be used by secondary school…

  3. Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively. Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria. To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 307, 309, 310, 313. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are four activity units: (1) Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively; (2) Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria; (3) To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment; and (4) Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. All the activities are designed to be used by secondary school…

  4. Recycled oceanic crust and marine sediment in the source of alkali basalts in Shandong, eastern China: Evidence from magma water content and oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Xia, Qun-Ke; Deloule, Etienne; Chen, Huan; Feng, Min

    2015-12-01

    The magma water contents and cpx δ18O values in alkali basalts from the Fuyanyshan (FYS) volcano in Shandong, eastern China, were investigated by an inverse calculation based on the water content of clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts, the ivAlcpx-dependent water partitioning coefficient Dwatercpx>/melt, and secondary ion mass spectrometer, respectively. The calculated water content (H2O wt.) of magma ranges from 0.58% to 3.89%. It positively correlates with heavy rare earth element concentrations and bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and it negatively correlates with Nb/U ratios. However, it is not correlated with bulk Mg# (Mg# = 100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) and (La/Yb)n (n represents primitive mantle normalization). Combined with the rather homogenous distribution of water content within cpx grains, these correlations indicate that the water variations among different samples represent the original magma signature, rather than results of a shallow process, such as degassing and diffusion. The δ18O of cpx phenocrysts varies from 3.6‰ to 6.3‰ (±0.5‰, 2SD), which may be best explained by the involvement of components from the lower and upper oceanic crust with marine sediments within the mantle source. The H2O/Ce ratios of the calculated melts range from 113 to 696 and form a positive trend with bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr, which cannot be explained by the recycled Sulu eclogite or by the metasomatized lithospheric mantle. Our modeling calculation shows that the decoupling of ɛHf and ɛNd could be caused by the involvement of marine sediments. Combing the high Ba/Th ratios, positive Sr spikes, and low Ce/Pb ratios for the Fuyanshan basalts, we suggest that the hydrous nature of the FYS basalts was derived from the hydrous mantle transition zone with ancient sediments.

  5. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  6. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  7. Extended RMS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-02

    ISS011-E-11416 (2 August 2005) --- A line of thunderstorms form the backdrop for this view of the extended Space Shuttle Discovery’;s remote manipulator system (RMS) robotic arm while docked to the International Space Station during the STS-114 mission.

  8. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  9. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  10. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface.

  11. Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism?

    PubMed Central

    Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa) and hyperoxia (36 kPa). We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. Conclusions/Significance These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods. PMID:21818347

  12. Can oxygen set thermal limits in an insect and drive gigantism?

    PubMed

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Bilton, David T

    2011-01-01

    Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa) and hyperoxia (36 kPa). We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods.

  13. Extended antipaternalism

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, S

    2005-01-01

    Extended antipaternalism means the use of antipaternalist arguments to defend activities that harm (consenting) others. As an example, a smoker's right to smoke is often invoked in defence of the activities of tobacco companies. It can, however, be shown that antipaternalism in the proper sense does not imply such extended antipaternalism. We may therefore approve of Mill's antipaternalist principle (namely, that the only reason to interfere with someone's behaviour is to protect others from harm) without accepting activities that harm (consenting) others. This has immediate consequences for the ethics of public health. An antipaternalist need not refrain from interfering with activities such as the marketing of tobacco or heroin, boxing promotion, driving with unbelted passengers, or buying sex from "voluntary" prostitutes. PMID:15681674

  14. Fuel extender

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, G.K.; Gilbert, H.A.

    1989-02-21

    An efficient and cost competitive fuel extender liquid is described for blending with lead-free gasoline as an additive thereto in a maximum amount of up to about 35% thereof with 65% by volume of the gasoline in a blended mixture wherein. The content of the extender in the resultant fuel as proportioned on the basis of its thus representative maximum content consists essentially of: naphtha X as represented by C/sub 4/, C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons having a Reid vapor pressure of about 8.5 to 9.6 per ASTM, D323 test procedure and an initial distillation point of about 101/sup 0/F. and an end point of about 280/sup 0/F. within a range of about 10 to 25% by volume, about 3.8 to 6.0% by volume of anhydrous ethanol, a stabilizing amount of a water repellent of the class consisting of ethyl acetate and methyl isotubyl ketone; and about 4 to 10.5% by volume of aromatics benzene and toluene, of benzene and xylene or of benzene with toluene and xylene; the extender having a specific gravity substantially comparable with that of the lead-free gasoline to which it is to be added and having phase stability in the presence of water when mixed with the gasoline.

  15. Mixotrophic growth of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria is carbon-starvation independent and correlates with the type of carbon source and oxygen availability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Populations of aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophic bacteria in marine environments are dominated by members of the Roseobacter lineage within the Alphaproteobacteria and the OM60/NOR5 clade of gammaproteobacteria. A wealth of information exists about the regulation of pigment production and mixotrophic growth in various members of the Roseobacter clade, but a detailed knowledge about aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing gammaproteobacteria is still limited to one strain of the species Congregibacter litoralis. Results The production of photosynthetic pigments and light-dependent mixotrophic growth was analysed in Luminiphilus syltensis DSM 22749T, Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344T and Pseudohaliea rubra DSM 19751T, representing three taxonomically diverse strains of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade. In these strains the expression of a photosynthetic apparatus depended mainly on the type of carbon source and availability of oxygen. The effect of illumination on pigment expression varied significantly between strains. In contrast to Chromatocurvus halotolerans, pigment production in Luminiphilus syltensis and Pseudohaliea rubra was repressed by light of moderate intensities, probably indicating a higher sensitivity to light-induced oxidative stress. The efficiency of using light for mixotrophic growth did not correlate with the cellular level of photosynthetic pigments, but depended mainly on the type of metabolized substrate with malate being the optimal carbon source in most cases. Conclusions Oligotrophic growth conditions or carbon limitation were not required for light-dependent mixotrophic growth in members of the OM60/NOR5 clade. The ability of using light as energy source and the fine tuning of photosynthesis gene expression depended mainly on the type of carbon source and oxygen availability, which indicates that the regulation of pigment production is controlled by the cellular

  16. Mixotrophic growth of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria is carbon-starvation independent and correlates with the type of carbon source and oxygen availability.

    PubMed

    Spring, Stefan; Riedel, Thomas

    2013-05-24

    Populations of aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophic bacteria in marine environments are dominated by members of the Roseobacter lineage within the Alphaproteobacteria and the OM60/NOR5 clade of gammaproteobacteria. A wealth of information exists about the regulation of pigment production and mixotrophic growth in various members of the Roseobacter clade, but a detailed knowledge about aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing gammaproteobacteria is still limited to one strain of the species Congregibacter litoralis. The production of photosynthetic pigments and light-dependent mixotrophic growth was analysed in Luminiphilus syltensis DSM 22749T, Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344T and Pseudohaliea rubra DSM 19751T, representing three taxonomically diverse strains of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade. In these strains the expression of a photosynthetic apparatus depended mainly on the type of carbon source and availability of oxygen. The effect of illumination on pigment expression varied significantly between strains. In contrast to Chromatocurvus halotolerans, pigment production in Luminiphilus syltensis and Pseudohaliea rubra was repressed by light of moderate intensities, probably indicating a higher sensitivity to light-induced oxidative stress. The efficiency of using light for mixotrophic growth did not correlate with the cellular level of photosynthetic pigments, but depended mainly on the type of metabolized substrate with malate being the optimal carbon source in most cases. Oligotrophic growth conditions or carbon limitation were not required for light-dependent mixotrophic growth in members of the OM60/NOR5 clade. The ability of using light as energy source and the fine tuning of photosynthesis gene expression depended mainly on the type of carbon source and oxygen availability, which indicates that the regulation of pigment production is controlled by the cellular redox state. While light has the

  17. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  18. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  19. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  20. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  1. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  2. Enhanced Production of carboxymethylcellulase by a marine bacterium, Bacillus velezensis A-68, by using rice hulls in pilot-scale bioreactor under optimized conditions for dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wa; Kim, Hye-Jin; Chung, Chung-Han; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2014-09-01

    The optimal conditions for the production of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) by Bacillus velezensis A-68 at a flask scale have been previously reported. In this study, the parameters involved in dissolved oxygen in 7 and 100 L bioreactors were optimized for the pilot-scale production of CMCase. The optimal agitation speed and aeration rate for cell growth of B. velezensis A-68 were 323 rpm and 1.46 vvm in a 7 L bioreactor, whereas those for the production of CMCase were 380 rpm and 0.54 vvm, respectively. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) implied that the highly significant factor for cell growth was the aeration rate, whereas that for the production of CMCase was the agitation speed. The optimal inner pressures for cell growth and the production of CMCase by B. velezensis A-68 in a 100 L bioreactor were 0.00 and 0.04 MPa, respectively. The maximal production of CMCase in a 100 L bioreactor under optimized conditions using rice hulls was 108.1 U/ml, which was 1.8 times higher than that at a flask scale under previously optimized conditions.

  3. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction.

  4. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  5. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  6. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  7. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    PubMed

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-14

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  8. 2-Methylhopanoids: Biomarkers for Cyanobacteria and for Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Hope, J. M.; Logan, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports new biomarker and carbon isotopic data for cultured cyanobacteria, cyano-bacterially- dominated ecosystems and ancient sedi-ments and petroleum. We found that cyanobacteria are the predominant source of a distinctive membrane lipid biomarker, namely 2- methylbacteriohopanepolyol (2-Me-BHP). We then sought evidence for a geochemical record of the fossil hydrocarbon analogues of these compounds (2- methylhopanes) and found a trend toward their in-creased relative abundance in marine sediments going back through geological time to 2500 Ma. We conclude that cyanobacteria were the dominant form of phytoplankton and source of molecular oxygen in the Proterozoic ocean. Extending the geological record of cyanobacteria further to Archean times is now a matter of finding a suitably preserved rock record. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. 2-Methylhopanoids: Biomarkers for Cyanobacteria and for Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Hope, J. M.; Logan, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports new biomarker and carbon isotopic data for cultured cyanobacteria, cyano-bacterially- dominated ecosystems and ancient sedi-ments and petroleum. We found that cyanobacteria are the predominant source of a distinctive membrane lipid biomarker, namely 2- methylbacteriohopanepolyol (2-Me-BHP). We then sought evidence for a geochemical record of the fossil hydrocarbon analogues of these compounds (2- methylhopanes) and found a trend toward their in-creased relative abundance in marine sediments going back through geological time to 2500 Ma. We conclude that cyanobacteria were the dominant form of phytoplankton and source of molecular oxygen in the Proterozoic ocean. Extending the geological record of cyanobacteria further to Archean times is now a matter of finding a suitably preserved rock record. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. The paradigm that all oxygen-respiring eukaryotes have cytosolic CuZn-superoxide dismutase and that Mn-superoxide dismutase is localized to the mitochondria does not apply to a large group of marine arthropods.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, M; Brouwer, T H; Grater, W; Enghild, J J; Thogersen, I B

    1997-10-28

    The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide radical, is present in the cytosol and mitochondria of all oxygen-respiring eukaryotes. The cytosolic form contains copper and zinc (CuZnSOD), whereas the mitochondrial form contains manganese (MnSOD). The latter protein is synthesized in the cytosol as a MnSOD precursor, containing an N-terminal mitochondrial-targeting sequence. CuZnSOD is sensitive toward cyanide (CN) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), but MnSOD is not. Assays for SOD activity in cytosol from the hepatopancreas of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, showed the presence of a CN/H2O2-insensitive form of SOD. No CN/H2O2-sensitive CuZnSOD was found. This unexpected phenomenon was shown to occur in all decapod crustacea (crabs, lobsters, shrimp) examined. The cytosolic and mitochondrial SODs of C. sapidus were purified by means of ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and reverse-phase HPLC. The cytosolic SOD is a homodimeric protein, which exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium (24 kDa left and right arrow 48 kDa). The protein contains approximately 1 Mn per subunit. No copper or zinc is present. Amino acid sequence analysis identified the novel cytosolic SOD as a MnSOD precursor with an abnormal mitochondrial-targeting sequence. The mitochondrial SOD of C. sapidus is similar to the MnSOD found in other eukaryotes. N-Terminal amino sequences of mitochondrial and cytosolic blue crab MnSOD differ in several positions. The MnSODs are thus encoded for by two different genes. The paradigm that all eukaryotes contain intracellular CuZnSOD and that MnSOD occurs exclusively in the mitochondria appears not to apply to a large group of marine arthropods.

  11. Cyanobacterial Diazotrophy and Earth’s Delayed Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Stephanie L.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    The redox landscape of Earth’s ocean-atmosphere system has changed dramatically throughout Earth history. Although Earth’s protracted oxygenation is undoubtedly the consequence of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis, the relationship between biological O2 production and Earth’s redox evolution remains poorly understood. Existing models for Earth’s oxygenation cannot adequately explain the nearly 2.5 billion years delay between the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the oxygenation of the deep ocean, in large part owing to major deficiencies in our understanding of the coevolution of O2 and Earth’s key biogeochemical cycles (e.g., the N cycle). For example, although possible links between O2 and N scarcity have been previously explored, the consequences of N2 limitation for net biological O2 production have not been examined thoroughly. Here, we revisit the prevailing view that N2 fixation has always been able to keep pace with P supply and discuss the possibility that bioavailable N, rather than P, limited export production for extended periods of Earth’s history. Based on the observation that diazotrophy occurs at the expense of oxygenesis in the modern ocean, we suggest that an N-limited biosphere may be inherently less oxygenic than a P-limited biosphere—and that cyanobacterial diazotrophy was a primary control on the timing and tempo of Earth’s oxygenation by modulating net biogenic O2 fluxes. We further hypothesize that negative feedbacks inhibit the transition between N and P limitation, with the implication that the pervasive accumulation of O2 in Earth’s ocean-atmosphere system may not have been an inevitable consequence of oxygenic photosynthesis by marine cyanobacteria. PMID:27721813

  12. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  13. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Bioturbation: impact on the marine nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Laverock, Bonnie; Gilbert, Jack A; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Sediments play a key role in the marine nitrogen cycle and can act either as a source or a sink of biologically available (fixed) nitrogen. This cycling is driven by a number of microbial remineralization reactions, many of which occur across the oxic/anoxic interface near the sediment surface. The presence and activity of large burrowing macrofauna (bioturbators) in the sediment can significantly affect these microbial processes by altering the physicochemical properties of the sediment. For example, the building and irrigation of burrows by bioturbators introduces fresh oxygenated water into deeper sediment layers and allows the exchange of solutes between the sediment and water column. Burrows can effectively extend the oxic/anoxic interface into deeper sediment layers, thus providing a unique environment for nitrogen-cycling microbial communities. Recent studies have shown that the abundance and diversity of micro-organisms can be far greater in burrow wall sediment than in the surrounding surface or subsurface sediment; meanwhile, bioturbated sediment supports higher rates of coupled nitrification-denitrification reactions and increased fluxes of ammonium to the water column. In the present paper we discuss the potential for bioturbation to significantly affect marine nitrogen cycling, as well as the molecular techniques used to study microbial nitrogen cycling communities and directions for future study.

  15. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  16. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  17. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  18. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  19. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  20. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... stored as a gas or liquid in special tanks. These tanks can be delivered to your home and contain ... they won’t run out of oxygen. Portable tanks and oxygen concentrators may make it easier for ...

  1. Marine Occupations in the Texas Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnerney, Beryl; Clark, Donald L.

    Marine career information is provided, intended for use by high school students, counselors, teachers, and curriculum developers. Material was gathered from a review of occupational publications, including extended use of the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles" (D.O.T.), and from interviews of persons employed in marine occupations in…

  2. Mariner 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Mariner 2 was the world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. Launched August 27, 1962, on an Atlas-Agena rocket, Mariner 2 passed within about 34,000 kilometers (21,000 miles) of Venus, sending back valuable new information about interplanetary space and the Venusian atmosphere. Mariner 2 recorded the temperature at Venus for the first time, revealing the planet's very hot atmosphere of about 500 degrees Celsius (900 degrees Fahrenheit). The spacecraft's solar wind experiment measured for the first time the density, velocity, composition and variation over time of the solar wind.

  3. [Apneic oxygenation].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, A V; Vyzhigina, M A; Parshin, V D; Fedorov, D S

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances in thoracic and tracheal surgery make the anaesthesiologist use different respiratory techniques during the operation. Apneic oxygenation is a one of alternative techniques. This method is relatively easy in use, does not require special expensive equipment and is the only possible technique in several clinical situations when other respiratory methods are undesirable or cannot be used. However there is no enough information about apneic oxygenation in Russian. This article reviews publications about apneic oxygenation. The review deals with experiments on diffusion respiration in animals, physiological changes during apneic oxygenation in man and defines clinical cases when apneic oxygenation can be used.

  4. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  5. Marine stings.

    PubMed

    Gurry, D

    1992-01-01

    Our superb coastline attracts local tourists and overseas visitors seeking recreation. There is increasing contact with marine life. The unwary and unprepared holiday-maker can be at risk of serious injury from a number of common sea creatures.

  6. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Berling, Ingrid; Isbister, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Marine stings are common but most are minor and do not require medical intervention. Severe and systemic marine envenoming is uncommon, but includes box jellyfish stings, Irukandji syndrome, major stingray trauma and blue-ringed octopus envenoming. Almost all marine injuries are caused by jellyfish stings, and penetrating injuries from spiny fish, stingrays or sea urchins. This article describes the presentation and management of marine envenomations and injuries that may occur in Australia. First aid for jellyfish includes tentacle removal, application of vinegar for box jellyfish, and hot water immersion (45°C for 20 min) for bluebottle jellyfish stings. Basic life support is essential for severe marine envenomings that result in cardiac collapse or paralysis. Irukandji syndrome causes severe generalised pain, autonomic excess and minimal local pain, which may require large amounts of analgesia, and, uncommonly, myocardial depression and pulmonary oedema occur. Penetrating marine injuries can cause significant trauma depending on location of the injury. Large and unclean wounds may have delayed healing and secondary infection if not adequately irrigated, debrided and observed.

  7. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  8. Hot oxygen corona of Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, W.H.

    1988-10-01

    Electron dissociative recombination of O2(+) ions in the Venus ionosphere, which may be an important source of suprathermal atomic oxygen, is presently considered as a factor in the Mars exosphere; due to the weaker surface gravitational attraction of Mars, a hot oxygen corona thus formed would be denser than that of Venus at altitudes greater than 2000 km despite Mars' lower ionospheric content. If such an extended oxygen corona does exist on Mars, its collisional interaction with Phobos would lead to the formation of an oxygen gas torus whose average number density is of the order of only 1-2/cu cm along the Phobos orbit. 51 references.

  9. Quantifying the heterogeneity of hypoxic and anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea by a simplified coupled hydrodynamic-oxygen consumption model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Getzlaff, Klaus; Myrberg, Kai

    2014-06-01

    The Baltic Sea deep waters suffer from extended areas of hypoxia and anoxia. Their intra- and inter-annual variability is mainly determined by saline inflows which transport oxygenated water to deeper layers. During the last decades, oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea have generally worsened and thus, the extent of hypoxic as well as anoxic bottom water has increased considerably. Climate change may further increase hypoxia due to changes in the atmospheric forcing conditions resulting in less deep water renewal Baltic inflows, decreased oxygen solubility and increased respiration rates. Feedback from climate change can amplify effects from eutrophication. A decline in oxygen conditions has generally a negative impact on marine life in the Baltic Sea. Thus, a detailed description of the evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas is particularly required when studying oxygen-related processes such as habitat utilization of spawning fish, survival rates of their eggs as well as settlement probability of juveniles. One of today's major challenges is still the modeling of deep water dissolved oxygen, especially for the Baltic Sea with its seasonal and quasi-permanent extended areas of oxygen deficiency. The detailed spatial and temporal evolution of the oxygen concentrations in the entire Baltic Sea have been simulated for the period 1970-2010 by utilizing a hydrodynamic Baltic Sea model coupled to a simple pelagic and benthic oxygen consumption model. Model results are in very good agreement with CTD/O2-profiles taken in different areas of the Baltic Sea. The model proved to be a useful tool to describe the detailed evolution of oxygenated, hypoxic and anoxic areas in the entire Baltic Sea. Model results are further applied to determine frequencies of the occurrence of areas of oxygen deficiency and cod reproduction volumes.

  10. Marine Antimalarials

    PubMed Central

    Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease causing at least 1 million deaths per year, and, unfortunately, the chemical entities available to treat malaria are still too limited. In this review we highlight the contribution of marine chemistry in the field of antimalarial research by reporting the most important results obtained until the beginning of 2009, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries. About 60 secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms have been grouped into three structural types and discussed in terms of their reported antimalarial activities. The major groups of metabolites include isonitrile derivatives, alkaloids and endoperoxide derivatives. The following discussion evidences that antimalarial marine molecules can efficiently integrate the panel of lead compounds isolated from terrestrial sources with new chemical backbones and, sometimes, with unique functional groups. PMID:19597577

  11. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600–2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500–542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600–1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000–542 Mya). PMID:26621203

  12. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya).

  13. Blood Oxygen Conservation in Diving Sea Lions: How Low Does Oxygen Really Go?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Does Oxygen Really Go ? Paul J. Ponganis Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine Scripps Institution of Oceanography 8655 Discovery Way...Does Oxygen Really Go ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  14. Otters, Marine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  15. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... They can serve as a backup during a power outage or equipment issue. What is a nasal cannula? A nasal cannula is a two-pronged tube that is placed in your nose for delivering oxygen. The other end of the tube is attached to your oxygen system. A nasal cannula has the ability to deliver ...

  16. Appreciating Oxygen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  17. Appreciating Oxygen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  18. Databases of the marine metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.

  19. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized.

  20. Chasing Neoproterozoic Atmospheric Oxygen Ghosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum, C. J.; Canfield, D. E.; Dahl, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric oxygen has been considered a necessary condition for the evolution of animal life for over half a century. While direct proxies for atmospheric oxygen are difficult to obtain, a number of indirect proxies have been giving us a ghost image of rising atmospheric oxygen at the close of the Precambrian. In this context, redox sensitive elements and isotopes represent the hallmark for a significant reduction in anoxic areas of the world ocean, implicating a significant rise of atmospheric oxygen during the Neoproterozoic. Here, we test to what degree redox sensitive elements in ancient marine sediments are proxies of atmospheric oxygen. We model the redox-chemical evolution of the shelf seas and ocean using a combination of 3D high resolution shelf sea models and a simpler global ocean biogeochemical model including climate weathering feedbacks, a free sea level and parameterized icecaps. We find that ecosystem evolution would have resulted in reorganization of the nutrient and redox balance of the shelf-ocean system causing a significant increase in oxygenated areas that permitted a boosting of trace metal concentrations in the remaining anoxic areas. While this reorganization takes place there is limited net change in the modelled atmospheric oxygen, warning us against interpreting changing trace metal concentrations and isotopes as reflecting a rise in atmospheric oxygen.

  1. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 229 - Drift Gillnet Pinger Configuration and Extender Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Extender Requirements 1 Figure 1 to Part 229 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 Pt. 229, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 229...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 229 - Drift Gillnet Pinger Configuration and Extender Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Extender Requirements 1 Figure 1 to Part 229 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 Pt. 229, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 229...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 229 - Drift Gillnet Pinger Configuration and Extender Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Extender Requirements 1 Figure 1 to Part 229 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 Pt. 229, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 229...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 229 - Drift Gillnet Pinger Configuration and Extender Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Extender Requirements 1 Figure 1 to Part 229 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 Pt. 229, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 229...

  5. Marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  6. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  7. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  8. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  9. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  10. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  11. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  12. The influence of oxygen exposure time on the composition of macromolecular organic matter as revealed by surface sediments on the Murray Ridge (Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Veld, Harry; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2017-06-01

    The Arabian Sea represents a prime example of an open ocean extended oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) with low oxygen concentrations (down to less than 2 μM) between 200 and 1000 m water depth. The OMZ impinges on the ocean floor, affecting organic matter (OM) mineralization. We investigated impact of oxygen depletion on the composition of macromolecular OM (MOM) along a transect through the OMZ on the slopes of the Murray Ridge. This sub-marine high in the northern Arabian Sea, with the top at approximately 500 m below sea surface (mbss), intersects the OMZ. We analyzed sediments deposited in the core of OMZ (suboxic conditions), directly below the OMZ (dysoxic conditions) and well below the OMZ (fully oxic conditions). The upper 18 cm of sediments from three stations recovered at different depths were studied. MOM was investigated by Rock Eval and flash pyrolysis techniques. The MOM was of a predominant marine origin and inferred from their pyrolysis products, most biomolecules (tetra-alkylpyrrole pigments, polysaccharides, proteins and their transformation products, and polyphenols including phlorotannins), showed a progressive relative degradation with increasing exposure to oxygen. Alkylbenzenes and, in particular, aliphatic macromolecules increased relatively. The observed differences in MOM composition between sediment deposited under various bottom water oxygen conditions (i.e. in terms of concentration and exposure time) was much larger than within sediment cores, implying that early diagenetic alteration of organic matter depends largely on bottom water oxygenation rather than subsequent anaerobic degradation within the sediments, even at longer time scales.

  13. Geochemistry of post-extinction microbialites as a powerful tool to assess the oxygenation of shallow marine water in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, P. Y.; Kershaw, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Forel, M. B.; Crasquin, S.

    2015-06-01

    Rapid and profound changes in earth surface environments and biota across the Permian-Triassic boundary are well known and relate to the end-Permian mass extinction event. This major crisis is demonstrated by abrupt facies change and the development of microbialite carbonates on the shallow marine shelves around Palaeo-Tethys and western Panthalassa. Microbialites have been described from a range of sites in end-Permian and basal Triassic marine sedimentary rocks, immediately following the end-Permian mass extinction. Here, we present geochemical data primarily focused on microbialites. Our geochemical analysis shows that U, V, Mo and REE (Ce anomaly) may be used as robust redox proxies so that the microbialites record the chemistry of the ancient ambient sea water. Among the three trace metals reputed to be reliable redox proxies, one (V) is correlated here with terrigenous supply, the other two elements (U and Mo) do not show any significant authigenic enrichment, thereby indicating that oxic conditions prevailed during the growth of microbialites. REE profiles show a prominent negative Ce anomaly, also showing that the shallow marine waters were oxic. Our geochemical data are consistent with the presence of some benthic organisms (ostracods, scattered microgastropods, microbrachiopods and foraminifers) in shallow marine waters that survived the mass extinction event.

  14. Influence of strong monsoon winds on the water quality around a marine cage-culture zone in a shallow and semi-enclosed bay in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Chao Angelo; Huang, Shou-Chung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-04-01

    Influences of marine cage culture and monsoonal disturbances, northeasterly (NE) and southwesterly (SW) monsoons on the proximal marine environment were investigated across a gradient of sites in a semi-enclosed bay, Magong Bay (Penghu Islands, Taiwan). Elevated levels of ammonia produced by the cages were the main pollutant and distinguished the cage-culture and intermediary zones (1000 m away from the cages) from the reference zone in the NE monsoon, indicating currents produced by the strong monsoon may have extended the spread of nutrient-enriched waters without necessarily flushing such effluents outside Magong Bay. Moreover, the levels of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were distinguishable between two seasons, suggesting that resuspension caused by the NE monsoon winds may also influence the water quality across this bay. It indicated that the impacts of marine cage culture vary as a function of distance, and also in response to seasonal movements of water driven by local climatic occurrences.

  15. Photoprotective compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Singh, Shailendra P; Häder, Donat-P

    2010-06-01

    The substantial loss in the stratospheric ozone layer and consequent increase in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface have augmented the interest in searching for natural photoprotective compounds in organisms of marine as well as freshwater ecosystems. A number of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), scytonemin, carotenoids and several other UV-absorbing substances of unknown chemical structure have been identified from different organisms. MAAs form the most common class of UV-absorbing compounds known to occur widely in various marine organisms; however, several compounds having UV-screening properties still need to be identified. The synthesis of scytonemin, a predominant UV-A-photoprotective pigment, is exclusively reported in cyanobacteria. Carotenoids are important components of the photosynthetic apparatus that serve both light-harvesting and photoprotective functions, either by direct quenching of the singlet oxygen or other toxic reactive oxygen species or by dissipating the excess energy in the photosynthetic apparatus. The production of photoprotective compounds is affected by several environmental factors such as different wavelengths of UVR, desiccation, nutrients, salt concentration, light as well as dark period, and still there is controversy about the biosynthesis of various photoprotective compounds. Recent studies have focused on marine organisms as a source of natural bioactive molecules having a photoprotective role, their biosynthesis and commercial application. However, there is a need for extensive work to explore the photoprotective role of various UV-absorbing compounds from marine habitats so that a range of biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications can be found.

  16. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... a restaurant, keep at least 6 feet (2 meters) away from any source of fire, such as ... or tabletop candle. Keep oxygen 6 feet (2 meters) away from: Toys with electric motors Electric baseboard ...

  17. Efficient management of marine resources in conflict: an empirical study of marine sand mining, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Goun

    2009-10-01

    This article develops a dynamic model of efficient use of exhaustible marine sand resources in the context of marine mining externalities. The classical Hotelling extraction model is applied to sand mining in Ongjin, Korea and extended to include the estimated marginal external costs that mining imposes on marine fisheries. The socially efficient sand extraction plan is compared with the extraction paths suggested by scientific research. If marginal environmental costs are correctly estimated, the developed efficient extraction plan considering the resource rent may increase the social welfare and reduce the conflicts among the marine sand resource users. The empirical results are interpreted with an emphasis on guidelines for coastal resource management policy.

  18. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  19. Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuenzalida, Rosalino; Schneider, Wolfgang; Garcés-Vargas, José; Bravo, Luis; Lange, Carina

    2009-07-01

    Recent hydrographic measurements within the eastern South Pacific (1999-2001) were combined with vertically high-resolution data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, high-resolution profiles and bottle casts from the World Ocean Database 2001, and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 in order to evaluate the vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone (<20 μmol kg -1). These new calculations estimate the total area and volume of the oxygen minimum zone to be 9.82±3.60×10 6 km 2 and 2.18±0.66×10 6 km 3, respectively. The oxygen minimum zone is thickest (>600 m) off Peru between 5 and 13°S and to about 1000 km offshore. Its upper boundary is shallowest (<150 m) off Peru, shoaling towards the coast and extending well into the euphotic zone in some places. Offshore, the thickness and meridional extent of the oxygen minimum zone decrease until it finally vanishes at 140°W between 2° and 8°S. Moving southward along the coast of South America, the zonal extension of the oxygen minimum zone gradually diminishes from 3000 km (15°S) to 1200 km (20°S) and then to 25 km (30°S); only a thin band is detected at ˜37°S off Concepción, Chile. Simultaneously, the oxygen minimum zone's maximum thickness decreases from 300 m (20°S) to less than 50 m (south of 30°S). The spatial distribution of Ekman suction velocity and oxygen minimum zone thickness correlate well, especially in the core. Off Chile, the eastern South Pacific Intermediate Water mass introduces increased vertical stability into the upper water column, complicating ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone from above. In addition, oxygen-enriched Antarctic Intermediate Water clashes with the oxygen minimum zone at around 30°S, causing a pronounced sub-surface oxygen front. The new estimates of vertical and horizontal oxygen minimum zone distribution in the eastern South Pacific complement the global quantification of naturally hypoxic continental margins by Helly and Levin [2004. Global

  20. Marine pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, D J

    2000-02-01

    Marine organisms have provided a large proportion of the bioactive natural products reported over the last 20 years, but none of these compounds have reached the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review describes current progress in the development of a selection of new antiinflammatory and anticancer agents, discusses some difficulties encountered during the development process and suggests how these difficulties may be overcome in the near future through applications of recent advances in biotechnology.

  1. Research on rechargeable oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.; Malachesky, P. A.; Holleck, G.

    1971-01-01

    Studies were carried out on a number of factors which may influence the behavior of the platinum electrocatalyst of oxygen electrodes for use in rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries or hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The effects of pretreatments for various potentials and added ionic species, which could be present in such systems, were studied with reguard to: (1) the state of surface oxidation, (2) platinum dissolution, (3) the kinetics of oxygen evolution and reduction (including the role of hydrogen peroxide), and (4) changes in porous electrode structure. These studies were carried out on smooth platinum, platinized platinum, and Teflon-bonded platinum black electrodes in carefully purified electrolyte solutions. The main factors which appear to affect rechargeable oxygen electrode performance and life are: (1) the buildup of a refractory anodic layer on extended cycling, and (2) the dissolution of platinum.

  2. Incorporation of marine lipids into mitochondrial membranes increases susceptibility to damage by calcium and reactive oxygen species: evidence for enhanced activation of phospholipase A2 in mitochondria enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Malis, C D; Weber, P C; Leaf, A; Bonventre, J V

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes enriched with n-3 fatty acids to damage by Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. Fatty acid content and respiratory function were assessed in renal cortical mitochondria isolated from fish-oil- and beef-tallow-fed rats. Dietary fish oils were readily incorporated into mitochondrial membranes. After exposure to Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species, mitochondria enriched in n-3 fatty acids, and using pyruvate and malate as substrates, had significantly greater changes in state 3 and uncoupled respirations, when compared with mitochondria from rats fed beef tallow. Mitochondrial site 1 (NADH coenzyme Q reductase) activity was reduced to 45 and 85% of control values in fish-oil- and beef-tallow-fed groups, respectively. Exposure to Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species enhance the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched at the sn-2 position of phospholipids from mitochondria of fish-oil-fed rats when compared with similarly treated mitochondria of beef-tallow-fed rats. This release of fatty acids was partially inhibited by dibucaine, the phospholipase A2 inhibitor, which we have previously shown to protect mitochondria against damage associated with Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. The results indicate that phospholipase A2 is activated in mitochondria exposed to Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species and is responsible, at least in part, for the impairment of respiratory function. Phospholipase A2 activity and mitochondrial damage are enhanced when mitochondrial membranes are enriched with n-3 fatty acids. PMID:2123344

  3. Marine Envenomation.

    PubMed

    Hornbeak, Kirsten B; Auerbach, Paul S

    2017-05-01

    Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes. Immediate and long-term treatment options and management of common sequelae are reviewed. Antivenom administration, treatment of anaphylaxis, and surgical indications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Shahriar, Md. Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks. PMID:22163772

  5. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology for Upper Elementary and Secondary School Grades, Teachers Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    Designed to assist the teacher who wishes to use marine organisms for biological laboratory investigations, this manual includes general information on maintaining marine aquaria and collecting marine organisms as well as five tested laboratory exercises. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen consumption (giving techniques for…

  6. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  7. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  8. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  9. A Spinoff from Mariner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Among the technologies incorporated into the later Mariner missions was a dry film lubricant which offered exceptional lubrication quality for reduced friction and extended wear-life of mating parts in harsh interplanetary environments. Micro Surface Corporation acquired this technology, and currently market it as WS2 modified tungsten disulfide coating. A pressurized refrigerated air application process impinges a dry metallic WS2 coating without heat, curing, binders or adhesives. The coating binds instantly to metal or resin substrates with a 20 millionths of an inch thickness. Performance has been excellent in a variety of industries, particularly in plastics where in some operations, the coating increases production by reducing drag between tool steel and resin. Other advantages include product quality improvement, extension of equipment service life and maintenance elimination or reduction.

  10. Seasonality of bottom water temperature in the northern North Sea reconstructed from the oxygen isotope composition of the bivalve Arctica islandica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimova, Tamara; Andersson, Carin; Bonitz, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The seasonality of temperature changes is an important characteristic of climate. However, observational data for the ocean are only available for the last 150 year from a limited number of locations. Prior to 18th century information is only available from proxy reconstructions. The vast majority of such reconstructions depend on land-based archives, primarily from dendrochronology. Established marine proxy records for the ocean, especially at high latitudes, are both sparsely distributed and poorly resolved in time. Therefore, the identification and development of proxies for studying key ocean processes at sub-annual resolution that can extend the marine instrumental record is a clear priority in marine climate science. In this study, we have developed a record of early Holocene seasonal variability of bottom water temperature from the Viking Bank in the northern most North Sea. This area is of a particular interest since the hydrography is controlled by the inflow of Atlantic water. The reconstruction is based on the oxygen isotope composition of the growth increments in two sub-fossil shells of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia), dated to 9600-9335 cal. yr BP. By combining radiocarbon dating and sclerochronological techniques a floating chronology spanning over 200 years was constructed. Using the chronology as an age model, oxygen isotope measurements from 2 shells were combined into a 22-years long record. The results from this oxygen isotope record are compared with stable oxygen isotope profiles from modern shells to estimate changes in the mean state and seasonality between present and early Holocene. Shell-derived oxygen isotope values together with ice-volume corrected oxygen isotope values for the seawater were used to calculate bottom-water temperatures on a sub-annual time-scale. Preliminary results of the reconstructed early Holocene bottom water temperature indicate higher seasonality and lower minimum temperature compared to the present.

  11. Extended Appearance Potential Fine Structure Analysis: Oxygen on Aluminum (100),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    applying a high-pass digital filter6 (Fig. 3). Taking a third derivative would serve the sam function, but enhances noise and has less physical basis...Gaithersburg, Md., 1978). One could obtain pasteurized spectra without the preliminary subtraction and with more applications of the digital filter...165, and J. A. Tossell, private comunication . - ._ . . K ....... , . ’. ll ilI - 11 - (23) R. L. Wells and T. Fort, Surface Set. 33, 172 (1972). (24) P

  12. Elevated Marine Deposits in Bermuda Record a Late Quaternary Megatsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtry, G. M.; Tappin, D. R.; Sedwick, P. N.; Wilkinson, I. P.; Fietzke, J.; Sellwood, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    Deposits of coral-bearing, marine shell conglomerate exposed at elevations higher than 20 m above present- day mean sea level (MSL) in Bermuda and the Bahamas have previously been interpreted as relict intertidal deposits formed during marine isotope stage (MIS) 11, ca. 360-420 ka before present. On the strength of this evidence, a sea level highstand more than 20 m higher than present-day MSL was inferred for the MIS 11 interglacial, despite a lack of clear supporting evidence in the oxygen-isotope records of deep-sea sediment cores. We have critically re-examined the elevated marine deposits in Bermuda, and find their geological setting, sedimentary relations, and microfaunal assemblages to be inconsistent with intertidal deposition over an extended period. Rather, these deposits, which comprise a graded and poorly sorted mixture of reef, lagoon and shoreline sediments, appear to have been carried tens of meters inside karst caves, presumably by large waves, at some time earlier than ca. 310-360 ka before present (MIS 9-11). Unlike earlier work, e.g. Hearty (1997) who found evidence for large waves impacting the Bahamas but could not distinguish between the competing mechanisms of a large storm or a tsunami, we have clear evidence that points to a tsunami as source, and by analysis of the deposit microfaunal diversity, an indication of the direction of the past waves, in this case from the east-southeast. We hypothesize that these deposits are the result of a large tsunami during the mid-Pleistocene, in which Bermuda was impacted by a wave set that carried sediments from the surrounding reef platform and nearshore waters over the eolianite atoll. Likely causes for such a megatsunami are the flank collapse of an Atlantic island volcano, such as the roughly synchronous Julan or Orotava submarine landslides in the Canary Islands, or a giant submarine landslide on the Atlantic continental margin.

  13. Extended precision software packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A description of three extended precision packages is presented along with three small conversion subroutines which can be used in conjunction with the extended precision packages. These extended packages represent software packages written in FORTRAN 4. They contain normalized or unnormalized floating point arithmetic with symmetric rounding and arbitrary mantissa lengths, and normalized floating point interval arithmetic with appropriate rounding. The purpose of an extended precision package is to enable the user to use and manipulate numbers with large decimal places as well as those with small decimal places where precision beyond double precision is required.

  14. Ecotoxicology of arsenic in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.

    1997-05-01

    Arsenic has a complex marine biogeochemistry that has important implications for its toxicity to marine organisms and their consumers. The average concentration of total arsenic in the ocean is about 1.7 {micro}g/L, about two orders of magnitude higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency`s human health criterion value of 0.0175 {micro}g/L. The dominant form of arsenic in oxygenated marine and brackish waters in arsenate (As V). The more toxic and potentially carcinogenic arsenite (As III) rarely accounts for more than 20% of total arsenic in seawater. Uncontaminated marine sediments contain from 5 to about 40 {micro}g/g dry weight total arsenic. Arsenate dominates in oxidized sediments and is associated primarily with iron oxyhydroxides. In reducing marine sediments, arsenate is reduced to arsenite and is associated primarily with sulfide minerals. Marine algae accumulate arsenate from seawater, reduce it to arsenite, and then oxidize the arsenite to a large number of organoarsenic compounds. The algae release arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid to seawater. Dissolved arsenite and arsenate are more toxic to marine phytoplankton than to marine invertebrates and fish. This may be due to the fact that marine animals have a limited ability to bioconcentrate inorganic arsenic from seawater but can bioaccumulate organoarsenic compounds from their food. Tissues of marine invertebrates and fish contain high concentrations of arsenic, usually in the range of about 1 to 100 {micro}g/g dry weight, most of it in the form of organoarsenic compounds, particularly arsenobetaine. Organoarsenic compounds are bioaccumulated by human consumers of seafood products, but the arsenic is excreted rapidly, mostly as organoarsenic compounds. Arsenobetaine, the most abundant organoarsenic compound in seafoods, is not toxic or carcinogenic to mammals. Little of the organoarsenic accumulated by humans from seafood is converted to toxic inorganic arsenite.

  15. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Andreas W.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15%) was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa) and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa) (30% CO2/70% N2) settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days). This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS), bacon slices (BA), and meat and potato pies (PP)). Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE) to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life. PMID:28239134

  16. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Andreas W; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2013-11-18

    O₂ sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O₂ levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) foods. A substantial level of O₂ (>15%) was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0-0.6 MPa) and gas flush (0.02-0.03 MPa) (30% CO₂/70% N₂) settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days). This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%-9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS), bacon slices (BA), and meat and potato pies (PP)). Reduced O₂ levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE) to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life.

  17. Reversible Oxygenation of Oxygen Transport Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drain, C. M.; Corden, Barry B.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration which illustrates changes in the visible spectra of oxygen transport proteins upon reversible oxygen binding. Provides a comparison of the physical characteristics of oxygen storage and transport proteins. Reviews essentials for preparation of the materials. (ML)

  18. Atmospheric Oxygen Photoabsorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, Tom G.

    1996-01-01

    The work conducted on this grant was devoted to various aspects of the photophysics and photochemistry of the oxygen molecule. Predissociation linewidths were measured for several vibrational levels in the O2(B3 Sigma(sub u)(sup -)) state, providing good agreement with other groups working on this important problem. Extensive measurements were made on the loss kinetics of vibrationally excited oxygen, where levels between v = 5 and v = 22 were investigated. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to measure oscillator strengths in the oxygen Herzberg bands. The great sensitivity of this technique made it possible to extend the known absorption bands to the dissociation limit as well as providing many new absorption lines that seem to be associated with new O2 transitions. The literature concerning the Herzberg band strengths was evaluated in light of our new measurements, and we made recommendations for the appropriate Herzberg continuum cross sections to be used in stratospheric chemistry. The transition probabilities for all three Herzberg band systems were re-evaluated, and we are recommending a new set of values.

  19. Functional Extended Redundancy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Suk, Hye Won; Lee, Jang-Han; Moskowitz, D. S.; Lim, Jooseop

    2012-01-01

    We propose a functional version of extended redundancy analysis that examines directional relationships among several sets of multivariate variables. As in extended redundancy analysis, the proposed method posits that a weighed composite of each set of exogenous variables influences a set of endogenous variables. It further considers endogenous…

  20. Functional Extended Redundancy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Suk, Hye Won; Lee, Jang-Han; Moskowitz, D. S.; Lim, Jooseop

    2012-01-01

    We propose a functional version of extended redundancy analysis that examines directional relationships among several sets of multivariate variables. As in extended redundancy analysis, the proposed method posits that a weighed composite of each set of exogenous variables influences a set of endogenous variables. It further considers endogenous…

  1. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure has been developed to extend atomic oxygen modeling capability to include shadowing and reflections. The model uses average exposure conditions established by the direct exposure model and extends the application of these conditions to treat surfaces of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  2. Oxidative stress in marine environments: biochemistry and physiological ecology.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress-the production and accumulation of reduced oxygen intermediates such as superoxide radicals, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals-can damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. Many disease processes of clinical interest and the aging process involve oxidative stress in their underlying etiology. The production of reactive oxygen species is also prevalent in the world's oceans, and oxidative stress is an important component of the stress response in marine organisms exposed to a variety of insults as a result of changes in environmental conditions such as thermal stress, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, or exposure to pollution. As in the clinical setting, reactive oxygen species are also important signal transduction molecules and mediators of damage in cellular processes, such as apoptosis and cell necrosis, for marine organisms. This review brings together the voluminous literature on the biochemistry and physiology of oxidative stress from the clinical and plant physiology disciplines with the fast-increasing interest in oxidative stress in marine environments.

  3. Extended family medicine training

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  4. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart G of... - Marine Reserve Boundaries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 119.80000 °W B.5. Scorpion (Santa Cruz Island) Marine Reserve The Scorpion Marine Reserve (Scorpion... textual description. The Scorpion boundary extends from Point 1 to Point 2 along a straight line. It then... Point 5 along a straight line. Table B-5—Scorpion (Santa Cruz Island) Marine Reserve Point...

  5. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart G of... - Marine Reserve Boundaries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 119.80000 °W B.5. Scorpion (Santa Cruz Island) Marine Reserve The Scorpion Marine Reserve (Scorpion... textual description. The Scorpion boundary extends from Point 1 to Point 2 along a straight line. It then... Point 5 along a straight line. Table B-5—Scorpion (Santa Cruz Island) Marine Reserve Point...

  6. 76 FR 10524 - Restricted Area, Potomac River, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Quantico, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Area, Potomac River, Marine Corps Base... waters of the Potomac River extending offshore from the Marine Corps Air Facility (MCAF) at Marine Corps... placed across the Chopawamsic Creek channel at the entrance to the channel from the Potomac River and...

  7. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment.

  8. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe Miroslava; López-Saiz, Carmen María; Ramírez-Guerra, Hugo Enrique; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido

    2016-11-24

    In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols), the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils.

  9. Extended-release oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Comer, A M; Goa, K L

    2000-02-01

    Extended-release oxybutynin (Ditropan XL) uses an osmotic system (OROS) to deliver a controlled amount of oxybutynin chloride into the gastrointestinal tract over a 24-hour period when taken once daily. Oxybutynin binds to M3 muscarinic receptors on the detrusor muscle of the bladder, preventing acetylcholinergic activation and relaxing the muscle. Mean peak plasma concentrations are lower with extended-release oxybutynin 15mg once daily than with conventional immediate-release oxybutynin 5mg taken 3 times daily. Relative bioavailabilities of parent drug and metabolite N-desethoxybutynin are 153 and 69%, respectively, for extended-release oxybutynin when compared with immediate-release oxybutynin. In short (< or =6 weeks) randomised, double-blind clinical trials of patients with detrusor instability, extended-release oxybutynin 5 to 30mg once daily significantly reduced the mean weekly number of urge incontinence episodes by 84 to 90%. Extended-release oxybutynin had similar efficacy to immediate-release oxybutynin. Adverse events reported by patients taking extended-release oxybutynin were dose-related anticholinergic effects, most frequently dry mouth, somnolence, constipation, blurred vision and dizziness. A large noncomparative study demonstrated that approximately two thirds of the patients prescribed extended-release oxybutynin for detrusor instability were still taking the medication 6 months later.

  10. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  11. The extended Kalman filter for forecast of algal bloom dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mao, J Q; Lee, Joseph H W; Choi, K W

    2009-09-01

    A deterministic ecosystem model is combined with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to produce short term forecasts of algal bloom and dissolved oxygen dynamics in a marine fish culture zone (FCZ). The weakly flushed FCZ is modelled as a well-mixed system; the tidal exchange with the outer bay is lumped into a flushing rate that is numerically determined from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The ecosystem model incorporates phytoplankton growth kinetics, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic production, nutrient sources from organic fish farm loads, and nutrient exchange with a sediment bed layer. High frequency field observations of chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydro-meteorological parameters (sampling interval Deltat=1 day, 2h, 1h, respectively) and bi-weekly nutrient data are assimilated into the model to produce the combined state estimate accounting for the uncertainties. In addition to the water quality state variables, the EKF incorporates dynamic estimation of algal growth rate and settling velocity. The effectiveness of the EKF data assimilation is studied for a wide range of sampling intervals and prediction lead-times. The chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen estimated by the EKF are compared with field data of seven algal bloom events observed at Lamma Island, Hong Kong. The results show that the EKF estimate well captures the nonlinear error evolution in time; the chlorophyll level can be satisfactorily predicted by the filtered model estimate with a mean absolute error of around 1-2 microg/L. Predictions with 1-2 day lead-time are highly correlated with the observations (r=0.7-0.9); the correlation stays at a high level for a lead-time of 3 days (r=0.6-0.7). Estimated algal growth and settling rates are in accord with field observations; the more frequent DO data can compensate for less frequent algal biomass measurements. The present study is the first time the EKF is successfully applied to forecast an entire algal bloom cycle, suggesting the

  12. Extending The Shelf Life Of Blood Platelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas M.

    1988-01-01

    New method of storing human blood platelets extends vitality for transfusions. Packaged as suspension in sterile liquid in plastic blood bags. Each bag placed between pair of plastic grids, and rubberbands placed around sandwich thus formed to hold together. Stored upright in open air or in container through which air pumped at rate of at least 45 L/min. Ensures that platelets receive ample oxygen and expiratory carbon dioxide form platelets removed before pH drops to harmful levels.

  13. Effects of Extended Hypoxia on Night Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    and Krill (5) have reported a study of fundamental sig- nificance on the effects of stimulus paraneter; and retinal placement of the stimulus on night...by Ernest and Krill (5), that the early segment of the dark adaptation function was unaffected by hypoxia. This disagreement probably can be explained...in recovery capability, even after extended hypoxia. The clear implication of this relationship for practical operetions is that supplemental oxygen

  14. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-09-30

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.

  15. Marine birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Sanger, Gerald A.; Hood, Donald W.; Zimmerman, Steven T.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter we review existing knowledge of marine birds in the Gulf of Alaska. Three estuarine systems in the Gulf provide critical habitat for migratory shorebirds and waterfowl: 1) the Stikine River Delta, 2) Cook Inlet, and 3) the Copper River Delta. Over 20 million waterbirds are estimated to use the latter system during spring migration. Western sandpipers, dunlin, and northern pintails numerically dominate this migration. Breeding populations of shorebirds and waterfowl in the Gulf are small compared with those elsewhere in Alaska. Of those Gulf regions suitable for nesting waterfowl and shorebirds, the Copper River Delta is the most important. Species diversity and the number of shorebirds wintering in the Gulf are low; however, water- fowl wintering in the Gulf number at least in the low millions. These birds concentrated in sheltered, near-shore regions where their epibenthic and infaunal prey are accessible.Over nine million seabirds (twenty-six species) nest in the Gulf of Alaska at more than 800 sites. Seabird productivity varies markedly. Food availability seems to have a large influence on reproductive success, especially for surface-feeding species such as the black-legged kittiwake. Seabird densities are highest over shelf and shelf-break habitats during spring migration and in summer. Sooty and short-tailed shearwaters dominate the pelagic avifauna both numerically and in terms of biomass. Seabird densities are generally lower in winter than in summer as a result of both a southward migration of some species and offshore dispersal of others. A variety of prey species are used by seabirds in the Gulf; of these, capelin, sand lance, and euphausiids are of greatest importance. Trophically, seabirds in the Gulf range from near primary con- sumers to third-order carnivores, ingesting an estimated 1,120,000 mt during the 120-day summer period.

  16. Building Extended Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKain, Barbara; McKain, Michael

    1970-01-01

    Discusses need for dissolution of the couple" relationship with substitution of the extended family which would permit each member to maintain individuality and to function on own merit. Suggests group living as preferable alternative. (CJ)

  17. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  18. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...densities of oxygen gas cylinders can be cumbersome or prohibitively expensive for applications like terrestrial and marine breathing apparatus’ or manned

  19. Association of marine archaea with the digestive tracts of two marine fish species.

    PubMed

    van der Maarel, M J; Artz, R R; Haanstra, R; Forney, L J

    1998-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that archaea which were always thought to live under strict anoxic or extreme environmental conditions are also present in cold, oxygenated seawater, soils, the digestive tract of a holothurian deep-sea-deposit feeder, and a marine sponge. In this study, we show, by using PCR-mediated screening in other marine eukaryotes, that marine archaea are also present in the digestive tracts of flounder and grey mullet, two fish species common in the North Sea, in fecal samples of flounder, and in suspended particulate matter of the North Sea water column. No marine archaea could be detected in the digestive tracts of mussels or the fecal pellets of a copepod species. The archaeal 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries of feces of flounder and the contents of the digestive tracts of grey mullet and flounder were dominated by group II marine archaea. The marine archaeal clones derived from flounder and grey mullet digestive tracts and feces formed a distinct cluster within the group II marine archaea, with 76.7 to 89. 8% similarity to previously described group II clones. Fingerprinting of the archaeal community of flounder digestive tract contents and feces by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of archaeal 16S rRNA genes after restriction with HhaI showed a dominant fragment at 249 bp, which is likely to be derived from group II marine archaea. Clones of marine archaea that were closely related to the fish-associated marine archaea clones were obtained from suspended particulate matter of the water column at two stations in the North Sea. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of the archaeal community present in suspended particulate matter showed the same fragment pattern as was found for the archaeal community of the flounder digestive tract contents and feces. These data demonstrate that marine archaea are present in the digestive tracts and feces of very common marine fish. It is possible that the marine

  20. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  1. Oxygen measurements to improve singlet oxygen dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Ong, Yi Hong; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves interactions between the three main components of light fluence, photosensitizer concentration, and oxygenation. Currently, singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED) has focused on the first two of these components. The macroscopic model to calculate reacted singlet oxygen has previously involved a fixed initial ground state oxygen concentration. A phosphorescence-based oxygen probe was used to measure ground state oxygen concentration throughout treatments for mice bearing radioactively induced fibroscarcoma tumors. Photofrin-, BPD-, and HPPH-mediated PDT was performed on mice. Model-calculated oxygen and measured oxygen was compared to evaluate the macroscopic model as well as the photochemical parameters involved. Oxygen measurements at various depths were compared to calculated values. Furthermore, we explored the use of noninvasive diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to measure tumor blood flow changes in response to PDT to improve the model calculation of reacted singlet oxygen. Mice were monitored after treatment to see the effect of oxygenation on long-term recurrence-free survival as well as the efficacy of using reacted singlet oxygen as a predictive measure of outcome. Measurement of oxygenation during treatment helps to improve SOED as well as confirm the photochemical parameters involved in the macroscopic model. Use of DCS in predicting oxygenation changes was also investigated.

  2. Extended spider cognition.

    PubMed

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  3. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2016-05-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure.

  4. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  5. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  6. Frontiers of marine science.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

    2011-06-23

    On 9-13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas.

  7. Devils Hole, Nevada, δ18O record extended to the mid-Holocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winograd, Isaac J.; Landwehr, Jurate M.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Sharp, Warren D.; Riggs, Alan C.; Ludwig, Kenneth R.; Kolesar, Peter T.

    2006-01-01

    The mid-to-late Pleistocene Devils Hole δ18O record has been extended from 60,000 to 4500 yr ago. The new δ18O time series, in conjunction with the one previously published, is shown to be a proxy of Pacific Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) off the coast of California. During marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 2 and 6, the Devil Hole and SST time series exhibit a steady warming that began 5000 to > 10,000 yr prior to the last and penultimate deglaciations. Several possible proximate causes for this early warming are evaluated. The magnitude of the peak δ18O or SST during the last interglacial (LIG) is significantly greater (1 per mill and 2 to 3°C, respectively) than the peak value of these parameters for the Holocene; in contrast, benthic δ18O records of ice volume show only a few tenths per mill difference in the peak value for these interglacials. Statistical analysis provides an estimate of the large shared information (variation) between the Devils Hole and Eastern Pacific SST time series from ∼ 41 to ∼ 2°N and enforces the concept of a common forcing among all of these records. The extended Devils Hole record adds to evidence of the importance of uplands bordering the eastern Pacific as a source of archives for reconstructing Pacific climate variability.

  8. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

  9. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by "inchworm"-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward.

  10. The Hoiamides, Structurally Intriguing Neurotoxic Lipopeptides from Papua New Guinea Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyukjae; Pereira, Alban R.; Cao, Zhengyu; Shuman, Cynthia F.; Engene, Niclas; Byrum, Tara; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Murray, Thomas F.; Mangoni, Alfonso; Gerwick, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Two related peptide metabolites, one a cyclic depsipeptide, hoiamide B (2), and the other a linear lipopeptide, hoiamide C (3), were isolated from two different collections of marine cyanobacteria obtained in Papua New Guinea. Their structures were elucidated by combining various techniques in spectroscopy, chromatography and synthetic chemistry. Both metabolites belong to the unique hoiamide structural class, characterized by possessing an acetate extended and S-adenosyl methionine modified isoleucine unit, a central triheterocyclic system comprised of two α-methylated thiazolines and one thiazole, as well as a highly oxygenated and methylated C-15 polyketide unit. In neocortical neurons, the cyclic depsipeptide 2 stimulated sodium influx and suppressed spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations with EC50 values of 3.9 μM and 79.8 nM, respectively, while 3 had no significant effects in these assays. PMID:20687534

  11. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  12. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  13. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  14. Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

    1995-03-01

    It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

  15. Global compilation of marine varve records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Lange, Carina B.; Schieber, Juergen; Francus, Pierre; Ojala, Antti E. K.; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Marine varves contain highly resolved records of geochemical and other paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental proxies with annual to seasonal resolution. We present a global compilation of marine varved sedimentary records throughout the Holocene and Quaternary covering more than 50 sites worldwide. Marine varve deposition and preservation typically depend on environmental and sedimentological conditions, such as a sufficiently high sedimentation rate, severe depletion of dissolved oxygen in bottom water to exclude bioturbation by macrobenthos, and a seasonally varying sedimentary input to yield a recognizable rhythmic varve pattern. Additional oceanographic factors may include the strength and depth range of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) and regional anthropogenic eutrophication. Modern to Quaternary marine varves are not only found in those parts of the open ocean that comply with these conditions, but also in fjords, embayments and estuaries with thermohaline density stratification, and nearshore 'marine lakes' with strong hydrologic connections to ocean water. Marine varves have also been postulated in pre-Quaternary rocks. In the case of non-evaporitic laminations in fine-grained ancient marine rocks, such as banded iron formations and black shales, laminations may not be varves but instead may have multiple alternative origins such as event beds or formation via bottom currents that transported and sorted silt-sized particles, clay floccules, and organic-mineral aggregates in the form of migrating bedload ripples. Modern marine ecosystems on continental shelves and slopes, in coastal zones and in estuaries are susceptible to stress by anthropogenic pressures, for example in the form of eutrophication, enhanced OMZs, and expanding ranges of oxygen-depletion in bottom waters. Sensitive laminated sites may play the important role of a 'canary in the coal mine' where monitoring the character and geographical extent of laminations/varves serves as a diagnostic

  16. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  17. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  18. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  19. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  20. Arsenic in marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Kunito, Takashi; Kubota, Reiji; Fujihara, Junko; Agusa, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on arsenic in low-trophic-level marine organisms, few studies exist on arsenic in marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles. Studies on arsenic species and their concentrations in these animals are needed to evaluate their possible health effects and to deepen our understanding of how arsenic behaves and cycles in marine ecosystems. Most arsenic in the livers of marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles is AB, but this form is absent or occurs at surprisingly low levels in the dugong. Although arsenic levels were low in marine mammals, some seabirds, and some sea turtles, the black-footed albatross and hawksbill and loggerhead turtles showed high concentrations, comparable to those in marine organisms at low trophic levels. Hence, these animals may have a specific mechanism for accumulating arsenic. Osmoregulation in these animals may play a role in the high accumulation of AB. Highly toxic inorganic arsenic is found in some seabirds and sea turtles, and some evidence suggests it may act as an endocrine disruptor, requiring new and more detailed studies for confirmation. Furthermore, DMA(V) and arsenosugars, which are commonly found in marine animals and marine algae, respectively, might pose risks to highly exposed animals because of their tendency to form reactive oxygen species. In marine mammals, arsenic is thought to be mainly stored in blubber as lipid-soluble arsenicals. Because marine mammals occupy the top levels of their food chain, work to characterize the lipid-soluble arsenicals and how they cycle in marine ecosystems is needed. These lipid-soluble arsenicals have DMA precursors, the exact structures of which remain to be determined. Because many more arsenicals are assumed to be present in the marine environment, further advances in analytical capabilities can and will provide useful future information on the transformation and cycling of arsenic in the marine environment.

  1. Design manual: Oxygen Thermal Test Article (OTTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronic, W. L.; Baese, C. L.; Conder, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a cryogenic tank for storing liquid hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, methane, or helium for an extended period of time with minimum losses are discussed. A description of the tank and control module, assembly drawings and details of major subassemblies, specific requirements controlling development of the system, thermal concept considerations, thermal analysis methods, and a record of test results are provided. The oxygen thermal test article thermal protection system has proven that the insulation system for cryogenic vessels is effective.

  2. Carotenoids in marine animals.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-02-22

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  4. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities.

  5. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur J. Ragauskas Lucian A. Lucia Hasan Jameel

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  6. MarineMap: Web-Based Technology for Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, W.; Ferdana, Z.; Merrifield, M.; Steinback, C.; Marinemap Consortium

    2010-12-01

    Science, technology and stakeholder engagement are at the heart of marine spatial planning (MSP). Yet, most stakeholders are not scientists or technologists. MarineMap (http://northcoast.marinemap.org) is a web-based decision support tool developed specifically for use by non-technical stakeholders in marine protected area (MPA) planning. However, MarineMap has been developed so that it may be extended to virtually any MSP project where there is a need for (a) visualization and analysis of geospatial data, (b) siting prospective use areas (e.g., for wind or wave energy sites, MPAs, transportation routes), (c) collaboration and communication amongst stakeholders, and (d) transparency of the process to the public. MarineMap is extremely well documented, is based on free and open source technologies and, therefore, may be implemented by anyone without licensing fees. Furthermore, the underlying technologies are extremely flexible and extensible, making it ideal for incorporating new models (e.g., tradeoff analyses, cumulative impacts, etc.) as they are identified for specific MSP projects. We will demonstrate how MarineMap has been developed for MPA planning in California, human impact assessment and MSP on the West Coast, energy and conservation planning in Oregon, and explain how interested parties may access MarineMap's source code and contribute to development.

  7. Trace elements in marine ostracodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Gary S.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Baker, Paul A.

    Extending the work of Cadot, Kaesler, De Deckker, Chivas, and Corrège, we have measured the elemental chemistry of shells of marine ostracodes to evaluate the usefulness of ostracode shell chemistry as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Our work has focused primarily on Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and Na/Ca ratios of two common genera: deep-sea genus Krithe and shallow marine/estuarine genus Loxoconcha. We evaluated in vivo effects including genus, species, gender, ontogeny, shell size, intra-shell heterogeneity (Mg), water temperature, and salinity, and postmortem diagenetic effects including partial dissolution, recrystallization, and shell surface contamination. Analysis of modern (core-top), fossil, and laboratory-raised specimens across a wide range of temperature and salinity conditions confirms earlier work indicating that Krithe and Loxoconcha Mg/Ca ratios are dominantly controlled by water temperature. Sr/Ca and Na/Ca ratios co-vary with temperature in core-top Krithe, but not in cultured Loxoconcha suggesting that the Krithe Sr/Ca and Na/Ca correlation with temperature may be related to another variable that broadly co-varies with temperature. Phylogenetic and ontogenetic effects are also indicated, including different Mg-thermodependence and intra-shell Mg distribution between Krithe and Loxoconcha. Inter-specific effects are suggested for two species of Krithe. Magnesium uptake in eldest juvenile shells seems to be identical to that of adult shells, thus greatly increasing the amount of shell material available for paleoenvironmental studies. No salinity effects were observed. Shell Na/Ca ratios showed a dramatic decrease with increasing dissolution (natural and artificial) in waters that are undersaturated with respect to calcite, whereas Mg/Ca ratios displayed a minor decrease and Sr/Ca ratios showed no change. Of the ratios studied, Mg/Ca offers the most promise for Quaternary marine studies as a paleothermometer. Further calibration studies are needed to better

  8. EUVE Outsourced Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, R. F.; Biroscak, D.; Herz, A.; Christian, D.; Kaier, K.; Kaplan, G. C.; Lilly, S.; Quinn, T.; Stroozas, B.; Tucker, T.

    1996-05-01

    NASA has accepted an unsolicited proposal by the Center for EUV Atrophysics (CEA) at the University of California at Berkeley to manage spacecraft operations for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) extended mission. The proposal can serve as a model for university, government, and industry collaborations to respond to NASA's stated strategic goal to outsource all routine operations of scientific satellites to academia and industry. CEA has taken a conservative, low-cost approach to outsourcing that continues observatory operations, maintains the science return, and preserves the EUVE science archive. The Outsourced Extended Mission reduces yearly EUVE program costs, which may allow for a further extension of the science mission. This poster discusses the outsourced EUVE mission, its operations concept, NASA institutional support, and the roles and responsibilities of the government, university, and industry.

  9. Molecular adaptations in Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Daniela; Russo, Roberta; di Prisco, Guido; Verde, Cinzia

    2012-06-01

    The Antarctic marine environment is one of the most extreme on Earth due to its stably low temperature and high oxygen content. Here we discuss various aspects of the molecular adaptations evolved by Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms living in this environment. This review will in particular focus on: (i) the genetic/genomic bases of adaptation in Antarctic notothenioid fish; (ii) the role of neuroglobin recently identified in the brain of Antarctic icefish; (iii) the structural and functional features of globins of the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125.

  10. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  11. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  12. extendFromReads

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kelly P.

    2013-10-03

    This package assists in genome assembly. extendFromReads takes as input a set of Illumina (eg, MiSeq) DNA sequencing reads, a query seed sequence and a direction to extend the seed. The algorithm collects all seed-- ]matching reads (flipping reverse-- ]orientation hits), trims off the seed and additional sequence in the other direction, sorts the remaining sequences alphabetically, and prints them aligned without gaps from the point of seed trimming. This produces a visual display distinguishing the flanks of multi- ]copy seeds. A companion script hitMates.pl collects the mates of seed-- ]hi]ng reads, whose alignment reveals longer extensions from the seed. The collect/trim/sort strategy was made iterative and scaled up in the script denovo.pl, for de novo contig assembly. An index is pre-- ]built using indexReads.pl that for each unique 21-- ]mer found in all the reads, records its gfate h of extension (whether extendable, blocked by low coverage, or blocked by branching after a duplicated sequence) and other characteristics. Importantly, denovo.pl records all branchings that follow a branching contig endpoint, providing contig- ]extension information

  13. Extended Monitoring during Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Nadim; Berzin, Tyler M

    2016-07-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopic sedation has improved procedural and patient outcomes but is associated with attendant risks of oversedation and hemodynamic compromise. Therefore, close monitoring during endoscopic procedures using sedation is critical. This monitoring begins with appropriate staff trained in visual assessment of patients and analysis of basic physiologic parameters. It also mandates an array of devices widely used in practice to evaluate hemodynamics, oxygenation, ventilation, and depth of sedation. The authors review the evidence behind monitoring practices and current society recommendations and discuss forthcoming technologies and techniques that are poised to improve noninvasive monitoring of patients under endoscopic sedation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Neoproterozoic oxygenation event: Environmental perturbations and biogeochemical cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Och, Lawrence M.; Shields-Zhou, Graham A.

    2012-01-01

    transition from dominantly pyrite burial to sulfate burial after the Neoproterozoic. Strong evidence for the oxygenation of the deep marine environment has emerged through elemental approaches over the past few years which were able to show significant increases in redox-sensitive trace-metal (notably Mo) enrichment in marine sediments not only during the GOE but even more pronounced during the inferred NOE. In addition to past studies involving Mo enrichment, which has been extended and further substantiated in the current review, we present new compilations of V and U concentrations in black shales throughout Earth history that confirm such a rise and further support the NOE. With regard to ocean ventilation, we also review other sedimentary redox indicators, such as iron speciation, molybdenum isotopes and the more ambiguous REE patterns. Although the timing and extent of the NOE remain the subjects of debate and speculation, we consider the record of redox-sensitive trace-metals and C and S contents in black shales to indicate delayed ocean ventilation later in the Cambrian on a global scale with regard to rising oxygen levels in the atmosphere which likely rose during the Late Neoproterozoic.

  15. Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment - Mars airglow spectroscopy and variations in Lyman alpha.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. A.; Stewart, A. I.; Hord, C. W.; Lane, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer observations show the Mars airglow consists principally of emissions that arise from the interaction of solar ultraviolet radiation with carbon dioxide, the principal constituent of the Mars atmosphere. Two minor constituents, atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen, also produce airglow emissions. The airglow measurements show that ionized carbon dioxide is only a minor constituent of the ionosphere. Using the airglow measurements of atomic oxygen, it is possible to infer that the major ion is ionized molecular oxygen. The escape rate of atomic hydrogen measured by Mariner 9 is approximately the same as that measured two years earlier by Mariner 6 and 7. If the current escape rate has been operating for 4.5 billion years and if water vapor is the ultimate source, an amount of oxygen has been generated that is far in excess of that observed at present. Mariner 9 observations of Mars Lyman alpha emission over a period of 120 days show variations of 20%.

  16. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    PubMed

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  17. Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-01-01

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. PMID:24796298

  18. Methods for the detection of marine toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Wekell, M.M.; Manger, R.M.; Hadley, S.W.; Hungerford, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    Toxic materials have been dumped into the seas from waste streams and other pollutant sources such as runoff, etc. For protection of public health, it is essential that rapid, reliable and simple methods exist to detect marine toxins in seafoods. In addition, it is necessary to develop methods requiring a minimum of test material. Pure standards for many of the marine toxins are scarce. Reduced sample requirements extend the utility of detection methods in research and forensic applications as well. In the past, there was much reliance on the animal bioassay; however, this dependence hopefully will be reduced as newer instrumental techniques (chromatographic, mass spectrometric, electrophoretic), biochemical (immunochemical, receptor site assay), and cell bioassay methods are developed with a higher degree of precision and specificity. It is beneficial that a multiplicity of methods be available to detect marine toxins in seafoods. Each method has unique advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Inequalities of extended beta and extended hypergeometric functions.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Saiful R

    2017-01-01

    We study the log-convexity of the extended beta functions. As a consequence, we establish Turán-type inequalities. The monotonicity, log-convexity, log-concavity of extended hypergeometric functions are deduced by using the inequalities on extended beta functions. The particular cases of those results also give the Turán-type inequalities for extended confluent and extended Gaussian hypergeometric functions. Some reverses of Turán-type inequalities are also derived.

  20. Global Compilation of Marine Varve Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Lange, C.; Schieber, J.; Francus, P.; Ojala, A.; Zolitschka, B.

    2016-02-01

    Marine varves contain highly resolved records of geochemical and other paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental proxies with annual to seasonal resolution. We present a global compilation of marine varved sedimentary records throughout the Holocene and Quaternary covering more than 50 sites worldwide. Marine varve deposition and preservation typically depend on environmental and sedimentological principles, such as a sufficiently high sedimentation rate, severe depletion of dissolved oxygen in bottom water to exclude bioturbation by macrobenthos, and a seasonally varying sedimentary input to yield a recognizable rhythmic varve pattern. Additional oceanographic factors may include the strength and depth range of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) and regional anthropogenic eutrophication. Modern to Quaternary marine varves are not only found in those parts of the open ocean that comply with these principles, but also in fjords, embayments and estuaries with thermohaline density stratification, and nearshore `saline lakes' with strong hydrologic connections to ocean water. Marine varves have also been postulated in pre-Quaternary rocks. In the case of non-evaporitic laminations in fine-grained ancient marine rocks, laminations may not be varves but instead may have multiple alternative origins such as event beds or formation via bottom currents that transported and sorted silt-sized particles, clay floccules, and organic-mineral aggregates in the form of migrating bedload ripples. Modern marine ecosystems on continental shelves and slopes, in coastal zones and in estuaries are susceptible to stress by various factors that may result in oxygen-depletion in bottom waters. Sensitive laminated sites may play the important role of a `canary in the coal mine' where monitoring the character and geographical extent of laminations/varves serves as a diagnostic tool to judge environmental trends. Analyses of modern varve records will gain importance for simultaneously providing

  1. [Modulating marine ecosystem by marine viruses--a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bai, Shijie; Cai, Wenwei; Zheng, Tianling

    2009-05-01

    Marine viruses play great roles in the marine ecological system such as modulating the biodiversity and species population, regulating the nutrient cycling, intervening gene transfer and influencing climate changes. Recent research achievements on marine viruses were reviewed in this paper. We focused on the modulating role of marine viruses in marine ecosystem and discussed future research perspectives.

  2. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160/sup 0/ W (20/sup 0/N to 20/sup 0/S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low /sup 234/Th//sup 238/U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru.

  3. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOEpatents

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  4. Extended Testability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.

  5. Extended cooperative control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

  6. The Ecological Marine Units Project as a Framework for Collaborative Data Exploration, Distribution, and Knowledge Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Dawn; Sayre, Roger; Breyer, Sean; Butler, Kevin; VanGraafeiland, Keith; Goodin, Kathy; Kavanaugh, Maria; Costello, Mark; Cressie, Noel; Basher, Zeenatul; Harris, Peter; Guinotte, John

    2017-04-01

    A data-derived, ecological stratification-based ecosystem mapping approach was recently demonstrated by Sayre et al. for terrestrial ecosystems, resulting in a standardized map of nearly 4000 global ecological land units (ELUs) at a base spatial resolution of 250 m. The map was commissioned by the Group on Earth Observations for eventual use by the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), and was also a contribution to the Climate Data Initiative of US President Barack Obama. We now present a similar environmental stratification approach for extending a global ecosystems map into the oceans through the delineation of analog global ecological marine units (EMUs). EMUs are comprised of a global point mesh framework, created from over 52 million points from NOAA's World Ocean Atlas with a spatial resolution of ¼ by ¼ degree ( 27 x 27 km at the equator) at varying depths and a temporal resolution that is currently decadal. Each point carries attributes of chemical and physical oceanographic structure (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate) that are likely drivers of many marine ecosystem responses. We used a k-means statistical clustering algorithm to identify physically distinct, relatively homogenous, volumetric regions within the water column (the EMUs). Backwards stepwise discriminant analysis determined if all of six variables contributed significantly to the clustering, and a pseudo F-statistic gave us an optimum number of clusters worldwide at 37. Canonical discriminant analysis verified that all 37 clusters were significantly different from one another. A major intent of the EMUs is to support marine biodiversity conservation assessments, economic valuation studies of marine ecosystem goods and services, and studies of ocean acidification and other impacts (e.g., pollution, resource exploitation, etc.). As such, they represent a rich geospatial accounting framework for these types of studies, as well as for

  7. Extended Wordsearches in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Simon

    1998-04-01

    Students can be encouraged to develop their factual knowledge by use of puzzles. One strategy described here is the extended wordsearch, where the wordsearch element generates a number of words or phrases from which the answers to a series of questions are selected. The wordsearch can be generated with the aid of computer programs, though in order to make them suitable for students with dyslexia or other learning difficulties, a simpler form is more appropriate. These problems can be employed in a variety of contexts, for example, as topic tests and classroom end-of-lesson fillers. An example is provided in the area of calcium chemistry. Sources of suitable software are listed.

  8. Pluto in Extended Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-24

    This cylindrical projection map of Pluto, in enhanced, extended color, is the most detailed color map of Pluto ever made by NASA New Horizons. It uses recently returned color imagery from the New Horizons Ralph camera, which is draped onto a base map of images from the NASA's spacecraft's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI). The map can be zoomed in to reveal exquisite detail with high scientific value. Color variations have been enhanced to bring out subtle differences. Colors used in this map are the blue, red, and near-infrared filter channels of the Ralph instrument. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19956

  9. ALMA Extended Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameno, S.; Nakai, N.; Honma, M.

    2013-10-01

    We propose to append five 12-m antennas within 300-km from ALMA to realize high angular resolution of < 1 mas and sensitivity to detect Tb < 1000 K. This ALMA extended array offers a new parameter space of "Thermal universe with VLBI resolution". Proposed science case includes black-hole formation in sub-mm galaxies, mass accretion processes onto protostars, imaging stellar photospheres, distance measurements of stars, and so on. The array also functions as a part of sub-mm VLBI that targets black-hole imaging.

  10. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology.

  11. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-05-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both

  12. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-01-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both

  13. Physiological and ecological implications of ocean deoxygenation for vision in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Lillian R; Levin, Lisa A

    2017-09-13

    Climate change has induced ocean deoxygenation and exacerbated eutrophication-driven hypoxia in recent decades, affecting the physiology, behaviour and ecology of marine organisms. The high oxygen demand of visual tissues and the known inhibitory effects of hypoxia on human vision raise the questions if and how ocean deoxygenation alters vision in marine organisms. This is particularly important given the rapid loss of oxygen and strong vertical gradients in oxygen concentration in many areas of the ocean. This review evaluates the potential effects of low oxygen (hypoxia) on visual function in marine animals and their implications for marine biota under current and future ocean deoxygenation based on evidence from terrestrial and a few marine organisms. Evolutionary history shows radiation of eye designs during a period of increasing ocean oxygenation. Physiological effects of hypoxia on photoreceptor function and light sensitivity, in combination with morphological changes that may occur throughout ontogeny, have the potential to alter visual behaviour and, subsequently, the ecology of marine organisms, particularly for fish, cephalopods and arthropods with 'fast' vision. Visual responses to hypoxia, including greater light requirements, offer an alternative hypothesis for observed habitat compression and shoaling vertical distributions in visual marine species subject to ocean deoxygenation, which merits further investigation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  15. Oxygen sensing and signaling.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is an indispensable substrate for many biochemical reactions in plants, including energy metabolism (respiration). Despite its importance, plants lack an active transport mechanism to distribute oxygen to all cells. Therefore, steep oxygen gradients occur within most plant tissues, which can be exacerbated by environmental perturbations that further reduce oxygen availability. Plants possess various responses to cope with spatial and temporal variations in oxygen availability, many of which involve metabolic adaptations to deal with energy crises induced by low oxygen. Responses are induced gradually when oxygen concentrations decrease and are rapidly reversed upon reoxygenation. A direct effect of the oxygen level can be observed in the stability, and thus activity, of various transcription factors that control the expression of hypoxia-induced genes. Additional signaling pathways are activated by the impact of oxygen deficiency on mitochondrial and chloroplast functioning. Here, we describe the molecular components of the oxygen-sensing pathway.

  16. 77 FR 11401 - Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for California State Marine Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is establishing a No Discharge Zone (NDZ) for marine waters of the State of California for sewage discharges from: all large passenger vessels of 300 gross tons or greater; and from large oceangoing vessels of 300 gross tons or greater with available holding tank capacity or containing sewage generated while the vessel was outside of the marine waters of the State of California, pursuant to Section 312(f)(4)(A) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), 33 U.S.C. 1322(f)(4)(A). This action is being taken in response to an April 5, 2006, application from the California State Water Resources Control Board requesting establishment of this NDZ. Based on the State's application, EPA has determined that the protection and enhancement of the quality of California's marine waters requires the prohibition of sewage discharges from two classes of large vessels. For the purposes of today's rule, the marine waters of the State of California are defined as the territorial sea measured from the baseline, as determined in accordance with the Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, and extending seaward a distance of three miles and including all enclosed bays and estuaries subject to tidal influences from the Oregon border to the Mexican border. State marine waters extend three miles from State islands, including the Farallones and the Northern and Southern Channel Islands.

  17. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Science Center, Newport, OR has been issued a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  18. Nitrogen fixation by marine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zehr, Jonathan P

    2011-04-01

    Discrepancies between estimates of oceanic N(2) fixation and nitrogen (N) losses through denitrification have focused research on identifying N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria and quantifying cyanobacterial N(2) fixation. Previously unrecognized cultivated and uncultivated unicellular cyanobacteria have been discovered that are widely distributed, and some have very unusual properties. Uncultivated unicellular N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria (UCYN-A) lack major metabolic pathways including the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxygen-evolving photosystem II. Genomes of the oceanic N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria are highly conserved at the DNA level, and genetic diversity is maintained by genome rearrangements. The major cyanobacterial groups have different physiological and ecological constraints that result in highly variable geographic distributions, with implications for the marine N-cycle budget.

  19. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  20. MARINE FOULING AND BORERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Azov); Settlement by larvae of fouling organisms and by marine borers ( Teredinidae ) in the Gelendzhik and Novorossiysk area; Beginning of colonization of...the Sea of Azov by several species of marine borers of the family Teredinidae ; Settlements of larvae of the marine borer Teredo navalis L. (Mollusca... Teredinidae ) and the temperature of water in Gelendzhikskaya bukhta of the Black Sea; Influence of water having various salinities on the

  1. Oxygen Sensing and Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Gregg L.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of carotid bodies as sensory receptors for detecting arterial blood oxygen levels, and the identification and elucidation of the roles of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in oxygen homeostasis have propelled the field of oxygen biology. This review highlights the gas-messenger signaling mechanisms associated with oxygen sensing, as well as transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms underlying the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis by HIFs and their relevance to physiology and pathology. PMID:26328879

  2. Mitochondrial metabolites extend lifespan.

    PubMed

    Mishur, Robert J; Khan, Maruf; Munkácsy, Erin; Sharma, Lokendra; Bokov, Alex; Beam, Haley; Radetskaya, Oxana; Borror, Megan; Lane, Rebecca; Bai, Yidong; Rea, Shane L

    2016-04-01

    Disruption of mitochondrial respiration in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can extend lifespan. We previously showed that long-lived respiratory mutants generate elevated amounts of α-ketoacids. These compounds are structurally related to α-ketoglutarate, suggesting they may be biologically relevant. Here, we show that provision of several such metabolites to wild-type worms is sufficient to extend their life. At least one mode of action is through stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). We also find that an α-ketoglutarate mimetic, 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDA), is alone sufficient to increase the lifespan of wild-type worms and this effect is blocked by removal of HIF-1. HIF-1 is constitutively active in isp-1(qm150) Mit mutants, and accordingly, 2,4-PDA does not further increase their lifespan. Incubation of mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts with life-prolonging α-ketoacids also results in HIF-1α stabilization. We propose that metabolites that build up following mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction form a novel mode of cell signaling that acts to regulate lifespan. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  4. 18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  5. High Energy Density Extended Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-06-01

    Application of high pressure significantly alters the interatomic distance and, thus, the nature of intermolecular interaction, chemical bonding, molecular configuration, crystal structure, and stability of solid. With modern advances in high-pressure technologies, it is feasible to achieve a large (often up to a several-fold) compression of lattice, at which condition material can be easily forced into a new physical and chemical configuration. The high-pressure thus offers enhanced opportunities to discover new phases, both stable and metastable ones, and to tune novel properties in a wide-range of atomistic length scale, substantially greater than (often being several orders of) those achieved by other thermal (varying temperatures) and chemical (varying composition or making alloys) means. Over the past decade or two, a large number of new materials and novel phenomena have been discovered and predicted at extreme pressure-temperature conditions. Commonly observed under extreme conditions is the transformation of solids into more compact structures with itinerant electrons such as metallic and nonmetallic extended phases. Nonmolecular extended solids, particularly made of low Z elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine, constitute a new class of high energy density solids, which can store a large sum of energy in their three-dimensional network structure (˜ several eV/bond). Yet, a large cohesive energy of singly bonded (or sp3 hybridized) electrons gives rise to an extremely stiff lattice and novel electronic and optical properties. Broadly speaking, these molecular-to-nonmolecular transitions occur due to electron delocalization manifested as a rapid increase in electron kinetic energy at high density, but there are many outstanding questions as well regarding the exact nature of chemical bonding, phase stability, chemical mechanisms, and so on. These questions constitute fundamental chemistry unique to extreme pressure

  6. Southern Ocean biological impacts on global ocean oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, David P.; Kriest, Iris; Koeve, Wolfgang; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Southern Ocean (SO) physical and biological processes are known to have a large impact on global biogeochemistry. However, the role that SO biology plays in determining ocean oxygen concentrations is not completely understood. These dynamics are investigated here by shutting off SO biology in two marine biogeochemical models. The results suggest that SO biological processes reduce the ocean's oxygen content, mainly in the deep ocean, by 14 to 19%. However, since these processes also trap nutrients that would otherwise be transported northward to fuel productivity and subsequent organic matter export, consumption, and the accompanying oxygen consumption in midlatitude to low-latitude waters, SO biology helps to maintain higher oxygen concentrations in these subsurface waters. Thereby, SO biology can influence the size of the tropical oxygen minimum zones. As a result of ocean circulation the link between SO biological processes and remote oxygen changes operates on decadal to centennial time scales.

  7. Marine conductor coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A marine conductor coupling is shown in use in a subsea well installation for connecting a blowout preventer stack to the subsea well head with the coupling including a one piece body of annular configuration having a mandrel receiving vertical bore aligned to a vertical through bore, a plurality of latching dogs received in a mating plurality of horizontally disposed dog receiving slots extending through the annular side wall of the body normal to and intersecting the mandrel receiving bore, mounting studs for connecting the body directly to the associated blowout preventer stack component, whereby forces tending to separate the connector body from the well head mandrel are transmitted directly through the one piece body of the connector, an actuating ring disposed about the inclined rear faces of the latching dogs for urging the dogs into latching engagement with the mandrel, a knock-out ring having a lost motion connection to and being suspended below the actuating ring to be raised by dog releasing motion of the actuating ring to knock the dogs out of their latching engagement with the mandrel and a plurality of hydraulic piston and cylinder means wherein the pistons and piston rods are fixed in stationary relationship to the connector body and associated hydraulic cylinders move vertically relative thereto under hydraulic pressuring and are connected directly to the actuator ring to move it selectively between latching dog wedging and release positions with an indicator rod protruding through a housing surrounding the actuator ring to indicate visually exteriorly of the housing the position of the actuating ring interiorly of the housing.

  8. Why marine islands are farther apart in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Brown, James H

    2014-06-01

    Species diversity of benthic marine organisms is highest in tropical archipelagoes. I hypothesize this is in large part a consequence of the temperature dependence of development times and dispersal distances of planktonic larvae. Metabolic theory predicts and empirical studies confirm that marine larvae develop faster and consequently have shorter durations in the plankton at higher temperatures. Metabolic theory can be extended to predict that species diversity of benthic marine organisms is highest in tropical archipelagoes, because warm temperatures limit dispersal and gene flow and isolated islands provide favorable conditions for speciation and coexistence.

  9. Mariner 9 Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment - Observations of ozone on Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, A. L.; Barth, C. A.; Hord, C. W.; Stewart, A. I.

    1973-01-01

    The Mariner 9 Ultraviolet Spectrometer has observed the 2550 A ozone spectral absorption feature on Mars. This absorption was previously detected in the south polar region by Mariner 7 in 1969. Mariner 9 did not observe ozone at any time in the equatorial region, nor at the south polar cap during its summer season. However, ozone was found in the north polar region beginning at a latitude of 45 deg N and extending northward. Ozone later appeared in the southern hemisphere southward of 50 deg S as the Mars autumnal equinox approached. The presence of ozone on Mars seems to be coupled to the water vapor content of its atmosphere.

  10. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  11. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning, and

  12. Atomic oxygen effects on metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, Albert T.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of specimen geometry on the attack of metals by atomic oxygen is addressed. This is done by extending the coupled-currents approach in metal oxidation to spherical and cylindrical geometries. Kinetic laws are derived for the rates of oxidation of samples having these geometries. It is found that the burn-up time for spherical particles of a given diameter can be as much as a factor of 3 shorter than the time required to completely oxidize a planar sample of the same thickness.

  13. Extending juvenility in grasses

    DOEpatents

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  14. Extended Ewald summation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylänpää, Ilkka; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-09-01

    We present a technique to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational labor in the calculation of long-range interactions in systems with periodic boundary conditions. We extend the well-known Ewald method by using a linear combination of screening Gaussian charge distributions instead of only one. This enables us to find faster converging real-space and reciprocal space summations. The combined simplicity and efficiency of our method is demonstrated, and the scheme is readily applicable to large-scale periodic simulations, classical as well as quantum. Moreover, apart from the required a priori optimization the method is straightforward to include in most routines based on the Ewald method within, e.g., density-functional, molecular dynamics, and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  15. Extended granular micromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovine, Pasquale

    2017-06-01

    We analyze an extended mechanical model in the conservative case in order to describe a dilatant granular material with rotating grains for which the kinetic energy, in addition to the usual translational one, consists of three terms owing to microstructural motions: in particular, it includes the rotation of the grains, the dilatational expansion and contraction of the individual granules and of the granules relative to one another. Hence, we model the body as a continuum with a peculiar microstructure; after we follow classical procedures and define a variational principle of local type for a perfect fluid with microstructure, in accordance with the fluid-like behavior of granular materials: the motion equations are in good agreement with those obtained by other authors. At the end the particular case of a suspension of rotating rigid granules puts in evidence the possibility for granular materials to support shear stresses through the generation of micro-rotational gradients.

  16. Stars with Extended Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2002-12-01

    This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA, Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the presented talks in written form as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Cees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.

  17. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  18. The story of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Heffner, John E

    2013-01-01

    The history of oxygen from discovery to clinical application for patients with chronic lung disease represents a long and storied journey. Within a relatively short period, early investigators not only discovered oxygen but also recognized its importance to life and its role in respiration. The application of oxygen to chronic lung disease, however, took several centuries. In the modern era, physiologists pursued the chemical nature of oxygen and its physiologic interaction with cellular metabolism and gas transport. It took brazen clinicians, however, to pursue oxygen as a therapeutic resource for patients with chronic lung disease because of the concern in the 20th century of the risks of oxygen toxicity. Application of ambulatory oxygen devices allowed landmark investigations of the long-term effects of continuous oxygen that established its safety and efficacy. Although now well established for hypoxic patients, many questions remain regarding the benefits of oxygen for varying severity and types of chronic lung disease.

  19. Extending the sub-sea-floor biosphere.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Bonavita, Marie-Anne Cambon; Querellou, Joël; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Prieur, Daniel; Parkes, R John

    2008-05-23

    Sub-sea-floor sediments may contain two-thirds of Earth's total prokaryotic biomass. However, this has its basis in data extrapolation from ~500-meter to 4-kilometer depths, whereas the deepest documented prokaryotes are from only 842 meters. Here, we provide evidence for low concentrations of living prokaryotic cells in the deepest (1626 meters below the sea floor), oldest (111 million years old), and potentially hottest (~100 degrees C) marine sediments investigated. These Newfoundland margin sediments also have DNA sequences related to thermophilic and/or hyperthermophilic Archaea. These form two unique clusters within Pyrococcus and Thermococcus genera, suggesting unknown, uncultured groups are present in deep, hot, marine sediments (~54 degrees to 100 degrees C). Sequences of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea were also present, suggesting a deep biosphere partly supported by methane. These findings demonstrate that the sub-sea-floor biosphere extends to at least 1600 meters below the sea floor and probably deeper, given an upper temperature limit for prokaryotic life of at least 113 degrees C and increasing thermogenic energy supply with depth.

  20. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  1. Marine biomass research advances

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, E.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports on research in California, New York and elsewhere into marine biomass. A manmade marine farm moored four miles off the coast of southern California pumps deep water up a 450 m pipe to fertilize giant kelp. After harvesting and chopping by existing commercial methods, the kelp would be converted, by either anaerobic bacteria or thermal processes, into methane and other products.

  2. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  3. "Marinating" Our Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes marine education programs at the elementary and secondary levels in the New York City area. The city's extensive coastline and numerous learning centers comprise one of the richest educational resources in the country for studying the marine environment. (Author/WB)

  4. "Marinating" Our Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes marine education programs at the elementary and secondary levels in the New York City area. The city's extensive coastline and numerous learning centers comprise one of the richest educational resources in the country for studying the marine environment. (Author/WB)

  5. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  6. Marine Curators Gather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Floyd W.

    1977-01-01

    Reports on a recent meeting of marine curators in which data dissemination, standardization of marine curating techniques and methods, responsibilities of curators, funding problems, and sampling equipment were the main areas of discussion. A listing of the major deep sea sample collections in the United States is also provided. (CP)

  7. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  8. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  9. Atomic transport of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.L.; Tomlins, G.W.

    1994-06-15

    Atomic transport of oxygen in nonstoichiometric oxides is an extremely important topic which overlaps science and technology. In many cases the diffusion of oxygen controls sintering, grain growth, and creep. High oxygen diffusivity is critical for efficient operation of many fuel cells. Additionally, oxygen diffusivities are an essential ingredient in any point defect model. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is the most accurate modern technique to measure oxygen tracer diffusion. This paper briefly reviews the principles and applications of SIMS for the measurement of oxygen transport. Case studies are taken from recent work on ZnO and some high-temperature superconductors.

  10. In search of the Upper Pleistocene GSSP: bridging the gap in the correlation of Marine and Continental sedimentary successions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Alessandra; Amorosi, Alessandro; Bertini, Adele; Florindo, Fabio; Lurcock, Pontus; Marabini, Stefano; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Morigi, Caterina; Rossi, Veronica; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Battista Vai, Gian

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Pleistocene Subseries/Subepoch is still lacking a formal Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), the necessary internationally agreed reference point on a stratigraphic section, which defines its lower boundary. Analyses performed by our group seem to indicate that the "Fronte" section (Taranto, Italy) has very high potential to contain such GSSP. We have already achieved a pretty complete stratigraphic framework at the Fronte site where data acquisition have been based on a classical biostratigraphic methodology using a multidisciplinary approach: calcareous nannofossils, planktonic and benthic foraminifera, pollen and dinoflagellate cysts. These data have been then integrated with facies analysis, stable oxygen isotopes and paleomagnetism. We will present these results and the future perspectives of this work aiming to compare our data and set the criteria for extending the correlation between the "Fronte" and other time equivalent marine and continental sections. This will allow to add all the necessary requirements to candidate the section for the Upper Pleistocene GSSP.

  11. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  12. IODP Site U1385 ('Shackleton site'): A reference section for marine-terrestrial correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, D. A.; Lourens, L. J.; Crowhurst, S. J.; Konijnendijk, T.; Tjallingii, R. H.; Acton, G.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in our understanding of the Earth's climate system will rely on our ability to link high-resolution sedimentary archives from the oceans, ice-cores and terrestrial sequences. Few places exist in the world where sufficiently detailed and unambiguous marine-terrestrial correlations are possible. One such region is the southwest Iberian Margin where it has been demonstrated that the surface oxygen isotopic record could be correlated precisely to temperature variations (i.e., δ18O) in Greenland ice cores. By comparison, the benthic δ18O signal in the same cores resembles the temperature record from Antarctica. Moreover, the narrow continental shelf and proximity of the Tagus River results in the rapid delivery of terrestrial material, including pollen, to the deep-sea environment, thereby permitting direct correlation to European terrestrial sequences. For these reasons, IODP Expedition 339 sought to extend the Iberian Margin sediment record by drilling with the DV JOIDES Resolution. Five holes were cored at Site U1385 using the advanced piston corer (APC) system to a maximum depth of ~155.9 mbsf. A total of 67 cores were recovered representing 621.8 m of sediment with a nominal recovery of 103.2% (>100% due to post-recovery core expansion). Cores from all holes were analyzed by core scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for semi-quantitative element data at 1-cm spatial resolution. These data permit accurate hole-to-hole correlation and construction of a verifiably complete spliced stratigraphic section, containing no notable gaps or disturbed intervals to 166.5 mcd. Correlation of variations in Natural Gamma Radiation (NGR) to the oxygen isotope stack and biomagnetostratigraphy suggest Site U1385 contains a continuous record from the Holocene to 1.42 Ma (Marine Isotope Stage 46) with average sedimentation rates of ~ 10 cm kyr-1. A preliminary astronomically-tuned chronology was established by tuning sediment color variations to orbital precession. The Site U

  13. Oxygen Overshoot and Recovery during the Paleoproterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, H. D.; Bekker, A.

    2010-12-01

    During the Lomagundi Event, ca. 2.25 - 2.06 Ga, marine carbonates recorded the largest and longest positive carbon isotope excursion, the earliest extensive marine sulfate evaporites were deposited, and the Fe2O3/FeO ratio of shales increased significantly. At the end of the Lomagundi Event the carbon isotope values of marine carbonates returned to ~0‰, marine sulfate evaporites again became scarce, but the Fe2O3/FeO ratio of shales remained essentially unchanged. We propose an explanation for this nonlinear transition of the atmosphere-ocean system from its Archean, mildly reduced state to its Paleoproterozoic, oxygenated state. Before the appearance of significant quantities of atmospheric O2, nearly all of the sulfur in the upper crust was present as a constituent of sulfide minerals. When the O2 content of the atmosphere rose, these sulfides began to be oxidized to sulfate during weathering. Hence, the pH of soil waters decreased, and as a result their phosphate concentration increased. The phosphate flux to the oceans probably also increased, as did the primary productivity and the burial rate of organic matter. The level of atmospheric O2 therefore rose, providing a positive feedback for the intensity of oxidative weathering. The burial of excess organic matter required the biological reduction of bicarbonate carbon, a process that led to highly positive carbon isotope values in marine carbonates. The oxidation of sulfides generated an increase in the seawater sulfate content and the widespread deposition of sulfate evaporites in the Lomagundi-age sedimentary basins. By the end of the Lomagundi Event the sulfide content in the upper crust had been decreased by CaSO4 precipitation in evaporites and in the oceanic crust. As the sulfide content in the upper crust decreased, the pH of groundwaters rebounded to higher values, and the riverine flux of phosphate declined. Primary productivity and oxygen production declined, bringing carbon isotope values of

  14. Endolithic fungi in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Golubic, Stjepko; Radtke, Gudrun; Le Campion-Alsumard, Therese

    2005-05-01

    Fungi are an important constituent of microbial endolithic assemblages in marine ecosystems. As euendoliths, they penetrate limestone, mollusk shells and other carbonate substrates, where they can exploit mineralized organic matter, attack their hosts, or engage in symbiotic relationships. They leave specific boring traces, which can be identified in the fossil record and described as trace fossils. Their distribution is independent of light and extends from the intertidal ranges to abyssal oceanic depths. Important, but insufficiently studied, is the role of aggressive endolithic fungi in skeletons of corals where they are ubiquitous and globally distributed. In healthy growing reef corals, the relationship between the coral coelenterate, endolithic algae and fungi is in a state of equilibrium, but can turn detrimental to coral health when reefs are exposed to environmental stress.

  15. Factors controlling oxygen utilization.

    PubMed

    Biaglow, John; Dewhirst, Mark; Leeper, Dennis; Burd, Randy; Tuttle, Steve

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate, theoretically, that oxygen diffusion distance is related to the metabolic rate of tumors (QO2) as well as the oxygen tension. The difference in QO2 rate between tumors can vary by as much as 80-fold. Inhibition of oxygen utilization by glucose or chemical inhibitors can improve the diffusion distance. Combining respiratory inhibitors with increased availability of oxygen will further improve the oxygen diffusion distance for all tumors. A simple means for inhibiting oxygen consumption is the use of glucose (the Crabtree effect). The inhibition of tumor oxygen utilization by glucose occurs in R323OAc mammary carcinoma and 9L glioma cells. However, stimulation of oxygen consumption is observed with glucose in the Q7 hepatoma cell line. MIBG, a known inhibitor of oxygen utilization, blocks oxygen consumption in 9L, but is weakly inhibitory with the Q7. Q7 tumor cells demonstrate an anomalous behavior of glucose and MIBG on oxygen consumption. Our results clearly demonstrate the necessity for comparing effects of different agents on different tumor cells. Generalizations cannot be made with respect to the choice of inhibitor for in vivo use. Our work shows that oxygen consumption also can be inhibited with malonate and chlorosuccinate. These substrates may be effective in vivo, where glucose is low and glutamine is the major substrate. Our results indicate that information about individual tumor substrate-linked metabolic controls may be necessary before attempting to inhibit oxygen utilization in vivo for therapeutic benefit.

  16. Improved Quaternary North Atlantic stratigraphy using relative paleointensity (RPI), oxygen isotopes, and magnetic excursions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Improving the resolution of Quaternary marine stratigraphy is one of the major challenges in paleoceanography. IODP Expedition 303/306, and ODP Legs 162 and 172, have yielded multiple high-resolution records (mean sedimentation rates in the 7-20 cm/kyr range) of relative paleointensity (RPI) that are accompanied by oxygen isotope data and extend through much of the Quaternary. Tandem fit of RPI and oxygen isotope data to calibrated templates (LR04 and PISO), using the Match protocol, yields largely consistent stratigraphies, implying that both RPI and oxygen isotope data are dominated by regional/global signals. Based on the recent geomagnetic field, RPI can be expected to be a global signal (i.e. dominated by the axial dipole field) when recorded at sedimentation rates less than several decimeters/kyr. Magnetic susceptibility, on the other hand, is a local/regional lithologic signal, and therefore less useful for long-distance correlation. Magnetic excursions are directional phenomena and, when adequately recorded, are manifest as paired reversals in which the virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) reach high latitudes in the opposite hemisphere, and they occupy minima in RPI records. Reversed VGPs imply that excursions are attributable to the main axial dipole, and therefore provide global stratigraphy. The so-called Iceland Basin excursion is recorded at many IODP/ODP sites and lies at the MIS 6/7 boundary at ~188 ka, with a duration of 2-3 kyr. Other excursions in the Brunhes chron are less commonly recorded because their duration (perhaps <~1 kyr) requires sedimentation rates >20 cm/kyr to be adequately recorded. On the other hand, several excursions within the Matuyama Chron are more commonly recorded in North Atlantic drift sediments due to relatively elevated durations. With some notable exceptions (e.g. Iberian Margin), high quality RPI records from North Atlantic sediments, together with magnetic excursions, can be used in tandem with oxygen isotope data to

  17. Oxygen and Temperature Effects on Vertically Migrating Animals in Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, B.

    2016-02-01

    Large populations of oceanic nekton and zooplankton undergo daily migrations from shallow water at night to depths greater than 200 m during the daytime. In some regions, these migrations cross extreme gradients of temperature, oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are extensive and characterized by deep-water (100-800 m) oxygen partial pressures that would be lethal to most marine organisms, yet are tolerated by vertical migrators. Climate change is predicted to further deplete oxygen, and measurable reductions in oxygen have already been documented in some regions. Increases in shallow water temperature and carbon dioxide are occurring simultaneously. Oxygen levels and temperature are important drivers of biodiversity and distribution, and documented changes in community structure and function are reportedly associated with OMZ expansion and warming. Here I answer fundamental questions concerning zooplankton distributions, adaptations, and functions in oxygen minimum zones. In particular I report that metabolic suppression is a common strategy that facilitates diel occupancy of extreme hypoxia in many oceanic taxa. Anaerobic metabolic pathways play a minimal role in compensating for reduced aerobic ATP production. Numerous epigenetic mechanisms lead to reductions in energetically costly cellular processes, such as transcription and translation. Total metabolism is reduced by 50% or more during exposure to levels of hypoxia that characterize the daytime habitat for most vertically-migrating zooplankton. I further show that many migrators approach their upper thermal maximum in shallow water at night. Thus expanding OMZs and global warming may together compress the habitable depth range for many species.

  18. Interpreting benthic oxygen levels in mudrocks: a new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wignall, P.B.; Myers, K.J.

    1988-05-01

    Quantified paleoecology and gamma-ray spectrometry have been applied in the analysis of the Kimmeridge Clay, a highly organic-rich British Jurassic mudrock. Decreasing benthic oxygen trends are reflected in decreasing species richness and dominance-diversity values. Similarly, the degree of fragmentation of the benthos reflects the benthic energy levels and covaries with benthic oxygen. The calculation of authigenic uranium values from data gathered by gamma-ray spectrometry shows enrichment in more oxygen-deficient environments. The good correlation between the independently derived paleoecological and authigenic U data indicates the importance of these techniques in environmental analysis of marine petroleum source rocks.

  19. Giotto Extended Mission (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, D. E. B.; Grensemann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Giotto Extended Mission (GEM), are to determine the composition and physical state of the Grigg Skjellerup Comet's nucleus; to determine the processes that govern the composition and distribution of neutral and ionized species in the cometary atmosphere. Giotto consists of a single European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft that was launched in 1985 from Center Spatial Guyanis in French Guiana on an Ariane launch vehicle. After a successful launch into geostationary orbit and a heliocentric transfer trajectory, the spacecraft successfully encountered Halley's Comet in 1986. One month after encountering Halley's Comet, Mar. 1986, the spacecraft was placed in hibernation in a heliocentric orbit slightly less than 1 AU. Between Feb. and Jul. 1990 the spacecraft was successfully reactivated, checked out, and placed on a trajectory course to intercept comet Grigg Skjellerup. The spacecraft has been in hibernation since Jul. 1990. Information is presented in tabular form in the following areas: coverage goals, Deep Space Network Support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  20. Extended chameleon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; Tamanini, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    We extend the chameleon models by considering scalar-fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyze models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where interesting signatures might arise in the galaxy rotation curves.

  1. An Extended Lagrangian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  2. Engineering Ulysses extended mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standley, Shaun

    1994-01-01

    The Ulysses Mission is a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The mission is unique, enabling exploration of the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the Sun over a full range of heliographic latitudes adding a third dimension to our understanding of the Solar System. The advanced scientific instrumentation on Ulysses continually measures the properties of the heliospheric magnetic field, the solar wind, solar radio bursts and plasma waves, galactic cosmic rays, energetic particles, solar X-rays, and interstellar neutral gas. By the end of 1995, the spacecraft will have completed measurements at heliographic latitudes up to 80 degrees over a single orbit of the Sun. The properties of the heliosphere are solar cycle dependent, and Ulysses' first orbit of the Sun will have taken place around a solar minimum. In order to characterize the heliosphere over a full (11 year) solar cycle, it is desirable to continue measurements over a second orbit of the Sun, a new Odyssey that will extend through 2001. Since the spacecraft was only designed for a five-year mission, a number of technical challenges have been surmounted in order to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of this unparalleled scientific opportunity. This paper describes the changes that were necessary to the Ulysses mission engineering and mission operations in order to ensure continual, effective payload operation throughout 1996-2001.

  3. Isotopic Composition of Oxygen in Lunar Zircons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of heavy oxygen in zircons from the Jack Hills conglomerates Wilde et al. and Mojzsis et al. was interpreted as an indication of presence of liquid water on the surface of Early Earth. The distribution of ages of Jack Hills zircons and lunar zircons appears to be very similar and therefore analysis of oxygen in the lunar grains may provide a reference frame for further study of the early history of the Earth as well as give additional information regarding processes that operated on the Moon. In the present study we have analysed the oxygen isotopic composition of zircon grains from three lunar samples using the Swedish Museum of Natural History CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The samples were selected as likely tests for variations in lunar oxygen isotopic composition. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  4. Chemical oxygen generation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kevin R; Huvard, Gary S; McHugh, Mark; Mallepally, Rajender R; Imbruce, Richard

    2013-01-01

    While pressurized oxygen in tank form, as well as oxygen concentrators, are ubiquitous in civilian healthcare in developed countries for medical use, there are a number of settings where use of these oxygen delivery platforms is problematic. These settings include but are not limited to combat casualty care and healthcare provided in extreme rural environments in undeveloped countries. Furthermore, there are a number of settings where delivery of oxygen other than the pulmonary route to oxygenate tissues would be of value, including severe lung injury, airway obstruction, and others. This paper provides a brief overview of the previous and current attempts to utilize chemical oxygen production strategies to enhance systemic oxygenation. While promising, the routine use of chemically produced oxygen continues to pose significant engineering and physiologic challenges.

  5. Oxygen in Orion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-01

    This graphic illustrates where astronomers at last found oxygen molecules in space -- near the star-forming core of the Orion nebula. The squiggly lines, or spectra, reveal the signatures of oxygen molecules, detected by ESA Hershel Space Observatory.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002375.htm Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  7. Miniature oxygen resuscitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G.; Teegen, J. T.; Waddell, H.

    1969-01-01

    Miniature, portable resuscitation system is used during evacuation of patients to medical facilities. A carrying case contains a modified resuscitator head, cylinder of oxygen, two-stage oxygen regulator, low pressure tube, and a mask for mouth and nose.

  8. Oxygen control with microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Martin D; Rexius-Hall, Megan L; Elgass, Laura Jane; Eddington, David T

    2014-11-21

    Cellular function and behavior are affected by the partial pressure of O2, or oxygen tension, in the microenvironment. The level of oxygenation is important, as it is a balance of oxygen availability and oxygen consumption that is necessary to maintain normoxia. Changes in oxygen tension, from above physiological oxygen tension (hyperoxia) to below physiological levels (hypoxia) or even complete absence of oxygen (anoxia), trigger potent biological responses. For instance, hypoxia has been shown to support the maintenance and promote proliferation of regenerative stem and progenitor cells. Paradoxically, hypoxia also contributes to the development of pathological conditions including systemic inflammatory response, tumorigenesis, and cardiovascular disease, such as ischemic heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Current methods to study cellular behavior in low levels of oxygen tension include hypoxia workstations and hypoxia chambers. These culture systems do not provide oxygen gradients that are found in vivo or precise control at the microscale. Microfluidic platforms have been developed to overcome the inherent limits of these current methods, including lack of spatial control, slow equilibration, and unachievable or difficult coupling to live-cell microscopy. The various applications made possible by microfluidic systems are the topic of this review. In order to understand how the microscale can be leveraged for oxygen control of cells and tissues within microfluidic systems, some background understanding of diffusion, solubility, and transport at the microscale will be presented in addition to a discussion on the methods for measuring the oxygen tension in microfluidic channels. Finally the various methods for oxygen control within microfluidic platforms will be discussed including devices that rely on diffusion from liquid or gas, utilizing on-or-off-chip mixers, leveraging cellular oxygen uptake to deplete the oxygen, relying on chemical reactions in

  9. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  10. Magneto-aerotaxis in marine coccoid bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, R B; Bazylinski, D A; Johnson, M S; Taylor, B L

    1997-01-01

    Magnetotactic cocci swim persistently along local magnetic field lines in a preferred direction that corresponds to downward migration along geomagnetic field lines. Recently, high cell concentrations of magnetotactic cocci have been found in the water columns of chemically stratified, marine and brackish habitats, and not always in the sediments, as would be expected for persistent, downward-migrating bacteria. Here we report that cells of a pure culture of a marine magnetotactic coccus, designated strain MC-1, formed microaerophilic bands in capillary tubes and used aerotaxis to migrate to a preferred oxygen concentration in an oxygen gradient. Cells were able to swim in either direction along the local magnetic field and used magnetotaxis in conjunction with aerotaxis, i.e., magnetically assisted aerotaxis, or magneto-aerotaxis, to more efficiently migrate to and maintain position at their preferred oxygen concentration. Cells of strain MC-1 had a novel, aerotactic sensory mechanism that appeared to function as a two-way switch, rather than the temporal sensory mechanism used by other bacteria, including Magnetospirillum megnetotacticum, in aerotaxis. The cells also exhibited a response to short-wavelength light (< or = 500 nm), which caused them to swim persistently parallel to the magnetic field during illumination. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:9251816

  11. Distribution of Sulfate-Reducing Communities from Estuarine to Marine Bay Waters.

    PubMed

    Colin, Yannick; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Gassie, Claire; Carlier, Elisabeth; Monperrus, Mathilde; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Estuaries are highly dynamic ecosystems in which freshwater and seawater mix together. Depending on tide and river inflows, particles originating from rivers or from the remobilization of sediments accumulate in the water column. Due to the salinity gradient and the high heterotrophic activity in the estuarine plume, hypoxic and anoxic microniches may form in oxygenated waters, sustaining favorable conditions for resuspended anaerobic microorganisms. In this context, we tested the hypothesis that anaerobic sulfate-reducing prokaryotes may occur in the water column of the Adour River. Using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and dsrAB-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) techniques, we characterized total prokaryotic and sulfate-reducing communities along a gradient from estuarine to marine bay waters. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes were further characterized by the description of dsrB genes and the cultivation of sulfidogenic anaerobic microorganisms. As a result, physical-chemical parameters had a significant effect on water bacterial diversity and community structure along the studied gradient. The concentration of cultured sulfidogenic microorganisms ranged from 1 to 60 × 10(3) cells l(-1) in the water column. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes occurring in estuarine waters were closely related to microorganisms previously detected in freshwater sediments, suggesting an estuarine origin, mainly by the remobilization of the sediments. In the marine bay station, sediment-derived sulfate-reducing prokaryotes were not cultured anymore, probably due to freshwater dilution, increasing salinity and extended oxic stress. Nevertheless, isolates related to the type strain Desulfovibrio oceani were cultured from the diluted plume and deep marine waters, indicating the occurrence of autochthonous sulfate-reducing bacteria offshore.

  12. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe Miroslava; López-Saiz, Carmen María; Ramírez-Guerra, Hugo Enrique; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido

    2016-01-01

    In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols), the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils. PMID:27886145

  13. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface marine sediments across the North American Arctic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; O'Connor, Alison E.; Kuzyk, Zou Zou; Yunker, Mark B.; Gobeil, Charles; Macdonald, Robie W.

    2013-09-01

    As part of the International Polar Year research program, we conducted a survey of surface marine sediments from box cores along a section extending from the Bering Sea to Davis Strait via the Canadian Archipelago. We used bulk elemental and isotopic compositions, together with biomarkers and principal components analysis, to elucidate the distribution of marine and terrestrial organic matter in different regions of the North American Arctic margin. Marked regional contrasts were observed in organic carbon loadings, with the highest values (≥1 mg C m-2 sediment) found in sites along Barrow Canyon and the Chukchi and Bering shelves, all of which were characterized by sediments with low oxygen exposure, as inferred from thin layers (<2 cm) of Mn oxihydroxides. We found strong regional differences in inorganic carbon concentrations, with sites from the Canadian Archipelago and Lancaster Sound displaying elevated values (2-7 wt %) and highly depleted 14C compositions consistent with inputs from bedrock carbonates. Organic carbon:nitrogen ratios, stable carbon isotopes, and terrigenous organic biomarkers (lignin phenols and cutin acids) all indicate marked regional differences in the proportions of marine and terrigenous organic matter present in surface sediments. Regions such as Barrow Canyon and the Mackenzie River shelf were characterized by the highest contributions of land-derived organic matter, with compositional characteristics that suggested distinct sources and provenance. In contrast, sediments from the Canadian Archipelago and Davis Strait had the smallest contributions of terrigenous organic matter and the lowest organic carbon loadings indicative of a high degree of post-depositional oxidation.

  14. Oxygen sensitive microwells.

    PubMed

    Sinkala, Elly; Eddington, David T

    2010-12-07

    Oxygen tension is critical in a number of cell pathways but is often overlooked in cell culture. One reason for this is the difficulty in modulating and assessing oxygen tensions without disturbing the culture conditions. Toward this end, a simple method to generate oxygen-sensitive microwells was developed through embossing polystyrene (PS) and platinum(ii) octaethylporphyrin ketone (PtOEPK) thin films. In addition to monitoring the oxygen tension, microwells were employed in order to isolate uniform clusters of cells in microwells. The depth and width of the microwells can be adapted to different experimental parameters easily by altering the thin film processing or embossing stamp geometries. The thin oxygen sensitive microwell substrate is also compatible with high magnification modalities such as confocal imaging. The incorporation of the oxygen sensor into the microwells produces measurements of the oxygen tension near the cell surface. The oxygen sensitive microwells were calibrated and used to monitor oxygen tensions of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells (MDCKs) cultured at high and low densities as a proof of concept. Wells 500 µm in diameter seeded with an average of 330 cells exhibited an oxygen level of 12.6% whereas wells seeded with an average of 20 cells per well exhibited an oxygen level of 19.5%, a 35.7% difference. This platform represents a new tool for culturing cells in microwells in a format amenable to high magnification imaging while monitoring the oxygen state of the culture media.

  15. Oxygen therapy - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cells in the body get too little oxygen, energy production decreases. With too little energy, cells may not work well and may die. Your baby may not grow properly. Many of the developing organs, ... much oxygen can also cause injury. Breathing too much oxygen ...

  16. Hypoxemia (Low Blood Oxygen)

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Hypoxemia (low blood oxygen) By Mayo Clinic Staff Hypoxemia is a below-normal level of oxygen in your blood, specifically in the arteries. Hypoxemia ... of breath. Hypoxemia is determined by measuring the oxygen level in a blood sample taken from an ...

  17. Indicators: Dissolved Oxygen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen that is present in water. It is an important measure of water quality as it indicates a water body's ability to support aquatic life. Water bodies receive oxygen from the atmosphere and from aquatic plants.

  18. Oxygen boost pump study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An oxygen boost pump is described which can be used to charge the high pressure oxygen tank in the extravehicular activity equipment from spacecraft supply. The only interface with the spacecraft is the +06 6.205 Pa supply line. The breadboard study results and oxygen tank survey are summarized and the results of the flight-type prototype design and analysis are presented.

  19. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart G of... - Marine Reserve Boundaries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ° N 119.80000 ″ W 5 33.86195 ° N 119.80000 ″ W B.5. Scorpion (Santa Cruz Island) Marine Reserve The Scorpion Marine Reserve (Scorpion) boundary is defined by the 3 nmi State boundary, the coordinates provided in Table B-5, and the following textual description. The Scorpion boundary extends from Point 1...

  20. Marine ecosystem responses to Cenozoic global change.

    PubMed

    Norris, R D; Turner, S Kirtland; Hull, P M; Ridgwell, A

    2013-08-02

    The future impacts of anthropogenic global change on marine ecosystems are highly uncertain, but insights can be gained from past intervals of high atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure. The long-term geological record reveals an early Cenozoic warm climate that supported smaller polar ecosystems, few coral-algal reefs, expanded shallow-water platforms, longer food chains with less energy for top predators, and a less oxygenated ocean than today. The closest analogs for our likely future are climate transients, 10,000 to 200,000 years in duration, that occurred during the long early Cenozoic interval of elevated warmth. Although the future ocean will begin to resemble the past greenhouse world, it will retain elements of the present "icehouse" world long into the future. Changing temperatures and ocean acidification, together with rising sea level and shifts in ocean productivity, will keep marine ecosystems in a state of continuous change for 100,000 years.

  1. Trichodesmium, a globally significant marine cyanobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Capone, D.G.; Zehr, J.P.; Paerl, H.W.

    1997-05-23

    Planktonic marine cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium occur throughout the oligotrophic tropical and subtropical oceans. Their unusual adaptations, from the molecular to the macroscopic level, contribute to their ecological success and biogeochemical importance. Trichodesmium fixes nitrogen gas (N{sub 2}) under fully aerobic conditions while photosynthetically evolving oxygen. Its temporal pattern of N{sub 2} fixation results from an enclogenous daily cycle that confines N{sub 2} fixation to daylight hours. Trichodesmium colonies provide a unique pelagic habitat that supports a complex assemblage of consortial organisms. These colonies often represent a large fraction of the plant biomass in tropical, oligotrophic waters and contribute substantially to primary production. N{sub 2} fixation by Trichodesmium is likely a major input to the marine and global nitrogen cycle.

  2. Viruses and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

    2003-03-01

    This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems.

  3. A Fluorescence Based Dissolved Oxygen Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Ronald; Hamilton, M. Coreen

    1987-10-01

    A sensor based on fluorescence quenching has been built to detect oxygen activity in gas and water. The sensor consists of a xenon flash bulb as a light source; an excitation wavelength band pass filter; a dichroic beam splitter; collimating and focussing lenses; a plastic clad silica (PCS) rod with the fluorophore immobilized at the tip of it; an emission wavelength band pass filter; a photomultiplier tube (PMT); a monitor PIN photodiode detector; and interface electronics to couple a computer to the rest of the sensor. The device demonstrates a reversible change in fluorescence quenching for changes in oxygen activity. The fluorescence signal seen by the PMT varies over a factor of 3, being highest at 0 oxygen activity and lowest at atmospheric oxygen activity. The device exhibits a 63 % response time of less than 1 second for gases and less than 10 seconds for oxygen dissolved in water. The noise floor of the sensor is approximately 1%. The present embodiment of the device was designed to allow the sensor to operate in the marine environment. The optical components, computer, batteries, and power supply circuitry are mounted on a rack that is enclosed in a pressure housing. The immobilized fluorophore is exposed to sea water. The light travels along the PCS rod, through a pressure seal, to the rest of the system. Present investigations are centered around long term stability of the fluorophore and constituents of the real ocean that will interfere with the quenching mechanism.

  4. Ecosystemic Postglacial Succession of Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Canada) Inferred by Oxygen Isotope Composition of Lacustrine Diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narancic, B.; Chapligin, B.; Meyer, H.; Pienitz, R.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, a 82 cm long sediment core (Ni2B) was drilled at Nettilling Lake. We use a multi-proxy paleolimnological approach to study the sedimentary records preserved in Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Canada) in order to reconstruct the postglacial environmental history of the lake watershed. 31 samples of biogenic silica were purified, their contamination assessed and corrected for and subsequently analysed for the oxygen isotope composition (δ18Odiatom). Additionally, the diatom assemblage from 35 samples was quantified under the light microscope with x 1000 magnification. Our chronology extends to ~ BC 1200 yrs based on radiometric dating 210Pd and 14C from bulk sediment. Downcore variations in δ18Odiatom values show a marine-lacustrine transition. The samples from the marine-brackish zone show a higher isotopic composition (27.5‰, 58.5cm depth, ²middle Holocene²) than the samples from the lacustrine section (21.7‰, 1.5cm, 2002 AD). The transition zone can be distinguished by values between these extremes, too (23.4‰, 33cm, ~1240 BC). This likely reflects changes in the water source, from more isotopically enriched marine water in the past to more depleted and cold lacustrine water. The diatom assemblage reflects the same transition. The marine-brackish zone contains polyhalobous-mesohalobous benthic species (e.g. Trachyneis aspera, Gomphonemopsis aestuarii, G. pseudexigua,Cocconeis scutellum) which have a salinity preference between 35‰ to 5‰, indicating a shallow, littoral environment. The transition zone is characterized by a sharp rise of alkaliphilous freshwater benthic taxa (e.g. Staurosirelle pinnata, Staurosira construens, Staurosira brevistriata). The diatom flora of the upper zone is characterized by halophobous planktonic and benthic species (e.g. Cylotella rossii, Cyclotella pseudostelligera, Tabelaria floculosa, Encyonema silesiacum, Nitzschia perminuta). The δ18Odiatom and the diatom assemblage record from Nettilling Lake register

  5. The effects of intermittent exposure to low pH and oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low pH and/or low oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low pH (7.5, total scale) and low O2 (40% saturation, 5 mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h repeated twice over a 15 day period, juveniles experienced higher mortality in the low oxygen treatments compared to control conditions, regardless of pH levels (pH 7.5 vs. 8.0). Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low pH or low oxygen treatments and the growth was lowest when low pH exposure was combined with low O2. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when they were exposed to low pH and low O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas both pH and oxygen is a crucial factor for their growth. However, given the higher individual variation in growth rate, they may have an ability to adapt to extended exposure to upwelling conditions.

  6. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  7. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  8. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...: The subject amendment to Permit No. 13602 was requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C...

  9. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska. ADDRESSES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations...

  10. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XO45 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The application and related documents are available for... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq...

  11. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  12. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  13. Singlet oxygen in photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Moan, Johan; Juzenas, Petras

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen is a ubiquitous element and a vitally important substance for life on the Earth, and especially for human life. Living organisms need oxygen for most, if not all, of their cellular functions. On the other hand, oxygen can produce metabolites that are toxic and potentially lethal to the same cells. Being reactive and chemically unstable reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the most important metabolites that initiate reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions under physiological conditions. Oxygen in its excited singlet state (1O2) is probably the most important intermediate in such reactions. Since the discovery of oxygen by Joseph Priestley in 1775 it has been recognized that oxygen can be both beneficial and harmful to life.

  14. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  15. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  16. Mariner-Venus 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

  17. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  18. Protecting the Marine Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works with U.S. government agency partners, foreign nations, industry and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that international decisions and management of marine pollution issues support EPA's mission

  19. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  20. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  1. Marine medicinal glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  2. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  3. JEP-MARINE CLEAN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka ECOVOOM-MARINE, this surface washing agent is used in oil spill cleanups. Manual pump sprayers should be used to presoak contaminated areas, then pressure washers used to agitate after presoak has been applied.

  4. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power

  5. [Calcium-regulated photoproteins of marine coelenterates].

    PubMed

    Vysotskiĭ, E S; Markova, S V; Frank, L A

    2006-01-01

    Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins are bioluminescent proteins responsible for bioluminescence of marine coelenterates. The photoprotein molecule is a stable enzyme-substrate complex consisting of a single polypeptide chain and an oxygen "pre-activated" substrate, 2-hydroperoxycoelenterazine, which is tightly but non-covalently bound with a protein. The bioluminescence is triggered by calcium ions and originates from an oxidative decarboxylation of a protein bound substrate. The review provides current data on the photoproteins structure, the mechanism of bioluminescent reaction, the function of some amino acid residues of an active site in the catalysis and the formation of the emitter, as well as on applications of these proteins in a bioluminescent analysis.

  6. Assessment of oceanic productivity with the triple-isotope composition of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Luz, B; Barkan, E

    2000-06-16

    Plant production in the sea is a primary mechanism of global oxygen formation and carbon fixation. For this reason, and also because the ocean is a major sink for fossil fuel carbon dioxide, much attention has been given to estimating marine primary production. Here, we describe an approach for estimating production of photosynthetic oxygen, based on the isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen of seawater. This method allows the estimation of integrated oceanic productivity on a time scale of weeks.

  7. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity.

  8. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Effects of Ammonia Oxidation by Thermophilic Thaumarchaeota from a Geothermal Water Stream.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Manabu; Sakai, Sanae; Konno, Uta; Nakahara, Nozomi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yumi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Tasumi, Eiji; Makabe, Akiko; Koba, Keisuke; Takai, Ken

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia oxidation regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature. Although ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been recently recognized to often outnumber ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in various environments, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea is still uncertain due to difficulties in the in situ quantification of ammonia oxidation activity. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrite (δ(15)NNO2- and δ(18)ONO2-, respectively) are geochemical tracers for evaluating the sources and the in situ rate of nitrite turnover determined from the activities of nitrification and denitrification; however, the isotope ratios of nitrite from archaeal ammonia oxidation have been characterized only for a few marine species. We first report the isotope effects of ammonia oxidation at 70°C by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota populations composed almost entirely of "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus." The nitrogen isotope effect of ammonia oxidation varied with ambient pH (25‰ to 32‰) and strongly suggests the oxidation of ammonia, not ammonium. The δ(18)O value of nitrite produced from ammonia oxidation varied with the δ(18)O value of water in the medium but was lower than the isotopic equilibrium value in water. Because experiments have shown that the half-life of abiotic oxygen isotope exchange between nitrite and water is longer than 33 h at 70°C and pH ≥6.6, the rate of ammonia oxidation by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota could be estimated using δ(18)ONO2- in geothermal environments, where the biological nitrite turnover is likely faster than 33 h. This study extended the range of application of nitrite isotopes as a geochemical clock of the ammonia oxidation activity to high-temperature environments. Because ammonia oxidation is generally the rate-limiting step in nitrification that regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature, it is important to understand the biological and environmental factors underlying the regulation of

  9. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Effects of Ammonia Oxidation by Thermophilic Thaumarchaeota from a Geothermal Water Stream

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Sanae; Konno, Uta; Nakahara, Nozomi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yumi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Tasumi, Eiji; Makabe, Akiko; Koba, Keisuke; Takai, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ammonia oxidation regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature. Although ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been recently recognized to often outnumber ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in various environments, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea is still uncertain due to difficulties in the in situ quantification of ammonia oxidation activity. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrite (δ15NNO2− and δ18ONO2−, respectively) are geochemical tracers for evaluating the sources and the in situ rate of nitrite turnover determined from the activities of nitrification and denitrification; however, the isotope ratios of nitrite from archaeal ammonia oxidation have been characterized only for a few marine species. We first report the isotope effects of ammonia oxidation at 70°C by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota populations composed almost entirely of “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus.” The nitrogen isotope effect of ammonia oxidation varied with ambient pH (25‰ to 32‰) and strongly suggests the oxidation of ammonia, not ammonium. The δ18O value of nitrite produced from ammonia oxidation varied with the δ18O value of water in the medium but was lower than the isotopic equilibrium value in water. Because experiments have shown that the half-life of abiotic oxygen isotope exchange between nitrite and water is longer than 33 h at 70°C and pH ≥6.6, the rate of ammonia oxidation by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota could be estimated using δ18ONO2− in geothermal environments, where the biological nitrite turnover is likely faster than 33 h. This study extended the range of application of nitrite isotopes as a geochemical clock of the ammonia oxidation activity to high-temperature environments. IMPORTANCE Because ammonia oxidation is generally the rate-limiting step in nitrification that regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature, it is important to understand the biological and environmental factors underlying

  10. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F; Letelier, Ricardo M; Stewart, Frank J

    2012-10-02

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N(2) production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future.

  11. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E.; DeLong, Edward F.; Letelier, Ricardo M.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N2 production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two “end points” represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future. PMID:22967509

  12. Oxygen consumption by conserved archaeological wood.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin N; Matthiesen, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Rates of oxygen consumption have been measured over extended time periods for 29 whole samples of conserved, archaeological wood and four samples of fresh, unconserved wood, at 50% relative humidity and room temperature. Samples from the Swedish Warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships are included. Most rates were close to 1 μg O2 (g wood)(-1) day(-1) and the process persisted for several years at least. Consumption of oxygen is related to change in chemical composition, which is, in turn, related to degradation. It is thus demonstrated that despite conservation, waterlogged archaeological wood continues to degrade in a museum climate.

  13. Seasonal variability of hydrographical properties of the Syrian marine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohammad; Courp, Thierry; Ibrahim, Amir; Benkhelil, Jean

    2011-03-01

    The hydrographical properties of the Syrian marine water are described on the basis of three cruises performed during December 2006, March 2009 and October 2009. In all cruises a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) instrument equipped with a fluorometer and oxygen sensor was used for casts that extended to a maximum depth of 480 m. The hydrographic data reveal the presence of Levantine Surface Water (LSW) and Atlantic Water (AW) within the upper 90 m layer, Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) between 90 and 250 m, and Deep Water (DW) further below. Stratification was clearer in October and December compared to March. Cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were observed during the three cruises at different locations situated along the Syrian coast. The flow structure along the Syrian coast is controlled by the shape of the coastline and the bottom topography of the continental shelf. From March 2009 to October 2009 a dynamic height rise (within 6 months) of about 3.7-9.8 cm reflected the seasonal cycle of sea level due mainly to thermosteric expansion of the water column. This gave a rise rate in the range of 0.6-1.7 cm month - 1 . Dissolved oxygen was higher in March 2009 (214 ± 4.8 μM) than in December 2006 (202 ± 11.5 μM) or in October 2009 (188 ± 18.9 μM). During March 2009 the water column oxygen distribution was homogeneous. In December 2006 the oxygen distribution was homogeneous in the upper 125 m where LSW was present and subsequently decreased in concentration due to bacterial oxidation of detritus. However, a shallow oxygen maximum (oversaturated) was present at 50-80 m depth during October 2009. Oversaturation was attributed mainly to the biological and physical processes of rapid capping and trapping of oxygen in the AW mass. Chlorophyll- a concentration varied substantially depending on depth and season, having values of 0.05 ± 0.01 mg m - 3 during December 2006, 0.08 ± 0.01 mg m - 3 during March 2009 and 0.06 ± 0.01 mg m - 3 during October 2009

  14. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly fee schedule...

  15. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Durable Medical Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly...

  16. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Durable Medical Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly...

  17. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly fee schedule...

  18. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices, and Surgical Dressings § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is...

  19. A buried marine depositional sequence (Presumpscot FM. ) N. of the marine limit, Waterboro, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, R.E. )

    1993-03-01

    Subsurface investigations conducted in Waterboro, ME (York Co.) in connection with studies of two hazardous waste sites and a municipal water supply exploration project, have demonstrated that a laterally extensive sequence of marine deposits underlies surficial sediments mapped as non-esker ice contact glacio-fluvial deposits. The marine deposits consist of a fining-downwards sequence of grey, micaceous sands (fine to medium, grading down to a silty-fine sand), which grade downward into a thick ([plus minus] 30 feet) grey silt/clay unit, which itself shows a fining-downward trend. The stratigraphy is likely correlative to the Presumpscot Formation, as described by Bloom (1963). The bottom of the regressive marine sequence is marked at several locations by a thin layer of sand-sized biotite mica. Lodgement till was encountered only at scattered localities (in boreholes) at each site. The bedrock surface is of considerable relief, with changes of 200--300 feet over short distances detected. The sequence appears to be the record of a rapidly transgressing sea which inundated a valley where outwash had been deposited by meltwater ahead of retreating ice. As the sea retreated, up to 70 feet of sediment was deposited in a continuous, coarsening-upwards sequence. Subsequent to the marine regression, the sediments were reworked in a subaerial (braided stream) environment. The Surficial Geologic Map of Maine shows that the inland limit of late-glacial marine submergence is located approximately 8 miles southwest of Waterboro, in Alfred, Maine. The marine limit in Alfred takes the form of a NNE trending, blunt-ended embayment. The results of this study suggest that the marine embayment once extended northward from Alfred, and is now a buried feature, possibly representing a preglacial valley, which hosted an estuary in late Wisconsonian time.

  20. Geological constraints on the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, James; Zerkle, Aubrey L; Bekker, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the geological evidence for the rise of atmospheric oxygen and the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis. The evidence for the rise of atmospheric oxygen places a minimum time constraint before which oxygenic photosynthesis must have developed, and was subsequently established as the primary control on the atmospheric oxygen level. The geological evidence places the global rise of atmospheric oxygen, termed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), between ~2.45 and ~2.32 Ga, and it is captured within the Duitschland Formation, which shows a transition from mass-independent to mass-dependent sulfur isotope fractionation. The rise of atmospheric oxygen during this interval is closely associated with a number of environmental changes, such as glaciations and intense continental weathering, and led to dramatic changes in the oxidation state of the ocean and the seawater inventory of transition elements. There are other features of the geologic record predating the GOE by as much as 200-300 million years, perhaps extending as far back as the Mesoarchean-Neoarchean boundary at 2.8 Ga, that suggest the presence of low level, transient or local, oxygenation. If verified, these features would not only imply an earlier origin for oxygenic photosynthesis, but also require a mechanism to decouple oxygen production from oxidation of Earth's surface environments. Most hypotheses for the GOE suggest that oxygen production by oxygenic photosynthesis is a precondition for the rise of oxygen, but that a synchronous change in atmospheric oxygen level is not required by the onset of this oxygen source. The potential lag-time in the response of Earth surface environments is related to the way that oxygen sinks, such as reduced Fe and sulfur compounds, respond to oxygen production. Changes in oxygen level imply an imbalance in the sources and sinks for oxygen. Changes in the cycling of oxygen have occurred at various times before and after the GOE, and do not appear to

  1. Oxygen-binding haem proteins.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael T; Reeder, Brandon J

    2008-01-01

    Myoglobin and haemoglobin, the respiratory pigments of mammals and some molluscs, annelids and arthropods, belong to an ancient superfamily of haem-associated globin proteins. Members of this family share common structural and spectral features. They also share some general functional characteristics, such as the ability to bind ligands, e.g. O2, CO and NO, at the iron atom and to undergo redox changes. These properties are used in vivo to perform a wide range of biochemical and physiological roles. While it is acknowledged that the major role of haemoglobin is to bind oxygen reversibly and deliver it to the tissues, this is not its only function, while the often-stated role of myoglobin as an oxygen storage protein is possibly a misconception. Furthermore, haemoglobin and myoglobin express enzymic activities that are important to their function, e.g. NO dioxygenase activity or peroxidatic activity that may be partly responsible for pathophysiology following haemorrhage. Evidence for these functions is described, and the discussion extended to include proteins that have recently been discovered and that are expressed at low levels within the cell. These proteins are hexaco-ordinate, unlike haemoglobin and myoglobin, and are widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom (e.g. neuroglobins and cytoglobins). They may have specialist roles in oxygen delivery to particular sites within the cell but may also perform roles associated with O2 sensing and signalling and in responses to stress, e.g. protection from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Haemoglobins are also widespread in plants and bacteria and may serve similar protective functions.

  2. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  3. Marine envenomations. Part 2--Other marine envenomations.

    PubMed

    Nimorakiotakis, B; Winkel, K D

    2003-12-01

    Australian waters contain a variety of venomous creatures, including jellyfish, stinging fish, blue-ringed octopus, sea snakes, cone snails and stingrays. Part 2 of this article focusses on common marine envenomations other than jellyfish stings. Even though mortality from these envenomations is low, there is a high level of morbidity especially with stonefish and other stinging fish envenomations. Some envenomations, however, are serious enough to require antivenom treatment and deaths still occasionally occur.

  4. Dependence of nitrite oxidation on nitrite and oxygen in low-oxygen seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Ji, Qixing; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite oxidation is an essential step in transformations of fixed nitrogen. The physiology of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) implies that the rates of nitrite oxidation should be controlled by concentration of their substrate, nitrite, and the terminal electron acceptor, oxygen. The sensitivities of nitrite oxidation to oxygen and nitrite concentrations were investigated using 15N tracer incubations in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Nitrite stimulated nitrite oxidation under low in situ nitrite conditions, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics, indicating that nitrite was the limiting substrate. The nitrite half-saturation constant (Ks = 0.254 ± 0.161 μM) was 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than in cultivated NOB, indicating higher affinity of marine NOB for nitrite. The highest rates of nitrite oxidation were measured in the oxygen depleted zone (ODZ), and were partially inhibited by additions of oxygen. This oxygen sensitivity suggests that ODZ specialist NOB, adapted to low-oxygen conditions, are responsible for apparently anaerobic nitrite oxidation.

  5. 14. From left to right: steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. From left to right: steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, Boiler Room, and Compressor Room, east side; Pier #4 can be seen extending from center of building. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  6. Compact Water Jet Propulsion System for a Marine Vehicle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The invention is directed to an improved water jet propulsion system for a marine vehicle. The water jet propulsion system of the present invention...the vehicle hull and extending internally thereof, a water jet pump having an inlet end attached to the outlet end of the inlet duct, a motor for

  7. Atomic oxygen reactor having at least one sidearm conduit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for treating a microporous structure with atomic oxygen is presented. The apparatus includes a main gas chamber for flowing gas in an axial direction and a source of gas, containing atomic oxygen, connected for introducing the gas into the main gas chamber. The apparatus employs at least one side arm extending from the main atomic oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  8. Interannual variability of Dissolved Oxygen values around the Balearic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbín, R.; Aparicio, A.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Flexas, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Periodic movements of the trawl fishing fleet at Mallorca Island suggest a seasonal variability of the demersal resources, associated with hydrodynamic variability. The area where these commercial fisheries operate extends from the north to the southeast of Mallorca channel, between Mallorca and Ibiza Islands. It is thus affected by the different hydrodynamic conditions of the two sub-basins of the western Mediterranean (the Balearic and the Algerian sub-basins), with different geomorphologic and hydrodynamic characteristics. To characterize this hydrodynamic variability, hydrographic data collected around the Balearic Islands since 2001 with CTDs were analized [1]. Hydrographic parameters were processed according to the standard protocols. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was calibrated onboard using the winkler method. Temperature and salinity were used to characterize the different water masses. At the Western Mediterranean, the maximum values of DO in the water column are observed in the sur- face waters during winter (> 6.0 ml /l), when these water in contact with the atmosphere absorb large amount of oxygen, favored by low winter temperatures and notable turbulence. Later in the spring, the gradual increase of temperature, and the beginning of stratification and biological activity, lead to a decrease of oxygen concentration mainly in surface waters. During summer, these values continue to reduce in the surface mixed layer. Below it, and due to the biological activity, an increase is observed, giving rise to the absolute maximum of this parameter (> 6.5 ml /l). During autumn, the atmospheric forcing breaks the stratification producing a homogenization of surface water. At this moment, DO shows intermediate values. Below the surface waters, about 200 m, a relative maximum corresponding to the seasonal Winter Intermediate Waters (WIW) can be observed. Intermediate waters, between 400 and 600 m, reveal an oxygen minimum (4.0 ml /l) associated to the Levantine Intermediate

  9. Coping with cyclic oxygen availability: evolutionary aspects.

    PubMed

    Flück, Martin; Webster, Keith A; Graham, Jeffrey; Giomi, Folco; Gerlach, Frank; Schmitz, Anke

    2007-10-01

    Both the gradual rise in atmospheric oxygen over the Proterozoic Eon as well as episodic fluctuations in oxygen over several million-year time spans during the Phanerozoic Era, have arguably exerted strong selective forces on cellular and organismic respiratory specialization and evolution. The rise in atmospheric oxygen, some 2 billion years after the origin of life, dramatically altered cell biology and set the stage for the appearance of multicelluar life forms in the Vendian (Ediacaran) Period of the Neoproterozoic Era. Over much of the Paleozoic, the level of oxygen in the atmosphere was near the present atmospheric level (21%). In the Late Paleozoic, however, there were extended times during which the level of atmospheric oxygen was either markedly lower or markedly higher than 21%. That these Paleozoic shifts in atmospheric oxygen affected the biota is suggested by the correlations between: (1) Reduced oxygen and the occurrences of extinctions, a lowered biodiversity and shifts in phyletic succession, and (2) During hyperoxia, the corresponding occurrence of phenomena such as arthropod gigantism, the origin of insect flight, and the evolution of vertebrate terrestriality. Basic similarities in features of adaptation to hyopoxia, manifest in living organisms at levels ranging from genetic and cellular to physiological and behavioral, suggest the common and early origin of a suite of adaptive mechanisms responsive to fluctuations in ambient oxygen. Comparative integrative approaches addressing the molecular bases of phenotypic adjustments to cyclic oxygen fluctuation provide broad insight into the incremental steps leading to the early evolution of homeostatic respiratory mechanisms and to the specialization of organismic respiratory function.

  10. Computer image processing in marine resource exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paluzzi, P. R.; Normark, W. R.; Hess, G. R.; Hess, H. D.; Cruickshank, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    Pictographic data or imagery is commonly used in marine exploration. Pre-existing image processing techniques (software) similar to those used on imagery obtained from unmanned planetary exploration were used to improve marine photography and side-scan sonar imagery. Features and details not visible by conventional photo processing methods were enhanced by filtering and noise removal on selected deep-sea photographs. Information gained near the periphery of photographs allows improved interpretation and facilitates construction of bottom mosaics where overlapping frames are available. Similar processing techniques were applied to side-scan sonar imagery, including corrections for slant range distortion, and along-track scale changes. The use of digital data processing and storage techniques greatly extends the quantity of information that can be handled, stored, and processed.

  11. The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite species and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Inigo A.; Brunner, Benjamin; Breuer, Christian; Coleman, Max; Bach, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Sulfite is an important sulfoxy intermediate in oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling in the marine and terrestrial environment. Different aqueous sulfite species exist, such as dissolved sulfur dioxide (SO2), bisulfite (HSO3-), pyrosulfite (S2O52-) and sulfite sensu stricto (SO32-), whereas their relative abundance in solution depends on the concentration and the pH. Conversion of one species into another is rapid and involves in many cases incorporation of oxygen from, or release of oxygen to, water (e.g. SO2 + H2O ↔ HSO3- + H+), resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite species and water. Consequently, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfite is strongly influenced by the oxygen isotope composition of water. Since sulfate does not exchange oxygen isotopes with water under most earth surface conditions, it can preserve the sulfite oxygen isotope signature that it inherits via oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling. Therefore, interpretation of δO values strongly hinges on the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water which is poorly constrained. This is in large part due to technical difficulties in extraction of sulfite from solution for oxygen isotope analysis.

  12. Late Archean biospheric oxygenation and atmospheric evolution.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Alan J; Johnston, David T; Farquhar, James; Masterson, Andrew L; Lyons, Timothy W; Bates, Steve; Anbar, Ariel D; Arnold, Gail L; Garvin, Jessica; Buick, Roger

    2007-09-28

    High-resolution geochemical analyses of organic-rich shale and carbonate through the 2500 million-year-old Mount McRae Shale in the Hamersley Basin of northwestern Australia record changes in both the oxidation state of the surface ocean and the atmospheric composition. The Mount McRae record of sulfur isotopes captures the widespread and possibly permanent activation of the oxidative sulfur cycle for perhaps the first time in Earth's history. The correlation of the time-series sulfur isotope signals in northwestern Australia with equivalent strata from South Africa suggests that changes in the exogenic sulfur cycle recorded in marine sediments were global in scope and were linked to atmospheric evolution. The data suggest that oxygenation of the surface ocean preceded pervasive and persistent atmospheric oxygenation by 50 million years or more.

  13. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  14. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  15. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  16. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  17. Oxygen, a paradoxical element?

    PubMed

    Greabu, Maria; Battino, M; Mohora, Maria; Olinescu, R; Totan, Alexandra; Didilescu, Andreea

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen is an essential element for life on earth. No life may exist without oxygen. But in the last forty years, conclusive evidence demonstrated the double-edge sword of this element. In certain conditions, oxygen may produce reactive species, even free radicals. More, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) takes place everywhere: in air, nature or inside human bodies. The paradox of oxygen atom is entirely due to its peculiar electronic structure. But life began on earth, only when nature found efficient weapons against ROS, these antioxidants, which all creatures are extensibly endowed with. The consequences of oxygen activation in human bodies are only partly known, in spite of extensive scientific research on theoretical, experimental and clinical domains.

  18. 75 FR 81233 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Marine Recreational Management Area. Russian River State Marine Conservation Area. Bodega Head State Marine Reserve. Bodega Head State Marine Conservation Area. Estero Americano State Marine Recreational...

  19. Central Equipment Facility for Molecular Marine Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-07

    used. Projects supported include marine symbiosis (Haygood, Felback), cell biology (Vacquier), pressure adaptation in marine bacteria (Bartlett), population genetics and evolution of marine organisms (Perrin, Newman).

  20. Oxygen therapy for COPD.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christine F

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability and death globally, characterised by progressive breathlessness, loss of function and, in its later stages, chronic hypoxaemia. Long-term continuous oxygen therapy increases life expectancy in patients with severe resting hypoxaemia. However, there are few data to support the use of oxygen in patients with only mild hypoxaemia and more research is required to determine any benefits of oxygen supplementation in COPD in such individuals.

  1. Atomic Oxygen Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.

  2. Oxygen concentrators: a primary oxygen supply source.

    PubMed

    Friesen, R M; Raber, M B; Reimer, D H

    1999-12-01

    Efforts to harmonize the standards of the CSA and the ISO, as they relate to compressed medical gas supply and piping, prompted us to review ten years experience with oxygen concentrators (OCs) in Canada used as a primary hospital oxygen supply. The goals of this study were; 1) To document the number of Canadian OC Hospital sites, 2) to define what impact these units have had on medical practice and patient care, and 3) to explore trends in oxygen costing and utilization at the study sites. Following a four part mail survey and telephone follow up, site surveys were conducted for all hospitals utilizing an OC. Installation and service records, operating costs, amortization detail, leasing records as well as patient safety were all detailed. Forty eight of 52 Canadian hospitals utilizing an OC participated. Clinical activity at the surveyed sites of 1996 included 30,642 surgical operations, 9,415 intensive care bed days and 364,529 emergency room visits. The cumulative survey represents 1,026,819 hr of OC operation. During a 24 hr day, OCs operate 55 +/- 3% of the time. Financial analysis was validated at 43 of the 48 hospital sites. During the study the unit cost of oxygen was reduced by 62% (P <.0001). An annual increase in oxygen consumption of 11.5 +/- 2% was documented (P <.0001). No patient care critical incidents related to OCs were reported. An OC installation which is CAN/CSA Z305.6-M92 compliant provides a safe, reliable, cost efficient primary hospital source of oxygen.

  3. Channels of oxygen diffusion in single crystal rubrene revealed.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robert J; Bennett, Thomas; Fearn, Sarah; Kamaludin, Muhammad; Kloc, Christian; McPhail, David S; Mitrofanov, Oleg; Curson, Neil J

    2016-11-30

    Electronic devices made from organic materials have the potential to support a more ecologically friendly and affordable future. However, the ability to fabricate devices with well-defined and reproducible electrical and optical properties is hindered by the sensitivity to the presence of chemical impurities. Oxygen in particular is an impurity that can trap electrons and modify conductive properties of some organic materials. Until now the 3-dimensional profiling of oxygen species in organic semiconductors has been elusive and the effect of oxygen remains disputed. In this study we map out high-spatial resolution 3-dimensional distributions of oxygen inclusions near the surface of single crystal rubrene, using Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). Channels of diffused oxygen are found extending from uniform oxygen inclusion layers at the surface. These channels extend to depths in excess of 1.8 μm and act as an entry point for oxygen to diffuse along the ab-plane of the crystal with at least some of the diffused oxygen molecularly binding to rubrene. Our investigation of surfaces at different stages of evolution reveals the extent of oxygen inclusion, which affects rubrene's optical and transport properties, and is consequently of importance for the reliability and longevity of devices.

  4. Oxygen production by pyrolysis of lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, Constance L.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen was identified as the most important product of initial lunar materials processing efforts. A source of oxygen on the Moon provides an alternative to the costly transport of propellant to the Moon or to low earth orbit. Pyrolysis, or vapor-phase reduction, involves heating a feedstock to temperatures sufficient to decompose the constituent metal oxides and release oxygen. The process relies on the vaporization of metal oxides in the form of reduced suboxides or atomic species. The reduced species must then be condensed without re-oxidizing, yielding oxygen in the gas phase. The feasibility of obtaining oxygen from common lunar minerals was demonstrated using solar furnace experiments. These results are discussed together with chemical equilibrium models which were extended to include the multicomponent oxides used in experiments. For the first time, both experiments and theoretical models dealt with the complex oxides that make up potential lunar feedstocks. Two major conclusions are drawn from this preliminary work. First, unbeneficiated regolith is a suitable feedstock for pyrolysis. Second, the process can operate at moderate temperatures, circa 2000 K, which could be supplied by direct solar or electrical energy. In addition to these advantages in choice of feedstock and energy source, the pyrolysis process requires no chemicals or reagents, making it an attractive process for lunar oxygen production.

  5. Oxygen production by pyrolysis of lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, Constance L.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen was identified as the most important product of initial lunar materials processing efforts. A source of oxygen on the Moon provides an alternative to the costly transport of propellant to the Moon or to low earth orbit. Pyrolysis, or vapor-phase reduction, involves heating a feedstock to temperatures sufficient to decompose the constituent metal oxides and release oxygen. The process relies on the vaporization of metal oxides in the form of reduced suboxides or atomic species. The reduced species must then be condensed without re-oxidizing, yielding oxygen in the gas phase. The feasibility of obtaining oxygen from common lunar minerals was demonstrated using solar furnace experiments. These results are discussed together with chemical equilibrium models which were extended to include the multicomponent oxides used in experiments. For the first time, both experiments and theoretical models dealt with the complex oxides that make up potential lunar feedstocks. Two major conclusions are drawn from this preliminary work. First, unbeneficiated regolith is a suitable feedstock for pyrolysis. Second, the process can operate at moderate temperatures, circa 2000 K, which could be supplied by direct solar or electrical energy. In addition to these advantages in choice of feedstock and energy source, the pyrolysis process requires no chemicals or reagents, making it an attractive process for lunar oxygen production.

  6. Iron Utilization in Marine Cyanobacteria and Eukaryotic Algae

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Joe; Bowler, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Iron is essential for aerobic organisms. Additionally, photosynthetic organisms must maintain the iron-rich photosynthetic electron transport chain, which likely evolved in the iron-replete Proterozoic ocean. The subsequent rise in oxygen since those times has drastically decreased the levels of bioavailable iron, indicating that adaptations have been made to maintain sufficient cellular iron levels in the midst of scarcity. In combination with physiological studies, the recent sequencing of marine microorganism genomes and transcriptomes has begun to reveal the mechanisms of iron acquisition and utilization that allow marine microalgae to persist in iron limited environments. PMID:22408637

  7. Iron utilization in marine cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Joe; Bowler, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential for aerobic organisms. Additionally, photosynthetic organisms must maintain the iron-rich photosynthetic electron transport chain, which likely evolved in the iron-replete Proterozoic ocean. The subsequent rise in oxygen since those times has drastically decreased the levels of bioavailable iron, indicating that adaptations have been made to maintain sufficient cellular iron levels in the midst of scarcity. In combination with physiological studies, the recent sequencing of marine microorganism genomes and transcriptomes has begun to reveal the mechanisms of iron acquisition and utilization that allow marine microalgae to persist in iron limited environments.

  8. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  9. Monitoring Oxygen Status.

    PubMed

    Toffaletti, J G; Rackley, C R

    Although part of a common "blood gas" test panel with pH and pCO2, the pO2, %O2Hb, and related parameters are independently used to detect and monitor oxygen deficits from a variety of causes. Measurement of blood gases and cooximetry may be done by laboratory analyzers, point of care testing, noninvasive pulse oximetry, and transcutaneous blood gases. The specimen type and mode of monitoring oxygenation that are chosen may be based on a combination of urgency, practicality, clinical need, and therapeutic objectives. Because oxygen concentrations in blood are extremely labile, there are several highly important preanalytical practices necessary to prevent errors in oxygen and cooximetry results. Effective utilization of oxygen requires binding by hemoglobin in the lungs, transport in the blood, and release to tissues, where cellular respiration occurs. Hydrogen ion (pH), CO2, temperature, and 2,3-DPG all play important roles in these processes. Additional measurements and calculations are often used to interpret and locate the cause and source of an oxygen deficit. These include the Hb concentration, Alveolar-arterial pO2 gradient, pO2:FIO2 ratio, oxygenation index, O2 content and O2 delivery, and pulmonary dead space and intrapulmonary shunting. The causes of hypoxemia will be covered and, to illustrate how the oxygen parameters are used clinically in the diagnosis and management of patients with abnormal oxygenation, two clinical cases will be presented and described.

  10. Elastomer Compatible With Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jon W.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial rubber resists ignition on impact and seals at low temperatures. Filled fluoroelastomer called "Katiflex" developed for use in seals of vessels holding cold liquid and gaseous oxygen. New material more compatible with liquid oxygen than polytetrafluoroethylene. Provides dynamic seal at -196 degrees C with only 4 times seal stress required at room temperature. In contrast, conventional rubber seals burn or explode on impact in high-pressure oxygen, and turn hard or even brittle at liquid-oxygen temperatures, do not seal reliably, also see (MFS-28124).

  11. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  12. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  13. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  14. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments.

  15. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  17. New Optical Sensing Materials for Application in Marine Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, S.; Klimant, I.

    2012-04-01

    Optical chemosensors are versatile analytical tools which find application in numerous fields of science and technology. They proved to be a promising alternative to electrochemical methods and are applied increasingly often in marine research. However, not all state-of-the- art optical chemosensors are suitable for these demanding applications since they do not fully fulfil the requirements of high luminescence brightness, high chemical- and photochemical stability or their spectral properties are not adequate. Therefore, development of new advanced sensing materials is still of utmost importance. Here we present a set of novel optical sensing materials recently developed in the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry which are optimized for marine applications. Particularly, we present new NIR indicators and sensors for oxygen and pH which feature high brightness and low level of autofluorescence. The oxygen sensors rely on highly photostable metal complexes of benzoporphyrins and azabenzoporphyrins and enable several important applications such as simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and chlorophyll or ultra-fast oxygen monitoring (Eddy correlation). We also developed ulta-sensitive oxygen optodes which enable monitoring in nM range and are primary designed for investigation of oxygen minimum zones. The dynamic range of our new NIR pH indicators based on aza-BODIPY dyes is optimized for the marine environment. A highly sensitive NIR luminescent phosphor (chromium(III) doped yttrium aluminium borate) can be used for non-invasive temperature measurements. Notably, the oxygen, pH sensors and temperature sensors are fully compatible with the commercially available fiber-optic readers (Firesting from PyroScience). An optical CO2 sensor for marine applications employs novel diketopyrrolopyrrol indicators and enables ratiometric imaging using a CCD camera. Oxygen, pH and temperature sensors suitable for lifetime and ratiometric imaging of analytes

  18. Extended atmospheres of outer planet satellites and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, W. H.; Combi, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Model analysis of the extended atmospheres of outer planet satellites and comets are discussed. Understanding the neutral hydrogen distribution in the Saturn system concentrated on assessing the spatial dependence of the lifetime of hydrogen atoms and on obtaining appropriately sorted Lyman ALPHA data from the Voyager 1 UVS instrument. Progress in the area of the extended cometary atmospheres included analysis of Pioneer Venus Layman alpha observations of Comet P/Encke with the fully refined hydrogen cloud model, development of the basic carbon and oxygen models, and planning for the Pioneer Venus UVS observations of Comets P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley.

  19. Chamber For Testing Polymers In Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus holds polymer specimen at constant temperature while exposing it to oxygen plasma. Copper tube (part of cooling coil) extends into plasma chamber, supporting copper block and thermoelectric module on which specimen mounted. Copper block made small - 4.4 by 3.8 by 1.6 cm - having little effect on plasma. Used to evaluate resistances of polymer materials to plasma environments, and for analysis of gases produced by attack of plasma on polymer specimen.

  20. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen/oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Zurawski, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a unique monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant inlet temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of a catalytic igniter. The test results showed that the gaseous hydrogen/oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using both the granular and monolithic catalysts are presented. The capabilities of a facility constructed to conduct the igniter testing and the advantages of a catalytic igniter over other ignition systems for gaseous hydrogen and oxygen are also discussed.