Science.gov

Sample records for extended performance handheld

  1. EXTENDED PERFORMANCE HANDHELD AND MOBILE SENSORS FOR REMOTE DETECTION OF NATURAL GAS LEAKS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael B. Frish; B. David Green; Richard T. Wainner; Francesca Scire-Scappuzzo; Paul Cataldi; Matthew C. Laderer

    2005-05-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to advance the state-of-the-art of surveying for leaks of natural gas from transmission and distribution pipelines. The principal project goal was to develop means of deploying on an automotive platform an improved version of the handheld laser-based standoff natural gas leak detector previously developed by PSI and known as the Remote Methane Leak Detector or RMLD. A laser beam which interrogates the air for methane is projected from a spinning turret mounted upon a van. As the van travels forward, the laser beam scans an arc to the front and sides of the van so as to survey across streets and to building walls from a moving vehicle. When excess methane is detected within the arc, an alarm is activated. In this project, we built and tested a prototype Mobile RMLD (MRMLD) intended to provide lateral coverage of 10 m and one lateral scan for every meter of forward motion at forward speeds up to 10 m/s. Using advanced detection algorithms developed as part of this project, the early prototype MRMLD, installed on the back of a truck, readily detected simulated gas leaks of 50 liters per hour. As a supplement to the originally planned project, PSI also participated in a DoE demonstration of several gas leak detection systems at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) during September 2004. Using a handheld RMLD upgraded with the advanced detection algorithms developed in this project, from within a moving vehicle we readily detected leaks created along the 7.4 mile route of a virtual gas transmission pipeline.

  2. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C M; Koo, J C

    2001-01-10

    Gas chromatography is a prominent technique for separating complex gases and then analyzing the relative quantities of the separate components. This analytical technique is popular with scientists in a wide range of applications, including environmental restoration for air and water pollution, and chemical and biological analysis. Today the analytical instrumentation community is to working towards moving the analysis away from the laboratory to the point of origin of the sample (''the field'') to achieve real-time data collection and lower analysis costs. The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has developed a hand-held, real-time detection gas chromatograph (GC) through Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this GC is approximately 8 pounds, and it measures 8 inches by 5 inches by 3 inches. It consumes approximately 12 watts of electrical power and has a response time on the order of 2 minutes. The current detector is a glow discharge detector with a sensitivity of parts per billion. The average retention time is about 30 to 45 seconds. Under optimum conditions, the calculated effective plate number is 40,000. The separation column in the portable GC is fabricated completely on silicon wafers. Silicon is a good thermal conductor and provides rapid heating and cooling of the column. The operational temperature can be as high as 350 degrees Celsius. The GC system is capable of rapid column temperature ramping and cooling operations. These are especially important for organic and biological analyses in the GC applications.

  3. Turbulence degradation and mitigation performance for handheld weapon ID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinola, Richard L.; Aghera, Sameer; Thompson, Roger; Miller, Jason

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric turbulence can severely limit the range performance of state-of-the-art large aperture imaging sensor systems, specifically those intended for long range ground to ground target identification. Simple and cost-effective mitigation solutions which operate in real-time are desired. Software-based post-processing techniques are attractive as they lend themselves to easy implementation and integration into the back-end of existing sensor systems. Recently, various post-processing algorithms to mitigate turbulence have been developed and implemented in real-time hardware. To determine their utility in Army-relevant tactical scenarios, an assessment of the impact of the post processing on observer performance is required. In this paper, we test a set of representative turbulence mitigation algorithms on field collected data of human targets carrying various handheld objects in varying turbulence conditions. We use a controlled human perception test to assess handheld weapon identification performance before and after turbulence mitigation post-processing. In addition, novel image analysis tools are implemented to estimate turbulence strength from the scene. Results of this assessment will lead to recommendations on cost-effective turbulence mitigation strategies suitable for future sensor systems.

  4. Buried object detection using handheld WEMI with task-driven extended functions of multiple instances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Matthew; Zare, Alina; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Many effective supervised discriminative dictionary learning methods have been developed in the literature. However, when training these algorithms, precise ground-truth of the training data is required to provide very accurate point-wise labels. Yet, in many applications, accurate labels are not always feasible. This is especially true in the case of buried object detection in which the size of the objects are not consistent. In this paper, a new multiple instance dictionary learning algorithm for detecting buried objects using a handheld WEMI sensor is detailed. The new algorithm, Task Driven Extended Functions of Multiple Instances, can overcome data that does not have very precise point-wise labels and still learn a highly discriminative dictionary. Results are presented and discussed on measured WEMI data.

  5. LCD display screen performance testing for handheld thermal imaging cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinaburg, Joshua B.; Amon, Francine; Hamins, Anthony; Boynton, Paul

    2006-05-01

    Handheld thermal imaging cameras are an important tool for the first responder community. As their use becomes more prevalent, it will become important for a set of standard test metrics to be available to characterize the performance of these cameras. A major factor in the performance of the imagers is the quality of the image on a display screen. An imager may employ any type of display screen, but the results of this paper will focus on those using liquid crystal displays. First responders, especially firefighters, in the field rely on the performance of this screen to relay vital information during critical situations. Current research on thermal imaging camera performance metrics for first responder applications uses trained observer tests or camera composite output signal measurements. Trained observer tests are subjective and composite output tests do not evaluate the performance of the complete imaging system. It is the goal of this work to develop a non-nondestructive, objective method that tests the performance of the entire thermal imaging camera system, from the infrared destructive, sensor to the display screen. Application of existing display screen performance metrics to thermal imaging cameras requires additional consideration. Most display screen test metrics require a well defined electronic input, with either full black or white pixel input, often encompassing detailed spatial patterns and resolution. Well characterized thermal inputs must be used to obtain accurate, repeatable, and non-destructive display screen measurements for infrared cameras. For this work, a thermal target is used to correlate the measured camera output with the actual display luminance. A test method was developed to determine display screen luminance. A well characterized CCD camera and digital recording device were used to determine an electro-optical transfer function for thermal imaging cameras. This value directly relates the composite output signal to the luminance

  6. Performance of a 6-Degree-of-Freedom Active Microsurgical Manipulator in Handheld Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; Wells, Trent S.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first experimental results from human users of a new 6-degree-of-freedom handheld micromanipulator. This is the latest prototype of a fully-handheld system, known as “Micron,” which performs active compensation of hand tremor for microsurgery. The manipulator is a miniature Gough-Stewart platform incorporating linear ultrasonic motors that provide a cylindrical workspace 4 mm long and 4 mm wide. In addition, the platform allows the possibility of imposing a remote center of motion for controlling motion not only at the tip but also at the entry point in the sclera of the eye. We demonstrate hand tremor reduction in both static and dynamic micromanipulation tasks on a rubber pad. The handheld performance is also evaluated in an artificial eye model while imposing a remote center of motion. In all cases, hand tremor is significantly reduced. PMID:24111024

  7. Performance assessments of Android-powered military applications operating on tactical handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Brian A.; Fronczek, Lisa; Morse, Emile; Kootbally, Zeid; Schlenoff, Craig

    2013-05-01

    Transformative Apps (TransApps) is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded program whose goal is to develop a range of militarily-relevant software applications ("apps") to enhance the operational-effectiveness of military personnel on (and off) the battlefield. TransApps is also developing a military apps marketplace to facilitate rapid development and dissemination of applications to address user needs by connecting engaged communities of endusers with development groups. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) role in the TransApps program is to design and implement evaluation procedures to assess the performance of: 1) the various software applications, 2) software-hardware interactions, and 3) the supporting online application marketplace. Specifically, NIST is responsible for evaluating 50+ tactically-relevant applications operating on numerous Android™-powered platforms. NIST efforts include functional regression testing and quantitative performance testing. This paper discusses the evaluation methodologies employed to assess the performance of three key program elements: 1) handheld-based applications and their integration with various hardware platforms, 2) client-based applications and 3) network technologies operating on both the handheld and client systems along with their integration into the application marketplace. Handheld-based applications are assessed using a combination of utility and usability-based checklists and quantitative performance tests. Client-based applications are assessed to replicate current overseas disconnected (i.e. no network connectivity between handhelds) operations and to assess connected operations envisioned for later use. Finally, networked applications are assessed on handhelds to establish baselines of performance for when connectivity will be common usage.

  8. Driver performance while text messaging using handheld and in-vehicle systems.

    PubMed

    Owens, Justin M; McLaughlin, Shane B; Sudweeks, Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of driver performance while text messaging via handheld mobile phones and an in-vehicle texting system. Participants sent and received text messages while driving with an experimenter on a closed-road course, using their personal mobile phones and the vehicle's system. The test vehicle was an instrumented 2010 Mercury Mariner equipped with an OEM in-vehicle system that supports text messaging and voice control of mobile devices via Bluetooth, which was modified to allow text message sending during driving. Twenty participants were tested, 11 younger (19-34) and 9 older (39-51). All participants were regular users of the in-vehicle system, although none had experience with the texting functions. Results indicated that handheld text message sending and receiving resulted in higher mental demand, more frequent and longer glances away from the roadway, and degraded steering measures compared to baseline. Using the in-vehicle system to send messages showed less performance degradation, but still had more task-related interior glance time and higher mental demand than baseline; using the system's text-to-speech functionality for incoming messages showed no differences from baseline. These findings suggest that using handheld phones to send and receive text messages may interfere with drivers' visual and steering behaviors; the in-vehicle system showed improvement, but performance was not at baseline levels during message sending. PMID:21376886

  9. Jump Distance Increases while Carrying Handheld Weights: Impulse, History, and Jump Performance in a Simple Lab Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E. A.

    2004-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to provide an understanding of the mechanical concept of impulse as it applies to human movement and athletic performance. Students compare jumps performed with and without handheld weights. Contrary to initial expectation, jump distance is increased with moderate additional weights. This was familiar to…

  10. User-friendly tools on handheld devices for observer performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Hara, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Junji; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Abe, Hiroyuki; Matsusako, Masaki; Yamada, Akira; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    ROC studies require complex procedures to select cases from many data samples, and to set confidence levels in each selected case to generate ROC curves. In some observer performance studies, researchers have to develop software with specific graphical user interface (GUI) to obtain confidence levels from readers. Because ROC studies could be designed for various clinical situations, it is difficult task for preparing software corresponding to every ROC studies. In this work, we have developed software for recording confidence levels during observer studies on tiny personal handheld devices such as iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. To confirm the functions of our software, three radiologists performed observer studies to detect lung nodules by using public database of chest radiograms published by Japan Society of Radiological Technology. The output in text format conformed to the format for the famous ROC kit from the University of Chicago. Times required for the reading each case was recorded very precisely.

  11. Applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld spectrometer to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage materials.

    PubMed

    Arrizabalaga, Iker; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Aramendia, Julene; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-14

    This work studies the applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld device to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage assets. This portable diffuse reflectance spectrometer has been used to characterise and diagnose the conservation state of (a) building materials of the Guevara Palace (15th century, Segura, Basque Country, Spain) and (b) different 19th century wallpapers manufactured by the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain) and by the well known Dufour and Leroy manufacturers (Paris, France), all of them belonging to the Torre de los Varona Castle (Villanañe, Basque Country, Spain). In all cases, in situ measurements were carried out and also a few samples were collected and measured in the laboratory by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT) in order to validate the information obtained by the handheld instrument. In the analyses performed in situ, distortions in the diffuse reflectance spectra can be observed due to the presence of specular reflection, showing the inverted bands caused by the Reststrahlen effect, in particular on those IR bands with the highest absorption coefficients. This paper concludes that the results obtained in situ by a diffuse reflectance handheld device are comparable to those obtained with laboratory diffuse reflectance spectroscopy equipment and proposes a few guidelines to acquire good spectra in the field, minimising the influence caused by the specular reflection.

  12. Extended performance technology study 30-cm thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The extended performance technology study was an investigation of advanced discharge chambers and thruster components that were designed to operate under conditions which result in an increase in the thrust and thrust to power ratio of the state of the art J-series thruster. The high level of performance was achieved by a discharge chamber that employs a ring cusp magnetic confinement arrangement and a three grid ion extraction assembly. It is shown that the ring cusp magnetic field geometry confines the plasma to the volume immediately adjacent to the ion extraction assembly. A high emission current hollow cathode that demonstrated operation at an emission current as high as J sub E = 40 A, and measurements which show the breakdown voltage of individual sections of the J-series propellant flow electrical isolator is about 340 V per section are investigated.

  13. Extended Performance 8-cm Mercury Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A slightly modified 8-cm Hg ion thruster demonstrated significant increase in performance. Thrust was increased by almost a factor of five over that of the baseline thruster. Thruster operation with various three grid ion optics configurations; thruster performance as a function of accelerator grid open area, cathode baffle, and cathode orifice size; and a life test of 614 hours at a beam current of 250 mA (17.5 mN thrust) are discussed. Highest thruster efficiency was obtained with the smallest open area accelerator grid. The benefits in efficiency from the low neutral loss grids were mitigated, however, by the limitation such grids place on attainable ion beam current densities. The thruster components suffered negligible weight losses during a life test, which indicated that operation of the 8-cm thruster at extended levels of thrust and power is possible with no significant loss of lifetime.

  14. Handheld Searchlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Streamlite Inc. reengineered the NASA searchlight for commercial use. The brightest hand-held light yet produced is result of Xenon-arc lights developed as solar simulators at Johnson Space Center. Intense battery powered searchlight is rated a million candlepower - 50 times brighter than high beam headlights of a car, and weighs only 7 pounds. Lifetime of xenon lamp is at least 200 hours at maximum intensity. Retail cost is under $400.00. Company has introduced smaller unit in shape of a flashlight, produces 20,000 candlepower and costs approximately $60.00.

  15. Design, construction and performance of a portable handheld electrohydrodynamic multi-needle spray gun for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sofokleous, Panagiotis; Stride, Eleanor; Bonfield, William; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) processing has attracted substantial interest in the technological and pharmaceutical sectors in recent years. Given the complexity of the process, exploring new ideas for EHD electrospraying and electrospinning delivery is a challenge. In this article, the design, construction and testing of a portable handheld EHD multi-needle device are described to produce multifunctional particles and fibers. Solid and encapsulated polymer particles and fibers were generated in order to study the performance of the device. The intrinsic properties of the feed solution/suspension and the processing conditions were adjusted to ensure robustness of the process and give uniform and reproducible products, with diameters ranging from the sub-micrometer scale to a few micrometers. These products have a broad range of applications in many advanced industrial sectors e.g. drug delivery systems, wound dressing patches, low calorie food products and cosmetics. PMID:25428065

  16. Extended Driving Impairs Nocturnal Driving Performances

    PubMed Central

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Bayon, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3–5am, 1–5am and 9pm–5am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [±SD] = 23.4 [±1.7] years) participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC) in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3–5am) driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05) for the intermediate (1–5am) driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001) for the long (9pm–5am) driving session. Compared to the reference session (9–10pm), the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001), 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001) and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001), respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05) and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01). At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited. PMID:18941525

  17. Handheld computers in critical care

    PubMed Central

    Lapinsky, Stephen E; Weshler, Jason; Mehta, Sangeeta; Varkul, Mark; Hallett, Dave; Stewart, Thomas E

    2001-01-01

    Background Computing technology has the potential to improve health care management but is often underutilized. Handheld computers are versatile and relatively inexpensive, bringing the benefits of computers to the bedside. We evaluated the role of this technology for managing patient data and accessing medical reference information, in an academic intensive-care unit (ICU). Methods Palm III series handheld devices were given to the ICU team, each installed with medical reference information, schedules, and contact numbers. Users underwent a 1-hour training session introducing the hardware and software. Various patient data management applications were assessed during the study period. Qualitative assessment of the benefits, drawbacks, and suggestions was performed by an independent company, using focus groups. An objective comparison between a paper and electronic handheld textbook was achieved using clinical scenario tests. Results During the 6-month study period, the 20 physicians and 6 paramedical staff who used the handheld devices found them convenient and functional but suggested more comprehensive training and improved search facilities. Comparison of the handheld computer with the conventional paper text revealed equivalence. Access to computerized patient information improved communication, particularly with regard to long-stay patients, but changes to the software and the process were suggested. Conclusions The introduction of this technology was well received despite differences in users' familiarity with the devices. Handheld computers have potential in the ICU, but systems need to be developed specifically for the critical-care environment. PMID:11511337

  18. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  19. The Viable Alternative: Handhelds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the advantages of the use of handheld computers in schools. Emphasizes cost savings, increased access, and appropriateness. Asserts that handhelds will have more impact on teaching and learning than the Internet. (PKP)

  20. Performance, Accuracy, Data Delivery, and Feedback Methods in Order Selection: A Comparison of Voice, Handheld, and Paper Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Goomas, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Field study was conducted in auto-parts after-market distribution centers where selectors used handheld computers to receive instructions and feedback about their product selection process. A wireless voice-interaction technology was then implemented in a multiple baseline fashion across three departments of a warehouse (N = 14) and was associated…

  1. A Scaffolding Strategy to Develop Handheld Sensor-Based Vocabulary Games for Improving Students' Learning Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is the foundation for students who learn a foreign language. Nevertheless, students may be bored by the painstaking process of rote learning. To this end, this study designed a handheld sensor-based vocabulary game based on a scaffolding strategy for improving students' motivation and achievement in vocabulary learning. On the one hand,…

  2. Handheld Universal Diagnostic Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The rHEALTH technology is designed to shrink an entire hospital testing laboratory onto a handheld device. A physician or healthcare provider performs the test by collecting a fingerstick of blood from a patient. The tiny volume of blood is inserted into the rHEALTH device. Inside the device is a microfluidic chip that contains small channels about the width of a human hair. These channels help move the blood and analyze the blood sample. The rHEALTH sensor uses proprietary reagents called nanostrips, which are nanoscale test strips that enable the clinical assays. The readout is performed by laser-induced fluorescence. Overall, the time from blood collection through analysis is less than a minute.

  3. Performance of a Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) System equipped with 2D vs. 3D Handheld Probes for Potential Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Neuschmelting, Volker; Burton, Neal C.; Lockau, Hannah; Urich, Alexander; Harmsen, Stefan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Kircher, Moritz F.

    2015-01-01

    A handheld approach to optoacoustic imaging is essential for the clinical translation. The first 2- and 3-dimensional handheld multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) probes featuring real-time unmixing have recently been developed. Imaging performance of both probes was determined in vitro and in a brain melanoma metastasis mouse model in vivo. T1-weighted MR images were acquired for anatomical reference. The limit of detection of melanoma cells in vitro was significantly lower using the 2D than the 3D probe. The signal decrease was more profound in relation to depth with the 3D versus the 2D probe. Both approaches were capable of imaging the melanoma tumors qualitatively at all time points. Quantitatively, the 2D approach enabled closer anatomical resemblance of the tumor compared to the 3D probe, particularly at depths beyond 3 mm. The 3D probe was shown to be superior for rapid 3D imaging and, thus, holds promise for more superficial target structures. PMID:27069872

  4. Performance map of a cluster detection test using extended power

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional power studies possess limited ability to assess the performance of cluster detection tests. In particular, they cannot evaluate the accuracy of the cluster location, which is essential in such assessments. Furthermore, they usually estimate power for one or a few particular alternative hypotheses and thus cannot assess performance over an entire region. Takahashi and Tango developed the concept of extended power that indicates both the rate of null hypothesis rejection and the accuracy of the cluster location. We propose a systematic assessment method, using here extended power, to produce a map showing the performance of cluster detection tests over an entire region. Methods To explore the behavior of a cluster detection test on identical cluster types at any possible location, we successively applied four different spatial and epidemiological parameters. These parameters determined four cluster collections, each covering the entire study region. We simulated 1,000 datasets for each cluster and analyzed them with Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic. From the area under the extended power curve, we constructed a map for each parameter set showing the performance of the test across the entire region. Results Consistent with previous studies, the performance of the spatial scan statistic increased with the baseline incidence of disease, the size of the at-risk population and the strength of the cluster (i.e., the relative risk). Performance was heterogeneous, however, even for very similar clusters (i.e., similar with respect to the aforementioned factors), suggesting the influence of other factors. Conclusions The area under the extended power curve is a single measure of performance and, although needing further exploration, it is suitable to conduct a systematic spatial evaluation of performance. The performance map we propose enables epidemiologists to assess cluster detection tests across an entire study region. PMID:24156765

  5. Toward Extending the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment to Cued Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Jean C.; Kegl, Judy A.; Schick, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    The Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA) is as an important research tool for examining the quality of interpreters who use American Sign Language or a sign system in classroom settings, but it is not currently applicable to educational interpreters who use Cued Speech (CS). In order to determine the feasibility of extending the…

  6. Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers as a Replacement for Halon 1211 on Civilian Transport Category Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Harry

    2002-08-01

    One or more Halon 1211 hand-held fire extinguishers are specified in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer and production of new Halon 1211 has been halted per the Montreal Protocol in 1993. The phase out of Halon 1211, as the hand-held firefighting agent of choice, for civilian transport category aircraft has necessitated the development of a Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) to evaluate replacement agents. The purpose of the MPS is to insure that there is no reduction in safety, both in terms of effectiveness in fighting onboard fires and toxicity to the passengers and crew. The MPS specifies two new tests that replacement agents must pass in addition to requiring national certifications such as provided by Underwriters Laboratories. The first test evaluates the "flooding" characteristics of the agent against a hidden in-flight fire. This test determines the ability of a streaming agent to function as a flooding agent. The second test evaluates the performance of the agent in fighting a terrorist fire scenario and the associated toxicity hazard. This test measures the agent's ability to extinguish a triple-seat fire in an aircraft cabin under in-flight conditions and the toxicity characteristics of both the neat agent and the products of decomposition. This MPS will insure that the replacement agents will meet or exceed the performance of Halon 1211 both in fighting fires and maintaining a safe breathing environment in aircraft cabins.

  7. Handheld ultrasound array imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Juin-Jet; Quistgaard, Jens

    1999-06-01

    A handheld ultrasound imaging device, one that weighs less than five pounds, has been developed for diagnosing trauma in the combat battlefield as well as a variety of commercial mobile diagnostic applications. This handheld device consists of four component ASICs, each is designed using the state of the art microelectronics technologies. These ASICs are integrated with a convex array transducer to allow high quality imaging of soft tissues and blood flow in real time. The device is designed to be battery driven or ac powered with built-in image storage and cineloop playback capability. Design methodologies of a handheld device are fundamentally different to those of a cart-based system. As system architecture, signal and image processing algorithm as well as image control circuit and software in this device is deigned suitably for large-scale integration, the image performance of this device is designed to be adequate to the intent applications. To elongate the battery life, low power design rules and power management circuits are incorporated in the design of each component ASIC. The performance of the prototype device is currently being evaluated for various applications such as a primary image screening tool, fetal imaging in Obstetrics, foreign object detection and wound assessment for emergency care, etc.

  8. Pyxis handheld polarimetric imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenault, David B.; Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Vaden, Justin P.

    2016-05-01

    The instrumentation for measuring infrared polarization signatures has seen significant advancement over the last decade. Previous work has shown the value of polarimetric imagery for a variety of target detection scenarios including detection of manmade targets in clutter and detection of ground and maritime targets while recent work has shown improvements in contrast for aircraft detection and biometric markers. These data collection activities have generally used laboratory or prototype systems with limitations on the allowable amount of target motion or the sensor platform and usually require an attached computer for data acquisition and processing. Still, performance and sensitivity have been steadily getting better while size, weight, and power requirements have been getting smaller enabling polarimetric imaging for a greater or real world applications. In this paper, we describe Pyxis®, a microbolometer based imaging polarimeter that produces live polarimetric video of conventional, polarimetric, and fused image products. A polarization microgrid array integrated in the optical system captures all polarization states simultaneously and makes the system immune to motion artifacts of either the sensor or the scene. The system is battery operated, rugged, and weighs about a quarter pound, and can be helmet mounted or handheld. On board processing of polarization and fused image products enable the operator to see polarimetric signatures in real time. Both analog and digital outputs are possible with sensor control available through a tablet interface. A top level description of Pyxis® is given followed by performance characteristics and representative data.

  9. Extended temperature performance of 120 Gbps midboard optical engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelius, Joshua R.; Baumer, Aaron M.; Zbinden, Eric J.; Langsam, David P.; Verdiell, Jean-Marc A.; Kozlovsky, William J.; Hazell, John F.; Eichhorn, Catherine M.; Lutz, Sharon M.; Mitcheltree, Thomas J.

    2016-03-01

    Industrial and military requirements for optics dictate the ability to operate reliably over a myriad of extreme environmental conditions such as extended temperature, increased shock and vibration, high particulate environments, etc. While it is paramount that the transceiver be able to maintain performance over these extreme conditions, considerations for the optical interconnects in the signal path are often overlooked. In general, optical performance tends to degrade as the operating temperature drifts from nominal conditions. Likewise, optical connector performance degrades at higher shock and vibration levels. As a result, optical products are generally limited to operating at case temperatures between 0 °C - 70 °C and struggle at high shock and vibration levels. In this paper we demonstrate the performance of the Samtec 12 channel FireFlyTM at 10 Gbps, -40 °C and 85 °C case temperature coupled with the expanded beam MXCTM connector from US Conec. Optical eye diagrams and receiver sensitivity for a link that includes 100 m of OM3 fiber, reliability results for transmitters operating at extended temperature, and shock and vibration data are presented.

  10. Miniaturized handheld hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huawen; Haibach, Frederick G.; Bergles, Eric; Qian, Jack; Zhang, Charlie; Yang, William

    2014-05-01

    A miniaturized hyperspectral imager is enabled with image sensor integrated with dispersing elements in a very compact form factor, removing the need for expensive, moving, bulky and complex optics that have been used in conventional hyperspectral imagers for decades. The result is a handheld spectral imager that can be installed on miniature UAV drones or conveyor belts in production lines. Eventually, small handhelds can be adapted for use in outpatient medical clinics for point-of-care diagnostics and other in-field applications.

  11. Medical, Psychophysiological, and Human Performance Problems During Extended EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: New Developments in the Assessment of the Risk of Decompression Sickness in Null Gravity During Extravehicular Activity; The Dynamic of Physiological Reactions of Cosmonauts Under the Influence of Repeated EVA Workouts, The Russian Experience; Medical Emergencies in Space; The Evolution from 'Physiological Adequacy' to 'Physiological Tuning'; Five Zones of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Conflicting Temperatures on the Human Body, Physiological Consequences; Human Performance and Subjective Perception in Nonuniform Thermal Conditions; The Hand as a Control System, Implications for Hand-Finger Dexterity During Extended EVA; and Understanding the Skill of Extravehicular Mass Handling.

  12. Extending the boundaries of family medicine to perform manual procedures.

    PubMed

    Bitterman, Haim; Vinker, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey by Menahem and colleagues revealed that 65% of the surveyed primary care physicians reported that they performed any minor surgical procedures, and 46% reported performance of any musculoskeletal injections. Lack of allocated time and lack of training were the main reported barriers confronting higher performance rates. Healthcare systems are shifting large chunks of traditional hospital-centered activities to competent and comprehensive community-based structures. These changes are very well aligned with key trends in modern consumerism that prefer a close to home availability of medical services. Minor surgical procedures and musculoskeletal injections are good examples of medical activities that had been performed mainly by hospital and community based specialists. The syllabus of specialty training in Family Medicine in Israel includes these skills and trainees should acquire them during the residency program. We estimate that hundreds of family physicians obtain different levels of such training. Yet, only few family physicians have allocated protected time for performance of the procedures. For the skilled physician, performance of such relatively simple procedures extends his professional boundaries and the comprehensiveness of his service. For the healthcare system the "extra effort" and investment needed for performance of minor surgical procedures in primary care clinics is small. The results of the present study reflect on wider issues of care delivery. This study highlights the need for formalized and documented training of family physicians together with allocation of managerial and technical requirements needed to encourage these and similar medically and economically justified endeavors that seem to be perfectly aligned with the wishes of healthcare consumers. PMID:25383180

  13. Toward Extending the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment to Cued Speech

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Jean C.; Kegl, Judy A.; Schick, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    The Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA) is as an important research tool for examining the quality of interpreters who use American Sign Language or a sign system in classroom settings, but it is not currently applicable to educational interpreters who use Cued Speech (CS). In order to determine the feasibility of extending the EIPA to include CS, a pilot EIPA test was developed and administered to 24 educational CS interpreters. Fifteen of the interpreters’ performances were evaluated two to three times in order to assess reliability. Results show that the instrument has good construct validity and test–retest reliability. Although more interrater reliability data are needed, intrarater reliability was quite high (0.9), suggesting that the pilot test can be rated as reliably as signing versions of the EIPA. Notably, only 48% of interpreters who formally participated in pilot testing performed at a level that could be considered minimally acceptable. In light of similar performance levels previously reported for interpreters who sign (e.g., Schick, Williams, & Kupermintz, 2006), these results suggest that interpreting services for deaf and hard-of hearing students, regardless of the communication option used, are often inadequate and could seriously hinder access to the classroom environment. PMID:18042791

  14. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cake, J. E.; Hawthorne, E. I.; Poeschel, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A thrust system design has been established for an extended performance technology, 6.4 kW, 4800 sec specific impulse ion thruster. The configuration is comprised of ten thrusters configured with a power management and control subsystem in a modular thrust system design. The system design approach is an adaptation of that previously established for the baseline technology 2.7 kW, 3000 sec specific impulse ion thruster. The power management and control subsystem design includes a combination of individual electronics for each thruster and a set of electronics with redundancy that are common to all thrusters. The thermal dissipation from all electronics is removed with a common heat pipe/radiator assembly.

  15. VALIDATION OF ANSI N42.34 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR HAND-HELD INSTRUMENTS FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RADIONUCLIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T.

    2014-09-03

    SRNL’s validation of ANSI N42.34-D6 for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) was performed utilizing one hand-held instrument (or RID) – the FLIR identiFINDER 2. Each section of the standard was evaluated via a walk-through or test. NOTE: In Table 1, W = walk-through and T = test, as directed by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). For a walk-through, the experiment was either setup or reviewed for setup; for a test, the N42.34-D6 procedures were followed with some exceptions and comments noted. SRNL is not fully able to evaluate a RID against Sections 7 (Environmental), 8 (Electromagnetic), and 9 (Mechanical) of N42.34, so those portions of this validation were done in collaboration with Qualtest, Inc. in Orlando, Florida. The walk-throughs and tests of Sections 7, 8, and 9 were performed in Qualtest, Inc. facilities with SRNL providing radiological sources as necessary. Where applicable, assessment results and findings of the walk-throughs and tests were recorded on datasheets and a validation summary is provided. A general comment pertained to test requirements found in another standard and referenced in N42.34-D6. For example, step 1 of the test method in section 8.1.2 states “RF test set up information can be found in IEC 61000-4-3.” It is recommended that any information from other standards necessary for conducting the tests within N42.34 should be posted in N42.34 for simplicity and to prevent the user from having to peruse other documents. Another general comment, as noted by Qualtest, is that a tolerance reference is not listed for each test in sections 7-9. Overall, the N42.34-D6 was proven to be practicable, but areas for improvement and recommendations were identified for consideration prior to final ballot submittal.

  16. Extendable chord rotors for helicopter performance improvement and envelope expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshlahjeh, Maryam

    A helicopter with a fixed geometry rotor, operating at a fixed rotational speed, performs sub-optimally over the vehicle’s flight envelope. On the other hand, if the rotor geometry and RPM can be varied from one flight condition to another, the aircraft performance can be substantially improved over the operating envelope. The geometry change considered in this study is the variation of rotor chord over a spanwise section of the blade. Simulations are based on a UH-60A Blackhawk helicopter with an effective chord increase of 20% realized by extending a Trailing-Edge Plate (TEP) through a slit in the trailing-edge between 63-83% blade span. Rigid and elastic blade models are studied. Since TEP extension changes the baseline SC-1094R8 airfoil profile, 2D aerodynamic coefficients of the modified profile from Navier-Stokes CFD calculations are used, coupled with 12x12 dynamic inflow and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model in the Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System (RCAS). From the simulations, reductions of up to nearly 18% in rotor power requirement are observed for operation at high gross weight and altitude. Further, increases of around 18 kts in maximum speed, 1,500 lbs in maximum gross weight capability, and 1,800 ft in maximum altitude are observed. Moreover, maneuvering flights can benefit from an extended chord. Required power for a steady level turn could be reduced nearly 7% at the maximum turn rate. Vibratory loads also reduce with TEP. Hub vertical shear, in-plane shear, and in-plane moment 4/rev component are reduced up to 47%, 29.6% and 51%, respectively, in a stall dominant condition. Furthermore, rotor speed variations of ±15% nominal RPM are considered in combination with TEP. Rotor speed reduction alone is most beneficial during low and light flight conditions. However, increasing rotor speed to 105% nominal RPM along with TEP offers additional 2,000 lbs payload capability, 5,000 ft gain in maximum altitude and up to 60 kts increase in

  17. An Accelerometer-Based Handheld System to Reduce Breaks in Performance of Young Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Lu, Zhi-Zhan

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training two individuals with cognitive impairments using a system that reduced breaks in performance. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their target…

  18. Detection performance assessment of hand-held mine detection systems in a procurement process: test set-up for MDs and MD/GPRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoolderman, Arnold J.; Roosenboom, Jacques H. J.

    2005-06-01

    The Engineers Centre of Expertise of the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA) has conducted a study on countermine in peace operations. This study, finished in 2002, concluded that the final solution to countermine will depend in the first place on better detection of buried low-metal mines, e.g. by direct detection of the explosive components in mines. Until such detection systems are available, intermediate solutions are necessary in order to assure freedom of movement in peace operations. Because countermine operations consist of a number of different activities (area preparation, detection, clearance, etc) and the suitability of the different types of available equipment depends on the scenario, the toolbox concept for countermine equipment was adopted. In 2003 a procurement process was started in order to fill this toolbox with commercial-off-the-shelf and military-off-the-shelf equipment. The paper gives a concise description of the study on countermine operations and the procurement process, and subsequently focuses on the set-up of the tests that were conducted in the framework of the procurement of hand-held mine detection systems, like metal detectors and dual-sensor mine detectors. Programs of requirements for these systems were drawn up, aiming at systems for general use and special purpose systems. Blind tests to check the compliancy to the detection performance requirements were designed and conducted in the short timeframe that was available in the procurement process. These tests are discussed in this paper, including the set-up of the test lanes, the targets used and their depths, and the role of the operator. The tests of the capability of the detectors to discriminate small targets adjacent to large targets were conducted according the guidelines of the CEN Workshop Agreement on metal detector tests. Although the results of the tests are commercially confidential, conclusions and lessons learned from the execution of these tests are presented.

  19. The Special Ways of Handhelds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulchak, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Handheld computers can leverage the power of technology to enable all students to succeed, including children with special education needs. They are cheaper than laptops, are more portable, and have more memory and power capabilities than handhelds possessed just five years ago. In this article, the author cites the various research he conducted…

  20. Cell Micromanipulation with an Active Handheld Micromanipulator

    PubMed Central

    Tabarés, Jaime Cuevas; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Ettensohn, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the use of an active handheld micromanipulator, known as Micron, for micromanipulation of cells. The device enables users to manipulate objects on the order of tens of microns in size, with the natural ease of use of a fully handheld tool. Micron senses its own position using a purpose-built microscale optical tracker, estimates the erroneous or undesired component of hand motion, and actively corrects it by deflecting its own tool tip using piezoelectric actuators. Benchtop experiments in tip positioning show that active compensation can reduce positioning error by up to 51% compared to unaided performance. Preliminary experiments in bisection of sea urchin embryos exhibit an increased success rate when performed with the help of Micron. PMID:21096452

  1. Handheld THz security imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duling, Irl N.

    2016-05-01

    Terahertz energy, with its ability to penetrate clothing and non-conductive materials, has held much promise in the area of security scanning. Millimeter wave systems (300 GHz and below) have been widely deployed. These systems have used full two-dimensional surface imaging, and have resulted in privacy concerns. Pulsed terahertz imaging, can detect the presence of unwanted objects without the need for two-dimensional photographic imaging. With high-speed waveform acquisition it is possible to create handheld tools that can be used to locate anomalies under clothing or headgear looking exclusively at either single point waveforms or cross-sectional images which do not pose a privacy concern. Identification of the anomaly to classify it as a potential threat or a benign object is also possible.

  2. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  3. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

    2001-02-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

  4. Writing performance assessments: how important is extended time?

    PubMed

    Crawford, Lindy; Helwig, Robert; Tindal, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Students in Grades 5 and 8 completed a 30-minute writing performance assessment and a writing performance assessment completed over 3 days. Assessments were evaluated on four traits (ideas, organization, conventions, and sentence fluency). A significant interaction was found at Grade 5 between length of time allotted for the assessment and students' educational classification (general or special education). Grade 5 students performed significantly better on the 3-day writing assessment, with students in special education benefiting the most. At Grade 8, there were no differences between scores on the 30-minute and the 3-day assessments. No significant differences were found in students' writing performance across various types of discourse (narrative, imaginative, persuasive, and expository); significant differences were reported across certain writing traits. We shared three hypotheses for reported differences: (a) students' proficiency with the writing process, (b) scoring scale bias, and (c) differences in the revision behaviors of developing and mature writers. Educational implications related to statewide test programs are discussed.

  5. Extending Our Understanding of Compliant Thermal Barrier Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demange, Jeffrey J.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize the flow of hot gases through interfaces and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components and systems. Although thermal barriers have been used extensively on many aerospace vehicles, the factors affecting their thermal and mechanical performance are not well-understood. Because of this, vehicle TPS designers are often left with little guidance on how to properly design and optimize these barriers. An ongoing effort to better understand thermal barrier performance and develop models and design tools is in progress at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing has been conducted to understand the degree to which insulation density influences structural performance and permeability. In addition, the development of both thermal and mechanical models is ongoing with the goal of providing an improved ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  6. Handheld Diffusion Test Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photo shows the Handheld Diffusion Test Cell (HH-DTC) apparatus flown on the Space Shuttle. Similar cells (inside the plastic box) will be used in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

  7. Handheld Diffusion Test Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photo shows an individual cell from the Handheld Diffusion Test Cell (HH-DTC) apparatus flown on the Space Shuttle. Similar cells will be used in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

  8. Seed vigour and crop establishment: extending performance beyond adaptation.

    PubMed

    Finch-Savage, W E; Bassel, G W

    2016-02-01

    Seeds are central to crop production, human nutrition, and food security. A key component of the performance of crop seeds is the complex trait of seed vigour. Crop yield and resource use efficiency depend on successful plant establishment in the field, and it is the vigour of seeds that defines their ability to germinate and establish seedlings rapidly, uniformly, and robustly across diverse environmental conditions. Improving vigour to enhance the critical and yield-defining stage of crop establishment remains a primary objective of the agricultural industry and the seed/breeding companies that support it. Our knowledge of the regulation of seed germination has developed greatly in recent times, yet understanding of the basis of variation in vigour and therefore seed performance during the establishment of crops remains limited. Here we consider seed vigour at an ecophysiological, molecular, and biomechanical level. We discuss how some seed characteristics that serve as adaptive responses to the natural environment are not suitable for agriculture. Past domestication has provided incremental improvements, but further actively directed change is required to produce seeds with the characteristics required both now and in the future. We discuss ways in which basic plant science could be applied to enhance seed performance in crop production. PMID:26585226

  9. Step length estimation using handheld inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Renaudin, Valérie; Susi, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user's step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor's signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand's motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  10. At Ease in the Handheld World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Eliot; Grohe, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Provides educational decision-makers with an overview of the offerings and issues related to adopting handheld computers. Describes several handheld products available to schools, including: Palm, iPAQ, Mindsurf, Symbol Technologies, Texas Instruments, and Gateway Handspring Visor. Compares handhelds to PCs, in terms of functionality, operating…

  11. Extended Time Accommodations and the Mathematics Performance of Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Parolin, Rosanne; Gordon, Michael; Codding, Robin S.

    2007-01-01

    Test accommodations such as extended time are presumed to reduce the impact of a disability, while not affecting test scores of the general population. This study examined the effects of an extended time (time and one-half) accommodation on the mathematics performance of fifth- to seventh-grade students with and without attention deficit…

  12. Hand-held medical robots.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  13. New Clothing for Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is influenced by many factors, trends, and social happenings. Much of what is worn today had utilitarian roots in the past. In the activitiy presented in this article, students will have the opportunity to redesign clothing for new trends, in this case, the explosion of handheld electronic devices.

  14. Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Jeon, Mansik; Chaney, Eric J; Stewart, Charles N; Boppart, Stephen A

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an advanced point-of-care diagnostic instrument for use in a primary care office using handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT). This system has the potential to enable earlier detection of diseases and accurate image-based diagnostics. Our system was designed to be compact, portable, user-friendly, and fast, making it well suited for the primary care office setting. The unique feature of our system is a versatile handheld OCT imaging scanner which consists of a pair of computer-controlled galvanometer-mounted mirrors, interchangeable lens mounts, and miniaturized video camera. This handheld scanner has the capability to guide the physician in real time for finding suspicious regions to be imaged by OCT. In order to evaluate the performance and use of the handheld OCT scanner, the anterior chamber of a rat eye and in vivo human retina, cornea, skin, and tympanic membrane were imaged. Based on this feasibility study, we believe that this new type of handheld OCT device and system has the potential to be an efficient point-of-care imaging tool in primary care medicine. PMID:21134801

  15. Handheld vibration effects shoulder motion.

    PubMed

    Tripp, B L; Eberman, L E; Dwelly, P M

    2009-12-01

    We explored effects of handheld vibration on glenohumeral motion in competitive overhead-throwing athletes. We used a randomized, blinded pre-test post-test cross-over design. Each arm of each subject experienced 2 conditions (1-control, 1-experimental), each with pre-test and post-test measures; the order of which was randomized. Participants included Division-I baseball and softball players (n=35: age=20+/-2 yr, height=178+/-9 cm, mass=84+/-12 kg, years of sport participation=13+/-4 yrs). During the experimental condition, participants held a vibrating (2.2 mm, 15 Hz, 20 s), 2.55 kg (5.62 lbs) Mini-VibraFlex dumbbell (Orthometric, New York, NY) in neutral glenohumeral rotation. During the control condition, participants held the still dumbbell (0 mm, 0 Hz, 20 s). Participants rested one min after each trial (3). We used a digital protractor to assess range of motion bilaterally, employing a standard technique for measuring maximal internal (IR) and external rotation (ER). Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that range of dominant IR increased 6.8% ( P=0.001, ES=0.16) after handheld vibration. Handheld vibration did not affect range of dominant ER ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.20), non-dominant IR ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.41), or non-dominant ER ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.05). Short bouts of handheld vibration increased dominant IR in collegiate baseball and softball athletes. These results suggest that handheld vibration may help maintain glenohumeral IR that is vital to the healthy and competitive throwing shoulder.

  16. Design of a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy handheld probe

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Sheng, Mingyu; Huang, Lin; Tang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system with handheld probe using femtosecond fiber laser. Here we present the detailed optical design and analysis of the handheld probe. The optical systems using Lightpath 352140 and 352150 as objective lens were analyzed. A custom objective module that includes Lightpath 355392 and two customized corrective lenses was designed. Their performances were compared by wavefront error, field curvature, astigmatism, F-θ error, and tolerance in Zemax simulation. Tolerance analysis predicted the focal spot size to be 1.13, 1.19 and 0.83 µm, respectively. Lightpath 352140 and 352150 were implemented in experiment and the measured lateral resolution was 1.22 and 1.3 µm, respectively, which matched with the prediction. MPM imaging by the handheld probe were conducted on leaf, fish scale and rat tail tendon. The MPM resolution can potentially be improved by the custom objective module.

  17. Design of a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy handheld probe

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Sheng, Mingyu; Huang, Lin; Tang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system with handheld probe using femtosecond fiber laser. Here we present the detailed optical design and analysis of the handheld probe. The optical systems using Lightpath 352140 and 352150 as objective lens were analyzed. A custom objective module that includes Lightpath 355392 and two customized corrective lenses was designed. Their performances were compared by wavefront error, field curvature, astigmatism, F-θ error, and tolerance in Zemax simulation. Tolerance analysis predicted the focal spot size to be 1.13, 1.19 and 0.83 µm, respectively. Lightpath 352140 and 352150 were implemented in experiment and the measured lateral resolution was 1.22 and 1.3 µm, respectively, which matched with the prediction. MPM imaging by the handheld probe were conducted on leaf, fish scale and rat tail tendon. The MPM resolution can potentially be improved by the custom objective module. PMID:27699109

  18. Performance status of a small robot-mounted or hand-held, solar-blind, standoff chemical, biological, and explosives (CBE) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, W. F.; Reid, R. D.; Bhartia, R.; Lane, A. L.

    2009-05-01

    Photon Systems and JPL are continuing development of a new technology robot-mounted or hand-held sensor for reagentless, short-range, standoff detection and identification of trace levels CBE materials on surfaces. This deep ultraviolet CBE sensor is the result of ongoing Army STTR and DTRA programs. The evolving 6 lb, 15W, lantern-size sensor can discriminate CBE from background clutter materials using a combination of deep UV excited resonance Raman (RR) and laser induced native fluorescence (LINF) emissions resulting from excitation by a new technology deep UV laser. Standoff excitation of suspicious packages, vehicles, persons, and other objects that may contain hazardous materials is accomplished using wavelengths below 250nm where RR and LINF emissions occupy distinctly different wavelength regions. This enables simultaneous detection of RR and LINF emissions with no spectral overlap or interference of LINF over RR or RR over LINF. The new eye-safe targeted ultraviolet chemical, biological, and explosives (TUCBE) sensor can detect and identify less than 1 μg/cm2 of explosives or 104 bacterial spores at 10 meters standoff, or 10 ng/cm2 of explosives or 102 bacterial spores/cm2 at 1 meter standoff. Detection and identification requires less than 1 ms and has a sample rate up to 20 Hz. Lower concentrations of contamination can be detected and identified as closer ranges and higher concentrations at longer ranges. The sensor is solar blind and can be operated in full daylight conditions as a result of excitation and detection in the deep UV and the use of a gated detection system.

  19. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration.

  20. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

  1. Multifunction piezoelectric transducers for handheld electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Richard R.

    2001-06-01

    This paper explains how a piezoelectric bimorph actuator may be used as a multifunction device in a handheld electronics product - replacing traditional buzzers, rotary motors, and voice coil speakers to supply tone alert, vibrating alert and loudspeaker functions in a single device. The first development hurdle was to establish performance metrics which could be used to compare the piezoelectric device to traditional technologies. Subjective user testing was combined with mathematical modeling to create design specifications. The next challenge was to establish design guidelines, since the device performance is integrally tied to the OEM housing design. Finally, new production testing methodologies were developed that would correlate stand-alone component performance with final system performance.

  2. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  3. Field results from a combined metal/GPR developmental handheld mine detector known as Balanced Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbondy, Kelly D.

    1996-05-01

    Realistic field evaluations on the performance of hand-held mine detectors has until recently been limited to large bulky commercial test equipment instrumental with a network analyzer and computer controls. The Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate's Mine Detection Branch has just recently successfully completed field performance evaluations of new hand-held sensors at the Close-In Man Portable Mine Detector (CIMMD) Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATD). Described in this paper will be one of the hand-held mine detector technologies evaluated at the CIMMD ATD and it's associated measured field performance results.

  4. The effects of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team-based performance.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, June J; Vander Wood, Melissa A; O'Connell, Kristina L

    2011-07-01

    Teamwork is becoming increasingly common in today's workplaces; however, little research has examined how well teams perform under sleep deprivation conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team performance. A total of 24 participants were sleep deprived for 30 h and completed 16 h of sustained operations during the last portion of the sleep deprivation period. The participants completed the Wombat, a complex task including vigilance and cognitive components, with a partner in four 24-min testing sessions during the sustained operations period. The results indicated that team performance increased during the work period while, within each testing session, team performance on vigilance tasks remained stable and overall performance decreased. The current results suggest that performance on two-person teams results in improved performance but does not fully counteract the decreases in performance within each work period. Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation.

  5. Visual SLAM for Handheld Monocular Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Grasa, Óscar G; Bernal, Ernesto; Casado, Santiago; Gil, Ismael; Montiel, J M M

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) methods provide real-time estimation of 3-D models from the sole input of a handheld camera, routinely in mobile robotics scenarios. Medical endoscopic sequences mimic a robotic scenario in which a handheld camera (monocular endoscope) moves along an unknown trajectory while observing an unknown cavity. However, the feasibility and accuracy of SLAM methods have not been extensively validated with human in vivo image sequences. In this work, we propose a monocular visual SLAM algorithm tailored to deal with medical image sequences in order to provide an up-to-scale 3-D map of the observed cavity and the endoscope trajectory at frame rate. The algorithm is validated over synthetic data and human in vivo sequences corresponding to 15 laparoscopic hernioplasties where accurate ground-truth distances are available. It can be concluded that the proposed procedure is: 1) noninvasive, because only a standard monocular endoscope and a surgical tool are used; 2) convenient, because only a hand-controlled exploratory motion is needed; 3) fast, because the algorithm provides the 3-D map and the trajectory in real time; 4) accurate, because it has been validated with respect to ground-truth; and 5) robust to inter-patient variability, because it has performed successfully over the validation sequences.

  6. Visual SLAM for Handheld Monocular Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Grasa, Óscar G; Bernal, Ernesto; Casado, Santiago; Gil, Ismael; Montiel, J M M

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) methods provide real-time estimation of 3-D models from the sole input of a handheld camera, routinely in mobile robotics scenarios. Medical endoscopic sequences mimic a robotic scenario in which a handheld camera (monocular endoscope) moves along an unknown trajectory while observing an unknown cavity. However, the feasibility and accuracy of SLAM methods have not been extensively validated with human in vivo image sequences. In this work, we propose a monocular visual SLAM algorithm tailored to deal with medical image sequences in order to provide an up-to-scale 3-D map of the observed cavity and the endoscope trajectory at frame rate. The algorithm is validated over synthetic data and human in vivo sequences corresponding to 15 laparoscopic hernioplasties where accurate ground-truth distances are available. It can be concluded that the proposed procedure is: 1) noninvasive, because only a standard monocular endoscope and a surgical tool are used; 2) convenient, because only a hand-controlled exploratory motion is needed; 3) fast, because the algorithm provides the 3-D map and the trajectory in real time; 4) accurate, because it has been validated with respect to ground-truth; and 5) robust to inter-patient variability, because it has performed successfully over the validation sequences. PMID:24107925

  7. Performance of Extended Local Clustering Organization (LCO) for Large Scale Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (JSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Yohko; Suzuki, Keiji

    This paper describes an approach to development of a solution algorithm of a general-purpose for large scale problems using “Local Clustering Organization (LCO)” as a new solution for Job-shop scheduling problem (JSP). Using a performance effective large scale scheduling in the study of usual LCO, a solving JSP keep stability induced better solution is examined. In this study for an improvement of a performance of a solution for JSP, processes to a optimization by LCO is examined, and a scheduling solution-structure is extended to a new solution-structure based on machine-division. A solving method introduced into effective local clustering for the solution-structure is proposed as an extended LCO. An extended LCO has an algorithm which improves scheduling evaluation efficiently by clustering of parallel search which extends over plural machines. A result verified by an application of extended LCO on various scale of problems proved to conduce to minimizing make-span and improving on the stable performance.

  8. School Reading Performance and the Extended School Day Policy in Florida. REL 2016-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Petscher, Yaacov; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Cooley, Stephan; Herrera, Sarah; Partridge, Mark; Smith, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Florida law requires the 100 lowest performing elementary schools in reading to extend the school day by one hour to provide supplemental reading instruction. This study found that those schools were smaller than other elementary schools and served a higher proportion of racial/ethnic minority students and students eligible for the school lunch…

  9. The Effects of Extended Time and Teacher Professional Development on Student Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Kenneth Brett

    2010-01-01

    This study researched a popularly used mathematics intervention, an extended time algebra class, and associated teacher professional development, to determine the effectiveness of this intervention on improving student mathematics performance. The study investigated whether providing additional time in class to struggling students along with…

  10. Real-time focal stack compositing for handheld mobile cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solh, Mashhour

    2013-03-01

    Extending the depth of field using a single lens camera on a mobile device can be achieved by capturing a set of images each focused at a different depth or focal stack then combine these samples of the focal stack to form a single all-in-focus image or an image refocused at a desired depth of field. Focal stack compositing in real time for a handheld mobile camera has many challenges including capturing, processing power, handshaking, rolling shutter artifacts, occlusion, and lens zoom effect. In this paper, we describe a system for a real time focal stack compositing system for handheld mobile device with an alignment and compositing algorithms. We will also show all-in-focus images captured and processed by a cell phone camera running on Android OS.

  11. SWATH Mass Spectrometry Performance Using Extended Peptide MS/MS Assay Libraries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jemma X; Song, Xiaomin; Pascovici, Dana; Zaw, Thiri; Care, Natasha; Krisp, Christoph; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-07-01

    The use of data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH for mass spectrometry based proteomics is usually performed with peptide MS/MS assay libraries which enable identification and quantitation of peptide peak areas. Reference assay libraries can be generated locally through information dependent acquisition, or obtained from community data repositories for commonly studied organisms. However, there have been no studies performed to systematically evaluate how locally generated or repository-based assay libraries affect SWATH performance for proteomic studies. To undertake this analysis, we developed a software workflow, SwathXtend, which generates extended peptide assay libraries by integration with a local seed library and delivers statistical analysis of SWATH-quantitative comparisons. We designed test samples using peptides from a yeast extract spiked into peptides from human K562 cell lysates at three different ratios to simulate protein abundance change comparisons. SWATH-MS performance was assessed using local and external assay libraries of varying complexities and proteome compositions. These experiments demonstrated that local seed libraries integrated with external assay libraries achieve better performance than local assay libraries alone, in terms of the number of identified peptides and proteins and the specificity to detect differentially abundant proteins. Our findings show that the performance of extended assay libraries is influenced by the MS/MS feature similarity of the seed and external libraries, while statistical analysis using multiple testing corrections increases the statistical rigor needed when searching against large extended assay libraries.

  12. Handheld advanced nucleic acid analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul; Hadley, Dean R.; Bodtker, Brian H.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Mariella, Raymond P., Jr.; Koopman, Ronald P.; Belgrader, Philip

    2000-12-01

    There is a growing need for portable, lightweight, battery operated instruments capable of detecting and identifying bio-warfare and bio-terrorism agents in the field. To address this need, we have developed a handheld PCR instrument. LLNLs advanced thermal cycling technology and expertise with portable, field tested biological instrumentation, combined with the development of real-time, fluorescence based PCR assays, has enabled the development of a very portable, versatile, power efficient PCR instrument with a simplified operating system designed for use by first responders. The heart of the instrument is the sample module, which incorporates the advanced silicon thermal cycler developed at LLNL.

  13. Data for Users of Handheld Ion Mobility Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Keith A. Daum; Sandra L. Fox

    2008-05-01

    Chemical detection technology end-user surveys conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in 2005 and 2007 indicated that first responders believed manufacturers’ claims for instruments sometimes were not supported in field applications, and instruments sometimes did not meet their actual needs. Based on these findings, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) asked INL to conduct a similar survey for handheld ion mobility spectrometers (IMS), which are used by a broad community of first responders as well as for other applications. To better access this broad community, the INL used the Center for Technology Commercialization, Inc. (CTC), Public Safety Technology Center (PSTC) to set up an online framework to gather information from users of handheld IMS units. This framework (Survey Monkey) was then used to perform an online Internet survey, augmented by e-mail prompts, to get information from first responders and personnel from various agencies about their direct experience with handheld IMS units. Overall, 478 individuals responded to the survey. Of these, 174 respondents actually owned a handheld IMS. Performance and satisfaction data from these 174 respondents are captured in this report. The survey identified the following observations: • The most common IMS unit used by respondents was the Advanced Portable Detector (APD 2000), followed by ChemRae, Sabre 4000, Sabre 2000, Draeger Multi IMS, Chemical Agent Monitor-2, Chemical Agent Monitor, Vapor Tracer, and Vapor Tracer 2. • The primary owners were HazMat teams (20%), fire services (14%), local police (12%), and sheriffs’ departments (9%). • IMS units are seldom used as part of an integrated system for detecting and identifying chemicals but instead are used independently. • Respondents are generally confused about the capabilities of their IMS unit. This is probably a result of lack of training. • Respondents who had no training or fewer than 8 hours were not satisfied with the overall

  14. Characterization of desalination performance of CDI electrode materials using extended electroimpedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Perez, Carlos; Wilkes, Ellen; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive characterization of porous materials developed for capacitive deionization (CDI) electrodes is very important for the future of this desalination technology. Traditional methods assess the adsorption performance of the electrodes using gas adsorption techniques and electrochemical tests. However, these results fail at comparing quantitatively the performance of different electrode materials. This presentation proposes using a combination of extended electroimpedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests and BET analysis to appraise the amount of salt adsorbed in a flow-by CDI system. The extended EIS experiments were analyzed using an equivalent circuit with three characteristic tiers that represent the dominant ionic migration processes with different time-scales: electro adsorption of ions in the micropores, migration of ion from bulk solution through macropores, adsorption of ions from the bulk solution. The results obtained show a very good agreement between characterization and desalination performance experiments for three commercial electrodes with different structure topology.

  15. Handheld Computer Software for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey; Murphy, Elizabeth Ann

    2005-01-01

    School nurses used computers in the 1980s, the Internet in the 1990s, and are embracing handheld computers in the first decade of the 21st century to improve their practice. The purpose of this article is to provide information about handheld computers and software applications that school nurses can use in day-to-day, emergency, and disaster…

  16. Wireless Handhelds to Support Clinical Nursing Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Cheng-Chih; Lai, Chin-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports our implementation and evaluation of a wireless handheld learning environment used to support a clinical nursing practicum course. The learning environment was designed so that nursing students could use handhelds for recording information, organizing ideas, assessing patients, and also for interaction and collaboration with…

  17. Envisioning the Handheld-Centric Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cathleen; Soloway, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    While appropriate as an initial focus, it is time that the educational community move beyond an emphasis on 1:1 computing (each child having his/her own personal computer) to a vision of a handheld-centric classroom, where each child not only has his/her own personal, handheld computer, but also has access to networked PCs, probeware, digital…

  18. Choosing a Hand-Held Inventory Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lois; Hughes, Janet; Neff, Verne; Notartomas, Trish

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2006, a task force was charged to look at the feasibility of acquiring hand-held inventory devices for the Pennsylvania State University Libraries (PSUL). The task force's charge was not to look at the whole concept of doing an inventory, but rather to focus on the feasibility of acquiring hand-held devices to use in an inventory.…

  19. Handheld Computers: A Boon for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazell, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    As I reflect on my many years as an elementary school principal, I realize how much more effective I would have been if I had owned a wireless handheld computer. This relatively new technology can provide considerable assistance to today?s principals and recent advancements have increased its functions and capacity. Handheld computers are…

  20. Handheld erythema and bruise detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Duckworth, Mark G.; Yi, Dingrong; Caspall, Jayme J.; Wang, Jiwu; Zhao, Futing

    2008-03-01

    Visual inspection of intact skin is commonly used when assessing persons for pressure ulcers and bruises. Melanin masks skin discoloration hindering visual inspection in people with darkly pigmented skin. The objective of the project is to develop a point of care technology capable of detecting erythema and bruises in persons with darkly pigmented skin. Two significant hardware components, a color filter array and illumination system have been developed and tested. The color filter array targets four defined wavelengths and has been designed to fit onto a CMOS sensor. The crafting process generates a multilayer film on a glass substrate using vacuum ion beam splitter and lithographic techniques. The illumination system is based upon LEDs and targets these same pre-defined wavelengths. Together, these components are being used to create a small, handheld multispectral imaging device. Compared to other multi spectral technologies (multi prisms, optical-acoustic crystal and others), the design provides simple, low cost instrumentation that has many potential multi spectral imaging applications which require a handheld detector.

  1. Long range handheld thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Edward; Struckhoff, Andrew; McDaniel, Robert; Shamai, Shlomo

    2006-05-01

    Today's warfighter requires a lightweight, high performance thermal imager for use in night and reduced visibility conditions. To fill this need, the United States Marine Corps issued requirements for a Thermal Binocular System (TBS) Long Range Thermal Imager (LRTI). The requirements dictated that the system be lightweight, but still have significant range capabilities and extended operating time on a single battery load. Kollsman, Inc. with our partner Electro-Optics Industries, Ltd. (ElOp) responded to this need with the CORAL - a third-generation, Military Off-the-Shelf (MOTS) product that required very little modification to fully meet the LRTI specification. This paper will discuss the LRTI, a successful result of size, weight and power (SWaP) tradeoffs made to ensure a lightweight, but high performance thermal imager.

  2. Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Norbert; Niederhaus, Steve; Lam, Hon; Lum, Chris

    2002-08-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in the field for stand-off frisking of suspects, and as supplemental security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an adjustable, audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object has been detected. An aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. A presentation of the detector's capabilities and limitations will be presented along with probability of detection (PD) data obtained using the latest prototype version.

  3. Video Browsing on Handheld Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hürst, Wolfgang

    Recent improvements in processing power, storage space, and video codec development enable users now to playback video on their handheld devices in a reasonable quality. However, given the form factor restrictions of such a mobile device, screen size still remains a natural limit and - as the term "handheld" implies - always will be a critical resource. This is not only true for video but any data that is processed on such devices. For this reason, developers have come up with new and innovative ways to deal with large documents in such limited scenarios. For example, if you look at the iPhone, innovative techniques such as flicking have been introduced to skim large lists of text (e.g. hundreds of entries in your music collection). Automatically adapting the zoom level to, for example, the width of table cells when double tapping on the screen enables reasonable browsing of web pages that have originally been designed for large, desktop PC sized screens. A multi touch interface allows you to easily zoom in and out of large text documents and images using two fingers. In the next section, we will illustrate that advanced techniques to browse large video files have been developed in the past years, as well. However, if you look at state-of-the-art video players on mobile devices, normally just simple, VCR like controls are supported (at least at the time of this writing) that only allow users to just start, stop, and pause video playback. If supported at all, browsing and navigation functionality is often restricted to simple skipping of chapters via two single buttons for backward and forward navigation and a small and thus not very sensitive timeline slider.

  4. Performance Characterization of a Microchannel Liquid/Liquid Heat Exchanger Throughout an Extended Duration Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Hawkins-Reynolds Ebony

    2011-01-01

    Liquid/Liquid Heat Exchangers (L/L HX) are an integral portion of any spacecraft active thermal control system. For this study the X-38 L/L HX was used as a baseline. As detailed in a previous ICES manuscript, NASA paired with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a Microchannel L/L HX (MHX). This microchannel HX was designed to meet the same performance characteristics as the aforementioned X-38 HX. The as designed Microchannel HX has a 26% and 60% reduction in mass and volume, respectively. Due to the inherently smaller flow passages the design team was concerned about fouling affecting performance during extended missions. To address this concern, NASA has developed a test stand and is currently performing an 18 month life test on the MHX. This report will detail the up-to-date performance of the MHX during life testing.

  5. Effect of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification on biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunyun; Hu, Huichao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of shortening kraft pulping (KP) process integrated with extended oxygen delignification (OD) on the biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. Data showed that using kraft pulps with high kappa number could improve the delignification efficiency of OD, reduce hexenuronic acid formation in kraft pulps. Pulp viscosity for a target kappa number of ∼10 was comparable to that obtained from conventional KP and OD process. The energy and alkali consumption in the integrated biorefinery process could be optimized when using a KP pulp with kappa number of ∼27. The process could minimize the overall methanol formation, but greater amounts of carbonate and oxalate were formed. The information from this study will be helpful to the future implementation of short-time KP integrated with extended OD process in actual pulp mill applications for biorefinery, aiming at further improvement in the biorefinery effectiveness of hardwood.

  6. Performance and field tests of a handheld Compton camera using 3-D position-sensitive scintillators coupled to multi-pixel photon counter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, A.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Okochi, H.; Ogata, H.; Kuroshima, H.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.; Suzuki, H.

    2014-11-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, radiation decontamination has become particularly urgent. To help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation, we have developed a novel Compton camera based on Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillators and multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays. Even though its sensitivity is several times better than that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, we introduce a depth-of-interaction (DOI) method to further improve the angular resolution. For gamma rays, the DOI information, in addition to 2-D position, is obtained by measuring the pulse-height ratio of the MPPC arrays coupled to ends of the scintillator. We present the detailed performance and results of various field tests conducted in Fukushima with the prototype 2-D and DOI Compton cameras. Moreover, we demonstrate stereo measurement of gamma rays that enables measurement of not only direction but also approximate distance to radioactive hotspots.

  7. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Hawthorne, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30 cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed, and the feasibility of satisfying extended performance requirements was verified. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. A program development plan was formulated that outlines the work structure considered necessary for developing, qualifying, and fabricating the flight hardware for the baseline thrust system within the time frame of a project to rendezvous with Halley's comet. An assessment was made of the costs and risks associated with a baseline thrust system as provided to the mission project under this plan. Critical procurements and interfaces were identified and defined. Results are presented.

  8. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 2: Baseline thrust system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Hawthorne, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30- cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. Emphasis was placed on relatively high-power missions (60 to 100 kW) such as a Halley's comet rendezvous. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed in sufficient detail for comparing mass, efficiency, reliability, structure, and thermal characteristics. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed, and the feasibility of satisfying extended performance requirements was verified. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. The baseline thrust system design features modular construction, conventional power processing, and a concentractor solar array concept and is designed to interface with the space shuttle.

  9. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 4: Thruster technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Hawthorne, E. I.; Weisman, Y. C.; Frisman, M.; Benson, G. C.; Mcgrath, R. J.; Martinelli, R. M.; Linsenbardt, T. L.; Beattie, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30 cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. Emphasis was placed on relatively high power missions (60 to 100 kW) such as a Halley's comet rendezvous. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed in sufficient detail for comparing mass, efficiency, reliability, structure, and thermal characteristics. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power processing components were performed, and the feasibility of satisfying extended performance requirements was verified. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. The baseline thrust system design features modular construction, conventional power processing, and a concentrator solar array concept and is designed to interface with the Space Shuttle.

  10. A feasibility study of enhancing independent task performance for people with cognitive impairments through use of a handheld location-based prompting system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Chou, Li-Der

    2012-11-01

    An autonomous task-prompting system is presented to increase workplace and life independence for people with cognitive impairments such as traumatic brain injury, intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and Down syndrome. This paper describes an approach to providing distributed cognition support of work engagement for persons with cognitive disabilities. In the pilot study, a prototype was built and tested in a community-based rehabilitation program involving pre-service food preparation training of 8 participants with cognitive impairments. The results show improvement in helping with task engagement is statistically significant compared to the oral-instruction method. A follow-up comparative study with 2 participants evaluated the shadow-team approach against the proposed system. Although the number of participants was few, the participants were studied in depth and the findings were very promising. The results in the autonomous task prompting without staff intervention indicate that the performance is statistically as good as the shadow-team approach. Our findings suggest that acquisition of job skills may be facilitated by the proposed system in conjunction with operant conditioning strategies. PMID:22581142

  11. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  12. Sulfur extended asphalt pavement evaluation in the State of Washington: SR 270 highway pavement performance report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J. P.; Terrel, R. L.; Cook, J. C.

    1982-11-01

    The placement and performance of sulfur extended asphalt (SEA) paving mixtures at a highway test site (SR 270) near Pullman, Washington is summarized. The mixture and structural designs and construction details are included. This is followed by a discussion of the data collection and analysis accomplished over a three year evaluation period (1979-1982). A major experimental feature of the study was the use of 0.100 (conventional asphalt concrete), 30/70 and 40/60 SEA binder ratios (sulfur/asphalt ratios are expressed as weight percents in the experimental paving mixtures.

  13. Effects of extended lay-off periods on performance and operator trust under adaptable automation.

    PubMed

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of system reliability when operators do not use a system during an extended lay-off period. To examine threats to skill maintenance, 28 participants operated twice a simulation of a complex process control system for 2.5 h, with an 8-month retention interval between sessions. Operators were provided with an adaptable support system, which operated at one of the following reliability levels: 60%, 80% or 100%. Results showed that performance, workload, and trust remained stable at the second testing session, but operators lost self-confidence in their system management abilities. Finally, the effects of system reliability observed at the first testing session were largely found again at the second session. The findings overall suggest that adaptable automation may be a promising means to support operators in maintaining their performance at the second testing session.

  14. Effects of extended lay-off periods on performance and operator trust under adaptable automation.

    PubMed

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of system reliability when operators do not use a system during an extended lay-off period. To examine threats to skill maintenance, 28 participants operated twice a simulation of a complex process control system for 2.5 h, with an 8-month retention interval between sessions. Operators were provided with an adaptable support system, which operated at one of the following reliability levels: 60%, 80% or 100%. Results showed that performance, workload, and trust remained stable at the second testing session, but operators lost self-confidence in their system management abilities. Finally, the effects of system reliability observed at the first testing session were largely found again at the second session. The findings overall suggest that adaptable automation may be a promising means to support operators in maintaining their performance at the second testing session. PMID:26603139

  15. Handheld interface for miniature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sunny; Samson, Scott A.; Farmer, Andrew; Smith, Matthew C.; Fries, David; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2005-02-01

    Miniaturization of laboratory sensors has been enabled by continued evolution of technology. Field portable systems are often desired, because they reduce sample handling, provide rapid feedback capability, and enhance convenience. Fieldable sensor systems should include a method for initiating the analysis, storing and displaying the results, while consuming minimal power and being compact and portable. Low cost will allow widespread usage of these systems. In this paper, we discuss a reconfigurable Personal Data Assistant (PDA) based control and data collection system for use with miniature sensors. The system is based on the Handspring visor PDA and a custom designed motherboard, which connects directly to the PDA microprocessor. The PDA provides a convenient and low cost graphical user interface, moderate processing capability, and integrated battery power. The low power motherboard provides the voltage levels, data collection, and input/output (I/O) capabilities required by many MEMS and miniature sensors. These capabilities are relayed to connectors, where an application specific daughterboard is attached. In this paper, two applications are demonstrated. First, a handheld nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) detection sensor consisting of a heated and optical fluorescence detection system is discussed. Second, an electrostatically actuated MEMS micro mirror controller is realized.

  16. Toward Automated Intraocular Laser Surgery Using a Handheld Micromanipulator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for automated intraocular laser surgery using a handheld micromanipulator known as Micron. The novel handheld manipulator enables the automated scanning of a laser probe within a cylinder of 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter. For the automation, the surface of the retina is reconstructed using a stereomicroscope, and then preplanned targets are placed on the surface. The laser probe is precisely located on the target via visual servoing of the aiming beam, while maintaining a specific distance above the surface. In addition, the system is capable of tracking the surface of the eye in order to compensate for any eye movement introduced during the operation. We compared the performance of the automated scanning using various control thresholds, in order to find the most effective threshold in terms of accuracy and speed. Given the selected threshold, we conducted the handheld operation above a fixed target surface. The average error and execution time are reduced by 63.6% and 28.5%, respectively, compared to the unaided trials. Finally, the automated laser photocoagulation was demonstrated also in an eye phantom, including compensation for the eye movement. PMID:25893135

  17. Performance Enhancement for a GPS Vector-Tracking Loop Utilizing an Adaptive Iterated Extended Kalman Filter

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiying; Xu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of state estimation for the vector-tracking loop of a software-defined Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. For a nonlinear system that has the model error and white Gaussian noise, a noise statistics estimator is used to estimate the model error, and based on this, a modified iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) named adaptive iterated Kalman filter (AIEKF) is proposed. A vector-tracking GPS receiver utilizing AIEKF is implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Through road tests, it is shown that the proposed method has an obvious accuracy advantage over the IEKF and Adaptive Extended Kalman filter (AEKF) in position determination. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of position (including longitude, latitude and altitude). Comparing with EKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 45.1%, 40.9% and 54.6% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Comparing with IEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 25.7%, 19.3% and 35.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Compared with AEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 21.6%, 15.5% and 30.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. PMID:25502124

  18. Performance enhancement for a GPS vector-tracking loop utilizing an adaptive iterated extended Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiying; Xu, Yuan

    2014-12-09

    This paper deals with the problem of state estimation for the vector-tracking loop of a software-defined Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. For a nonlinear system that has the model error and white Gaussian noise, a noise statistics estimator is used to estimate the model error, and based on this, a modified iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) named adaptive iterated Kalman filter (AIEKF) is proposed. A vector-tracking GPS receiver utilizing AIEKF is implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Through road tests, it is shown that the proposed method has an obvious accuracy advantage over the IEKF and Adaptive Extended Kalman filter (AEKF) in position determination. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of position (including longitude, latitude and altitude). Comparing with EKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 45.1%, 40.9% and 54.6% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Comparing with IEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 25.7%, 19.3% and 35.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively. Compared with AEKF, the position RMSE values of AIEKF are reduced by about 21.6%, 15.5% and 30.7% in the east, north and up directions, respectively.

  19. Analysis of Accuracy in Pointing with Redundant Hand-held Tools: A Geometric Approach to the Uncontrolled Manifold Method

    PubMed Central

    Campolo, Domenico; Widjaja, Ferdinan; Xu, Hong; Ang, Wei Tech; Burdet, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a coordinate-independent method to analyse movement variability of tasks performed with hand-held tools, such as a pen or a surgical scalpel. We extend the classical uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach by exploiting the geometry of rigid body motions, used to describe tool configurations. In particular, we analyse variability during a static pointing task with a hand-held tool, where subjects are asked to keep the tool tip in steady contact with another object. In this case the tool is redundant with respect to the task, as subjects control position/orientation of the tool, i.e. 6 degrees-of-freedom (dof), to maintain the tool tip position (3dof) steady. To test the new method, subjects performed a pointing task with and without arm support. The additional dof introduced in the unsupported condition, injecting more variability into the system, represented a resource to minimise variability in the task space via coordinated motion. The results show that all of the seven subjects channeled more variability along directions not directly affecting the task (UCM), consistent with previous literature but now shown in a coordinate-independent way. Variability in the unsupported condition was only slightly larger at the endpoint but much larger in the UCM. PMID:23592956

  20. Analysis of accuracy in pointing with redundant hand-held tools: a geometric approach to the uncontrolled manifold method.

    PubMed

    Campolo, Domenico; Widjaja, Ferdinan; Xu, Hong; Ang, Wei Tech; Burdet, Etienne

    2013-04-01

    This work introduces a coordinate-independent method to analyse movement variability of tasks performed with hand-held tools, such as a pen or a surgical scalpel. We extend the classical uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach by exploiting the geometry of rigid body motions, used to describe tool configurations. In particular, we analyse variability during a static pointing task with a hand-held tool, where subjects are asked to keep the tool tip in steady contact with another object. In this case the tool is redundant with respect to the task, as subjects control position/orientation of the tool, i.e. 6 degrees-of-freedom (dof), to maintain the tool tip position (3dof) steady. To test the new method, subjects performed a pointing task with and without arm support. The additional dof introduced in the unsupported condition, injecting more variability into the system, represented a resource to minimise variability in the task space via coordinated motion. The results show that all of the seven subjects channeled more variability along directions not directly affecting the task (UCM), consistent with previous literature but now shown in a coordinate-independent way. Variability in the unsupported condition was only slightly larger at the endpoint but much larger in the UCM.

  1. Performance of Wire Springs as Extended Heat Transfer Surface for Compact Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Soushi; Suzuki, Kenjiro; Tsujii, Junichi; Abiko, Tetsuo

    Use of thin metal wire structures as a new type of extended heat transfer surface is proposed. As one of the most basic shapes of such wire structures, heat transfer performance of spring shaped fins is experimentally investigated under relatively low Reynolds number conditions. The averaged heat transfer coefficient is evaluated by a single-blow method while the pressure drop is measured at a steady state flow condition. The effects of the geometric parameters such as the wire diameter, the spring pitch and the pitch ratio were systematically examined and the obtained data were compared with that of a conventional offset fin, which is commercially available. It was found that the geometric parameters of the spring fins and the arrangement of spring fins in the test section affect their heat transfer performance. Some types of spring fins showed better heat transfer performance than a conventional offset fin, when they are evaluated in terms of the total heat transfer at a constant pumping power.

  2. Procedural performance following sleep deprivation remains impaired despite extended practice and an afternoon nap

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Cousins, James Nicholas; Chong, Pearlynne L. H.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2016-01-01

    The negative impact of sleep loss on procedural memory is well established, yet it remains unclear how extended practice opportunities or daytime naps can modulate the effect of a night of sleep deprivation. Here, participants underwent three training and test conditions on a sequential finger tapping task (SFTT) separated by at least one week. In the first condition they were trained in the evening followed by a night of sleep. Two further conditions took place where evening training was followed by a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). One of the TSD conditions included a one-hour nap opportunity (15:00). Compared to the condition in which sleep was permitted, a night of TSD resulted in poorer performance across 4 practices the following day (10:00–19:00). The deleterious effect of a single night of TSD on procedural performance, was neither clearly alleviated by an afternoon nap nor by multiple practice opportunities. Interestingly, significant gains in performance were observed in all conditions after a one-week delay. Recovery sleep on subsequent nights thus appeared to nullify the effect of a single night of sleep deprivation, underscoring the importance of offline consolidation on the acquisition of procedural skill. PMID:27782172

  3. Polyester-toner electrophoresis microchips with improved analytical performance and extended lifetime.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ellen Flávia Moreira; Duarte Junior, Gerson F; Garcia, Paulo de Tarso; de Jesus, Dosil P; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of polyester-toner (PT) electrophoresis microchips with improved analytical performance and extended lifetime. This has been achieved with a better understanding about the EOF generation and the influence of some parameters including the channel dimensions (width and depth), the injection mode, and the addition of organic solvent to the running buffer. The analytical performance of the PT devices was investigated using a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector and inorganic cations as model analytes. The proposed devices have exhibited EOF values of (3.4 ± 0.2) × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with good stability over 25 consecutive runs. It has been found that the EOF magnitude depends on the channel dimension, i.e. the wider the channel, the higher the EOF value. The separation efficiency for inorganic cations ranged from 13 000 to 50 000 plates/m. The LOD found for K(+) , Na(+) , and Li(+) were 4.2, 7.3, and 23 μM, respectively. In addition, the same PT device has been used by three consecutive days. Lately, due to improved analytical performance, it was carried out by the first time the detection of inorganic cations in real samples such as energetic drinks and pharmaceutical formulations.

  4. Sulfur extended asphalt pavement evaluation in the State of Washington: Executive summary of SR270 highway pavement performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J. P.

    1982-11-01

    This executive summary overviews the placement and performance of sulfur extended asphalt (SEA) paving mixtures at a highway test site (SR 270) near Pullman, Washington. This summary is the sixth and last report of this study.

  5. Ball Lens Fiber Optic Sensor based Smart Handheld Microsurgical Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Song, Cheol; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-01-01

    During freehand performance of vitreoretinal microsurgery the surgeon must perform precise and stable maneuvers that achieve surgical objectives and avoid surgical risk. Here, we present an improved smart handheld microsurgical tool which is based on a ball lens fiber optic sensor that utilizes common path swept source optical coherence tomography. Improvements include incorporation of a ball lens single mode fiber optic probe that increases the working angle of the tool to greater than 45 degrees; and increases the magnitude of the distance sensing signal through water. Also presented is a cutting function with an improved ergonomic design. PMID:24224076

  6. [Performance and simulation of intermittent decanted extended aeration treatment plants in a tropical climate].

    PubMed

    Dagor, C; Sommanawan, N; Baudu, M; Anderson, R

    2001-10-01

    The paper discusses the design and performance of package sewage treatment plants using the Intermittently Decanted Extended Aeration Process (IDEA-Process) in a tropical climate. This hybrid SBR process has been developed overcome traditional drawbacks associated with the SBR process, such as high Sludge Volume Index, high weir loading rate for decanting, and the need to achieve a better effluent quality, especially in terms of nutrient removal. Three domestic sewage plants in Thailand has been selected for field-testing and results of analyses are presented. The average measured biological removal efficiencies in terms of BOD removal and COD removal are about 95.5% and 90% respectively, and the average total nitrogen removal efficiency is about 90%. A computer model is used to study the performance of IDEA-processes compared to results from laboratory tests. The model experience gained through this research are discussed regarding the limitations of computer models such as ASM 1 (Activated Sludge Model n degrees 1) applied to the IDEA-Process in order to develop a new computer model suitable for design and operation of package treatment plant using IDEA-Process Technology in the future.

  7. Depth of focus extended intraocular lenses and their optical performances in a pseudophakic eye model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao-Qi; Rao, Feng; Liu, Yong-Ji

    2010-10-01

    Eye model is firstly used to design and assess the performance of intraocular lenses (IOL) with extended depth of focus (DOF), including aspherical IOL, refractive multifocal IOL and diffractive multifocal IOL. The details of design and optimization are given, and the optical performance of the pseudophakic eye with the designed IOLs is assessed with the spot diagram and the visual acuity. For the pseudophakic eye with 3mm pupil, when the spherical aberration is fully corrected by the aspherical IOL, the best visual acuity reaches 1.2 with a DOF of only 1.4D. Whereas when the spherical aberration is 0.4λ, the best visual acuity is 0.9 with a DOF as much as 2.2D. With the implantation of refractive or diffractive multifocal IOL, the pseudophakic eye has fairly good distant and near vision, while the intermediate vision is worse. Diffractive multifocal IOL diverts 81% of the input light to two primary focuses equally, with the additional 19% of the light wasted as higher order diffraction. Refractive multifocal IOL diverts all the light to two focuses but the light distribution varies with the pupil diameter.

  8. Handheld computers in medicine: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Horsley, A; Forster, L

    2005-07-01

    Handheld computers are now a common sight in medicine, but there are scarce data on who actually uses them and what functions are found to be most useful. This is the first study of handheld computer use in a British hospital, and shows that there is already considerable use and acceptance of the technology, with 22 of 55 (40%) physicians possessing and using such a device. Doctors in training grades are more likely to make use of medical software, particularly textbooks, calculators, and formularies. The main barriers to greater use of this technology were cost of software and poor applicability to UK practice. PMID:15998828

  9. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  10. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  11. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  12. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  13. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 56.7053 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before hand-held drills are moved from...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 57.14116 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools. 56.14116 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14116 Hand-held power tools. (a) Power drills, disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be...

  11. Performance Enhancement of Pharmacokinetic Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography by Use of Adaptive Extended Kalman Filtering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wu, Linhui; Yi, Xi; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Due to both the physiological and morphological differences in the vascularization between healthy and diseased tissues, pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) can provide contrast-enhanced and comprehensive information for tumor diagnosis and staging. In this regime, the extended Kalman filtering (EKF) based method shows numerous advantages including accurate modeling, online estimation of multiparameters, and universal applicability to any optical fluorophore. Nevertheless the performance of the conventional EKF highly hinges on the exact and inaccessible prior knowledge about the initial values. To address the above issues, an adaptive-EKF scheme is proposed based on a two-compartmental model for the enhancement, which utilizes a variable forgetting-factor to compensate the inaccuracy of the initial states and emphasize the effect of the current data. It is demonstrated using two-dimensional simulative investigations on a circular domain that the proposed adaptive-EKF can obtain preferable estimation of the pharmacokinetic-rates to the conventional-EKF and the enhanced-EKF in terms of quantitativeness, noise robustness, and initialization independence. Further three-dimensional numerical experiments on a digital mouse model validate the efficacy of the method as applied in realistic biological systems. PMID:26089975

  12. Comparative performance evaluation of applying extended PIE technique to accelerate software testability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jun-Ru; Huang, Chin-Yu; Hsu, Chao-Jung; Tsai, Tsung-Han

    2012-12-01

    The rapid development of technology provides high performance and reliability for the hardware system; based on this, software engineers can focus their developed software on more convenience and ultra-high reliability. To reach this goal, the testing stage of software development life cycle usually takes more time and effort due to the growing complexity of the software. How to build software that can be tested efficiently has become an important topic in addition to enhancing and developing new testing methods. Thus, research on software testability has been conducted and various methods have been developed. In the past, a dynamic technique for estimating program testability was proposed and called propagation, infection and execution (PIE) analysis. Previous research studies have shown that PIE analysis can complement software testing. However, this method requires a lot of computational overhead in estimating the testability of software components. In this article, we propose an extended PIE (EPIE) method to accelerate the conventional PIE analysis, based on generating group testability as a substitute for statement testability. Our proposed method can be systematically separated into three steps: breaking a program into blocks, dividing the blocks into groups and marking target statements. Experiments and evaluations with the Siemens suite, together with cost-effectiveness analysis, clearly show that the number of analysed statements can be effectively decreased, and the calculated values of testability are still acceptable.

  13. Extended contingency table: Performance metrics for satellite observations and climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Mehran, A.

    2013-10-01

    Validation of gridded satellite observations and climate model simulations are fundamental to future improvements in retrieval algorithms and model developments. Among the metrics, the contingency table, which includes a number of categorical indices, is extensively used in evaluation studies. While the categorical indices offer invaluable information, they do not provide any insight into the volume of the variable detected correctly/incorrectly. In this study, the contingency table categorical metrics are extended to volumetric indices for evaluation of gridded data. The suggested indices include (a) Volumetric Hit Index (VHI): volume of correctly detected simulations relative to the volume of the correctly detected simulations and missed observations; (b) Volumetric False Alarm Ratio (VFAR): volume of false simulations relative to the sum of simulations; (c) Volumetric Miss Index (VMI): volume of missed observations relative to the sum of missed observations and correctly detected simulations; and (d) the Volumetric Critical Success Index (VCSI). The latter provides an overall measure of volumetric performance including volumetric hits, false alarms, and misses. First, using two synthetic time series, the volumetric indices are evaluated against the contingency table categorical metrics. Then, the volumetric indices are used to evaluate a gridded data set at the continental scale. The results show that the volumetric indices provide additional information beyond the commonly used categorical metrics that can be useful in evaluating gridded data sets.

  14. Circadian Entrainment, Sleep-Wake Regulation and Neurobehavioral Performance During Extended Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Long-duration manned space flight requires crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. However, the reduction in the strength of environmental synchronizers in the space environment leads to misalignment of circadian phase among crew members, coupled with restricted time available to sleep, results in sleep deprivation and consequent deterioration of neurobehavioral function. Crew members are provided, and presently use, long-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics on board the current, relatively brief space shuttle missions to counteract such sleep disruption, a situation that is only likely to worsen during extended duration missions. Given the known carry-over effects of such compounds on daytime performance, together with the reduction in emergency readiness associated with their use at night, NASA has recognized the need to develop effective but safe countermeasures to allow crew members to obtain an adequate amount of sleep. Over the past eight years, we have successfully implemented a new technology for shuttle crew members involving bright light exposure during the pre-launch period to facilitate adaptation of the circadian timing system to the inversions of the sleep-wake schedule often required during dual shift missions. However for long duration space station missions it will be necessary to develop effective and attainable countermeasures that can be used chronically to optimize circadian entrainment. Our current research effort is to study the effects of light-dark cycles with reduced zeitgeber strength, such as are anticipated during long-duration space flight, on the entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system and to study the effects of a countermeasure that consists of scheduled brief exposures to bright light on the human circadian timing system. The proposed studies are designed to address the following Specific Aims: (1) test the hypothesis that

  15. Development of dual sensor hand-held detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    In this paper hand-held dual sensor detector development requirements are considered dedicated to buried object detection. Design characteristics of such a system are categorized and listed. Hardware and software structures, ergonomics, user interface, environmental and EMC/EMI tests to be applied and performance test issues are studied. Main properties of the developed system (SEZER) are presented, which contains Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The realized system has ergonomic structure and can detect both metallic and non-metallic buried objects. Moreover classification of target is possible if it was defined to the signal processing software in learning phase.

  16. Video indirect ophthalmoscopy using a hand-held video camera.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mahesh P

    2011-01-01

    Fundus photography in adults and cooperative children is possible with a fundus camera or by using a slit lamp-mounted digital camera. Retcam TM or a video indirect ophthalmoscope is necessary for fundus imaging in infants and young children under anesthesia. Herein, a technique of converting and using a digital video camera into a video indirect ophthalmoscope for fundus imaging is described. This device will allow anyone with a hand-held video camera to obtain fundus images. Limitations of this technique involve a learning curve and inability to perform scleral depression.

  17. Handheld Devices: Toward a More Mobile Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Mary A. C.

    2002-01-01

    Offers an overview of the acceptance and use of handheld personal computing devices on campus that connect wirelessly to the campus network. Considers access; present and future software applications; uses in medial education; faculty training needs; and wireless technology issues. (Author/LRW)

  18. Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocombe, Richard A.

    2013-05-01

    "Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

  19. A Handheld Computer System for Classroom Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudargas, Richard A.; Bunn, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    A handheld computer observation system was developed using Hewlett-Packard HP71B computers for recording and IBM-PCs for storing and analyzing data. Algorithims used in observing interactions between handicapped children and peers or teachers are described. Also described are behavior definitions, observer training and observation procedures, the…

  20. Trajectories in Operating a Handheld Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, Herbert; Sulzenbruck, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The authors studied the trajectories of the hand and of the tip of a handheld sliding first-order lever in aiming movements. With this kind of tool, straight trajectories of the hand are generally associated with curved trajectories of the tip of the lever and vice versa. Trajectories of the tip of the lever exhibited smaller deviations from…

  1. Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doheny, Robert C.; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard; Chernoff, Jeff

    2006-05-01

    The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD SO/LIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP) for humanitarian demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) in the southern African country of Namibia. Participants included the US Humanitarian Demining Team of NVESD; ITEP personnel from several member countries; deminers from two non-governmental organizations in Angola, Menschen Gegen Minen (MgM) and HALO Trust; and CyTerra Corporation. The primary objectives were to demonstrate the performance of the U.S. Army's newest handheld multisensor mine detector, the HSTAMIDS, to the performance of the metal detector being used by local demining organizations and also to assess the performance of deminers using the HSTAMIDS after limited experience and training.

  2. Covert situational awareness with handheld ultrawideband short-pulse radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Mark A.; Nag, Soumya; Payment, Tim

    2001-08-01

    Law enforcement and emergency services all face the difficult task of determining the locations of people within a building. A handheld radar able to detect motion through walls and other obstructions has been developed to fill this need. This paper describes the attributes and difficulties of the radar design and includes test results of the radar's performance. This discussion begins by summarizing key user requirements and the electromagnetic losses of typical building materials. Ultra-wideband (UWB) short pulse radars are well suited for a handheld sensor primarily because of their inherit time isolation in high clutter environments and their capability to achieve high resolution at low spectral center frequencies. There are also constraints that complicate the system design. Using a technique referred to as time-modulation allows the radars to reject range ambiguities and enhances electromagnetic compatibility with similar radars and ambient systems. An outline of the specifications of the radar developed and a process diagram on how it generates a motion map showing range and direction of the people moving within structures is included. Images are then presented to illustrate its performance. The images include adults, child, and a dog. The test results also include data showing the radar's performance through a variety of building materials.

  3. Center of percussion of hand-held implements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2004-05-01

    The center of percussion is commonly regarded as a sweet spot when referring to a baseball bat or a tennis racquet because it is assumed that there will be no sudden motion of the handle with respect to the hand if the corresponding axis of rotation passes through the hand. A problem with this interpretation is that the hand extends over a finite length of the handle and exerts an opposing reaction force on the handle. The hand also changes the total mass and moment of inertia of the system, while the arm restricts free motion of the hand. Experimental results are presented showing that the axis of rotation passes through the hand or the wrist for all the usual impact points on a hand-held implement. As a result, the impact point that feels best is usually the node of the fundamental vibration mode, not the center of percussion.

  4. Effect of extended withdrawal of zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance and carcass traits in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Holland, B P; Krehbiel, C R; Hilton, G G; Streeter, M N; Vanoverbeke, D L; Shook, J N; Step, D L; Burciaga-Robles, L O; Stein, D R; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Montgomery, J L

    2010-01-01

    decreased calculated yield grade (2.69 vs. 2.91; P = 0.03) and percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice (31.1 vs. 42.3%; P = 0.03) compared with controls. Small intestinal mass (g/kg of empty BW) was greater (P = 0.03) for steers fed ZH compared with controls. There were no other differences (P > or = 0.11) in mass of body components, expressed in kilograms or as a fraction of empty BW. In this experiment, improvements in animal performance and HCW due to feeding ZH were generally maintained when withdrawal was extended through 10 d.

  5. Effect of freezing extender composition and male line on semen traits and reproductive performance in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Viudes-de-Castro, M P; Lavara, R; Safaa, H M; Marco-Jiménez, F; Mehaisen, G M K; Vicente, J S

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of different freezing extenders on two lines selected for hyperprolificacy and longevity (H and LP, respectively). In extender A, dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. In extenders B and C, the sucrose was replaced by 20% egg yolk, and in extender C the Me2SO was substituted by acetamide. Semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and cooled at 5°C for 45 min, and then was frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour for 10 min before being plunged into the liquid nitrogen. Thawing was carried out by immersing the straws in a water bath at 50°C for 10 s. Frozen-thawed semen characteristics and reproductive parameters were affected by freezing. Extender C showed significantly lower post-thawing quality traits than any of the three extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly improved when Me2SO was used as cryoprotectant. Sucrose replacement by 20% egg yolk had no effect on acrosome integrity but provided significantly lower sperm motility and viability. Freezing extender affected fertility rate, total born, number of implantation sites and gestational losses, obtaining better results when extender A was used. The acrosomal integrity after frozen-thawed process showed a significant correlation with fertility at 12th day and also at birth, indicating that an increase in acrosomal integrity leads to an increase in both fertilities (12th day and at birth). A positive correlation between motility of semen and implantation sites was found. The post-thawing quality traits of semen were not affected by the genetic line, although LP line showed higher total born and lower foetal and gestational losses. The findings of this study suggest that freezing extender composition has a significant effect on the success of rabbit sperm for preservation, and when Me2SO was used as permeable cryoprotectant sucrose provided better protection compared with egg yolk and improved reproductive traits, and, on the

  6. Handheld multispectral dual-axis confocal microscope for cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapukdee, Pongsak; Rattanavarin, Santi; Jarujareet, Ungkarn; Khemthongcharoen, Numfon; Jolivot, Romuald; Jung, Il Woong; López, Daniel; Mandella, Michael J.; Piyawattanametha, Wibool

    2013-03-01

    Our work demonstrates a MEMS based handheld dual-axis confocal microscope for cervical cancer screening. Imaging demonstration is performed with plant and animal tissue biopsies. The data is collected and displayed in real time with 2-5 Hz frame rates.

  7. Microfluidic MEMS hand-held flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Maleki, Teimour; Zordan, Michael D.; Reece, Lisa M.; Byrnes, Ron; Jones, Alan; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

    2011-02-01

    Due to a number of recent technological advances, a hand-held flow cytometer can be achieved by use of semiconductor illuminators, optical sensors (all battery powered) and sensitive cell markers such as immuno-quantum dot (Qdot) labels. The specific application described is of a handheld blood analyzer that can quickly process a drop of whole, unfractionated human peripheral blood by real-time, on-chip magnetic separation of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) and further fluorescence analysis of Qdot labeled WBC subsets. Various microfluidic patterns were fabricated in PDMS and used to characterize flow of single cells and magnetic deflection of magnetically labeled cells. An LED excitation, avalanche photodiode detection system (SensL Technologies, Ltd., Cork, Ireland) was used for immuno-Qdot detection of WBC subsets. A static optical setup was used to determine the sensitivity of the detection system. In this work we demonstrate: valve-less, on-chip magnetic sorting of immunomagnetically labeled white blood cells, bright Qdot labeling of lymphocytes, and counting of labeled white blood cells. Comparisons of these results with conventional flow cytometric analyses are reported. Sample preparation efficiency was determined by labeling of isolated white blood cells. Appropriate flow rates were determined for optical detection and confirmed with flowing particles. Several enabling technologies required for a truly portable, battery powered, hand-held flow cytometer for use in future point-of-care diagnostic devices have been demonstrated. The combining of these technologies into an integrated handheld instrument is in progress and results on whole blood cell analysis are to be reported in another paper.

  8. Military GPS handheld display development: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiel, Alicia P.; Smothers, Andrew D.

    1998-09-01

    The military Precision Lightweight Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver or 'PLGR' hand-held product eliminated many technical barriers to bring a low cost 'commercial' transflective display to be a standard military issue. This low cost display, combined with silicone keypad, provides a human interface that has been extremely successful at a current rate of 190 units built per day. With the PLGR and more recent PLGR-II success in meeting the challenges of the military GPS market with a low-cost display, the PLGR is now a platform to provide affordable military-commercial display solutions for the future. The paper will provide technical background on the display provided for the initial GPS hand- held award and the technology changes that were based on the voice of the customer. The display performance in the areas of contrast, Night Vision Goggle (NVG) compatibility, backlighting, and off axis viewability will be presented. Current and future challenges in hand-held and vehicular GPS products will also be presented with possible applications of new display technologies.

  9. A hand-held EPR scanner for transcutaneous oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, Helen; Ahmad, Rizwan; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous (skin) oxygenation is an important prognostic factor for the treatment of chronic wounds, skin cancer, diabetes side effects, and limb amputation. Currently, there are no reliable methods for measuring this parameter. Oximetry, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, is emerging as a potential tool for clinical oximetry, including cutaneous applications. The problem with EPR oximetry, however, is that the conventional EPR design requires the use of a large magnet that can generate homogeneous field across the sample, making it unattractive for clinical practice. We present a novel approach that makes use of a miniature permanent magnet, combined with a small microwave resonator, to enable the acquisition of EPR signals from paramagnetic species placed on the skin. The instrumentation consists of a hand-held, modular, cylindrical probehead with overall dimensions of 36-mm diameter and 24-mm height, with 150-g weight. The probehead includes a Halbach array of 16 pieces (4×4×8 mm3) of Sm-Co permanent magnet and a loop-gap resonator (2.24 GHz). Preliminary measurements using a Hahn-echo pulse sequence (800 echos in 20 ms) showed a signalto- noise ratio of ~70 compared to ~435 in a homogenous magnet under identical settings. Further work is in progress to improve the performance of the probehead and to optimize the hand-held system for clinical use

  10. Micron: an Actively Stabilized Handheld Tool for Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Robert A.; Becker, Brian C.; Tabarés, Jaime Cuevas; Podnar, Gregg W.; Lobes, Louis A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a hand-held actively stabilized tool to increase accuracy in micro-surgery or other precision manipulation. It removes involuntary motion such as tremor by actuating the tip to counteract the effect of the undesired handle motion. The key components are a three-degree-of-freedom piezoelectric manipulator that has 400 μm range of motion, 1 N force capability, and bandwidth over 100 Hz, and an optical position measurement subsystem that acquires the tool pose with 4 μm resolution at 2000 samples/s. A control system using these components attenuates hand motion by at least 15 dB (a fivefold reduction). By considering the effect of the frequency response of Micron on the human visual feedback loop, we have developed a filter that reduces unintentional motion, yet preserves intuitive eye-hand coordination. We evaluated the effectiveness of Micron by measuring the accuracy of the human/machine system in three simple manipulation tasks. Handheld testing by three eye surgeons and three non-surgeons showed a reduction in position error of between 32% and 52%, depending on the error metric. PMID:23028266

  11. Handheld Micromanipulation with Vision-Based Virtual Fixtures.

    PubMed

    Becker, Brian C; Maclachlan, Robert A; Hager, Gregory D; Riviere, Cameron N

    2011-08-18

    Precise movement during micromanipulation becomes difficult in submillimeter workspaces, largely due to the destabilizing influence of tremor. Robotic aid combined with filtering techniques that suppress tremor frequency bands increases performance; however, if knowledge of the operator's goals is available, virtual fixtures have been shown to greatly improve micromanipulator precision. In this paper, we derive a control law for position-based virtual fixtures within the framework of an active handheld micromanipulator, where the fixtures are generated in real-time from microscope video. Additionally, we develop motion scaling behavior centered on virtual fixtures as a simple and direct extension to our formulation. We demonstrate that hard and soft (motion-scaled) virtual fixtures outperform state-of-the-art tremor cancellation performance on a set of artificial but medically relevant tasks: holding, move-and-hold, curve tracing, and volume restriction.

  12. Physician order entry of ultrasound examination with handheld wireless terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuya, Shiro; Onogi, Yuzo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Watanabe, Hiroki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Niidome, Takuro; Oyama, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    Although our hospital has an electronic order entry system, physician order entries must be performed using one of a limited number of terminals which are located in places like nurse stations. Due to this limitation, the mobility of the ultrasound machine cannot be fully exploited if a physician wants to perform a mobile ultrasound examination far from an entry terminal. In addition, this situation increases the possibility that a physician will fail to issue a paper voucher of the examination. In an attempt to resolve these problems, we have developed a mobile physician order entry system that incorporates ultrasound machines equipped with handheld wireless terminals, which use the 802.11b standard and the bandwidth is 11 Mbps. This is an efficient way to order ultrasound examination entries because physicians can register entries at any location in a hospital ward. In addition, the proposed system is a reliable method by which to attach images upon ultrasound examination entry.

  13. Risk based in vitro performance assessment of extended release abuse deterrent formulations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Calderon, Silvia N; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-03-16

    High strength extended release opioid products, which are indispensable tools in the management of pain, are associated with serious risks of unintentional and potentially fatal overdose, as well as of misuse and abuse that might lead to addiction. The issue of drug abuse becomes increasingly prominent when the dosage forms can be readily manipulated to release a high amount of opioid or to extract the drug in certain products or solvents. One approach to deter opioid drug abuse is by providing novel abuse deterrent formulations (ADF), with properties that may be viewed as barriers to abuse of the product. However, unlike regular extended release formulations, assessment of ADF technologies are challenging, in part due to the great variety of formulation designs available to achieve deterrence of abuse by oral, parenteral, nasal and respiratory routes. With limited prior history or literature information, and lack of compendial standards, evaluation and regulatory approval of these novel drug products become increasingly difficult. The present article describes a risk-based standardized in-vitro approach that can be utilized in general evaluation of abuse deterrent features for all ADF products. PMID:26784976

  14. 76 FR 22918 - In the Matter of Certain Handheld Electronic Computing Devices, Related Software, and Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handheld Electronic Computing Devices, Related Software, and Components... States after importation of certain handheld electronic computing devices, related software, and... importation of certain handheld electronic computing devices, related software, and components thereof...

  15. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Continuing Measurements of CO2 Crystals with a Hand-Held 35 GHz Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J.; Chang, A.; Hall, D.; Tait, A.; Wergin, W.; Erbe, E.

    2000-08-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of the Martian polar caps, an improved understanding of the behavior of both frozen H2O and CO2 in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is needed. The thermal microwave part of the spectrum has received relatively little attention compared to the visible and infrared wavelengths. A simple experiment to measure the brightness temperature of frozen CO2 was first performed in the winter of 1998 using a 35 GHz radiometer. in experiments performed during the winter of 1999 and 2000, passive microwave radiation emanating from within layers of manufactured CO2 (dry ice) crystals was again measured with a 35 GHz handheld radiometer. Both large (0.8 cm) and small (0.3 cm) cylindrical-shaped dry ice pellets, at a temperature of 197 K (-76 C), were measured. A 1 sq m plate of aluminum sheet metal was positioned beneath the dry ice so that microwave emissions from the underlying soil layers would be minimized. Non-absorbing foam was positioned around the sides of the plate in order to keep the dry ice in place and to assure that the incremental deposits were level. Thirty-five GHz measurements of this plate were made through the dry ice deposits in the following way. Layers of dry ice were built up and measurements were repeated for the increasing CO2 pack. First, 7 cm of large CO2 pellets were poured onto the sheet metal plate, then an additional 7 cm were added, and finally, 12 cm were added on top of the 14 cm base. Hand-held 35 GHz measurements were made each time the thickness of the deposit was increased. The same process was repeated for the smaller grain pellets. Furthermore, during the past winter, 35 GHz measurements were taken of a 25 kg (27 cm x 27 cm x 27 cm) solid cube Of CO2, which was cut in half and then re-measured. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Effect of flow on the acoustic performance of extended reaction lined ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Walker, B.

    1983-01-01

    A model is developed for the effects of uniform and boundary-layer mean flow on the attenuation and propagation of harmonically excited sound waves in an extended reaction lined cylindrical duct. A duct geometry consisting of an annular outer region of bulk material surrounding an inner cylinder of air is utilized. A numerical solution is obtained for the coupled wave equations governing the motion of the sound in both the inner and annular regions. It is found that the numerically predicted attenuation and propagations constants are in excellent agreement with measured values using Kevlar as the liner material for plane-wave mode (O,O) excitation over a wide range of mean flows and sound frequency. The boundary-layer effects are determined to be unimportant, at least for plane-wave sound. In addition, numerical studies indicate small differences between the use of either the radial velocity or the radial displacement boundary conditions.

  18. Hand-held UXO Discriminator

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, E.; Smith, J.T.; Kappler, K.N.; Ratti, A.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.

    2010-04-01

    With prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), we have successfully designed and built a cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (e.g., Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2009). It is a multi-transmitter multi-receiver active electromagnetic system that is able to discriminate UXO from scrap at a single measurement position, hence eliminates equirement of a very accurate sensor location. The cart-mounted system comprises of three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers (Smith et al., 2007). Receiver coils are located on ymmetry lines through the center of the system and see identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They can then be wired in opposition to produce zero output during the n-ime of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform ver the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and therefore reatly enhances receivers sensitivity to the gradients of the target.

  19. Performance, durability and low temperature evaluation of sunflower oil as a diesel fuel extender

    SciTech Connect

    Baranescu, R.A.; Lusco, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a research project to evaluate performance and durability of direct injection turbocharged diesel engines using sunflower oil and blends thereof. Alcaline refined sunflower oil and three different blends of sunflower oil and diesel fuel were comparatively tested against No. 2 diesel fuel for: physical and chemical characteristics, fuel injection system performance, short term engine performance, propensity to nozzle deposits buildup, limited durability operation and low temperature starting capability. Results are presented for the various phases of the project and correlations between the fuel characteristics and engine accept-ability are discussed. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Handheld magnetic sensor for measurement of tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, K.; Rajamani, R.

    2012-04-01

    This letter develops an analytical formulation for measurement of tension in a string using a handheld sensor. By gently pushing the sensor against the string, the tension in the string can be obtained. An experimental sensor prototype is constructed to verify the analytical formulation. The centimeter-sized prototype utilizes three moving pistons and magnetic field based measurements of their positions. Experimental data show that the sensor can accurately measure tension on a bench top rig. The developed sensor could be useful in a variety of orthopedic surgical procedures, including knee replacement, hip replacement, ligament repair, shoulder stabilization, and tendon repair.

  1. Hand-held computer improves line inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.

    1998-01-01

    A new computer-based tool for transmission line inspection, maintenance and data management is quickly winning favor in the field with line managers, supervisors, and most importantly, with patrolmen and inspectors. The Transmission Inspection and Maintenance (TIM) system, developed by the Electric Power Research Institute, allows transmission line personnel to create and store detailed data and graphic images of transmission lines, structures and components in a central, office computer program. The system consists of an integrated 486-based microprocessor hand-held computer, digital camera and office PC server. This setup facilitates easy long-term storage, manipulation and assessment of the inspection database in a portable package.

  2. Measuring critical care air support teams' performance during extended periods of duty.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Di

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Air Force (RAF) Critical Care Air Support Teams (CCASTs) aeromedically evacuate seriously injured service personnel. Long casualty evacuation chains create logistical constraints that must be considered when aeromedically evacuating patients. One constraint is the length of a CCAST mission and its potential effect on team member performance. Despite no evidence of patient care compromise, the RAF has commissioned a study to investigate whether CCAST mission length influences performance. Describing and understanding the role of a CCAST enabled fatigue to be defined. Factors essential to studying fatigue were then identified that were used to develop a theoretical model for designing a study to measure the effects of fatigue on CCAST performance. Relevant factors include the patient's clinical condition, team members' cognition and vigilance levels, and the occupational aviation environment. Further factors influencing overall performance include the duration and complexity of patient interventions, mission length, circadian influences, and fatigue countermeasures. PMID:20683231

  3. Extended performance electric propulsion power processor design study. Volume 2: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Electric propulsion power processor technology has processed during the past decade to the point that it is considered ready for application. Several power processor design concepts were evaluated and compared. Emphasis was placed on a 30 cm ion thruster power processor with a beam power rating supply of 2.2KW to 10KW for the main propulsion power stage. Extension in power processor performance were defined and were designed in sufficient detail to determine efficiency, component weight, part count, reliability and thermal control. A detail design was performed on a microprocessor as the thyristor power processor controller. A reliability analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the control electronics redesign. Preliminary electrical design, mechanical design and thermal analysis were performed on a 6KW power transformer for the beam supply. Bi-Mod mechanical, structural and thermal control configurations were evaluated for the power processor and preliminary estimates of mechanical weight were determined.

  4. Extended pressure range performance of Kaiser/Marquardt 490N thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, J. R.; Kreiner, K. B.

    1993-06-01

    The performance of INTELSAT VI Reboost Program Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) is studied using both ground and flight testing results. Ground testing based on an INTELSAT VI qualification unit, S/N 002A, was performed at the Kaiser Marquardt facility in California in 1991. Data obtained from the F-603 flight show that the R4-D 490 N LAM is susceptible to a dynamic combustion instability mode, called chugging, when operated at a low inlet pressure with helium saturated propellants.

  5. A framework for performance measurement in university using extended network data envelopment analysis (DEA) structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashim, Rosmaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rahman, Rosshairy Abd

    2015-12-01

    Measuring university performance is essential for efficient allocation and utilization of educational resources. In most of the previous studies, performance measurement in universities emphasized the operational efficiency and resource utilization without investigating the university's ability to fulfill the needs of its stakeholders and society. Therefore, assessment of the performance of university should be separated into two stages namely efficiency and effectiveness. In conventional DEA analysis, a decision making unit (DMU) or in this context, a university is generally treated as a black-box which ignores the operation and interdependence of the internal processes. When this happens, the results obtained would be misleading. Thus, this paper suggest an alternative framework for measuring the overall performance of a university by incorporating both efficiency and effectiveness and applies network DEA model. The network DEA models are recommended because this approach takes into account the interrelationship between the processes of efficiency and effectiveness in the system. This framework also focuses on the university structure which is expanded from the hierarchical to form a series of horizontal relationship between subordinate units by assuming both intermediate unit and its subordinate units can generate output(s). Three conceptual models are proposed to evaluate the performance of a university. An efficiency model is developed at the first stage by using hierarchical network model. It is followed by an effectiveness model which take output(s) from the hierarchical structure at the first stage as a input(s) at the second stage. As a result, a new overall performance model is proposed by combining both efficiency and effectiveness models. Thus, once this overall model is realized and utilized, the university's top management can determine the overall performance of each unit more accurately and systematically. Besides that, the result from the network

  6. The effect of extended in-sewer storage on wastewater treatment plant performance.

    PubMed

    Ashley, R M; Dudley, J; Vollertsen, J; Saul, A J; Jack, A; Blanksby, J R

    2002-01-01

    A project funded by UKWIR is under way in the UK to develop a relatively simple methodology whereby the effects of the introduction of extended in-sewer storage at CSOs on downstream sewerage and treatment can be assessed. Recent legislation (UK and European) has compelled many sewer system operators to introduce systems which increase in-sewer retention times, and also retain more flow and load within sewer networks. The project has reviewed existing knowledge about the interaction between in-sewer flow and treatment plants, together with available models. The study is utilising a "benchmark" of 3 configurations of treatment plant and dynamic simulation using the WRc STOAT software, with minor modifications to ensure that effects on odour generation and nutrient removal processes are adequately modelled. As no existing sewer flow quality model can represent the range of conditions possible in sewer networks, a combined application of the Hydroworks model and a new model developed at Aalborg University is being used for this part of the study.

  7. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. • degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds • changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components • changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  8. Extending Validated Human Performance Models to Explore NextGen Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the expected increases in air traffic demands, NASA and FAA are researching and developing Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concepts. NextGen will require substantial increases in the data available to pilots on the flight deck (e.g., weather,wake, traffic trajectory predictions, etc.) to support more precise and closely coordinated operations (e.g., self-separation, RNAV/RNP, and closely spaced parallel operations, CSPOs). These NextGen procedures and operations, along with the pilot's roles and responsibilities, must be designed with consideration of the pilot's capabilities and limitations. Failure to do so will leave the pilots, and thus the entire aviation system, vulnerable to error. A validated Man-machine Integration and design Analysis System (MIDAS) v5 model was extended to evaluate anticipated changes to flight deck and controller roles and responsibilities in NextGen approach and Land operations. Compared to conditions when the controllers are responsible for separation on decent to land phase of flight, the output from these model predictions suggest that the flight deck response time to detect the lead aircraft blunder will decrease, pilot scans to the navigation display will increase, and workload will increase.

  9. Microbial community analysis involved in the aerobic/extended-idle process performing biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tian-jing; Yang, Guo-jing; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that biological phosphorus removal can be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process using both glucose and acetate as the sole substrate. However, the microbial consortiums involved in glucose-fed and acetate-fed systems have not yet been characterized. Thus the aims of this paper were to investigate the diversities and dynamics of bacterial communities during the acclimation period, and to quantify polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the systems. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the microbial communities were mainly composed of phylum Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi and another six kinds of unclassified bacteria. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that PAOs and GAOs accounted for 43 ± 7 and 16 ± 3% of all bacteria in the glucose-fed system, and 19 ± 4 and 35 ± 5% of total bacteria in the acetate-fed system, respectively. The results showed that the conventional PAOs could thrive in the AEI process, and a defined anaerobic zone was not necessarily required for putative PAOs growth.

  10. Comparative Geometrical Investigations of Hand-Held Scanning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Lindstaedt, M.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Misgaiski-Hass, M.

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry) as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science): DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google's Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M). The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  11. A Smart Haptic Hand-Held Device for Neurosurgical Microdissection.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Marcus, Hani J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Microneurosurgery requires dexterity, precision and delicate force application in order to be carried out safely and effectively. Neurosurgeons must apply sufficient force in order to carry out microsurgical procedures effectively but not excessive force such that iatrogenic injury occurs. This paper presents a smart hand-held microsurgical instrument that indicates to the surgeon when a force-threshold has been exceeded by providing vibrotactile feedback. Many existing haptic-feedback systems, particularly master-slave robotic platforms, are large, highly complex, and costly. By comparison, the proposed device is compact, fail-safe and low cost. Two psychophysical user studies were carried out to assess the proposed vibrotactile force-threshold feedback system. A cadaveric pilot study was carried out to evaluate the device in a microdissection task. In all the studies performed, the haptic dissector device has shown to be effective in providing real-time feedback in terms of force application during microsurgical tasks. PMID:25631207

  12. High Performance Plasma Operation on DIII-D During Extended Periods Without Boronization

    SciTech Connect

    West, W P; Groth, M; Hyatt, A W; Jackson, G L; Wade, M R; Greenfield, C M; Politzer, P A

    2007-06-27

    High performance plasmas, including both hybrid and advanced tokamak (AT) bench-mark discharges, were shown to be highly repeatable in DIII-D over 6000 plasma-seconds of operation during the 2006 campaign with no intervening boron depositions or high temperature bakes. Hybrid and AT discharges with identical control targets were repeated after the initial boronization at the beginning of the 2006 campaign, and again just before and after a second boronization near the end of the 2006 campaign. After a long entry vent between the 2006 and 2007 campaigns, similar discharges were again repeated after the standard high temperature baking and plasma cleanup, but prior to a boronization. Performance metrics, such as {beta}, confinement quality, and density control, were extremely well repeated. A low performance daily reference shot (DRS) was also established as a routine monitor of impurity influx. Over the 2006 campaign, the DRS database indicated little to no secular increase in impurity content. Oxygen content and Ni line emission were higher after the intervening vent, but were still minor contributors to plasma contamination. This indicates that erosion of boron films used for wall conditioning will not be a limitation to establishing long pulse high performance discharges in the new generation of superconducting tokamaks if graphite is used as the primary plasma facing material. These results contrast with recent work in devices using high-Z metallic plasma facing materials, where very frequent refreshing of boron films is required for high performance plasma operation.

  13. Damage-Mitigating Control of Space Propulsion Systems for High Performance and Extended Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Wu, Min-Kuang

    1994-01-01

    A major goal in the control of complex mechanical system such as spacecraft rocket engine's advanced aircraft, and power plants is to achieve high performance with increased reliability, component durability, and maintainability. The current practice of decision and control systems synthesis focuses on improving performance and diagnostic capabilities under constraints that often do not adequately represent the materials degradation. In view of the high performance requirements of the system and availability of improved materials, the lack of appropriate knowledge about the properties of these materials will lead to either less than achievable performance due to overly conservative design, or over-straining of the structure leading to unexpected failures and drastic reduction of the service life. The key idea in this report is that a significant improvement in service life could be achieved by a small reduction in the system dynamic performance. The major task is to characterize the damage generation process, and then utilize this information in a mathematical form to synthesize a control law that would meet the system requirements and simultaneously satisfy the constraints that are imposed by the material and structural properties of the critical components. The concept of damage mitigation is introduced for control of mechanical systems to achieve high performance with a prolonged life span. A model of fatigue damage dynamics is formulated in the continuous-time setting, instead of a cycle-based representation, for direct application to control systems synthesis. An optimal control policy is then formulated via nonlinear programming under specified constraints of the damage rate and accumulated damage. The results of simulation experiments for the transient upthrust of a bipropellant rocket engine are presented to demonstrate efficacy of the damage-mitigating control concept.

  14. A Cognitive Style Perspective to Handheld Devices: Customization vs. Personalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chen-Wei; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2016-01-01

    Handheld devices are widely applied to support open and distributed learning, where students are diverse. On the other hand, customization and personalization can be applied to accommodate students' diversities. However, paucity of research compares the effects of customization and personalization in the context of handheld devices. To this end, a…

  15. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7053 - Moving hand-held drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving hand-held drills. 57.7053 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7053 Moving hand-held drills. Before...

  20. Learning Object Design Considerations for Small-Screen Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Daniel; Hedberg, John

    2008-01-01

    The key limitation of handheld technology for the delivery of learning objects is the small screen that is available for effective display. The smallness of the screen not only adversely affects the clarity, but it also negatively impacts on the acceptance and integration of this potentially useful technology in education. Handheld devices are…

  1. Handheld Technology Acceptance in Radiologic Science Education and Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kevin Jay

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention of directors of educational programs in the radiologic sciences to adopt handheld devices to aid in managing student clinical data. Handheld devices were described to participants as a technology representing a class of mobile electronic devices including, but not limited to,…

  2. Evaluation of a Handheld Data Collection Interface for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Cynthia Sims; Jones, Tricia; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2004-01-01

    Despite a rise in the use of handheld computers in classrooms, meaningful learning with personal digital assistant (PDA) technology remains poorly studied. This article reports results from an evaluation of customized handheld data collection software, the BioKIDS Sequence, which was used during an 8-week biodiversity curriculum unit by 5th and…

  3. Examining Potentialities of Handheld Technology in Students' Academic Attainments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jianjun; Zhang, Yixin

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of K-12 school teachers have been using handheld, or palmtop, computers in the classroom as an integral means of facilitating education due to the flexibility, mobility, interactive learning capability, and comparatively inexpensive cost. This study involved two experiments in handheld computers: (a) a comparison of the…

  4. Introducing handheld computers into home care.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Lloyd; Quinn, Holly; Kerry, June; Brown, Katherine Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 2009, Bayshore Home Health (BHH) provided tablet computers to 75 home care nurses working in Barrie, Ont. The devices were equipped with an embedded evidence-based documentation system and loaded with decision-making supports such as drug reference databases. The technology was designed to facilitate client assessment, care planning and evaluation at the point of care. This article documents the experience of implementing handheld computers in a home care setting and presents the lessons learned from the perspectives of the BHH executive team and front-line nurses. These groups were asked to complete online surveys, developed by the BHH research and evaluation steering committee, to assess the impact of the implementation on the organization, its nurses and its clients. An analysis of the feedback indicated support for the implementation. However, both groups had concerns about the capability of the hardware and software to meet the needs of decentralized home care nurses working in both urban and rural areas. Front-line nurses also identified the impact of handheld computers on the time required for charting and on the nurse-client relationship as areas of concern.

  5. Extending the SAFRAN meteorological analysis system to the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Analysis of its performance and applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Míguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Llasat, María del Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Within the FP7 eartH2Observe project we are studying the ability of different LSMs to simulate the processes of drought on the Iberian Peninsula. In order to perform our simulations we need a good atmospheric forcing dataset that covers the whole area of study at the right resolution (5 km in hour case). Currently, in Spain, there are some high resolution datasets, but none of them have all the variables necessary to run a LSM. Thus, we decided to extend the SAFRAN meteorological analysis system to the whole Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. SAFRAN uses optimal interpolation to analyze the variables of interest using all available observed data (from AEMET's network) and a first guess (ERA-Interim). SAFRAN, which was developed by Météo France to force its LSMs (CROCUS for snow, ISBA and SURFEX for hydrological studies), was recently extended to the Ebro basin in a pilot study that covered only three years. In eartH2Observe we are extending it to cover the 1995-2007 period. This period is not long enough to study climate variability, but it already useful to a range of studies that need a decade long dataset. In the future, we plan to extend SAFRAN to a period that covers several decades. We present the SAFRAN analysis system, its main features and its performance in the study area. In addition, we also present a first comparison with alternative databases in the context of the eartH2Observe Spanish Case Study. In the future, we expect SAFRAN to be useful, not only to large scale hydrology projects, but also to a large range of projects simulating land surface processes for other purposes. SAFRAN will also be useful as reference dataset for downscaling climate simulations. Thus, we also discuss these applications.

  6. Durations of extended mental rehearsals are remarkably reproducible in higher level human performances.

    PubMed

    Brothers, L; Shaw, G L; Wright, E L

    1993-12-01

    It has been extremely difficult to quantify temporal aspects of higher level human brain function. We have found that mental rehearsals of musical performance of several minutes duration provide such a measure in that they can be highly reproducible, varying to less than 1%. These remarkable results pose fundamental neurophysiological problems. It is necessary to understand the underlying neuronal bases for this accuracy in the spatial-temporal activity of billions of neurons over minutes without sensory input. Further, they present a powerful constraint on neuronal models of brain function. Such highly reproducible (in duration) mental rehearsals might be used in conjunction with multielectrode EEG recordings to look for reproducible spatial-temporal patterns. Further, we suggest that our results may provide an extremely useful behavioural correlate for high level performance.

  7. Image quality characteristics of handheld display devices for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2 × 10(-5) mm(2) at 1 mm(-1), while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7 × 10(-6) mm(2). Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

  8. Image Quality Characteristics of Handheld Display Devices for Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2×10−5 mm2 at 1 mm−1, while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7×10−6 mm2. Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

  9. Do Handheld Devices Facilitate Face-to-Face Collaboration? Handheld Devices with Large Shared Display Groupware to Facilitate Group Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Kao, L.-C.

    2007-01-01

    One-to-one computing environments change and improve classroom dynamics as individual students can bring handheld devices fitted with wireless communication capabilities into the classrooms. However, the screens of handheld devices, being designed for individual-user mobile application, limit promotion of interaction among groups of learners. This…

  10. Evaluation of imaging performance of megavoltage cone-beam CT over an extended period

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Yamada, Yuji; Koizumi, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Kakimoto, Naoya; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Souhei

    2014-01-01

    A linear accelerator vendor and the AAPM TG-142 report propose that quality assurance testing for image-guided devices such megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV-CBCT) be conducted on a monthly basis. In clinical settings, however, unpredictable errors such as image artifacts can occur even when quality assurance results performed at this frequency are within tolerance limits. Here, we evaluated the imaging performance of MV-CBCT on a weekly basis for ∼ 1 year using a Siemens ONCOR machine with a 6-MV X-ray and an image-quality phantom. Image acquisition was undertaken using 15 monitor units. Geometric distortion was evaluated with beads evenly distributed in the phantom, and the results were compared with the expected position in three dimensions. Image-quality characteristics of the system were measured and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, including image noise and uniformity, low-contrast resolution, high-contrast resolution and spatial resolution. All evaluations were performed 100 times each. For geometric distortion, deviation between the measured and expected values was within the tolerance limit of 2 mm. However, a subtle systematic error was found which meant that the phantom was rotated slightly in a clockwise manner, possibly due to geometry calibration of the MV-CBCT system. Regarding image noise and uniformity, two incidents over tolerance occurred in 100 measurements. This phenomenon disappeared after dose calibration of beam output for MV-CBCT. In contrast, all results for low-contrast resolution, high-contrast resolution and spatial resolution were within their respective tolerances. PMID:23979076

  11. Damage-mitigating control of space propulsion systems for high performance and extended life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Wu, Min-Kuang; Dai, Xiaowen; Carpino, Marc; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations are presented showing that a substantial improvement in service life of a reusable rocket engine can be achieved by an insignificant reduction in the system dynamic performance. The paper introduces the concept of damage mitigation and formulates a continuous-time model of fatigue damage dynamics. For control of complex mechanical systems, damage prediction and damage mitigation are carried out based on the available sensory and operational information such that the plant can be inexpensively maintained and safely and efficiently steered under diverse operating conditions. The results of simulation experiments are presented for transient operations of a reusable rocket engine.

  12. Performance of four-stage thermoelectric cooler for extended wavelength InGaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, De-feng; Yang, Li-yi; Liu, Da-fu; Xu, Qin-fei; Li, Tao; Li, Xue

    2015-04-01

    Experimental setup for evaluating four-stage thermoelectric cooler's performance was designed. Effects of input power, heat dissipation condition and heat load on the temperature difference (ΔT) of four-stage thermoelectric coolers' hot and cold faces were obtained experimentally. The result shows that, the ΔT increases as the input power increases. A linear relationship exists between input current and feedback voltage. In different cooling conditions, the ΔT of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) increases with the temperature of hot face. As the temperature increasing on hot face is 1K, the ΔT increasing of TEC can be about 0.5K. Meanwhile, the power consumption of TEC also increases slightly. Water condensation can be prevented in either dry nitrogen environment or vacuum environment, but the vacuum level has great influence to the ΔT, especially in low operation temperature. The better the vacuum level is, the smaller the convection heat loss has. When the operation temperature of focal plane array (FPA) is lower than 220K, it is prior to use vacuum packaging. Considering the Joule-heat of readout circuit and the heat loss of wire conduction, the minimum working temperature of FPA can reach below 200 K when the temperature of the hot face is 285K. And the coefficient of performance (COP) of TEC can increase sharply from 0.8% to 4% when the controlled operation temperature is 220K rather than 200K.

  13. An extended life and performance test of a low-power arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    An automated, cyclic life test was performed to demonstrate the reliability and endurance of a low power dc cycle arcjet thruster. Over 1000 hr and 500 on-off cycles were accumulated which would represent the requirements for about 15 years of on-orbit lifetime. A hydrogen/nitrogen propellant mixture was used to simulate decomposed hydrazine propellant and the power level was nominally 1.2 kW after the burn-in period. The arcjet operated in a very repeatable fashion from cycle to cycle. The steady state voltage increased by approximately 6 V over the first 300 hr, and then by only 3 V through the remainder of the test. Thrust measurements taken before, during, and after the test verified that the thruster performed in a consistent fashion throughout the tests at a specific impulse of 450 to 460 sec. Post-test component evaluation revealed limited erosion on both the anode and cathode. Other thruster components, including graphite seals, appeared undamaged.

  14. Damage-mitigating control of a reusable rocket engine for high performance and extended life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Dai, Xiaowen

    1995-01-01

    The goal of damage mitigating control in reusable rocket engines is to achieve high performance with increased durability of mechanical structures such that functional lives of the critical components are increased. The major benefit is an increase in structural durability with no significant loss of performance. This report investigates the feasibility of damage mitigating control of reusable rocket engines. Phenomenological models of creep and thermo-mechanical fatigue damage have been formulated in the state-variable setting such that these models can be combined with the plant model of a reusable rocket engine, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), for synthesizing an optimal control policy. Specifically, a creep damage model of the main thrust chamber wall is analytically derived based on the theories of sandwich beam and viscoplasticity. This model characterizes progressive bulging-out and incremental thinning of the coolant channel ligament leading to its eventual failure by tensile rupture. The objective is to generate a closed form solution of the wall thin-out phenomenon in real time where the ligament geometry is continuously updated to account for the resulting deformation. The results are in agreement with those obtained from the finite element analyses and experimental observation for both Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper and a copper-zerconium-silver alloy called NARloy-Z. Due to its computational efficiency, this damage model is suitable for on-line applications of life prediction and damage mitigating control, and also permits parametric studies for off-line synthesis of damage mitigating control systems. The results are presented to demonstrate the potential of life extension of reusable rocket engines via damage mitigating control. The control system has also been simulated on a testbed to observe how the damage at different critical points can be traded off without any significant loss of engine performance. The research work

  15. Extending PowerPack for Profiling and Analysis of High Performance Accelerator-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo; Chang, Hung-Ching; Song, Shuaiwen; Su, Chun-Yi; Meyer, Timmy; Mooring, John; Cameron, Kirk

    2014-12-01

    Accelerators offer a substantial increase in efficiency for high-performance systems offering speedups for computational applications that leverage hardware support for highly-parallel codes. However, the power use of some accelerators exceeds 200 watts at idle which means use at exascale comes at a significant increase in power at a time when we face a power ceiling of about 20 megawatts. Despite the growing domination of accelerator-based systems in the Top500 and Green500 lists of fastest and most efficient supercomputers, there are few detailed studies comparing the power and energy use of common accelerators. In this work, we conduct detailed experimental studies of the power usage and distribution of Xeon-Phi-based systems in comparison to the NVIDIA Tesla and at SandyBridge.

  16. Caffeine administration at night during extended wakefulness effectively mitigates performance impairment but not subjective assessments of fatigue and sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Paech, Gemma M; Banks, Siobhan; Pajcin, Maja; Grant, Crystal; Johnson, Kayla; Kamimori, Gary H; Vedova, Chris B Della

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated caffeine administration on performance and subjective reports of sleepiness and fatigue during 50h extended wakefulness. Twenty-four, non-smokers aged 22.5±2.9y (mean±SD) remained awake for two nights (50h) in a controlled laboratory environment. During this period, 200mg of caffeine or placebo gum was administered at 01:00, 03:00, 05:00 and 07:00 on both nights (total of 800mg/night). Neurobehavioral performance and subjective reports were assessed throughout the wake period. Caffeine improved performance compared to placebo, but did not affect overall ratings of subjective sleepiness and fatigue. Performance and sleepiness worsened with increasing time awake for both conditions. However, caffeine slowed performance impairments such that after 50h of wakefulness performance was better following caffeine administration compared to placebo. Caffeine also slowed the increase in subjective sleepiness and performance ratings, but only during the first night of wakefulness. After two nights of sleep deprivation, there was no difference in sleepiness ratings between the two conditions. These results demonstrate that strategic administration of caffeine effectively mitigates performance impairments associated with 50h wakefulness but does not improve overall subjective assessments of sleepiness, fatigue and performance. Results indicate that while performance impairment is alleviated, individuals may continue to report feelings of sleepiness. Individuals who use caffeine as a countermeasure in sustained operations may feel as though caffeine is not effective despite impairments in objective performance being largely mitigated.

  17. Caffeine administration at night during extended wakefulness effectively mitigates performance impairment but not subjective assessments of fatigue and sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Paech, Gemma M; Banks, Siobhan; Pajcin, Maja; Grant, Crystal; Johnson, Kayla; Kamimori, Gary H; Vedova, Chris B Della

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated caffeine administration on performance and subjective reports of sleepiness and fatigue during 50h extended wakefulness. Twenty-four, non-smokers aged 22.5±2.9y (mean±SD) remained awake for two nights (50h) in a controlled laboratory environment. During this period, 200mg of caffeine or placebo gum was administered at 01:00, 03:00, 05:00 and 07:00 on both nights (total of 800mg/night). Neurobehavioral performance and subjective reports were assessed throughout the wake period. Caffeine improved performance compared to placebo, but did not affect overall ratings of subjective sleepiness and fatigue. Performance and sleepiness worsened with increasing time awake for both conditions. However, caffeine slowed performance impairments such that after 50h of wakefulness performance was better following caffeine administration compared to placebo. Caffeine also slowed the increase in subjective sleepiness and performance ratings, but only during the first night of wakefulness. After two nights of sleep deprivation, there was no difference in sleepiness ratings between the two conditions. These results demonstrate that strategic administration of caffeine effectively mitigates performance impairments associated with 50h wakefulness but does not improve overall subjective assessments of sleepiness, fatigue and performance. Results indicate that while performance impairment is alleviated, individuals may continue to report feelings of sleepiness. Individuals who use caffeine as a countermeasure in sustained operations may feel as though caffeine is not effective despite impairments in objective performance being largely mitigated. PMID:27061779

  18. Low cost booster and high performance orbit injection propulsion extended abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Space transportation is currently a major element of cost for communications satellite systems. For every dollar spent in manufacturing the satellite, somewhere between 1 and 3 dollars must be spent to launch the satellite into its initial operational orbit. This also makes the weight of the satellite a very critical cost factor because it is important to maximize the useful payload that is placed into orbit to maximize the return on the original investment. It seems apparent then, that tremendous economic advantage for satellite communications systems can be gained from improvements in two key highly leveraged propulsion areas. The first and most important economic improvement can be achieved by significantly lowering the cost of today's launch vehicles. The second gain that would greatly benefit the communications satellite business position is to increase both the useful (payload) weight placed into the orbit and the revenue generating lifetime of the satellite on-orbit. The point of this paper is to first explain that these two goals can best be achieved by cost reduction and performance increasing advancements in rocket propulsion for both the launch vehicle and for the satellite on-board apogee insertion and on-orbit velocity control systems.

  19. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48−0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75−0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2–4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from −0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option. PMID:27799667

  20. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  1. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-12-22

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  2. Application of a Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter for In-Flight Estimation of Aircraft Engine Performance Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    An approach based on the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) technique is investigated for the in-flight estimation of non-measurable performance parameters of aircraft engines. Performance parameters, such as thrust and stall margins, provide crucial information for operating an aircraft engine in a safe and efficient manner, but they cannot be directly measured during flight. A technique to accurately estimate these parameters is, therefore, essential for further enhancement of engine operation. In this paper, a CGEKF is developed by combining an on-board engine model and a single Kalman gain matrix. In order to make the on-board engine model adaptive to the real engine s performance variations due to degradation or anomalies, the CGEKF is designed with the ability to adjust its performance through the adjustment of artificial parameters called tuning parameters. With this design approach, the CGEKF can maintain accurate estimation performance when it is applied to aircraft engines at offnominal conditions. The performance of the CGEKF is evaluated in a simulation environment using numerous component degradation and fault scenarios at multiple operating conditions.

  3. Digital hand-held temperature monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allin, L. V.; Ferrari, I.

    1980-09-01

    A hand-held non-invasive monitoring instrument has been designed, constructed and tested to allow core temperature measurements to be obtained from human subjects who have swallowed a temperature-sensing radio transmitter (radio pill). This instrument uses a simple AM radio for a receiver, digital circuitry to decode the received signal and a four-digit LED module to display the temperature. The unit, which is battery-powered, can be held in one hand while an antenna probe is swept over the abdomen of the subject until a continuously audible signal is generated by a piezoelectric sound source, indicating reception. The digital display then presents the body core temperature in tenths of a degree Celsius.

  4. Gen-2 Hand-Held Optical Imager towards Cancer Imaging: Reflectance and Transillumination Phantom Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jean; Roman, Manuela; Hall, Michael; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Hand-held near-infrared (NIR) optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards non-invasive clinical breast imaging. Unlike these existing imagers that can perform only reflectance imaging, a generation-2 (Gen-2) hand-held optical imager has been recently developed to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging. The unique forked design of the hand-held probe head(s) allows for reflectance imaging (as in ultrasound) and transillumination or compressed imaging (as in X-ray mammography). Phantom studies were performed to demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) target detection via reflectance and transillumination imaging at various target depths (1–5 cm deep) and using simultaneous multiple point illumination approach. It was observed that 0.45 cc targets were detected up to 5 cm deep during transillumination, but limited to 2.5 cm deep during reflectance imaging. Additionally, implementing appropriate data post-processing techniques along with a polynomial fitting approach, to plot 2D surface contours of the detected signal, yields distinct target detectability and localization. The ability of the gen-2 imager to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging allows its direct comparison to ultrasound and X-ray mammography results, respectively, in future clinical breast imaging studies. PMID:22438743

  5. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell performances by molecular engineering: highly efficient π-extended organic sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Grisorio, Roberto; De Marco, Luisa; Agosta, Rita; Iacobellis, Rosabianca; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Manca, Michele; Mastrorilli, Piero; Gigli, Giuseppe; Suranna, Gian Paolo

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and characterization of two π-extended organic sensitizers (G1 and G2) for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. The materials are designed with a D-A-π-A structure constituted by i) a triarylamine group as the donor part, ii) a dithienyl-benzothiadiazole chromophore followed by iii) a further ethynylene-thiophene (G1) or ethynylene-benzene (G2) π-spacer and iv) a cyano-acrylic moiety as acceptor and anchoring part. An unusual structural extension of the π-bridge characterizes these structures. The so-configured sensitizers exhibit a broad absorption profile, the origin of which is supported by density functional theory. The absence of hypsochromic shifts as a consequence of deprotonation as well as notable optical and electrochemical stabilities are also observed. Concerning the performances in devices, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates that the structural modification of the π-spacer mainly increases the electron lifetime of G2 with respect to G1. In devices, this feature translates into a superior power conversion efficiency of G2, reaching 8.1%. These results are comparable to those recorded for N719 and are higher with respect to literature congeners, supporting further structural engineering of the π-bridge extension in the search for better performing π-extended organic sensitizers.

  6. Handheld chemical threat monitor for the soldier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, Suneet; Henning, Patrick F.; Weling, Ani S.; Landers, Franklin M.; Samuels, Alan C.

    2003-08-01

    A small, low-cost sensor capable of autonomous detection of a wide variety of chemical agents in either vapor, particulate or liquid phase is urgently needed. It now appears that this need also extends to homeland defense and the vast network of civilian security forces including police, fire, public health and emergency medical personnel. We are developing a low-cost, compact infrared Chemical Threat Monitor (CTM) that could meet this need. This palm-sized handheld instrument combines Foster-Miller's unique optical "wedge" technology coupled to novel, disposable infrared fiber optic sensors for sample collection. These technologies will be coupled to emerging high sensitivity, low-cost uncooled linear array infrared detectors optimized for this application. This combination will provide the individual user with most of the capability of today"s expensive FTIR units in a miniature robust unit that has no moving parts. In this paper we will describe the CTM device, its operation, and present preliminary results on liquid chemical agent simulants.

  7. Optical links in handheld multimedia devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geffen, S.; Duis, J.; Miller, R.

    2008-04-01

    Ever emerging applications in handheld multimedia devices such as mobile phones, laptop computers, portable video games and digital cameras requiring increased screen resolutions are driving higher aggregate bitrates between host processor and display(s) enabling services such as mobile video conferencing, video on demand and TV broadcasting. Larger displays and smaller phones require complex mechanical 3D hinge configurations striving to combine maximum functionality with compact building volumes. Conventional galvanic interconnections such as Micro-Coax and FPC carrying parallel digital data between host processor and display module may produce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and bandwidth limitations caused by small cable size and tight cable bends. To reduce the number of signals through a hinge, the mobile phone industry, organized in the MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface) alliance, is currently defining an electrical interface transmitting serialized digital data at speeds >1Gbps. This interface allows for electrical or optical interconnects. Above 1Gbps optical links may offer a cost effective alternative because of their flexibility, increased bandwidth and immunity to EMI. This paper describes the development of optical links for handheld communication devices. A cable assembly based on a special Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) selected for its mechanical durability is terminated with a small form factor molded lens assembly which interfaces between an 850nm VCSEL transmitter and a receiving device on the printed circuit board of the display module. A statistical approach based on a Lean Design For Six Sigma (LDFSS) roadmap for new product development tries to find an optimum link definition which will be robust and low cost meeting the power consumption requirements appropriate for battery operated systems.

  8. Evaluating change in user error when using ruggedized handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Angela Brooke; Strawderman, Lesley; Burch, Reuben

    2015-11-01

    The increasing number of handheld mobile devices used today and the increasing dependency on them in the workplace makes understanding how users interact with these devices critical. This study seeks to understand how user error changes based on user age as well as input content type on ruggedized handheld devices. Participants completed data entry tasks of word and character input on two different devices, a physical keypad and touchscreen device. The number of errors and types of error, corrected and permanent were collected for each participant. Based on results on the study, touchscreen devices proved to be the optimal ruggedized handheld device to minimize user error. PMID:26154226

  9. Evaluating change in user error when using ruggedized handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Angela Brooke; Strawderman, Lesley; Burch, Reuben

    2015-11-01

    The increasing number of handheld mobile devices used today and the increasing dependency on them in the workplace makes understanding how users interact with these devices critical. This study seeks to understand how user error changes based on user age as well as input content type on ruggedized handheld devices. Participants completed data entry tasks of word and character input on two different devices, a physical keypad and touchscreen device. The number of errors and types of error, corrected and permanent were collected for each participant. Based on results on the study, touchscreen devices proved to be the optimal ruggedized handheld device to minimize user error.

  10. An analysis of sweep patterns for a handheld demining system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. N.; Gader, P. D.; Ho, K. C.; Mazhar, R.

    2006-05-01

    Handheld sensors are commonly used to assist in landmine location and removal. A number of computer systems aimed at assisting humans in discriminating between buried mines and other objects have been developed. Each such system requires some protocol that involves sweeping the sensor over a region of ground using some set of patterns to search for objects (detection) and determine the nature of those objects (discrimination). The work reported here is an effort to determine an acceptable sweep pattern for mine/nonmine discrimination that provides good performance while still being simple for the operator to use. The paper describes a series of data collections and case studies employing a combined radar and metal detection sensor. The system was evaluated first using a robotic operator and later human operators. We discuss the application of a supervised learning system discriminator to each data set, and evaluate discrimination performance. We found that using a relatively simple sweep pattern, computer algorithms can achieve better discrimination performance than an expert human operator, and that (at least up to ten sweeps) our computer algorithm performs better with more sweeps over target.

  11. Anneal treatment to improve the performance of extended wavelength In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Li, Tao; Deng, Shuangyan; Li, Xue; Shao, Xiumei; Tang, Hengjing; Gong, Haimei

    2015-07-01

    For the purposes of improving the performance of the SWIR detector, two types of annealing treatment for extended wavelength In0.83Ga0.17As photodiodes with PIN structure are studied. In contrast to the sample A (rapid thermal annealing is performed after mesa etching for fabricating the In0.83Ga0.17As photodiodes), the sample B (rapid thermal annealing is performed before mesa etching for fabricating the In0.83Ga0.17As photodiodes) has a lower dark current at the same test temperature 220 K and 300 K, respectively. The different anneal treatment improves quality of the material by decreasing the defects of devices structure. The voltage-current curves have been used to measure the dark current of different devices. Plane-view electron beam induced current (PV-EBIC) and secondary electron (SE) images have been used to evaluate the performance correlated imperfection or defect features of In0.83Ga0.17As photodiodes structures and the defect density is 2.33 × 107 cm-2 for sample A, 8.14 × 106 cm-2 for sample B.

  12. 30 CFR 56.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated with controls which require constant hand or finger pressure. (b) Circular saws and chain saws...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14116 - Hand-held power tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., disc sanders, grinders and circular and chain saws, when used in the hand-held mode shall be operated with controls which require constant hand or finger pressure. (b) Circular saws and chain saws...

  14. Impacts of the SCA Core Framework on High Speed Broadband Waveform in SDR Handheld System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sangchul; Park, Namhoon; Kwon, Ohjun; Kim, Yeongjin

    In this paper, we have shown a major element occupying the large portion of software communications architecture (SCA)-based software defined radio (SDR) handheld embedded system and an important feature for implementing a high speed broadband radio to an SCA waveform through a couple of experiments. First, this paper identifies the main items possessing the large portion of SCA-based SDR handheld embedded system by the experiment on the target platform which is similar to a commercial mobile handheld system. Both the world interoperabillity for microwave access (WiMAX) and high speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) waveform software packages are used as an SCA waveform application. This paper also presents the results of the relative binary size distribution of SCA software resources for looking for the major elements making an SCA-based SDR handheld embedded system heavier. As a result, when focusing on the relative weight portion of SCA core framework (CF), the SCA CF takes 16% up and others have 84% out of the whole binary size distribution of SCA software resources. The results of the experiment give us notice that the weight portion of SCA CF is minor and compatible with the overall software binary size needs of an SCA-based SDR handheld embedded system, on the other hand, the practical problem on the lightweight is in a common object request broker architecture (CORBA) and extensible markup language (XML) parser resources. Second, this paper describes an important feature for implementing a high speed broadband radio to an SCA waveform and presents the performance evaluation results of the SCA port communication on both power PC (PPC) 405 and x86 processor platforms. The PPC 405 platform, which is similar to a commercial mobile handset, takes the value of average round trip time (RTT) with a maximum of thirty six millisecond. The x86 platform, however, which is analogous to a server platform, maintains stable micro-second resolution. From our experiments, we

  15. SkinScan©: A PORTABLE LIBRARY FOR MELANOMA DETECTION ON HANDHELD DEVICES.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Tarun; Situ, Ning; Lancaster, Keith; Yuan, Xiaojing; Zouridakis, George

    2011-03-30

    We have developed a portable library for automated detection of melanoma termed SkinScan© that can be used on smartphones and other handheld devices. Compared to desktop computers, embedded processors have limited processing speed, memory, and power, but they have the advantage of portability and low cost. In this study we explored the feasibility of running a sophisticated application for automated skin cancer detection on an Apple iPhone 4. Our results demonstrate that the proposed library with the advanced image processing and analysis algorithms has excellent performance on handheld and desktop computers. Therefore, deployment of smartphones as screening devices for skin cancer and other skin diseases can have a significant impact on health care delivery in underserved and remote areas. PMID:21892382

  16. Computer implemented method, and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Kenneth William (Inventor); Taylor, James Clayton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The invention described here in is a computer-implemented method and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool. In particular, the control of a hand held tool is for the purpose of controlling the speed of a fastener interface mechanism and the torque applied to fasteners by the fastener interface mechanism of the hand-held tool and monitoring the operating parameters of the tool. The control is embodied in intool software embedded on a processor within the tool which also communicates with remote software. An operator can run the tool, or through the interaction of both software, operate the tool from a remote location, analyze data from a performance history recorded by the tool, and select various torque and speed parameters for each fastener.

  17. High-Tech versus Low-Tech Instructional Strategies: A Comparison of Clickers and Handheld Response Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Marianne; Forrest, Stacey L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of clickers (classroom response systems) has been widely investigated, fewer studies directly compared outcomes for clickers with other active response methods, such as handheld response cards. We measured students' test performance and their self-reported anxiety and hope for upcoming tests after attending review sessions for an…

  18. 78 FR 20695 - Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method Validation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... has recently developed updated versions of its minimum performance standards for walk-through metal detectors and hand-held metal detectors. In order to ensure that the test methods in the standards are... efforts from testing laboratories. NIJ is also seeking the participation of metal detector...

  19. Electronic, Hand-Held, Wireless Text-And-Graphics Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed electronic, hand-held, wireless viewer presents written material to reader in way that closely resembles that of paper reading material. Viewer presents text and graphics like those normally found in books, newspapers, and magazines. Its hand-held and wireless features enable it to be used in positions and areas where books and magazines are normally used. Device consists primarily of two parts: the receiver/information store and viewing screen.

  20. Automated Hand-Held UXO Detection, Classification & Discrimination Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Thomas H.

    2000-06-12

    The research focused on procedures for target discrimination and classification using hand-held EMI sensors. The idea is to have a small, portable sensor that can be operated in a sweep or similar pattern in front of the operator, and that is capable of distinguishing between buried UXO and clutter on the spot. Curing Phase 1, we developed the processing techniques for distinguishing between buried UXO and clutter using the EM61-HH hand-held metal detector.

  1. Demonstration Report: Handheld UXO Discriminator, SERDP No. MR-1667

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, E.

    2010-09-01

    In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' In keeping with these remarks and with prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), the LBNL group has successfully designed and built the cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (cf. Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2008, and 2009). Because hand-held systems have the advantage of being lightweight, compact, portable, and deployable under most site conditions, they are particularly useful in areas of dense vegetation or challenging terrain. In heavily wooded areas or areas with steep or uneven terrain, hand-held sensors may be the only suitable device for UXO detection and discrimination because it can be carried through spaces that the operator could walk through or at least approach. Furthermore, it is desirable to find and characterize a metallic object without the need to accurately locate the sensors at multiple positions around the target. The ideal system would thus locate and characterize the target from a single position of the sensor and indicate to the operator where to flag the target for subsequent study. Based on these considerations, we designed and built a sensor package in a shape of a 14-in (0.35 m) cube. This hand-held prototype incorporates the key features of the cart-mounted system - (a) three orthogonal transmitters and ten pairs of receivers, and (b) difference or gradient measurements that significantly reduce the ambient and motion

  2. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging with a handheld system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Pim J.; Daoudi, Khalid; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2016-02-01

    Flow imaging is an important technique in a range of disease areas, but estimating low flow speeds, especially near the walls of blood vessels, remains challenging. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging can be an alternative since there is little signal contamination from background tissue with photoacoustic imaging. We propose flow imaging using a clinical photoacoustic system that is both handheld and portable. The system integrates a linear array with 7.5 MHz central frequency in combination with a high-repetition-rate diode laser to allow high-speed photoacoustic imaging-ideal for this application. This work shows the flow imaging performance of the system in vitro using microparticles. Both two-dimensional (2-D) flow images and quantitative flow velocities from 12 to 75 mm/s were obtained. In a transparent bulk medium, flow estimation showed standard errors of ˜7% the estimated speed; in the presence of tissue-realistic optical scattering, the error increased to 40% due to limited signal-to-noise ratio. In the future, photoacoustic flow imaging can potentially be performed in vivo using fluorophore-filled vesicles or with an improved setup on whole blood.

  3. Hand-held digital line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. D.; Ustun, Teoman E.; Maislin, Gami; Webb, Robert H.

    2004-07-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy is a powerful research tool with specialized but, to date, limited use in ophthalmic clinics due in part to the size, cost, and complexity of instruments. Conversely, low-cost retinal imaging devices have limited capabilities in screening, detection, and diagnosis of diseases. To fill the niche between these two, a low-cost, hand-held, line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) was designed, constructed, and tested on normal human subjects. The LSLO has only one moving part, multiple imaging modes, and uses low-cost but highly sensitive complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) linear arrays for imaging with a detector dynamic range of 12-bits. The line-scanning approach produces high contrast quasi-confocal images with nearly the same performance as a flying-spot SLO. Imaging modes include simultaneous dual wavelength illumination and live stereoscopic imaging with a split aperture. Image processing and display functions are controlled with two stacked prototype compact printed circuit boards using field-programmable gated arrays (FPGA) and other digital electronic elements. With near shot-noise limited performance, the digital LSLO camera requires low illumination power (~ 100 μW) at near-infrared wavelengths. Wide field fundus images with several imaging modes have been obtained from several human subjects. The LSLO will significantly enhance confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for routine use by ophthalmologist, optometrists, general practitioners and also non-specialized emergency medical personnel and technicians in the field for retinal disease detection and other diverse applications.

  4. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging with a handheld system.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Pim J; Daoudi, Khalid; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2016-02-01

    Flow imaging is an important technique in a range of disease areas, but estimating low flow speeds, especially near the walls of blood vessels, remains challenging. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging can be an alternative since there is little signal contamination from background tissue with photoacoustic imaging. We propose flow imaging using a clinical photoacoustic system that is both handheld and portable. The system integrates a linear array with 7.5 MHz central frequency in combination with a high-repetition-rate diode laser to allow high-speed photoacoustic imaging--ideal for this application. This work shows the flow imaging performance of the system in vitro using microparticles. Both two-dimensional (2-D) flow images and quantitative flow velocities from 12 to 75  mm/s were obtained. In a transparent bulk medium, flow estimation showed standard errors of ∼7% the estimated speed; in the presence of tissue-realistic optical scattering, the error increased to 40% due to limited signal-to-noise ratio. In the future, photoacoustic flow imaging can potentially be performed in vivo using fluorophore-filled vesicles or with an improved setup on whole blood.

  5. Handheld-Level Electromechanical Cartilage Reshaping Device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sehwan; Manuel, Cyrus T; Wong, Brian J F; Chung, Phil-Sang; Mo, Ji-Hun

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a handheld-level multichannel electromechanical reshaping (EMR) cartilage device and evaluated the feasibility of providing a means of cartilage reshaping in a clinical outpatient setting. The effect of EMR on pig costal cartilage was evaluated in terms of shape change, tissue heat generation, and cell viability. The pig costal cartilage specimens (23 mm × 6.0 mm × 0.7 mm) were mechanically deformed to 90 degrees and fixed to a plastic jig and applied 5, 6, 7, and 8 V up to 8 minutes to find the optimal dosimetry for the our developed EMR device. The results reveal that bend angle increased with increasing voltage and application time. The maximum bend angle obtained was 70.5 ± 7.3 at 8 V, 5 minutes. The temperature of flat pig costal cartilage specimens were measured, while a constant electric voltage was applied to three pairs of electrodes that were inserted into the cartilages. The nonthermal feature of EMR was validated by a thermal infrared camera; that is, the maximum temperate of the flat cartilages is 20.3°C at 8 V. Cell viability assay showed no significant difference in cell damaged area from 3 to 7 minutes exposure with 7 V. In conclusion, the multichannel EMR device that was developed showed a good feasibility of cartilage shaping with minimal temperature change. PMID:26126226

  6. Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Dokos, Adam; Burns, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    The Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device (PHOWID) is a measurement system for imaging small defects (scratches, pits, micrometeor impacts, and the like) in the field. Designed primarily for window inspection, PHOWID attaches to a smooth surface with suction cups, and raster scans a small area with an optical pen in order to provide a three-dimensional image of the defect. PHOWID consists of a graphical user interface, motor control subsystem, scanning head, and interface electronics, as well as an integrated camera and user display that allows a user to locate minute defects before scanning. Noise levels are on the order of 60 in. (1.5 m). PHOWID allows field measurement of defects that are usually done in the lab. It is small, light, and attaches directly to the test article in any orientation up to vertical. An operator can scan a defect and get useful engineering data in a matter of minutes. There is no need to make a mold impression for later lab analysis.

  7. A Data-Driven Design Evaluation Tool for Handheld Device Soft Keyboards

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Matthieu B.; Sunderland, Elsie M.; Jindrich, Devin L.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    Thumb interaction is a primary technique used to operate small handheld devices such as smartphones. Despite the different techniques involved in operating a handheld device compared to a personal computer, the keyboard layouts for both devices are similar. A handheld device keyboard that considers the physical capabilities of the thumb may improve user experience. We developed and applied a design evaluation tool for different geometries of the QWERTY keyboard using a performance evaluation model. The model utilizes previously collected data on thumb motor performance and posture for different tap locations and thumb movement directions. We calculated a performance index (PITOT, 0 is worst and 2 is best) for 663 designs consisting in different combinations of three variables: the keyboard's radius of curvature (R) (mm), orientation (O) (°), and vertical location on the screen (L). The current standard keyboard performed poorly (PITOT = 0.28) compared to other designs considered. Keyboard location (L) contributed to the greatest variability in performance out of the three design variables, suggesting that designers should modify this variable first. Performance was greatest for designs in the middle keyboard location. In addition, having a slightly upward curve (R = −20 mm) and orientated perpendicular to the thumb's long axis (O = −20°) improved performance to PITOT = 1.97. Poorest performances were associated with placement of the keyboard's spacebar in the bottom right corner of the screen (e.g., the worst was for R = 20 mm, O = 40°, L =  Bottom (PITOT = 0.09)). While this evaluation tool can be used in the design process as an ergonomic reference to promote user motor performance, other design variables such as visual access and usability still remain unexplored. PMID:25211465

  8. Manipulator Design and Operation for a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Handheld Tremor-Canceling Microsurgical Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and actuation of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) manipulator for a handheld instrument, known as “Micron,” which performs active tremor compensation during microsurgery. The design incorporates a Gough-Stewart platform based on piezoelectric linear motor, with a specified minimum workspace of a cylinder 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter at the end-effector. Given the stall force of the motors and the loading typically encountered in vitreoretinal microsurgery, the dimensions of the manipulator are optimized to tolerate a transverse load of 0.2 N on a remote center of motion near the midpoint of the tool shaft. The optimization yields a base diameter of 23 mm and a height of 37 mm. The fully handheld instrument includes a custom-built optical tracking system for control feedback, and an ergonomic housing to serve as a handle. The manipulation performance was investigated in both clamped and handheld conditions. In positioning experiments with varying side loads, the manipulator tolerates side load up to 0.25 N while tracking a sinusoidal target trajectory with less than 20 μm error. Physiological hand tremor is reduced by about 90% in a pointing task, and error less than 25 μm is achieved in handheld circle-tracing. PMID:25419103

  9. Military forensic use of handheld 3D camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Hâkan; Letalick, Dietmar

    2013-05-01

    One of the main threats for armed forces in conflict areas are attacks by improvised explosive devices (IED). After an IED attack a forensic investigation of the site is undertaken. In many ways military forensic work is similar to the civilian counterpart. There are the same needs to acquire evidence in the crime scene, such as fingerprints, DNA, and samples of the remains of the IED. Photos have to be taken and the geometry of the location shall be measured, preferably in 3D. A main difference between the military and the civilian forensic work is the time slot available for the scene investigation. The military must work under the threat of fire assault, e.g. snipers. The short time slot puts great demands on the forensic team and the equipment they use. We have done performance measurements of the Mantis-Vision F5 sensor and evaluated the usefulness in military forensic applications. This paper will describe some applications and show possibilities and also limitations of using a handheld laser imaging sensor for military forensic investigations.

  10. Portable multiwavelength laser diode source for handheld photoacoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, Celine; Laugustin, Arnaud; Kohl, Andreas; Rabot, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The ageing population faces today an increase of chronic diseases such as rheumatism/arthritis, cancer and cardio vascular diseases for which appropriate treatments based on a diagnosis at an early-stage of the disease are required. Some imaging techniques are already available in order to get structural information. Within the non-invasive group, ultrasound images are common in these fields of medicine. However, there is a need for a point-of-care device for imaging smaller structures such as blood vessels that cannot be observed with purely ultrasound based devices. Photoacoustics proved to be an attractive candidate. This novel imaging technique combines pulsed laser light for excitation of tissues and an ultrasound transducer as a receptor. Introduction of this technique into the clinic requires to drastically shrink the size and cost of the expensive and bulky nanosecond lasers generally used for light emission. In that context, demonstration of ultra-short pulse emission with highly efficient laser diodes in the near-infrared range has been performed by Quantel, France. A multi-wavelength laser source as small as a hand emitted more than 1 mJ per wavelength with four different wavelengths available in pulses of about 90 ns. Such a laser source can be integrated into high sensitivity photoacoustic handheld systems due to their outstanding electrical-to-optical efficiency of about 25 %. Further work continues to decrease the pulse length as low as 40 ns while increasing the pulse energy to 2 mJ.

  11. Sensor fusion for hand-held multisensor landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sanjeev; Chander, Venkat S.; Palit, Partha P.; Stanley, Joe; Mitchell, O. Robert

    2001-10-01

    Sensor fusion issues in a streamlined assimilation of multi-sensor information for landmine detection are discussed. In particular multi-sensor fusion in hand-held landmine detection system with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and metal detector sensors is investigated. The fusion architecture consists of feature extraction for individual sensors followed by a feed-forward neural network training to learn the feature space representation of the mine/no-mine classification. A correlation feature from GPR, and slope and energy feature from metal detector are used for discrimination. Various fusion strategies are discussed and results compared against each other and against individual sensors using ROC curves for the available multi-sensor data. Both feature level and decision level fusion have been investigated. Simple decision level fusion scheme based on Dempster-Shafer evidence accumulation, soft AND, MIN and MAX are compared. Feature level fusion using neural network training is shown to provide best results. However comparable performance is achieved using decision level sensor fusion based on Dempster-Shafer accumulation. It is noted that, the above simple feed-forward fusion scheme lacks a means to verify detections after a decision has been made. New detection algorithms that are more than anomaly detectors are needed. Preliminary results with features based on independent component analysis (ICA) show promising results towards this end.

  12. Dynamic template-matching-based processing for handheld landmine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. C.; Gader, Paul D.

    2003-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of landmine templates in the GPR data to improve the detection accuracy for a hand-held mine detection unit. The proposed algorithm applies to the discrimination operating mode after the initial detection from the search mode. The proposed template matching-based algorithm extracts the mine templates from the data acquired during the first few sweeps, and correlates the templates from the data at subsequent sweeps to enhance the detection of landmine. The proposed technique does not have a time lag in producing detection values and a detection value is generated at each sample location. Experimental results show that the proposed template matching-based detector is able to increase the detection especially for low-metal anti-personnel mines. Based on the experiment performed over the data set collected at a test site, at 95% Pd, the proposed algorithm reduces the probability of false alarms by 66% for the low-metal anti-personnel mines and 30% for the low-metal anti-tank mines.

  13. Bone age maturity assessment using hand-held device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Liu, Xiaodong; Boechat, M. I.

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: Assessment of bone maturity is traditionally performed through visual comparison of hand and wrist radiograph with existing reference images in textbooks. Our goal was to develop a digital index based on idealized hand Xray images that can be incorporated in a hand held computer and used for visual assessment of bone age for patients. Material and methods: Due to the large variability in bone maturation in normals, we generated a set of "ideal" images obtained by computer combinations of images from our normal reference data sets. Software for hand-held PDA devices was developed for easy navigation through the set of images and visual selection of matching images. A formula based on our statistical analysis provides the standard deviation from normal based on the chronological age of the patient. The accuracy of the program was compared to traditional interpretation by two radiologists in a double blind reading of 200 normal Caucasian children (100 boys, 100 girls). Results: Strong correlations were present between chronological age and bone age (r > 0.9) with no statistical difference between the digital and traditional assessment methods. Determinations of carpal bone maturity in adolescents was slightly more accurate using the digital system. The users did praise the convenience and effectiveness of the digital Palm Index in clinical practice. Conclusion: An idealized digital Palm Bone Age Index provides a convenient and effective alternative to conventional atlases for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

  14. MEMS-Based Handheld Fourier Domain Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography for Intraoperative Microvascular Anastomosis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Furtmüller, Georg J.; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) imager for real time intraoperative vascular patency evaluation in the setting of super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis. Methods A novel handheld imager Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on a 1.3-µm central wavelength swept source for extravascular imaging was developed. The imager was minimized through the adoption of a 2.4-mm diameter microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirror, additionally a 12.7-mm diameter lens system was designed and combined with the MEMS mirror to achieve a small form factor that optimize functionality as a handheld extravascular OCT imager. To evaluate in-vivo applicability, super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis was performed in a mouse femoral vessel cut and repair model employing conventional interrupted suture technique as well as a novel non-suture cuff technique. Vascular anastomosis patency after clinically successful repair was evaluated using the novel handheld OCT imager. Results With an adjustable lateral image field of view up to 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm, high-resolution simultaneous structural and flow imaging of the blood vessels were successfully acquired for BALB/C mouse after orthotopic hind limb transplantation using a non-suture cuff technique and BALB/C mouse after femoral artery anastomosis using a suture technique. We experimentally quantify the axial and lateral resolution of the OCT to be 12.6 µm in air and 17.5 µm respectively. The OCT has a sensitivity of 84 dB and sensitivity roll-off of 5.7 dB/mm over an imaging range of 5 mm. Imaging with a frame rate of 36 Hz for an image size of 1000(lateral)×512(axial) pixels using a 50,000 A-lines per second swept source was achieved. Quantitative vessel lumen patency, lumen narrowing and thrombosis analysis were performed based on acquired structure and Doppler images. Conclusions A miniature handheld OCT imager that can be used for

  15. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  16. Ultra-compact switchable SLO/OCT handheld probe design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; DuBose, Theodore; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2015-03-01

    Handheld scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems facilitate imaging of young children and subjects that have difficulty fixating. More compact and lightweight probes allow for better portability and increased comfort for the operator of the handheld probe. We describe a very compact, novel SLO and OCT handheld probe design. A single 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner and a custom optical design using a converging beam prior to the scanner permitted significant reduction in the system size. Our design utilized a combination of commercial and custom optics that were optimized in Zemax to achieve near diffraction-limited resolution of 8 μm over a 7° field of view. The handheld probe has a form factor of 7 x 6 x 2.5 cm and a weight of only 94 g, which is over an order of magnitude lighter than prior SLO-OCT handheld probes. Images were acquired from a normal subject with an incident power on the eye under the ANSI limit. With this device, which is the world's lightest and smallest SLO-OCT system, we were able to visualize parafoveal cone photoreceptors and nerve fiber bundles without the use of adaptive optics.

  17. Effects of Extended Time Allotments on Reading Comprehension Performance of College Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Cohen, Justin; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Students with disabilities often receive test accommodations in schools and on high-stakes tests. Students with learning disabilities (LD) represent the largest disability group in schools, and extended time the most common test accommodation requested by such students. This pairing persists despite controversy over the validity of extended time…

  18. Extended Time on Academic Assignments: Does Increased Time Lead to Improved Performance for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Massetti, Greta M.; Hart, Katie C.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers examined the impact of an extended time accommodation on appropriate classroom behavior and rate of work completion for 33 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants received standard (30 min) or extended (45 min) time to complete seatwork in a within-subject, crossover design study. Appropriate…

  19. Electronics System for the GammaTracker Handheld CdZnTe Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Myjak, Mitchell J.; Morris, Scott J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; McCann, Jason M.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Rohrer, John S.; Burghard, Brion J.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2007-12-31

    We are currently developing a handheld radioisotope identifier containing eighteen position-sensitive CdZnTe crystals. In addition to isotope identification, the device performs basic Compton imaging to determine the location of suspected sources. This paper gives an overview of the electronics system we have designed for this instrument. We use specialized application-specific integrated circuits to preprocess the outputs of each CdZnTe crystal. A low-power microprocessor running Windows CE drives the user interface and implements the isotope identification and directionality computations. Finally, we use a field-programmable gate array to perform the computationally intensive imaging tasks in real time.

  20. A wireless handheld probe with spectrally constrained evolution strategies for diffuse optical imaging of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexman, M. L.; Kim, H. K.; Stoll, R.; Khalil, M. A.; Fong, C. J.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2012-03-01

    We present a low-cost, portable, wireless diffuse optical imaging device. The handheld device is fast, portable, and can be applied to a wide range of both static and dynamic imaging applications including breast cancer, functional brain imaging, and peripheral artery disease. The continuous-wave probe has four near-infrared wavelengths and uses digital detection techniques to perform measurements at 2.3 Hz. Using a multispectral evolution algorithm for chromophore reconstruction, we can measure absolute oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration as well as scattering in tissue. Performance of the device is demonstrated using a series of liquid phantoms comprised of Intralipid®, ink, and dye.

  1. A case of recurrent, self-inflicted handheld laser retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Simonett, Joseph M; Scarinci, Fabio; Labriola, Leanne T; Jampol, Lee M; Goldstein, Debra A; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-04-01

    A 17-year-old young man presented with vision loss and discrete, bilateral foveal lesions. The patient returned 6 weeks later with worsening vision, prominent bilateral retinal lesions, and a full-thickness macular hole in the right eye consistent with recurrent self-inflicted handheld laser retinopathy. After instructing the family to remove the patient's access to laser pointers, follow-up examination revealed spontaneous closure of the macular hole but minimal vision improvement. Recurrent ocular exposure to handheld lasers can masquerade as an organic process in patients who withhold pertinent history. Clinicians should rely on the distinguishing features seen on examination and multimodal imaging to make the diagnosis of handheld laser retinopathy.

  2. A case of recurrent, self-inflicted handheld laser retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Simonett, Joseph M; Scarinci, Fabio; Labriola, Leanne T; Jampol, Lee M; Goldstein, Debra A; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-04-01

    A 17-year-old young man presented with vision loss and discrete, bilateral foveal lesions. The patient returned 6 weeks later with worsening vision, prominent bilateral retinal lesions, and a full-thickness macular hole in the right eye consistent with recurrent self-inflicted handheld laser retinopathy. After instructing the family to remove the patient's access to laser pointers, follow-up examination revealed spontaneous closure of the macular hole but minimal vision improvement. Recurrent ocular exposure to handheld lasers can masquerade as an organic process in patients who withhold pertinent history. Clinicians should rely on the distinguishing features seen on examination and multimodal imaging to make the diagnosis of handheld laser retinopathy. PMID:27012364

  3. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket... performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  4. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket... performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  5. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket... performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  6. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket... performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  7. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket... performance requirements. (a) Materials. The materials used in handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare... protected against corrosion. (b) Workmanship. Handheld rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress...

  8. Extending the recovery window: Effects of trait rumination on subsequent evening cortisol following a laboratory performance stressor.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Dickerson, Sally S

    2015-08-01

    Mental rehearsal of past stressors through rumination may extend the physiological stress response and exposure to stress-related physiological mediators, such as cortisol. If repeated over time, this prolonged activation may contribute to a number of chronic health conditions. Findings from the emerging literature on the tendency to ruminate and its association with cortisol have been somewhat mixed. In the present study, we tested whether trait rumination predicted elevated cortisol concentrations in response to a performance stressor, and whether this association varied by the social-evaluative context of the stressor and gender. We also examined whether associations persisted into the evening of the stressor. Participants (50% female; mean age=19.83, SD=1.62) were randomly assigned to complete a laboratory speech stressor either in a social-evaluative (SET; n=86) or non-evaluative context (non-SET; n=58). Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout the laboratory visit and later that evening. There was a main effect of trait rumination on greater total cortisol exposure into the evening of the stressor. In addition, trait rumination interacted with stressor context to predict cortisol declines: on the night of the SET stressor, high trait ruminators did not exhibit typical declines in cortisol. Different cortisol patterns emerged for men and women with tendencies to ruminate: women with higher rumination scores had flatter cortisol slopes with greater evening cortisol, whereas men with higher trait rumination scores had greater initial cortisol reactivity to the stressor. Together, these findings suggest that the relationship between the tendency to ruminate and cortisol concentrations is qualified by individual differences (gender) and stressor characteristics (social-evaluative threat).

  9. In vivo melanoma depth detection by a handheld photoacoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Xing, Wenxin; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We developed a handheld photoacoustic microscope (PAM) to detect melanoma and determine tumor depth in nude mice in vivo. Compared to our previous PAM system for melanoma imaging, a new light delivery mechanism is introduced to improve light penetration. We show that melanomas with 4.1 mm and 3.3 mm thicknesses can be successfully detected in phantom and in vivo experiments, respectively. With its deep melanoma imaging ability and novel handheld design, this system is promising for clinical melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical planning for patients at the bedside.

  10. Improved biological phosphorus removal performance driven by the aerobic/extended-idle regime with propionate as the sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yan; Zeng, Tianjing; Zeng, Guangming

    2012-08-01

    Our previous studies proved that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) could be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process employing two typical substrates of glucose and acetate as the carbon sources. This paper further evaluated the feasibility of another important substrate, propionate, serving as the carbon source for BPR in the AEI process, and compared the BPR performance between the AEI and anaerobic/oxic (A/O) processes. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, as the AEI and A/O regimes for BPR using propionate as the sole substrate. The results showed that the AEI-reactor removed 2.98 ± 0.04-4.06 ± 0.06 mg of phosphorus per g of total suspended solids during the course of the steady operational trial, and the phosphorus content of the dried sludge was reached 8.0 ± 0.4% after 56-day operation, demonstrating the good performance of phosphorus removal. Then, the efficiencies of BPR and the transformations of the intracellular storages were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was maintained around 95% in the AEI-reactor, and about 83% in the A/O-reactor, although the latter showed much greater transformations of both polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen. The facts clearly showed that BPR could be enhanced by the AEI regime using propionate as the carbon source. Finally, the mechanisms for the propionate fed AEI-reactor improving BPR were investigated. It was found that the sludge cultured by the AEI regime had more polyphosphate containing cells than that by the A/O regime. Further investigation revealed that the residual nitrate generated in the last aerobic period was readily deteriorated BPR in the A/O-SBR, but a slight deterioration was observed in the AEI-SBR. Moreover, the lower glycogen transformation measured in the AEI-SBR indicated that the biomass cultured by the AEI regime contained less glycogen accumulating organisms activities than that by the A/O regime.

  11. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices AGENCY: National...) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an... soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation...

  12. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  16. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  17. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  18. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1724 Hand-held power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring...

  20. Extended visual glances away from the roadway are associated with ADHD- and texting-related driving performance deficits in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kingery, Kathleen M.; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A.; Antonini, Tanya N.; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD = 28, non-ADHD = 33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16–17 with a valid driver’s license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 seconds) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway. PMID:25416444

  1. Extended Visual Glances Away from the Roadway are Associated with ADHD- and Texting-Related Driving Performance Deficits in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A; Antonini, Tanya N; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD =28, non-ADHD =33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16-17 with a valid driver's license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 s) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway. PMID:25416444

  2. Rapid diagnosis of tinea incognito using handheld reflectance confocal microscopy: a paradigm shift in dermatology?

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Dechent, Cristián; Bajaj, Shirin; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Marchetti, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Dermatophytoses are common skin infections. Traditional diagnostic tests such as skin scrapings for light microscopy examination, fungal cultures and biopsies remain imperfect due to false-negative test results, cost, time required to perform the procedure, time delays in test results and/or a requirement for an invasive procedure. Herein, we present a case of an 80-year-old female whose tinea incognito was non-invasively diagnosed within seconds using handheld reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). As non-invasive skin imaging continues to improve, we expect light-based office microscopy to be replaced with technologies such as RCM, which has multiple and continually expanding diagnostic applications.

  3. Active depth-guiding handheld micro-forceps for membranectomy based on CP-SSOCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Phillip; Gonenc, Berk; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a handheld motion-compensated micro-forceps system using common-path swept source optical coherence tomography with highly accurate depth-targeting and depth-locking for Epiretinal Membrane Peeling. Two motors and a touch sensor were used to separate the two independent motions: motion compensation and tool-tip manipulation. A smart motion monitoring and guiding algorithm was devised for precise and intuitive freehand control. Ex-vivo bovine eye experiments were performed to evaluate accuracy in a bovine retina retinal membrane peeling model. The evaluation demonstrates system capabilities of 40 um accuracy when peeling the epithelial layer of bovine retina.

  4. Portable Hand-Held Electrochemical Sensor for the Transuranics

    SciTech Connect

    Dale D. Russell, William B. Knowlton, Ph.D.; Russel Hertzog, Ph.D

    2005-11-25

    sensitive detector for uranium. Millimeter scale electrodes, operated by a hand-held instrument assembled in this lab and operated in the voltammetric mode, were transported to the DOE-Nevada test site (Las Vegas, NV) where field detection and quantitation of plutonium, uranium, and a mixture of these two elements was also demonstrated. Several probe designs were prepared, built and tested including probes with movable protective windows. A miniature, battery powered potentiostat was designed, built and demonstrated for use in a hand-held field portable instrument. This work was performed largely by undergraduates who gained valuable research experience, and many of them have continued on to graduate schools. In addition, they all gained exposure to and appreciation for national security research, in particular non-proliferation research. Four graduate students participated and one earned the MS degree on this project.

  5. Imaging Emission Spectra with Handheld and Cellphone Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitar, David

    2012-01-01

    As point-and-shoot digital camera technology advances it is becoming easier to image spectra in a laboratory setting on a shoestring budget and get immediate results. With this in mind, I wanted to test three cameras to see how their results would differ. Two undergraduate physics students and I used one handheld 7.1 megapixel (MP) digital Cannon…

  6. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  10. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  11. Handheld technology acceptance in radiologic science education and training programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Kevin Jay

    The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention of directors of educational programs in the radiologic sciences to adopt handheld devices to aid in managing student clinical data. Handheld devices were described to participants as a technology representing a class of mobile electronic devices including, but not limited to, personal digital assistants such as a Palm TX, Apple iPod Touch, Apple iPad or Hewlett Packard iPaq, and cellular or smartphones with third generation mobile capabilities such as an Apple iPhone, Blackberry or Android device. The study employed a non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design to determine the potential of adopting handheld technologies based on the constructs of Davis's (1989) Technology Acceptance Model. An online self-report questionnaire survey instrument was used to gather study data from 551 entry level radiologic science programs specializing in radiography, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine and medical sonography. The study design resulted in a single point in time assessment of the relationship between the primary constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and the behavioral intention of radiography program directors to adopt the information technology represented by hand held devices. Study results provide justification for investing resources to promote the adoption of mobile handheld devices in radiologic science programs and study findings serve as a foundation for further research involving technology adoption in the radiologic sciences.

  12. 20. HANDHELD VIEW OF CREW AT REST WHILE UNDERWAY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HANDHELD VIEW OF CREW AT REST WHILE UNDERWAY ON MOBILE BAY TO TRAIN TAKEOVER CREW FROM DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  13. Hand-held Calculators: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Max; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations of several publications with regard to the use of hand-held calculators in the mathematics curriculum are presented. Relevant portions of the NACOME and Euclid Conference reports are cited as well as a report to NSF and recommendations from an NIE/NSF conference. Recommendations support expanded use of, and research concerning,…

  14. Evaluation of Handheld Computers for Direct Systematic Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Michael W.; Gouwens, Donald A.; Schuh, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Through this study the authors evaluate outcomes associated with the use of handheld computers by interventionists in improving the efficiency of direct systematic classroom observation. Information from observations is used by interventionists for treatment planning and evaluation. In this study, interventionists were trained to use personal…

  15. Handheld, Wireless Computers: Can They Improve Learning and Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moallem, Mahnaz; Kermani, Hengameh; Chen, Sue-Jen

    2006-01-01

    Reports show that handheld, wireless computers, once used by business professionals to keep track of appointments, contacts, e-mail, and the Internet, have found their way into classrooms and schools across the United States. However, there has not been much systematic research to investigate the effects of these new technology tools on student…

  16. The State of the Art in Museum Handhelds in 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Nancy; Tellis, Chris

    This paper examines the rapidly changing state of museum handhelds from both a technology and content perspective. The paper also discusses the component parts for a successful museum installation: content, user interface, applications, form factor, positioning and the challenges to integrating these components. Specific examples are demonstrated…

  17. Handheld calculator program simplifies calculation of data for gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, W.

    1982-01-11

    For natural gases having several components, Elliott Co.'s handheld calculator program can characterize the gas mixture with a printout that provides its molecular weight, molar specific heat at constant pressure, pseudocritical pressure and temperature, ratio of specific heats, and adiabatic compression exponent. The program also provides for further calculations that yield specific gravity, specific heat/lb, and compressibility.

  18. Epilepsy Forewarning Using A Hand-Held Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, LM

    2005-02-21

    Over the last decade, ORNL has developed and patented a novel approach for forewarning of a large variety of machine and biomedical events. The present implementation uses desktop computers to analyze archival data. This report describes the next logical step in this effort, namely use of a hand-held device for the analysis.

  19. Portable robotic platform for handheld landmine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Herman; McMahill, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    To support the development of advanced algorithms for hand-held detectors, it is desirable to collect data with a specific sweep rate, height and spacing. In addition, it is also important that the position of each data point produced by the detector is known. Since it is impossible for a human operator to precisely control these sweep parameters, we have developed a semi-autonomous robotic data collection system. It is designed as a portable robot with a 2-axis manipulator that can be used to sweep any hand-held detector at a precise sweep rate, height, and spacing. It is also equipped with an interface to the hand-held detector, so it can log the output data during the sweeping motion. It also tags the output data with the position data from the on-board positioning system. As a result, we can construct an accurate 2-D or 3-D grid of the detector's output as a function of horizontal and vertical position of the detector. The manipulator is also equipped with force sensing capability that can be used to sense terrain height or collision. To increase deployment flexibility, all functions of the robot are controlled through a wireless communication link by a hand-held computer with a maximum operating distance of at least 100m. Through the hand-held computer, the operator can move the robot, and program its behavior using a script based motion sequencer. The robot has been deployed successfully on several data acquisition activities, and successfully produced high-resolution 2-D map of the buried targets.

  20. Hand-held radiometry: A set of notes developed for use at the Workshop of Hand-held radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A set of notes was developed to aid the beginner in hand-held radiometry. The electromagnetic spectrum is reviewed, and pertinent terms are defined. View areas of multiband radiometers are developed to show the areas of coincidence of adjacent bands. The amounts of plant cover seen by radiometers having different fields of view are described. Vegetation indices are derived and discussed. Response functions of several radiometers are shown and applied to spectrometer data taken over 12 wheat plots, to provide a comparison of instruments and bands within and among instruments. The calculation of solar time is reviewed and applied to the calculation of the local time of LANDSAT satellite overpasses for any particular location in the Northern Hemisphere. The use and misuse of hand-held infrared thermometers are discussed, and a procedure for photographic determination of plant cover is described. Some suggestions are offered concerning procedures to be followed when collecting hand-held spectral and thermal data. A list of references pertinent to hand-held radiometry is included.

  1. Fertility results of artificial inseminations performed with liquid boar semen stored in X-cell vs BTS extender.

    PubMed

    Haugan, T; Gaustad, A H; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Hofmo, P O

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present field study was to compare the fertility results for boar semen diluted in X-cell stored up to 4-5 days before artificial insemination (AI) with semen diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) used for AI following 2-3 days of storage (where the first day being the collection day). A total number of 2601 double inseminations in Norwegian herds were included in this two-trial study. All the boars used in the study were mature cross-bred Norwegian Landrace x Duroc (LD), which were routinely used for AI in Norway. The inseminated gilts and sows were Norwegian Landrace x Yorkshire (LY). The AI doses contained 2.5 billion spermatozoa, and consisted of a mixture of semen from three, occasionally four, boars (i.e. heterospermic semen). Fertility was measured in terms of the likelihood of farrowing and subsequent litter size. The fertility of the semen in both of the extenders was satisfactory and no significant differences were found either in semen stored 4-5 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS or in semen stored 2-3 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS. The storage capability findings for the long-term extender X-cell could significantly simplify the practical issues of semen production and the distribution of AI doses containing 2.5 billion spermatozoa. However, in pig production systems where all semen is used within 2-3 days, the short-term extender BTS is as good as the more expensive extender X-cell.

  2. Optoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature: Feasibility by Using a Handheld Probe.

    PubMed

    Taruttis, Adrian; Timmermans, Arwin C; Wouters, Philip C; Kacprowicz, Marcin; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To investigate whether multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) developed for deep-tissue imaging in humans could enable the clinical assessment of major blood vessels and microvasculature. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University Medical Center Groningen (CCMO-NL-43587) and registered in the Dutch National Trial Registry (NTR4125). The authors designed a real-time handheld optoacoustic scanner for human use, based on a concave 8-MHz transducer array, attaining 135° angular coverage. They applied a single-pulse-frame (SPF) sequence, which enabled motion insensitive optoacoustic imaging during handheld operation. SPF optoacoustic imaging was applied to imaging arteries and microvascular landmarks in the lower extremities of 10 healthy volunteers. The diameters selected microvessels were determined by measuring the full width at half maximum through the vessels in the MSOT images. Duplex ultrasonography was performed on the same landmarks in seven of the 10 volunteers for subjective comparison to the corresponding optoacoustic images. Results Optoacoustic imaging resolved blood vessels as small as 100 µm in diameter and within 1 cm depth. Additionally, MSOT provided images reflecting hemoglobin oxygen saturation in blood vessels, clearly identifying arteries and veins, and was able to identify pulsation in arteries during imaging. Larger blood vessels, specifically the tibialis posterior and the dorsalis pedis arteries, were also visualized with MSOT. Conclusion Handheld MSOT was found to be capable of clinical vascular imaging, providing visualization of major blood vessels and microvasculature and providing images of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and pulsation. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:27379543

  3. Does Simulator-Based Clinical Performance Correlate with Actual Hospital Behavior? The Effect of Extended Work Hours on Patient Care Provided by Medical Interns

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, James A.; Alexander, Erik K.; Lockley, Steven W.; Flynn-Evans, Erin; Venkatan, Suresh K.; Landrigan, Christopher P.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The correlation between simulator-based medical performance and real-world behavior remains unclear. The authors conducted this study to explore whether the effects of extended work hours on clinical performance, as reported in prior hospital-based studies, could be observed in a simulator-based testing environment. Method Intern volunteers reported to the simulator laboratory in a rested state and again in a sleep-deprived state (after a traditional 24–30 hour overnight shift [n=17]). A subset also presented after a shortened overnight shift (maximum of 16 scheduled hours [n=8]). During each laboratory visit, participants managed two critically ill patients. An on-site physician scored each case, as did a blinded rater later watching videotapes of the performances (score=1 [worst] to 8 [best]; average of both cases = session score). Results Among all participants, the average simulator session score was 6.0 (95% CI: 5.6–6.4) in the rested state, and declined to 5.0 (95% CI: 4.6–5.4) after the traditional overnight shift (P<0.001). Among those who completed the shortened overnight shift, the average post-shift simulator session score was 5.8 (95% CI: 5.0–6.6) compared to 4.3 [95%CI: 3.8–4.9]) after a traditional extended shift (P<0.001). Conclusions In a clinical simulation test, medical interns performed significantly better after working a shortened overnight shift compared to a traditional extended shift. These findings are consistent with real-time hospital studies using the same shift schedule. Such an independent correlation not only confirms the detrimental impact of extended work hours on medical performance, but also supports the validity of simulation as a clinical performance assessment tool. PMID:20881679

  4. Hand-held optoacoustic probe for three-dimensional imaging of human morphology and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We report on a hand-held imaging probe for real-time optoacoustic visualization of deep tissues in three dimensions. The proposed solution incorporates a two-dimensional array of ultrasonic sensors densely distributed on a spherical surface, whereas illumination is performed coaxially through a cylindrical cavity in the array. Visualization of three-dimensional tomographic data at a frame rate of 10 images per second is enabled by parallel recording of 256 time-resolved signals for each individual laser pulse along with a highly efficient GPUbased real-time reconstruction. A liquid coupling medium (water), enclosed in a transparent membrane, is used to guarantee transmission of the optoacoustically generated waves to the ultrasonic detectors. Excitation at multiple wavelengths further allows imaging spectrally distinctive tissue chromophores such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin. The performance is showcased by video-rate tracking of deep tissue vasculature and three-dimensional measurements of blood oxygenenation in a healthy human volunteer. The flexibility provided by the hand-held hardware design, combined with the real-time operation, makes the developed platform highly usable for both small animal research and clinical imaging in multiple indications, including cancer, inflammation, skin and cardiovascular diseases, diagnostics of lymphatic system and breast

  5. Handheld Reflective Foil Emissometer with 0.007 Absolute Accuracy at 0.05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ham, E. W. M.; Ballico, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    The development and performance of a handheld emissometer for the measurement of the emissivity of highly reflective metallic foils used for the insulation of domestic and commercial buildings are described. Reflective roofing insulation based on a thin coating of metal on a more robust substrate is very widely used in hotter climates to reduce the radiant heat transfer between the ceiling and roof in commercial and residential buildings. The required normal emissivity of these foils is generally below 0.05, so stray reflected ambient infrared radiation (IR) makes traditional reflectance-based measurements of emissivity very difficult to achieve with the required accuracy. Many manufacturers apply additional coatings onto the metallic foil to reduce visible glare during installation on a roof, and to provide protection to the thin reflective layer; however, this layer can also substantially increase the IR emissivity. The system as developed at the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA) is based on the principle of measurement of the modulation in thermal infrared radiation, as the sample is thermally modulated by hot and cold air streams. A commercial infrared to band radiation thermometer with a highly specialized stray and reflected radiation shroud attachment is used as the detector system, allowing for convenient handheld field measurements. The performance and accuracy of the system have been compared with NMIA's reference emissometer systems for a number of typical material samples, demonstrating its capability to measure the absolute thermal emissivity of these very highly reflective foils with an uncertainty of better than.

  6. Application of handheld and portable spectrometers for screening acrylamide content in commercial potato chips.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Huseyin; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-05-01

    The most common methods for acrylamide analysis in foods require the use of LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Although these methods have great analytical performance, they need intensive sample preparation, highly specialised instrumentation, and are time consuming. In this study, portable and handheld infrared spectrometers were evaluated as rapid methods for screening acrylamide in potato chips and their performances were compared to those of benchtop infrared systems. The acrylamide content of 64 commercial potato chips (169-2453 μg/kg) was determined by LC-MS/MS. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models were developed to predict acrylamide levels. Overall, good linear correlation was found between the predicted acrylamide levels and actual measured acrylamide concentrations by LC-MS/MS (rPred > 0.90 and SEP < 100 μg/kg). Our results indicate that portable and handheld spectrometers can be used as simple and rapid alternatives for acrylamide analysis in potato chips. PMID:25529665

  7. Application of handheld and portable spectrometers for screening acrylamide content in commercial potato chips.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Huseyin; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-05-01

    The most common methods for acrylamide analysis in foods require the use of LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Although these methods have great analytical performance, they need intensive sample preparation, highly specialised instrumentation, and are time consuming. In this study, portable and handheld infrared spectrometers were evaluated as rapid methods for screening acrylamide in potato chips and their performances were compared to those of benchtop infrared systems. The acrylamide content of 64 commercial potato chips (169-2453 μg/kg) was determined by LC-MS/MS. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models were developed to predict acrylamide levels. Overall, good linear correlation was found between the predicted acrylamide levels and actual measured acrylamide concentrations by LC-MS/MS (rPred > 0.90 and SEP < 100 μg/kg). Our results indicate that portable and handheld spectrometers can be used as simple and rapid alternatives for acrylamide analysis in potato chips.

  8. Handheld computers in nursing education: PDA pilot project.

    PubMed

    Koeniger-Donohue, Rebecca

    2008-02-01

    Interest in the use and application of handheld technology at undergraduate and graduate nursing programs across the country is growing rapidly. Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are often referred to as a "peripheral brain" because they can save time, decrease errors, and simplify information retrieval at the point of care. In addition, research results support the notion that PDAs enhance nursing clinical education and are an effective student learning resource. However, most nursing programs lack the full range of technological resources to implement and provide ongoing support for handheld technology use by faculty and students. This article describes a 9-month pilot project for the initial use of PDAs by novice faculty and students at Simmons College.

  9. A First Look at Mobile Hand-Held Device Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Although mobile hand-held devices (MHDs) are ubiquitous today, little is know about how they are used - especially at home. In this paper, we cast a first look on mobile hand-held device usage from a network perspective. We base our study on anonymized packet level data representing more than 20,000 residential DSL customers. Our characterization of the traffic shows that MHDs are active on up to 3% of the monitored DSL lines. Mobile devices from Apple (i.e., iPhones and iPods) are, by a huge margin, the most commonly used MHDs and account for most of the traffic. We find that MHD traffic is dominated by multimedia content and downloads of mobile applications.

  10. Integrating RFID technique to design mobile handheld inventory management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Chen, Shih-Chung

    2008-04-01

    An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.

  11. Engineering issues for hand-held sensing devices, with examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiwald, David A.; Freiwald, Joyce

    1994-03-01

    It is now U.S. defense policy that there will be no new platform starts. The emphasis for platforms will be on O&M cost reduction, life-extension improvements, and force-multiplier- device upgrades. There is also an increasing emphasis on hand-held force-multiplier devices for individuals, which is the focus of this paper. Engineering issues include operations analysis, weight, cube, cost, prime power, ease of use, data storage, reliability, fault tolerance, data communications and human factors. Two examples of hand-held devices are given. Applications include USMC, Army, SOCOM, DEA, FBI, SS, Border Patrol and others. Barriers to adoption of such technology are also discussed.

  12. A Cheap, Semiquantitative Hand-Held Conductivity Tester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacky, Susan K. S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a design for a hand-held conductivity tester powered by a 9V battery that gives semi-quantitative results for aqueous electrolyte solutions of concentrations ranging from 0.001 M to 0.1 M. The tester uses a bar-graph LED driven by an LM3914 integrated circuit to indicate the level of conductivity. A list of parts, procedures, and results…

  13. Elemental analysis using a handheld X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groover, Krishangi; Izbicki, John

    2016-06-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting geologic samples from local stream channels, aquifer materials, and rock outcrops for studies of trace elements in the Mojave Desert, southern California. These samples are collected because geologic materials can release a variety of elements to the environment when exposed to water. The samples are to be analyzed with a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer to determine the concentrations of up to 27 elements, including chromium.

  14. Elemental analysis using a handheld X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groover, Krishangi; Izbicki, John

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting geologic samples from local stream channels, aquifer materials, and rock outcrops for studies of trace elements in the Mojave Desert, southern California. These samples are collected because geologic materials can release a variety of elements to the environment when exposed to water. The samples are to be analyzed with a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer to determine the concentrations of up to 27 elements, including chromium.

  15. Distributing Data from Desktop to Hand-Held Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    A system of server and client software formats and redistributes data from commercially available desktop to commercially available hand-held computers via both wired and wireless networks. This software is an inexpensive means of enabling engineers and technicians to gain access to current sensor data while working in locations in which such data would otherwise be inaccessible. The sensor data are first gathered by a data-acquisition server computer, then transmitted via a wired network to a data-distribution computer that executes the server portion of the present software. Data in all sensor channels -- both raw sensor outputs in millivolt units and results of conversion to engineering units -- are made available for distribution. Selected subsets of the data are transmitted to each hand-held computer via the wired and then a wireless network. The selection of the subsets and the choice of the sequences and formats for displaying the data is made by means of a user interface generated by the client portion of the software. The data displayed on the screens of hand-held units can be updated at rates from 1 to

  16. The use of a handheld Raman system for virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunyuan; Driskell, Jeremy D.; Tripp, Ralph A.; Cui, Yiping; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    The combination of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a handheld Raman system would lead to a powerful portable device for defense and security applications. The Thermo Scientific FirstDefender RM instrument is a 785-nm handheld Raman spectrometer intended for rapid field identification of unknown solid and liquid samples. Its sensitivity and effectiveness for SERS-based detection was initially confirmed by evaluating detection of 1,2-di(4- pyridyl)ethylene as a reporter molecule on a silver nanorod (AgNR) substrate, and the results are comparable to those from a confocal Bruker Raman system. As avian influenza A viruses (AIV) are recognized as an important emerging threat to public health, this portable handheld Raman spectrometer is used, for the first time, to detect and identify avian influenza A viruses using a multi-well AgNR SERS chip. The SERS spectra obtained had rich peaks which demonstrated that the instrument can be effectively used for SERS-based influenza virus detection. According to the SERS spectra, these different influenza viruses were distinguished from the negative control via the principal component analysis and by partial least squares-discriminate analysis. Together, these results show that the combination effective SERS substrates when combined with a portable Raman spectrometer provides a powerful field device for chemical and biological sensing.

  17. Carbonaceous species emitted from handheld two-stroke engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volckens, John; Olson, David A.; Hays, Michael D.

    Small, handheld two-stroke engines used for lawn and garden work (e.g., string trimmers, leaf blowers, etc.) can emit a variety of potentially toxic carbonaceous air pollutants. Yet, the emissions effluents from these machines go largely uncharacterized, constraining the proper development of human exposure estimates, emissions inventories, and climate and air quality models. This study samples and evaluates chemical pollutant emissions from the dynamometer testing of six small, handheld spark-ignition engines—model years 1998-2002. Four oil-gas blends were tested in each engine in duplicate. Emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and gas-phase hydrocarbons were predominant, and the PM emitted was organic matter primarily. An ANOVA model determined that engine type and control tier contributed significantly to emissions variations across all identified compound classes; whereas fuel blend was an insignificant variable accounting for <5% of the observed variation in emissions. Though emissions rates from small engines were generally intermediate in magnitude compared with other gasoline-powered engines, numerous compounds traditionally viewed as motor vehicle markers are also present in small engine emissions in similar relative proportions. Given that small, handheld two-stroke engines used for lawn and garden work account for 5-10% of total US emissions of CO, CO 2, NO x, HC, and PM 2.5, source apportionment models and human exposure studies need to consider the effect of these small engines on ambient concentrations in air polluted environments.

  18. Identification of handheld objects for electro-optic/FLIR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Steve K.; Flug, Eric; Edwards, Timothy C.; Krapels, Keith A.; Scarbrough, John

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes research on the determination of the fifty-percent probability of identification cycle criterion (N50) for two sets of handheld objects. The first set consists of 12 objects which are commonly held in a single hand. The second set consists of 10 objects commonly held in both hands. These sets consist of not only typical civilian handheld objects but also objects that are potentially lethal. A pistol, a cell phone, a rocket propelled grenade (RPG) launcher, and a broom are examples of the objects in these sets. The discrimination of these objects is an inherent part of homeland security, force protection, and also general population security. Objects were imaged from each set in the visible and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectrum. Various levels of blur are then applied to these images. These blurred images were then used in a forced choice perception experiment. Results were analyzed as a function of blur level and target size to give identification probability as a function of resolvable cycles on target. These results are applicable to handheld object target acquisition estimates for visible imaging systems and MWIR systems. This research provides guidance in the design and analysis of electro-optical systems and forward-looking infrared (FLIR) systems for use in homeland security, force protection, and also general population security.

  19. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  20. Curvelet filter based prescreener for explosive hazard detection in hand-held ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Julie L.; Anderson, Derek T.; Ball, John E.; Parker, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Explosive hazards, above and below ground, are a serious threat to civilians and soldiers. In an attempt to mitigate these threats, different forms of explosive hazard detection (EHD) exist; e.g., multi-sensor hand-held platforms, downward looking and forward looking vehicle mounted platforms, etc. Robust detection of these threats resides in the processing and fusion of different data from multiple sensing modalities, e.g., radar, infrared, electromagnetic induction (EMI), etc. Herein, we focus on a new energy-based prescreener in hand-held ground penetrating radar (GPR). First, we Curvelet filter B-scan signal data using either Reverse-Reconstruction followed by Enhancement (RRE) or selectivity with respect to wedge information in the Curvelet transform. Next, we aggregate the result of a bank of matched filters and run a size contrast filter with Bhattacharyya distance. Alarms are then combined using weighted mean shift clustering. Results are demonstrated in the context of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve performance on data from a U. S. Army test site that contains multiple target and clutter types, burial depths and times of the day.

  1. Strength and Pain Threshold Handheld Dynamometry Test Reliability in Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, R A; Vollebregt, T; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van Middelkoop, M

    2015-12-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), characterized by peri- and retropatellar pain, is a common disorder in young, active people. The etiology is unclear; however, quadriceps strength seems to be a contributing factor, and sensitization might play a role. The study purpose is determining the inter-rater reliability of handheld dynamometry to test both quadriceps strength and pressure pain threshold (PPT), a measure for sensitization, in patients with PFPS. This cross-sectional case-control study comprises 3 quadriceps strength and one PPT measurements performed by 2 independent investigators in 22 PFPS patients and 16 matched controls. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Inter-rater reliability of quadriceps strength testing was fair to good in PFPS patients (ICC=0.72) and controls (ICC=0.63). Bland-Altman plots showed an increased difference between assessors when average quadriceps strength values exceeded 250 N. Inter-rater reliability of PPT was excellent in patients (ICC=0.79) and fair to good in controls (ICC=0.52). Handheld dynamometry seems to be a reliable method to test both quadriceps strength and PPT in PFPS patients. Inter-rater reliability was higher in PFPS patients compared to control subjects. With regard to quadriceps testing, a higher variance between assessors occurs when quadriceps strength increases. PMID:26422052

  2. A Non-Invasive Handheld Assistive Device to Accommodate Essential Tremor: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Anupam; Redmond, John A.; Allen, Michael; Chou, Kelvin L.

    2014-01-01

    Background We explored whether a non-invasive, handheld device using Active Cancellation of Tremor (ACT) technology could stabilize tremor-induced motion of a spoon in individuals with essential tremor (ET). Methods Fifteen ET subjects (9M/6F) performed 3 tasks with the ACT device turned on and off. Tremor severity was rated with the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS). Subjective improvement was rated by subjects with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI-S). Tremor amplitude was measured using device-embedded accelerometers in 11 subjects. Results TRS scores improved with ACT on (versus off) in all 3 tasks: holding (1.00±0.76 vs. 0.27±0.70, p=0.016), eating (1.47±1.06 vs. 0.13±0.64, p=0.001) and transferring (1.33±0.82 vs. 0.27±0.59, p=0.001). CGI-S improved with eating and transferring, but not the holding task. Accelerometer measurements demonstrated 71-76% reduction in tremor with ACT device on. Conclusions This non-invasive, handheld ACT device can reduce tremor amplitude and severity for eating and transferring tasks in individuals with ET. PMID:24375570

  3. Handheld non-contact evaluation of fastener flushness and countersink surface profiles using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, James H.; Wang, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    We report the use of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for non-contact optical evaluation of fastener flushness and countersink surface profile. Using a handheld galvanometer scanner of only 0.5 lb in weight the SD-OCT can perform line scan surface profile measurement of fastener and countersink without demanding accurate scan center alignment. It demonstrates fast measurement of fastener flushness, radius, slant angle, as well as countersink edge radius and surface angle within 90 ms suitable for handheld operation. With the use of a broadband light source at 840 nm center wavelength and 45 nm spectral bandwidth and a lens of 60 mm focal length, the low coherence interferometry based SD-OCT measurement offers axial depth resolution of 8.5 μm, lateral resolution of 19 μm, and measurement depth of 3.65 mm in the air. Multi-line scans can yield 3D surface profiles of fastener and countersink.

  4. Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Demian, Dorin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Cernat, Ramona; Topala, Florin Ionel; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-08-01

    Three simple and low-cost configurations of handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography have been developed. Their design and testing for dentistry applications are presented. The first two configurations were built exclusively from available off-the-shelf optomechanical components, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the first designs of this type. The third configuration includes these components in an optimized and ergonomic probe. All the designs are presented in detail to allow for their duplication in any laboratory with a minimum effort, for applications that range from educational to high-end clinical investigations. Requirements that have to be fulfilled to achieve configurations which are reliable, ergonomic-for clinical environments, and easy to build are presented. While a range of applications is possible for the prototypes developed, in this study the handheld probes are tested ex vivo with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system built in-house, for dental constructs. A previous testing with a swept source optical coherence tomography system has also been performed both in vivo and ex vivo for ear, nose, and throat-in a medical environment. The applications use the capability of optical coherence tomography to achieve real-time, high-resolution, non-contact, and non-destructive interferometric investigations with micrometer resolutions and millimeter penetration depth inside the sample. In this study, testing the quality of the material of one of the most used types of dental prosthesis, metalo-ceramic is thus demonstrated.

  5. Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Demian, Dorin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Cernat, Ramona; Topala, Florin Ionel; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-01-01

    Three simple and low-cost configurations of handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography have been developed. Their design and testing for dentistry applications are presented. The first two configurations were built exclusively from available off-the-shelf optomechanical components, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the first designs of this type. The third configuration includes these components in an optimized and ergonomic probe. All the designs are presented in detail to allow for their duplication in any laboratory with a minimum effort, for applications that range from educational to high-end clinical investigations. Requirements that have to be fulfilled to achieve configurations which are reliable, ergonomic—for clinical environments, and easy to build are presented. While a range of applications is possible for the prototypes developed, in this study the handheld probes are tested ex vivo with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system built in-house, for dental constructs. A previous testing with a swept source optical coherence tomography system has also been performed both in vivo and ex vivo for ear, nose, and throat—in a medical environment. The applications use the capability of optical coherence tomography to achieve real-time, high-resolution, non-contact, and non-destructive interferometric investigations with micrometer resolutions and millimeter penetration depth inside the sample. In this study, testing the quality of the material of one of the most used types of dental prosthesis, metalo-ceramic is thus demonstrated. PMID:25107512

  6. Initial Usability Testing of a Hand-held Electronic Logbook Prototype for the Human Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Andrea H.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1996-01-01

    The Apple(R) Newton(TM) MessagePad 110 was flown aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft for microgravity usability testing. The Newton served as the initial hand-held electronic logbook prototype for the International Space Station (ISS) Human Research Facility (HRF). Subjects performed three different tasks with the Newton: (1) using the stylus to tap on different sections of the screen in order to launch an application and to select options within it; (2) using the stylus to write, and; (3) correcting handwriting recognition errors in a handwriting-intensive application. Subjects rated handwriting in microgravity 'Borderline' and had great difficulties finding a way in which to adequately restrain themselves at the lower body in order to have their hands free for the Newton. Handwriting recognition was rated 'Unacceptable,' but this issue is hardware-related and not unique to the microgravity environment. It is suggested that the restraint and handwriting issues are related and require further joint research with the current Handheld Electronic Logbook prototype: the Norand Pen*key Model #6300.

  7. Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Demian, Dorin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Cernat, Ramona; Topala, Florin Ionel; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-08-01

    Three simple and low-cost configurations of handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography have been developed. Their design and testing for dentistry applications are presented. The first two configurations were built exclusively from available off-the-shelf optomechanical components, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the first designs of this type. The third configuration includes these components in an optimized and ergonomic probe. All the designs are presented in detail to allow for their duplication in any laboratory with a minimum effort, for applications that range from educational to high-end clinical investigations. Requirements that have to be fulfilled to achieve configurations which are reliable, ergonomic-for clinical environments, and easy to build are presented. While a range of applications is possible for the prototypes developed, in this study the handheld probes are tested ex vivo with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system built in-house, for dental constructs. A previous testing with a swept source optical coherence tomography system has also been performed both in vivo and ex vivo for ear, nose, and throat-in a medical environment. The applications use the capability of optical coherence tomography to achieve real-time, high-resolution, non-contact, and non-destructive interferometric investigations with micrometer resolutions and millimeter penetration depth inside the sample. In this study, testing the quality of the material of one of the most used types of dental prosthesis, metalo-ceramic is thus demonstrated. PMID:25107512

  8. Development of a handheld bistatic imaging sonar system for underwater search and survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Alice; Broadstone, Steven; Impagliazzo, John

    2003-10-01

    A high resolution, handheld imaging sonar system is under development by Teratech Corporation for the U.S. Navy. This is a 192 channel, dual frequency bistatic sonar for Navy divers performing search and survey missions for underwater explosives. Our goal is to provide the most compact and energy efficient imaging system for the divers. The system consists of a self-contained handheld unit and a head mounted display integrated into the divers mask. The low power and small volume are a result of the development of Teratechs Charge Domain Processing (CDP) technology. This technology has led to the development of a low power 64-channel beamformer chip. As a result, only three beamformer chips will be required for the 192 channels. Until now, the implementation of small, low power sonar systems containing this many elements and forming enough beams to create an image was considered impossible. Progress in the development of this product will be presented. In-water testing is planned for late summer 2003. Experimental results and test images available will be presented at the conference. [Work sponsored by ONR and OSD Small Business Innovative Research Program, Program manager, Mr. Bruce Johnson, Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division.

  9. Advanced sampling techniques for hand-held FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Weber, Chris; Levy, Dustin

    2013-05-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenging ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, extreme reliability, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the HazMatID™ Elite, a FT-IR instrument designed to balance the portability advantages of a handheld device with the performance challenges associated with miniaturization. In this paper, special focus will be given to the HazMatID Elite's sampling interfaces optimized to collect and interrogate different types of samples: accumulated material using the on-board ATR press, dispersed powders using the ClearSampler™ tool, and the touch-to-sample sensor for direct liquid sampling. The application of the novel sample swipe accessory (ClearSampler) to collect material from surfaces will be discussed in some detail. The accessory was tested and evaluated for the detection of explosive residues before and after detonation. Experimental results derived from these investigations will be described in an effort to outline the advantages of this technology over existing sampling methods.

  10. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; Proicou, M.; Duran, G.; Kamto, J.

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurable to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.

  11. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    DOE PAGES

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; et al

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurablemore » to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.« less

  12. Handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) field evaluation in Thailand (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doheny, Robert C.; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard

    2005-06-01

    The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program of Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), under the direction of the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (OASD/SOLIC) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining Unit #1 (HMAU1) in Thailand. Participants included the US Humanitarian Demining Team of NVESD, ITEP personnel, Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC), HALO Trust organization from Cambodia, and CyTerra Corporation. The primary objectives were to demonstrate the performance of the U.S. Army's latest handheld multisensor mine detector, the AN/PSS-14, in a demining environment in comparison to the performance of the metal detector being used by the local deminers and also to assess the performance of the trained deminers after limited experience and training with the HSTAMIDS.

  13. Extending the applicability of an open-ring trap to perform experiments with a single laser-cooled ion.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J M; Colombano, M; Doménech, J; Block, M; Delahaye, P; Rodríguez, D

    2015-10-01

    A special ion trap was initially built up to perform β-ν correlation experiments with radioactive ions. The trap geometry is also well suited to perform experiments with laser-cooled ions, serving for the development of a new type of Penning trap, in the framework of the project TRAPSENSOR at the University of Granada. The goal of this project is to use a single (40)Ca(+) ion as detector for single-ion mass spectrometry. Within this project and without any modification to the initial electrode configuration, it was possible to perform Doppler cooling on (40)Ca(+) ions, starting from large clouds and reaching single ion sensitivity. This new feature of the trap might be important also for other experiments with ions produced at radioactive ion beam facilities. In this publication, the trap and the laser system will be described, together with their performance with respect to laser cooling applied to large ion clouds down to a single ion.

  14. A citation-based assessment of the performance of U.S. boiling water reactors following extended power up-rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, Brenden J.

    Nuclear power plants produce 20 percent of the electricity generated in the U.S. Nuclear generated electricity is increasingly valuable to a utility because it can be produced at a low marginal cost and it does not release any carbon dioxide. It can also be a hedge against uncertain fossil fuel prices. The construction of new nuclear power plants in the U.S. is cautiously moving forward, restrained by high capital costs. Since 1998, nuclear utilities have been increasing the power output of their reactors by implementing extended power up-rates. Power increases of up to 20 percent are allowed under this process. The equivalent of nine large power plants has been added via extended power up-rates. These up-rates require the replacement of large capital equipment and are often performed in concert with other plant life extension activities such as license renewals. This dissertation examines the effect of these extended power up-rates on the safety performance of U.S. boiling water reactors. Licensing event reports are submitted by the utilities to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the federal nuclear regulator, for a wide range of abnormal events. Two methods are used to examine the effect of extended power up-rates on the frequency of abnormal events at the reactors. The Crow/AMSAA model, a univariate technique is used to determine if the implementation of an extended power up-rate affects the rate of abnormal events. The method has a long history in the aerospace industry and in the military. At a 95-percent confidence level, the rate of events requiring the submission of a licensing event report decreases following the implementation of an extended power up-rate. It is hypothesized that the improvement in performance is tied to the equipment replacement and refurbishment that is performed as part of the up-rate process. The reactor performance is also analyzed using the proportional hazards model. This technique allows for the estimation of the effects of

  15. Extended Kalman Filter-Based Methods for Pose Estimation Using Visual, Inertial and Magnetic Sensors: Comparative Analysis and Performance Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this paper measurements from a monocular vision system are fused with inertial/magnetic measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) rigidly connected to the camera. Two Extended Kalman filters (EKFs) were developed to estimate the pose of the IMU/camera sensor moving relative to a rigid scene (ego-motion), based on a set of fiducials. The two filters were identical as for the state equation and the measurement equations of the inertial/magnetic sensors. The DLT-based EKF exploited visual estimates of the ego-motion using a variant of the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) method; the error-driven EKF exploited pseudo-measurements based on the projection errors from measured two-dimensional point features to the corresponding three-dimensional fiducials. The two filters were off-line analyzed in different experimental conditions and compared to a purely IMU-based EKF used for estimating the orientation of the IMU/camera sensor. The DLT-based EKF was more accurate than the error-driven EKF, less robust against loss of visual features, and equivalent in terms of computational complexity. Orientation root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 1° (1.5°), and position RMSEs of 3.5 mm (10 mm) were achieved in our experiments by the DLT-based EKF (error-driven EKF); by contrast, orientation RMSEs of 1.6° were achieved by the purely IMU-based EKF. PMID:23385409

  16. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  17. Extending the theory of planned behavior as a model of cognitive and motivational influences on academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broonen, Jean Paul

    2001-06-01

    In the theory of planned behavior [1,2], which is a widely applied expectancy-value model of attitude-behavior relationship, the individual's intention to perform a given behavior is central. Intentions are assumed to capture the motivational factors that influence behavior. Intentions are determined by attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. This paper examines some ways of expanding the model in the specific area of academic performance by the addition of other variables such as implemented intentions and action control. Some exploratory results from a field experiment are presented.

  18. Hand-held text-to-speech device for the non-vocal disabled.

    PubMed

    Damper, R I; Burnett, J W; Gray, P W; Straus, L P; Symes, R A

    1987-10-01

    A hand-held, battery-powered synthetic speech aid for the non-vocally disabled has been constructed. The device accepts as its input, largely unrestricted text keyed by the user. This is converted by text-to-speech software, based on 349 letter-to-sound rules and some simple rules of continuity, intonation and stress, to appropriate control signals which drive a single-chip (series formant) speech synthesizer. A number of implementation constraints are imposed by portability; the system has, as far as possible, been designed using CMOS components. To extend the time for which the system will operate between battery charges, power saving facilities are incorporated. Hand-held use implies the need for a one-handed keyboard: a unique integral keyboard is used, designed to minimize the visual search time to locate a letter key. Considerable attention has been paid to rule-search strategies, the handling of 'exceptions' which violate the letter-to-sound principle and the resolution of conflicts when more than one rule might apply. The quality and intelligibility of speech from a rule-based system is typically poor, and every effort has been made to improve it. Limits on possible improvement are, however, set by the use of a proprietary single chip synthesizer and by the minimal nature of a portable system. To facilitate the task of composing messages, a two-line liquid crystal display is provided together with a range of editing functions. The display can also be shown to the message receiver should he/she be deaf, or used for silent communication as an analogue to 'whispering'.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2960853

  19. Extending the applicability of an open-ring trap to perform experiments with a single laser-cooled ion

    SciTech Connect

    Cornejo, J. M.; Colombano, M.; Doménech, J.; Rodríguez, D.; Block, M.; Delahaye, P.

    2015-10-15

    A special ion trap was initially built up to perform β-ν correlation experiments with radioactive ions. The trap geometry is also well suited to perform experiments with laser-cooled ions, serving for the development of a new type of Penning trap, in the framework of the project TRAPSENSOR at the University of Granada. The goal of this project is to use a single {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion as detector for single-ion mass spectrometry. Within this project and without any modification to the initial electrode configuration, it was possible to perform Doppler cooling on {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions, starting from large clouds and reaching single ion sensitivity. This new feature of the trap might be important also for other experiments with ions produced at radioactive ion beam facilities. In this publication, the trap and the laser system will be described, together with their performance with respect to laser cooling applied to large ion clouds down to a single ion.

  20. Measuring Quality in Higher Education: Can a Performance Indicator Approach Be Extended to Identifying the Quality of Students' Union Provision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The desire to enhance the quality of the services provided by higher education institutions in the UK has led to the development of a series of benchmarking performance indicators to aid the quality management process. This paper examines whether or not similar indicators could be developed for use as tools in the management of quality within…

  1. Excess science accommodation capabilities and excess performance capabilities assessment for Mars Geoscience and Climatology Orbiter: Extended study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K.; Flacco, A.; Kaskiewicz, P.; Lebsock, K.

    1983-01-01

    The excess science accommodation and excess performance capabilities of a candidate spacecraft bus for the Mars Geoscience and Climatology Orbiter MGCO mission are assessed. The appendices are included to support the conclusions obtained during this contract extension. The appendices address the mission analysis, the attitude determination and control, the propulsion subsystem, and the spacecraft configuration.

  2. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  3. [Performance characteristics of root zone moisture and water potential sensors for greenhouses in the conditions of extended space flight].

    PubMed

    Podolskiy, I G; Strugov, O M; Bingham, G E

    2014-01-01

    The investigation was performed using greenhouse Lada in the Russian segment of the International space station (ISS RS) as part of space experiment Plants-2 during ISS missions 5 through to 22. A set of 6 point moisture sensors embedded in the root zone (turface particles of 1-2 mm in diam.) and 4 tensiometers inside root modules (RM) were used to monitor moisture content and water potential in the root zone. The purpose was to verify functionality and to test performance of the sensors in the spacefight environment. It was shown that with the average RZ moisture content of 80% the measurement error of the sensors do not exceed ± 1.5%. Dynamic analysis of the tensiometers measurements attests that error in water potential measurements does not exceed ± 111 Pa.

  4. [Performance characteristics of root zone moisture and water potential sensors for greenhouses in the conditions of extended space flight].

    PubMed

    Podolskiy, I G; Strugov, O M; Bingham, G E

    2014-01-01

    The investigation was performed using greenhouse Lada in the Russian segment of the International space station (ISS RS) as part of space experiment Plants-2 during ISS missions 5 through to 22. A set of 6 point moisture sensors embedded in the root zone (turface particles of 1-2 mm in diam.) and 4 tensiometers inside root modules (RM) were used to monitor moisture content and water potential in the root zone. The purpose was to verify functionality and to test performance of the sensors in the spacefight environment. It was shown that with the average RZ moisture content of 80% the measurement error of the sensors do not exceed ± 1.5%. Dynamic analysis of the tensiometers measurements attests that error in water potential measurements does not exceed ± 111 Pa. PMID:26035998

  5. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 5. Capacitor-diode voltage multiplier: Technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinelli, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    A 1-kW capacitor-diode voltage multiplier (CDVM) was designed, fabricated and tested to demonstrate the power of feasibility of high power CDVM's and to verify the analytical techniques that had been used to predict the performance characteristics of a 6-kw CDVM. High efficiency (96.2%), a low ratio of component weight to power (0.55 kg/kW), and low output ripple voltage (less than 1%, peak to peak) were obtained during the operation of a 1-kW CDVM various input line, load current, and load fault conditions.

  6. Extended Aging of Ag/W Circuit Breaker Contacts: Influence on Surface Structure, Electrical Properties, and UL Testing Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Kesim, M. Tumerkan; Sun, Yu; Harmon, Jason; Potter, Jonathan; Alpay, S. Pamir; Aindow, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Samples of 120 V, 30 A commercial circuit breakers were subjected to various aging treatments and the resulting microstructures at the surfaces of the Ag/W contacts were studied using a combination of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Breakers aged naturally in a hot, humid climate were compared to those subjected to accelerated aging in dry and humid environments. The most extensive oxidation was observed for contacts from breakers subjected to accelerated humid aging; these contacts exhibited thick surface layers consisting of Ag2O, Ag2WO4, Cu(OH)2•H2O, and WO3 phases. Far less surface degradation was observed for dry-aged contacts. Naturally aged contacts showed variations in degradation with more oxidation at the surface regions outside the physical contact area on the contact face. A correlation was found between the contact resistances measured from these samples following ASTM standard B 667-97 and the observed surface microstructures. To evaluate the effects of the surface oxides on breaker performance, humid-aged breakers were subjected to standardized UL overload/temperature-rise, endurance, and short-circuit testing following UL489. The contacts in these breakers exhibit similar microstructural and property changes to those observed previously for as-manufactured contacts after UL testing. These data illustrate the robust performance of this contact technology even after being subjected to aggressive artificial aging.

  7. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 3: Tradeoff studies of alternate thrust system configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30 cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. Emphasis was placed on relatively high power missions. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed in sufficient detail for comparing mass, efficiency, reliability, structure, and thermal characteristics. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. A program development plan was formulated that outlines the work structure considered necessary for developing, qualifying, and fabricating the flight hardware for the baseline thrust system within the time frame of a project to rendezvous with Halley's comet. An assessment was made of the costs and risks associated with a baseline thrust system as provided to the mission project under this plan. Critical procurements and interfaces were identified and defined.

  8. High-Performance Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitor with an Extended Nanoregime Interface through in Situ Polymer Electrolyte Generation.

    PubMed

    Anothumakkool, Bihag; Torris A T, Arun; Veeliyath, Sajna; Vijayakumar, Vidyanand; Badiger, Manohar V; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2016-01-20

    Here, we report an efficient strategy by which a significantly enhanced electrode-electrolyte interface in an electrode for supercapacitor application could be accomplished by allowing in situ polymer gel electrolyte generation inside the nanopores of the electrodes. This unique and highly efficient strategy could be conceived by judiciously maintaining ultraviolet-triggered polymerization of a monomer mixture in the presence of a high-surface-area porous carbon. The method is very simple and scalable, and a prototype, flexible solid-state supercapacitor could even be demonstrated in an encapsulation-free condition by using the commercial-grade electrodes (thickness = 150 μm, area = 12 cm(2), and mass loading = 7.3 mg/cm(2)). This prototype device shows a capacitance of 130 F/g at a substantially reduced internal resistance of 0.5 Ω and a high capacitance retention of 84% after 32000 cycles. The present system is found to be clearly outperforming a similar system derived by using the conventional polymer electrolyte (PVA-H3PO4 as the electrolyte), which could display a capacitance of only 95 F/g, and this value falls to nearly 50% in just 5000 cycles. The superior performance in the present case is credited primarily to the excellent interface formation of the in situ generated polymer electrolyte inside the nanopores of the electrode. Further, the interpenetrated nature of the polymer also helps the device to show a low electron spin resonance and power rate and, most importantly, excellent shelf-life in the unsealed flexible conditions. Because the nature of the electrode-electrolyte interface is the major performance-determining factor in the case of many electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems, along with the supercapacitors, the developed process can also find applications in preparing electrodes for the devices such as lithium-ion batteries, metal-air batteries, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, etc. PMID:26697922

  9. An integrated portable hand-held analyser for real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew C; Steimle, George; Ivanov, Stan; Holly, Mark; Fries, David P

    2007-08-29

    A compact hand-held heated fluorometric instrument for performing real-time isothermal nucleic acid amplification and detection is described. The optoelectronic instrument combines a Printed Circuit Board/Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (PCB/MEMS) reaction detection/chamber containing an integrated resistive heater with attached miniature LED light source and photo-detector and a disposable glass waveguide capillary to enable a mini-fluorometer. The fluorometer is fabricated and assembled in planar geometry, rolled into a tubular format and packaged with custom control electronics to form the hand-held reactor. Positive or negative results for each reaction are displayed to the user using an LED interface. Reaction data is stored in FLASH memory for retrieval via an in-built USB connection. Operating on one disposable 3 V lithium battery >12, 60 min reactions can be performed. Maximum dimensions of the system are 150 mm (h) x 48 mm (d) x 40 mm (w), the total instrument weight (with battery) is 140 g. The system produces comparable results to laboratory instrumentation when performing a real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction, and also displayed comparable precision, accuracy and resolution to laboratory-based real-time nucleic acid amplification instrumentation. A good linear response (R2 = 0.948) to fluorescein gradients ranging from 0.5 to 10 microM was also obtained from the instrument indicating that it may be utilized for other fluorometric assays. This instrument enables an inexpensive, compact approach to in-field genetic screening, providing results comparable to laboratory equipment with rapid user feedback as to the status of the reaction. PMID:17719904

  10. In situ analysis of agrochemical residues on fruit using ambient ionization on a handheld mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Soparawalla, Santosh; Tadjimukhamedov, Fatkhulla K; Wiley, Joshua S; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-11-01

    We describe a rapid in situ method for detecting agrochemicals on the surface or in the tissue of fruit using a portable mass spectrometer equipped with an ambient ionization source. Two such ionization methods, low temperature plasma (LTP) and paper spray (PS), were employed in experiments performed at a local grocery store. LTP was used to detect diphenylamine (DPA) directly from the skin of apples in the store and those treated after harvest with DPA were recognized by MS and MS/MS. These data therefore allowed ready distinction between organic and non-organic apples. DPA was also found within the internal tissue of purchased apples and its distribution was mapped using LTP. Similarly, thiabendazole residues were detected on the skin of treated oranges in a grocery store experiment in which paper spray was performed by wiping the orange surface with a moist commercial lens wipe and then applying a high voltage to ionize the chemicals directly from the wipe. The handheld mass spectrometer used in these measurements is capable of performing several stages of tandem mass spectrometry (up to MS(5)); the compounds on the fruit were identified by their MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Protonated DPA (m/z 170) produced a characteristic MS(2) fragment ion at m/z 92, while thiabendazole was identified by MS(3) using precursor to fragment ion transitions m/z 202 →m/z 175 →m/z 131. These particular examples exemplify the power of in situ analysis of complex samples using ambient ionization and handheld mass spectrometers.

  11. Evaluating the Reliability of a Novel Neck-Strength Assessment Protocol for Healthy Adults Using Self-Generated Resistance with a Hand-Held Dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, Danielle; Greenbaum, Marla; Hellyer, Leah; Tritton, Amanda; Walton, Dave

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the intra- and inter-session test–retest agreement of a novel neck-strength assessment protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Background: A literature review found a lack of neck-strength assessment protocols that are both portable and reliable. Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and inexpensive method of assessing muscle strength, but it is not commonly used for neck-strength assessment. Methods: A hand-held dynamometer was used to evaluate neck strength in 30 healthy participants. The device measured maximum force in cervical flexion, extension, side flexion, side flexion with rotation, and pure rotation, using the ipsilateral hand to apply isometric resistance over 3 seconds. Three measurements were taken over 6–8 days. Results: Test–retest intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) showed high reliability, ranging from 0.94 to 0.97 for all tested directions from Trial 1 to Trial 2 (intra-session reliability, ICC [2,1], absolute). ICC values demonstrated good to high inter-session reliability, ranging from 0.87 to 0.95 for all tested directions from Trial 1 to Trial 3 (ICC [2,1], absolute). Conclusion: The results suggest that the five test positions of the neck and upper-quadrant strength assessment protocol can be performed using hand-held dynamometry with good to high reliability. PMID:25931654

  12. Evaluation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using a handheld and a bench-top Raman spectrometer: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinkai; Pang, Shintaro; Labuza, Theodore P; He, Lili

    2014-11-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection using a handheld Raman spectrometer and a bench-top Raman spectrometer was systemically evaluated and compared in this study. Silver dendrites were used as the SERS substrate, and two pesticides, maneb and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-ammonium salt (PDCA) were used as the analytes. Capacity and performance were evaluated based on spectral resolution, signal variation, quantitative capacity, sensitivity, flexibility and intelligence for SERS detection. The results showed that the handheld Raman spectrometer had better data consistency, more accurate quantification capacity, as well as the capacity of on-site and intelligence for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis. On the other hand, the bench-top Raman spectrometer showed about 10 times higher sensitivity, as well as flexibility for optimization of the SERS measurements under different parameters such as laser power output, collective time, and objective magnification. The study on the optimization of SERS measurements on a bench-top spectrometer provides a useful guide for designing a handheld Raman spectrometer, specifically for SERS detection. This evaluation can advance the application of a handheld Raman spectrometer for the on-site measurement of trace amounts of pesticides or other chemicals. PMID:25127567

  13. Evaluation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using a handheld and a bench-top Raman spectrometer: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinkai; Pang, Shintaro; Labuza, Theodore P; He, Lili

    2014-11-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection using a handheld Raman spectrometer and a bench-top Raman spectrometer was systemically evaluated and compared in this study. Silver dendrites were used as the SERS substrate, and two pesticides, maneb and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-ammonium salt (PDCA) were used as the analytes. Capacity and performance were evaluated based on spectral resolution, signal variation, quantitative capacity, sensitivity, flexibility and intelligence for SERS detection. The results showed that the handheld Raman spectrometer had better data consistency, more accurate quantification capacity, as well as the capacity of on-site and intelligence for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis. On the other hand, the bench-top Raman spectrometer showed about 10 times higher sensitivity, as well as flexibility for optimization of the SERS measurements under different parameters such as laser power output, collective time, and objective magnification. The study on the optimization of SERS measurements on a bench-top spectrometer provides a useful guide for designing a handheld Raman spectrometer, specifically for SERS detection. This evaluation can advance the application of a handheld Raman spectrometer for the on-site measurement of trace amounts of pesticides or other chemicals.

  14. Justification and good practice in using handheld portable dental X-ray equipment: a position paper prepared by the European Academy of DentoMaxilloFacial Radiology (EADMFR)

    PubMed Central

    Suomalainen, A; Brüllmann, D; Jacobs, R; Horner, K; Stamatakis, H C

    2015-01-01

    Handheld portable X-ray devices are increasingly used for intraoral radiography. This development introduces new challenges to staff and patient safety, for which new or revised risk assessments must be made and acted upon prior to use. Major issues might be: difficulties in using rectangular collimation with beam aiming devices, more complex matching of exposure settings to the X-ray receptor used (e.g. longer exposure times), movements owing to the units' weight, protection of the operator and third persons, and the use in uncontrolled environments. These problems may result in violation of the “as low as reasonably achievable’’, that is, ALARA principle by an increase in (re)exposures compared with the other available intraoral X-ray devices. Hence, the use of handheld portable X-ray devices should be considered only after careful and documented evaluation (which might be performed based on medical physics support), when there is evidence that handheld operation has benefits over traditional modalities and when no new risks to the operators and/or third parties are caused. It is expected that the use of handheld portable X-ray devices will be very exceptional, and for justified situations only. Special attention should be drawn to beam-aiming devices, rectangular collimation, the section of the X-ray receptor, focus–skin distance, and backscatter shielding, and that the unit delivers reproducible dose over the full set of environmental conditions (e.g. battery status and temperature). PMID:25710118

  15. Developing a handheld record for patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Omendra; Davies, Siobhan; Tibbins, Carly; Rees, JH Martyn; Lenney, Warren; Gilchrist, Francis J

    2015-01-01

    Patient handheld records (PHHRs) promote self-management and empower the holder to take a more active role in the management of their disease. They have been used successfully in improving preventative care for children and have contributed to improved adherence in a number of chronic illnesses. Despite the potential advantages, there are no standard PHHRs for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We report the consultation process that led to the development of a CF PHHR, describe the final document, and analyze the feedback from their use at our center. We have made the CF PHHR freely available online. PMID:26316833

  16. Imaging Emission Spectra with Handheld and Cellphone Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitar, David

    2012-12-01

    As point-and-shoot digital camera technology advances it is becoming easier to image spectra in a laboralory setting on a shoestring budget and get immediale results. With this in mind, I wanted to test three cameras to see how their results would differ. Two undergraduate physics students and I used one handheld 7.1 megapixel (MP) digital Cannon point-and-shoot auto focusing camera and two different cellphone cameras: one at 6.1 MP and the other at 5.1 MP.

  17. Skylab-2 handheld photography alphabetized geographical features list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcniel, J. L.; Devalcourt, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This publication represents a relisting of the Skylab-2, PTD Handheld Photography Catalog. The purpose of this publication is to provide imagery researchers a supplement to the PTD Catalog by alphabetically sorting together all similar major and minor features. Some cross-referencing of feature names was accomplished where the authors deemed necessary; however, no attempt was made to exhaust all possible means of cross-referencing. An example of the cross-referencing which was done: Kuril Islands may be found under the major feature column and also as a minor feature of Islands.

  18. Handheld portable real-time tracking and communications device

    DOEpatents

    Wiseman, James M.; Riblett, Jr., Loren E.; Green, Karl L.; Hunter, John A.; Cook, III, Robert N.; Stevens, James R.

    2012-05-22

    Portable handheld real-time tracking and communications devices include; a controller module, communications module including global positioning and mesh network radio module, data transfer and storage module, and a user interface module enclosed in a water-resistant enclosure. Real-time tracking and communications devices can be used by protective force, security and first responder personnel to provide situational awareness allowing for enhance coordination and effectiveness in rapid response situations. Such devices communicate to other authorized devices via mobile ad-hoc wireless networks, and do not require fixed infrastructure for their operation.

  19. Hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Deanna Lynn; Coleman, Matthew A; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Albala, Joanna; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2013-04-23

    A hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection includes a microarray reader engineered to be small enough for portable applications. The invention includes a high-powered light-emitting diode that emits excitation light, an excitation filter positioned to receive the excitation light, a slide, a slide holder assembly for positioning the slide to receive the excitation light from the excitation filter, an emission filter positioned to receive the excitation light from the slide, a lens positioned to receive the excitation light from the emission filter, and a CCD camera positioned to receive the excitation light from the lens.

  20. Using handheld GPS for data acquisition in blasting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Blasters in the field for years have been faced with the task of plotting blast locations for future reference and calculating scaled distances or seismograph placement from maps, aerial photo`s etc. With the constellation fully operational, GPS provides a satellite signal transmitted to a ground receiver which will display the desired coordinate positioning worldwide, 24 hours a day in any kind of weather conditions. There are a variety of GPS receivers available with varying levels of accuracy. The field trials of a handheld navigational quality instrument for plotting blast and seismograph locations along with other necessary industry related data is the basis of this paper.

  1. Extending the performance of KrF laser for microlithography by using novel F2 control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, Paolo; Gong, Mengxiong; Carlesi, Jason; Padmabandu, Gunasiri G.; Binder, Mike; Swanson, Ken; Das, Palash P.

    2000-07-01

    Exposure tools for 248nm lithography have reached a level of maturity comparable to those based on i-line. With this increase in maturity, there is a concomitant requirement for greater flexibility from the laser by the process engineers. Usually, these requirements pertain to energy, spectral width and repetition rate. By utilizing a combination of laser parameters, the process engineers are often able to optimize throughput, reduce cost-of-operation or achieve greater process margin. Hitherto, such flexibility of laser operation was possible only via significant changes to various laser modules. During our investigation, we found that the key measure of the laser that impacts the aforementioned parameters is its F2 concentration. By monitoring and controlling its slope efficiency, the laser's F2 concentration may be precisely controlled. Thus a laser may tune to operate under specifications as diverse as 7mJ, (Delta) (lambda) FWHM < 0.3 pm and 10mJ, (Delta) (lambda) FWHM < 0.6pm and still meet the host of requirements necessary for lithography. We discus this new F2 control technique and highlight some laser performance parameters.

  2. Extended plasma cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence and correlation with psychomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Karschner, Erin L; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Hirvonen, Jussi; Goodwin, Robert S; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis smoking increases motor vehicle accident risk. Empirically defined cannabinoid detection windows are important to drugged driving legislation. Our aims were to establish plasma cannabinoid detection windows in frequent cannabis smokers and to determine if residual cannabinoid concentrations were correlated with psychomotor performance. Twenty-eight male chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days with daily blood collection. Plasma specimens were analyzed for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Critical tracking and divided attention tasks were administered at baseline (after overnight stay to ensure lack of acute intoxication) and after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of cannabis abstinence. Twenty-seven of the twenty-eight participants were THC-positive at admission (median 4.2 µg/L). THC concentrations significantly decreased 24 h after admission, but were still ≥2 µg/L in 16 of the 28 participants 48 h after admission. THC was detected in 3 of 5 specimens on day 30. The last positive 11-OH-THC specimen was 15 days after admission. THCCOOH was measureable in 4 of 5 participants after 30 days of abstinence. Years of prior cannabis use significantly correlated with THC concentrations on admission, and days 7 and 14. Tracking error, evaluated by the Divided Attention Task, was the only evaluated psychomotor assessment significantly correlated with cannabinoid concentrations at baseline and day 8 (11-OH-THC only). Median THC was 0.3 µg/L in 5 chronic frequent cannabis smokers' plasma samples after 30 days of sustained abstinence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26097154

  3. Handheld Real-Time Volumetric Imaging of The Spine: Technology Development

    PubMed Central

    Tiouririne, Mohamed; Nguyen, Sarah; Hossack, John A.; Owen, Kevin; Mauldin, F. William

    2014-01-01

    Technical difficulties, poor image quality and reliance on pattern identifications represent some of the drawbacks of two-dimensional ultrasound imaging of spinal bone anatomy. To overcome these limitations, we sought to develop real-time volumetric imaging of the spine using a portable handheld device. The device measured 19.2 cm x 9.2 cm x 9.0 cm and imaged at 5 MHz center frequency. 2D imaging under conventional ultrasound and volumetric (3D) imaging in real time was achieved and verified by inspection using a custom spine phantom. Further device performance was assessed and revealed a 75-minute battery life and average frame rate of 17.7 Hz in volumetric imaging mode. Our results suggest that real-time volumetric imaging of the spine is a feasible technique for more intuitive visualization of the spine. These results may have important ramifications for a large array of neuraxial procedures. PMID:24446802

  4. PalmCIS: a wireless handheld application for satisfying clinician information needs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Mendonça, Eneida A; McKnight, Lawrence K; Stetson, Peter D; Lei, Jianbo; Cimino, James J

    2004-01-01

    Wireless handheld technology provides new ways to deliver and present information. As with any technology, its unique features must be taken into consideration and its applications designed accordingly. In the clinical setting, availability of needed information can be crucial during the decision-making process. Preliminary studies performed at New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH) determined that there are inadequate access to information and ineffective communication among clinicians (potential proximal causes of medical errors). In response to these findings, the authors have been developing extensions to their Web-based clinical information system including PalmCIS, an application that provides access to needed patient information via a wireless personal digital assistant (PDA). The focus was on achieving end-to-end security and developing a highly usable system. This report discusses the motivation behind PalmCIS, design and development of the system, and future directions. PMID:14527976

  5. In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Dubose, Theodore; Toth, Cynthia A.; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-09-01

    Enabled by adaptive optics, retinal photoreceptor cell imaging is changing our understanding of retinal structure and function, as well as the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases. To date, use of this technology has been limited to cooperative adult subjects due to the size, weight and inconvenience of the equipment, thus excluding study of retinal maturation during human development. Here, we report the design and operation of a handheld probe that can perform both scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography of the parafoveal photoreceptor structure in infants and children without the need for adaptive optics. The probe, featuring a compact optical design weighing only 94 g, was able to quantify packing densities of parafoveal cone photoreceptors and visualize cross-sectional photoreceptor substructure in children with ages ranging from 14 months to 12 years. The probe will benefit paediatric research by improving the understanding of retinal development, maldevelopment and early onset of disease during human growth.

  6. A handheld laser scanning confocal reflectance imaging–confocal Raman microspectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chetan A.; Arrasmith, Christopher L.; Mackanos, Mark A.; Dickensheets, David L.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Confocal reflectance microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy have shown potential for non-destructive analysis of samples at micron-scale resolutions. Current studies utilizing these techniques often employ large bench-top microscopes, and are not suited for use outside of laboratory settings. We have developed a microscope which combines laser scanning confocal reflectance imaging and confocal Raman spectroscopy into a compact handheld probe that is capable of high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy in a variety of settings. The compact size of the probe is largely due to the use of a MEMS mirror for beam scanning. The probe is capable of axial resolutions of up to 4 μm for the confocal imaging channel and 10 μm for the confocal Raman spectroscopy channel. Here, we report instrument design, characterize optical performance, and provide images and spectra from normal skin to demonstrate the instrument’s capabilities for clinical diagnostics. PMID:22435097

  7. Read-only-memory pipelay analysis module written for hand-held computer

    SciTech Connect

    Mousselli, A.H.

    1985-06-10

    Complex offshore pipelay computer analysis has until now required large computers and time-consuming inputs. Accurate results were only available with large office computers. Now a technique for such analysis, using a memory module for Hewlett Packard HP-41 series hand-held computers, has been developed. The custom read-only-memory (ROM) module, SEAPIPE, performs analyses of offshore pipeline installations by conventional ''S-curve'' and vertical ''J-curve'' methods. The analyses include tension and stringer requirements, pipe spans, and maximum stresses. Results of the program have been compared to results of mainframe computer solutions, which include wide ranges of water depth, tension, and pipe sizes. This article describes the pipelaying analysis, the module, and solutions. Typical pipelay solutions using the module are also provided. And solutions which aid the user during various project needs are illustrated and discussed.

  8. Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood

    PubMed Central

    Block, Colleen N.; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of handheld XRF analyzers on wood that has been treated with a preservative containing arsenic. Experiments were designed to evaluate precision, detection limit, effective depth of analysis, and accuracy of the XRF arsenic readings. Results showed that the precision of the XRF improved with increased sample concentration and longer analysis times. Reported detection limits decreased with longer analysis times to values of less than 1 mg/kg or 18 mg/kg, depending on the model used. The effective depth of analysis was within the top 1.2 cm and 2.0 cm of sample for wood containing natural gradients of chemical preservative and concentration extremes, respectively. XRF results were found to be 1.5-2.3 times higher than measurements from traditional laboratory analysis. Equations can be developed to convert XRF values to results which are consistent with traditional laboratory testing. PMID:17241725

  9. Calcium and Phosphorus Detection Using Benchtop Versus Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Kuzel, Aaron R; Christensen, Angi M; Marvin, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Elemental analysis of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) has been shown to be useful in differentiating skeletal and nonskeletal material. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is an attractive, nondestructive technique for forensic anthropologists, and the development of portable XRF instrumentation is promising for field applications. This study examines the performance of handheld XRF instrumentation operated in air compared to a traditional benchtop XRF device that has the ability to control the analysis atmosphere. Both instruments can be used to effectively distinguish skeletal from nonskeletal remains. However, as the measurement atmosphere affects detection levels for calcium and phosphorus, Ca/P ratios obtained from the instruments and analysis conditions were found to differ significantly, with analyses conducted in air showing significantly lower phosphorus detection. Consequently, comparison of Ca/P ratios to conclude skeletal versus nonskeletal origin must be based on data collected under similar analysis conditions.

  10. PalmCIS: a wireless handheld application for satisfying clinician information needs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Mendonça, Eneida A; McKnight, Lawrence K; Stetson, Peter D; Lei, Jianbo; Cimino, James J

    2004-01-01

    Wireless handheld technology provides new ways to deliver and present information. As with any technology, its unique features must be taken into consideration and its applications designed accordingly. In the clinical setting, availability of needed information can be crucial during the decision-making process. Preliminary studies performed at New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH) determined that there are inadequate access to information and ineffective communication among clinicians (potential proximal causes of medical errors). In response to these findings, the authors have been developing extensions to their Web-based clinical information system including PalmCIS, an application that provides access to needed patient information via a wireless personal digital assistant (PDA). The focus was on achieving end-to-end security and developing a highly usable system. This report discusses the motivation behind PalmCIS, design and development of the system, and future directions.

  11. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by reason of infringement of certain...

  12. 75 FR 36678 - In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic... public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http... software and handheld electronic devices, by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No....

  13. An Investigation of Game-Embedded Handheld Devices to Enhance English Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed and implemented a system combining the advantages of both educational games and wireless handheld technology to promote the interactive English learning in the classroom setting. An interactive English vocabulary acquisition board game was designed with the system being implemented on handheld devices. Thirty sixth-grade…

  14. Students Using Handheld Computers to Learn Collaboratively in a First Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Megan Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated how first grade students used handheld computers to learn in collaboration with others throughout the learning process. This research focused specifically on how the use of handheld computers impacts students' learning outcomes and relates to technology standards. A qualitative methodology was used to capture…

  15. 30 CFR 77.402 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the tools or shall be equipped with friction or other equivalent safety devices. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 77.402... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.402 Hand-held power tools; safety devices....

  16. 30 CFR 75.1724 - Hand-held power tools; safety devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held power tools; safety devices. 75.1724... power tools; safety devices. Hand-held power tools shall be equipped with controls requiring constant hand or finger pressure to operate the tools or shall be equipped with friction or other...

  17. 75 FR 43206 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by reason of infringement of..., 2010, based on a complaint filed by Motorola, Inc. (``Motorola'') of Schaumburg, Illinois. 75 FR...

  18. My-Mini-Pet: A Handheld Pet-Nurturing Game to Engage Students in Arithmetic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, C. C. Y.; Chen, Z-H.; Cheng, H. N. H.; Chen, F-C.; Chan, T-W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, more and more games have been developed for handheld devices. Furthermore, the popularity of handheld devices and increase of wireless computing can be taken advantage of to provide students with more learning opportunities. Games also could bring promising benefits--specifically, motivating students to learn/play, sustaining…

  19. 16 CFR 1225.2 - Requirements for hand-held infant carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for hand-held infant carriers... ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR HAND-HELD INFANT CARRIERS (Eff. 6-6-14) § 1225.2 Requirements...

  20. Are Handheld Computers Dependable? A New Data Collection System for Classroom-Based Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Very little research exists on the dependability of handheld computers used in public school classrooms. This study addresses four dependability criteria--reliability, maintainability, availability, and safety--to evaluate a data collection tool on a handheld computer. Data were collected from five sources: (1) time-use estimations by 19 special…

  1. The Effect of Teaching and Learning with Texas Instruments Handheld Devices on Student Achievement in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyublinskaya, Irina; Tournaki, Nelly

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the respective achievement of students in an integrated algebra course taught with two different types of handhelds over a period of one year. The experimental group was taught with TI-Nspire[TM] handhelds and was compared to the control group taught with TI-84 Plus graphing calculators. The teachers of each group received…

  2. Evidence of Effectiveness of Health Care Professionals Using Handheld Computers: A Scoping Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Handheld computers and mobile devices provide instant access to vast amounts and types of useful information for health care professionals. Their reduced size and increased processing speed has led to rapid adoption in health care. Thus, it is important to identify whether handheld computers are actually effective in clinical practice. Objective A scoping review of systematic reviews was designed to provide a quick overview of the documented evidence of effectiveness for health care professionals using handheld computers in their clinical work. Methods A detailed search, sensitive for systematic reviews was applied for Cochrane, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Global Health, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. All outcomes that demonstrated effectiveness in clinical practice were included. Classroom learning and patient use of handheld computers were excluded. Quality was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. A previously published conceptual framework was used as the basis for dual data extraction. Reported outcomes were summarized according to the primary function of the handheld computer. Results Five systematic reviews met the inclusion and quality criteria. Together, they reviewed 138 unique primary studies. Most reviewed descriptive intervention studies, where physicians, pharmacists, or medical students used personal digital assistants. Effectiveness was demonstrated across four distinct functions of handheld computers: patient documentation, patient care, information seeking, and professional work patterns. Within each of these functions, a range of positive outcomes were reported using both objective and self-report measures. The use of handheld computers improved patient documentation through more complete recording, fewer documentation errors, and increased efficiency. Handheld computers provided easy access to

  3. Handheld probes and galvanometer scanning for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Dobre, G.; Demian, D.; Cernat, R.; Sinescu, C.; Topala, F. I.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Rolland, J. P.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    As part of the ongoing effort of the biomedical imaging community to move Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) systems from the lab to the clinical environment and produce OCT systems appropriate for multiple types of investigations in a medical department, handheld probes equipped with different types of scanners need to be developed. These allow different areas of a patient's body to be investigated using OCT with the same system and even without changing the patient's position. This paper reviews first the state of the art regarding OCT handheld probes. Novel probes with a uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer-based scanner (GS) developed in our groups are presented. Their advantages and limitations are discussed. Aspects regarding the use of galvoscanners with regard to Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are pointed out, in relationship with our studies on optimal scanning functions of galvanometer devices in OCT. These scanning functions are briefly discussed with regard to their main parameters: profile, theoretical duty cycle, scan frequency, and scan amplitude. The optical design of the galvoscanner and refractive optics combination in the probe head, optimized for various applications, is considered. Perspectives of the field are pointed out in the final part of the paper.

  4. Ultratrace detector for hand-held gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Miller, Fred S.

    1999-01-01

    An ultratrace detector system for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and C0.sub.2. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica--or other metal--aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

  5. Buried threat detection using a handheld ground penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Mary; Torrione, Peter; Collins, Leslie; Morton, Kenneth

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we explore the efficacy of two buried threat detectors on handheld data. The first algorithm is an energy-based algorithm, which computes how anomalous a given A-scan measurement after it is normalized according to its local statistics. It is based on a commonly used prescreener for the Husky Mounted Detection System (HMDS). In the HMDS setting measurements are sampled on a crosstrack-downtrack grid, and sequential measurements are at neighboring downtrack locations. In contrast, in the handheld setting sequential scans are often taken at neighboring crosstrack locations, and neighboring downtrack locations can be hundreds of scans away. In order to include both downtrack and crosstrack information, we compute local statistics over a much larger area than in the HMDS setting. The second algorithm is a shape-based algorithm. Shape Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features, which capture the gradient distributions of local patches, are extracted and used to train a non-linear Support Vector Machine (SVM). We found that in terms of AUC, the SIFT-SVM algorithm results in a 2.2% absolute improvement over the energy-based algorithm, with the greatest gains seen at lower false alarm rates.

  6. Radiographic results of an accelerometer-based, handheld surgical navigation system for the tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Cross, Michael; Deshmane, Prashant; Jerabek, Seth; Kang, Michael; Mayman, David J

    2011-10-05

    In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), intramedullary and extramedullary tibial alignment guides are not proven to be highly accurate in obtaining alignment perpendicular to the mechanical axis in the coronal plane. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of an accelerometer-based, handheld surgical navigation system in obtaining a postoperative tibial component alignment within 2° of the intraoperative goal in both the coronal and sagittal planes. A total of 151 TKAs were performed by 2 surgeons using a handheld surgical navigation system to perform the tibial resection. Postoperatively, standing anteroposterior hip-to-ankle radiographs and lateral knee-to-ankle radiographs were performed to determine the varus/valgus alignment and the posterior slope of the tibial components relative to the mechanical axis in both the coronal and sagittal planes. Findings showed that 95.3% of the tibial components were placed within 2° of the intraoperative goal in the coronal plane and 96.1% of the components were placed within 2° of the intraoperative goal in the sagittal plane. Overall, mean postoperative lower-extremity alignment was -0.3°±2.1°, with 97% of patients having an alignment within 3° of a neutral mechanical axis. The handheld surgical navigation system improves the accuracy of the tibial resection and subsequent tibial component alignment in TKA. It is able to combine the accuracy of computer-assisted surgery systems with the ease of use and familiarity of conventional, extramedullary alignment systems, and the ability to adjust both the coronal and sagittal alignments intraoperatively may prove clinically useful in TKA.

  7. Photopic Negative Response Obtained Using a Handheld Electroretinogram Device: Determining the Optimal Measure and Repeatability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhichao; Hadoux, Xavier; Hui, Flora; Sarossy, Marc G.; Crowston, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the measure of the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the full-field electroretinogram (ERG) that exhibits the optimal level of test-retest repeatability, and examine its repeatability under different conditions using a handheld, nonmydriatic ERG system and self-adhering skin electrodes. Methods Multiple ERG recordings (using 200 sweeps each) were performed in both eyes of 20 normal participants at two different sessions to compare its coefficient of repeatability (CoR; where 95% of the test-retest difference is expected to lie) between different PhNR measures and under different testing conditions (within and between examiners, and between sessions). Results The ratio between the PhNR trough to b-wave peak and b-wave peak to a-wave trough amplitude (PhNR/B ratio) exhibited the lowest CoR relative to its effective dynamic range (30 ± 4%) when including three recordings. There were no significant changes in the PhNR/B ratio over seven measurements (4 right and 3 left eyes) at either session (P ≥ 0.100), or significant difference in its CoR between different testing conditions (P = 0.314). Conclusion The PhNR/B ratio was the measure that minimized variability, and its measurements using a novel handheld ERG system with self-adhering skin electrodes and the protocols described in this study were comparable under different testing conditions and over multiple recordings. Translational Relevance The PhNR can be measured for clinical and research purposes using a simple-to-implement technique that is consistent within and between visits, and also between examiners. PMID:27540494

  8. Functional requirements analysis and human machine interface specifications for handheld metal detector wands

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, V.; Hartney, C.; Banks, W.

    1994-11-01

    Functional Requirements Analysis (FRA) and Human-Machine-Interface Design Specifications (HMIDs) are critical elements in the development of effective security systems. Handheld metal detector wands are currently used by security personnel to detect metal weapons and munitions that might be smuggled onboard an aircraft by terrorists or individuals who intend to do harm to passengers, aircraft, or other air carrier-related targets. The FAA has requested that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) assist in developing functional requirements for handheld metal detector devices (wands) used at airports. This effort is focused on both defining and assuring adequate functional and human interface designs that are an integral part of airport security operations. In addition to developing functional requirements, LLNL was also requested to examine and review wanding procedures currently used by the airports and air carriers and provide comments, recommendations, and suggestions for enhanced security based upon this review. The phrase ``Human-Machine-Interface`` (HMI) is frequently used to describe the characteristics of a system that allows the human to interact and control the machine or system. Equipment used by checkpoint security Pre-Board Screeners (PBS`s) during rapid search of passengers must be designed to fit a broad range of anthropometric differences in height, hand size, grip strength, upper body strength, visual. acuity, auditory acuity, and other related human variables. In essence, if there is a high degree of compatibility between the end-user and the equipment, there will be a direct enhancement of total system performance and system operability. Thus, this document may also be used as, a guideline to enhance ergonomic compatibility between the PBS`s and the equipment they use.

  9. Hand-held tools with complex kinematics are efficiently incorporated into movement planning and online control.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Lee A; Hoe, Erica; Flanagan, J Randall

    2012-10-01

    Certain hand-held tools alter the mapping between hand motion and motion of the tool end point that must be controlled in order to perform a task. For example, when using a pool cue, the motion of the cue tip is reversed relative to the hand. Previous studies have shown that the time required to initiate a reaching movement (Fernandez-Ruiz J, Wong W, Armstrong IT, Flanagan JR. Behav Brain Res 219: 8-14, 2011), or correct an ongoing reaching movement (Gritsenko V, Kalaska JF. J Neurophysiol 104: 3084-3104, 2010), is prolonged when the mapping between hand motion and motion of a cursor controlled by the hand is reversed. Here we show that these time costs can be significantly reduced when the reversal is instantiated by a virtual hand-held tool. Participants grasped the near end of a virtual tool, consisting of a rod connecting two circles, and moved the end point to displayed targets. In the reversal condition, the rod translated through, and rotated about, a pivot point such that there was a left-right reversal between hand and end point motion. In the nonreversal control, the tool translated with the hand. As expected, when only the two circles were presented, movement initiation and correction times were much longer in the reversal condition. However, when full vision of the tool was provided, the reaction time cost was almost eliminated. These results indicate that tools with complex kinematics can be efficiently incorporated into sensorimotor control mechanisms used in movement planning and online control.

  10. Extended BCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhionero, Franco; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Amendola, Luca

    1999-05-01

    We propose a new inflationary toy model that produces two episodes of phase transitions. With the first one, super-horizon-sized bubbles are nucleated, which are seen from inside as open universes, thereby reconciling inflation with the recent observations of a low Ω0. With the second transition, a distribution of sub-horizon voids, of sizes typically around 10-100 Mpc/h are generated inside the open universes. These primordial voids can be the seeds of the present large scale voids that are detected in redshift surveys, and provide a non-Gaussian signal on the microwave background. The model realizes this sequence along the same slow-rolling path, by modulating the energy difference between the vacuum states. In this model, that we call extended Bubbly CDM, openness and bubblyness, rather than flatness and homogeneity, are the main products of inflation.

  11. Chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles: combining hydrogen bonds and anion-π interactions to achieve optimum performance.

    PubMed

    Sabek, Jad; Adriaenssens, Louis; Guinovart, Tomàs; Parra, Enrique J; Rius, F Xavier; Ballester, Pablo; Blondeau, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The performance of chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles and multiwall carbon nanotubes is presented. The calix[4]pyrrole receptors bear two phenyl groups at opposite meso-positions. When the meso-phenyl groups are decorated with strong electron-withdrawing substituents, attractive anion-π interactions may exist between the receptor's aromatic walls and the sandwiched anion. These anion-π interactions are shown to significantly affect the selectivity of the electrodes. Calix[4]pyrrole, bearing a p-nitro withdrawing group on each of the meso-phenyl rings, afforded sensors that display anti-Hofmeister behavior against the lipophilic salicylate and nitrate anions. Based on the experimental data, a series of principles that help in predicting the suitability of synthetic receptors for use as anion-specific ionophores is discussed. Finally, the sensors deliver excellent results in the direct detection of chloride in bodily fluids.

  12. Handheld access to radiology teaching files: an automated system for format conversion and content creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Raghav; Raman, Lalithakala; Raman, Bhargav; Gold, Garry; Beaulieu, Christopher F.

    2002-05-01

    Current handheld Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) can be used to view radiology teaching files. We have developed a toolkit that allows rapid creation of radiology teaching files in handheld formats from existing repositories. Our toolkit incorporated a desktop converter, a web conversion server and an application programming interface (API). Our API was integrated with an existing pilot teaching file database. We evaluated our system by obtaining test DICOM and JPEG images from our PACS system, our pilot database and from personal collections and converting them on a Windows workstation (Microsoft, Redmond, CA) and on other platforms using the web server. Our toolkit anonymized, annotated and categorized images using DICOM header information and data entered by the authors. Image processing was automatically customized for the target handheld device. We used freeware handheld image viewers as well as our custom applications that allowed window/level manipulation and viewing of additional textual information. Our toolkit provides desktop and web access to image conversion tools to produce organized handheld teaching file packages for most handheld devices and our API allows existing teaching file databases to incorporate handheld compatibility. The distribution of radiology teaching files on PDAs can increase the accessibility to radiology teaching.

  13. Hand-Held Reader for Colorimetric Sensor Arrays.

    PubMed

    Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-08-01

    An inexpensive hand-held device for analysis of colorimetric sensor arrays (CSAs) has been developed. The device makes use of a contact image sensor (CIS), technology commonly used in business card scanners, to rapidly collect low-noise colorimetric data for chemical sensing. The lack of moving parts and insensitivity to vibration allow for lower noise and improved scan rates compared to other digital imaging techniques (e.g., digital cameras, flatbed scanners); signal-to-noise ratios are a factor of 3-10 higher than currently used methods, and scan rates are up to 250 times faster without compromising sensitivity. The device is capable of real-time chemical analysis at scan rates up to 48 Hz. PMID:26177346

  14. Hand-Held Reader for Colorimetric Sensor Arrays.

    PubMed

    Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-08-01

    An inexpensive hand-held device for analysis of colorimetric sensor arrays (CSAs) has been developed. The device makes use of a contact image sensor (CIS), technology commonly used in business card scanners, to rapidly collect low-noise colorimetric data for chemical sensing. The lack of moving parts and insensitivity to vibration allow for lower noise and improved scan rates compared to other digital imaging techniques (e.g., digital cameras, flatbed scanners); signal-to-noise ratios are a factor of 3-10 higher than currently used methods, and scan rates are up to 250 times faster without compromising sensitivity. The device is capable of real-time chemical analysis at scan rates up to 48 Hz.

  15. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  16. Development of an automated handheld immunoaffinity fluorometric biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Terry E.; Bargeron, C. Brent; Benson, Richard C.; Carlson, Micah A.; Fraser, Allan B.; Groopman, John D.; Ko, Harvey W.; Strickland, Paul T.; Velky, James

    2000-04-01

    A new immunoaffinity fluorometric biosensor has been developed for detecting and quantifying aflatoxins, a family of potent fungi-produced carcinogens that are commonly found in a variety of agriculture products. They have also been cited as a biological agent under weapons development. The handheld, self-contained biosensor is fully automatic, highly sensitive, quick, quantitative, and requires no special storage. Concentration from 0.1 parts per billion to 50 ppb can be determined in less than 2 minutes with a 1 ml sample volume. Higher concentrations can be determined by simply reducing the sample volume. The device operates on the principles of immunoaffinity for specificity and fluorescence for a quantitative assay. The analytic procedure is flexible so that other chemical and biological analytes could be detected with minor modifications to the current device.

  17. A handheld laser-induced fluorescence detector for multiple applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Han-Yang; Fang, Pan; Pan, Jian-Zhang; Fang, Qun

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a compact handheld laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector based on a 450 nm laser diode and quasi-confocal optical configuration with a total size of 9.1 × 6.2 × 4.1 cm(3). Since there are few reports on the use of 450 nm laser diode in LIF detection, especially in miniaturized LIF detector, we systematically investigated various optical arrangements suitable for the requirements of 450 nm laser diode and system miniaturization, including focusing lens, filter combination, and pinhole, as well as Raman effect of water at 450 nm excitation wavelength. As the result, the handheld LIF detector integrates the light source (450 nm laser diode), optical circuit module (including a 450 nm band-pass filter, a dichroic mirror, a collimating lens, a 525 nm band-pass filter, and a 1.0mm aperture), optical detector (miniaturized photomultiplier tube), as well as electronic module (including signal recording, processing and displaying units). This detector is capable of working independently with a cost of ca. $2000 for the whole instrument. The detection limit of the instrument for sodium fluorescein solution is 0.42 nM (S/N=3). The broad applicability of the present system was demonstrated in capillary electrophoresis separation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled amino acids and in flow cytometry of tumor cells as an on-line LIF detector, as well as in droplet array chip analysis as a LIF scanner. We expect such a compact LIF detector could be applied in flow analysis systems as an on-line detector, and in field analysis and biosensor analysis as a portable universal LIF detector. PMID:26838391

  18. Handheld laser scanner automatic registration based on random coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Yu, Chun-ping; Wang, Li

    2011-06-01

    Current research on Laser Scanner often focuses mainly on the static measurement. Little use has been made of dynamic measurement, that are appropriate for more problems and situations. In particular, traditional Laser Scanner must Keep stable to scan and measure coordinate transformation parameters between different station. In order to make the scanning measurement intelligently and rapidly, in this paper ,we developed a new registration algorithm for handleheld laser scanner based on the positon of target, which realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser scanner without any more complex work. the double camera on laser scanner can take photograph of the artificial target points to get the three-dimensional coordinates, this points is designed by random coding. And then, a set of matched points is found from control points to realize the orientation of scanner by the least-square common points transformation. After that the double camera can directly measure the laser point cloud in the surface of object and get the point cloud data in an unified coordinate system. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, a laser scanner based on binocular vision is designed with double camera and one laser head. By those, the real-time orientation of laser scanner is realized and the efficiency is improved. Secondly, the coding marker is introduced to solve the data matching, a random coding method is proposed. Compared with other coding methods,the marker with this method is simple to match and can avoid the shading for the object. Finally, a recognition method of coding maker is proposed, with the use of the distance recognition, it is more efficient. The method present here can be used widely in any measurement from small to huge obiect, such as vehicle, airplane which strengthen its intelligence and efficiency. The results of experiments and theory analzing demonstrate that proposed method could realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser

  19. Handheld camera 3D modeling system using multiple reference panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Kouta; Oue, Yasuhiro; Terauchi, Tomoya; Emi, Tetsuichi

    2002-03-01

    A novel 3D modeling system in which a target object is easily captured and modeled by using a hand-held camera with several reference panels is presented in this paper. The reference panels are designed to be able to obtain the camera position and discriminate between each other. A conventional 3D modeling system using a reference panel has several restrictions regarding the target object, specifically the size and its location. Our system uses multiple reference panels, which are set around the target object to remove these restrictions. The main features of this system are as follows: 1) The whole shape and photo-realistic textures of the target object can be digitized based on several still images or a movie captured by using a hand-held camera; as well as each location of the camera that can be calculated using the reference panels. 2) Our system can be provided as a software product only. That means there are no special requirements for hardware; even the reference panels , because they can be printed from image files or software. 3) This system can be applied to digitize a larger object. In the experiments, we developed and used an interactive region selection tool to detect the silhouette on each image instead of using the chroma -keying method. We have tested our system with a toy object. The calculation time is about 10 minutes (except for the capturing the images and extracting the silhouette by using our tool) on a personal computer with a Pentium-III processor (600MHz) and 320MB memory. However, it depends on how complex the images are and how many images you use. Our future plan is to evaluate the system with various kind of objects, specifically, large ones in outdoor environments.

  20. A kinematic analysis of a haptic handheld stylus in a virtual environment: a study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Broeren, Jurgen; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Rydmark, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Virtual Reality provides new options for conducting motor assessment and training within computer-generated 3 dimensional environments. To date very little has been reported about normal performance in virtual environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a clinical procedure measuring trajectories with a haptic handheld stylus in a virtual environment and to establish normative data in healthy subjects using this haptic device. Methods Fifty-eight normal subjects; aged from 20 to 69, performed 3 dimensional hand movements in a virtual environment using a haptic device on three occasions within one week. Test-retest stability and standardized normative data were obtained for all subjects. Results No difference was found between test and retest. The limits of agreement revealed that changes in an individual's performance could not be detected. There was a training effect between the first test occasion and the third test occasion. Normative data are presented. Conclusion A new test was developed for recording the kinematics of the handheld haptic stylus in a virtual environment. The normative data will be used for purposes of comparison in future assessments, such as before and after training of persons with neurological deficits. PMID:17490470

  1. Spectra Transfer Between a Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Laboratory and a Miniaturized Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Uwe; Pfeifer, Frank; Hsuing, Chang; Siesler, Heinz W

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the transfer of spectra that have been measured on two different laboratory Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometers to the format of a handheld instrument by measuring only a few samples with both spectrometer types. Thus, despite the extreme differences in spectral range and resolution, spectral data sets that have been collected and quantitative as well as qualitative calibrations that have been developed thereof, respectively, over a long period on a laboratory instrument can be conveniently transferred to the handheld system. Thus, the necessity to prepare completely new calibration samples and the effort required to develop calibration models when changing hardware platforms is minimized. The enabling procedure is based on piecewise direct standardization (PDS) and will be described for the data sets of a quantitative and a qualitative application case study. For this purpose the spectra measured on the FT-NIR laboratory spectrometers were used as "master" data and transferred to the "target" format of the handheld instrument. The quantitative test study refers to transmission spectra of three-component liquid solvent mixtures whereas the qualitative application example encompasses diffuse reflection spectra of six different current polymers. To prove the performance of the transfer procedure for quantitative applications, partial least squares (PLS-1) calibrations were developed for the individual components of the solvent mixtures with spectra transferred from the master to the target instrument and the cross-validation parameters were compared with the corresponding parameters obtained for spectra measured on the master and target instruments, respectively. To test the retention of the discrimination ability of the transferred polymer spectra sets principal component analyses (PCAs) were applied exemplarily for three of the six investigated polymers and their identification was demonstrated by

  2. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    PubMed

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) <200mg/kg, were obtained for the low range TPH concentrations of 0 to ~3,000mg/kg. These predictions were carried out using a set of independent samples for each soil type. Prediction models were also tested for the full concentration range (0-60,000mg/kg) for each soil type model with R(2) and RMSE values of ~0.99 and <1,255mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, a number of intermediate concentration range models were also generated for each soil type with similar R(2) values of ~0.99 and RMSE values <800mg/kg. This study shows the capability of using a portable mid-infrared (MIR) DRIFT spectrometer for predicting TPH in a variety of soil types and the potential for being a rapid in-field screening method for TPH concentration levels at common regulatory thresholds. A novel hand-held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field. PMID:27591631

  3. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    PubMed

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) <200mg/kg, were obtained for the low range TPH concentrations of 0 to ~3,000mg/kg. These predictions were carried out using a set of independent samples for each soil type. Prediction models were also tested for the full concentration range (0-60,000mg/kg) for each soil type model with R(2) and RMSE values of ~0.99 and <1,255mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, a number of intermediate concentration range models were also generated for each soil type with similar R(2) values of ~0.99 and RMSE values <800mg/kg. This study shows the capability of using a portable mid-infrared (MIR) DRIFT spectrometer for predicting TPH in a variety of soil types and the potential for being a rapid in-field screening method for TPH concentration levels at common regulatory thresholds. A novel hand-held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field.

  4. A hand-held instrument to maintain steady tissue contact during probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Latt, Win Tun; Newton, Richard C; Visentini-Scarzanella, Marco; Payne, Christopher J; Noonan, David P; Shang, Jianzhong; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) provides high-resolution in vivo imaging for intraoperative tissue characterization. Maintaining a desired contact force between target tissue and the pCLE probe is important for image consistency, allowing large area surveillance to be performed. A hand-held instrument that can provide a predetermined contact force to obtain consistent images has been developed. The main components of the instrument include a linear voice coil actuator, a donut load-cell, and a pCLE probe. In this paper, detailed mechanical design of the instrument is presented and system level modeling of closed-loop force control of the actuator is provided. The performance of the instrument has been evaluated in bench tests as well as in hand-held experiments. Results demonstrate that the instrument ensures a consistent predetermined contact force between pCLE probe tip and tissue. Furthermore, it compensates for both simulated physiological movement of the tissue and involuntary movements of the operator's hand. Using pCLE video feature tracking of large colonic crypts within the mucosal surface, the steadiness of the tissue images obtained using the instrument force control is demonstrated by confirming minimal crypt translation.

  5. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone... highway, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or...

  6. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone... highway, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or...

  7. 49 CFR 392.82 - Using a hand-held mobile telephone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices § 392.82 Using a hand-held mobile telephone... highway, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or...

  8. Implementation of the 7-point checklist for melanoma detection on smart handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Tarun; Situ, Ning; Rui, Hu; Lancaster, Keith; Yuan, Xiaojing; Zouridakis, George

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we implement the 7-point checklist, a set of dermoscopic criteria widely used by clinicians for melanoma detection, on smart handheld devices, such as the Apple iPhone and iPad. The application developed is using sophisticated image processing and pattern recognition algorithms, yet it is light enough to run on a handheld device with limited memory and computational speed. When combined with a commercially available handheld dermoscope that provides proper lesion illumination, this application provides a truly self-contained handheld system for melanoma detection. Such a device can be used in a clinical setting for routine skin screening, or as an assistive diagnostic device in underserved areas and in developing countries with limited healthcare infrastructure. PMID:22255015

  9. Discrimination of Pigments of Microalgae, Bacteria and Yeasts Using Lightweight Handheld Raman Spectrometers: Prospects for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehlicka, J.; Osterrothova, K.; Nedbalova, L.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Oren, A.

    2014-06-01

    Handheld Raman instrumentation with 532 nm lasers can be used to distinguish carotenoids of autotrophic microalgae, purple sulfur bacteria, halophilic Archaea and pigmented yeasts. Pigments are proposed as biomarkers for astrobiology of Mars.

  10. Vision-Based Control of a Handheld Surgical Micromanipulator with Virtual Fixtures.

    PubMed

    Becker, Brian C; Maclachlan, Robert A; Lobes, Louis A; Hager, Gregory D; Riviere, Cameron N

    2013-02-19

    Performing micromanipulation and delicate operations in submillimeter workspaces is difficult because of destabilizing tremor and imprecise targeting. Accurate micromanipulation is especially important for microsurgical procedures, such as vitreoretinal surgery, to maximize successful outcomes and minimize collateral damage. Robotic aid combined with filtering techniques that suppress tremor frequency bands increases performance; however, if knowledge of the operator's goals is available, virtual fixtures have been shown to further improve performance. In this paper, we derive a virtual fixture framework for active handheld micromanipulators that is based on high-bandwidth position measurements rather than forces applied to a robot handle. For applicability in surgical environments, the fixtures are generated in real-time from microscope video during the procedure. Additionally, we develop motion scaling behavior around virtual fixtures as a simple and direct extension to the proposed framework. We demonstrate that virtual fixtures significantly outperform tremor cancellation algorithms on a set of synthetic tracing tasks (p < 0.05). In more medically relevant experiments of vein tracing and membrane peeling in eye phantoms, virtual fixtures can significantly reduce both positioning error and forces applied to tissue (p < 0.05).

  11. Vision-Based Control of a Handheld Surgical Micromanipulator with Virtual Fixtures

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian C.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Lobes, Louis A.; Hager, Gregory D.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Performing micromanipulation and delicate operations in submillimeter workspaces is difficult because of destabilizing tremor and imprecise targeting. Accurate micromanipulation is especially important for microsurgical procedures, such as vitreoretinal surgery, to maximize successful outcomes and minimize collateral damage. Robotic aid combined with filtering techniques that suppress tremor frequency bands increases performance; however, if knowledge of the operator’s goals is available, virtual fixtures have been shown to further improve performance. In this paper, we derive a virtual fixture framework for active handheld micromanipulators that is based on high-bandwidth position measurements rather than forces applied to a robot handle. For applicability in surgical environments, the fixtures are generated in real-time from microscope video during the procedure. Additionally, we develop motion scaling behavior around virtual fixtures as a simple and direct extension to the proposed framework. We demonstrate that virtual fixtures significantly outperform tremor cancellation algorithms on a set of synthetic tracing tasks (p < 0.05). In more medically relevant experiments of vein tracing and membrane peeling in eye phantoms, virtual fixtures can significantly reduce both positioning error and forces applied to tissue (p < 0.05). PMID:24639624

  12. Prospective evaluation of an internet-linked handheld computer critical care knowledge access system

    PubMed Central

    Lapinsky, Stephen E; Wax, Randy; Showalter, Randy; Martinez-Motta, J Carlos; Hallett, David; Mehta, Sangeeta; Burry, Lisa; Stewart, Thomas E

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Critical care physicians may benefit from immediate access to medical reference material. We evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of a handheld computer based knowledge access system linking a central academic intensive care unit (ICU) to multiple community-based ICUs. Methods Four community hospital ICUs with 17 physicians participated in this prospective interventional study. Following training in the use of an internet-linked, updateable handheld computer knowledge access system, the physicians used the handheld devices in their clinical environment for a 12-month intervention period. Feasibility of the system was evaluated by tracking use of the handheld computer and by conducting surveys and focus group discussions. Before and after the intervention period, participants underwent simulated patient care scenarios designed to evaluate the information sources they accessed, as well as the speed and quality of their decision making. Participants generated admission orders during each scenario, which were scored by blinded evaluators. Results Ten physicians (59%) used the system regularly, predominantly for nonmedical applications (median 32.8/month, interquartile range [IQR] 28.3–126.8), with medical software accessed less often (median 9/month, IQR 3.7–13.7). Eight out of 13 physicians (62%) who completed the final scenarios chose to use the handheld computer for information access. The median time to access information on the handheld handheld computer was 19 s (IQR 15–40 s). This group exhibited a significant improvement in admission order score as compared with those who used other resources (P = 0.018). Benefits and barriers to use of this technology were identified. Conclusion An updateable handheld computer system is feasible as a means of point-of-care access to medical reference material and may improve clinical decision making. However, during the study, acceptance of the system was variable. Improved training and new

  13. Motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography probe for image-guided intervention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Liu, Xuan; Song, Cheol; Kang, Jin U.

    2012-01-01

    A motion-compensated, hand-held, common-path, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging probe has been developed for image-guided intervention during microsurgery. A hand-held prototype instrument was achieved by integrating an imaging fiber probe inside a stainless steel needle and attached to the ceramic shaft of a piezoelectric motor housed in an aluminum handle. The fiber probe obtains A-scan images. The distance information was extracted from the A-scans to track the sample surface distance and a fixed distance was maintained by a feedback motor control which effectively compensated hand tremor and target movements in the axial direction. Real-time data acquisition, processing, motion compensation, and image visualization and saving were implemented on a custom CPU-GPU hybrid architecture. We performed 10× zero padding to the raw spectrum to obtain 0.16 µm position accuracy with a compensation rate of 460 Hz. The root-mean-square error of hand-held distance variation from target position was measured to be 2.93 µm. We used a cross-correlation maximization-based shift correction algorithm for topology correction. To validate the system, we performed free-hand OCT M-scan imaging using various samples. PMID:23243562

  14. Handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography: developments, applications, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Demian, D.; Sinescu, C.; Cernat, R.; Dobre, G.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Topala, F. I.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present the handheld scanning probes that we have recently developed in our current project for biomedical imaging in general and for Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in particular. OCT is an established, but dynamic imagistic technique based on laser interferometry, which offers micrometer resolutions and millimeters penetration depths. With regard to existing devices, the newly developed handheld probes are simple, light and relatively low cost. Their design is described in detail to allow for the reproduction in any lab, including for educational purposes. Two probes are constructed almost entirely from off-the-shelf components, while a third, final variant is constructed with dedicated components, in an ergonomic design. The handheld probes have uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer scanners therefore they achieve transversal sections through the biological sample investigated - in contrast to handheld probes equipped with bi-dimensional (2D) scanners that can also achieve volumetric (3D) reconstructions of the samples. These latter handheld probes are therefore also discussed, as well as the possibility to equip them with galvanometer 2D scanners or with Risley prisms. For galvanometer scanners the optimal scanning functions studied in a series of previous works are pointed out; these functions offer a higher temporal efficiency/duty cycle of the scanning process, as well as artifact-free OCT images. The testing of the handheld scanning probes in dental applications is presented, for metal ceramic prosthesis and for teeth.

  15. Hand-held water fluoride analysis: An accessible caries prevention tool for dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Quock, Ryan L; Yank, Stephanie W; Chan, Jarvis T

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to compare the relative accuracy of a commercially available hand-held water fluoride analysis unit with a standard laboratory bench-top fluoride-specific electrode/millivoltmeter apparatus, with the goal of identifying possible practical applications of the hand-held unit for preventive dentistry. The units analyzed identical gravimetrically prepared fluoride solutions ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 ppm. The average difference between the measurements from the hand-held unit and the nominal values of the fluoride solutions was 0.011 ppm (SD = 0.068), and the average difference between the hand-held unit's measurements and the bench-top unit's measurements was 0.030 ppm (SD = 0.115). T-test analysis demonstrated no statistical difference between measurements from the hand-held unit with either the nominal values of the fluoride solutions or the bench-top unit's measurements. Results indicate that the hand-held water fluoride analysis unit has an appropriate level of accuracy for the measurement of fluoride levels in drinking water samples by dental professionals.

  16. Aminopeptidase activity in seminal plasma and effect of dilution rate on rabbit reproductive performance after insemination with an extender supplemented with buserelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Viudes-de-Castro, M P; Mocé, E; Lavara, R; Marco-Jiménez, F; Vicente, J S

    2014-06-01

    Ovulation induction in artificially inseminated rabbits by adding GnRH synthetic analogues in the seminal doses is a welfare-orientated method to induce ovulation in rabbits and could have some advantages in field practice. This study was conducted to determine the effect of male genotype on the aminopeptidase activity in rabbit seminal plasma and the effects of dilution rate of semen on availability and reproductive performance when buserelin acetate is added to the seminal dose. To study the aminopeptidase activity, 12 mature bucks belonging to a paternal line and 12 from a maternal line were used. The bucks from the paternal line were used to study the effect of dilution rate on the availability of buserelin acetate after 2 hours of dilution and on the reproductive performance of the doses after artificial insemination of 389 commercial crossbreed does. Aminopeptidase activity in seminal plasma is dependent on the male genotype. The paternal line resulted 27% more aminopeptidase activity than the maternal line (P < 0.05). On the other hand, semen diluted 1:20 exhibited a marked increase in the availability of buserelin acetate and the fertility in this group was significantly higher than females from dilution rate 1:5 group, which showed similar results to that of the negative control group (does inseminated with semen diluted 1:20 in non-GnRH-supplemented extender). We conclude that the bioavailability of buserelin acetate when added to the seminal dose appears to be determined by the activity of the existing aminopeptidases and is consequently affected by the dilution rate used to prepare the artificial insemination doses.

  17. A new hand-held microfluidic cytometer for evaluating irradiation damage by analysis of the damaged cells distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junsheng; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yile; Song, Younan; Chu, Hui; Song, Wendong; Song, Yongxin; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    Space radiation brings uneven damages to cells. The detection of the distribution of cell damage plays a very important role in radiation medicine and the related research. In this paper, a new hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer was developed to evaluate the degree of radiation damage of cells. The device we propose overcomes the shortcomings (e.g., large volume and high cost) of commercial flow cytometers and can evaluate the radiation damage of cells accurately and quickly with potential for onsite applications. The distribution of radiation-damaged cells is analyzed by a simultaneous detection of immunofluorescence intensity of γ-H2AX and resistance pulse sensor (RPS) signal. The γ-H2AX fluorescence intensity provides information of the degree of radiation damage in cells. The ratio of the number of cells with γ-H2AX fluorescence signals to the total numbers of cells detected by RPS indicates the percentage of the cells that are damaged by radiation. The comparison experiment between the developed hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer and a commercial confocal microscope indicates a consistent and comparable detection performance. PMID:26983800

  18. A new hand-held microfluidic cytometer for evaluating irradiation damage by analysis of the damaged cells distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yile; Song, Younan; Chu, Hui; Song, Wendong; Song, Yongxin; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2016-03-01

    Space radiation brings uneven damages to cells. The detection of the distribution of cell damage plays a very important role in radiation medicine and the related research. In this paper, a new hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer was developed to evaluate the degree of radiation damage of cells. The device we propose overcomes the shortcomings (e.g., large volume and high cost) of commercial flow cytometers and can evaluate the radiation damage of cells accurately and quickly with potential for onsite applications. The distribution of radiation-damaged cells is analyzed by a simultaneous detection of immunofluorescence intensity of γ-H2AX and resistance pulse sensor (RPS) signal. The γ-H2AX fluorescence intensity provides information of the degree of radiation damage in cells. The ratio of the number of cells with γ-H2AX fluorescence signals to the total numbers of cells detected by RPS indicates the percentage of the cells that are damaged by radiation. The comparison experiment between the developed hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer and a commercial confocal microscope indicates a consistent and comparable detection performance.

  19. A new hand-held microfluidic cytometer for evaluating irradiation damage by analysis of the damaged cells distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junsheng; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yile; Song, Younan; Chu, Hui; Song, Wendong; Song, Yongxin; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    Space radiation brings uneven damages to cells. The detection of the distribution of cell damage plays a very important role in radiation medicine and the related research. In this paper, a new hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer was developed to evaluate the degree of radiation damage of cells. The device we propose overcomes the shortcomings (e.g., large volume and high cost) of commercial flow cytometers and can evaluate the radiation damage of cells accurately and quickly with potential for onsite applications. The distribution of radiation-damaged cells is analyzed by a simultaneous detection of immunofluorescence intensity of γ-H2AX and resistance pulse sensor (RPS) signal. The γ-H2AX fluorescence intensity provides information of the degree of radiation damage in cells. The ratio of the number of cells with γ-H2AX fluorescence signals to the total numbers of cells detected by RPS indicates the percentage of the cells that are damaged by radiation. The comparison experiment between the developed hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer and a commercial confocal microscope indicates a consistent and comparable detection performance. PMID:26983800

  20. Evaluation of a Micro-Force Sensing Handheld Robot for Vitreoretinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonenc, Berk; Balicki, Marcin A; Handa, James; Gehlbach, Peter; Riviere, Cameron N; Taylor, Russell H; Iordachita, Iulian

    2012-12-20

    Highly accurate positioning is fundamental to the performance of vitreoretinal microsurgery. Of vitreoretinal procedures, membrane peeling is among the most prone to complications since extremely delicate manipulation of retinal tissue is required. Associated tool-to-tissue interaction forces are usually below the threshold of human perception, and the surgical tools are moved very slowly, within the 0.1-0.5 mm/s range. During the procedure, unintentional tool motion and excessive forces can easily give rise to vision loss or irreversible damage to the retina. A successful surgery includes two key features: controlled tremor-free tool motion and control of applied force. In this study, we present the potential benefits of a micro-force sensing robot in vitreoretinal surgery. Our main contribution is implementing fiber Bragg grating based force sensing in an active tremor canceling handheld micromanipulator, known as Micron, to measure tool-to-tissue interaction forces in real time. Implemented auditory sensory substitution assists in reducing and limiting forces. In order to test the functionality and performance, the force sensing Micron was evaluated in peeling experiments with adhesive bandages and with the inner shell membrane from chicken eggs. Our findings show that the combination of active tremor canceling together with auditory sensory substitution is the most promising aid that keeps peeling forces below 7 mN with a significant reduction in 2-20 Hz oscillations.

  1. Handheld cellular phones restrict head movements and range of visual regard.

    PubMed

    Thumser, Zachary C; Stahl, John S

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have reported the ability of mobile phones to distract users and thereby degrade performance of concurrent tasks. Less is known about whether the phone-holding posture can itself influence concurrent motor activities. Horizontal eye movements are often coordinated with head movements, particularly when the amplitude of the gaze shift is large. Holding a phone to one ear has been shown to restrict the range of spontaneously generated head movements. In order to determine whether the phone-holding posture also influences gaze, we recorded eye and head movements as volunteers looked about themselves spontaneously. Holding the phone to the ear narrowed the range of gaze, principally in subjects who exhibit a strong propensity to move the head with the eyes. We argue that visual exploration may be influenced by the balance between costs and benefits of turning the head, with the phone-holding posture increasing the costs. The effects on gaze would be seen most clearly in subjects who have a higher predilection for coupling eye and head movements. Conversely, this effect would be minimal if tested in tasks that rarely elicit head movements in the specific subjects being tested. The results emphasize the close coordination between eye and head movements, and have implications for the design of ergonomic studies comparing the effects of handheld vs. hands-free mobile phones on performance of specific tasks, such as driving. PMID:23273423

  2. Handheld cellular phones restrict head movements and range of visual regard.

    PubMed

    Thumser, Zachary C; Stahl, John S

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have reported the ability of mobile phones to distract users and thereby degrade performance of concurrent tasks. Less is known about whether the phone-holding posture can itself influence concurrent motor activities. Horizontal eye movements are often coordinated with head movements, particularly when the amplitude of the gaze shift is large. Holding a phone to one ear has been shown to restrict the range of spontaneously generated head movements. In order to determine whether the phone-holding posture also influences gaze, we recorded eye and head movements as volunteers looked about themselves spontaneously. Holding the phone to the ear narrowed the range of gaze, principally in subjects who exhibit a strong propensity to move the head with the eyes. We argue that visual exploration may be influenced by the balance between costs and benefits of turning the head, with the phone-holding posture increasing the costs. The effects on gaze would be seen most clearly in subjects who have a higher predilection for coupling eye and head movements. Conversely, this effect would be minimal if tested in tasks that rarely elicit head movements in the specific subjects being tested. The results emphasize the close coordination between eye and head movements, and have implications for the design of ergonomic studies comparing the effects of handheld vs. hands-free mobile phones on performance of specific tasks, such as driving.

  3. Similar motion of a handheld object may trigger non-similar grip force adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fan; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2007-01-01

    The tight coupling between load (L) and grip (G) forces during voluntary manipulation of a hand-held object is well established. The current study is to examine grip-load force coupling when motion of the hand with an object was either self-generated (voluntary) or externally generated. Subjects performed similar cyclic movements of different loads at various frequencies with three types of manipulation: (a) voluntary oscillation, (b) oscillating the right arm via the pulley system by the left leg (self-driven oscillation), (c) oscillating the arm via the pulley system by another person (other-driven oscillation). During the self-generated movements: (a) the grip forces were larger and (b) grip-load force modulation was more pronounced than in the externally generated movements. The G-L adjustments are not completely determined by the mechanics of object motion; non-mechanical factors related to movement performance, for instance perceptual factors, may affect the G-L coupling. Potentially the results of study can be used to provide hand therapists with another way for administering the Rapid Exchange Gripping Test. PMID:17954351

  4. Temperature and Structure of Active Eruptions from a Handheld Camcorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Carling, Greg T.; Saito, Takeshi; Dangerfield, Anne; Tingey, David G.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Howell, Robert R.; Diniega, Serina; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2014-11-01

    A commercial handheld digital camcorder can operate as a high-resolution, short-wavelength, low-cost thermal imaging system for monitoring active volcanoes, when calibrated against a laboratory heated rock of similar composition to the given eruptive material. We utilize this system to find full pixel brightness temperatures on centimeter scales at close but safe proximity to active lava flows. With it, observed temperatures of a Kilauea tube flow exposed in a skylight reached 1200 C, compared with pyrometer measurements of the same flow of 1165 C, both similar to reported eruption temperatures at that volcano. The lava lake at Erta Ale, Ethiopia had crack and fountain temperatures of 1175 C compared with previous pyrometer measurements of 1165 C. Temperature calibration of the vigorously active Marum lava lake in Vanuatu is underway, challenges being excessive levels of gas and distance from the eruption (300 m). Other aspects of the fine-scale structure of the eruptions are visible in the high-resolution temperature maps, such as flow banding within tubes, the thermal gradient away from cracks in lake surfaces, heat pathways through pahoehoe crust and temperature zoning in spatter and fountains. High-resolution measurements such as these reveal details of temperature, structure, and change over time at the rapidly evolving settings of active lava flows. These measurement capabilities are desirable for future instruments exploring bodies with active eruptions like Io, Enceladus and possibly Venus.

  5. Cordless hand-held optical 3D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkelt, Christoph; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Schmidt, Ingo; Notni, Gunther

    2007-07-01

    A new mobile optical 3D measurement system using phase correlation based fringe projection technique will be presented. The sensor consist of a digital projection unit and two cameras in a stereo arrangement, whereby both are battery powered. The data transfer to a base station will be done via WLAN. This gives the possibility to use the system in complicate, remote measurement situations, which are typical in archaeology and architecture. In the measurement procedure the sensor will be hand-held by the user, illuminating the object with a sequence of less than 10 fringe patterns, within a time below 200 ms. This short sequence duration was achieved by a new approach, which combines the epipolar constraint with robust phase correlation utilizing a pre-calibrated sensor head, containing two cameras and a digital fringe projector. Furthermore, the system can be utilized to acquire the all around shape of objects by using the phasogrammetric approach with virtual land marks introduced by the authors 1, 2. This way no matching procedures or markers are necessary for the registration of multiple views, which makes the system very flexible in accomplishing different measurement tasks. The realized measurement field is approx. 100 mm up to 400 mm in diameter. The mobile character makes the measurement system useful for a wide range of applications in arts, architecture, archaeology and criminology, which will be shown in the paper.

  6. Development of handheld dual-sensor ALIS and its evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Feng, Xuan; Takahashi, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Takao

    2006-05-01

    We are developing a new landmine detection sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. Although this is a hand-held system, we can record the metal detector and GPR signal with the sensor position information. Therefore, signal processing for 2-D signal image is possible. For the metal detector, we apply cross-correlation algorism for sharpening the image and estimation of the depth of the target. For GPR signal, we can apply migration algorithm, which drastically reduce the clutter and we can obtain 3-D image of the buried targets. At first, linear interpolation and cubic interpolation are used respectively to deal with the problem of random data position. Comparing results, we find the image quality of two kinds of interpolations is almost same. Then the migration is used to refocus the scattered signals and improve the image quality for reconstructed landmine image. ALIS demonstration were held in Afghanistan in December 2004 and other countries including Egypt and Croatia in 2005. After some demonstrations and evaluation, we received many useful suggestions. Using these advises, we have modified the ALIS and it is now more easy to use. In this paper, we describe the latest characteristics of the ALIS and summarize its operation.

  7. Handheld Flyback driven coaxial dielectric barrier discharge: Development and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V. J.; Milosavljevic, V.; O'Connor, N.; Daniels, S.; Lalor, J. F.

    2008-09-15

    The development of a handheld single and triple chamber atmospheric pressure coaxial dielectric barrier discharge driven by Flyback circuitry for helium and argon discharges is described. The Flyback uses external metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor power switching technology and the transformer operates in the continuous current mode to convert a continuous dc power of 10-33 W to generate a 1.2-1.6 kV 3.5 {mu}s pulse. An argon discharge breakdown voltage of {approx}768 V is measured. With a 50 kHz, pulse repetition rate and an argon flow rate of 0.5-10 argon slm (slm denotes standard liters per minute), the electrical power density deposited in the volume discharge increases linearly at a rate of 75{+-}20% mW/cm{sup 3} per 1 slm of gas. Electrical power transfer efficiency between the secondary Flyback coil and the discharge volume increases from 0.1% to 0.65%. Neutral argon gas forced convection analysis yields a similar energy loss rate to the electrical discharge process. Optical emission spectroscopy studies of the expanding discharge plume into ambient air reveal that the air climatically controls the plume chemistry to produce an abundance of neutral argon atoms and molecular nitrogen.

  8. Improving the accuracy of hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometers as a tool for monitoring brominated flame retardants in waste polymers.

    PubMed

    Guzzonato, A; Puype, F; Harrad, S J

    2016-09-01

    An optimised method for Br quantification as a metric of brominated flame retardant (BFR) concentrations present in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) polymers is proposed as an alternative to the sophisticated, yet time consuming GC-MS methods currently preferred. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer was validated with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Customized standard materials of specific BFRs in a styrenic polymer were used to perform an external calibration for hand-held XRF ranging from 0.08 to 12 wt% of Br, and cross-checking with LA-ICP-MS having similar LODs (0.0004 wt% for LA-ICP-MS and 0.0011 wt% for XRF). The "thickness calibration" developed here for hand-held XRF and the resulting correction, was applied to 28 real samples and showed excellent (R(2) = 0.9926) accordance with measurements obtained via LA-ICP-MS. This confirms the validity of hand-held XRF as an accurate technique for the determination of Br in WEEE plastics. This is the first use of solid standards to develop a thickness-corrected quantitative XRF measurement of Br in polymers using LA-ICP-MS for method evaluation. Thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to confirm the presence of specific BFRs in WEEE polymer samples. We propose that expressing limit values for BFRs in waste materials in terms of Br rather than BFR concentration (based on a conservative assumption about the BFR present), presents a practical solution to the need for an accurate, yet rapid and inexpensive technique capable of monitoring compliance with limit values in situ.

  9. Improving the accuracy of hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometers as a tool for monitoring brominated flame retardants in waste polymers.

    PubMed

    Guzzonato, A; Puype, F; Harrad, S J

    2016-09-01

    An optimised method for Br quantification as a metric of brominated flame retardant (BFR) concentrations present in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) polymers is proposed as an alternative to the sophisticated, yet time consuming GC-MS methods currently preferred. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer was validated with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Customized standard materials of specific BFRs in a styrenic polymer were used to perform an external calibration for hand-held XRF ranging from 0.08 to 12 wt% of Br, and cross-checking with LA-ICP-MS having similar LODs (0.0004 wt% for LA-ICP-MS and 0.0011 wt% for XRF). The "thickness calibration" developed here for hand-held XRF and the resulting correction, was applied to 28 real samples and showed excellent (R(2) = 0.9926) accordance with measurements obtained via LA-ICP-MS. This confirms the validity of hand-held XRF as an accurate technique for the determination of Br in WEEE plastics. This is the first use of solid standards to develop a thickness-corrected quantitative XRF measurement of Br in polymers using LA-ICP-MS for method evaluation. Thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to confirm the presence of specific BFRs in WEEE polymer samples. We propose that expressing limit values for BFRs in waste materials in terms of Br rather than BFR concentration (based on a conservative assumption about the BFR present), presents a practical solution to the need for an accurate, yet rapid and inexpensive technique capable of monitoring compliance with limit values in situ. PMID:27281541

  10. Between-day reliability of a hand-held dynamometer and surface electromyography recordings during isometric submaximal contractions in different shoulder positions.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kathrine S; Christensen, Birgitte H; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Functional shoulder assessments require the use of objective and reliable standardized outcome measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the between-day reliability of a hand-held dynamometer when measuring muscle strength during flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation as well as surface electromyography (EMG) when measuring muscle activity from m. trapezius superior and deltoideus anterior. Twenty-four healthy subjects participated and performed four isometric contractions measured with a hand-held dynamometer and EMG. Both relative and absolute reliability were calculated based on the mean of the last three of the four repetitions. EMG amplitude was assessed calculating both absolute and normalized root-mean-square (RMS) values. The reliability of the hand-held dynamometer was high (LOA=3.2-7.6% and ICC=0.89-0.98). The absolute reliability for EMG showed similar results for absolute RMS values (LOA=20.0-68.4%) and normalized RMS values (LOA=42.4-66.5%). However, the results concerning the relative reliability showed higher ICC for absolute RMS values (ICC=0.82-0.92) compared with normalized values (ICC=0.57-0.72).The outcome measurements of this study with healthy subjects were found reliable and, therefore, have the potential to detect changes in muscle strength and muscle activity.

  11. Efficacy and learning curve of a hand-held echocardiography device in an oncology outpatient clinic: Expanding the use of echoscopic heart examination beyond cardiology

    PubMed Central

    PéREZ DE ISLA, LEOPOLDO PÉREZ; MORENO, FERNANDO; GARCIA SAEZ, JOSE ANGEL GARCIA; CLAVERO, MATIAS; MORENO, NUNO; AGUADO DE LA ROSA, CARLOS AGUADO; DE AGUSTIN, JOSE ALBERTO; GOMEZ DE DIEGO, JOSE JUAN GOMEZ; COBOS, MIGUEL ANGEL; SALTIJERAL, ADRIANA; MACAYA, CARLOS; GARCIA-FERNANDEZ, MIGUEL ANGEL

    2015-01-01

    Certain chemotherapy drugs for breast cancer may induce cardiotoxicity and these patients should be echocardiographically monitored. The performance of a focused echocardiographic evaluation (echoscopy) at the patient's location by a non-cardiologist appears to be feasible. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of echoscopy performed by medical oncologists in an outpatient clinic using hand-held echocardiography devices. The study cohort comprised consecutive unselected patients who attended an oncology outpatient clinic. Two medical oncologists attended a one-week training period, which included theoretical and practical teaching by an expert cardiologist. Every subject underwent two echo examinations. The first examination was performed by an oncologist using a hand-held echo device and the second was performed by a cardiologist using a ‘premium’ device. Out of the 101 enrolled patients, 32 were men (31.7%) and the mean age was 56.03±16.88 years. There was a good global agreement [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.65 for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)]. When the results were analyzed depending on the period of time when the echo studies were performed, a clear and short learning curve was observed: LVEF started at ICC=0.58 and increased to 0.66 and 0.77 in the second and third period, respectively. There were extremely few clinically significant differences and a learning curve was also evident. In conclusion, cardiac echoscopy performed by an oncologist with a hand-held device may lead to a similar clinical management as a study performed by an expert cardiologist with a ‘premium’ system in patients under chemotherapy following a short training period. PMID:26171188

  12. Background adaptive division filtering for hand-held ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Matthew A.; Anderson, Derek T.; Ball, John E.; White, Julie L.

    2016-05-01

    The challenge in detecting explosive hazards is that there are multiple types of targets buried at different depths in a highlycluttered environment. A wide array of target and clutter signatures exist, which makes detection algorithm design difficult. Such explosive hazards are typically deployed in past and present war zones and they pose a grave threat to the safety of civilians and soldiers alike. This paper focuses on a new image enhancement technique for hand-held ground penetrating radar (GPR). Advantages of the proposed technique is it runs in real-time and it does not require the radar to remain at a constant distance from the ground. Herein, we evaluate the performance of the proposed technique using data collected from a U.S. Army test site, which includes targets with varying amounts of metal content, placement depths, clutter and times of day. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve-based results are presented for the detection of shallow, medium and deeply buried targets. Preliminary results are very encouraging and they demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed filtering technique.

  13. Design and preliminary testing of a handheld antagonistic SMA actuator for cancellation of human tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Essential Tremor is a debilitating disorder that in the US alone is estimated to affect up to ten million people. Unfortunately current treatments (i.e. drug therapy and surgical procedures), are limited in effectiveness and often pose a risk of adverse side-effects. In response to this problem, this paper describes an active cancellation device based on a hand-held Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated stabilization platform. The assistive device is designed to hold and stabilize various objects (e.g. eating utensils, tools, pointing implements, etc.) by sensing the user's tremor and moving the object in an opposite direction using SMA actuators configured in biologically inspired antagonistic pairs. To aid in the design, performance prediction and control of the device, a device model is described that accounts for the device kinematics, SMA thermo-mechanics, and the heat transfer resulting from electrical heating and convective cooling. The system of differential equations in this device model coupled with the controller gain can be utilized to design the operation given a frequency range and power requirement. To demonstrate this, a prototype was built and experimentally tested under external disturbances in the range of 1-5 Hz, resulting in amplitude reduction of up to 80%. The extent of cancellation measured for both single-frequencies and actual human tremor disturbances demonstrate the promise of this approach as a broadly used assistive device for the multitudes afflicted by tremor.

  14. High-resolution handheld rigid endomicroscope based on full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit a la Guillaume, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude; Harms, Fabrice

    2016-02-01

    Full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) is a powerful tool for nondestructive assessment of biological tissue, i.e., for the structural examination of tissue in depth at a cellular resolution. Mostly known as a microscopy device for ex vivo analysis, FF-OCT has also been adapted to endoscopy setups since it shows good potential for in situ cancer diagnosis and biopsy guidance. Nevertheless, all the attempts to perform endoscopic FF-OCT imaging did not go beyond lab setups. We describe here, to the best of our knowledge, the first handheld FF-OCT endoscope based on a tandem interferometry assembly using incoherent illumination. A common-path passive imaging interferometer at the tip of an optical probe makes it robust and insensitive to environmental perturbations, and a low finesse Fabry-Perot processing interferometer guarantees a compact system. A good resolution (2.7 μm transverse and 6 μm axial) is maintained through the long distance, small diameter relay optics of the probe, and a good signal-to-noise ratio is achieved in a limited 100 ms acquisition time. High-resolution images and a movie of a rat brain slice have been recorded by moving the contact endoscope over the surface of the sample, allowing for tissue microscopic exploration at 20 μm under the surface. These promising ex vivo results open new perspectives for in vivo imaging of biological tissue, in particular, in the field of cancer and surgical margin assessment.

  15. Reliability of handheld dynamometry in assessment of hip strength in adult male football players.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Mark L; Hanna, Chris M; Raina Elley, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of handheld dynamometry (HHD) for measuring hip muscle strength in a sample of 30 healthy semi-professional adult male football players. The reliability of HHD had not been assessed in athletes who were likely to be stronger than populations tested previously. Maximal isometric strength of resisted hip flexion and adduction were measured. Mean strength ranged from 51.5 kg for dominant hip flexion to 26.7 kg for hip adduction at 90 degrees of hip flexion. Intrarater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. ICCs for interrater reliability ranged from 0.66 to 0.87. As expected, muscle strength in this group of athletes was significantly higher than that of populations in which HHD reliability has been assessed. Despite this, muscle strength testing of hip flexor and adductor muscles can be performed with good to excellent intra- and interrater reliability in this population. PMID:19376747

  16. Ultra-low power HOT MCT grown by MOVPE for handheld applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillans, Luke; Baker, Ian; McEwen, R. Kennedy

    2014-06-01

    In 2012 Selex ES demonstrated High Operating Temperature (HOT) MCT detectors with 5μm cut-off wavelength and f/4 aperture operating at temperatures above 200K. These detectors are grown by Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) which enables fine control over the photo-diode structure. Since 2012 Selex has created two further generations of MOVPE HOT MCT, progressively improving operability and yield. This paper presents performance data for Selex's third generation of HOT MCT technology and describes the improvements to the diode design and materials processing that have enabled these advances. A parallel program has developed miniature Dewars with lower heatload and reduced manufacturing costs. When integrated with the latest generation of miniature linear cryo-engines the required cooler power is reduced to the region of 1W at temperatures of 200K. This paper will present example imagery from a detector operating with <1 Watt cooler input power. The combination of third generation HOT MCT, high efficiency Dewars and miniature linear coolers will allow a drastic reduction in SWAP-C for long range hand-held thermal imagers.

  17. Accurate real-time depth control for CP-SSOCT distal sensor based handheld microsurgery tools

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Huang, Yong; Cha, Jaepyeng; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel intuitive targeting and tracking scheme that utilizes a common-path swept source optical coherence tomography (CP-SSOCT) distal sensor integrated handheld microsurgical tool. To achieve micron-order precision control, a reliable and accurate OCT distal sensing method is required; simultaneously, a prediction algorithm is necessary to compensate for the system delay associated with the computational, mechanical and electronic latencies. Due to the multi-layered structure of retina, it is necessary to develop effective surface detection methods rather than simple peak detection. To achieve this, a shifted cross-correlation method is applied for surface detection in order to increase robustness and accuracy in distal sensing. A predictor based on Kalman filter was implemented for more precise motion compensation. The performance was first evaluated using an established dry phantom consisting of stacked cellophane tape. This was followed by evaluation in an ex-vivo bovine retina model to assess system accuracy and precision. The results demonstrate highly accurate depth targeting with less than 5 μm RMSE depth locking. PMID:26137393

  18. Murine fundus fluorescein angiography: An alternative approach using a handheld camera.

    PubMed

    Ehrenberg, Moshe; Ehrenberg, Scott; Schwob, Ouri; Benny, Ofra

    2016-07-01

    In today's modern pharmacologic approach to treating sight-threatening retinal vascular disorders, there is an increasing demand for a compact, mobile, lightweight and cost-effective fluorescein fundus camera to document the effects of antiangiogenic drugs on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice and other experimental animals. We have adapted the use of the Kowa Genesis Df Camera to perform Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) in mice. The 1 kg, 28 cm high camera has built-in barrier and exciter filters to allow digital FFA recording to a Compact Flash memory card. Furthermore, this handheld unit has a steady Indirect Lens Holder that firmly attaches to the main unit, that securely holds a 90 diopter lens in position, in order to facilitate appropriate focus and stability, for photographing the delicate central murine fundus. This easily portable fundus fluorescein camera can effectively record exceptional central retinal vascular detail in murine laser-induced CNV, while readily allowing the investigator to adjust the camera's position according to the variable head and eye movements that can randomly occur while the mouse is optimally anesthetized. This movable image recording device, with efficiencies of space, time, cost, energy and personnel, has enabled us to accurately document the alterations in the central choroidal and retinal vasculature following induction of CNV, implemented by argon-green laser photocoagulation and disruption of Bruch's Membrane, in the experimental murine model of exudative macular degeneration.

  19. Handheld probe integrating laser diode and ultrasound transducer array for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual modality imaging.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, K; van den Berg, P J; Rabot, O; Kohl, A; Tisserand, S; Brands, P; Steenbergen, W

    2014-10-20

    Ultrasound and photoacoustics can be utilized as complementary imaging techniques to improve clinical diagnoses. Photoacoustics provides optical contrast and functional information while ultrasound provides structural and anatomical information. As of yet, photoacoustic imaging uses large and expensive systems, which limits their clinical application and makes the combination costly and impracticable. In this work we present and evaluate a compact and ergonomically designed handheld probe, connected to a portable ultrasound system for inexpensive, real-time dual-modality ultrasound/photoacoustic imaging. The probe integrates an ultrasound transducer array and a highly efficient diode stack laser emitting 130 ns pulses at 805 nm wavelength and a pulse energy of 0.56 mJ, with a high pulse repetition frequency of up to 10 kHz. The diodes are driven by a customized laser driver, which can be triggered externally with a high temporal stability necessary to synchronize the ultrasound detection and laser pulsing. The emitted beam is collimated with cylindrical micro-lenses and shaped using a diffractive optical element, delivering a homogenized rectangular light intensity distribution. The system performance was tested in vitro and in vivo by imaging a human finger joint.

  20. The evaluation test of hand-held dual-sensor ALIS in Croatia and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    We are developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data after the data was acquired, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the images of the buried objects. Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted in several test sites. In February 2006, a one-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia, and in October- December 2006, a two-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia. Since the dual-sensor is a new landmine detection sensor, and the conventional evaluation procedure developed for metal detectors cannot directly be applied for the dual sensor. In Croatia, the detection probability was comparable to that by a metal detector operated by local deminers. In addition, we showed that ALIS provides image of buried objects by GPR, which can be used for identification. Therefore, their performances were sufficiently high. Then the test was also conducted in Cambodia. The test was carried out by 2 local deminers independently, which allows studying the influence of different operators and increases the statistical value of the results.

  1. Evaluation of the Roche CoaguChek XS handheld coagulation analyzer in a cardiac outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Nam, Myung-Hyun; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kap No; Cho, Yunjung

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of a handheld coagulation analyzer for measurements of capillary blood specimens of 93 outpatient cardiology patients with atrial fibrillation who were receiving oral anti-coagulant therapy. The international normalized ratio (INR) results of the CoaguChek XS system (Roche Diagnostics) were compared with those obtained in the central laboratory with citrated venous blood specimens using the ACL9000 coagulation analyzer (Instrumentation Laboratory). The INR results for prothrombin time by the CoaguChek XS analyzer were closely correlated with the central laboratory's results in the INR range of 0.96 approximately 8.53 (r = 0.964). A statistically significant difference was noted between 2 lots of test strips, but the difference was miniscule (mean +/- 95% confidence interval: 0.04+/-0.02). The CV of 8 replicate assays with the CoaguChek XS for a blood specimen with high INR value (INR=3.9) was 1.4%; for a blood specimen with medium INR value (INR=1.3), the CV of 8 replicate assays was <0.1%. This study shows that the CoaguChek XS analyzer is precise and reliable for assessment of INR results at clinically significant ranges in cardiac outpatients.

  2. Development of fluorescence based handheld imaging devices for food safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    For sanitation inspection in food processing environment, fluorescence imaging can be a very useful method because many organic materials reveal unique fluorescence emissions when excited by UV or violet radiation. Although some fluorescence-based automated inspection instrumentation has been developed for food products, there remains a need for devices that can assist on-site inspectors performing visual sanitation inspection of the surfaces of food processing/handling equipment. This paper reports the development of an inexpensive handheld imaging device designed to visualize fluorescence emissions and intended to help detect the presence of fecal contaminants, organic residues, and bacterial biofilms at multispectral fluorescence emission bands. The device consists of a miniature camera, multispectral (interference) filters, and high power LED illumination. With WiFi communication, live inspection images from the device can be displayed on smartphone or tablet devices. This imaging device could be a useful tool for assessing the effectiveness of sanitation procedures and for helping processors to minimize food safety risks or determine potential problem areas. This paper presents the design and development including evaluation and optimization of the hardware components of the imaging devices.

  3. Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2008-01-01

    Special-purpose hand-held radiotransceiver units have been proposed as means of short-range radio powering and interrogation of surgically implanted microelectromechanical sensors and actuators. These units are based partly on the same principles as those of the units described in "Printed Multi- Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry" (LEW-17879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48. Like the previously reported units, these units would make it unnecessary to have wire connections between the implanted devices and the external equipment used to activate and interrogate them. Like a unit of the previously reported type, a unit of the type now proposed would include a printed-circuit antenna on a dielectric substrate. The antenna circuitry would include integrated surface-mount inductors for impedance tuning. Circuits for processing the signals transmitted and received by the antenna would be included on the substrate. During operation, the unit would be positioned near (but not in electrical contact with) a human subject, in proximity to a microelectromechanical sensor or actuator that has been surgically implanted in the subject. It has been demonstrated that significant electromagnetic coupling with an implanted device could be established at a distance of as much as 4 in. (.10 cm). During operation in the interrogation mode, the antenna of the unit would receive a radio telemetry signal transmitted by the surgically implanted device. The antenna substrate would have dimensions of approximately 3.25 by 3.75 inches (approximately 8.3 by 9.5 cm). The substrate would have a thickness of the order of 30 mils (of the order of a somewhat less than a millimeter). The substrate would be made of low-radiofrequency- loss dielectric material that could be, for example, fused quartz, alumina, or any of a number of commercially available radio-frequency dielectric composite materials. The antenna conductors would typically be made of copper or a

  4. Direction-Sensitive Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2012-10-04

    A novel, light-weight, hand-held gamma-ray detector with directional sensitivity is being designed. The detector uses a set of multiple rings around two cylindrical surfaces, which provides precise location of two interaction points on two concentric cylindrical planes, wherefrom the source location can be traced back by back projection and/or Compton imaging technique. The detectors are 2.0 × 2.0 mm europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2:Eu2+) crystals, whose light output has been measured to exceed 120,000 photons/MeV, making it one of the brightest scintillators in existence. The crystal’s energy resolution, less than 3% at 662 keV, is also excellent, and the response is highly linear over a wide range of gamma-ray energies. The emission of SrI2:Eu2+ is well matched to both photo-multiplier tubes and blue-enhanced silicon photodiodes. The solid-state photomultipliers used in this design (each 2.0 × 2.0 mm) are arrays of active pixel sensors (avalanche photodiodes driven beyond their breakdown voltage in reverse bias); each pixel acts as a binary photon detector, and their summed output is an analog representation of the total photon energy, while the individual pixel accurately defines the point of interaction. A simple back-projection algorithm involving cone-surface mapping is being modeled. The back projection for an event cone is a conical surface defining the possible location of the source. The cone axis is the straight line passing through the first and second interaction points.

  5. A handheld point-of-care genomic diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Myers, Frank B; Henrikson, Richard H; Bone, Jennifer M; Bone, Jennifer; Lee, Luke P

    2013-01-01

    The rapid detection and identification of infectious disease pathogens is a critical need for healthcare in both developed and developing countries. As we gain more insight into the genomic basis of pathogen infectivity and drug resistance, point-of-care nucleic acid testing will likely become an important tool for global health. In this paper, we present an inexpensive, handheld, battery-powered instrument designed to enable pathogen genotyping in the developing world. Our Microfluidic Biomolecular Amplification Reader (µBAR) represents the convergence of molecular biology, microfluidics, optics, and electronics technology. The µBAR is capable of carrying out isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays with real-time fluorescence readout at a fraction of the cost of conventional benchtop thermocyclers. Additionally, the µBAR features cell phone data connectivity and GPS sample geotagging which can enable epidemiological surveying and remote healthcare delivery. The µBAR controls assay temperature through an integrated resistive heater and monitors real-time fluorescence signals from 60 individual reaction chambers using LEDs and phototransistors. Assays are carried out on PDMS disposable microfluidic cartridges which require no external power for sample loading. We characterize the fluorescence detection limits, heater uniformity, and battery life of the instrument. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate the detection of the HIV-1 integrase gene with the µBAR using the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay. Although we focus on the detection of purified DNA here, LAMP has previously been demonstrated with a range of clinical samples, and our eventual goal is to develop a microfluidic device which includes on-chip sample preparation from raw samples. The µBAR is based entirely around open source hardware and software, and in the accompanying online supplement we present a full set of schematics, bill of materials, PCB layouts, CAD drawings

  6. A Handheld Point-of-Care Genomic Diagnostic System

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Frank B.; Henrikson, Richard H.; Bone, Jennifer; Lee, Luke P.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid detection and identification of infectious disease pathogens is a critical need for healthcare in both developed and developing countries. As we gain more insight into the genomic basis of pathogen infectivity and drug resistance, point-of-care nucleic acid testing will likely become an important tool for global health. In this paper, we present an inexpensive, handheld, battery-powered instrument designed to enable pathogen genotyping in the developing world. Our Microfluidic Biomolecular Amplification Reader (µBAR) represents the convergence of molecular biology, microfluidics, optics, and electronics technology. The µBAR is capable of carrying out isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays with real-time fluorescence readout at a fraction of the cost of conventional benchtop thermocyclers. Additionally, the µBAR features cell phone data connectivity and GPS sample geotagging which can enable epidemiological surveying and remote healthcare delivery. The µBAR controls assay temperature through an integrated resistive heater and monitors real-time fluorescence signals from 60 individual reaction chambers using LEDs and phototransistors. Assays are carried out on PDMS disposable microfluidic cartridges which require no external power for sample loading. We characterize the fluorescence detection limits, heater uniformity, and battery life of the instrument. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate the detection of the HIV-1 integrase gene with the µBAR using the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay. Although we focus on the detection of purified DNA here, LAMP has previously been demonstrated with a range of clinical samples, and our eventual goal is to develop a microfluidic device which includes on-chip sample preparation from raw samples. The µBAR is based entirely around open source hardware and software, and in the accompanying online supplement we present a full set of schematics, bill of materials, PCB layouts, CAD drawings

  7. An ergonomic handheld ultrasound probe providing contact forces and pose information.

    PubMed

    Yohan Noh; Housden, R James; Gomez, Alberto; Knight, Caroline; Garcia, Francesca; Hongbin Liu; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a handheld ultrasound probe which is integrated with sensors to measure force and pose (position/orientation) information. Using an integrated probe like this, one can relate ultrasound images to spatial location and create 3D ultrasound maps. The handheld device can be used by sonographers and also easily be integrated with robot arms for automated sonography. The handheld device is ergonomically designed; rapid attachment and removal of the ultrasound transducer itself is possible using easy-to-operate clip mechanisms. A cable locking mechanism reduces the impact that gravitational and other external forces have (originating from data and power supply cables connected to the probe) on our measurements. Gravitational errors introduced by the housing of the probe are compensated for using knowledge of the housing geometry and the integrated pose sensor that provides us with accurate orientation information. In this paper, we describe the handheld probe with its integrated force/pose sensors and our approach to gravity compensation. We carried out a set of experiments to verify the feasibility of our approach to obtain accurate spatial information of the handheld probe. PMID:26737604

  8. Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

  9. Impact of Group Work and Extended Essay Writing on Online Advanced Placement Program® Student Performance. Research Report. ETS RR-07-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handwerk, Phil

    2007-01-01

    Online high schools are growing significantly in number, popularity, and function. However, little empirical data has been published about the effectiveness of these institutions. This research examined the frequency of group work and extended essay writing among online Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) students, and how these tasks may have…

  10. Advancements in the safe identification of explosives using a Raman handheld instrument (ACE-ID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Kittredge, Marina; Sparano, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify bulk solid and liquid phase unknown samples without the need to contact the substance. Materials can be identified through transparent and semi-translucent containers such as plastic and glass. ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require the redesign of conventional laboratory units for: field portability; shock, thermal and chemical attack resistance; easy and intuitive use in restrictive gear; reduced size, weight, and power. This article introduces a new handheld instrument (ACE-IDTM) designed to take Raman technology to the next level in terms of size, safety, speed, and analytical performance. ACE-ID is ruggedized for use in severe climates and terrains. It is lightweight and can be operated with just one hand. An intuitive software interface guides users through the entire identification process, making it easy-to-use by personnel of different skill levels including military explosive ordinance disposal technicians, civilian bomb squads and hazmat teams. Through the use of embedded advanced algorithms, the instrument is capable of providing fluorescence correction and analysis of binary mixtures. Instrument calibration is performed automatically upon startup without requiring user intervention. ACE-ID incorporates an optical rastering system that diffuses the laser energy over the sample. This important innovation significantly reduces the heat induced in dark samples and the probability of ignition of susceptible explosive materials. In this article, the explosives identification performance of the instrument will be provided in addition to a quantitative evaluation of the safety improvements derived from the reduced ignition probabilities.

  11. Diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection with Handheld Microscopy in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Meister, Isabel; Utzinger, Jürg; Odermatt, Peter; Andrews, Jason R; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, yet it is of considerable public health importance in Southeast Asia given the predilection for chronically infected persons to develop cholangiocarcinoma. We evaluated a handheld microscope for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini in a community-based setting in Lao People's Democratic Republic in comparison with conventional light microscopy. In stool samples collected from 104 individuals, handheld microscopy revealed a sensitivity of 70.6% and a specificity of 89.5% for O. viverrini infection. Pearson's correlation for quantitative fecal egg counts between the two devices was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-0.99). With small adjustments to further increase diagnostic sensitivity, a handheld microscope may become a helpful tool to screen for O. viverrini and other helminth infections in public health settings. PMID:26526923

  12. Towards Vision-Based Control of a Handheld Micromanipulator for Retinal Cannulation in an Eyeball Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian C.; Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Injecting clot-busting drugs such as t-PA into tiny vessels thinner than a human hair in the eye is a challenging procedure, especially since the vessels lie directly on top of the delicate and easily damaged retina. Various robotic aids have been proposed with the goal of increasing safety by removing tremor and increasing precision with motion scaling. We have developed a fully handheld micromanipulator, Micron, that has demonstrated reduced tremor when cannulating porcine retinal veins in an “open sky” scenario. In this paper, we present work towards handheld robotic cannulation with the goal of vision-based virtual fixtures guiding the tip of the cannula to the vessel. Using a realistic eyeball phantom, we address sclerotomy constraints, eye movement, and non-planar retina. Preliminary results indicate a handheld micromanipulator aided by visual control is a promising solution to retinal vessel occlusion. PMID:24649479

  13. Impact of weighted density distribution function features on land mine detection using hand-held units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Ronald J.; Somanchi, Satish; Gader, Paul D.

    2002-08-01

    Landmine detection using metal detector (MD) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) sensors in hand-held units is a difficult problem. Detection difficulties arise due to: 1) the varying composition and type of metal in landmines, 2) the time-varying nature of background and 3) the variation in height and velocity of the hand-held unit in data measurement. In prior research, spatially distributed MD features were explored for differentiating landmine signatures from background and non-landmine objects. These features were computed based on correlating sequences of MD energy values with six weighted density distribution functions. In this research the effectiveness of these features to detect landmines of varying metal composition and type is investigated. Experimental results are presented from statistical analysis for feature assessment. Preliminary experimental results are also presented for evaluating the impact on MD feature calculations from varying height and sweep rate of the hand-held unit for data acquisition.

  14. Open source handheld-based EMR for paramedics working in rural areas.

    PubMed Central

    Anantraman, Vishwanath; Mikkelsen, Tarjei; Khilnani, Reshma; Kumar, Vikram S.; Pentland, Alex; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2002-01-01

    We describe a handheld-based electronic medical record (EMR) for use in certain rural settings. The system is based on the Linux operating system and allows access to large mobile databases. The open source system is designed for paramedical health workers serving remote areas in rural India. A PDA loaded with the handheld-based EMR provides workers who have little access to medical doctors with different kinds of decision support and alerts. It addresses two important problems in developing countries: prenatal care and child health. This paper describes the technical challenges and innovation needed in the design, development, adaptation and implementation of the handheld EMR in a real setting in India PMID:12463777

  15. SHIELDING AND DETECTOR RESPONSE CALCULATIONS PERTAINING TO CATEGORY 1 QUANTITIES OF PLUTONIUM AND HAND-HELD PLASTIC SCINTILLATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, A.

    2013-06-07

    Nuclear facilities sometimes use hand-held plastic scintillator detectors to detect attempts to divert special nuclear material in situations where portal monitors are impractical. MCNP calculations have been performed to determine the neutron and gamma radiation field arising from a Category I quantity of weapons-grade plutonium in various shielding configurations. The shields considered were composed of combinations of lead and high-density polyethylene such that the mass of the plutonium plus shield was 22.7 kilograms. Monte-Carlo techniques were also used to determine the detector response to each of the shielding configurations. The detector response calculations were verified using field measurements of high-, medium-, and low- energy gamma-ray sources as well as a Cf-252 neutron source.

  16. Rapid and accurate determination of total lung capacity (TLC) from routine chest radiograms using a programmable hand-held calculator.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R P; Tannen, R

    1983-01-01

    Since its appearance in 1960, the method of Barnhard and associates for the determination of total lung capacity (TLC) from routine chest radiograms has been widely studied in normal and diseased subjects. The method appears to be as accurate as the current definitive procedure, total body plethysmography. The method is in routine use in major medical institutions where the procedure has been automated, but the method does not seem to have gained the wide use it deserves. This is likely due to the tedium of the technique when performed manually--a single determination can require 30 min. We present here an implementation of the Barnhard method for the HP41-C hand-held programmable calculator. In conjunction with the use of a transparent reticle used for obtaining the required measurements, the program allows a single measurement to be made in under 12 minutes. We hope this technique will make radiographic TLC measurements more broadly accessible to the medical profession. PMID:6872526

  17. Hand-held multi-DOF robotic forceps for neurosurgery designed for dexterous manipulation in deep and narrow space.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Takuro; Harada, Kanako; Fujii, Masahiro; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Nakatomi, Hirohumi; Sora, Sigeo; Morita, Akio; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise and dexterous manipulation of a surgical suture in narrow and deep spaces in the brain. This is necessary for surgical tasks such as the anastomosis of microscopic blood vessels and dura mater suturing. A hand-held multi-degree of freedom (DOF) robotic forceps was developed to aid the performance of such difficult tasks. The diameter of the developed robotic forceps is 3.5 mm, and its tip has three DOFs, namely, bending, rotation, and grip. Experimental results showed that the robotic forceps had an average needle insertion force of 1.7 N. Therefore, an increase in the needle insertion force is necessary for practical application of the developed device.

  18. Active depth-locking handheld micro-injector based on common-path swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Gyeong-Woo; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a handheld micro-injector system using common-path swept source optical coherence tomography (CP-SSOCT) as a distal sensor with highly accurate injection-depth-locking. To achieve real-time, highly precise, and intuitive freehand control, the system used graphics processing unit (GPU) to process the oversampled OCT signal with high throughput and a smart customized motion monitoring control algorithm. A performance evaluation was conducted with 60-insertions and fluorescein dye injection tests to show how accurately the system can guide the needle and lock to the target depth. The evaluation tests show our system can guide the injection needle into the desired depth with 4.12μm average deviation error while injecting 50nƖ of fluorescein dye.

  19. Motion Tracking Of A Handheld Scanner With An Infrared Vision System

    SciTech Connect

    Seppi, Jeremy H.; Hatchell, Brian K.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2011-08-07

    Handheld scanners are used in a large number of applications to inspect walls, floors, tanks, and other large structures. Measurements are made to characterize physical properties, uncover defects, detect evidence of tampering, quantify surface contamination, and so forth. Handheld scanning suffers from a number of drawbacks. The relationship between the data collected and scanned location is difficult or impossible to track. Humans using handheld scanners can unintentionally scan the same area multiple times or entirely overlook an area of interest. An automated scanner tracking system could improve upon current inspection practices with a handheld scanner in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and quality. The authors have developed a handheld scanner tracking system that will allow users to visualize previously scanned areas, highlight areas where important or unusual data are acquired, and store scanning location with acquired data. The scanned regions are saved in real time and projected back on the scanned area using a projector. The system currently utilizes the Smoothboard software, which has already been designed to interpret the location of a captured infrared source from a Wii Remote controller to create an interactive whiteboard. This software takes advantage of the Wii Remote’s ability to track the location of an infrared source, and when proper calibration of the Wii Remote orientation is complete, any surface can become a virtual whiteboard. In addition to recording and projecting scan pathways, the system developed by the authors can be used to make notes on the scanning process and project acquired data on top of the scanned area. This latter capability can be used to guide sample acquisition or demolition activities. This paper discusses development of the system and potential benefits to wall scanning with handheld scanners.

  20. A Review of Research Methodologies Used in Studies on Mobile Handheld Devices in K-12 and Higher Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Wing Sum; Hew, Khe Foon

    2009-01-01

    Mobile handheld devices are increasingly being used in education. In this paper, we undertook a review of empirical based articles to summarise the current research regarding the use of mobile handheld devices (personal digital assistants/PDAs, palmtops, and mobile phones) in K-12 and higher education settings. This review was guided by the…

  1. Hand-Held Color Meters Based on Interference Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    Small, inexpensive, hand-held optoelectronic color-measuring devices based on metal-film/dielectric-film interference filters are undergoing development. These color meters could be suitable for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements to quantify or match colors for aesthetic purposes but there is no need for the high spectral resolution of scientific-grade spectrometers. Such applications typically occur in the paint, printing, and cosmetic industries, for example. The figure schematically depicts a color meter of this type being used to measure the color of a sample in terms of the spectrum of light reflected from the sample. Light from a white source (for example, a white light-emitting diode) passes through a collimating lens to the sample. Another lens collects some of the light reflected from the sample and focuses the light onto the input end of optical fiber. Light emerging from the output end of the optical fiber illuminates an array of photodetectors covered with metal/dielectric-film interference filters like those described in Metal/Dielectric-film Interference Color Filters (NPO-20217), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 70. Typically, these are wide-band-pass filters, as shown at the bottom of the figure. The photodetector array need not be of any particular design: it could be something as simple as an assembly containing several photodiodes or something as elaborate as an active-pixel sensor or other imaging device. What is essential is that each of the photodetectors or each of several groups of photodetectors is covered with a metal/dielectric-film filter of a different color. In most applications, it would be desirable to have at least three different filters, each for a spectral band that contains one of the three primary additive red, green, and blue colors. In some applications, it may be necessary to have more than three different color filters in order to characterize subtle differences in color

  2. Hand-held radiometer red and photographic infrared spectral measurements of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1978-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared radiance data, collected under a variety of conditions at weekly intervals throughout the growing season using a hand-held radiometer, were used to monitor crop growth and development. The vegetation index transformation was used to effectively compensate for the different irradiational conditions encountered during the study period. These data, plotted against time, compared the different crops measured by comparing their green leaf biomass dynamics. This approach, based entirely upon spectral inputs, closely monitors crop growth and development and indicates the promise of ground-based hand-held radiometer measurements of crops.

  3. Application of Handheld Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to Geochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Connors, Brendan; Somers, Andrew; Day, David

    2016-05-01

    While laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been in use for decades, only within the last two years has technology progressed to the point of enabling true handheld, self-contained instruments. Several instruments are now commercially available with a range of capabilities and features. In this paper, the SciAps Z-500 handheld LIBS instrument functionality and sub-systems are reviewed. Several assayed geochemical sample sets, including igneous rocks and soils, are investigated. Calibration data are presented for multiple elements of interest along with examples of elemental mapping in heterogeneous samples. Sample preparation and the data collection method from multiple locations and data analysis are discussed. PMID:27170779

  4. Application of Handheld Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to Geochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Connors, Brendan; Somers, Andrew; Day, David

    2016-05-01

    While laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been in use for decades, only within the last two years has technology progressed to the point of enabling true handheld, self-contained instruments. Several instruments are now commercially available with a range of capabilities and features. In this paper, the SciAps Z-500 handheld LIBS instrument functionality and sub-systems are reviewed. Several assayed geochemical sample sets, including igneous rocks and soils, are investigated. Calibration data are presented for multiple elements of interest along with examples of elemental mapping in heterogeneous samples. Sample preparation and the data collection method from multiple locations and data analysis are discussed.

  5. State Estimation and Feedforward Tremor Suppression for a Handheld Micromanipulator with a Kalman Filter

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian C.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2011-01-01

    Active compensation of physiological tremor for handheld micromanipulators depends on fast control and actuation responses. Because of real-world latencies, real-time compensation is usually not completely effective at eliminating unwanted hand motion. By modeling tremor, more effective cancellation is possible by anticipating future hand motion. We propose a feedforward control strategy that utilizes tremor velocity from a state-estimating Kalman filter. We demonstrate that estimating hand motion in a feedforward controller overcomes real-world latencies in micromanipulator actuation. In hold-still tasks with a fully handheld micromanipulator, the proposed feedforward approach improves tremor rejection by over 50%. PMID:22229111

  6. Within Patient Radiological Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Two Bone Graft Extenders Utilized in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Geoffrey; Gage, Gary B.; Neidert, Gary; Adkisson, Huston Davis

    2016-01-01

    Two bone graft extenders differing in chemical composition were implanted contralaterally in 27 consecutive patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion as standard-of-care. Bone marrow aspirate and autogenous bone graft were equally combined either with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or a hybrid biomaterial [containing hyaluronic acid (HyA) but lacking a calcium salt] and implanted between the transverse processes. Fusion status on each side of the vertebrae was retrospectively graded (1–5 scale) on AP planar X-ray at multiple visits as available, through approximately 12 months. Additionally, consolidation or resorption since prior visit for each treatment was recorded. Sides receiving β-TCP extender showed marked resorption prior to bone consolidation during the first 6 months. By contrast, sides receiving the hybrid biomaterial containing integrated HyA showed rapid bone consolidation by week 6–8, with maintenance of initial bone volume through 12 months. Fusion grade was superior for the hybrid biomaterial, differing significantly from β-TCP at day 109 and beyond. Fusion success at >12 months was 92.9 vs. 67.9% for the hybrid biomaterial and β-TCP-treated sides, respectively. The hybrid biomaterial extender demonstrated a shortened time-to-fusion compared to the calcium-based graft. Mode of action has been demonstrated in the literature to differ between these compositions. Therefore, choice of synthetic biomaterial composition may significantly influence the mode of action of cellular events regulating appositional bone growth. PMID:26835455

  7. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  8. Cellphone-Based Hand-Held Microplate Reader for Point-of-Care Testing of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays.

    PubMed

    Berg, Brandon; Cortazar, Bingen; Tseng, Derek; Ozkan, Haydar; Feng, Steve; Wei, Qingshan; Chan, Raymond Yan-Lok; Burbano, Jordi; Farooqui, Qamar; Lewinski, Michael; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-08-25

    Standard microplate based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are widely utilized for various nanomedicine, molecular sensing, and disease screening applications, and this multiwell plate batched analysis dramatically reduces diagnosis costs per patient compared to nonbatched or nonstandard tests. However, their use in resource-limited and field-settings is inhibited by the necessity for relatively large and expensive readout instruments. To mitigate this problem, we created a hand-held and cost-effective cellphone-based colorimetric microplate reader, which uses a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment to hold and illuminate a 96-well plate using a light-emitting-diode (LED) array. This LED light is transmitted through each well, and is then collected via 96 individual optical fibers. Captured images of this fiber-bundle are transmitted to our servers through a custom-designed app for processing using a machine learning algorithm, yielding diagnostic results, which are delivered to the user within ∼1 min per 96-well plate, and are visualized using the same app. We successfully tested this mobile platform in a clinical microbiology laboratory using FDA-approved mumps IgG, measles IgG, and herpes simplex virus IgG (HSV-1 and HSV-2) ELISA tests using a total of 567 and 571 patient samples for training and blind testing, respectively, and achieved an accuracy of 99.6%, 98.6%, 99.4%, and 99.4% for mumps, measles, HSV-1, and HSV-2 tests, respectively. This cost-effective and hand-held platform could assist health-care professionals to perform high-throughput disease screening or tracking of vaccination campaigns at the point-of-care, even in resource-poor and field-settings. Also, its intrinsic wireless connectivity can serve epidemiological studies, generating spatiotemporal maps of disease prevalence and immunity. PMID:26159546

  9. First demonstration of real-time gamma imaging by using a handheld Compton camera for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taya, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Koide, A.; Nishio, T.; Kabuki, S.; Inaniwa, T.

    2016-09-01

    The use of real-time gamma imaging for cancer treatment in particle therapy is expected to improve the accuracy of the treatment beam delivery. In this study, we demonstrated the imaging of gamma rays generated by the nuclear interactions during proton irradiation, using a handheld Compton camera (14 cm×15 cm×16 cm, 2.5 kg) based on scintillation detectors. The angular resolution of this Compton camera is ∼8° at full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a 137Cs source. We measured the energy spectra of the gamma rays using a LaBr3(Ce) scintillator and photomultiplier tube, and using the handheld Compton camera, performed image reconstruction when using a 70 MeV proton beam to irradiate a water, Ca(OH)2, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom. In the energy spectra of all three phantoms, we found an obvious peak at 511 keV, which was derived from annihilation gamma rays, and in the energy spectrum of the PMMA phantom, we found another peak at 718 keV, which contains some of the prompt gamma rays produced from 10B. Therefore, we evaluated the peak positions of the projection from the reconstructed images of the PMMA phantom. The differences between the peak positions and the Bragg peak position calculated using simulation are 7 mm±2 mm and 3 mm±8 mm, respectively. Although we could quickly acquire online gamma imaging of both of the energy ranges during proton irradiation, we cannot arrive at a clear conclusion that prompt gamma rays sufficiently trace the Bragg peak from these results because of the uncertainty given by the spatial resolution of the Compton camera. We will develop a high-resolution Compton camera in the near future for further study.

  10. [Solution of PACS to communicate with the handheld mobile intelligent equipment based on web service].

    PubMed

    Xue, Weijing; Wang, Pengcheng; Meng, Jian; Wang, Haiyang

    2013-09-01

    Using the Web Service technology, the paper puts forward a solution of remote communication between PACS and the handheld mobile intelligent devices, the characteristics of the solution are simple, easy to implement, short development cycle, high practicability, and low cost etc. PMID:24409803

  11. Use of a hand-held meter for detecting subclinical ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voyvoda, Huseyin; Erdogan, Hasan

    2010-12-01

    The Optium Xceed is a new hand-held meter for determining blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose in human medicine. The objective of this study was to compare BHBA and glucose results obtained using the hand-held meter with those results made with a laboratory method and to evaluate its usefulness as a cowside test in the diagnosis of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows. Seventy-eight blood samples from clinically healthy Holstein cows between 5 and 60 days post-calving were analysed. BHBA and glucose values were significantly higher with the hand-held meter versus laboratory methods. Correlation coefficients (r) for BHBA and glucose with the Optium Xceed versus laboratory methods were 0.97 and 0.63, respectively. Based on Bland-Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression, agreement between two methods was good for BHBA but the agreement for glucose was only fair. When SCK was defined as plasma BHBA levels ≥ 1200 μmol/L, the sensitivity and specificity of the hand-held meter ketone testing in determining SCK were 85% and 94%, respectively. Raising the threshold of the laboratory method to ≥ 1400 μmol/L, the sensitivity and specificity incremented to 0.90 and 0.98, respectively. In conclusion, the blood ketone-monitoring device can be used as a rapid and reliable diagnostic test to detect SCK under field conditions.

  12. Using a Handheld Gene Gun for Genetic Transformation of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Gotesman, Michael; Williams, Selwyn A

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes protocols for using a handheld gene gun to deliver transformation vectors for overexpression of genes or gene replacement in the macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila. The protocols provide helpful information for preparing Tetrahymena for biolistic bombardment, preparation of vector-coated microcarriers, and basic gene gun operating procedures.

  13. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  14. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  15. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-02-01

    This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC-MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements. PMID:25464945

  16. Enhancing Mathematical Concepts through Leading Questions and Hand-Held Data Collection Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    Hand-held data collection technology allows for access to real-world data collection--at any other time and almost any place. Is the use of data and its collection desirable to the mathematical learning process? The answer is a resounding yes! Not only can significant mathematical ideas be taught in the process; colleagues are also helped in the…

  17. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how using two different ways of displaying the solar system--a true-to-scale mode vs. an orrery mode--affected students' knowledge of astronomical concepts. Solar system displays were presented in a software application on a handheld tablet computer. In the true-to-scale mode, users navigated a simulated three-dimensional…

  18. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-02-01

    This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC-MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements.

  19. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by ...

  20. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  1. Efficacy of Handheld Electronic Visual Supports to Enhance Vocabulary in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Boles, Margot B.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Although electronic tools such as handheld computers have become increasingly common throughout society, implementation of such tools to improve skills in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities has lagged in the professional literature. However, the use of visual scripts for individuals with disabilities, particularly those…

  2. PDAs and Handhelds: ICT at Your Side and Not in Your Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Jocelyn; Ramsden, Andy; McFarlane, Angela

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers to support initial teacher training (ITT), 14 science teacher trainees at the Graduate School of Education in the University of Bristol were given PDAs with mobile phone connectivity to use throughout the academic year. The following areas were…

  3. Online Responses towards Parental Rearing Styles Regarding Hand-Held Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This article reviewed the literature on parental rearing styles and used responses from an online discussion forum to investigate people's opinions towards parental rearing styles and strategies when children use hand-held devices. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used as an analysis method via micro, meso and macro multi-level…

  4. A Mobile Mixed-Reality Environment for Children's Storytelling Using a Handheld Projector and a Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimoto, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a system called GENTORO that uses a robot and a handheld projector for supporting children's storytelling activities. GENTORO differs from many existing systems in that children can make a robot play their own story in a physical space augmented by mixed-reality technologies. Pilot studies have been conducted to clarify the…

  5. Beyond the Organizer: A Manual of Educational Uses for the Handheld Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibiger, Carol A.

    This manual was initially written to support the University of South Dakota's Palm Initiative. It has been substantially revised and updated to include the latest in handheld applications with educational uses, and it applies to any Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) using the Palm OS Software (3.1 or higher) and having at least 8 megabytes of…

  6. Measurement of muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Samosawala, Nidhi R.; Vaishali, K.; Kalyana, B. Chakravarthy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intensive Care Unit (ICU) acquired weakness is a common complication in critically ill patients affecting their prognosis. The handheld dynamometry is an objective method in detecting minimum muscle strength change, which has an impact on the physical function of ICU survivors. The minimal change in the force can be measured in units of weight such as pounds or kilograms. Aim of the Study: To detect the changes in peripheral muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in the early stage of ICU stay and to observe the progression of muscle weakness. Methodology: Three upper and three lower limb muscles force measured with handheld dynamometer during ICU stay. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA to detect changes in force generated by muscle on alternate days of ICU stay. Results: There was a reduction in peripheral muscle strength from day 3 to day 5 as well from day 5 to day 7 of ICU stay (P < 0.01). The average reduction in peripheral muscle strength was 11.8% during ICU stay. Conclusion: This study showed a progressive reduction in peripheral muscle strength as measured by handheld dynamometer during early period of ICU stay. PMID:26955213

  7. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... to cause electrical current to flow beyond normal circuitry, the circuit interrupter will sense the... standard. 15 U.S.C. 2064(j). Underwriters Laboratories (``UL'') Standard for Safety for Household Electric... requirements for certain household appliances, including hand-held hair dryers. The current...

  8. A Fresh Look at the Crystal Violet Lab with Handheld Camera Colorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Theodore R.; Knutson, Cassandra M.; Mozzetti, Abbie R.; Campos, Antonio R.; Haynes, Christy L.; Penn, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Chemical kinetic experiments to determine rate laws are common in high school and college chemistry courses. For reactions involving a color change, rate laws can be determined experimentally using spectrophotometric or colorimetric equipment though this equipment can be cost prohibitive. Previous work demonstrated that inexpensive handheld camera…

  9. Surgical procedure logging with use of a hand-held computer

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Sandra; Lapinsky, Stephen E.; Weshler, Jason; Howard, Frazer; Rotstein, Lorne E.; Cohen, Zane; Stewart, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of incorporating hand-held computing technology in a surgical residency program, by means of hand-held devices for surgical procedure logging linked through the Internet to a central database. Setting Division of General Surgery, University of Toronto. Design A survey of general surgery residents. Methods The 69 residents in the general surgery training program received hand-held computers with preinstalled medical programs and a program designed for surgical procedure logging. Procedural data were uploaded via the Internet to a central database. Survey data were collected regarding previous computer use as well as previous procedure logging methods. Main outcome measure Utilization of the procedure logging system. Results After a 5-month pilot period, 38% of surgical residents were using the procedure-logging program successfully and on a regular basis. Program use was higher among more junior trainees. Analysis of the database provided valuable information on individual trainees, hospital programs and supervising surgeons, data that would assist in program development. Conclusions Hand-held devices can be implemented in a large division of general surgery to provide a reference database and a procedure-logging platform. However, user acceptance is not uniform and continued training and support are necessary to increase acceptance. The procedure database provides important information for optimizing trainees’ educational experience. PMID:12387537

  10. Droplet size characterization of hand-held atomization equipment typically used in vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The atomization characteristics from four hand-held sprayers (Leco P-1, Colt ULV Aerosol Generator, UlVAFAN MK2, Turbair ElectraFan 12) and a Stihl SR400 backpack sprayer were evaluated using water- and oil-based solutions. The effects on droplet size spectrum for three insecticides (Tempo SC Ultra...

  11. The Use of Handheld Devices for Improved Phonemic Awareness in a Traditional Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna-McBee, Cristy Ann

    2010-01-01

    Effective teaching strategies that improve the development of phonemic awareness are important to ensure students are fluent readers by third grade. The use of handheld devices to improve phonemic awareness with kindergarten students may be such a strategy, but no research exists that evaluates the use of these devices. This study explored the…

  12. "New Directions for Traditional Lessons": Can Handheld Game Consoles Enhance Mental Mathematics Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Susan; O'Rourke, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that compared the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) handheld game consoles (HGCs) with traditional teaching methods to develop the automaticity of mathematical calculations and self-concept towards mathematics for year 4 students in two metropolitan schools. One class conducted daily sessions using the HGCs…

  13. Teachers' Perception of Handheld Response Systems as a Tool for Formative Assessment in High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Jon

    2011-01-01

    While research supports that formative assessment can improve student learning, it is rarely used and difficult to implement. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the use of student handheld response systems (SRS) as a tool for formative assessment in high school classes as well as teachers' attitudes towards this…

  14. Analysis of Peer Interaction in Learning Activities with Personal Handhelds and Shared Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Chung, Chen-Wei; Chen, Nian-Shing; Liu, Baw-Jhiune

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative learning is extensively applied in classroom activities, but the screens on handheld devices are designed for individual-user mobile applications and may constrain interaction among group learners. The small screen size may lead to fragmented and tete-a-tete communication patterns and frequently obstruct the externalization of the…

  15. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  17. 40 CFR 1054.110 - What evaporative emission standards must my handheld equipment meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR 1060.102. These requirements apply starting in the 2012 model year, except that they... in 40 CFR 1060.103. These requirements apply for handheld equipment starting in the 2010 model year... requirements of this paragraph (b) apply starting in the 2012 model year. (Note: 40 CFR 90.129...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program for HC+NOX emissions as described in... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program for HC+NOX emissions as described in... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  20. A Study of the Use of a Handheld Computer Algebra System in Discrete Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Robert A.; Allison, Dean E.; Grassl, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the TI-92 handheld Computer Algebra System (CAS) on student achievement in a discrete mathematics course. Specifically, the researchers examined the differences between a CAS section and a control section of discrete mathematics on students' in-class examinations. Additionally, they analysed student approaches…

  1. Notebooks, Handhelds, and Software in Physical Education (Grades 5-8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohnsen, Bonnie

    2005-01-01

    Heart monitors, pedometers, and now virtual reality-based equipment (e.g., Cyberbikes, "Dance Dance Revolution") have been embraced by physical educators as technologies worth using in the physical education program; however, the use of computers (be it a desktop, notebook, or handheld) in the physical education instructional program, has not been…

  2. Learning Motivation and Adaptive Video Caption Filtering for EFL Learners Using Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide adaptive assistance to improve the listening comprehension of eleventh grade students. This study developed a video-based language learning system for handheld devices, using three levels of caption filtering adapted to student needs. Elementary level captioning excluded 220 English sight words (see Section 1…

  3. The Use and Efficacy of Handheld Computers for School-Based Data Collection: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Zellner, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing influence of technology and the explosion in data collection demands, the acceptance and assimilation of new paradigms and technologies require today's educators, researchers, and evaluators to consider alternative tools, and apply them effectively. One of these alternatives, handheld computers, also known as personal digital…

  4. Utility of hand-held echocardiography in outpatient pediatric cardiology management.

    PubMed

    Riley, Alan; Sable, Craig; Prasad, Aparna; Spurney, Christopher; Harahsheh, Ashraf; Clauss, Sarah; Colyer, Jessica; Gierdalski, Marcin; Johnson, Ashley; Pearson, Gail D; Rosenthal, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Adult patient series have shown hand-held echocardiography (echo) units (HHE) to be accurate for rapid diagnosis and triage. This is the first study to evaluate the ability of HHE to inform decision making in outpatient pediatric cardiology. New pediatric cardiology patients in outpatient clinics staffed by six pediatric cardiologists (experience 1-17 years) were prospectively enrolled if an echocardiogram (echo) was ordered during their initial visit. After history and physical examination and before a standard echo, the cardiologists performed a bedside HHE examination (GE Vscan 1.7-3.8 MHz), documented findings, and made a clinical decision. Diagnoses and decisions based on HHE were compared with final management after the standard echo. The study enrolled 101 subjects (ages 9 days to 19 years). The cardiologists considered HHE imaging adequate for decision making for 80 of the 101 subjects. For 77 of the 80 subjects with acceptable HHE imaging (68/68 normal and 9/12 abnormal standard echoes), the HHE-based primary diagnoses and decisions agreed with the final management. The sensitivity of HHE was 75 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 43-94 %) and the positive predictive value 100 % (95 % CI 66-100 %) for pediatric heart disease. The agreement between standard echocardiography and HHE imaging was substantial (κ = 0.82). Excluding one of the least experienced cardiologists, HHE provided the basis for correct cardiac diagnoses and management for all the subjects with acceptable HHE imaging (58/58 normal and 9/9 abnormal echoes). In outpatient pediatric cardiology, HHE has potential as a tool to complement physical examination. Further investigation is needed to evaluate how value improves with clinical experience.

  5. Moving a hand-held object: Reconstruction of referent coordinate and apparent stiffness trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Ambike, Satyajit; Zhou, Tao; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used the framework of the referent configuration hypothesis and slow changes in the external conditions during vertical oscillation of a hand-held object to infer the characteristics of hypothetical control variables. The study had two main objectives: (1) to show that hypothetical control variables, namely, referent coordinates and apparent stiffness of vertical hand position and grip force can be measured in an experiment; and (2) to establish relation(s) between these control variables that yield the classic grip-force-load-force coupling. Healthy subjects gripped a handle and performed vertical oscillations between visual targets at one of five metronome-prescribed frequencies. A Hapticmaster robot was used to induce slow changes in the vertical force applied to the handle, while the size of the handle was changed slowly leading to changes in the grip aperture. The subjects were instructed not to react to possible changes in the external forces. A linear, second-order model was used to reconstruct the referent coordinate and apparent stiffness values for each phase of the vertical oscillation cycle using across-cycle regressions. The reconstructed time profiles of the referent coordinates and apparent stiffness showed consistent trends across subjects and movement frequencies. To validate the method, these values were used to predict the vertical force and the grip force applied to the handle for movement cycles that were not utilized in the reconstruction process. Analysis of the coupling between the four variables, two referent coordinates and two apparent stiffness values, revealed a single strong constraint reflecting the coupling between the grip force and vertical force. We view these data as providing experimental support for the idea of controlling natural, multi-muscle actions with shifts in a low-dimensional set of referent coordinates. PMID:25896800

  6. Rapid Visuomotor Corrective Responses during Transport of Hand-Held Objects Incorporate Novel Object Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Jonathan S; Nashed, Joseph Y; Johansson, Roland S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2015-07-22

    Numerous studies have shown that people are adept at learning novel object dynamics, linking applied force and motion, when performing reaching movements with hand-held objects. Here we investigated whether the control of rapid corrective arm responses, elicited in response to visual perturbations, has access to such newly acquired knowledge of object dynamics. Participants first learned to make reaching movements while grasping an object subjected to complex load forces that depended on the distance and angle of the hand from the start position. During a subsequent test phase, we examined grip and load force coordination during corrective arm movements elicited (within ∼150 ms) in response to viewed sudden lateral shifts (1.5 cm) in target or object position. We hypothesized that, if knowledge of object dynamics is incorporated in the control of the corrective responses, grip force changes would anticipate the unusual load force changes associated with the corrective arm movements so as to support grasp stability. Indeed, we found that the participants generated grip force adjustments tightly coupled, both spatially and temporally, to the load force changes associated with the arm movement corrections. We submit that recently learned novel object dynamics are effectively integrated into sensorimotor control policies that support rapid visually driven arm corrective actions during transport of hand held objects. Significance statement: Previous studies have demonstrated that the motor system can learn, and make use of, internal models of object dynamics to generate feedforward motor commands. However, it is not known whether such internal models are incorporated into rapid, automatic arm movement corrections that compensate for errors that arise during movement. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that internal models of novel object dynamics are integrated into rapid corrective arm movements made in response to visuomotor perturbations that, importantly, do

  7. Handheld, rapidly switchable, anterior/posterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography probe

    PubMed Central

    Nankivil, Derek; Waterman, Gar; LaRocca, Francesco; Keller, Brenton; Kuo, Anthony N.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first handheld, swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system capable of imaging both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in rapid succession. A single 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner was utilized for both imaging modes, and the optical paths for each imaging mode were optimized for their respective application using a combination of commercial and custom optics. The system has a working distance of 26.1 mm and a measured axial resolution of 8 μm (in air). In posterior segment mode, the design has a lateral resolution of 9 μm, 7.4 mm imaging depth range (in air), 4.9 mm 6dB fall-off range (in air), and peak sensitivity of 103 dB over a 22° field of view (FOV). In anterior segment mode, the design has a lateral resolution of 24 μm, imaging depth range of 7.4 mm (in air), 6dB fall-off range of 4.5 mm (in air), depth-of-focus of 3.6 mm, and a peak sensitivity of 99 dB over a 17.5 mm FOV. In addition, the probe includes a wide-field iris imaging system to simplify alignment. A fold mirror assembly actuated by a bi-stable rotary solenoid was used to switch between anterior and posterior segment imaging modes, and a miniature motorized translation stage was used to adjust the objective lens position to correct for patient refraction between −12.6 and + 9.9 D. The entire probe weighs less than 630 g with a form factor of 20.3 x 9.5 x 8.8 cm. Healthy volunteers were imaged to illustrate imaging performance. PMID:26601014

  8. Handheld, rapidly switchable, anterior/posterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography probe.

    PubMed

    Nankivil, Derek; Waterman, Gar; LaRocca, Francesco; Keller, Brenton; Kuo, Anthony N; Izatt, Joseph A

    2015-11-01

    We describe the first handheld, swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system capable of imaging both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in rapid succession. A single 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner was utilized for both imaging modes, and the optical paths for each imaging mode were optimized for their respective application using a combination of commercial and custom optics. The system has a working distance of 26.1 mm and a measured axial resolution of 8 μm (in air). In posterior segment mode, the design has a lateral resolution of 9 μm, 7.4 mm imaging depth range (in air), 4.9 mm 6dB fall-off range (in air), and peak sensitivity of 103 dB over a 22° field of view (FOV). In anterior segment mode, the design has a lateral resolution of 24 μm, imaging depth range of 7.4 mm (in air), 6dB fall-off range of 4.5 mm (in air), depth-of-focus of 3.6 mm, and a peak sensitivity of 99 dB over a 17.5 mm FOV. In addition, the probe includes a wide-field iris imaging system to simplify alignment. A fold mirror assembly actuated by a bi-stable rotary solenoid was used to switch between anterior and posterior segment imaging modes, and a miniature motorized translation stage was used to adjust the objective lens position to correct for patient refraction between -12.6 and + 9.9 D. The entire probe weighs less than 630 g with a form factor of 20.3 x 9.5 x 8.8 cm. Healthy volunteers were imaged to illustrate imaging performance. PMID:26601014

  9. Moving a hand-held object: Reconstruction of referent coordinate and apparent stiffness trajectories.

    PubMed

    Ambike, S; Zhou, T; Zatsiorsky, V M; Latash, M L

    2015-07-01

    This study used the framework of the referent configuration hypothesis and slow changes in the external conditions during vertical oscillation of a hand-held object to infer the characteristics of hypothetical control variables. The study had two main objectives: (1) to show that hypothetical control variables, namely, referent coordinates and apparent stiffness of vertical hand position and grip force can be measured in an experiment; and (2) to establish relation(s) between these control variables that yield the classic grip-force-load-force coupling. Healthy subjects gripped a handle and performed vertical oscillations between visual targets at one of five metronome-prescribed frequencies. A HapticMaster robot was used to induce slow changes in the vertical force applied to the handle, while the size of the handle was changed slowly leading to changes in the grip aperture. The subjects were instructed not to react to possible changes in the external forces. A linear, second-order model was used to reconstruct the referent coordinate and apparent stiffness values for each phase of the vertical oscillation cycle using across-cycle regressions. The reconstructed time profiles of the referent coordinates and apparent stiffness showed consistent trends across subjects and movement frequencies. To validate the method, these values were used to predict the vertical force and the grip force applied to the handle for movement cycles that were not utilized in the reconstruction process. Analysis of the coupling between the four variables, two referent coordinates and two apparent stiffness values, revealed a single strong constraint reflecting the coupling between the grip force and vertical force. We view these data as providing experimental support for the idea of controlling natural, multi-muscle actions with shifts in a low-dimensional set of referent coordinates.

  10. Moving a hand-held object: Reconstruction of referent coordinate and apparent stiffness trajectories.

    PubMed

    Ambike, S; Zhou, T; Zatsiorsky, V M; Latash, M L

    2015-07-01

    This study used the framework of the referent configuration hypothesis and slow changes in the external conditions during vertical oscillation of a hand-held object to infer the characteristics of hypothetical control variables. The study had two main objectives: (1) to show that hypothetical control variables, namely, referent coordinates and apparent stiffness of vertical hand position and grip force can be measured in an experiment; and (2) to establish relation(s) between these control variables that yield the classic grip-force-load-force coupling. Healthy subjects gripped a handle and performed vertical oscillations between visual targets at one of five metronome-prescribed frequencies. A HapticMaster robot was used to induce slow changes in the vertical force applied to the handle, while the size of the handle was changed slowly leading to changes in the grip aperture. The subjects were instructed not to react to possible changes in the external forces. A linear, second-order model was used to reconstruct the referent coordinate and apparent stiffness values for each phase of the vertical oscillation cycle using across-cycle regressions. The reconstructed time profiles of the referent coordinates and apparent stiffness showed consistent trends across subjects and movement frequencies. To validate the method, these values were used to predict the vertical force and the grip force applied to the handle for movement cycles that were not utilized in the reconstruction process. Analysis of the coupling between the four variables, two referent coordinates and two apparent stiffness values, revealed a single strong constraint reflecting the coupling between the grip force and vertical force. We view these data as providing experimental support for the idea of controlling natural, multi-muscle actions with shifts in a low-dimensional set of referent coordinates. PMID:25896800

  11. Strength Measurements in Acute Hamstring Injuries: Intertester Reliability and Prognostic Value of Handheld Dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Verhaar, Jan A N; Weir, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Cohort study, repeated measures. Background Although hamstring strength measurements are used for assessing prognosis and monitoring recovery after hamstring injury, their actual clinical relevance has not been established. Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a commonly used method of measuring muscle strength. The reliability of HHD has not been determined in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. Objectives To determine the intertester reliability and the prognostic value of hamstring HHD strength measurement in acute hamstring injuries. Methods We measured knee flexion strength with HHD in 75 athletes at 2 visits, at baseline (within 5 days of hamstring injury) and follow-up (5 to 7 days after the baseline measurement). We assessed isometric hamstring strength in 15° and 90° of knee flexion. Reliability analysis testing was performed by 2 testers independently at the follow-up visit. We recorded the time needed to return to play (RTP) up to 6 months following baseline. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients of the strength measurements in injured hamstrings were between 0.75 and 0.83. There was a statistically significant but weak correlation between the time to RTP and the strength deficit at 15° of knee flexion measured at baseline (Spearman r = 0.25, P = .045) and at the follow-up visit (Spearman r = 0.26, P = .034). Up to 7% of the variance in time to RTP is explained by this strength deficit. None of the other strength variables were significantly correlated with time to RTP. Conclusion Hamstring strength can be reliably measured with HHD in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. The prognostic value of strength measurements is limited, as there is only a weak association between the time to RTP and hamstring strength deficit after acute injury. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):689-696. Epub 12 May 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6363.

  12. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Specification of an empirical factor for conversion from bromine to PBB and PBDE. • The handheld XRF device was validated for this particular application. • A very large number of over 4600 pieces of monitor housings was analysed. • The recyclable fraction mounts up to 85% for TV but only 53% of PC waste plastics. • A high percentage of pieces with bromine contents of over 50,000 ppm was obtained. - Abstract: This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000 ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC–MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements.

  13. Development of real-time dual-display handheld and bench-top hybrid-mode SD-OCTs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Park, Kibeom; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Shin, Yong Seung; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers' physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe's built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT), and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU) accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU) processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method. PMID:24473286

  14. Extended Testability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.

  15. Extending Performance and Evaluating Risks of PV Systems Failure Using a Fault Tree and Event Tree Approach: Analysis of the Possible Application

    SciTech Connect

    Colli A.

    2012-06-03

    Performance and reliability of photovoltaic (PV) systems are important issues in the overall evaluation of a PV plant and its components. While performance is connected to the amount of energy produced by the PV installation in the working environmental conditions, reliability impacts the availability of the system to produce the expected amount of energy. In both cases, the evaluation should be done considering information and data coming from indoor as well as outdoor tests. In this paper a way of re-thinking performance, giving it a probabilistic connotation, and connecting the two concepts of performance and reliability is proposed. The paper follows a theoretical approach and discusses the way to obtaining such information, facing benefits and problems. The proposed probabilistic performance accounts for the probability of the system to function correctly, thus passing through the complementary evaluation of the probability of system malfunctions and consequences. Scenarios have to be identified where the system is not functioning properly or at all. They are expected to be combined in a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) based approach, providing not only the required probability, but also being capable of giving a prioritization of the risks and the most dominant scenario associated to a specific situation. This approach can offer the possibility to highlight the most critical parts of a PV system, as well as providing support in design activities identifying weak connections.

  16. Quantification of prostate deformation due to needle insertion during TRUS-guided biopsy: comparison of hand-held and mechanically stabilized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Tharindu; Bax, Jeffrey; Fenster, Aaron; Samarabandu, Jagath; Ward, Aaron D.

    2011-03-01

    Prostate biopsy is the clinical standard for the definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. To overcome the limitations of 2D TRUS-guided biopsy systems when targeting pre-planned locations, systems have been developed with 3D guidance to improve the accuracy of cancer detection. Prostate deformation due to needle insertion and biopsy gun firing is a potential source of error that can cause target misalignments during biopsies. We use non-rigid registration of 2D TRUS images to quantify the deformation during the needle insertion and the biopsy gun firing procedure, and compare this effect in biopsies performed using a handheld TRUS probe with those performed using a mechanically assisted 3D TRUS guided biopsy system. Although the mechanically assisted biopsy system had a mean deformation approximately 0.2 mm greater than that of the handheld approach, it yielded a lower relative increase of deformation near the needle axis during the needle insertion stage and greater deformational stability of the prostate during the biopsy gun firing stage. We also analyzed the axial and lateral components of the tissue motion; our results indicated that the motion is weakly biased in the direction orthogonal to the needle, which is less than ideal from a targeting standpoint given the long, narrow cylindrical shape of the biopsy core.

  17. Using Nucleic Acid Microarrays To Perform Molecular Epidemiology and Detect Novel β-Lactamases: a Snapshot of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases throughout the World

    PubMed Central

    Hackel, Meredith; Hujer, Andrea M.; Marshall, Steven H.; Bouchillon, Sam K.; Hoban, Daryl J.; Hawser, Stephen P.; Badal, Robert E.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide dissemination of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a major concern in both hospital and community settings. Rapid identification of these resistant pathogens and the genetic determinants they possess is needed to assist in clinical practice and epidemiological studies. A collection of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis isolates, including phenotypically ESBL-positive (n = 1,093) and ESBL-negative isolates (n = 59), obtained in 2008–2009 from a longitudinal surveillance study (SMART) was examined using an in vitro nucleic acid-based microarray. This approach was used to detect and identify blaESBL (blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M genes of groups 1, 2, 9, and 8/25) and blaKPC genes and was combined with selective PCR amplification and DNA sequencing for complete characterization of the blaESBL and blaKPC genes. Of the 1,093 phenotypically ESBL-positive isolates, 1,041 were identified as possessing at least one blaESBL gene (95.2% concordance), and 59 phenotypically ESBL-negative isolates, used as negative controls, were negative. Several ESBL variants of blaTEM (n = 5), blaSHV (n = 11), blaCTX-M (n = 19), and blaKPC (n = 3) were detected. A new blaSHV variant, blaSHV-129, and a new blaKPC variant, blaKPC-11, were also identified. The most common bla genes found in this study were blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-14, and blaSHV-12. Using nucleic acid microarrays, we obtained a “molecular snapshot” of blaESBL genes in a current global population; we report that CTX-M-15 is still the dominant ESBL and provide the first report of the new β-lactamase variants blaSHV-129 and blaKPC-11. PMID:22322349

  18. Evaluation of a hand-held, computer-based intervention to promote early self-care behaviors after lung transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Dew, Mary Amanda; Myers, Brad; Begey, Alex; Hawkins, Robert; Ren, Dianxu; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Oconnell, Erin; McCurry, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lung transplant recipients are expected to perform self-care behaviors to maximize transplant-related health outcomes. Despite high non-adherence rates in performing these self-care behaviors, and the dire clinical consequences of such non-adherence, interventions are lacking. Pocket Personal Assistant for Tracking Health (Pocket PATH) is a hand-held device developed for patients to record health data, review data trends, and report condition changes to the transplant team. Methods A pilot trial was conducted to compare self-care agency, self-care behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between recipients randomized to use Pocket PATH (n = 15) vs. standard care (n = 15) for the first two months following hospital discharge after lung transplantation. Results Baseline characteristics were equivalent across groups. Patients in the Pocket PATH group showed significantly higher ratings of self-care agency, performed self-care behaviors at significantly higher rates, and reported significantly better HRQOL than standard care controls. Conclusion Pocket PATH is more efficacious than standard care in promoting early self-care agency, self-care behaviors, and HRQOL in lung recipients. A large-scale randomized controlled trial is needed to test the impact of Pocket PATH on long-term self-care behaviors. PMID:19473201

  19. Integrated optical detection of autonomous capillary microfluidic immunoassays:a hand-held point-of-care prototype.

    PubMed

    Novo, P; Chu, V; Conde, J P

    2014-07-15

    The miniaturization of biosensors using microfluidics has potential in enabling the development of point-of-care devices, with the added advantages of reduced time and cost of analysis with limits-of-detection comparable to those obtained through traditional laboratory techniques. Interfacing microfluidic devices with the external world can be difficult especially in aspects involving fluid handling and the need for simple sample insertion that avoids special equipment or trained personnel. In this work we present a point-of-care prototype system by integrating capillary microfluidics with a microfabricated photodiode array and electronic instrumentation into a hand-held unit. The capillary microfluidic device is capable of autonomous and sequential fluid flow, including control of the average fluid velocity at any given point of the analysis. To demonstrate the functionality of the prototype, a model chemiluminescence ELISA was performed. The performance of the integrated optical detection in the point-of-care prototype is equal to that obtained with traditional bench-top instrumentation. The photodiode signals were acquired, displayed and processed by a simple graphical user interface using a computer connected to the microcontroller through USB. The prototype performed integrated chemiluminescence ELISA detection in about 15 min with a limit-of-detection of ≈2 nM with an antibody-antigen affinity constant of ≈2×10(7) M(-1). PMID:24607579

  20. Handheld computers in veterinary medical education: a view from human medical education.

    PubMed

    Nestel, Debra; Brenton, Harry; Kneebone, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Handheld computers are widely used in clinical practice, and their use in both human medical education and veterinary medical education is increasing, especially, for the former, in activities involving point-of-care access. This article references the insights that can be obtained from the usage and activities that are gaining a strong foothold in human medical education. Handheld computer technology gives students access to a large and changing knowledge base for clinical practice, especially when they are geographically dispersed. Differences in use between education and practice largely relate to the importance clinicians place on patient information. Student use focuses on progress mapping and ready access to clinical reference material. Suggestions are made for future use in medical education.