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Sample records for extensively hydrodesulfurized middle

  1. Microbial Desulfurization of Alkylated Dibenzothiophenes from a Hydrodesulfurized Middle Distillate by Rhodococcus erythropolis I-19

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, B. R.; Schieche, D. R.; DiGrazia, P. M.; Werner, J.; Palmer, S.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis I-19, containing multiple copies of key dsz genes, was used to desulfurize alkylated dibenzothiophenes (Cx-DBTs) found in a hydrodesulfurized middle-distillate petroleum (MD 1850). Initial desulfurization rates of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and MD 1850 by I-19 were 5.0 and 2.5 μmol g dry cell weight−1 min−1, more than 25-fold higher than that for wild-type bacteria. According to sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis, thiophenic compounds accounted for >95% of the total sulfur found in MD 1850, predominantly Cx-DBTs and alkylated benzothiophenes. Extensive biodesulfurization resulted in a 67% reduction of total sulfur from 1,850 to 615 ppm S. XANES analysis of the 615-ppm material gave a sulfur distribution of 75% thiophenes, 11% sulfides, 2% sulfoxides, and 12% sulfones. I-19 preferentially desulfurized DBT and C1-DBTs, followed by the more highly alkylated Cx-DBTs. Shifting zero- to first-order (first-order) desulfurization rate kinetics were observed when MD 1850 was diluted with hexadecane. Apparent saturation rate constant (K0) and half-saturation rate constant (K1) values were calculated to be 2.8 μmol g dry cell weight−1 min−1 and 130 ppm, respectively. However, partial biocatalytic reduction of MD 1850 sulfur concentration followed by determination of initial rates with fresh biocatalyst led to a sigmoidal kinetic behavior. A competitive-substrate model suggested that the apparent K1 values for each group of Cx-DBTs increased with increasing alkylation. Overall desulfurization rate kinetics with I-19 were affected by the concentration and distribution of Cx-DBTs according to the number and/or lengths of alkyl groups attached to the basic ring structure. PMID:10543810

  2. Kinetics of dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.C.; Sobel, J.E. )

    1991-04-01

    Hydrotreating is a process in which organically bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds are removed from petroleum feedstocks to produce processible, stable, and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or lubes. Essentially two types of catalysts, which differ in composition, are in use in current refineries: one is sulfided CoO-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the other sulfided NiO-MoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The selection of these catalysts depends largely on the processing objectives and the nature of the feedstocks. Generally speaking, the NiMo catalysts are used for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA), while the CoMo catalysts are used for hydrodesulfurization (HDS). HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT) is a useful model reaction for HDS of commercial middle distillate feedstocks. In a previous study, Ho et al. quantified the interactions between HDN and HDA on a commercial NiMo catalyst by using a feed mixture containing 2,4-dimethyl pyridine and 2-methylnaphthalene. With the same catalyst, here we determine the kinetics of DBT HDS. Another reason for undertaking the present study is that relatively little attention has been paid to DBT HDS on NiMo catalysts. Most published DBT HDS studies have been done on CoMo catalysts.

  3. Hydrodesulfurization of chlorinized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of desulfurization is described in which high sulfur coals are desulfurized by low temperature chlorinolysis of coal in liquid media, preferably water, followed by hydrodesulfurization at a temperature above 500 C. The coals are desulfurized to an extent of up to 90% by weight and simultaneously dechlorinated to a chlorine content below 0.1% by weight. The product coals have lower volatiles loss, lower oxygen and nitrogen content and higher fixed carbon than raw coals treated with hydrogen under the same conditions. Heating the chlorinated coal to a temperature above 500 C. in inert gas such as nitrogen results in significantly less desulfurization.

  4. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  5. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  6. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1985-05-20

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  7. Hydrodesulfurization catalysis by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Kevin F.; Schrader, Glenn L.

    1985-12-24

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M.sub.x Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts. The most active catalysts were the "large" cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the "small" cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  8. On-line regeneration of hydrodesulfurization catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Preston, Jr., John L.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is regenerated as it concurrently hydrotreats a hydrocarbon fuel by introducing a low concentration of oxygen into the catalyst bed either continuously or periodically. At low oxygen concentrations the carbon deposits on the catalyst are burned off without harming the catalyst and without significantly affecting the hydrotreating process. In a preferred embodiment the hydrotreating process is hydrodesulfurization, and regenerating is done periodically with oxygen concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 volume percent.

  9. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  10. Catalyst deactivation model for residual oil hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Takatsuka, T.; Higasino, S.; Hirohama, S.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodesulfurization process plays a dominant role in the modern refineries to upgrade residual oil either by removing heterogeneous atoms or by hydrocracking the bottom to distillates products. The practical model is proposed to predict a catalyst life which is the most concern in the process. The catalyst is deactivated in the early stage of the operation by coke deposition on the catalyst active site. The ultimate catalyst life is determined by pore mouth plugging depending on its metal capacity. The phenomena are mathematically described by losses of catalyst surface area and effective diffusivity of feedstock molecules in catalyst pore. The model parameters were collected through the pilot plant tests with different types of catalysts and feedstocks.

  11. Extensions to the CIRA reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Chen, C.

    1993-01-01

    The recent ozone reference models generated for the new COSPAR CIRA include ozone vertical structure from 25 to 90 km as a function of month and latitude based on five satellite experiments. The new model provided here extends the ozone vertical structure climatology from 20 mb (about 25 km) to 70 mb (about 18 km) based on three years of recently reprocessed AEM-2 SAGE I (sunset) data. In addition, model refinements are made at altitudes above 25 km based on the reprocessed data. Comparisons are made between the ozone reference models and nonsatellite data sets. The model extensions to lower altitudes are in excellent agreement with in situ measurements both at mid latitudes and in the tropics. Annual mean models of ozone are also provided as a function of latitude from 100 mb (about 16 km) to 0.003 mb (about 90 km).

  12. Relation of peralkaline magmatism to heterogeneous extension during the Middle Miocene, southeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Volcanism migrated southward in the northern Basin and Range province in the Oligocene and early Miocene to produce voluminous calcalkaline silicic ash flow tuffs. Alkaline volcanism became dominant by middle Miocene (17-14 Ma) as smaller volumes of rhyolite-trachyte-basalt suites were erupted from the relatively small Kane Springs Wash caldera complex in southeastern Nevada. Only minor extension affected the Kane Wash area before the end of calcalkaline activity, but extension expressed by rate of progressive stratal tilt peaked (15-13.5 Ma) with peralkaline magmatism (14.7-14.4 Ma). Variations in distribution, degree, style, and timing of deformation demonstrate heterogeneous extension in the Kane Wash area. Only minor extension and tilting persisted post-middle Miocene (<12 Ma). All major eruptive sources overlap domains of rapid extension. -from Authors

  13. Extensive Periosteal Chondroma in the Middle Phalanx with Pathological Fracture Reconstructed with Strut Bone Grafting.

    PubMed

    Serigano, Kenji; Ikeda, Masayoshi; Mochida, Joji

    2015-01-01

    We report of a pathological fracture of the middle phalanx of the little finger due to periosteal chondroma. The periosteal chondroma occupied an extensive area of the middle phalanx extending to the proximal interphalangeal joint, and the fracture involved the distal interphalangeal articular surface. The fracture was internally fixed using a strut bone grafting after resection of the chondroma. One year and four months after the operation, remodeling of the phalanx had completed without recurrence and functional loss.

  14. An extensive middle to late Pleistocene tephrochronologic record from east-central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Britta J. L.; Froese, Duane G.; Preece, Shari J.; Westgate, John A.; Stachel, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Chester Bluff (CB), in Yukon Charley Rivers National Preserve (YCNP), Alaska, contains an extensive middle to late Pleistocene tephra record within thick loess deposited on a terrace. The regionally prominent Old Crow (OC) tephra (140±10 ka), GI tephra (560±80 ka) of Fairbanks, the Preido Hill (PrH) tephra of the Klondike, and VT tephra (77.8±4.1 ka) of both the Klondike and Fairbanks were found at CB. The presence of these tephra beds will aid in correlating disparate paleoenvironmental records across eastern Beringia. There are 15 new tephra beds; 11 from the Wrangell volcanic field (WVF) and/or Hayes volcano, one from the Aleutian-Arc Alaska Peninsula (AAAP) and three unclassified beds. CB is normally magnetized, indicating the entire sequence is of Bruhnes age (<780 ka). Also present are at least two interglacials, one late-Middle Pleistocene, the other early-Middle Pleistocene. At least five more organic horizons representing interstadials or interglacials are present. Collectively, sediments at CB span most of the middle to late Pleistocene (i.e. ˜780 to <77.8±4.1 ka). The bluffs represent the most extensive middle-to-late Pleistocene sedimentary record yet established for Yukon or Alaska.

  15. Reactivity and Characterization of Solid State Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, James Henry

    1990-01-01

    The identification of the phase responsible for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity has been the subject of extensive research. In this study, model solid state catalysts prepared from elemental starting materials were synthesized, characterized, and then used to desulfurize thiophene at temperatures ranging from 200-400 ^circC and a pressure of one atmosphere. The results of this work indicate that an increased HDS activity can be correlated with the presence of a poorly crystalline molybdenum sulfide-like phase detected by XRD, HREM, or AEM. The formation of this sulfur-deficient, non-stoichiometric phase could be accomplished by either removing sulfur directly from the catalyst synthesis mixture to yield a non-stoichiometric MoS_{ rm 2-x} moiety, or by introducing a transition metal promoter such as Fe, Co, Ni, or Cu into the system. The promoter atoms induced structural changes in the molybdenum sulfide edge planes by effectively scavenging sulfur during catalyst synthesis to form promoter sulfide species, which enhanced the formation of a non-stoichiometric, highly active molybdenum sulfide. This morphological effect was the primary function of the promoter in this system. All model catalysts displayed similar structure in the (0002) basal plane of MoS_2; however, only the catalytically active samples showed a high concentration of defects and disorder in the (1010), (1011), and (1012) edge planes. The HREM images obtained from these edge planes and their correlation with HDS activity dramatically illustrated the importance of the often-discussed edge plane structure of MoS_2 and its significance on HDS catalysis. Normalization of the HDS activities for the solid state models and a commercial catalyst with O_2 or CO chemisorption uptakes suggested that a similarity may exist between the catalytically active sites of these materials. In-situ XPS revealed that increasing promoter atom concentrations resulted in a more complete reduction of the promoter atom; but

  16. Studies of supported hydrodesulfurization catalysts. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hercules, D.M.

    1995-10-26

    This report describes a series of studies on the following: Mo/titania and Mo/alumina catalysts for thiophene hydrodesulfurization; absorption of metal oxyanion on alumina; particle size effects for Co/silica catalyst for CO hydrogenation; correlation of Mo oxidation states with benzene hydrogenation activity; factor analysis for curve fitting Mo ESCA spectra; and quantitative Raman and ESCA characterization of W/titania catalysts. 27 refs.

  17. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide; a survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-06-01

    Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this protypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydrodesulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties. 96 refs.

  18. Asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere, Mount Isa terrane, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, P. G.; Lister, G. S.; O'Dea, M. G.

    1998-11-01

    The Middle Proterozoic Mount Isa Basin, of the Mount Isa terrane, hosts several large Pb-Zn-Ag deposits and is arguably one of the richest mineral provinces in the world. The deformed remnants of this basin extend from the eastern margin of the Leichhardt River Fault Trough through to the Murphy Tectonic Ridge in the far north of the terrane. The Mount Isa Basin initially evolved in response to NW-SE-directed extension during the Mount Isa Rift Event. This event began before ˜1708 Ma and had ceased by ˜1653 Ma. A sag basin continued to evolve thereafter until ˜1595 Ma. Regional analysis of the highest level cover rocks of the Mount Isa Basin reveals a notable difference in the locus of syn-rift sedimentation, syn-rift magmatism, and post-rift subsidence. Although crustal extension was widespread across the Mount Isa Basin, tectonic subsidence was focussed along the ˜N-S-oriented Mount Isa Rift. Approximately 3-5 km of fluvial to shallow marine clastic sediments were deposited into isolated rift basins. Bimodal volcanism and emplacement of shallow level plutons occurred along the western and northwestern margins of the Mount Isa Rift. Magmatic provinces mark the locus of significant subcrustal lithospheric thinning, asthenospheric upwelling, and mafic underplating. Within these magmatic provinces the syn-rift sequences are fewer and thinner (750-2000 m) and were dominantly deposited in subaerial environments, suggesting a relatively stable uplift and subsidence history. The position of maximum subcrustal lithospheric extension is determined by the position of greatest post-rift subsidence. This occurred beneath the northern Mount Isa terrane where the thickest post-rift sequences are preserved and the depositional history is more protracted. We propose that the evolution of the Mount Isa Basin is a consequence of asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere.

  19. Middle Tertiary contractile deformation, uplift, extension, and rotation in the San Emigdio Range, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.A.; Carroll, A.R. ); Decelles, P.G. ); Goodman, E.D. )

    1990-05-01

    New data from the San Emigdio Range of southern California provide evidence of major tectonism during the middle Tertiary, including uplift of the adjacent Mojave region, disruption of marine basins, and rotation of the southern tail of the Sierra Nevada. The San Emigdio Range was the site of the southernmost marine deposition in the San Joaquin basin from the earliest through the middle Eocene, overlapping deeply eroded midcrustal granitic rocks. These marine rocks were associated with a northtrending, west-facing shoreline. To the north, the coast probably was embayed to the east as far as the Goler basin of southeastern California. This marine embayment was disrupted and the record of stratigraphic continuity between San Joaquin and Goler basins was destroyed as the result of uplift in the latest Eocene and Oligocene. Conglomerates of the uppermost Eocene and Oligocene nonmarine Tecuya Formation of the San Emigdios comprise an unroofing sequence whose provenance suggests marked uplift and erosion of the Mojave region. Geohistory analysis of the coeval marine Pleito Fm. suggests that the uplift and unroofing was related to contractile deformation. By about 22 Ma, extension replaced contractile deformation in the San Emigdios, as indicated by normal faulting and basaltic volcanism and synchronous extension reported for the adjacent Mojave region. The authors paleomagnetic data from five sites from Tecuya Creek to Pleito Creek reveal that basalts are rotated 44{degree} (clockwise). This rotation occurred prior to 16 Ma and, perhaps between 18-20 Ma, if comparison with the Mojave region is valid. This episode of rotation accounts for most or all of the southwesterly trend of the southern tail of Sierra Nevada basement rocks.

  20. Mechanistic study of the hydrodesulfurization of methanethiol over tungsten disulfide. II. A survey of rare earth sulfides for hydrodesulfurization activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, D.Q.

    1985-01-01

    I. Hydrodesulfurization is a process whereby sulfur bound in organic compounds is removed as hydrogen sulfide, and is important to the control of sulfur dioxide emissions in the combustion of petroleum and coal fuels. It involves the cleavage of carbon sulfur bonds, and is catalyzed by layered disulfides such as molybdenum and tungsten disulfide. The simplest example is the reaction CH/sub 3/SH + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/S. The mechanism of even this prototypical reaction is unclear. In an effort to clarify it, the kinetics of methanethiol hydro desulfurization over tungsten disulfide at low pressures was established, with partial pressures of methanethiol and hydrogen varied over a hundred fold. The kinetic order in each reactant was positive when its partial pressure was low, negative when its partial pressure was high. The negative order in hydrogen had not been previously seen. The product gases, methane and hydrogen sulfide, each exhibited negative kinetic orders at high partial pressures, zero kinetic orders at low partial pressures. A dual site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type mechanism, which defines one active site as two adjacent edge sulfur vacancies and the second as a neighboring sulfur atom, describes these results quite well. II. Seventeen rare earth sulfides were surveyed for catalytic activity toward methanethiol hydrodesulfurization. These sulfides included both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric compositions and four different morphologies. In general, nonconductors were inactive and conductors were active. This correlation extended to the nonstoichiometric ..gamma..-phase sesquisulfides which exhibit both insulating and conducting properties.

  1. Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma involving the anterior and middle skull base with intradural extension.

    PubMed

    Guthikonda, Bharat; Hanna, Ehab Y; Skoracki, Roman J; Prabhu, Sujit S

    2009-11-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is a malignant odontogenic tumor that rarely affects the skull base and surrounding regions. We present a case of a 48-year-old man with histologically confirmed malignant transformation of a benign ameloblastic fibroma 10 years after initial presentation of a localized facial mass. The ameloblastic fibrosarcoma extended from the facial region to the orbit, anterior and middle fossa skull base, the infratemporal fossa, and the cavernous sinus. Progressive proptosis with complete monocular vision loss was the presenting symptom. To our review, our case represents the first report of intradural extension of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. Using a multidisciplinary skull base approach, resection of all tumors except that in the cavernous sinus was achieved with the resulting defect reconstructed with an anterolateral thigh free flap. The patient had no new neurologic deficits after surgery and underwent adjuvant fractionated radiation therapy. Malignant transformation of ameloblastic fibroma into ameloblastic fibrosarcoma can occur many years after initial presentation. Thus, vigilant long-term follow-up is essential despite the benign nature of the initial pathologic lesion. Use of a multidisciplinary approach is critical in obtaining the optimal outcome in these complex cases.

  2. Impact response of a Timoshenko-type viscoelastic beam considering the extension of its middle surface.

    PubMed

    Rossikhin, Yury A; Shitikova, Marina V; Meza, Maria Guadalupe Estrada

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the problem of low-velocity impact of an elastic sphere against a viscoelastic Timoshenko-type beam is studied considering the extension of its middle surface. The viscoelastic features of the beam out of the contact domain are governed by the standard linear solid model with derivatives of integer order, while within the contact domain the fractional derivative standard linear solid model is utilized, in so doing rheological constants of the material in both models are the same. However the presence of the additional parameter, i.e. fractional parameter which could vary from zero to unit, allows one to vary beam's viscosity, since the structure of the beam's material within this zone may be damaged, resulting in the decrease of the beam material viscosity in the contact zone. Consideration for transient waves (surfaces of strong discontinuity) propagating in the target out of the contact zone via the theory of discontinuities and determination of the desired values behind the surfaces of discontinuities upto the contact domain with the help of ray series, as well as the utilization of the Hertz theory in the contact zone allow one to obtain a set of two integro-differential equations, which govern the desired values, namely: the local bearing of the target and impactor's materials and the displacement of the beam within the contact domain.

  3. Texture of Mo-containing hydrodesulfurization catalysts on different supports

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopol'skaya, S.M.; Lur'e, M.A.; Kurets, I.Z.; Rak, V.S.; Belyaeva, V.A.; Shmidt, F.K.

    1988-10-01

    The thermal desorption of nitrogen was used to investigate the texture of molybdenum-containing hydrodesulfurization catalysts, synthesized on the basis of ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and a genetic mixture of mountain cork (palygorskite) and montmorillonite. Their activity in the hydrogenolysis of thiophene has been determined. It has been shown that in the preparation of the oxide or sulfide forms the texture of the contact, containing the natural support, changes more strongly than that based on aluminum oxide. Elimination of the oxidizing calcination stage produces sulfide forms of the catalysts with a larger specific surface, porosity, and higher catalytic activity. A stronger effect is obtained on the natural support.

  4. Concerted mechanism of thiophene hydrogenolysis on sulfide hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, A.N.

    1995-07-01

    New arguments are presented confirming the earlier proposed hypothesis of the possible concerted mechanism of the C-S bond hydrogenolysis on sulfide bimetallic catalysts of hydrodesulfurization, a process of importance to fossil fuels upgrading. The notions developed are based on the concept of the unified nature of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysis. The following peculiarities characterize the mechanism proposed: (1) the reaction takes place in the coordination sphere of the bimetallic active site that enters the composition of the electroneutral molecule of an active component, and the anionic vacancies of sulfide catalysts do not contribute in catalysis; and (2) chemisorption and activation of a sulfur-containing molecule occur on Ni (or Co) atoms, whereas dissociative H{sub 2} chemisorption takes place on terminal sulfur atoms bounding the structure of the bimetallic active component. The possible mechanism of electron and proton transfer during the catalytic process is discussed.

  5. An Extensive Middle to Late Pleistocene Distal Tephra Record From East Central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Froese, D. G.; Preece, S. J.; Westgate, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    Large regions of Yukon Territory and Alaska remained ice-free through glaciations of the late Cenozoic. This ice-free region hosts sedimentary archives that span the last 3 million years. Most of these records are preserved in windblown silt (loess) that has aggraded over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles and contain abundant distal volcanic ash (tephra) beds. Chester Bluff, on the Yukon River in Yukon Charley Rivers National Preserve, exposes a 10 m bedrock terrace overlain by fluvial gravels and outburst flood deposits. This sequence is mantled by loess up to 40 m thick and includes approximately 20 distinct tephra beds, almost exclusively with Type II characteristics, indicating a Wrangell Volcanic Field (WVF) source. Two Type I beds (Aleutian Arc source) that are present at Chester Bluff, the Old Crow tephra (140 000 +/- 10 000) and GI tephra (560 000 +/- 80 000), provide age control on the sequence. The loess at Chester Bluff is normally magnetized, indicating a Brunhes age (<780,000 yrs), and the uppermost paleosol has a finite radiocarbon age of 47 300 +/- 1500. These chronologic constraints suggest Chester Bluff contains an extensive mid to (probably) late Pleistocene record spanning from approximately 50 000 years to about 700 000 years. Initial geochemical and stratigraphic results suggest that the WVF was particularly active during the middle Pleistocene. These eruptions were comparable or larger than the White River eruption from Mt. Bona-Churchill, indicating an eruption volume of at least 5 km3. The distal tephra record indicates a much greater frequency of large magnitude eruptions from the WVF than the proximal record would suggest.

  6. Rapid middle Miocene extension and unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Howard, Keith A.; Fleck, Robert J.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Paleozoic rocks in the northern Ruby Mountains were metamorphosed during Mesozoic crustal shortening and Cenozoic magmatism, but equivalent strata in the southern Ruby Mountains were never buried deeper than stratigraphic depths prior to exhumation in the footwall of a west dipping brittle normal fault. In the southern Ruby Mountains, Miocene sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of this fault date from 15.2 to 11.6 Ma and contain abundant detritus from the Paleozoic section. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He samples of the Eocene Harrison Pass pluton record rapid cooling that peaked ca. 17–15 Ma, while apatite fission track data from Jurassic plutons east and west of the southern Ruby Mountains indicate near-surface temperatures (<60°C) since the Cretaceous. We interpret these data to record rapid unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains during slip on the west dipping brittle detachment between 17–16 and 10–12 Ma, followed by minor high-angle faulting. We interpret published Oligocene to early Miocene K-Ar biotite and zircon fission track dates from the Harrison Pass pluton to be partially reset rather than to directly record fault slip. Our new data, together with published data on the distribution and composition of Miocene basin fill, suggest that rapid middle Miocene slip took place on the west dipping brittle detachment that bounds the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range for 150 km along strike. This fault was thus active during a period of rapid extension (ca. 17–15 to 12–10 Ma) documented widely across the northern Basin and Range Province.

  7. Plate interactions control middle late Miocene, proto-Gulf and Basin and Range extension in the southern Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Christopher D.; Aranda-Gomez, J. Jorge

    2000-03-01

    Middle-late Miocene (proto-Gulf; ˜12-6 Ma) extension around the Gulf of California (Gulf Extensional Province) is commonly interpreted as resulting from partitioning of oblique Pacific-North American plate motion into strike-slip displacement along the margin and east-northeast extension perpendicular to the margin within the North American plate. We propose that this mechanism also applies to kinematically similar, predominantly east-northeast extension that occurred at the same time throughout the southern Basin and Range province, from southern Arizona and New Mexico to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. New field and 40Ar/ 39Ar data in Sinaloa and Durango confirm that this episode of extension occurred on the mainland side of the Gulf and in the Basin and Range east of the Sierra Madre Occidental, which is generally considered the eastern margin of the Gulf Extensional Province. Published data indicate the middle-late Miocene episode also occurred across the northern and southern ends of the Sierra Madre where the Gulf Extensional Province connects with the Basin and Range: (1) from central Sonora into southern Arizona and New Mexico, and (2) from Nayarit into central Mexico north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This episode appears to have affected an area that continues to the eastern edge of the Basin and Range province in Texas and San Luis Potosi. Recognition that this episode of extension affected the entire southern Basin and Range resolves the discrepancy between the amount of extension calculated based on plate reconstructions and that based on field data within the Gulf Extensional Province alone. Published plate reconstructions require 160 to 110 km of east-northeast extension between ˜12 and 6 Ma. If taken up solely within the Gulf Extensional Province, this would have generated 66 to 78% extension, which is much greater than observed. Spread across the entire southern Basin and Range it requires only ˜20% total extension, which is more

  8. Kinematics of faulting in Mine Mountain area of southern Nevada: Evidence for pre-middle Miocene extension

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Cole, J.C. )

    1993-04-01

    Structural analysis has revealed widespread extension associated with discontinuous fault segments previously considered to represent a Mesozoic thrust in the Mine Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, of southern Nevada. Complex fault and stratigraphic relations characterize allochthonous Ordovician to Devonian dolomite and local quartzite that are in fault contact above less deformed (but anticlinally arched) Mississippian siltstone in this area. Although initial juxtaposition of the older and younger rocks probably occurred during Mesozoic thrusting, most of 714 small faults examined at 25 sites within the upper plate reflect later extension. Normal faults that chiefly accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are earliest and widespread in the upper plate. These faults are concentrated above the basal fault surface and have dominantly top-to-the-southwest slip, except on the east-dipping flank of the keel where top-to-the-northeast slip is indicated. These relations suggest that the upper plate was extended mostly in place after or, permissibly, during development of the lower plate anticline. Faults that accommodated S.55[degree] W.-directed extension are unconformably overlain by middle Miocene volcanic rocks; younger faults that accommodated northwest-directed extension are also interpreted to predate middle Miocene volcanism, although a depositional onlap relation is not preserved. Deformation at Mine Mountain may have been coeval with Oligocene to early Miocene extension that is well known in areas farther north and south in the Basin and Range province but poorly documented in southern Nevada. The authors cannot preclude, however, that extension might have occurred within upper structural levels of the Mesozoic Sevier hinterland.

  9. A new approach to synthesize supported ruthenium phosphides for hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qingfang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yin, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Linxi; Zhang, Minghui

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We bring out a new method to synthesize noble metal phosphides at low temperature. • Both RuP and Ru{sub 2}P were synthesized using triphenylphosphine as phosphorus sources. • Ru{sub 2}P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. • RuP/SiO{sub 2} prepared by new method had better HDS activity to that by TPR method. - Abstract: Supported noble metal ruthenium phosphides were synthesized by one-step H{sub 2}-thermal treatment method using triphenylphosphine (TPP) as phosphorus sources at low temperatures. Two phosphides RuP and Ru{sub 2}P can be prepared by this method via varying the molar ratio of metal salt and TPP. The as-prepared phosphides were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), low-temperature N{sub 2} adsorption, CO chemisorption and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The supported ruthenium phosphides prepared by new method and conventional method together with contradistinctive metallic ruthenium were evaluated in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The catalytic results showed that metal-rich Ru{sub 2}P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. Besides this, ruthenium phosphide catalyst prepared by new method exhibited superior HDS activity to that prepared by conventional method.

  10. Sink effect in activated carbon-supported hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, J.; Labady, M.; Severino, F.; Yunes, S.

    1997-03-01

    A synergistic effect has been proposed in previous papers, attempting to explain the higher activity of activated carbon-supported hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts with respect to conventional alumina-supported catalysts, reported earlier. However, activated carbon characteristics can be strongly affected by the raw material and the method of activation. Thus, previous work using Ni-Mo catalysts supported on two different activated carbons (one prepared by {open_quotes}physical{close_quotes} and the other by {open_quotes}chemical{close_quotes} activation) showed different optimal Ni concentrations for higher HDS activity, such difference being attributed to the predominance of Topsoe`s Type I {open_quotes}NiMoS{close_quotes} phase in one carbon and the predominance of Type II in the other. Due to the lack of proper characterization of the activated carbon supported catalysts of the previous work, this paper presents further data suggesting that microporosity provided by the activated carbon may be the responsible for the above referred synergism. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of phase separator number in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanti, A. D.; Indarto, A.

    2016-11-01

    The removal process of acid gases such as H2S in natural gas processing industry is required in order to meet sales gas specification. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS)is one of the processes in the refinery that is dedicated to reduce sulphur.InHDS unit, phase separator plays important role to remove H2S from hydrocarbons, operated at a certain pressure and temperature. Optimization of the number of separator performed on the system is then evaluated to understand the performance and economics. From the evaluation, it shows that all systems were able to meet the specifications of H2S in the desired product. However, one separator system resulted the highest capital and operational costs. The process of H2S removal with two separator systems showed the best performance in terms of both energy efficiency with the lowest capital and operating cost. The two separator system is then recommended as a reference in the HDS unit to process the removal of H2S from natural gas.

  12. Early to Middle Miocene cooling ages on Kea and Kythnos: timing constraints on crustal extension in the western Cyclades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. A.; Stockli, D.; Grasemann, B.; Iglseder, Ch.; Rice, A. H. N.; Heizler, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Cyclades are known for their extensional tectonics and recently recognized as having significant bivergence with top-to-NNE and top-to-SSW kinematics. Crustal extension and exhumation of the Attic-Cycladic massif, and in some instances metamorphic core complex formation are the result of back arc extension in the wake of Hellenic subduction retreat. Of the western islands, Kea and Kythnos have remained relatively little investigated even given their critical juncture between mainland Attica and the other Cyclades. Mapping by Team ACCEL indicates the islands are dominated by highly-strained middle greenschist facies Chl-Ep schists, calc-silicates and marbles, folded into open structural domes. Characterizing the tectonostratigraphy is a dominant, meter to decameter thick layer of ultramylonitic marble which is preserved in klippen scattered along the edges of the domes. The most recent brittle deformation is recorded as a number of low-angle normal faults which truncate the domal structure; both these brittle and other ductile (e.g. boudinage) kinematics indicate a consistent SW-directed stretching direction. No unequivocal hanging wall rocks have been identified and neither dome contains evidence of Alpine or younger magmatism. Ar-Ar thermochronometry performed on white mica from various lithologies at different structural levels on Kea yield consistent Early to Middle Miocene (21 Ma to 13 Ma) cooling ages. (U-Th)/He apatite cooling ages are between 14 Ma and 7.5 Ma. Although poorly defined, the older cooling ages are in the middle of the dome and along the geomorphic 'spine' which defines the dome's long axis. White mica from Kythnos yield poor age spectra with integrated ages between 22 Ma and 17 Ma, likely indicating mixed mineral populations were analyzed. The (U-Th)/He apatite cooling ages from this dome are all consistently Middle Miocene, with no evident spatial pattern. We interpret the Early to Middle Miocene cooling ages of the Kea and Kythnos

  13. Experimental study of the combined calcination and hydrodesulfurization of high-sulfur green petroleum coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Saliha Meltem

    The primary production of aluminum is done by means of the Hall-Heroult process where large amounts of carbon anodes are required and consumed. The quality of carbon anodes used in electrolysis is one of the most important parameters affecting the production of primary aluminum. The anode quality widely depends on the raw materials, one of which is the petroleum coke. Green petroleum coke is produced from the heavy residual fractions of petroleum. Petroleum cokes produced from sour crude oil sources contain high quantity of sulfur. A certain level of sulfur is needed to reduce the anode reactivities; however, the demand for anode-grade coke with acceptable sulfur content is increasing faster than the available supply. High sulfur levels in carbon anodes would have an adverse effect on environment; hence, the desulfurization of high sulfur green petroleum cokes is necessary. There are different ways of desulfurizing green petroleum cokes: solvent extraction, thermal desulfurization, and hydrodesulfurization. Coke produced by solvent extraction is prone to contamination. The thermal approach requires greater energy consumption and causes an increase in coke porosity. The global objective of this master project is to find an alternative solution for desulfurization that will produce quality calcined coke with minimum impact on environment. Hydrodesulfurization seems to be a viable option and was investigated in this study. Water was used for the hydrodesulfurization of commercially available high sulfur green petroleum coke. Different experimental systems were tried during the hydrodesulfurization experiments. A systematic approach was used to investigate the influence of hydrodesulfurization parameters including water injection temperature, duration, and water flow rate as well as coke particle size on the hydrodesulfurization of green petroleum coke. In addition to hydrodesulfurization, a number of thermal desulfurization experiments were carried out with the same

  14. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. Methods. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Results. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women’s network advantages over men and college graduates’ network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in “talk” support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. Discussion. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. PMID:24898029

  15. Paleomagnetism of the Oligocene Kalamazoo Tuff: implications for middle Tertiary extension in east central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Gans, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Oligocene Kalamazoo Tuff (???35 Ma) was sampled for paleomagnetic analysis across a 100-km-wide zone of highly extended crust in east central Nevada to estimate between-site vertical axis rotations and thus the relative importance of strike-slip faulting to the mechanism of extension. The tilt-corrected data, with sources of error reduced or eliminated, exhibit a 28?? ?? 12?? clockwise rotation of the Schell Creek Range relative to the Kern Mountains region. This rotation implies differential extension accommodated by strike-slip faulting or N-S shortening. The paleomagnetic results also suggest that large changes in strike of layered units near faults with presumed strike-slip movement need not be the result of oroclinal bending, but could result from superimposed sets of orthogonal normal faults. -from Authors

  16. Did Flow of Weak Middle or Lower Crust Accommodate Extension in the Gulf of California and Salton Trough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, N.; Axen, G. J.; Lizarralde, D.; Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Umhoeffer, P. J.; Fletcher, J. M.; Gonález-Fernández, A.

    2003-12-01

    The strength of middle and/or lower crust (MLC) is key to understanding continental deformation and controls whether or not brittle upper crust and mantle lithosphere are coupled: weak MLC may flow and decouple the adjacent layers. We analyze the extent of MLC flow during rifting in the northern Gulf of California and Salton Trough (NGC/ST; in the NSF MARGINS Rupturing of Continental Lithosphere focus site) using area-balance techniques to compare upper crustal extension and MLC extension. Mid-Tertiary extension in SE CA, W AZ and W mainland Mexico thinned the crust before ˜E-W extension localized in the GC/ST at ˜12 Ma. By ˜6 Ma, NW-SE Pacific-N. American plate separation was concentrated in the NGC/ST, which began to subside below sea level. By ˜3.6 Ma, transform faults connected pull apart basins forming ocean crust (S gulf) and proto-oceanic crust in the NGC/ST. The Peninsular Ranges west of the NGC/ST were not extended at the surface. MLC flow into the NGC/ST is suggested by (1) the fact that the Moho dips W under the unextended Peninsular Ranges (W of the rift) to a maximum depth well W of the range crest (Lewis et. al., 2000, 2001), (2) by an apparent surplus of MLC relative to upper crust within the rift (e.g., Couch et al., 1991), and (3) by the magnitude of extension ( ˜255 km) between initially adjacent areas on either side of the NGC/ST (Oskin et al., 2001). We constrain the extent of MLC flow two ways: by comparing known upper crustal extension (e.g., Lewis and Stock, 1998; Axen and Fletcher, 1998) to (1) whole-crustal and (2) lower-crustal extension. Whole and lower crustal extension are obtained from cross-sectional areas constrained by depth to Moho and/or to the base of the upper crust (references above), by the extent of new proto-oceanic crust (e.g., Fuis et.al., 1984), and by assuming end-member initial crustal thicknesses (e.g., ˜37-40 km maximum thickness of the Peninsular Ranges or ˜25 km minimum from previously extended crust east of

  17. The Tuff of San Felipe: an extensive middle Miocene pyroclastic flow deposit in Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Joann M.; Lewis, Claudia J.; Nagy, Elizabeth A.

    1999-11-01

    We document the existence of a widespread Miocene ash-flow tuff sheet in northeastern Baja California, Mexico. The Tuff of San Felipe (new name) was erupted from a vent east of the Sierra San Felipe of NE Baja California at ca. 12.6 Ma. This is the only widespread middle Miocene pyroclastic flow deposit identified in northeastern Baja California. Its distinctive age and widespread distribution make it an important marker horizon for structural reconstruction of this part of the Gulf Extensional Province, which is on the Pacific plate. The vent position, near the modern Gulf of California coast, allows the possibility that exposures of the Tuff of San Felipe may be preserved east of the Gulf on the North America plate in Sonora, yielding a tie point for the past relative position of the two plates. This paper summarizes all known information including petrography, geochemistry, geochronology, paleomagnetics, geographic distribution, and field appearance of this important tuff. It is a densely welded, crystal-rich, lithic-lapilli pyroclastic flow deposit, with 5-15% alkali feldspar, and can be 180 m thick in some locations near the vent. The Tuff of San Felipe is >40 m thick up to 40 km SW of the vent and >10 m thick at least 25 km NNW of the vent. A minimum volume estimate for the deposit is 54 km 3. Some recent 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations suggest that the tuff is about 12.6 Ma in age. In all locations studied, the Tuff of San Felipe has a unique, low-inclination, reversed magnetization, which may record a field transition or a geomagnetic excursion within reversed polarity subchron C5Ar.2r (12.401 to 12.678 Ma). This low-inclination magnetization, as well as the mineralogy and age, is key to correlating the tuff across the region, because deposits are highly disrupted by subsequent normal faulting and outcrops are sparse and discontinuous away from the vent. The documentation of these characteristics is important because the Tuff of San Felipe is a key structural

  18. Temporal correlation between dyke swarms and crustal extension in the middle Palaeozoic Vilyui rift basin, Siberian platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyansky, Oleg P.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Koroleva, Olga V.; Tomshin, Mikhail D.; Reverdatto, Vladimir V.; Selyatitsky, Alexander Yu.; Travin, Alexei V.; Vasiliev, Dmitry A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents results from new 40Ar/39Ar isotope dating of nine mafic dykes from three large dyke swarms (Vilyui-Markha, Kontai-Dzherba, and Chara-Sinsk) of the Yakutsk-Vilyui large igneous province (LIP), in addition to a reconstruction of the subsidence history of the middle Palaeozoic Vilyui paleorift basin (eastern Siberian platform). All previously published 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dates are summarized. Statistical analysis of the dyke ages reveals repeated magmatic events in the study area. Two major pulses of mafic magmatism are identified: one at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, with a main peak at ca. 374.1 Ma, and another in the latest Devonian with a peak at ca. 363.4 Ma. The time of maximum intensity of dyke intrusion coincides (within uncertainty) with rapid subsidence in the Vilyui basin. The minimum total volume of middle Palaeozoic magmatism produced in the Yakutsk-Vilyui LIP is 100-215 K km3, which is much less than earlier estimates. Most of the mafic material within the Yakutsk-Vilyui LIP is related to the Vilyui basin and associated dyke swarms. Backstripping analysis of sedimentation in depressions of the Vilyui basin was carried out. Estimates were obtained for the spatial distribution of the stretching factor of the crust and mantle lithosphere, averaging 1.17 and 1.44, respectively. The amount of extension due to dyke intrusion is estimated to be 6%. Backstripping analysis of sedimentation in the Vilyui basin was used to assess the effect of both intraplate far-field forces and upwelling magma flows initiated by a mantle plume. A numerical thermomechanical model was developed to investigate the relations between two possible mechanisms by which the Vilyui rift was initiated: intraplate extension (passive rifting) and the ascent of a mantle magmatic diapir (active rifting). A model considering both of these mechanisms shows the contribution of the far-field extension forces and the effect of convective flows around the mantle plume, assuming

  19. The synergistic participation of the support in sulfided Ni-Mo/C hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, J.; Severino, F.; Labady, M.; Gallardo, J. )

    1992-11-01

    Carbon-supported Ni-Mo hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts were studied and compared with previously reported results obtained from alumina supports. In contrast to the latter, the nonimpregnated carbon itself behaved as an HDS catalyst. It is suggested that the carbon support functions synergistically in a sulfided state in conjunction with Mo and Ni, so that both Mo and carbon act as sulfur sinks promoting the exposure of active Ni centers. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A new perspective on Tertiary basin evolution in northeastern Tibet:Evidence for crustal extension during the middle Tertiary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Kirby, E.; Zhang, P.

    2011-12-01

    -Early Miocene. Extension was followed by continued sediment accumulation over a broad region during the middle Miocene; sedimentary facies represent low-energy (lacustrine) environments. Miocene deposits onlap footwall ranges suggesting a cessation of faulting during this time. Reactivation of fault systems during active sinistral transpression along the Haiyuan fault initiated at ca.10 Ma and was marked by the appearance of locally-derived, coarse detritus (Wang et al., 2011). The association of initial basin subsidence in the Oligocene with normal faulting along basin-bounding faults implies a local kinematic regime characterized by N-NE directed extension. Similarities with kinematics of Tertiary deformation in the Ordos region (Zhang et al., 1999) and along the West Qinling orogen (Ratschbacher et al., 2003) imply that this event was regional in scale and affected a broad region of north China. We suggest that the onset of Tertiary sedimentation in the Longxi basin did not develop in the foreland of a nascent Tibetan Plateau, but rather is more likely tied to extensional/transtensional deformation, perhaps associated with the opening of east Asian marginal basins.

  1. SBA-15 Mesoporous Silica as Catalytic Support for Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts—Review

    PubMed Central

    Huirache-Acuña, Rafael; Nava, Rufino; Peza-Ledesma, Carmen L.; Lara-Romero, Javier; Alonso-Núñez, Gabriel; Pawelec, Barbara; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    SBA-15 is an interesting mesoporous silica material having highly ordered nanopores and a large surface area, which is widely employed as catalyst supports, absorbents, drug delivery materials, etc. Since it has a lack of functionality, heteroatoms and organic functional groups have been incorporated by direct or post-synthesis methods in order to modify their functionality. The aim of this article is to review the state-of-the-art related to the use of SBA-15-based mesoporous systems as supports for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts. PMID:28788323

  2. Hydrodesulfurization of Qaiyarah 80-205 sup 0 C naphtha fraction of alumina supported Co-Mo-oxides; Part 2: Using stopped flow gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, L.H.; Sulaiman, S.T.; AlTamer, M.Y. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors report the effective desulfurization of Qaiyarah 80-205{sup 0}C, naphtha fraction on alumina supported Co-Mo oxides, assembled in a GC column using H{sub 2} as a carrier gas and the stopped-flow technique. Over 90% of sulfur was removed from this partially cracked naphtha and a similar result (Ca 90%) was obtained when hydrodesulfurizing an acid-base treated naphtha. /sup 1/H nmr studies on the chromatographically separated hydrodesulfurized fractions revealed interesting structural parameters which leads to suggestions related to the occurrence of a reforming reaction and the liberation of fresh H{sub 2} gases which further promotes hydrodesulfurization.

  3. Mesoporous materials derived from synthetic organo-clays as novel hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Marshall, C.L.; Brenner, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Various pore size distributions are found for synthetic organo-clay complexes from which the organic portion has been removed via calcination. The clays are prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice. The organic serves to impart long-range structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. Mesoporous materials are prepared from a host of organic modifiers. For example, pore diameters of 40-50{Angstrom} result from tetraethyl ammonium and celluloses, and polydimethyl diallyl ammonium imparts diameters of about 110{Angstrom} on average. These materials have begun to be explored as hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysts for the mesoporous materials when a model oil feed is used (1% dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). The target application is HDS of an actual heavy crude oil from California.

  4. Thiphene hydrodesulfurization over rhenium surfaces: The effects of structure and adsorbates (C and S)

    SciTech Connect

    Bussell, M.E.; Somorjai, G.A. )

    1989-03-09

    Thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) has been investigated over rhenium single crystals and polycrystalline foils and was found to be a structure-sensitive reaction over these surfaces. Rhenium single crystals are 1-6 times more active than molybdenum single crystals, which is in agreement with previous studies using rhenium disulfide and molybdenum disulfide catalysts. Adsorbed carbon and sulfur overlayers decrease the activity of the rhenium single crystals, suggesting that the catalyst surface remain free of strongly bound deposits of carbon and/or sulfur. The trend in HDS activity measured for the Re catalyst can be explained by considering the difference in coordination of the top layer rhenium atoms in the single-crystal surfaces.

  5. Thiophene hydrodesulfurization over transition metal surfaces: structure insensitive over molybdenum and structure sensitive over rhenium

    SciTech Connect

    Bussell, M.E.; Gellman, A.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1988-04-01

    In this note the authors present results of thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) experiments over molybdenum and rhenium single crystals. Previous work in their laboratory showed that a Mo(100) single crystal catalyzes thiophene HDS and that the product distribution is similar to the distribution obtained over an unsupported molybdenum disulfide (MoS/sub 2/) catalyst. The similarity of these results suggests that by determining the effects of surface structure and adsorbate overlayers (C, S) on thiophene HDS over molybdenum single crystals, one can gain insight about the nature of the active sites on MoS/sub 2/-based catalysts. This led the authors to expand studies to molybdenum single crystals of different surface orientations. They have also begun to investigate thiophene HDS over rhenium single crystals; rhenium disulfide (ReS/sub 2/) has been shown to be a more active HDS catalyst than MoS/sub 2/.

  6. Prolonged high relief in the northern Cordilleran orogenic front during middle and late Eocene extension based on stable isotope paleoaltimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Majie; Constenius, Kurt N.; Dettman, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The paleoelevation and size of the North America Cordilleran orogen during the late Cretaceous-Paleogene contractional and subsequent extensional tectonics remain enigmatic. We present new estimates of paleorelief of the northern Cordilleran orogenic front during the middle and late Eocene using oxygen isotope compositions of unaltered molluscan fossils and paleosol carbonates in the Kishenehn basin. Bounded by several mountains ranges to the east, the Kishenehn basin was a half graben developed during middle Eocene to early Miocene collapse of the Cordilleran orogen. These mollusk taxa include three sympatric groups with affinities to wet tropical, semi-arid subtropical, and temperate environments. Our reconstructed surface water δ18O values vary between -19.8‰ and -6.3‰ (VSMOW) during the middle and late Eocene. The large differences in paleoenvironments and surface water δ18O values suggest that the catchment of the Kishenehn basin was at variable elevation. The estimated paleorelief between the basin and the surrounding mountains, based on both Rayleigh condensation model and predictions of Eocene precipitation isotope values using an isotope-enabled global climate model, is ∼4 km, and the basin floor was <1.5 km high. This high topography and high relief paleogeography suggest that the Cordilleran orogenic front reached an elevation of at least 4 km, and the crust thickness may have reached more than 55 km before Eocene gravitational collapse. We attribute the maintenance of high Eocene topography to the combination of an inherited thick crust, thermal uplift caused by mantle upwelling, and isostatic uplift caused by removing lower lithosphere or oceanic slab.

  7. Sulfur-33 Isotope Tracing of the Hydrodesulfurization Process: Insights into the Reaction Mechanism, Catalyst Characterization and Improvement.

    PubMed

    Sushkevich, Vitaly L; Popov, Andrey G; Ivanova, Irina I

    2017-08-28

    The novel approach based on (33) S isotope tracing is proposed for the elucidation of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanisms and characterization of molybdenum sulfide catalysts. The technique involves sulfidation of the catalyst with (33) S-isotope-labeled dihydrogen sulfide, followed by monitoring the fate of the (33) S isotope in the course of the hydrodesulfurization reaction by online mass spectrometry and characterization of the catalyst after the reaction by temperature-programmed oxidation with mass spectrometry (TPO-MS). The results point to different pathways of thiophene transformation over Co or Ni-promoted and unpromoted molybdenum sulfide catalysts, provide information on the role of promoter and give a key for the design of new efficient HDS catalysts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Conflicting tectonics? Contraction and extension at middle and upper crustal levels along the Cordilleran Late Jurassic arc, southeastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Mark J.; Farber, Daniel L.; Wooden, Joe L.; Anderson, J. Lawford

    1994-01-01

    Effects of mid-Mesozoic contraction followed closely in time by extension are present in mid- to upper-crustal plutonic rocks in the Chuckwalla Mountains of the eastern Transverse Ranges, California. Late Jurassic movement along a steeply dipping, right-lateral mylonitic shear zone is bracketed between 159 and 147 Ma via U-Pb dated plutons. Depth of emplacement vs. time data based on hornblende geobarometry and U-Pb geochronology of Mesozoic plutons indicate that a period of dramatic uplift affected the Chuckwalla Mountains during the Late Jurassic, contrasting sharply with data from the (then) nearby San Gabriel Mountains. Subsequent latest Jurassic extensional tectonics is suggested by alkalic plutonism, nearly synchronous intrusion of the Late Jurassic Independence dike swarm, and possibly by deposition of the McCoy Mountains Formation. We conclude that both contraction and extension were significant at upper- and mid-crustal depths in the Chuckwalla Mountains region during the Late Jurassic, and speculate that the combined influence of oblique convergence and the opening of the Gulf of Mexico may have caused the contrasting and nearly contemporaneous tectonic modes.

  9. The role of inherited rifted lithospheric structure on middle Cretaceous orogeny and Tertiary-present extension, North American Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikoff, Basil; Kelso, Paul; Fayon, Annia; Gaschnig, Richard; Vervoort, Jeff; Stetson-Lee, Tor; Byerly, Ad

    2017-04-01

    While the Eastern North American margin exhibits evidence of the rifted margin on subsequent deformation, this record is more obscure along the western Cordilleran margin. We recently conducted paleomagnetic and geochronologic analyses along the abrupt, boundary between cratonic North American and accreted terranes in Idaho. In this location, the abrupt boundary is designated by geochemical gradients (Sr, Nd, O) that are spatially coincident with major, regional-scale (western Idaho, Ahsahka) shear zones. The boundary is oriented NS in central-southern Idaho, and then abruptly changes 90° near Orofino, ID, to become EW oriented. Recent paleomagnetic data indicates that 30° clockwise rotation of the entire margin occurred post 85 Ma. Reconstruction of this rotation orients the margins at 060 (transform) and 330 (extensional), parallel to the inferred orientation of the Precambrian rifted margin elsewhere in the US Cordillera. The geometry would cause a structural syntaxis during northward (right-lateral) translation of accreted terranes. Northward terrane motion at 100 Ma result in dextral transpressional kinematics along the 330-oriented western Idaho shear zone and contractional deformation in the EW-oriented Ahsahka shear zone (Cretaceous orientations) in this syntaxis. This middle Cretaceous orogeny occurs at the other major structural syntaxis, south of the Sierra Nevada batholith in southeastern California, as a result of a 100 Ma worldwide plate re-organization. The Idaho syntaxis also acts as a fulcrum for Tertiary-present rotation, explaining the current displacement field in the northern US Cordillera. Overall, the study indicates that the inherited Precambrian rifted margin of the North American Cordillera exhibited a significant influence on subsequent deformation, despite overprinting of abundant magmatism, margin parallel terrane translation, and subsequent rotation.

  10. A middle Miocene benthic foraminiferal stable isotope record from extensively recrystallised carbonate sediments of IODP Site U1336 in the Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, J.; Hathorne, E. C.; Holbourn, A. E.; Frank, M.

    2013-12-01

    The elemental and isotopic composition of foraminifera is widely used for reconstructing oceanic and climatic conditions in the past. However, ancient foraminiferal tests are altered after deposition through replacement of the original biogenic calcite by secondary (inorganic) calcite. Therefore, it is important to quantify changes in the elemental and isotopic composition of recrystallised tests to assess the reliability of proxy data. Here, we present benthic foraminiferal stable isotope data from IODP Site U1336 where the geochemistry of bulk carbonates and associated pore waters suggests extensive recrystallisation resulting from an enhanced thermal gradient. In sediments older than 20.3 Ma the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of bulk carbonates and associated pore waters exhibit lower values than contemporaneous seawater indicating the incorporation of Sr originating from older carbonates recrystallised deeper in the section. Furthermore, the generally lower Sr/Ca ratios of bulk carbonates from Site U1336 also suggest extensive recrystallisation. Despite the extensive recrystallisation at Site U1336, the stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ18O) of benthic foraminifera (C. wuellerstorfi and C. mundulus) from the middle Miocene (13-16 Ma) is in good agreement with existing records (e.g. Holbourn et al. 2007, Tian et al. 2013). The carbon-isotope events of the Monterey Excursion (including CM 3b, CM 4a, CM 5 and CM 6) can clearly be identified. The CM 3b event displays the highest δ13C values with a maximum of 1.78 ‰ at 15.61 Ma which is in accordance with values measured from Sites 1237 (Nazca Ridge off Peru) and U1337 (706 km southeast from U1336) of 1.72 and 1.74 ‰, respectively at 15.60 Ma. The Middle Miocene cooling at 13.91-13.84 Ma marks the onset of ice-sheet expansion over Antarctica and the drastic increase in δ18O (0.86 ‰) at Site U1336 during that cooling event (CM 6) is comparable to that at Site 1237 (0.79 ‰) (Holbourn et al. 2007) and U1337 (1.00

  11. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from thermal pre-treatment of waste hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Huang, Hong-Hsin

    2007-09-01

    Despite increasing environmental concerns and stringent limitations on the sulfur content in fuels, many waste hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts containing Co, Mo, Ni and V are generated in the petroleum refining process. To recover valuable metals in the waste HDS catalysts via hydrometallurgy, thermal treatment is usually performed first to remove contaminants (residual oil, carbon and sulfur) present on the surface of catalysts. In this study, the mass partitions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different media (aqueous, particulate and gaseous) were quantified in order to determine the efficiency of three different air pollution control devices, cooling unit, filter and glass cartridge, on PAH removal. An afterburner and two furnace temperatures were used to observe the effect on the PAH contents of the treated residues. Results show that total-PAH content in treated residues decreased with the pyrolysis temperature of the primary furnace, while those generated in flue gases were destroyed by the afterburner at an efficiency of approximately 95%. In addition, the thermal process converts high molecular weight PAHs to low molecular weight PAHs, and the afterburner temperature involved (1200 degrees C) was high enough to prohibit the generation of high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAHs), leading to the domination of low molecular weight PAHs (LM-PAHs) in flue gases, while treated residues were dominated by HM-PAHs. Finally, information on metal contents and their concentrations in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure in waste HDS catalyst and thermal treated residues are examined as an index of the potential for metal recovery.

  12. Surface structure and thiophene hydrodesulfurization activity of Mo/TiO sub 2 catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Quincy, R.B.; Houalla, M.; Proctor, A.; Hercules, D.M. )

    1989-07-27

    Thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity was measured for a series of Mo/TiO{sub 2} catalysts having Mo loadings of 0.5-13.5 wt% MoO{sub 3}. Raman data and thiophene HDS activity measurements suggest that three molybdenum species are present on oxidic Mo/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. A surface Mo interaction species is formed up to Mo loadings of 2.5 wt% MoO{sub 3} and is the oxidic precursor to the most active species for thiophene HDS (intrinsic thiophene HDS activity of 816 cm{sup 3} of C{sub 4} product/(h g of MoO{sub 3})). For higher Mo loadings, a second surface Mo interaction species is formed, which contributes to the background on the low-frequency side of the broad 950-960-cm{sup {minus}1} Raman peak and is less active for thiophene HDS (intrinsic activity of 250 cm{sup 3} of C{sub 4} product/(h g of MoO{sub 3})). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data show that both Mo surface species have similar dispersions. Catalysts with Mo loadings of > 8-9 wt % MoO{sub 3} also contain bulk MoO{sub 3}. The distribution of the three Mo species for the oxidic Mo/TiO{sub 2} catalysts is derived from Raman and HDS measurements.

  13. Materials derived from synthetic organo-clay complexes as novel hydrodesulfurization catalyst supports.

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K. A.; Marshall, C. L.; Brenner, J. R.; Song, K.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    A series of mesoporous synthetic organo-clay complexes has been prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice, followed by calcination to remove the organics. The organic serves to impart structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. The choice of organic modifier can be used to control the pore structure of the resulting mesoporous materials. Pore size distributions appear in some cases to be related to the type of polymer packing upon clay formation in situ. These materials are being explored as Co Mo hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary HDS results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysis for the mesoporous materials when a model heavy oil feed is used (1 wt% S as dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). Temperature programmed reduction experiments of used catalysts suggest a relationship between HDS activity and ease of reduction of the CoMo/clay catalysts. Reactivity of the CoMo clay also correlates with the percentage of mesopore volume remaining after reaction. Losses in mesopore volume are largely recouped by recalcination, suggesting that reversible coke is formed inside the pore structure of clays faster than inside conventional alumina.

  14. Relations between coke deposition and activity of HDS catalysts. [Hydrodesulfurization (HDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, J.; Golding, R.; Severino, F.; Laine, J.

    1982-09-01

    Coke deposition due to degradation of 1,3-butadiene at 400 degrees C was examined employing supported molybdate hydrocracking catalysts, with and without promoters and with and without presulfiding. Initial hydrodesulfurization activity behavior of the catalysts was also examined. Coke deposition was found to increase as a function of catalyst composition and the type of diluting gas (He or H/sub 2/). With oxide catalysts, such as MoO/sub 3/ and NiO-MoO/sub 3/, the deposition of coke on the non-impregnated support is not affected by the type of diluting gas. It was also found that the supported MoO/sub 3/ catalyst produced more coke than the support alone in either H/sub 2/ or He atmospheres at all deposition times. Coke formation on sulfide catalysts showed a similar behavior to that of the oxide catalysts. The quantity of coke, however, was significantly smaller in all cases except on the support. (JMT)

  15. Optimum Ni composition in sulfided Ni-Mo hydrodesulfurization catalysts: Effect of the support

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, J.; Severino, F.; Labady, M. )

    1994-05-01

    A synergistic effect of the support in Ni-Mo hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts has been recently proposed, suggesting that in the case of a carbon support, this functions in conjunction with molybdenum sulfide to promote the exposure of nickel active centers. This effect is a possible explanation for the higher HDS activity of carbon-supported catalysts with respect to conventional catalysts reported earlier; however, there are insufficient clues as to which carbon characteristics are involved in the activity promotion. Taking into account that a variety of different supports have been studied for HDS catalysts in the past, e.g., alumina, silica, titania, zeolites, and carbon, it is interesting to investigate how the intrinsic activity can be affected by the differences in the nature of the support, especially whether the presence of a particular active phase or structure could be promoted by choosing an appropriate support. In this communication, the authors present evidence suggesting that two different active Ni-Mo sulfide structures can exist in HDS catalysts, the presence of either one being possibly determined by the nature of the support employed. In addition, the study focusses on the possible properties of carbon supports that may be responsible for the higher activity referred to above. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Optimization of the synthesis of alpha-MoO3 nanoribbons and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst test.

    PubMed

    Paraguay-Delgado, F; Albiter, M A; Huirache-Acuña, R; Verde, Y; Alonso-Nuñez, G

    2007-10-01

    An optimized process for synthesis of alpha-MoO3 nanoribbons characterized by uniform morphology and composition was carried out. The optimized process turned out to be the aging of a precursor of an aqueous solution of ammonium heptamolybdate for a week under constant stirring at 333 K; followed by hydrothermal treatment for 36 h up to 48 h at 473 K. The dimensions of the nanoribbons were between 5 and 10 microm in length and a width between 100 and 600 nm. The thickness was between 60 and 200 nm. This material was tested for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by in situ activation and showed its catalytic activities to be similar to those of unsupported MoS2 catalysts. The structure and morphology of these materials was characterized by analytical transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction using the Rietveld method to determine the quantitative crystallographic phases. A chemical semiquantitative analysis was carried out by energy dispersive spectroscopy and a qualitative analysis was carried out by electron energy loss spectroscopy.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of Ni2P nanoparticle and its hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi; Han, Yang; Huang, Xiang; Dai, Jinhui; Tian, Jintao; Zhu, Zhibin; Yue, Li

    2017-04-01

    Nanosized nickel phosphide (Ni2P) has been synthesized via hydrothermal reaction with environmental-friendly red phosphorus and nickel chloride. The reaction mechanism has been studied by measurement techniques of IC, XRD ,TEM, EDS, and XPS. The results showed that the particle sizes of as-prepared Ni2P are in nanoscale ranging from 10 to 30 nm. In hydrothermal reaction, red phosphorus reacts with water to its oxyacids, especially its hypophosphorous acid (or hypophosphite) which can reduce nickel chloride to nickel, and then metallic nickel will penetrate into the rest of red phosphorus to generate nano-Ni2P. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of as-synthesized Ni2P for the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene has been tested. It has been shown that the HDS reaction process over Ni2P catalyst agrees well with the pseudo-first order kinetic equation, and the HDS conversion can reach up to 43.83% in 5 h with a stable increasing catalytic activity during the whole examination process.

  18. Metal recovery from spent hydrodesulfurization catalysts using a combined acid-leaching and electrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Wu, Chung-Mou

    2008-06-15

    This study focuses on recovering valuable metals from spent hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts using a combined acid-leaching and fluidized-bed electrolysis process. The electrolytic cell was equipped with a glass bead medium, an iridium oxide mesh anode, and a stainless steel plate cathode. An acid solution consisting of concentrated HNO3/H2SO4/HCl with a volume ratio of 2:1:1 was found to be better than the other tested solution (HNO3/H2SO4=1:1) to leach the metals. For the three-acid mixture, the best solid/liquid ratio and leaching time were 40 g/L and 1 h, respectively, at 70 degrees C; under this condition, the leaching yields of target metals (Mo, Ni, and V) in the 1st stage of leaching reached 90, 99, and 99%, respectively, much higher than those in the 2nd/3rd/4th stages. When this acid leachate was electrolyzed for 2 h at 2 A constant current (current density=approximately 35.7 mA/cm2), a stable cell voltage of 5 V was observed. The electrolytic recoveries of Mo, Ni, and V were approximately 15, 61, and 66%, respectively, but extending the electrolysis time from 2 to 4 h did not increase the recoveries. For this operation, the total recoveries (leaching yieldxelectrolytic recovery) of Mo, Ni, and V were approximately 14, 60, and 65%, respectively.

  19. Aquatic hazard and biodegradability of light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum streams.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; Podhasky, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum substances are blended to produce fuels used in transportation and heating. These substances represent the majority by volume of crude oil refined products in the United States. The goal of this research was to develop biodegradability and aquatic toxicity data for four substances; heavy, straight-run naphtha (HSRN), hydro-desulfurized kerosene (HDK), hydro-cracked gas oil (HCGO), and catalytic-cracked gas oil (CCGO). Ready biodegradability tests demonstrated rapid and extensive microbial oxidation of these test substances, indicating a lack of persistence in the aquatic environment. Differences in biodegradation patterns reflected compositional differences in the constituent hydrocarbons. Results of aquatic toxicity tests on alga, cladocera, and fish demonstrated that toxicity was greatest for catalytic-cracked gas oil, which contained a high proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons are more soluble, and hence more bioavailable, resulting in higher toxicity. When expressed on the basis of loading rates, acute toxicity values (LL/EL50) ranged between 0.3 and 5.5 mg L(-1) for all three species, while chronic no-observed-effect loading rates (NOELR) ranged between 0.05 and 0.64 mg L(-1). PETROTOX estimates for acute and chronic toxicity ranged from 0.18 to 2.3 mg L(-1) and 0.06 to 0.14 mg L(-1), respectively, which were generally more conservative than experimental data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Silurian extension in the Upper Connecticut Valley, United States and the origin of middle Paleozoic basins in the Québec embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankin, D.W.; Coish, R.A.; Tucker, R.D.; Peng, Z.X.; Wilson, S.A.; Rouff, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-Silurian strata of the Bronson Hill arch (BHA) in the Upper Connecticut Valley, NH-VT are host to the latest Ludlow Comerford Intrusive Suite consisting, east to west, of a mafic dike swarm with sheeted dikes, and an intrusive complex. The rocks are mostly mafic but with compositions ranging from gabbro to leucocratic tonalite. The suite is truncated on the west by the Monroe fault, a late Acadian thrust that carries rocks of the BHA westward over Silurian-Devonian strata of the Connecticut Valley-Gaspe?? trough (CVGT). Dikes intrude folded strata with a pre-intrusion metamorphic fabric (Taconian?) but they experienced Acadian deformation. Twenty fractions of zircon and baddeleyite from three sample sites of gabbrodiorite spanning nearly 40 km yield a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 419 ?? 1 Ma. Greenschist-facies dikes, sampled over a strike distance of 35 km, were tholeiitic basalts formed by partial melting of asthenospheric mantle, with little or no influence from mantle or crustal lithosphere. The dike chemistry is similar to mid-ocean ridge, within-plate, and back-arc basin basalts. Parent magmas originated in the asthenosphere and were erupted through severely thinned lithosphere adjacent to the CVGT. Extensive middle Paleozoic basins in the internides of the Appalachian orogen are restricted to the Que??bec embayment of the Laurentian rifted margin, and include the CVGT and the Central Maine trough (CMT), separated from the BHA by a Silurian tectonic hinge. The NE-trending Comerford intrusions parallel the CVGT, CMT, and the tectonic hinge, and indicate NW-SE extension. During post-Taconian convergence, the irregular margins of composite Laurentia and Avalon permitted continued collision in Newfoundland (St. Lawrence promontory) and coeval extension in the Que??bec embayment. Extension may be related to hinge retreat of the northwest directed Brunswick subduction complex and rise of the asthenosphere following slab break-off. An alternative hypothesis is

  1. Fabrication of hollow spheres by dry-gel conversion and its application in the selective hydrodesulfurization of FCC gasoline.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinchang; Wang, Gang; Jin, Fengying; Fang, Xiangchen; Song, Chunshan; Guo, Xinwen

    2013-04-15

    Hollow spheres were synthesized from MCM-41 solid spheres by dry-gel conversion. It was found that water amount has a major impact on the formation of hollow spheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the hollow spheres are between 500 and 600 nm in size with a dense shell of ca. 100 nm. The synthesized hollow sphere sample was examined as a support for hydrodesulfurization catalyst. The sulfur removal was enhanced while olefin hydrogenation of FCC gasoline was suppressed, and thus, the octane value was preserved when the hollow spheres (Na type) were loaded with Ni and Mo oxides as catalyst.

  2. Characterization of coke, or carbonaceous matter, formed on CoMo catalysts used in hydrodesulfurization unit in oil refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Nobuharu; Iwanami, Yoshimu; Koide, Ryutaro; Kudo, Reiko

    2017-06-01

    When a mixture of light gas oil (LGO) and light cycle oil is fed into an oil refinery’s hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit to produce diesel fuel, the catalyst in the HDS unit is rapidly deactivated. By contrast, when the feed is LGO mixed with residue desulfurization gas oil, the catalyst is deactivated slowly. Hoping to understand why, the authors focused on the coke formed on the catalysts during the HDS reaction. The result of a comprehensive analysis of the coke suggested that the ways coke formed and grew on the catalysts may differ depending on the feeds used, which in turn could affect the deactivation behaviors of the catalysts.

  3. A 13-week dermal repeat-dose neurotoxicity study of hydrodesulfurized kerosene in rats.

    PubMed

    Breglia, Rudolph; Bui, Quang; Burnett, Donald; Koschier, Francis; Lapadula, Elizabeth; Podhasky, Paula; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    A 13-week dermal repeat-dose toxicity study was conducted with hydrodesulfurized (HDS) kerosene, a test material that also met the commercial specifications for aviation turbine fuel (jet A). The objectives were to assess the potential for target organ toxicity and neurotoxicity. The HDS kerosene was applied to the shaved backs of Sprague-Dawley CD rats, 12/sex/group, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk in doses of 0 (vehicle control), 165 mg/kg (20% HDS kerosene), 330 mg/kg (40% HDS kerosene), or 495 mg/kg (60% HDS kerosene). Additional rats (12/sex) from the control and the high-dose groups were held without treatment for 4 weeks to assess recovery. Standard parameters of toxicity were investigated during the in-life phase. At necropsy, organs were weighed and selected tissues were processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurobehavioral evaluations included tests of motor activity and functional observations that were conducted pretest, at intervals during the exposure period and after recovery. No test substance-related effects on mortality, clinical observations (except dermal irritation), body weight, or clinical chemistry values were observed. A dose-related increase in skin irritation, confirmed histologically as minimal, was evident at the dosing site. The only statistically significant change considered potentially treatment related was an increase in the neutrophil count in females at 13 weeks. No test article-related effects were observed in the neurobehavioral assessments or gross or microscopic findings in the peripheral or central nervous system tissues in any of the dose groups. Excluding skin irritation, the no observed adverse effect level value for all effects was considered 495 mg/kg/d.

  4. Developing Enzyme and Biomimetic Catalysts for Upgrading Heavy Crudes via Biological Hydrogenation and Hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, A P

    2006-08-22

    The recovery and conversion of heavy oils is limited due to the high viscosity of these crudes and their high heteroatom content. Conventional technology relies on thermochemical hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization to address these problems and is energy intensive due to the high operating temperature and pressure. This project was initiated to explore biological catalysts for adding hydrogen to the heavy oil molecules. Biological enzymes are efficient at hydrogen splitting at very mild conditions such as room temperature and pressure, however, they are very specific in terms of the substrates they hydrogenate. The goal of the project was to investigate how the specificity of these enzymes can be altered to develop catalysts for oil upgrading. Three approaches were used. First was to perform chemical modification of the enzyme surface to improve binding of other non-natural substrates. Second approach was to expose the deeply buried catalytic active site of the enzyme by removal of protein scaffolding to enable better interaction with other substrates. The third approach was based on molecular biology to develop genetically engineered systems for enabling targeted structural changes in the enzyme. The first approach was found to be limited in success due to the non-specificity of the chemical modification and inability to target the region near the active site or the site of substrate binding. The second approach produced a smaller catalyst capable of catalyzing hydrogen splitting, however, further experimentation is needed to address reproducibility and stability issues. The third approach which targeted cloning of hydrogenase in alternate hosts demonstrated progress, although further work is necessary to complete the cloning process. The complex nature of the hydrogenase enzyme structure-function relationship and role of various ligands in the protein require significant more research to better understand the enzyme and to enable success in strategies in

  5. Thiophene Hydrodesulfurization over Nickel Phosphide Catalysts: Effect of the Precursor Composition and Support

    SciTech Connect

    Sawhill, Stephanie J.; Layman, Kathryn A.; Van Wyk, Daniel R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2005-04-25

    Silica- and alumina-supported nickel phosphide (NixPy) catalysts have been prepared, characterized by bulk and surface sensitive techniques, and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. Series of 30 wt% NixPy/SiO2 and 20 wt% NixPy/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared from oxidic precursors having a range of P/Ni molar ratios by temperature programmed reduction (TPR) in flowing H2. Oxidic precursors with molar ratios of P/Ni = 0.8 and 2.0 yielded catalysts containing phase-pure Ni2P on the silica and alumina supports, respectively. At lower P/Ni ratios, significant Ni12P5 impurities were present in the NixPy/SiO2 and NixPy/Al2O3 catalysts as indicated by X-ray diffraction. The HDS activities of the NixPy/SiO2 and NixPy/Al2O3 catalysts depended strongly on the P/Ni molar ratio of the oxidic precursors with optimal activities obtained for catalysts containing phase pure Ni2P and minimal excess P. After 48 h on-stream, a Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst was 20 and 3.3 times more active than sulfided Ni/SiO2 and Ni-Mo/SiO2 catalysts, respectively. A Ni2P/Al2O3 catalyst was 2.7 times more active than a sulfided Ni/Al2O3 catalyst but only about half as active as a Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst.

  6. Extensive Middle Amazonian mantling of debris aprons and plains in Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars: Implications for the record of mid-latitude glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.

    2015-11-01

    The mid-latitudes of Mars are host to a record of recent episodes of accumulations of ice-rich materials. The record includes debris aprons, interpreted to be debris-covered glaciers, that may represent the preserved remnants of a much more extensive ice sheet. We assessed the possibility of former glacial extents by examining debris aprons and the surrounding plains in Deuteronilus Mensae. Geomorphic units and stratigraphic relationships were mapped and documented from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera images, and crater retention ages were estimated from crater size-frequency distributions. Three major units are observed within the study area: debris aprons, lower plains, and upper plains. Debris aprons exhibit characteristics typical for these features documented elsewhere and in previous studies, including integrated flow lineations and patterns, convex-upward profiles, and knobby and brain terrain surface textures. A lower bound on the age for debris aprons is estimated to be 0.9 Ga. Debris aprons are superposed on a lower plains unit having a lower bound age of 3.3-3.5 Ga. A 50-100 m thick upper plains unit superposes both debris apron landforms and lower plains units and has a best-fit minimum age of 0.6 Ga. The upper plains unit exhibits characteristics of atmospherically-emplaced mantle material, including fine-grained nature, sublimation textures, cyclic layering, draping character, and widespread spatial distribution. Fracturing and subsequent sublimation/erosion of upper plains on debris aprons has contributed to many of the surface textures on debris aprons. The upper plains unit has also been eroded from the lower plains and plateaus, evidenced by isolated blocks of upper plains in the interiors of craters and on the walls and tops of plateaus. While no conclusive evidence diagnostic of former cold-based ice sheets are observed in the plains within the study region, such

  7. Hydrodesulfurization on Transition Metal Catalysts: Elementary Steps of C-S Bond Activation and Consequences of Bifunctional Synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yik, Edwin Shyn-Lo

    The presence of heteroatoms (e.g. S, N) in crude oil poses formidable challenges in petroleum refining processes as a result of their irreversible binding on catalytically active sites at industrially relevant conditions. With increasing pressures from legislation that continues to lower the permissible levels of sulfur content in fuels, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), the aptly named reaction for removing heteroatoms from organosulfur compounds, has become an essential feedstock pretreatment step to remove deleterious species from affecting downstream processing. Extensive research in the area has identified the paradigm catalysts for desulfurization; MoSx or WSx, promoted with Co or Ni metal; however, despite the vast library of both empirical and fundamental studies, a clear understanding of site requirements, the elementary steps of C-S hydrogenolysis, and the properties that govern HDS reactivity and selectivity have been elusive. While such a lack of rigorous assessments has not prevented technological advancements in the field of HDS catalysis, fundamental interpretations can inform rational catalyst and process design, particularly in light of new requirements for "deep" desulfurization and in the absence of significant hydrotreatment catalyst developments in recent decades. We report HDS rates of thiophene, which belongs to a class of compounds that are most resistant to sulfur removal (i.e. substituted alkyldibenzothiophenes), over a range of industrially relevant temperatures and pressures, measured at differential conditions and therefore revealing their true kinetic origins. These rates, normalized by the number of exposed metal atoms, on various SiO 2-supported, monometallic transition metals (Re, Ru, Pt), range several orders of magnitude. Under relevant HDS conditions, Pt and Ru catalysts form a layer of chemisorbed sulfur on surfaces of a metallic bulk, challenging reports that assume the latter exists as its pyrite sulfide phase during reaction. While

  8. An unexpected pathway for hydrodesulfurization of gazole over a CoMoS active phase supported on a mesoporous TiO2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Naboulsi, I; Felipe Linares Aponte, C; Lebeau, B; Brunet, S; Michelin, L; Bonne, M; Blin, J L

    2017-02-28

    Using dual mesoporous titania as a support, due to the presence of intrinsic Brönsted acid sites, the main approach to 4,6-dimethylbenzothiophene (46DMDBT) hydrodesulfurization (HDS) becomes the direct desulfurization (DDS) route through isomerization and dismutation reactions, instead of the hydrogenation (HYD) pathway usually observed with a conventional promoted (by Ni or Co) MoS2/Al2O3 catalyst.

  9. Developing and Evaluating the Impact of an Extension-Based Train-the-Trainer Model for Effectively Disseminating Food Safety Education to Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Pratt, Carrie; Skolits, Gary J.; Burney, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are an understudied, but meaningful, population when it comes to food safety education. With the proliferation of pathogenic microbes and changes in eating habits of Americans, today's youth are more at risk of contracting a foodborne illness than previous generations. Hands On: Real World Lessons for Middle School Classrooms provides…

  10. Developing and Evaluating the Impact of an Extension-Based Train-the-Trainer Model for Effectively Disseminating Food Safety Education to Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Pratt, Carrie; Skolits, Gary J.; Burney, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are an understudied, but meaningful, population when it comes to food safety education. With the proliferation of pathogenic microbes and changes in eating habits of Americans, today's youth are more at risk of contracting a foodborne illness than previous generations. Hands On: Real World Lessons for Middle School Classrooms provides…

  11. A NiMoS flower-like structure with self-assembled nanosheets as high-performance hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Weikun; Chen, Zhou; Zhu, Jianping; Yang, Lefu; Zheng, Jinbao; Yi, Xiaodong; Fang, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Uniform 3D NiMoS nanoflowers with self-assembled nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal growth method using cheap and nontoxic elemental sulfur as sulfur sources. The structure and morphology of the nanomaterials were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS analyses, revealing that the NiMoS nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of approximately 6-12 nm. The HRTEM results indicate that the curve/short MoS2 slabs on the nanosheets possess the characteristics of dislocations, distortions and discontinuity, which suggests a defect-rich structure, resulting in the exposure of additional Ni-Mo-S edge sites. The obtained NiMoS nanoflowers exhibited an excellent activity for thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene deep HDS due to their high density of active sites. The outstanding HDS performance suggests that these NiMoS composites with a unique flower-like nanostructure could be useful as promising catalysts for deep desulfurization of fuel oils.Uniform 3D NiMoS nanoflowers with self-assembled nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal growth method using cheap and nontoxic elemental sulfur as sulfur sources. The structure and morphology of the nanomaterials were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS analyses, revealing that the NiMoS nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of approximately 6-12 nm. The HRTEM results indicate that the curve/short MoS2 slabs on the nanosheets possess the characteristics of dislocations, distortions and discontinuity, which suggests a defect-rich structure, resulting in the exposure of additional Ni-Mo-S edge sites. The obtained NiMoS nanoflowers exhibited an excellent activity for thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene deep HDS due to their high density of active sites. The outstanding HDS performance suggests that these NiMoS composites with a unique flower

  12. Insight into thiophene hydrodesulfurization on clean and S-modified MoP(010): a periodic density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixia; Zhao, Lianming; Zhu, Houyu; Liu, Xiuping; Ma, Huifang; Yu, Yanchen; Guo, Wenyue

    2017-07-05

    The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene on clean and S-modified MoP(010) is investigated to understand the HDS mechanism as well as the surface sulfur (S) atom effect using periodic density functional theory (DFT). The results show that thiophene prefers strongly flat adsorption on both the clean and S-modified surfaces, in either the molecular state or the dissociative state breaking simultaneously one C-S bond, and the adsorption of thiophene can be slightly weakened by the surface S atom. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis indicates that the HDS of thiophene in both the molecular and dissociative adsorption states prefers to take place along the direct desulfurization (DDS) pathway rather than hydrogenation on both the clean and S-modified MoP(010) surfaces. Surface S shows a promotion effect on the HDS catalytic activity of MoP(010), because the energy barrier/rate constant of the rate-determining step on the DDS pathway is decreased/enlarged under the S modification. Compared with the situation of MoP(001), MoP(010) should have relatively low HDS activity, since a higher energy barrier as well as weaker exothermicity is involved in the reaction on the latter surface.

  13. Effect of catalyst preparation conditions on the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene over Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Lin, Shiow-Shyung; Liu, Tuan-Chi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of preparation conditions on the catalytic properties of the Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. The work included catalyst preparations and reactions. In the preparations, cobalt-impregnated Mo/gamma-Al2O3 (designated as IcIM) was found to have a promoting effect on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. Activity and stability of IcIM was higher than that of Mo/gamma-Al2O3. Conversely, when cobalt was added onto Mo/gamma-Al2O3 by the mechanical mixing method, no promoting effect was observed. Mo/gamma-Al2O3 was also prepared using the two different methods (incipient impregnation or mechanical mixing). The differently prepared Mo/gamma-Al203 resulted in no obvious difference in activity of IcIM. It was further found that Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 activity initially increased appreciably with Mo content and leveled off at Mo contents above 9 wt.%. The catalyst exhibited a maximum activity at Co/Mo ratio 0.3. The order in which metal species were added had a great influence on the activity of the Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. Higher activity was obtained when Co was added into Mo/gamma-Al2O3 as opposed to Mo added into Co/gamma-Al2O3.

  14. Middle Miocene Hotspot-Related Uplift, Exhumation, and Extension north of the Snake River Plain: Evidence from Apatite (U-Th)/He Thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, D. A.; Vogl, J.; Min, K. K.; Bricker, A.; Gelato, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    Passage of North America over the Yellowstone hotspot has had a profound influence on the topography of the northern Rocky Mountains. One of the most prominent topographic features is the Yellowstone crescent of high topography, which comprises two elevated shoulders bounding the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP) and converging at a topographic swell centered on the Yellowstone region. Kilometer-scale erosion has occurred locally within the topographic crescent, but it is unclear if rock exhumation is due to surface uplift surrounding the propagating hot spot, subsidence of the Snake River Plain after passage of the hot spot, or relief initiated by extension in the Northern Basin and Range Province. We have applied (U-Th/He) apatite (AHe) thermochronology to the Pioneer-Boulder Mountains (PBM) on the northern flank of the SRP, and the southern Beartooth Mountains (BM) directly north of the modern Yellowstone caldera, to constrain the timing, rates, and spatial distribution of exhumation. AHe ages from the PBM indicate that >2-3 km of exhumation occurred in the core of this topographic culmination since ~11 Ma. Age-elevation relationships suggest an exhumation rate of ~0.3 mm/yr between ~11 and 8 Ma. Eocene Challis volcanic rocks are extensively preserved and Eocene topographic highs are locally preserved to the north and south of the PBM, indicating minimal erosion adjacent to the PBM culmination. Spatial patterns of both exhumation and topography indicate that faulting was not the primary control on uplift and exhumation. Regional exhumation at 11-8 Ma was synchronous with silicic eruptions from the ~10.3 Ma Picabo volcanic field located immediately to the south and with S-tilting of the southern flank of the PBM that is likely the result of loading of the ESRP by mid-crustal mafic intrusions. AHe data from Archean rocks of the southern BM reveal Miocene-Pliocene cooling ages and include samples as young as ~2-6 Ma. Discordant single grain ages in samples with

  15. Probing hydrodesulfurization over bimetallic phosphides using monodisperse Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Samuel J.; Liyanage, D. Ruchira; Hitihami-Mudiyanselage, Asha; Ilic, Boris; Brock, Stephanie L.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Metal phosphide nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica provide a well-defined system for probing the fundamental chemistry of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction over this new class of hydrotreating catalysts. To investigate composition effects in bimetallic phosphides, the HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was carried out over a series of Ni-rich Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 (M = Co, Fe) nanocatalysts (x ≤ 0.50). The Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles (average diameters: 11-13 nm) were prepared by solution-phase arrested precipitation and encapsulated in mesoporous silica, characterized by a range of techniques (XRD, TEM, IR spectroscopy, BET surface area, CO chemisorption) and tested for DBT HDS activity and selectivity. The highest activity was observed for a Ni1.92Co0.08P@mSiO2 nanocatalyst, but the overall trend was a decrease in HDS activity with increasing Co or Fe content. In contrast, the highest turnover frequency (TOF) was observed for the most Co- and Fe-rich compositions based on sites titrated by CO chemisorption. IR spectral studies of adsorbed CO on the Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 catalysts indicate that an increase in electron density occurs on Ni sites as the Co or Fe content is increased, which may be responsible for the increased TOFs of the catalytic sites. The Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 nanocatalysts exhibit a strong preference for the direct desulfurization pathway (DDS) for DBT HDS that changes only slightly with increasing Co or Fe content.

  16. Electronic Structure of Rh(2)S(3) and RuS(2), Two Very Active Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Agnes; Harris, Suzanne

    1998-05-04

    The results of Fenske-Hall band structure calculations for bulk Rh(2)S(3) and RuS(2) and for the (210) and (111) surfaces of RuS(2) are described. Although the crystal structures of the two sulfides are quite different, the electronic structure of bulk Rh(2)S(3) and RuS(2) share several similarities. Unlike MoS(2), which is also used as a hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst, there is no metal-metal bonding and only negligible metal-sulfur pi bonding in both Rh(2)S(3) and RuS(2). As a result, both sulfides are characterized by a narrow high energy occupied metal t(2)()(g) band localized on the metal. Results of calculations for two-dimensional RuS(2) slabs exposing (210) and (111) surface planes provide a description of the electronic structure of 5-, 4-, and 3-coordinate Ru atoms on these surfaces. Stabilization of part or all of the unoccupied Ru e(g) band is observed for these surface atoms, and comparisons between the partial densities of states (DOS) of the surface Ru atoms and the orbital structures of isolated coordinatively unsaturated metal centers aid in the interpretation of the surface results. The electronic environments of the surface Ru atoms are also compared to the electronic environments and reactivities of metal centers found in d(6) transition metal complexes that incorporate thiophenic ligands. These comparisons suggest that if the heterogeneous and homogeneous HDS mechanisms are related, then 3-coordinate surface Ru atoms such as those found on the (111) surface could provide active sites.

  17. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with the presence and extension of atherosclerotic plaques in middle-aged asymptomatic adults: The Aragon Workers' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Uzhova, Irina; Moreno-Franco, Belén; León-Latre, Montserrat; Casasnovas, José A; Laclaustra, Martín; Peñalvo, José L; Civeira, Fernando

    2017-08-24

    The Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is known to prevent cardiovascular events but the mechanisms mediating this association are not fully understood. The objective of the study was to examine the association between MeDi adherence and the presence and extent of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid, femoral, and aorta territories and its relationship with risk factors in asymptomatic middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional analysis of the Aragon Workers' Health Study, a cohort of 2588 subjects (94.9% men aged 51.3 ± 3.89 years) without previous cardiovascular history. Participants underwent carotid, femoral, and aorta ultrasound for the quantification of number and thickness of plaques and intima-media thickness. To estimate the participant's adherence to MeDi, we computed the Alternative MEDiterranean index (aMED). The overall aMED score was 4.19 ± 1.70, representing a moderate adherence to MeDi. aMED score was associated with the presence of plaque in femoral arteries (odds ratio highest vs lowest aMED score quartile: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.83; P trend = .045) independently of risk factors and mediators. The strongest association between aMED quartiles and presence of plaque was found among smokers, both in femoral (0.39 [0.22-0.69]; P trend = .001) and in any territory (0.33 [0.14-0.79], P trend = .008). aMED was inversely associated with the number of plaques in all territories except for carotids. MeDi adherence showed a dose-dependent protective association with the presence, number, and thickness of plaques independent of other risk factors. The association was strongest for femoral arteries and among smokers. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extensive investigation of the sap flow of maize plants in an oasis farmland in the middle reach of the Heihe River, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liwen; He, Zhibin; Zhao, Wenzhi; Yang, Qiyue

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of the sap flow characteristics of maize plants is critical for improving irrigation water-use efficiency, especially for regions facing water resource shortages. In this study, sap flow rates, related soil-physics and plant-growth parameters, and meteorological factors, were simultaneously monitored in a maize field in two consecutive years, 2011 and 2012, and the sap flow rates of the maize plants were extensively analyzed based on the monitored data. Seasonal and daily variational characteristics were identified at different growth stages and under different weather conditions, respectively. The analyses on the relationships between sap flow rate and reference evapotranspiration (ET0), as well as several plant-growth parameters, indicate that the irrigation schedule can exert an influence on sap flow, and can consequently affect crop yield. The ranking of the main meteorological factors affecting the sap flow rate was: net radiation > air temperature > vapor pressure deficit > wind speed. For a quick estimation of sap flow rates, an empirical formula based on the two top influencing factors was put forward and verified to be reliable. The sap flow rate appeared to show little response to irrigation when the water content was relatively high, implying that some of the irrigation in recent years may have been wasted. These results may help to reveal the bio-physical processes of maize plants related to plant transpiration, which could be beneficial for establishing an efficient irrigation management system in this region and also for providing a reference for other maize-planting regions.

  19. Operando QEXAFS studies of Ni₂P during thiophene hydrodesulfurization: direct observation of Ni-S bond formation under reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takahiro; Bando, Kyoko K; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Takakusagi, Satoru; Oyama, S Ted; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2012-03-01

    Structural changes in Ni(2)P/MCM-41 were followed by quick extended X-ray absorption fine structure (QEXAFS) and were directly related to changes in X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) which had been used earlier for the study of the active catalyst phase. An equation is proposed to correct the transient QEXAFS spectra up to second-order in time to remove spectral distortions induced by structural changes occurring during measurements. A good correlation between the corrected QEXAFS and the XANES spectral changes was found, giving support to the conclusions derived from the XANES in the previous work, namely that the formation of a Ni-S bond in a surface NiPS phase is involved in the active site for the hydrodesulfurization reaction.

  20. Selective hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene in the major presence of naphthalene over molybdenum based binary and tertiary sulfides catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Isoda, T.; Nagao, S.; Ma, X.

    1995-12-31

    CoMo and NiMo of different contents Co or Ni and Ru-CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were examined for the hydrodesulfurization of refractory sulfur compound 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) in decane or decane with naphthalene to find a selective catalysts which desulfurization of 4,6-DMDBT in the presence of naphthalene, and characterization of Ru-CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using XPS, XRD and HREM in order to desing the higher selective HDS catalyst. Ru-CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the higher HDS activity in decane, and retardation of naphthalene was minimum of all catalysts.

  1. Theoretical Studies in Heterogenous Catalysis: Towards a Rational Design of Novel Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez,J.A.; Liu, P.

    2008-10-01

    important advantage of the cluster approach is that one can use the whole spectrum of quantum-chemical methods developed for small molecules with relatively minor modifications. On the other hand, the numerical effort involved in cluster calculations increases rather quickly with the size of the cluster. This problem does not exist when using slab models. Due to the explicit incorporation of the periodicity of the crystal lattice through the Bloch theorem, the actual dimension of a slab calculation depends only on the size of the unit cell. In practical terms, the slab approach is mainly useful for investigating the behavior of adsorbates at medium and high coverages. Very large unit cells are required at the limit of low to zero coverage, or when examining the properties and chemical behavior of isolated defect sites in a surface. In these cases, from a computational viewpoint, the cluster approach can be much more cost effective than the slab approach. Slab and cluster calculations can be performed at different levels of sophistication: semi-empirical methods, simple ab initio Hartree-Fock, ab initio post-Hartree-Fock (CI, MP2, etc), and density functional theory. Density-functional (DF) based calculations frequently give adsorption geometries with a high degree of accuracy and predict reliable trends for the energetics of adsorption reactions. This article provides a review of recent theoretical studies that deal with the behavior of novel catalysts used for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions and the production of hydrogen (i.e. catalytic processes employed in the generation of clean fuels). These studies involve a strong coupling of theory and experiment. A significant fraction of the review is focused on the importance of size-effects and correlations between the electronic and chemical properties of catalytic materials. The article begins with a discussion of results for the desulfurization of thiophene on metal carbides and phosphides, systems which have the

  2. Efficient and selective deoxygenation of sulfoxides over CoO-MoO/sub 3//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ hydrodesulfurization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Geneste, P.; Bonnet, M.; Frouin, C.; Levache, D.

    1980-01-01

    The transformation from the sulfoxides to the sulfides can be achieved by using an inexpensive common industrial hydrodesulfurization catalyst. The experimental conditions used in such experiments can be reduced to fairly mild conditions--10 atm, 70/sup 0/C, and applied to various sulfoxides. The catalyst has the following composition(wt%): CoO 2.8; MoO/sub 3/, 13.5: NiO<0.03: SiO/sub 2/, 2.8; and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 80.9. The catalyst was sulfurized using a gas mixture of H/sub 2/S 15% and H/sub 2/ 5% by volume. The sulfoxide and the catalyst were introduced into the reactor in a dodecane or benzene solution. H/sub 2/ was introduced at 10 to 15/sup 0/ below the working temperature. Air was removed by purging with nitrogen at 5 atm. All products were analyzed by vapor-phase chromatography. They were identified by comparison with ir, /sup 1/HNMR, and /sup 13/CNMR spectra with those of authentic specimens. The kinetics are discussed. 1 table.

  3. Hydrodesulfurization of oxidized sulfur compounds in benzothiophene, methylbenzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene series over CoO-MoO/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Geneste, P.; Amblard, P.; Bonnet, M.; Graffin, P.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrodesulfurization experiments were carried out with a sulfided CoO-MoO/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst at various elevated pressures (30 to 70 atm) and temperatures (200 to 300/sup 0/C) under stirred batch reactor conditions. The reactants were hydrogen and pure sulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene, benzothiophene and its methyl derivatives, and their oxidized products, sulfoxides and sulfones. In the case of dibenzothiophene the reaction is the C-S bond scission without any observed hydrogenation of the aromatic ring. For the S-oxidized compounds a deoxygenation takes place first and the sulfide reacts as before. For benzothiophene (BT) and its methyl derivatives there is first a hydrogenation of the C/sub 2-3/ thiophenic double bond and then desulfurization leading to ethylbenzene derivatives. For the sulfoxides a deoxygenation takes place first but for the sulfones (BTO/sub 2/) as for the sulfide the hydrogenation is operative. Methyl substitution leads to a decrease in the rate of the hydrogenation step in the BT and BTO/sub 2/ series. A correlation, related to the overall aromaticity of the system, between the rate constants and the vertical ionization potential of the molecules, suggests that electronic effects may be preponderant. 35 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

  4. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  5. Absaloka Mine South Extension NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030783, Westmoreland Resources, Inc. is authorized to discharge mine drainage from outfalls associated with the Absaloka Mine South Extension on the Crow Indian reservation near Hardin, Montana to Middle Fork of Sarpy Creek.

  6. Relation between hydrodesulfurization activity and the state of promoters in precursor calcined Ni-Co-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Agudo, A.L.; Severino, F.; Laine, J.

    1986-01-01

    Two series of NiCo-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts prepared by different procedures were investigated. In each series the Mo loading and the total content of promoters (Co + Ni) were kept constant but the Co/(Co + Ni) atomic ratio was varied from 0 to 1. The two series of catalysts were prepared by a sequential wet impregnation technique. In series I, the impregnations of both Mo and promoters were carried out at the pH of the impregnating aqueous solutions, employing an intermediate calcination; in series II, Mo was impregnated at pH 10, while the promoters were added in aqueous ethanol solutions without intermediate calcination. Catalysts in their calcined state were characterized by reduction in H/sub 2/ at 500/sup 0/C, O/sub 2/ chemisorption, and infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed NO. The HDS activity and the optimum Co/(Co + Ni) atomic ratio were different for the two series, in agreement with the previous studies, HDS activity being generally higher for series II than for series I. Dispersion of Mo (as estimated from O/sub 2/ chemisorption) and NO adsorption on Mo in reduced catalysts (as judged from the intensity of the band at about 1705 cm/sup -1/) were not substantially different for the two series of catalysts and did not correlate with HDS activity. However, adsorbed NO on promoters in oxidized catalysts (bands at about 1880 and 1800 cm/sup -1/) followed roughly the same trend as HDS activity, suggesting that the active sites may be related to the Co and Ni atoms adsorbing NO. Possible reasons for the differences between HDS activity of the two series are considered.

  7. Ultrasound assisted synthesis and physicochemical characterizations of fluorine-modified CoMo/Al2O3 nanocatalysts used for hydrodesulfurization of thiophene.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimynejad, Mitra; Haghighi, Mohammad; Asgari, Nazli

    2014-09-01

    A series of CoMo/F-Al2O3 nanocatalysts with different fluorine loadings of 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1 wt% were successfully synthesized by a sonochemical method and used for catalytic hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. The nanocatalysts were characterized with X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), BET nitrogen adsorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (TPD-NH3) techniques. The XRD results showed a high dispersion of the molybdenum species on the γ-Al2O3 support due to the application of sonochemical method along with fluorine addition. The CoMo/F-Al2O3 nanocatalysts had a particle size less than 100 nm. The specific surface area of the samples was slightly decreased with increasing the fluorine content. The FTIR results confirmed that with the increase of fluorine amount in the CoMo/Al2O3 nanocatalysts, it would generate more active sites. Moreover, the TPD results showed that the fluorinated nanocatalysts had higher acidity than the promoter-free nanocatalysts, because of the formation of new strong acid sites on the γ-Al2O3 support by the promoter. The catalytic activity for thiophene HDS reaction was investigated in a stirred slurry-tank reactor in the atmospheric pressure to determine the effect of fluorine amount on the nanocatalyst performance. The results of thiophene HDS reaction showed that the fluorinated nanocatalysts were more active than fluorine-free nanocatalysts and consequently, they were able to remove nearly 100% of thiophene in the initial solution. Furthermore, the nanocatalyst with the fluorine content of 0.8 wt% had the highest activity in HDS of thiophene. However, further addition of fluorine led to decrease in catalytic activity which could be attributed to the agglomerated particles formed on the nanocatalyst surface.

  8. Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facility Planner, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the building designs of 10 middle schools, including their educational contexts and design goals. Includes information on size, construction costs, architects, and contractors. Also includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  9. Preparing Middle School Teachers: Using Collaborative Middle School Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    Wright State University, Ohio, has developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and initial field experiences. Participants complete an undergraduate program in two specialized areas accompanied by 15 hours of teacher education professional coursework and field experiences in urban and suburban…

  10. Booktalking Across the Curriculum: The Middle Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Nancy J.

    This book contains booktalks for 170 titles that appeal to middle school readers and relate to middle school curriculum. Approximately 90% of the books are fiction. Each entry includes author, title, publisher, date of publication, suggested interest level, suggested reading level, the booktalk, and learning extension ideas. The selections are…

  11. Booktalking Across the Curriculum: The Middle Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Nancy J.

    This book contains booktalks for 170 titles that appeal to middle school readers and relate to middle school curriculum. Approximately 90% of the books are fiction. Each entry includes author, title, publisher, date of publication, suggested interest level, suggested reading level, the booktalk, and learning extension ideas. The selections are…

  12. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  13. Selective hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene in the dominant presence of naphthalene over hybrid CoMo/A{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru/Al{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Isoda, T.; Nagao, S.; Ma, X.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) in decane containing significant amount of naphthalene was examined over a hybrid of CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to design the selective hydrogenation and successive desulfurization of 4,6-DMDBT in aromatic moiety, and its activity was compared to those of CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in their single use. HDS activity of 4,6-DMDBT over NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was inferior to CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, although that of highest hydrogenation activity for naphthalene. The hybrid showed the highest activity for HDS of 4,6-DMDBT among these catalysts without excess hydrogenation of nahthalene.

  14. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Richland UW-Extension, Cooperative Extension Expands Presence at Wisconsin State Fair In a break from past years, ... community? Help us continue to improve communities throughout Wisconsin. Share Your Story Support UW-Extension UW-Extension ...

  15. Middle Years. For Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This supplement offers 10 articles focusing on middle school education. Topics include remembering adolescence, resources and teaching tips, active middle school students, adolescent development, challenges in middle school education, integrated studies, planning middle school special events, a writing-science-consumerism miniunit on popcorn,…

  16. Cenozoic extension and magmatism in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, S. J.; Spencer, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Basin and Range Province of Arizona was the site of two episodes of Cenozoic extension that can be distinguished on the basis of timing, direction and style of extension, and associated magmatism. The first episode of extension occurred during Oligocene to mid-Miocene time and resulted in the formation of low-angle detachment faults, ductile shear zones (metamorphic core complexes), and regional domains of tilted fault blocks. Evidence for extreme middle Tertiary crustal extension in a NE to SW to SW to ENE to WSW direction has been recognized in various parts of the Basin and Range of Arizona, especially in the Lake Mead area and along the belf of metamorphic core complexes that crosses southern Arizona from Parker to Tucson. New geologic mapping and scrutiny of published geologic maps indicates that significant middle Tertiary extension is more widely distributed than previously thought. The state can be subdivided into regional tilt-block domains in which middle Tertiary rocks dip consistently in one direction. The dip direction in any tilt-block domain is generally toward the breakaway of a low-angle detachment fault that underlies the tilt-block domain; we interpret this an indicating that normal faults in the upper plate of a detechment fault are generally synthetic, rather than antithetic, with respect to the detachment fault.

  17. Initial analysis of the middle problem in CT image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiansheng; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2017-04-05

    The interior and exterior problems have been extensively studied in the field of reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images, which lead to important theoretical and practical results. In this study, we formulate a middle problem of CT image reconstruction, which is more challenging than either the interior or exterior problems. In the middle problem of CT image reconstruction, projection data are measured through and only through the middle dough-like region, so that each projection profile misses data not only internally but also on both sides. For an object with a radially symmetric exterior, we proved that the middle problem could be uniquely solved if the middle ring-shaped zone is piecewise constant or there is a known sub-region inside this middle region. Then, we designed and evaluated a POCS-based algorithm for middle tomography, which is to reconstruct a middle image only from the available data. Finally, the remaining issues are also discussed for further research.

  18. A comparative kinetic study on ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization of pre-treated gas oil over nanosized MoS2, CoMo-sulfide, and commercial CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Farag, Hamdy; Mochida, Isao

    2012-04-15

    Unsupported nanosized MoS(2) and CoMo-sulfide catalysts were synthesized, and their catalytic performances for the deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of treated gas oil were investigated as compared with that of a CoMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst. The HDS reactions were carried out in a batch autoclave reactor at 340 °C and 3 MPa H(2). The CoMo-sulfide catalyst shows the highest activity and can reduce the sulfur content to less than 10 ppm. The decrease in total sulfur content as a function of reaction time was found to follow pseudo-second order kinetics (empirical form). The change in the concentration of some individual representative sulfur-containing species in gas oil as a function of time was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. However, the change in combined concentration of these species in the gas oil during HDS with the reaction time was found to corroborate pseudo-second-order kinetics. A kinetic model approach was proposed from which an estimation of the intrinsic kinetic data can be achieved. The model fitted the obtained data reasonably well, suggesting its potential for better assessment of the catalytic activity in the HDS of real feedstock. The study reveals that ranking of catalyst activities using model refractory sulfur-containing compounds does not necessarily imply a typical rank in case of investigating the real feedstocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accountability in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Arlen E.; Swoboda, Donald W.

    1972-01-01

    Authors discuss the advantages of the EMIS/SEMIS (Extension Management Information System/State Extension Management Information System), point out some of its deficiencies, and suggest ways to strengthen and improve it. (Editor)

  20. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  1. Perspectives: Middle School Education, 1964-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John H., Ed.

    This collection of essays provides extensive background information and varied views on the history, philosophy, and curriculum of the middle school as a movement or as an educational design for pre- and early adolescents. After a brief prologue by editor John H. Lounsbury, 14 essays by separate authors are presented: "The Junior High School:…

  2. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  3. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  4. Torque-wrench extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Torque-wrench extension makes it easy to install and remove fasteners that are beyond reach of typical wrenches or are located in narrow spaces that prevent full travel of wrench handle. At same time, tool reads applied torque accurately. Wrench drive system, for torques up to 125 inch-pounds, uses 2 standard drive-socket extensions in aluminum frame. Extensions are connected to bevel gear that turns another bevel gear. Gears produce 1:1 turn ratio through 90 degree translation of axis of rotation. Output bevel has short extension that is used to attach 1/4-inch drive socket.

  5. Middle School Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue discusses the special needs of gifted students at the middle school level. It presents several articles, editorials, a California funding update, a program spotlight, an educator profile, a column on educational technology, and a book review. An article by Terry A. Thomas, titled "Middle School Madness," discusses middle schools'…

  6. Through Middle Eastern Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert P.; Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    This book, intended for use with secondary and college students, presents a Middle Eastern view of the Middle East and the world. Most of the material in the book has been written by Middle Easterners, and it comes from a variety of sources including autobiographies, fiction, poetry, newspaper and magazine articles, letters, diaries,…

  7. Effect of 2,6-Bis-(1-hydroxy-1,1-diphenyl-methyl) Pyridine as Organic Additive in Sulfide NiMoP/γ-Al₂O₃ Catalyst for Hydrodesulfurization of Straight-Run Gas Oil.

    PubMed

    Santolalla-Vargas, Carlos Eduardo; Santes, Victor; Meneses-Domínguez, Erick; Escamilla, Vicente; Hernández-Gordillo, Agileo; Gómez, Elizabeth; Sánchez-Minero, Felipe; Escobar, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Goiz, Oscar

    2017-08-15

    The effect of 2,6-bis-(1-hydroxy-1,1-diphenyl-methyl) pyridine (BDPHP) in the preparation of NiMoP/γ-Al₂O₃ catalysts have been investigated in the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of straight-run gas oil. The γ-Al₂O₃ support was modified by surface impregnation of a solution of BDPHP to afford BDPHP/Ni molar ratios (0.5 and 1.0) in the final composition. The highest activity for NiMoP materials was found when the molar ratio of BDPHP/Ni was of 0.5. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that NiMoP (0.5) showed better dispersion of MoO₃ than the NiMoP (1.0). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results indicated that the organic additive interacts with the γ-Al₂O₃ surface and therefore discards the presence of Mo or Ni complexes. Raman spectroscopy suggested a high Raman ratio for the NiMoP (0.5) sample. The increment of the Mo=O species is related to a major availability of Mo species in the formation of MoS₂. The temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results showed that the NiMoP (0.5) displayed moderate metal-support interaction. Likewise, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) exhibited higher sulfurization degree for NiMoP (0.5) compared with NiMoP (1.0). The increment of the MoO₃ dispersion, the moderate metal-support interaction, the increase of sulfurization degree and the increment of Mo=O species provoked by the BDPHP incorporation resulted in a higher gas oil HDS activity.

  8. Priorities for Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  9. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  10. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  11. Preparing Middle School Teachers: What Does a Licensure Program Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    This paper describes the development of a middle childhood level (MCL) teacher preparation program under Ohio licensure requirements. Wright State University developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and middle school field experiences. After graduation, students enter a graduate program…

  12. Correlation between Extension-Block K-wire Insertion Angle and Postoperative Extension Loss in Mallet Finger Fracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S

    2017-10-09

    Extension-block pinning represents a simple and reliable surgical technique. Although this procedure is commonly performed successfully, some patients develop postoperative extension loss. To date, the relationship between extension-block Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship and further evaluate how various operative and non-operative factors affect postoperative extension loss after extension-block pinning for mallet finger fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a relationship between extension block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss. The inclusion criteria were: 1) a dorsal intra-articular fracture fragment involving 30% of the base of the distal phalanx with or without volar subluxation of the distal phalanx; and (2)<3 weeks delay from the injury without treatment. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle and fixation angle of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were assessed using lateral radiograph at immediate postoperative time. Postoperative extension loss was assessed by using lateral radiograph at latest follow-up. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle was defined as the acute angle between extension block K-wire and longitudinal axis of middle phalangeal head. DIP joint fixation angle was defined as the acute angle between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx longitudinal axes. Seventy five patients were included. The correlation analysis revealed that extension-block K-wire insertion angle had a negative correlation with postoperative extension loss, whereas fracture size and time to operation had a positive correlation. (correlation coefficient for extension block K-wire angle: -0.66, facture size:+0.67, time to operation:+0.60) When stratifying patients in terms of negative and positive fixation angle of the DIP joint,the independent t-test showed that mean postoperative extension loss is

  13. Generativity in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Paula

    The study described in this paper was conducted to delineate the phenomenon of generativity in middle-aged adults in an attempt to identify its major characteristics, attributes, determinants, and situational or circumstantial variables. Three themes emerged from a literature survey of materials on middle adulthood: the theme of the entry…

  14. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  15. Mathematics in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.

    This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…

  16. Mathematics in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.

    This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…

  17. Teaching Middle Grades Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science…

  18. Fostering Collaboration: FCS Teachers and Cooperative Extension Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Sharon Jeffcoat; Abdul-Rahman, Fahzy; Cummings, Merrilyn N.; O'Brien, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Commonalities exist between family and consumer sciences (FCS) middle and secondary teachers and Cooperative Extension Service (CES) state and county faculty. From educational backgrounds to the content and societal issues of concern, FCS teachers and CES faculty follow similar paths, with differences in the audiences they reach and the settings…

  19. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  20. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  1. Targeting Extension Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehiley, James M.; William, Ray D.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the readability of publications of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service shows that most are written at the 12th-grade level, though the average Floridian reads at the sixth-grade level. The materials present a barrier to comprehension by limited-resource audiences in Florida. (JOW)

  2. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  3. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  4. Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    pedigree information across communities-of-interest and across network boundaries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ptolemy II, Systems Dynamics, PMESII, National...3 4.2 ADAPT THE PTOLEMY II FRAMEWORK TO ENSURE A WELL-SUITED MODELING...report of activities in the Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework project performed by the Ptolemy Project, University of California, Berkeley for

  5. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  6. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  7. Michigan Middle Start Studies of Middle Start School Improvement, Lake Middle School: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalan, Pritha

    This case study documented the collaboration of Lake Middle School (pseudonym for a school in Michigan) with Middle Start, a middle-grades reform model and its progress and struggles implementing the model. Middle Start was coordinated by the Michigan Middle Start Partnership, and alliance that provided technical assistance, professional…

  8. Subjective Meanings and Identification With Middle Age.

    PubMed

    Dolberg, Pnina; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-01-01

    The "middle-age" life period has not been researched extensively and lacks a theoretical conceptualization. The present study explores subjective experiences of members of this age-group. This is a qualitative research, based on in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, which looks into the life stories of 25 Israeli residents aged 48-64 years. The results indicate that the definition of middle age is not clear-cut, and some participants regard their age negatively. Yet, participants report that this period is characterized by a relief of tasks, broader choice opportunity, a sense of liberation, peace of mind, experience, self-awareness, and self-acceptance. Description of middle age as a peak in life, with concerns about future old age, came up repeatedly. Middle-aged individuals' difficulties to identify with their age-group and the social concept that dichotomizes age into young versus old are discussed. The article calls for further research of and engagement with middle age.

  9. Gamut Extension for Cinema.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Syed Waqas; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmio, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of distortions in hue, chroma, and saturation. User studies performed using a digital cinema projector under cinematic (low ambient light, large screen) conditions show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state of the art, producing gamut extended images that are perceptually more faithful to the wide-gamut ground truth, as well as free of color artifacts and hue shifts. We also show how currently available image quality metrics, when applied to the GE problem, provide results that do not correlate with users' choices.

  10. Modeling the Forced Extension of Nicked DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaeff, Alexander; Craig, Stephen; Beratan, David

    2007-03-01

    The design and study of DNA-based nanodevices has been a topic of considerable interest in the last decade. While the applications of classical continuous DNA structures have been thoroughly studied, nicked DNA structures, i.e., ones that contains breaks (``nicks'') in one or both DNA backbone chains, have received much less attention. Recently, Kersey et al. (JACS, 2004) reported the force spectroscopy of long DNA chains with periodic nicks, self-assembled from short DNA oligomers. We attempt to model the experimental force-extension profiles in a series of steered molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated all-atom model of a basic unit of the long self-assembled chain, a 16bp-long DNA segment with a nick in the middle of one strand, is extended by applying either a constant force or a moving harmonic potential to the DNA ends. The computed force-extension profiles are compared to those for a non-nicked DNA; the dynamics of structural changes in the nicked DNA during the forced extension is discussed. A theoretical framework is established to link the extension and rupture in the simulated basic unit to the corresponding events in the long self-assembled chain.

  11. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, demonstrations, activities, and teaching suggestions on topics appropriate for middle school science including a simple electrolysis cell, conversion factors, energy, solubilities of salts, condensers, and a worksheet for studying coppice woodlands. (DC)

  12. Middle atmospheric electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the advances made during the last few years with respect to the study of the electrodynamics in the earth's middle atmosphere. In a report of the experimental work conducted, attention is given to large middle atmospheric electric fields, the downward coupling of high altitude processes into the middle atmosphere, and upward coupling of tropospheric processes into the middle atmosphere. It is pointed out that new developments in tethered balloons and superpressure balloons should greatly increase the measurement duration of earth-ionospheric potential measurements and of stratospheric electric field measurements in the next few years. Theoretical work considered provides an excellent starting point for study of upward coupling of transient and dc electric fields. Hays and Roble (1979) were the first to construct a model which included orographic features as well as the classical thunderstorm generator.

  13. Middle School Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Teddy J.; Clements, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    After viewing and discussing slides of Van Gogh's and Munch's paintings and studying the principles of color, middle school students had to execute two drawings, one showing any emotion and the second depicting an expressionistic self-portrait. (RM)

  14. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes activities, demonstrations, and materials suitable for middle school science, including investigations on solar energy, surface tension, exploding cottages, worms and light, airplanes, depolarizing simple cells, and the thermal expansion of metals. (JN)

  15. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes activities, demonstrations, and materials suitable for middle school science, including investigations on solar energy, surface tension, exploding cottages, worms and light, airplanes, depolarizing simple cells, and the thermal expansion of metals. (JN)

  16. Wirth Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Wirth Middle School, Cahokia, Illinois. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  17. Middle School Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Teddy J.; Clements, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    After viewing and discussing slides of Van Gogh's and Munch's paintings and studying the principles of color, middle school students had to execute two drawings, one showing any emotion and the second depicting an expressionistic self-portrait. (RM)

  18. Ann Richards Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents photos and basic information about a Texas middle school whose architecture reflects the hybrid culture of the borderlands and "regionalism" in which it is located. A line drawing of the site plan is included. (GR)

  19. Middle-State Caregiving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Insurance Medicare Medicare Part D Benefits Medicaid Tax Deductions & Credits Legal Matters Planning Ahead Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Stages & Behaviors » Middle-Stage Caregiving Text size: A A A ...

  20. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Provides science activities and teaching hints appropriate for the middle school sciences including making a domino "gunpowder fuse" that detonates a mousetrap "bomb," using fishing rods and bicycles as teaching aids, constructing lead holders, and teaching chromatography. (DC)

  1. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Provides science activities and teaching hints appropriate for the middle school sciences including making a domino "gunpowder fuse" that detonates a mousetrap "bomb," using fishing rods and bicycles as teaching aids, constructing lead holders, and teaching chromatography. (DC)

  2. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, demonstrations, activities, and teaching suggestions on topics appropriate for middle school science including a simple electrolysis cell, conversion factors, energy, solubilities of salts, condensers, and a worksheet for studying coppice woodlands. (DC)

  3. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-30

    survey of mosquitoes in Costa Rica, 197 1. Walsh , Robert D., Aedes aegypti Eradication Program, Public Health Service.—Collections in St. Croix...At least a start has been made in nearly every major group of medical importance in Middle America: Aedes , Anopheles, Culex. Deinocerites, Haemago~us...fauna in the area covered by the project. At least a start has been made in nearl y every major group of medical importance in Middle America: Aedes

  4. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  5. Biosignatures in Middle Cambrian Paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L. B.; White, T. S.; Kump, L. R.

    2008-12-01

    Before the advent of plants with spores and body structures that are easily preserved in the fossil record, the evidence for terrestrial ecosystems is limited to observations of their effects on the chemistry of weathering surfaces. Seven paleosols and paleosaprolites from southeast South Dakota and northwest and central Iowa have been analyzed to assess the extent of abiotic weathering and the presence of biosignatures in the Midwestern US during the Middle Cambrian. Evidence for extensive weathering exists on a variety of basement material, from the 1800 Ma Harris granite to the 1100 Ma Keweenawan basalts. All of the weathering profiles are overlain by the Middle Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone, placing their most likely time of development shortly before the advent of vascular plants. All weathering horizons show high chemical indices of alteration, typically >85, and considerable leaching of mobile cations, such as Na, Ca, Mg, and Mn, which is consistent with tropical to subtropical weathering conditions expected for central Laurentia during this interval. Organic carbon contents of <0.2 wt% are present in all weathering horizons, indicating the potential presence of a terrestrial biota. Carbon isotope values for this organic matter are ~-25 permil for paleosols in the western portion of the study area, and ~-23 permil for paleosols in the eastern half. These results are consistent with a photosynthetic origin for the organic matter. Organic matter in the overlying sandstone tends to be lighter than the soil organic matter. At most sites, this difference is 1 permil, except at the Elk Point site, where the difference is 27 permil, suggesting methanotrophic influence on this organic matter. A strong biosignature present at most sites is the near-complete loss of P from the surface. P is an important limiting nutrient in the terrestrial environment. Near-complete apatite dissolution at the surface of most of the weathering horizons is best explained by leaching via

  6. DNA: An Extensible Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluzel, Philippe; Lebrun, Anne; Heller, Christoph; Lavery, Richard; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Chatenay, Didier; Caron, Francois

    1996-02-01

    The force-displacement response of a single duplex DNA molecule was measured. The force saturates at a plateau around 70 piconewtons, which ends when the DNA has been stretched about 1.7 times its contour length. This behavior reveals a highly cooperative transition to a state here termed S-DNA. Addition of an intercalator suppresses this transition. Molecular modeling of the process also yields a force plateau and suggests a structure for the extended form. These results may shed light on biological processes involving DNA extension and open the route for mechanical studies on individual molecules in a previously unexplored range.

  7. Extensive Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-02

    A large coronal hole has been spewing solar wind particles in the general direction of Earth over the past few days (Aug. 31- Sept. 1, 2017). It is the extensive dark area that stretches from the top of the sun and angles down to the right. Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field, which allow charge particles to escape into space. They appear dark in certain wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light such as shown here. These clouds of particles can cause aurora to appear, particularly in higher latitude regions. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21942

  8. Portable Extensible Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Jay G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Nonuniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to represent geometry and data offers a standard way to facilitate the multidisciplinary analysis and design of aeropropulsion products. Using standard geometry defined by NURBS throughout design, analysis, part definition, manufacture, and test processes saves money and time. The Portable Extensible Viewer (PEV) offers engineers of different disciplines a means to view and manipulate NURBS geometry and associated data. Under the guidance of a team of Lewis, Boeing Company, and Navy personnel, PEV was developed by NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division for Lewis' Interdisciplinary Technology Office. The aeropropulsion industry provided input to the design requirements.

  9. Non-extensive radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-14

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  10. Extensive Nonadditivity of Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.

    2009-09-01

    Quantum information theory establishes the ultimate limits on communication and cryptography in terms of channel capacities for various types of information. The private capacity is particularly important because it quantifies achievable rates of quantum key distribution. We study the power of quantum channels with limited private capacity, focusing on channels that dephase in random bases. These display extensive nonadditivity of private capacity: a channel with 2log⁡d input qubits that has a private capacity less than 2, but when used together with a second channel with zero private capacity, the joint capacity jumps to (1/2)log⁡d. In contrast to earlier work which found nonadditivity vanishing as a fraction of input size or conditional on unproven mathematical assumptions, this provides a natural setting manifesting nonadditivity of privacy of the strongest possible sort.

  11. Extensive nonadditivity of privacy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2009-09-18

    Quantum information theory establishes the ultimate limits on communication and cryptography in terms of channel capacities for various types of information. The private capacity is particularly important because it quantifies achievable rates of quantum key distribution. We study the power of quantum channels with limited private capacity, focusing on channels that dephase in random bases. These display extensive nonadditivity of private capacity: a channel with 2logd input qubits that has a private capacity less than 2, but when used together with a second channel with zero private capacity, the joint capacity jumps to (1/2)logd. In contrast to earlier work which found nonadditivity vanishing as a fraction of input size or conditional on unproven mathematical assumptions, this provides a natural setting manifesting nonadditivity of privacy of the strongest possible sort.

  12. [Middle ear physiology].

    PubMed

    Ayerbe, I; Négrevergne, M; Ucelay, R; Sanchez Fernandez, J M

    1999-01-01

    The middle ear forms part of the sound transformer mechanism, together with the outer ear and the conducting system of the inner ear. An intermediate sensory organ, sensitive to acoustic vibration, and linked to the inner ear, the middle ear made its appearance during the period of adaptation of marine creatures to a terrestrial habitat; its presence is therefore a phylogenetic requirement. It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex. If the classical mechanical explanation has been able to explain its function, the conceptualization of its physiology in terms of energy allows an even better understanding, as well as providing and explanation for the paradoxes which arise in clinical practice when the classical model is used.

  13. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  14. Model studies of hydrodesulfurization by Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Friend, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of surface modifiers (Co, S) on activity and selectivity of Mo(110) for desulfurization processes were studied. S generally increases the selectivity for desulfurization while decreasing overall reactivity. Co promots C-H activation processes on Mo(110). The Mo(110)-(9x2)-Co surface affects the desulfurization of 2,5- dihydrothiophene and methanethiol. Vibrational spectroscopy is being used for determining molecular orientation; vibrational frequencies were calculated for four labeled 2-propoxide isomers on Mo(110) and found to agree with experiment.

  15. Predicted configurations of oligosaccharide extensions in the lipooligosaccharide of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Kirk W; Xie, Jingping; Daniel, Deborah; Ulrich-Lewis, Justin Theophilus; Zhang, Lixin

    2014-07-01

    Lipooligosaccharide configurations were predicted in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates based on the presence of seven oligosaccharide extension-initiating genes (or alleles). Predicted configurations with 2 to 3 oligosaccharide extensions were more prevalent among middle ear than throat strains. In addition, strains with these configurations averaged higher levels of serum resistance than strains with other configurations.

  16. Middle atmosphere tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The recent direction of theoretical and observational research in middle atmosphere tides is reviewed. The diurnal tide has received considerable emphasis, including observations of evanescent components at high latitudes, numerical simulations of nonmigrating propagating components due to longitudinally varying water vapor insolation absorption in the troposphere, and implications and origins of unsteadiness in tidal oscillations over periods of days. Recent analyses of Nimbus 7 LIMS temperatures and partial reflection drift measurements of neutral winds in the tropical mesosphere have also emphasized the diurnal propagating tide. A description of the Atmospheric Tides Middle Atmosphere Program (ATMAP) and an overview of ATMAP campaign results are also presented.

  17. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit…

  18. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit…

  19. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  20. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  1. Extensible Wind Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  2. Middle School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the buildings of 22 middle schools, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and design team, a general building description, and general construction costs and specifications. Also provides a rough site plan and photographs. (EV)

  3. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, experiments, and activities useful in middle school science instruction, including demonstrating how strong paper can be, the inclined plane illusion, a simplified diet calculation, a magnetic levitator, science with soap bubbles, a model motor and dynamo, and a pocketed sorter for safety glasses. (SK)

  4. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presented are six activities suitable for middle grades. They include programs for voting, creating Logo patterns, and for selecting a writing topic. Other activities focus on use of the colon and FOR/NEXT loop in BASIC and evaluating programs. (JN)

  5. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  6. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the middle grades. They focus on Logo activities to sharpen visualization skills, use of spreadsheets, various uses of Apple microcomputer paddles, and writing a program from program output. All activities may be adapted for lower or higher grade levels. (JN)

  7. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  8. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Discusses indoor rocketry and use of a vivid model of human birth. Also discusses information (momentum/force) indicating how a motorcycle can be driven up around the increasing slope of an elliptical path, a food testing worksheet, and a worksheet on light for upper elementary/lower middle school students. Includes sample worksheets. (Author/JN)

  9. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Activities for middle/junior high school students are presented, including use of string variables, science lesson ideas, computer scavenger hunt, and guidelines for interviewing people who own/use computers. Includes "I'll Write...Just Lead Me to My Computer" by Robert Engberg, discussing word processing instruction. (JN)

  10. The Middle Income Squeeze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  11. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer-oriented teaching activities for the middle grades. They focus on Logo activities to sharpen visualization skills, use of spreadsheets, various uses of Apple microcomputer paddles, and writing a program from program output. All activities may be adapted for lower or higher grade levels. (JN)

  12. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Activities for middle/junior high school students are presented, including use of string variables, science lesson ideas, computer scavenger hunt, and guidelines for interviewing people who own/use computers. Includes "I'll Write...Just Lead Me to My Computer" by Robert Engberg, discussing word processing instruction. (JN)

  13. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrations, experiments, and classroom activities/materials for middle school science are presented. These include: additive color mixing demonstration; electricity activity and worksheet; atmospheric pressure "magic" demonstration; homemade microbalance; energy from soap bubbles; and a model used to demonstrate muscle pairs and how…

  14. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, experiments, and activities useful in middle school science instruction, including demonstrating how strong paper can be, the inclined plane illusion, a simplified diet calculation, a magnetic levitator, science with soap bubbles, a model motor and dynamo, and a pocketed sorter for safety glasses. (SK)

  15. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

  16. The Forgotten Middle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been heightened awareness of the importance of early childhood education and high school as intervention points in the educational lives of America's children. Less attention has been paid to the importance of the upper elementary grades and middle school and the role they must play in the preparation of students for…

  17. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Explains some middle school science demonstrations and experiments: included are a simplified circuit board, a scheme for the identification of plastics, a soot-free bunsen burner, science in a packet of cornflakes, and perceptual ambiguities with a "Chinese Compass." (GA)

  18. Utopia Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  19. Middle Start Technology Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Holly

    Equity is an important part of technology education. Without adequate equipment and training, schools shortchange students and limit their ability to compete with their more fortunate peers. This is especially important at the middle school level because computer assisted instruction not only taps into adolescents' natural curiosity, but also can…

  20. Middle School Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrations, experiments, and classroom activities/materials for middle school science are presented. These include: additive color mixing demonstration; electricity activity and worksheet; atmospheric pressure "magic" demonstration; homemade microbalance; energy from soap bubbles; and a model used to demonstrate muscle pairs and how…

  1. Middle School Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Kallio, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of primary resources in the teaching of middle school social studies. Describes a lesson in which students were given a copy of the Declaration of Independence, written in everyday language, and were asked to discuss and evaluate it. Suggests another activity based on Thomas Jefferson's writings. (SG)

  2. The Middle School Plunge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Schwerdt, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers nationwide continue to wrestle with a basic question: At what grade level should students move to a new school? In the most common grade configuration in American school districts, public school students make two school transitions, entering a middle school in grade 6 or 7 and a high school in grade 9. This pattern reflects the…

  3. School Culture and Performance at Different Middle Level Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Martin Omar

    2010-01-01

    American educators and researchers have spent decades attempting to determine the most effective middle level school configuration. Although various models have been conceptualized in order to resolve one of our most extensive educational reform movements, a recent nationwide increase in K-8 schools suggest interested parties have accepted the K-8…

  4. School Culture and Performance at Different Middle Level Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Martin Omar

    2010-01-01

    American educators and researchers have spent decades attempting to determine the most effective middle level school configuration. Although various models have been conceptualized in order to resolve one of our most extensive educational reform movements, a recent nationwide increase in K-8 schools suggest interested parties have accepted the K-8…

  5. A Multiyear Investigation of Combating Bullying in Middle School: Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, David; Burns, Mallory; Desai, Poonam; Grunewald, Stephanie; Pitt, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Working collaboratively to address bullying among middle school students is an ongoing challenge. This study used participatory action research to collaborate with key stakeholders within a middle school to identify needs and implement more effective practices. Extensive qualitative and quantitative data are presented, along with process…

  6. Ohio's Middle Childhood Licensure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paula M.; Ross, Diane; Miller, Jennifer; Dever, Robin; Jones, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe middle level prepared teachers' perceptions of their practices after completing an Ohio Middle Childhood: Grades 4-9 teacher education program. Using the National Middle School Association/National Council of Accreditation of Teacher Education Initial Level Teacher Preparation Standards (2001)…

  7. Middle management of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the middle manager in a research organization is discussed. The middle manager serves as a liaison between upper management and researchers to assure that individual research projects manifest the goals of the organization. The author draws on his long experience in this role to describe management practices that have proven successful. A general discussion is presented of the makeup of a research environment, derived from a study of a division involved in aerospace research and development (R and D). The study emphasized the importance of planning and management style in producing an attractive environment. Management practices are described, which include goal setting, planning, staffing, reviewing and evaluating, and rewarding. The importance of selecting and defining an appropriate research area is discussed. It is emphasized that in relating to the staff the middle manager must cultivate the human side of supervision, develop the art of delegating responsibility, judiciously select facilities, and provide recognition and meaningful rewards to develop a productive research staff. The development of the staff is probably the most important and challenging role of the manager.

  8. The middle Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of scattered light above the planetary limb from 116 Viking Orbiter images are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of aerosols suspended in the Martian atmosphere. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometry, providing information about the aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes, a continuous haze, interpreted to have a large dust component, extends from as much as 50 km to the surface. The haze distribution exhibits an annual variation that reflects a seasonally driven circulation in the middle atmosphere. The potential role of stationary gravity waves in modifying the middle atmosphere circulation is explored using a linear theory applied to a realistic Martian environment. Martian topography derived from radar observations is decomposed into Fourier harmonics and used to linearly superpose gravity waves arising from each component. The larger amplitude topography on Mars combined with the absence of extended regions of smooth topography like oceans generates larger wave amplitudes than on the Earth. The circulation of the middle atmosphere is examined using a two-dimensional, linearized, axisymmetric model successfully employed in the study of the terrestrial mesosphere. Illustrations of temperature and wind speeds are presented for the southern summer solstice and southern spring equinox.

  9. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected.

  10. The dynamics of continental extension and divergent margin formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, D.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Continental breakup is a highly variable process. Differences occur in the relative timing and extent of volcanism, uplift, and graben formation as well as in the mode and amount of continental extension before breakup. The authors propose a model that reconciles this variability with the previously recognized tendency for breakup to occur along preexisting weak trends. Continental lithosphere is viewed as a composite material composed of two strong layers, one in the upper mantle and one in the middle crust. Finite element simulation indicates that extensional failure at weaknesses in the mantle causes concentrated extension in the mantle and diffuse extension in the crust. This leads to early melt segregation and volcanism, margin uplift during the late stages of the extension process, and relatively narrow symmetrical extended margins. In contrast, failure at weaknesses in the crustal strong zone causes focused extension in the crust and diffuse extension in the mantle. This produces initial graben formation, cooling in the lower crust and upper mantle, and broad asymmetrical extended margins. Volcanism only occurs late in the process. Failure at laterally offset weaknesses within both strong layers, perhaps the most common case, leads to a deformation pattern dominated by simple shear. Thus, differences in the prerift configuration of the continental lithosphere can control the overall style of continental breakup. They find that certain features of the evolution of the US Atlantic margin, particularly the formation of the hinge zone and the distribution and timing of extension may be better explained using these models.

  11. 35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1908, SHEET NO. 7. Aperture card 6498-7. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWARAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1909, SHEET NO. 11. Aperture card 6498-11. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Burnout among Extension Agents in the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igodan, O. Chris; Newcomb, L. H.

    A study examined the extent and causes of burnout among extension agents in Ohio. From the 241 extension agents working in the 88 counties of Ohio, researchers selected a random sample of 101 agents. Included in the sample were 34 agriculture agents, 33 home economics agents. Included in the sample agents were asked to complete a survey…

  14. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  15. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  16. Extra middle turbinate lamellas: a suggested new classification.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, Mohannad A

    2015-10-01

    Proper knowledge of sinonasal configurations and anatomical structural variations is essential to perform safe endoscopic sinus surgery. Although common middle turbinate variations have been well described in literature, rare variations have not. The aims of this study are to revise the nomenclature of extra middle turbinate lamellas variations and suggest an easy classification system of these lamellas. A retrospective charts and medical records review was performed for consecutive cases that were diagnosed with extra lamella middle turbinate based on endoscopic and stander three-dimensional reconstruction computer tomography scan at a tertiary academic center. After extensive literature review, these lamellas were classified into four types depending on the presence or absence of uncinate process and their morphological configuration. Twenty-two subjects (mean age 35 years; 8 men and 14 women) were identified who had thirty extra middle turbinate lamellas. Nasal obstruction and discharge were the most common presenting symptoms. Accessory middle turbinate was the most common extra lamella been observed and bifid inferior turbinate was the least common. Ten patients (45 %) had an accompanied middle turbinate anatomical variations, 9 (41 %) had nasal septum deviation, 11 (50 %) had associated maxillary or ethmoid sinusitis and 5 (23 %) had hypoplastic maxillary sinus. Extra middle turbinate lamella is a rare type of middle turbinate anatomical variation that can be diagnosed by careful endoscopic examination and a precise computer tomography scan review. These lamellas may have a significant association with mucosa pathologies and are commonly seen with other common middle turbinate variations. Correct description and the use of common terminology can help to further evaluate the incidence of lamellas, their pathophysiological role, and to avoid any intraoperative landmark confusion.

  17. The middle manager role in energy company environmental efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhoff, Maya E.

    2005-12-01

    This research examines the internal organizational processes determining corporate environmental action. Corporations have a tremendous environmental impact, yet relatively little is known about how employees within them view and work on these issues. The research focused on middle managers, a level of the company whose value is often questioned. Interviews were conducted with 70 middle managers at two energy companies (comprising utilities and unregulated businesses). Interviews examined the shape and significance of middle manager involvement in environmental issues, looking specifically at what issues middle managers deal with, what goals they pursue, and what approaches they use. The research finds middle managers' roles with respect to environmental issues to be far-reaching and complex. Much of their effort is focused on meeting regulatory requirements ("complying"). They are committed to compliance, in part for ethical reasons, but often find regulations frustrating and costly. Compliance is more challenging than commonly thought; it demands time, knowledge, and substantial creativity. In pursuing it, interviewees work with employees throughout the organization. This research shows middle managers interacting with those hierarchically above and below them in ways that greatly modify earlier portrayals of middle managers. Earlier portrayals often emphasized struggles for power within the organization. Here, middle managers work in ways best characterized as collaborative and supportive. Middle managers also have extensive involvement laterally within the company and with groups outside the company. These links have received modest attention in literature, yet are found to be terribly important. Middle managers' lateral efforts inside the company, often on teams, allow diverse expertise (e.g., from people in different functions) to be applied to environmental issues. Documenting middle managers' involvement externally, with governmental officials and sectors

  18. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  19. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  20. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  1. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  2. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  3. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  4. Apples, Oranges, and Extension Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, K. Robert

    1979-01-01

    The author states that a common factor in comparing one extension method to another is the interaction involving a subject concept and a member of the target audience. He outlines approaches that extension personnel may use to compare effectiveness of meetings, publications, mass media, etc., in reading their audience. (MF)

  5. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  6. GNU Fortran Cray Pointer Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, J. A.

    2005-07-27

    The gfortran compiler is a Fortran front end to the GNU Compiler Collection. The Cray Pointer extension adds to this existing compiler support for Cray-style integer pointers. This non-standard but widely used extension adds the functionality of C-like pointers to the Fortran language.

  7. The middle way

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, R. B.; Pines, David; Schmalian, Joerg; Stojković, Branko P.; Wolynes, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Mesoscopic organization in soft, hard, and biological matter is examined in the context of our present understanding of the principles responsible for emergent organized behavior (crystallinity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, etc.) at long wavelengths in very large aggregations of particles. Particular attention is paid to the possibility that as-yet-undiscovered organizing principles might be at work at the mesoscopic scale, intermediate between atomic and macroscopic dimensions, and the implications of their discovery for biology and the physical sciences. The search for the existence and universality of such rules, the proof or disproof of organizing principles appropriate to the mesoscopic domain, is called the middle way. PMID:10618366

  8. Kinematic model for postorogenic Basin and Range extension

    SciTech Connect

    Malavieille, J.; Taboada, A. )

    1991-06-01

    The Raft River extensional shear zone is exposed in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex. Several studies of ductile deformation have shown that it accommodated crustal stretching in Tertiary time during late orogenic collapse of the thickened Cordilleran crust. Progressive deformation that results from mixed pure and simple shear produces a complex strain pattern along the shear zone. The authors propose a numerical kinematic model that relates strain variations in the shear zone to the different amounts of extension between the brittlely extended upper plate rocks and the undeformed lower plate rocks. A possible hypothesis for postorogenic crustal extension involves diffuse heterogeneous extension and flow in the ductile lower crust and localized extensional shear zones in the middle and upper crust.

  9. Kinematic model for postorogenic Basin and Range extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavieille, Jacques; Taboada, Alfredo

    1991-06-01

    The Raft River extensional shear zone is exposed in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex. Several studies of ductile deformation have shown that it accommodated crustal stretching in Tertiary time during late orogenic collapse of the thickened Cordilleran crust. Progressive deformation that results from mixed pure and simple shear produces a complex strain pattern along the shear zone. We propose a numerical kinematic model that relates strain variations in the shear zone to the different amounts of extension between the brittlely extended upper plate rocks and the undeformed lower plate rocks. A possible hypothesis for postorogenic crustal extension involves diffuse heterogeneous extension and flow in the ductile lower crust and localized extensional shear zones in the middle and upper crust.

  10. Seismicity and kinematic evolution of middle Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, A.; Abdel-Monem, S. M.; Sakr, K.; Ali, Sh. M.

    2006-08-01

    Based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as recent GPS measurements, the seismicity and kinematic evaluation of middle Egypt is presented. Middle Egypt suffered in historical times by six major earthquakes and the Ramses II temple on the west bank of the Nile in Luxor, was almost destroyed by an ancient event. The temporal distribution of recent earthquakes (1900-1997) is highly scattered with only nine events recorded. Only after the installation of the modern Egyptian national seismograph network (ENSN) the seismic record of middle Egypt increased with a total of 280 earthquakes from 1998 to 2004. Focal mechanism solutions of the largest five events during the ENSN's operation period reveal reverse faulting mechanism with minor strike-slip component on the west bank of the Nile, while a normal faulting mechanism dominate in the eastern side. The orientations of both P- and T-axes are consistent with the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez stress field. Dynamic source parameters of these five events were derived from P-wave spectra as well. Three campaigns of GPS measurements were carried out for the middle Egypt network that established after the first instrumental earthquake on 14 December 1998 in this area. The velocity vectors for each epoch of observations were calculated and deformation analysis was performed. The horizontal velocity varies between 1 and 4 mm/year across the network. The deformation pattern suggests significant contraction across the southeastern sector of the study area while, the northwestern part is characterized by an extension strain rates. High shear strain is observed along the epicenteral area of the Mw = 4.0 June 2003 earthquake possibly reflecting the stress accumulation stage of a seismic cycle.

  11. Toxicology for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Ruth N.; Parrish, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment that demonstrates that common substances, whether or not the students think of them as medicines, drugs of abuse, or foods, have toxic effects on Daphnia. Combines an inexpensive hands-on experiment with extensive discussion to help the students think about chemical concentration, potency, and the difference between harmful…

  12. Toxicology for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Ruth N.; Parrish, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment that demonstrates that common substances, whether or not the students think of them as medicines, drugs of abuse, or foods, have toxic effects on Daphnia. Combines an inexpensive hands-on experiment with extensive discussion to help the students think about chemical concentration, potency, and the difference between harmful…

  13. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-05

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ISS Update: Guillen Middle School

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries and Operations Support Officer Cassandra Rodriquez answer questions from Guillen Middle School students in El Paso, TX. Rodriquez also discusses her role...

  15. Nothing in the Middle: What Middle Schoolers Are Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traw, Rick

    A study examined what kinds of books middle schoolers will read when given the freedom to choose. Subjects were 55 children of middle-class parents enrolled in 2 sections of eighth-grade English at a university laboratory school. Of the original population of 55 students, 7 elected not to have data from their reading included, and records were not…

  16. Developmental Characteristics of Middle Schoolers and Middle School Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, Hershel D.

    The extent to which the middle school becomes a true educational alternative is directly related to the ability of middle school educators and researchers to identify and investigate the developmental needs and learning capacities of students. Three important developmental characteristics of early adolescents are a high need for peer friendships,…

  17. Putting Extension on a Spot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, James E.

    1970-01-01

    Between and during television programs from WNBF-TV, Binghamton, New York, the Extension Service is providing public service announcements giving information on nutrition, food stamps, forage pests, outdoor recreation, farm safety, environmental quality, and many other subjects. (EB)

  18. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  19. Duplicated middle cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion.

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  1. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  2. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, K. H.

    2008-05-01

    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history

  3. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  4. The Middle Ages: Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a four-volume reference set for elementary and middle school students called "The Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia for Students" edited by William Chester Jordan. Provides a sample lesson which includes library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedures for…

  5. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    PubMed

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed.

  6. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also can cause painful pressure changes in the middle ear, so a child may eat less than normal or have trouble ... There's no single best approach for treating all middle ear infections. In deciding how to manage your child's ear infection, your doctor will consider many things, ...

  7. Calculus in the Middle School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  8. Middle School Organization and Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Nancy J.

    The major purpose of this report is to present information about the organization of middle schools in the school district of Philadelphia. The report includes: (1) summary information on rostering/scheduling practices; and (2) comparisons of promotion/retention rates, average daily attendance, and suspension rates in middle schools with different…

  9. Musicals Enrich Middle School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas D.; North, Rita

    2005-01-01

    An enriching fine arts program has long been advocated as an essential element of an effective middle school program. The vocal music program at Pleasant Hill (Missouri) Middle School supports student growth and development beyond the regular classroom. It supports students' existing skills and talents and provides opportunities for them to…

  10. Calculus in the Middle School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  11. A Voice from the Middle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2007-01-01

    "Whatever were they thinking?" Anyone who has worked with middle level students for any length of time has certainly had that thought pass through his or her mind too many times to count. Although middle level educators may puzzle at the complex, confusing, and often contradictory thought process of young adolescents, they can learn a great deal…

  12. Mining the Middle School Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawter, David

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students are walking dichotomies. They can talk about world peace and then hit the kid next to them. They can recycle to ease global warming only to leave the cafeteria a mess. Why? Well, scientifically, it is because their brains do not work. When people look at middle school students, they can plainly see evidence of physical…

  13. Musicals Enrich Middle School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas D.; North, Rita

    2005-01-01

    An enriching fine arts program has long been advocated as an essential element of an effective middle school program. The vocal music program at Pleasant Hill (Missouri) Middle School supports student growth and development beyond the regular classroom. It supports students' existing skills and talents and provides opportunities for them to…

  14. Mining the Middle School Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawter, David

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students are walking dichotomies. They can talk about world peace and then hit the kid next to them. They can recycle to ease global warming only to leave the cafeteria a mess. Why? Well, scientifically, it is because their brains do not work. When people look at middle school students, they can plainly see evidence of physical…

  15. Key Characteristics of Middle School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Nyman, Terri R.

    2008-01-01

    This research project examined student performance in middle schools with a grade configuration of six through eight. Schools were categorized into two groups: high-performing middle schools--middle schools making adequate yearly progress for two consecutive school years, and low-performing middle schools--middle schools not making adequate yearly…

  16. Middle School Adventures in Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, S. S.; Pertzborn, R. A.

    1998-09-01

    During the summer of 1998 the UW-Madison Office of Space Science Education (OSSE) developed and implemented a pilot summer school program to improve the math and science performance of middle school students. The program focused on the subject of solar system exploration for the summer school offered by the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for middle school students. OSSE staff collaborated with science, math, and technology teachers from two middle schools (Milwaukee Education Center and Bell Middle School) to expand upon a series of hands-on, interdisciplinary lesson plans originally developed to accompany the Planetary Society's Red Rover, Red Rover Program. For six weeks, sixty inner city middle school students had the opportunity to explore new worlds as far reaching as Mars, Mercury, Titania, Uranus and Pluto with the assistance of Planetary Scientists and staff from the UW-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center. Students were provided with computers and internet connections by AT&T to conduct on-line research on their own research topic relating to planetary exploration. Based on their own research efforts, teams of five or six students wrote a mission statement and then proceeded to create a terrain resembling their desired planetary target. Team engineers then built a computer operated Lego Dacta rover designed especially for exploring the unique features of their targeted planet. In addition to strengthening their science and math skills, students also focused on the improvement of their communication skills by maintaining a daily journal of their experiences, tribulations and successes. Students were tested in the beginning and again at the end of the program. An independent group from University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee performed overall assessment of the summer program. Based on the overall success in achieving performance enchmarks, the Milwaukee Public Schools and UW-Extension Learning Innovations Center have elected to collaborate with the OSSE to

  17. [Middle ear cholesteatoma].

    PubMed

    Ayache, D; Schmerber, S; Lavieille, J P; Roger, G; Gratacap, B

    2006-06-01

    Cholesteatoma is a serious form of chronic otitis media. The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art of disease management, including recent data from the literature and the authors' derived from their Mentors' teaching, Professor Pierre Roulleau (Paris, France) and Professor Robert Charachon (Grenoble, France). The main recent advances concern the use of cartilage grafts to reconstruct the canal wall and/or tympanic membrane (allowing a significant reduction in residual cholesteatoma) and progress in medical imaging allowing more acute preoperative determination of extension of the cholesteatoma (in order to propose an optimally designed surgical technique) and a less invasive postoperative follow-up.

  18. Basement extension and salt mobility, southern Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, H.R.; Legall, F.

    1986-05-01

    The Grand Banks, an especially wide cratonic segment of the North American Atlantic continental shelf, extended vigorously during Late Triassic-Aptian rift-phase episodes, accompanied by syntectonic basin filling and large-scale structural disruption. Thereafter, the rift-disrupted domain underwent drift-phase subsidence and was buried by a seaward-prograding continental terrace wedge, in which progressively feeble extension is evident. Rift-faulted cratonic basement is perceptible on industry-acquired reflection seismic profiles from the southern Grand Banks. The profiles also show that Carboniferous and Lower Jurassic salt were the main levels of supracrustal detachment during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous extension. Large salt-mobilized structures within the rift-phase succession include fault-zone sheaths, elongate pillows, aligned piercement spires, and immense walls. These elements parallel large extension faults in basement and, in many places, are superposed on the faults. In striking contrast, upper Aptian and younger drift-phase strata are regionally subhorizontal, and are broken to middle and late Tertiary stratigraphic levels by only a few small extension faults and aligned diapirs. The authors interpret the structural/stratigraphic relationships in the southern Grand Banks to indicate that episodic Mesozoic and Cenozoic basement extension was the principal dynamic agent in determining the timing of salt structures, their orientations, and styles of disruption on enclosing strata. This genetic association may be applicable to other parts of the Grand Banks tectonic province, and possibly to other extensional cratonic margin basins.

  19. China in the Middle East: The Wary Dragon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-05

    focused on energy security, as well as attempting to “rebalance” its domestic , foreign, and security policies so that these are less skewed in...fear domestic discontent.29 According to one Chinese analyst: “The Middle East is a strategic extension of China’s periphery.” That analyst, Li... domestic criticism. The safety of Chinese citizens abroad is a key component of China’s overseas interests—an increasingly noteworthy type of national

  20. [A case of trigeminal neurinoma with marked extracranial extension].

    PubMed

    Fushimi, S; Miura, S; Suda, Y; Fujii, S; Kowada, M

    1987-10-01

    A case of trigeminal neurinoma with marked extracranial extension is reported with a review of the literature. A 60-year-old female noticed numbness over the left side of the face during the proceeding 15 years. Two years prior to admission, she began to complain of itching and lancinating pain at the left lateral aspect of the nose. Neurologic examination on admission revealed diminished corneal reflex on the left side and hypesthesia in the distribution of the left trigeminal nerve. There was no weakness or atrophy of the ipsilateral masticatory muscles. The remaining cranial nerves and cerebellar functions were normal. Craniograms showed destruction of the left petrous apex, enlargement of the left superior orbital fissure and an extensive bone defect in the floor of the left middle cranial fossa. CT disclosed a huge heterogeneously enhancing mass lesion in the left middle cranial fossa, which extended posteriorly into the left cerebellopontine angle and inferiorly into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Cerebral angiograms revealed medial displacement of the left internal cerebral artery in the ganglionic, cavernous and supraclinoid portions, and elevation of the left middle cerebral artery in the sphenoidal portion. Although the left meningohypophyseal trunk was dilated, no tumor stain was observed. A transantral biopsy specimen provided the diagnosis of neurinoma with Antoni type A tissue. The patient was followed up at the outpatient clinic as radical operations were not agreed upon. Eight cases of trigeminal neurinoma with extracranial extension are reviewed including the presented case. There were two males and six females, and the age varied from 16 to 65 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. On extensions of Leibniz algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimov, I. S.; Said Husain, Sh. K.; Mohammed, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study extensions of Leibniz algebras using the annihilator approach. The extensions methods have been used earlier to classify certain classes of algebras. In the paper we first review and adjust theoretical background of the method for Leibniz algebras then apply it to classify four-dimensional Leibniz algebras over a field K. We obtain complete classification of four-dimensional nilpotent Leibniz algebras. The main idea of the method is to transfer the “base change” action to an action of automorphism group of the algebras of smaller dimension on cocycles constructed by the annihilator extensions. The method can be used to classify low-dimensional Leibniz algebras over other finite fields as well.

  2. Middle Archean continent formation by crustal delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, Tanja E.; van Keken, Peter E.

    2001-12-01

    The processes that created the first large cratonic areas such as the Pilbara and the Kaapvaal remain poorly understood. Models based on the uniformitarian extrapolation of present-day arc volcanic processes to a hotter early Earth have not adequately explained the observations in these terranes. Here we propose an alternative mechanism for the formation of the earliest continental crust. The formation of continental crust may be achieved by delamination of the lower eclogitic part of an oceanic plateau like protocrust. Such delamination results in uplift, extension, and the production of tonalite, trondhjemite, and granodiorite (TTG) suites as recorded in Middle Archean cratons. The available geologic and geophysical observations in combination with model calculations permit this scenario as an alternative to subduction-based hypotheses.

  3. The Telescope Array's Middle Drum Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, S.A.; Cady, R.; Jui, C.C.H.; Matthews, J.N.; Rodribuez, D.; Smith, J.D.; Thomas, S.B.

    The Telescope Array Project (TA) is an Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Observatory in central Utah. It performs a hybrid measurement of the extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. The two detector systems are 1) an array of 576 scintillation detectors and 2) three fluorescence telescope observatories which overlook the ground array. The Telescope Array will measure the study spectral shape, chemical composition of primary cosmic rays, and search for sources. Additionally, it seeks to understand the difference between the HiRes (High Resolution Fly's Eye) and AGASA (Akeno Giant Air Shower Array) spectra. The Middle Drum Observatory has been instrumented using refurbished telescopes from the HiRes-I Observatory at Dugway. We will discuss the detectors, modifications to aid calibration and analysis, and the first data from this observatory.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of neurite extension.

    PubMed Central

    Valtorta, F; Leoni, C

    1999-01-01

    The extension of neurites is a major task of developing neurons, requiring a significant metabolic effort to sustain the increase in molecular synthesis necessary for plasma membrane expansion. In addition, neurite extension involves changes in the subsets of expressed proteins and reorganization of the cytomatrix. These phenomena are driven by environmental cues which activate signal transduction processes as well as by the intrinsic genetic program of the cell. The present review summarizes some of the most recent progress made in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. PMID:10212488

  5. Global middle Pliocene biome reconstruction: A data/model synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Valdes, Paul J.; Francis, Jane E.; Sellwood, Bruce W.

    2002-12-01

    The middle Pliocene warm interval (ca. 3 Ma BP) has been extensively studied. However, our knowledge concerning the global distribution of middle Pliocene biomes remains far from complete. This paper presents the results from a "first attempt" at simulating the distribution of different mid-Pliocene biomes using an advanced numerical general circulation climate model (Hadley Centre Atmospheric Model Version 3) and the BIOME 4 vegetation model. The modeling indicates that during the middle Pliocene the geographical coverage of tundra type biomes may have been significantly reduced compared with the present day in the Northern Hemisphere. High-latitude forests expand in the place of tundra forms of vegetation. Total area covered by forest increases for the Pliocene case compared with the present day. Arid deserts become less prevalent in the Pliocene scenario and are replaced by tropical xerophytic shrublands and savanna-type vegetation. These results compare favorably with geological data in general and with the U.S. Geological Survey's PRISM2 middle Pliocene vegetation reconstruction, although data/model inconsistencies are apparent. Although some of these inconsistencies relate to the weaknesses of the climate and biome model employed, others identify deficiencies in the extant geological data set or the interpretation of this data. This modeled biome reconstruction will serve as a useful vehicle for aiding in future comparisons between geological data on middle Pliocene biomes and model predictions.

  6. Isokinetic Leg Flexion and Extension Strength of Elite Adolescent Female Track and Field Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Adolescent female track-and-field athletes were measured to compare isokinetic strength of leg flexion and extension movements. Throwers, jumpers, middle-distance runners, and sprinters participated in the study. Throwers were found to be stronger in absolute strength, but there were no significant differences in relative strength. Results are…

  7. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  8. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chris Y; Riangwiwat, Tanawan; Nakamoto, Beau K

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.

  9. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  10. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  11. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  12. Strategic Opportunities for Cooperative Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this new century, opportunities exist to help advance America's greatness in the midst of many challenges. Energy, water, food, environment, health, economic productivity, global competitiveness, and the quality of the living environments are all paramount to the future. Extension is, as a part of higher education, prepared to create new…

  13. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.

    2007-09-01

    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  14. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  15. Effective Public Relations in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Public relations efforts of the Carroll County (Ohio) extension office included periodic reports to legislators, a toll-free number distributed on refrigerator magnets, annual calendar/report to the public, newspaper supplements, and town meetings. Long-term effects were a 116% increase in funding, used to upgrade staff, programs, and…

  16. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  17. Unstable extension of Enceladus' lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Michael T.; Beyer, Ross A.; Showman, Adam P.

    2007-12-01

    Regions near Enceladus' equator, Sarandib and Diyar Planitia, contain extensive sets of parallel ridges and troughs that may be diagnostic of the region's formation conditions. We present photoclinometry profiles across these ridges and troughs, which indicate that they are periodic, low-slope features with dominant wavelengths of 3 to 4 km and amplitudes between 100 and 400 m. The morphology of these terrains is consistent with formation via unstable extension of the lithosphere. Our numerical modeling demonstrates that unstable extension can generate large-scale topography under Enceladus-like conditions. Comparison of our photoclinometry profiles with the dominant wavelengths produced by our numerical model permits estimation of the background heat flow at the time the Sarandib-Diyar province formed. We estimate heat flows of 110 to 220mWm, suggesting that resurfacing of the planitiae was accompanied by strong, localized heating. The extension necessary to produce the ridges and troughs may have been caused by now-inactive diapirs, internal phase changes, or other mechanisms. Our heat flux estimates imply elastic thickness at the time of resurfacing of 0.4 to 1.4 km, which are sufficient to have allowed satellite reorientation if the province was underlain by a low-density region. It is therefore plausible that Enceladus has experienced multiple heating events, each leading to localized resurfacing and global reorientation.

  18. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  19. Extensions: Extrapolation Methods for CAD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    extension parameter ft. Pseudocode on how to compute these intermediate points can be found in the book by Farin [1]. We can easily extend this method...knowledge. Thanks to Sreedharan Vijayan for generating Figure 2. References 1. Farin , G. E., Curves and Surfaces for CAGD, Academic Press, San Diego, 1996

  20. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Arai, Koji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-26

    NACRE, the 'nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Universite Libre de Brussels (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  1. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  2. Removing the Tension from Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  3. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  4. Endoscopic transnasal resection of ameloblastoma with intracranial extension.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Royce W; Abel, Taylor J; Fletcher, Aaron; Grossbach, Andrew; Van Daele, Douglas J; O'Brien, Erin; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2014-05-01

    Ameloblastoma is a rare odontogenic tumor with characteristics of epithelial tissue that produces enamel for the developing tooth. This lesion is generally considered benign, but has malignant forms that invade locally and metastasize. We present a 60-year-old man with maxillary ameloblastoma that after multiple recurrences developed intracranial extension with dural involvement of the middle cranial fossa and was treated by endoscopic transnasal resection followed by radiation therapy. Our technique and intraoperative findings are described with a review of the literature on intracranial ameloblastoma. This patient represents a unique account of endoscopic transnasal resection being utilized in the treatment of intracranial extension of ameloblastoma and demonstrates potential for application in similar cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Middle Cerebral Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Liou, Michelle; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chou, Ming-Chung; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Calcification of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is uncommon in the healthy elderly. Whether calcification of the MCA is associated with cerebral ischemic stroke remains undetermined. We intended to investigate the association using Agatston calcium scoring of the MCA. This study retrospectively included 354 subjects with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory and 1518 control subjects who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. We recorded major known risk factors for ischemic stroke, including age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, along with the MCA calcium burden, measured with the Agatston calcium scoring method. Univariate and modified logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the MCA calcification and ischemic stroke. The univariate analyses showed significant associations of ischemic stroke with age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total MCA Agatston score, and the presence of calcification on both or either side of the MCA. Subjects with the presence of MCA calcification on both or either side of the MCA were 8.46 times (95% confidence interval, 4.93–14.53; P < 0.001) more likely to have a cerebral infarct than subjects without MCA calcification after adjustment for the major known risk factors, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, a higher degree of MCA calcification reflected by the Agatston score was not associated with higher risk of MCA ischemic stroke after adjustment for the confounding factors and presence of MCA calcification. These results suggest that MCA calcification is associated with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory. Further prospective studies are required to verify the clinical implications of the MCA calcification. PMID:26683969

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also been found in camels and in one bat. While it is believed to come from animals, ... Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated December 2, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  7. The Popularization of Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1979-01-01

    Books, magazines, and newspapers for the general public have discovered middle age and, in spite of an exaggeration of mid-life crisis, provide adults with a broader perspective on mid-life adjustments. (SK)

  8. Crafts in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, D. I. R.

    1972-01-01

    In the middle years of schooling, size, measurement, shape and form build up a child's mathematical and visual concepts. A restless drive to create, to see what happens in making something, can provide the driving force in crafts. (Editor)

  9. Middle atmosphere general circulation statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    With the increased availability of remote sensing data for the middle atmosphere from satellites, more analyses of the middle atmosphere circulation are being published. Some of these are process studies for limited periods, and some are statistical analyses of middle atmosphere general circulation statistics. Results from the latter class of studies will be reviewed. These include analysis of the zonally averaged middle atmosphere structure, temperature, and zonal winds; analysis of planetary wave structures, analysis of heat and momentum fluxes; and analysis of Eliassen-and-Palm flux vectors and flux divergences. Emphasis is on the annual march of these quantities; Northern and Southern Hemisphere asymmetries; and interannual variability in these statistics. Statistics involving the global ozone distribution and transports of ozone are also discussed.

  10. In praise of middle managers.

    PubMed

    Huy, Q N

    2001-09-01

    Middle managers have often been cast as dinosaurs. Has-beens. Mediocre managers and intermediaries who defend the status quo instead of supporting others' attempts to change organizations for the better. An INSEAD professor has examined this interesting breed of manager--in particular, middle managers' roles during periods of radical organizational change. His findings will surprise many. Middle managers, it turns out, make valuable contributions to the realization of radical change at companies--contributions that go largely unrecognized by most senior executives. Quy Nguyen Huy says these contributions occur in four major areas. First, middle managers often have good entrepreneurial ideas that they are able and willing to realize--if only they can get a hearing. Second, they're far better than most senior executives at leveraging the informal networks at companies that make substantive, lasting change. Because they've worked their way up the corporate ladder, middle managers' networks run deep. Third, they stay attuned to employees' emotional needs during organizational change, thereby maintaining the transformation's momentum. And finally, they manage the tension between continuity and change--they keep the organization from falling into extreme inertia or extreme chaos. The author examines each of these strengths, citing real-world examples culled from his research. Of course, not every middle manager in an organization is a paragon of entrepreneurial vigor and energy, Huy acknowledges. But cavalierly dismissing the roles that middle managers play--and carelessly reducing their ranks--will drastically diminish senior managers' chances of realizing radical change at their companies. Indeed, middle managers may be the most effective allies of corner office executives when it's time to make major changes in businesses.

  11. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  12. Extension Handbook. Processes and Practices. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Donald J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about processes and practices in extension education in Canada: "Historical Roots" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Transitions and Directions in Extension" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Applying Learning Theory in Extension Work" (Griffith); "Understanding and Applying Motivation…

  13. Extension Handbook. Processes and Practices. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Donald J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about processes and practices in extension education in Canada: "Historical Roots" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Transitions and Directions in Extension" (Blackburn, Flaherty); "Applying Learning Theory in Extension Work" (Griffith); "Understanding and Applying Motivation…

  14. MR Imaging of Orbital Inflammatory Pseudotumors with Extraorbital Extension

    PubMed Central

    Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Bum Soo; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Young Joo; Jung, Ae Kyung; Park, Chan Sub; Song, Soon-Young; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Mi Sung

    2005-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate a variety of MR imaging findings of orbital inflammatory pseudotumors with extraorbital extension. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the MR features of five patients, who were diagnosed clinically and radiologically as having an orbital inflammatory pseudotumor with extraorbital extension. Results The types of orbital pseudotumors were a mass in the orbital apex (n = 3), diffuse form (n = 2), and myositis (n = 1). The extraorbital extension of the orbital pseudotumor passed through the superior orbital fissure in all cases, through the inferior orbital fissure in two cases, and through the optic canal in one case. The orbital lesions extended into the following areas: the cavernous sinus (n = 4), the middle cranial fossa (n = 4), Meckel's cave (n = 2), the petrous apex (n = 2), the clivus (n = 2), the pterygopalatine fossa and infratemporal fossa (n = 2), the foramen rotundum (n = 1), the paranasal sinus (n = 1), and the infraorbital foramen (n = 1). On MR imaging, the lesions appeared as an isosignal intensity with gray matter on the T1-weighted images, as a low signal intensity on the T2-weighted images and showed a marked enhancement on the post-gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (post-Gd-DTPA) T1-sequences. The symptoms of all of the patients improved when they were given high doses of steroids. Three of the five patients experienced a recurrence. Conclusion MR imaging is useful for demonstrating the presence of a variety of extraorbital extensions of orbital inflammatory pseudotumors. PMID:15968146

  15. Hemorrhagic Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chris Y.; Riangwiwat, Tanawan

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) may be associated with viral triggers, including both infections and vaccinations. We present a case of a healthy immunocompetent 33-year-old woman who developed a hemorrhagic LETM 2 weeks after seasonal influenza vaccination. Hemorrhagic LETM has not to our knowledge been reported after influenza vaccination. It may represent a forme fruste variant of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. PMID:27847660

  16. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models Jordan Boyd-Graber A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of Princeton University in Candidacy for the Degree...Princeton University ,Department of Computer Science,Princeton,NJ,08540 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...tree. We derive an approximate posterior inference method based on variational methods for hierarchical Dirichlet processes, and we report qualitative

  17. Wilms' tumor with intracardiac extension.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, G; Ruano-Aguilar, J; Rivera-Luna, R; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Avila-Ramirez, E; Braun-Roth, G; Altamirano-Alvarez, E; Moreno-Hidalgo, A; Flamand-Rodriguez, E L

    1992-02-01

    Intracardiac tumor extension from nephroblastoma is a rare event. We report on two cases with this peculiar condition who presented with a different set of signs and symptoms. Both were diagnosed in life but only one could be properly managed on time. Emphasis is made upon the most reliable methodology for early detection and the surgical approach as the only plausible way to solve this particular complication.

  18. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  19. Extensions to total variation denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, Peter; Chan, Tony F.; Mulet, Pep

    1997-10-01

    The total variation denoising method, proposed by Rudin, Osher and Fatermi, 92, is a PDE-based algorithm for edge-preserving noise removal. The images resulting from its application are usually piecewise constant, possibly with a staircase effect at smooth transitions and may contain significantly less fine details than the original non-degraded image. In this paper we present some extensions to this technique that aim to improve the above drawbacks, through redefining the total variation functional or the noise constraints.

  20. An Extension for ESO Headquarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.

  1. Organelle extensions in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Jaideep; Mammone, Alena; Barton, Kiah A

    2012-11-01

    Cell walls lock each cell in a specific position within the supra-organization of a plant. Despite its fixed location, each cell must be able to sense alterations in its immediate environment and respond rapidly to ensure the optimal functioning, continued growth and development, and eventual long-term survival of the plant. The ultra-structural detail that underlies our present understanding of the plant cell has largely been acquired from fixed and processed material that does not allow an appreciation of the dynamic nature of sub-cellular events in the cell. In recent years, fluorescent protein-aided imaging of living plant cells has added to our understanding of the dynamic nature of the plant cell. One of the major outcomes of live imaging of plant cells is the growing appreciation that organelle shapes are not fixed, and many organelles extend their surface transiently in rapid response to environmental stimuli. In many cases, the extensions appear as tubules extending from the main organelle. Specific terms such as stromules from plastids, matrixules from mitochondria, and peroxules from peroxisomes have been coined to describe the extensions. Here, we review our present understanding of organelle extensions and discuss how they may play potential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis in plant cells. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Middle Level Education: Programs, Policies, and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capelluti, Jody, Ed.; Stokes, Donald, Ed.

    Middle-level education has become a fixture in our educational system. This collection of essays provides the opportunity for readers to examine current policies, programs, and practices in light of recent developments at the middle level. Nine essays include: (1) "Why Middle Schools?" (Donald Eichhorn); (2) "Organizing Middle Level Schools To…

  3. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2003-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill space, (5

  4. IRAF Multiple Extensions FITS (MEF) Files Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate, N.

    The Multiple Extension FITS (MEF) file interface is an IRAF library providing facilities for general file operations upon FITS multi-extension files. The MEF library has been used as the basis for a set of new IRAF tasks providing file level operations for multi-extension files. These operations include functions like listing extensions, extracting, inserting, or appending extensions, deleting extensions, and manipulating extension headers. MEF supports extensions of any type since it is a file level interface and does not attempt to interpret the contents of a particular extension type. Other IRAF interfaces such as IMIO (the FITS image kernel) and STSDAS TABLES are available for dealing with specific types of extensions such as the IMAGE extension or binary tables.

  5. Contraction and extension in northern Borneo driven by subduction rollback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Robert

    2013-10-01

    During the Paleogene the Proto-South China Sea was subducted beneath northern Borneo. Subduction ended with Early Miocene collision of the Dangerous Grounds/Reed Bank/North Palawan block and the Sabah-Cagayan Arc. Much of northern Borneo then became emergent forming the Top Crocker Unconformity. Later in the Early Miocene subsidence resumed. It is proposed that northward subduction of the Celebes Sea initiated formation of the Sulu Sea backarc basin, followed by subduction rollback to the SE. This formed a volcanic arc, which emerged briefly above sea level and collapsed in the Middle Miocene. As rollback continued the Sulu Arc was active during Middle and Late Miocene between Sabah and the Philippines. Rollback drove extension in northern Borneo and Palawan, accompanied by elevation of mountains, crustal melting, and deformation offshore. There were two important extensional episodes. The first at about 16 Ma is marked by the Deep Regional Unconformity, and the second at about 10 Ma produced the Shallow Regional Unconformity. Both episodes caused exhumation of deep crust, probably on low angle detachments, and were followed by granite magmatism. The NW Borneo-Palawan Trough and offshore Sabah fold and thrust belt are often interpreted as features resulting from collision, regional compression or subduction. However, there is no seismicity, dipping slab or volcanicity indicating subduction, nor obvious causes of compression. The trough developed after the Middle Miocene and is not the position of the Paleogene trench nor the site of Neogene subduction. Inboard of the trough is a thick sediment wedge composed of an external fold and thrust belt and internal extensional zone with structures broadly parallel to the trough. The trough is interpreted as a flexural response to gravity-driven deformation of the sediment wedge, caused by uplift on land that resulted from extension, with a contribution of deep crustal flow.

  6. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension: A case series and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Safaee, Michael; Oh, Taemin; Sun, Matthew Z; Parsa, Andrew T; McDermott, Michael W; El-Sayed, Ivan H; Bloch, Orin

    2015-08-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane. PVNS generally affects large joints but occasionally involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), with occasional extension into the middle cranial fossa. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with PVNS along with a focused literature review. Patients with PVNS of the TMJ treated at the University of California - San Francisco from 2007 to 2013 were reviewed. A PubMed search was performed to identify additional cases. Five patients underwent surgical resection, with 1 recurrence at 61 months. A literature review identified 58 patients, 19 of which had intracranial involvement. Interestingly, intracranial extension was more common in men. Intracranial extension was not associated with an increased rate of recurrence. PVNS of the TMJ is a rare entity associated with excellent outcomes, even with intracranial extension. Management should consist of maximal resection, with radiotherapy reserved for extensive or recurrent lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. General University Extension. Bulletin, 1926, No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Thomas H.

    1926-01-01

    This report concerns itself with the growth and progress of "general" university extension for the biennial period 1922-1924. By general university extension is meant extension activities of universities and colleges in the fields not covered by agricultural and home economics extension under the Federal subsidy acts through the Federal land-grant…

  8. Spreading the Word about Extension's Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalambokidis, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the idea that Extension can build support for its programs by highlighting how they benefit people who have no contact with the programs has taken root in the Extension system. Providing Extension program teams with resources, training, and leadership can lead to a body of public value messages that can infuse Extension's…

  9. 48 CFR 570.405 - Lease extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease extensions. 570.405... Requirements 570.405 Lease extensions. (a) This section applies to extension of the term of a lease to provide for continued occupancy on a short-term basis. (b) If the value of a lease extension will exceed...

  10. 14 CFR § 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.23 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1260.23 Extensions. Extensions October 2000 (a) It is NASA policy to provide maximum possible continuity in funding grant-supported research and educational activities, therefore, grants may be extended.... NASA generally only approves such extensions within funds already made available. Any extension...

  15. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be

  16. Quantum Tunneling Time: Relativistic Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dai-Yu; Wang, Towe; Xue, Xun

    2013-11-01

    Several years ago, in quantum mechanics, Davies proposed a method to calculate particle's traveling time with the phase difference of wave function. The method is convenient for calculating the sojourn time inside a potential step and the tunneling time through a potential hill. We extend Davies' non-relativistic calculation to relativistic quantum mechanics, with and without particle-antiparticle creation, using Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac Equation, for different forms of energy-momentum relation. The extension is successful only when the particle and antiparticle creation/annihilation effect is negligible.

  17. Space Shuttle mission extension capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Space Shuttle missions are currently limited to 11 days, primarily due to depletion of the power reactants (hydrogen and oxygen). A power system Mission Extension Kit (MEK) is described which could provide the capability to stay on orbit 10 additional days. These extra days would benefit Space Station construction and missions such as materials processing, earth and celestial observation, and life science studies (Spacelab). Other constraints to longer missions which may dictate minor Orbiter modifications will be discussed. The power system MEK is particularly desirable because of its existing flight qualified hardware which can be delivered within 3 to 4 years.

  18. Miocene to recent extension in NW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advokaat, Eldert L.; Hall, Robert; White, Lloyd T.; Watkinson, Ian M.; Rudyawan, Alfend; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.

    2017-10-01

    The Malino Metamorphic Complex (MMC) in the western part of the North Arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia) has previously been suggested to be a metamorphic complex exhumed in the Early - Middle Miocene. This idea was based on limited K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age data, but no structural data were presented to provide evidence for the mechanism of exhumation. Here we present new field observations, micro-structural analyses and a revised stratigraphy of NW Sulawesi based on new age data, to provide better constraints on the timing and mechanism of exhumation. The data presented here suggest that the MMC is a metamorphic core complex which underwent lithospheric extension during the Early - Middle Miocene. Although the MMC experienced significant extension, there is no evidence that it was exhumed during this time. There is no contact between the MMC and the Pliocene Ongka Volcanics, contradicting a previously inferred unconformable contact. Pliocene undeformed granitoids intruding the MMC indicate the complex was still at depth during their emplacement. Furthermore, Pliocene and Pleistocene cover sequences do not contain metamorphic detritus. A second phase of extensional uplift was accommodated by brittle faulting from the Late Miocene-Pliocene onwards, during which the MMC was exhumed. This extension is widespread, as indicated by synchronous exhumation of the adjacent Palu Metamorphic Complex in West Sulawesi, and rapid subsidence offshore in Gorontalo Bay. It is linked to northward slab rollback of the southward-subducting Celebes Sea since the Pliocene. GPS data show rapid northward motion of the North Arm of Sulawesi with respect to the Celebes Sea, indicating that this process is ongoing at present day.

  19. Environmental Baseline Studies of St. Marys River Near Neebish Island, Michigan, Prior to Proposed Extension of Navigation Season, 1981. Great Lakes- St. Lawrence Seaway, Navigation Season Extension Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    to Lake Huron at Detour, Michigan (Figure 1). From its headwaters to Lake Huron the St. Marys River descends approximately 6.7 m (22’). Most of this...conditions at both the Middle Neebish Channel and at a proposed dredge spoil disposal site in Lake Huron . Extensive background data on physical/chemical...Alosa pseudoharengus Alewife Salmonidae Salmons, trouts, whitefishes Coregonus artedii Cisco Coregonus clupeaformis Lake whitefish Osmeridae Smelts

  20. JESS: Java extensible snakes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, Tim; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Pashotanizadeh, Nasrin

    2005-04-01

    Snakes (Active Contour Models) are powerful model-based image segmentation tools. Although researchers have proven them especially useful in medical image analysis over the past decade, Snakes have remained primarily in the academic world and they have not become widely used in clinical practice or widely available in commercial packages. A number of confusing and specialized variants exist and there has been no standard open-source implementation available. To address this problem, we present a Java Extensible Snakes System (JESS) that is general, portable, and extensible. The system uses Java Swing classes to allow for the rapid development of custom graphical user interfaces (GUI's). It also incorporates the Java Advanced Imaging(JAI) class library, which provide custom image preprocessing, image display and general image I/O. The Snakes algorithm itself is written in a hierarchical fashion, consisting of a general Snake class and several subclasses that span the main variants of Snakes including a new, powerful, robust subdivision-curve Snake. These subclasses can be easily and quickly extended and customized for any specific segmentation and analysis task. We demonstrate the utility of these classes for segmenting various anatomical structures from 2D medical images. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of JESS by using it to rapidly build a prototype semi-automatic sperm analysis system. The JESS software will be made publicly available in early 2005.

  1. Preschoolers' extension of familiar adjectives.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan A; Cameron, Christopher L; Welder, Andrea N

    2005-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the role of labels in guiding preschoolers' extension of three types of familiar adjectives: emotional state adjectives, physiological state adjectives, and trait adjectives. On each trial, we labeled a target animal with one of the three different types of adjectives and asked whether these terms could apply to a subordinate-level match, a basic-level match, a superordinate-level match, or an inanimate object. In Experiment 1, participants extended trait adjectives, but not emotional or physiological adjectives, to members of the same basic-level category, regardless of whether an explicit basic-level label was provided for the target animal. Similarly, children in Experiment 2 also extended trait adjectives to the members of the same basic-level category, even when explicit superordinate- and subordinate-level labels were provided for the target animals. Together, these results demonstrate that children appreciate that emotional and physiological adjectives cannot be generalized to the same extent as can trait adjectives, and the results document the privileged status of basic-level categories in preschoolers' extension of trait adjectives.

  2. Primary extensive spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ha; Hwang, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2012-09-01

    A case report. To describe a patient with a primary extensive spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis that was successfully treated with a combination of surgical removal and albendazole. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. It is mostly intracranial, but primary cysticercosis, although rare, can occur in the spinal canal. Neurological morbidity can occur if NCC is not properly treated; therefore, NCC should be considered as a lesion of primary nerve compression, which occurs within spinal canal as well as cranial cavity. A 48-year-old male patient presented with an 18-month history of progressive lower limb weakness and urinary incontinence. Contrast-enhanced lumbar magnetic resonance image showed multiple intradural and extramedullary masses and cysts from T12 to S1. A cervicothoracic magnetic resonance image revealed whole cervical and upper thoracic involvement. The patient was treated with a combination of surgical removal and orally administered albendazole. A histopathological examination confirmed cysticercosis. After the treatment, cysticercosis had disappeared on follow-up. The patient's motor weakness in the lower limbs and urinary function were improved. Spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis can occur via direct hematogenous dissemination from a gastrointestinal tract. The primary spinal cysticercosis can be dropped distantly in the spinal cavity by cerebrospinal fluid circulation like intracranial cysticercosis, and extensive spinal subarachnoid cysticercosis can be successfully treated with a combination of surgical removal and cysticidal drugs.

  3. Security in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.F. Jr.; Bruzonsky, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The full range of U.S. security interests in the Middle East is covered in this volume of original contributions from prominent international scholars. Case studies of key countries emphasize the prospects for peaceful political, economic, and cultural change in the region. The Arab-Israeli conflict is examined with particular attention to the ''Palestine problem,'' U.S. policy and diplomacy, and the peace process. Finally, the involvement of the U.S. and the USSR and the policy options open to them are considered. Includes chapters on oil and its role in Middle-East security issues.

  4. Middle Years. The Magazine for Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hereford, Nancy-Jo; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Special supplement for middle level educators focuses on news from around the country, student environmental action, adolescent development, saying no to drugs, the case against tracking, technology solutions, astronomy, ancient Egypt, the American West, learning with literature, camaraderie, and puzzles for problem solvers. (SM)

  5. Middle Years. The Magazine for Middle Level Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hereford, Nancy-Jo; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Special supplement for middle level educators focuses on news from around the country, student environmental action, adolescent development, saying no to drugs, the case against tracking, technology solutions, astronomy, ancient Egypt, the American West, learning with literature, camaraderie, and puzzles for problem solvers. (SM)

  6. The Middle Atmosphere Program: A special project for the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, T.

    1982-04-01

    Areas of concern are: dynamics, structure, and atmospheric composition of the middle atmosphere in Antarctica; particle precipitation and interaction of the middle atmosphere with the lower ionosphere; atmospheric pollution; and the difference between the northern and southern polar middle atmosphere.

  7. The Middle Atmosphere Program: A special project for the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirasawa, T.

    1982-01-01

    Areas of concern are: dynamics, structure, and atmospheric composition of the middle atmosphere in Antarctica; particle precipitation and interaction of the middle atmosphere with the lower ionosphere; atmospheric pollution; and the difference between the northern and southern polar middle atmosphere.

  8. Tracer Transport in the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Neil F.

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The discovery of the ozone 'hole' over Antarctica has stimulated a great deal of interest in the interaction between dynamics, radiation and chemistry in the middle atmosphere. In this thesis, a hierarchy of tracer transport models has been adopted to help to understand the results of satellite observations and detailed computer simulations. Zonally averaged models have met with some success in simulating the atmosphere because it is close to radiative/chemical equilibrium in the summer. A zonally averaged circulation derived from satellite observations of temperature and ozone was used here to test various advection schemes and to reproduce the zonal mean seasonal cycle of long-lived tropospheric source gases. Three-dimensional models impose more severe demands and so a number of finite difference schemes have been reviewed and tested under idealized atmospheric conditions. To reduce the computational effort, winds were generated by the Meteorological Office Stratosphere Mesosphere model (SMM) and passed to a transport model. The best transport scheme was the one which most closely resembled that used for heat and momentum transport. Time averaging of the winds was necessary to produce representative fields in the mesosphere. When the transport scheme was incorporated into the SMM, agreement between the dynamically derived potential temperature and potential vorticity and the tracer equivalents were very good. During a major warming, the discrepancy between the vortex maximum between the model potential vorticity and the equivalent material tracer fields was 12% in the middle stratosphere and 50% in the upper stratosphere after twenty days. Most of this difference was due to the sensitivity of the potential vorticity to diabatic heating. Extensions of the work to include chemistry and more sophisticated satellite-derived circulations were suggested.

  9. Methods and apparatus for constructing and implementing a universal extension module for processing objects in a database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Smith, John R. (Inventor); Chang, Yuan-Chi (Inventor); Jhingran, Anant D. (Inventor); Padmanabhan, Sriram K. (Inventor); Hsiao, Hui-I (Inventor); Choy, David Mun-Hien (Inventor); Lin, Jy-Jine James (Inventor); Fuh, Gene Y. C. (Inventor); Williams, Robin (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for providing a multi-tier object-relational database architecture are disclosed. In one illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a multi-tier database architecture comprises an object-relational database engine as a top tier, one or more domain-specific extension modules as a bottom tier, and one or more universal extension modules as a middle tier. The individual extension modules of the bottom tier operationally connect with the one or more universal extension modules which, themselves, operationally connect with the database engine. The domain-specific extension modules preferably provide such functions as search, index, and retrieval services of images, video, audio, time series, web pages, text, XML, spatial data, etc. The domain-specific extension modules may include one or more IBM DB2 extenders, Oracle data cartridges and/or Informix datablades, although other domain-specific extension modules may be used.

  10. [Mechanics and function of the middle ear. 2: Hearing physiologic comments on middle ear surgery].

    PubMed

    Hüttenbrink, K B

    1992-12-01

    The reconstruction of the destroyed ossicular chain has the purpose to re-establish an unhindered sound reception and transmission. With respect to the hydraulic factor, the reconstructed chain should be attached to a large effective area of the drum membrane, ideally to the malleus handle. The sensitivity is furthermore diminished in a linear relationship with increasing mass and stiffness. Therefore, cartilage cannot represent an acoustically ideal material for a drum membrane replacement. The reconstructed chain must vibrate without restraint for an unhindered transmission. Furthermore, the interposed prosthesis must be secured firmly to the remnants of the ossicular chain; the reconstructed chain must vibrate like one solid body. A loose contact attenuates the transmission and might result in a dislocation of the prosthesis with excessive ambient air pressure induced displacements of the drum membrane. A solid anchoring might be created by glueing, bony adhesion, special design of the prosthesis or with a wire connection. With unfavorable middle-ear conditions, the piston-like vibrational mode of the footplate has to be met with a direct driving of the stapes by a T-like prosthesis in the extension of the stapedial's vertical (high) axis. Ineffective rocking movements of the footplate are thus reduced. The almost perfect hearing result of the stapesplasty demonstrates that the impedance-matching middle-ear function is determined by the area ratio between the drum membrane and the width of the cochlear scala. Both components are not altered by the operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Carbonate facies and stratigraphic framework of middle Magdalena (middle Pennsylvanian), Hueco Mountains, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.L.; Stanton, R.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The middle Magdalena of the Hueco Mountains, west Texas, is best exposed in the vicinity of Pow Wow Canyon, particularly along the western scarp of the range. It can be divided into two major depositional sequences, the lowermost of which consists predominantly of alternating bank, interbank, and shoal deposits of Atokan age. These banks are low-relief accumulations of Donezella, with coeval slackwater skeletal wackestones and interbedded deposits of foraminiferal sands. A prominent zone of intertonguing Chaetetes biostromes punctuates the middle part of this sequence. The Desmoinesian sequence begins as a series of rubbly limestones in association with abundant silicified plant remains and is interpreted as a set of paleosols. These are overlain by argillaceous, low-diversity wackestones and packstones of lagoonal origin, followed by carbonates of more open-marine circulation with abundant corals and other stenotypic fossils. In turn, these deposits are succeeded by a sequence of phylloid algal banks that increase in resistance upward to where they represent strata of the upper Magdalena. At this locality, however, the upper Magdalena is very thin because it is truncated by the pre-Hueco unconformity which, so prominent at the head of the canyon, can now be traced to the western scarp. These deposits are directly analogous to subsurface reservoir facies of the same age on the opposite side of the Diablo uplift in the Permian basin and thus provide an opportunity to generate reservoir models based on extensive outcrop exposure.

  12. Middle Eastern power systems; Present and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves.

  13. Extensibility and limitations of FDDI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Game, David; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently two standards for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB), have emerged as the primary competitors for the MAN arena. Great interest exists in building higher speed networks which support large numbers of node and greater distance, and it is not clear what types of protocols are needed for this type of environment. There is some question as to whether or not these MAN standards can be extended to such environments. The extensibility of FDDI to the Gbps range and a long distance environment is investigated. Specification parameters which affect performance are shown and a measure is provided for predicting utilization of FDDI. A comparison of FDDI at 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps is presented. Some specific problems with FDDI are addressed and modifications which improve the viability of FDDI in such high speed networks are investigated.

  14. Extensive retroviral diversity in shark.

    PubMed

    Han, Guan-Zhu

    2015-04-28

    Retroviruses infect a wide range of vertebrates. However, little is known about the diversity of retroviruses in basal vertebrates. Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) provides a valuable resource to study the ecology and evolution of retrovirus. I performed a genome-scale screening for ERVs in the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and identified three complete or nearly complete ERVs and many short ERV fragments. I designate these retroviral elements "C. milli ERVs" (CmiERVs). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the CmiERVs form three distinct lineages. The genome invasions by these retroviruses are estimated to take place more than 50 million years ago. My results reveal the extensive retroviral diversity in the elephant shark. Diverse retroviruses appear to have been associated with cartilaginous fishes for millions of years. These findings have important implications in understanding the diversity and evolution of retroviruses.

  15. Leukoencephalopathy associated with extensive burns.

    PubMed Central

    Gregorios, J B

    1982-01-01

    Unusual neuropathological changes were observed in two cases following extensive burns. These consisted of perivascular areas of demyelination distributed symmetrically in the brain and affecting the white matter predominantly. One case in addition had widespread petecchial and ring haemorrhages characteristic of brain purpura. Both patients sustained second and third degree burns in greater than 50% of the body surface area, developed metabolic acidosis, sepsis, disturbance in consciousness and multiple episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest prior to death. A toxic metabolic state related to a burn toxin released from the damaged tissue or from bacterial action to the tissue in addition to low platelet level is proposed as the major pathogenetic factor in the development of the neurological symptoms and the patients' demise. Images PMID:6754873

  16. Space Shuttle power extension package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, J. P., Jr.; Craig, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A modification kit for the Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter is proposed to provide more power and mission duration for payloads. The power extension package (PEP), a flexible-substrate solar array deployed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter remote manipulator system, can provide as much as 29 kW total power for durations of 10 to 48 days. The kit is installed only for those flights which require enhanced power or duration. The PEP is made possible by development of the flexible-substrate array technology and, in itself, contributes to the technology base for the use of large area solar cells. Modifications to the Orbiter thermal control and life support systems to improve heat balance and to reduce consumables are proposed. The changes consist of repositioning the Orbiter forward radiators and replacing the lithium hydroxide scrubber with a regenerable solid amine.

  17. Fluorescein-related extensive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Asim; Turedi, Suleyman; Aydin, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescein is a chemical dye frequently used in eye diseases to assess blood flow in the retina, choroid tissue, and iris. Although it has many known adverse effects, it has not previously been reported to lead to jaundice. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize that for patients presenting at the emergency department with jaundice symptoms, it should not be forgotten by emergency physicians that jaundice can develop after fluorescein angiography. Case: A 65-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with extensive jaundice that had developed on her entire body a few hours after fluorescein angiography applied because of vision impairment. The test results for all the diseases considered to cause jaundice were normal,and fluorescein-related jaundice was diagnosed. Conclusion: A detailed anamnesis should be taken when jaundice is seen in patients who have undergone fluorescein angiography, and it should not be forgotten that fluorescein dye is a rare cause of jaundice.

  18. Redescription of Protanura papillata Cassagnau & Delamare Deboutteville, 1955 (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae), with new records from Middle East, and with supplemented diagnosis and key to the genus.

    PubMed

    Smolis, Adrian; Skarżyński, Dariusz; Kahrarian, Morteza; Kaprus, Ighor J

    2016-03-15

    The poorly known Neanurini genus Protanura is rediagnosed and briefly compared with Lathriopyga. Protanura papillata Cassagnau & Delamare Deboutteville, 1955, known to date only from Lebanon, is redescribed based on the lectotype and new extensive material from Middle East.

  19. Middle/High School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the buildings of two combined middle/high schools, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and design team, a general building description, and general construction costs and specifications. Also provides a rough site plan and photographs. (EV)

  20. Applied Learning for Middle Schoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paula; And Others

    1995-01-01

    From leading garden tours to planning a visit for Japanese teachers and participating in community theater, middle schoolers at Fort Worth's Applied Learning Academy learn academic content by working on community projects. Students' writing skills soared as they developed, edited, and field-tested brochures and trail-guide maps for their botanical…

  1. The Middle School. A Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, David J., Ed.

    The purpose of this monograph is to give Georgia elementary school principals and other interested educators the background and understanding about "Middle School Programs" to assist them in acting as constructive forces in the evolvement of such programs. The lead article by Mary F. Compton gives some of the major philosophical and…

  2. AED in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  3. Piaget and Middle School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juraschek, William

    1983-01-01

    This discussion is primarily designed to increase teachers' awareness of Piaget's theory of cognitive development and implications for mathematics in the middle school. It is hoped such awareness will compel instructors to adopt strategies that help pupils gain more from mathematical experiences, by providing impetus for innovation and…

  4. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…

  5. Education Specifications: New Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA.

    Educational specifications are presented delineating instructional space requirements and relationships for a middle school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A description of the desired educational programs is followed by a discussion of those spaces necessary to house the program and the relationship that they must bear one to the other.…

  6. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  7. The Rediscovery of Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The article argues the case for rethinking the way we look at the process of ageing in the work place and the images we use to describe the nature of life for people over 50. Rather than there being more old and frail people in the community, many more people are experiencing an extended middle age, and their numbers are increasing. There are in…

  8. Probability Simulation in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappan, Glenda; Winter, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two simulations designed to teach probability to middle-school age pupils are presented. The first simulates the one-on-one foul shot simulation in basketball; the second deals with collecting a set of six cereal box prizes by buying boxes containing one toy each. (MP)

  9. Class Guitar in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Grant

    1996-01-01

    Provides a thorough overview of middle school guitar instruction discussing both private and group lessons. Considers the role of the guitar as both a solo instrument and in ensemble and orchestra. Includes curricular guidelines for a beginning guitar course and a sample list of songs for a final recital. (MJP)

  10. The Rediscovery of Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The article argues the case for rethinking the way we look at the process of ageing in the work place and the images we use to describe the nature of life for people over 50. Rather than there being more old and frail people in the community, many more people are experiencing an extended middle age, and their numbers are increasing. There are in…

  11. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  12. Middle School Technology Integration Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Grey; Mantz, Chris

    This paper is a report on the development and findings of an on-going study being conducted on 126 middle schools in rural eastern North Carolina. An analysis of the technological readiness of each school is being followed with a program to offer school leaders a technology design and teacher training that will work in their schools. This includes…

  13. Middle School Pupils Write Haiku.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Pupils in the middle school can be motivated to enjoy and write haiku poetry. A student teacher taught two lessons to a sixth grade class in haiku writing. First, the student teacher read three haikus aloud to students. After discovering the characteristics of a haiku from two models, the class as a whole wrote a haiku based on slides from their…

  14. Sexual Harassment in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Betty; Jackson, Janet

    This paper presents an overview of the affects of sexual harassment on middle schools and discusses what can be done to prevent it. This paper suggests that school personnel must educate students about sexual harassment, and videos can be a particularly effective way to do this. Recent studies have shown that 81 percent of all students, grades 8…

  15. The Evolution of Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Paul S.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Florida's 500 middle schools have become more sizeable, racially segregated, and security conscious. Other features include interdisciplinary team organization, warring curricula, block schedules, integrated technology, inclusion, ability grouping, corporate practices, and female and minority principals committed to…

  16. Pathogenesis of middle ear adhesions.

    PubMed

    Cayé-Thomasen, P; Hermansson, A; Tos, M; Prellner, K

    1996-04-01

    Middle ear adhesions are well-known to the ear surgeon, although data on etiology, pathogenesis, and significance are lacking in current literature. This study on experimental acute otitis media presents histopathological data on these aspects. Pneumococci were inoculated in the right middle ear bulla of 25 rats; the left ear served as control. At days 4, 8, 16, 90, and 180, respectively, 5 rats were decapitated, and the bullae were removed, opened, and stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)/alcian blue. The entire middle ear mucosae were dissected from the bone, embedded as whole mounts in colophonium chambers, and examined by light microscopy. Representative parts of the mucosae were sectioned and examined in the same way. All inoculated ears from day 8 and later (20 in total), contained mucosal adhesions of various sizes, shapes, and locations. None were found in control ears. The site of predilection for the development of adhesions was the hypotympanum, followed by the anterior epitympanum, the attic, the drum, the interossicular spaces, and the tubal orifice. Based on present histopathological findings, we conclude that the middle ear adhesion is a pathological phenomenon caused by infection, and we propose a six-stage hypothesis of pathogenesis: 1. Localized epithelial rupture; 2. Prolapse of subepithelial tissue; 3. Epithelialization of the prolapse; resulting in a polypous/fold-like prominence; 4. Growth and elongation of the prominence; 5. Fusion of the end/tip of the prominence with another part of the mucosa; 6. Formation of an adhesion.

  17. Student Merit Awards: Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    The Student Merit Award Program was designed to motivate, stimulate and reward students for their study and achievement outside the mathematics classroom by providing enrichment material on a variety of mathematical topics. In general, these topics are either not found in the standard middle school curriculum or represent a more in-depth study of…

  18. Applied Learning for Middle Schoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paula; And Others

    1995-01-01

    From leading garden tours to planning a visit for Japanese teachers and participating in community theater, middle schoolers at Fort Worth's Applied Learning Academy learn academic content by working on community projects. Students' writing skills soared as they developed, edited, and field-tested brochures and trail-guide maps for their botanical…

  19. Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…

  20. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…

  1. Selective hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene in the dominant presence of naphthalene over hybrid CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Isoda, Takaaki; Nagao, Shinichi; Ma, Xiaoliang

    1995-12-31

    It has been revealed that significant desulfurization of refractory 4-methyldibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) is very essential to achive the low sulfur level of gas oil requested by the current regulation. Their direct desulfurization through the interaction of their sulfur atom with the catalyst surface is sterically hindered by its neighbouring methyl groups. The substrate is found kinetically to be hydrogenated at one of its phenyl rings prior to the desulfurization in order to reduce the steric hindrance through non-planaring configuration (2-4). NiMo / Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reported to be superior to CoMo / Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the deep desulufurization, because of its higher hydrogenation activity. However, such a hydrogenation route suffers severe inhibition by aromatic species in their dominant presence, because 4,6-DMDBT must compete with the aromatic species to the hydrogenation sites on the catalysts. The aromatic species up to 30 wt % in the gas oil was that completely stop the desulfurization of the particular substrate. The catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of 4,6-DMDBT in the dominant aromatic partners is most wanted to achive its extensive desulfurization in the gas oil, although there have been reported activities of various transition metal sulfides for HDS of dibenzothiophene, and hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons.

  2. Designing Personalized Learning Products for Middle School Mathematics: The Case for Networked Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michael A.; Pruett, Jordan; Chang, Mido; Nino, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Middle school mathematics education is subject to ongoing reform based on advances in digital instructional technologies, especially learning games, leading to recent calls for investment in "personalized learning." Through an extensive literature review, this investigation identified three priority areas that should be taken into…

  3. Teachers' Views about Multiple Strategies in Middle and High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive scholarship about the importance of teaching mathematics with multiple strategies in the elementary grades, there has been relatively little discussion of this practice in the middle and high school levels or in the context of introductory algebra. This article begins our exploration of this practice by addressing the following…

  4. A COMPARISON OF INFORMATION PROCESSING ABILITIES OF MIDDLE AND LOWER CLASS NEGRO KINDERGARTEN BOYS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RYCKMAN, DAVID B.

    A STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EXAMINE THE NATURE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL CLASS AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES OF NEGRO KINDERGARTEN BOYS. FIFTY MIDDLE CLASS AND 50 LOWER CLASS NEGRO KINDERGARTEN BOYS WERE INDIVIDUALLY ADMINISTERED EXTENSIVE TESTS DESIGNED TO ASSESS SPECIFIC INFORMATION PROCESSING ABILITIES. THE EIGHT INSTRUMENTS USED INCLUDED…

  5. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  6. An Overview of Environmental Education in Middle School Natural Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhanbao, Shu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental education in middle school natural science courses is based on integrating environmental knowledge into natural science education. Therefore, environmental education objectives should be set as an extension of the objectives for natural science education. However, in order to reach the objectives laid out for environmental education…

  7. Teachers' Views about Multiple Strategies in Middle and High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive scholarship about the importance of teaching mathematics with multiple strategies in the elementary grades, there has been relatively little discussion of this practice in the middle and high school levels or in the context of introductory algebra. This article begins our exploration of this practice by addressing the following…

  8. Weight-Control Practices Reported by Students in a Maine Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majka, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Extension professionals who work with youth are often faced with issues of body weight, diet and/or body image. How we handle these topics has the potential to either help or harm. The goal of the study reported here was to explore the prevalence and types of weight-control methods practiced by middle school students. The majority of students…

  9. Pentimento: Fuels reduction and restoration in the Bosque of the Middle Rio Grande

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande of New Mexico is the most extensive, remaining bosque, or cottonwood forest in the southwest. Alterations caused by humans-damming and channeling the river, controlling floods, and planting non-native trees-have disrupted the cycles of the earlier ecosystem. Without periodic flooding, native cottonwoods cannot regenerate. Invasive exotic plants...

  10. Justification as a Teaching and Learning Practice: Its (Potential) Multifacted Role in Middle Grades Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Megan E.; Bartlo, Joanna; Thanheiser, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Justification is a core mathematics practice. Although the purposes of justification in the mathematician community have been studied extensively, we know relatively little about its role in K-12 classrooms. This paper documents the range of purposes identified by 12 middle grades teachers who were working actively to incorporate justification…

  11. Chinese-Middle East Relations and Their Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Japan urges Israel of local conflicts to assist peace pro- Jiang Qing commits emerge cess, stop West Bank suicide settlements Israel opens Sciences and...an extensive millenial westward migration from the Middle East and Persia through to and including Greece, Rome, Europe and finally into the New

  12. Conventional School and Curriculum Is Not for Everyone: Guidelines for Middle School Administrators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Valerie G.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper provides an extensive literature review on how society, families, and schools are entwined in a student's educational development and how these interactions influence the student's opinion of the value of education. It provides middle-school administrators and teachers a working guide for an educational environment that addresses the…

  13. Weight-Control Practices Reported by Students in a Maine Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majka, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Extension professionals who work with youth are often faced with issues of body weight, diet and/or body image. How we handle these topics has the potential to either help or harm. The goal of the study reported here was to explore the prevalence and types of weight-control methods practiced by middle school students. The majority of students…

  14. Designing Personalized Learning Products for Middle School Mathematics: The Case for Networked Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Michael A.; Pruett, Jordan; Chang, Mido; Nino, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Middle school mathematics education is subject to ongoing reform based on advances in digital instructional technologies, especially learning games, leading to recent calls for investment in "personalized learning." Through an extensive literature review, this investigation identified three priority areas that should be taken into…

  15. Perception of Competence in Middle School Physical Education: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Silverman, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of Competence (POC) has been studied extensively in physical activity (PA) research with similar instruments adapted for physical education (PE) research. Such instruments do not account for the unique PE learning environment. Therefore, an instrument was developed and the scores validated to measure POC in middle school PE. A…

  16. Perception of Competence in Middle School Physical Education: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Silverman, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of Competence (POC) has been studied extensively in physical activity (PA) research with similar instruments adapted for physical education (PE) research. Such instruments do not account for the unique PE learning environment. Therefore, an instrument was developed and the scores validated to measure POC in middle school PE. A…

  17. An Overview of Environmental Education in Middle School Natural Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhanbao, Shu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental education in middle school natural science courses is based on integrating environmental knowledge into natural science education. Therefore, environmental education objectives should be set as an extension of the objectives for natural science education. However, in order to reach the objectives laid out for environmental education…

  18. A Light Touch to Learning: Jackie Robinson Middle School, New Haven, Ct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The architectural design of Jackie Robinson Middle School in New Haven, Connecticut, minimizes the school's size by siting it to reveal only one level at its entrance. Extensive use of transparent and translucent materials projects openness and light. (Author/MLF)

  19. New Problems in School Design: Middle Schools: Implications of Transfer at 12 or 13 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    The middle school concept is explained for educators and architects. Discussion of the general considerations is centered around the choice of transfer age of 12 or 13. The building regulations which were formerly established for a transfer age of 11 are now being updated to 12 and 13. Floor plans of new schools and extensions to existing schools…

  20. Restoration and monitoring in the Middle Rio Grande Bosque: Current status of flood pulse related efforts

    Treesearch

    Clifford S. Crawford; Lisa M. Ellis; Daniel Shaw; Nancy E. Umbreit

    1999-01-01

    Extensive regulation of the Middle Rio Grande's natural flow regime, together with the effects of introduced tree species, landscape fragmentation, and increasing wildfires, are obstacles for any level of restoration of its native riparian forest (bosque). However, carefully monitored partial restoration is possible and greatly needed to prevent the bosque's...

  1. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  2. "Middle Class Aura" in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Charles; Bennett, Carson

    1977-01-01

    Selected perceptions of college educational psychology students toward middle class values evident during their secondary education experience, called by Charnovsky the "middle class aura", are presented, along with their own attitudes toward those values. (MJB)

  3. "Middle Class Aura" in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Charles; Bennett, Carson

    1977-01-01

    Selected perceptions of college educational psychology students toward middle class values evident during their secondary education experience, called by Charnovsky the "middle class aura", are presented, along with their own attitudes toward those values. (MJB)

  4. Middle infrared multispectral aircraft scanner data: analysis for geological applications.

    PubMed

    Kahle, A B; Madura, D P; Soha, J M

    1980-07-15

    Multispectral middle IR (8-13-microm) data were acquired with an aircraft scanner over Utah. Because these digital image data were dominated by temperature, all six channels were highly correlated. Extensive processing was required to allow geologic photointerpretation based on subtle variations in spectral emittance between rock types. After preliminary processing, ratio images were produced and color ratio composites created from these. Sensor calibration and an atmospheric model allowed determination of surface brightness, temperature, emittance, and color composite emittance images. The best separation of major rock types was achieved with a principal component transformation, followed by a Gaussian stretch, followed by an inverse transformation to the original axes.

  5. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  6. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  7. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  8. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  9. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  10. Elucidating Mechanisms of Extensive Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egolf, David A.; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Pesch, Werner; Ecke, Robert E.

    2001-06-01

    We report studies of the mechanism for the generation of chaotic disorder in a phenomenon found in nature, Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC), in a regime exhaustively studied experimentally. Through large-scale, parallel-computational studies of the detailed space-time evolution of the dynamical degrees of freedom, we find that the Spiral Defect Chaos (SDC) state of RBC is spatially- and temporally- localized to defect creation/annihilation events (D.A. Egolf, I.V. Melnikov, W. Pesch, and R.E. Ecke, Nature, 404:733--736, 2000), and we elucidate how these divergent, but very brief, events lead to eventual macroscopic differences between initially similar flow patterns. We also demonstrate that SDC is extensively chaotic, in that the number of dynamical degrees of freedom (the fractal dimension) is proportional to the system size, suggesting the possibility for a hydrodynamic-like description of the long-wavelength properties of SDC. The computational technique employed shows promise for analyzing a wide variety of extended dynamical systems.

  11. Nozzle extension design status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Classen, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty possible concepts of a possible nozzle/nozzle extension interface were originated. Not all of the concepts were considered worthy of analysis time. Six of them were thermally analyzed and three were stress analyzed. These analyses were done to determine which of the concepts would have the best chance of succeeding, that is, they were a screening process which was to allow rating of one concept against another. This was done because adequate material properties to determine absolute stress levels were not available at the time of the analyses. Through all of the concepts still exhibit some areas of negative margin of safety, concept no. 1 shows good promise that, with slight modifications, it could have all positive margins of safety. Another significant question, regarding these designs, has to do with the Grafoil seals and insulators. Some additional data was just recently received on Grafoil properties, but it was too late to incorporate in the analyses. The new data were not significantly different from the properties which were used.

  12. Adenomatous tumors of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Stanley; Koss, Shira

    2015-04-01

    Adenomatous tumors are an uncommon cause of a middle ear mass. Clinical findings may be nonspecific, leading to difficulties in differentiation from other middle ear tumors. Controversy also exists whether to classify middle ear adenoma and carcinoid as separate neoplasms, or alternatively within a spectrum of the same pathologic entity. Most adenomatous middle ear tumors are indolent in behavior, with a benign histologic appearance and slowly progressive growth. The mainstay of treatment is complete surgical resection, which affords the greatest likelihood of cure.

  13. Overly wide cartilaginous middle vault.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J Regan; Prendiville, Stephen

    2004-02-01

    Any maneuver in rhinoplasty that alters the ULCs should be based on a preoperative analysis of the patient's functional complaints and aesthetic characteristics. All techniques should be harmonious with the desired postsurgical result. The majority of established procedures to alter the middle vault focus on dorsal hump reduction, correction of internal nasal valve collapse, or correction of a twisted nose with the use of spreader grafts [9 12]. Although the latter two techniques achieve satisfying functional results, they can have the effect of broadening the middle third of the nose. Reduction of the dorsal height of the middlenasal vault by way of horizontal shaving of the ULC scan sometimes result in functional compromise by narrowing the nasal valve [13]. Each technique has advantages when performed with appropriate indications. For example, a narrow middle vault with internal nasal valve collapse is functionally and aesthetically addressed by the insertion of spreader grafts; however, the inverse of this situation is sometimes encountered. A patient who has a broad middle vault without internal nasal valve collapse will benefit from reduction of the horizontal width of the cartilaginous dorsum, which is, in effect,the reverse of spreader grafts [2]. A select patient population requires aesthetic refinement of the middle vault in a way that avoids functional compromise. This reverse spreader technique has probably been applied clinically by others, but it is has not been reflected in the literature before this year [2]. Johnson and Toriumi have described a similar maneuver in addressing a wide bony dorsum, encouraging the surgeon to "think vertically" [8]. Likewise, Toriumiand Ries have described a selective tangential shaving of the convex side dorsal septum to assist in correction of the C-shaped deformity [11]. In the setting of a wide middle vault, the reverse spreader technique is a useful alternative to dorsal augmentation, which creates the illusion of

  14. Towards a National Educational Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessinger, Leon M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes major elements of an extension system for education based on those essential for one in agriculture, as exemplified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service. Like the agricultural system, an educational extension service would be driven by customer needs, employ county agents to facilitate client/service…

  15. 77 FR 23469 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Security, OMB Control Number...

  16. 78 FR 38305 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Exchange/Sale Report, Excess...

  17. 76 FR 31598 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Printing and Publishing...

  18. 76 FR 53887 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Legal Collection, OMB Control...

  19. 75 FR 4055 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and... information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Human Reliability Program (HRP...

  20. 77 FR 51791 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... EIA has submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its...

  1. 12 CFR 1102.6 - Waiver extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver extension. 1102.6 Section 1102.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Temporary Waiver Requests § 1102.6 Waiver extension. The ASC may initiate an extension of temporary waiver relief and shall...

  2. 12 CFR 1102.6 - Waiver extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver extension. 1102.6 Section 1102.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Temporary Waiver Requests § 1102.6 Waiver extension. The ASC may initiate an extension of temporary waiver relief and shall...

  3. 20 CFR 655.170 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seeking extensions of more than 2 weeks may apply to the CO. Such requests must be related to weather... extension is needed and that the need could not have been reasonably foreseen by the employer. The CO will... the decision. The CO will not grant an extension where the total work contract period under...

  4. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure deadline...

  5. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure deadline...

  6. 12 CFR 1102.6 - Waiver extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver extension. 1102.6 Section 1102.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Temporary Waiver Requests § 1102.6 Waiver extension. The ASC may initiate an extension of temporary waiver relief and...

  7. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure deadline...

  8. 24 CFR 968.235 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time extensions. 968.235 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.235 Time extensions. A PHA shall not obligate or expend funds after the... time extension, as follows: (a) Certification. A PHA may extend an obligation or expenditure deadline...

  9. Implementing Extensive Reading in an EAP Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2008-01-01

    For more than twenty years the benefits of extensive reading have been proclaimed to the ELT community, but the inclusion of extensive reading in ELT programmes is far from universal. Extensive reading appears to be particularly absent in higher educational and English for Academic Purposes settings. This paper reports on the implementation of an…

  10. Tennessee's Extension Food and Nutrition Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Agricultural Extension Service.

    The Extension Food and Nutrition Education program was set up by the University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service to assist low-income families in improving their diets. Carrying out the program on a one-to-one basis are 365 assistants who are taught the basics of nutrition by trained home economics extension agents. These assistants…

  11. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  12. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  13. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A recipient...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A recipient...

  15. 78 FR 57790 - Extension of Time Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-AA94 Extension of Time Limits AGENCY: Import... Department of Commerce (the Department) is modifying its regulation concerning the extension of time limits... clarifies that parties may request an extension of time limits before any time limit established under Part...

  16. 78 FR 66909 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... published its Agency Information Collection Extension request in the Federal Register on Thursday, August 29, 2013 (78 FR 53436) and submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A...

  20. A Middle School Activities Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Harvey

    Middle school students need to develop self-esteem, flexible and inquiring minds, relatively close human relationships, and a sense of belonging and purpose or usefulness. This paper discusses an effective middle school activities program at the Leawood Middle School in Leawood, Kansas, which helps meet these identified needs. The Leawood program…

  1. Teaching Organizational Skills in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boller, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The transition to middle school is an educational milestone, marking significant and sometimes unspoken changes in expectations. The overriding expectation is that students will become more independent. This article discusses some tips that will help teachers in teaching organizational skills to middle school students. Middle school teachers…

  2. Transforming Middle Level Education: Perspectives and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Judith L., Ed.

    This book addresses the critical issues of curriculum and instruction as they pertain to the restructuring of middle-level education. The first part deals with developing a sense of identity both with the middle-school movement and with young adolescents. Chapters include the following: "Perspectives on the Middle School Movement" (John H.…

  3. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the...

  4. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the...

  5. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the...

  6. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the...

  7. 33 CFR 117.171 - Middle River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Middle River. 117.171 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.171 Middle River. (a) The draw of the San..., mile 9.8 near Middle River Station, shall open on signal if at least 12 hours notice is given to the...

  8. Middle School Students' Beliefs about Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakhleh, Mary B.; Samarapungavan, Ala; Saglam, Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine middle school students' developing understanding of the nature of matter and to compare middle school students' ideas to those of elementary schools students, as was done by Nakhleh and Samarapungavan ["J Res Sci Teach" 36(7):777-805, 1999]. Nine middle school students were interviewed using a scripted,…

  9. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  10. Recruiting Middle School Students into Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matutina, Robin E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to illustrate the importance of initiating nursing recruitment during the middle school years. Data sources included citations from the years 1989 to 2006. The study focused on middle school students 9 to 13 years of age in Grades 6 to 8. One survey compared middle school students' perceptions of an ideal…

  11. Recruiting Middle School Students into Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matutina, Robin E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to illustrate the importance of initiating nursing recruitment during the middle school years. Data sources included citations from the years 1989 to 2006. The study focused on middle school students 9 to 13 years of age in Grades 6 to 8. One survey compared middle school students' perceptions of an ideal…

  12. Middle School: Lessons from the Rand Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Carolyn E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study by the Rand Corporation that concluded that there is cause for middle schools to worry. Commissioned by the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, one of four major philanthropies supporting the middle school movement, the Rand investigation is clear in its assessment: The American middle school leaves adolescents…

  13. Transforming Middle Level Education: Perspectives and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Judith L., Ed.

    This book addresses the critical issues of curriculum and instruction as they pertain to the restructuring of middle-level education. The first part deals with developing a sense of identity both with the middle-school movement and with young adolescents. Chapters include the following: "Perspectives on the Middle School Movement" (John H.…

  14. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  15. Restructuring with the middle-management advantage.

    PubMed

    Inamdar, S Noorein; Osland, Asbjorn; Wells, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The strategic roles enabling conditions and intermediate outcomes of middle managers during a period of organizational restructuring were examined, with focus on developing an understanding of how senior management can best enable middle managers to achieve radical change. The case method was used, and data were collected from interviews with both middle and senior managers. Results revealed considerable differences between executives and middle managers with regard to middle management's strategic roles, enabling conditions and outcomes. Findings suggest that the 2 groups have different perceptions on how best to support middle management in strategic roles, especially during a crisis. Senior managers felt that middle managers required much explanation and guidance concerning the restructuring effort, viewing middle managers as primarily implementers. Middle managers viewed themselves in a more active role as providers of information necessary in guiding the restructuring decisions. In the area of intermediate outcomes, senior managers emphasized gaining consensus from middle managers to support implementation, but middle managers valued the outcome of securing agency over their own work to act in the best interests of the organization. Thus, middle managers can add value during a time of restructuring by matching strategic roles, enabling conditions and intermediate outcomes with the requirements of the strategic change.

  16. Middle School: Lessons from the Rand Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Carolyn E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study by the Rand Corporation that concluded that there is cause for middle schools to worry. Commissioned by the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, one of four major philanthropies supporting the middle school movement, the Rand investigation is clear in its assessment: The American middle school leaves adolescents…

  17. The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Kathleen, Ed.

    This book of readings presents 33 articles that address topics of importance to counselors who serve middle school students. It was written for counselors already working in middle schools and for individuals who are preparing for careers as middle school counselors. The book will also benefit both elementary school counselors who help children…

  18. Middle Level Education: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel; And Others

    Developed as a reference tool for teachers, administrators, researchers, parents, and others interested in middle level education, this annotated bibliography of 1,757 entries focuses on practical aspects of middle level education and on research related to adolescence and middle level practices. Following an introduction and discussion of…

  19. Middle Schoolers and the Right To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, John S.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how the 1990s have seen a geometric increase in the incidences of censorship attempts in middle school materials, choices, and teachers' creative instructional approaches. Discusses expanding the middle school canon, anti-censorship efforts in the 1990s, and censorship activity from 1988 to 1997. Provides resources for middle school…

  20. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  1. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  2. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  3. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  4. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  5. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  6. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  7. Mountains and arid climates of middle latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Manabe, S.; Broccoli, A.J. )

    1990-01-12

    Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these areas in the absence of orography. The experiments suggest that these interior regions are dry because general subsidence and relatively infrequent storm development occur upstream of orographically induced stationary wave troughs. Downstream of these troughs, precipitation-bearing storms develop frequently in association with strong jet streams. In contrast, both atmospheric circulation and precipitation were more zonally symmetric in the experiment without mountains. In addition, orography reduces the moisture transport into the continental interiors from nearby oceanic sources. The relative soil wetness of these regions in the experiment without mountains is consistent with paleoclimatic evidence of less aridity during the late Tertiary, before substantial uplift of the Rocky Mountains and Tibetan Plateau is believed to have occurred.

  8. Middle Devonian liverwort herbivory and antiherbivore defence.

    PubMed

    Labandeira, Conrad C; Tremblay, Susan L; Bartowski, Kenneth E; VanAller Hernick, Linda

    2014-04-01

    To test the extent of herbivory in early terrestrial ecosystems, we examined compression-impression specimens of the late Middle Devonian liverwort Metzgeriothallus sharonae, from the Catskill Delta deposit of eastern New York state. Shale fragments of field-collected specimens were processed by applying liquid nitrocellulose on exposed surfaces. After drying, the film coatings were lifted off and mounted on microscope slides for photography. Unprocessed fragments were photographed under cedarwood oil for enhanced contrast. An extensive repertoire of arthropodan-mediated herbivory was documented, representing three functional feeding groups and nine subordinate plant-arthropod damage types (DTs). The herbivory is the earliest occurrence of external foliage-feeding and galling in the terrestrial fossil record. Our evidence indicates that thallus oil body cells, similar to the terpenoid-containing oil bodies of modern liverworts, were probably involved in the chemical defence of M. sharonae against arthropod herbivores. Based on damage patterns of terrestrial plants and an accompanying but sparse body-fossil record, Devonian arthropodan herbivores were significantly smaller compared to those of the later Palaeozoic. These data collectively suggest that a broad spectrum herbivory may have had a more important role in early terrestrial ecosystems than previously thought.

  9. Listening to Their Voices: Middle Schoolers' Perspectives of Life in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Mary Anne; McCray, Erica D.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines middle schoolers' perspectives on their lives in middle school. Fifteen middle school students from three middle schools in the Southeast region of the United States participated in a basic qualitative study using focus groups at their schools where they were asked the central question, "If you could change one thing at…

  10. Extension of the Bgl Broad Group Cross Section Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, Desislava; Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira

    2009-08-01

    The broad group cross-section libraries BUGLE and BGL are applied for reactor shielding calculation using the DOORS package based on discrete ordinates method and multigroup approximation of the neutron cross-sections. BUGLE and BGL libraries are problem oriented for PWR or VVER type of reactors respectively. They had been generated by collapsing the problem independent fine group library VITAMIN-B6 applying PWR and VVER one-dimensional radial model of the reactor middle plane using the SCALE software package. The surveillance assemblies (SA) of VVER-1000/320 are located on the baffle above the reactor core upper edge in a region where geometry and materials differ from those of the middle plane and the neutron field gradient is very high which would result in a different neutron spectrum. That is why the application of the fore-mentioned libraries for the neutron fluence calculation in the region of SA could lead to an additional inaccuracy. This was the main reason to study the necessity for an extension of the BGL library with cross-sections appropriate for the SA region. Comparative analysis of the neutron spectra of the SA region calculated by the VITAMIN-B6 and BGL libraries using the two-dimensional code DORT have been done with purpose to evaluate the BGL applicability for SA calculation.

  11. Building A Middle Eastern Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-12

    implementation of NATO model to METO by reviewing NATO and suggesting some applications . Thesis This paper proposes building a Middle Eastern alliance to...ranging from terror activity and insurgency to a full- scale conventional war. The US contribution to the alliance may also include extending its...and alliance history is no different. NATO was founded to oppose a Soviet threat. The threat is long gone but NATO is still extremely relevant and

  12. Middle mississippian blastoid extinction event.

    PubMed

    Ausich, W I; Meyer, D L; Waters, J A

    1988-05-06

    The Middle Mississippian blastoid (Phylum Echinodermata) extinction event (about 340 million years ago) was a rapid, habitat-specific extinction. Blastoids became rare or absent in shallow-water environments after the extinction, and this change was probably synchronous worldwide. Onshore-offshore habitat shifts have been recognized as an important historical trend among marine benthos. Unlike trends exhibited by other groups, blastoids appear to have repopulated shallow-water habitats after a period of diminished diversity and abundance.

  13. Growing a strong middle class.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An important mission for the country is achieving sustainability while strengthening the middle class. American leadership and innovation can play a critical role in defining the interconnectedness of our economy and environment-and in unlocking, harnessing, and advancing green technologies. The State of Maryland has launched a Green Jobs Initiative focused on attracting green businesses, working with existing businesses to adopt sustainable practices, promoting clean energy research and use, and training the work force for ne, green-collar jobs.

  14. Transdomes sampling of lower and middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, C. P.; Whitney, D. L.; Roger, F.; Rey, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    Migmatite transdomes are formed by lateral and upward flow of partially molten crust in transtension zones (pull-apart structures). In order to understand the flow leading to this type of domes, 3D numerical models were set-up to simulate the general case of an extensional domain located between two strike-slip faults (pull-apart or dilational bridge). Results show that upper crust extension induces flow of the deep, low-viscosity crust, with rapid upward movement of transdome material when extension becomes localized. At this point a rolling hinge detachment allows rapid removal of upper crust. The internal structure of transdomes includes a subvertical high strain zone located beneath the zone of localized upper crust extension; this shear zone separates two elongate subdomes of foliation that show refolded/sheath folds. Lineation tends to be oriented dominantly subhorizontal when the amount of strike-slip motion is greater than the amount of upward flow of dome rocks. Models also predict nearly isothermal decompression of transdome material and rapid transfer of ~50 km deep rocks to the near surface. These model results are compared to the structural and metamorphic history of several transdomes, and in particular the Variscan Montagne Noire dome (French Massif Central) that consists of two domes separated by a complex high strain zone. The Montagne Noire dome contains ~315 Ma eclogite bodies (U-Pb zircon age) that record 1.4 GPa peak pressure. The eclogite bodies are wrapped in highly sheared migmatite that yield 314-310 Ma monazite ages interpreted as the metamorphism and deformation age. Based on these relations we conclude that the Montagne Noire transdome developed a channel of partially molten crust that likely entrained eclogite bodies from the deep crust (~50 km) before ascending to the near-surface. One implication of this work is that the flowing crust was deeply seated in the orogen although it remained a poor recorder of peak pressure of metamorphism

  15. ISA extensions for high-radix online floating-point addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormiani, Pouya; Ercegovac, Miloš D.; Colavin, O.

    2007-09-01

    ISA extensions for DLX type architectures are proposed to perform high radix online floating point addition on fixed point units with extended feature sets. Online arithmetic allows most significant digit first computation of results, allowing overlapped execution of dependent operations and offers greater instruction scheduling opportunities than software implementations of conventional floating point addition. In this paper we seek an ISA formulation to find a middle ground between full hardware floating point addition units and software implementations strictly based on available ALU logic.

  16. Peroperative findings of the middle turbinate in 50 patients with chronic sinusitis who underwent total spheno-ethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Morre, T D; Clement, P A; Noussios, G

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the peroperative endoscopic findings about the size, shape and mucosal changes of the middle turbinate in patients with chronic sinusitis who underwent total spheno-ethmoidectomy. Results confirmed the middle turbinate to be a useful landmark in performing extensive sinus surgery. The most frequent change due to chronic inflammation seems to be polypous degeneration followed by hyperplastic mucosa. Anatomical variations, being paradoxically bent turbinate and concha bullosa, are not seen frequently.

  17. The Middle East population puzzle.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  18. The association of superior attachment of uncinate process with pneumatization of middle turbinate: a computed tomographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sheng-Yao; Yang, Chih-Jen; Lee, Chiao-Hua; Liu, Shao-Cheng; Kuo, Chao-Yin; Lee, Jih-Chin; Shih, Cheng-Ping

    2017-04-01

    The frontal sinus outflow pathway is complex and can be influenced by the configuration of the uncinate process (UP). The UP can attach superior to the lamina papyracea, skull base, and middle turbinate. The factors associated with superior attachment remain unclear. This study analyzed the relationships between different types of superior UP attachment and characteristics of the surrounding structures including the agger nasi cell, skull base, and middle turbinate. This retrospective study utilized computed tomography images of 836 sides with identifiable sinus structure from 434 Taiwanese patients. Types of superior UP attachment, height of the ethmoid cribriform plate, prevalence of agger nasi cell, and degree of pneumatization of the middle turbinate were analyzed. In the current study, neither the presence of an agger nasi cell nor height of the cribriform plate had significant relationship with superior UP attachment type. However, UP attachment type was statistically significantly associated with pneumatized middle turbinate (PMT) type (p < 0.01). The PMT group had a higher incidence of UP attachment to the middle turbinate (38%) than the non-PMT group (18%). In the extensive PMT group, the incidence of UP attachment to the middle turbinate was high to 49%. In conclusion, superior UP attachment to the middle turbinate was associated with pneumatization of the middle turbinate. The UP has a greater tendency to attach to the middle turbinate in cases with more PMT.

  19. Endoscopic open technique in patients with middle ear cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Daniele; Villari, Domenico; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Piccinini, Alessia; Presutti, Livio

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe an endoscopic open "centrifugal" technique used to treat middle ear cholesteatoma with antral and periantral extension, using a retrospective chart and video review of a case series performed in a university tertiary referral center. Charts and videos of patients who underwent middle ear endoscopic surgery from January 2007 to September 2009 were reviewed. Patients who were treated with endoscopic "centrifuge" open techniques were included in the study. Surgical indications were collected and the surgical technique described. The final study group consisted of 12/150 subjects (9 males and 3 females with a mean age of 40 years). All 12 patients who underwent endoscopic open tympanoplasty had antral, periantral or mastoid involvement of cholesteatoma with or without posterior canal wall erosion. They had sclerotic mastoids with the presence of the antrum and, in some cases, small periantral mastoid cells. In 9/12 patients, external auditory canal reconstruction was performed with a cartilage graft. In 3/12 patients, canal reconstruction was not performed. No subjects required a meatoplasty of the external auditory canal. Endoscopic "centrifugal" open techniques can be an option in the surgical management of middle ear cholesteatoma involving antral and periantral mastoid cells, in the case of sclerotic mastoids. Further study will be necessary to examine the long-term consequences of the endoscopic "centrifugal" open technique. 2C.

  20. A middle path for electricity options and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, J.I.; Herring, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    In a landmark article in Foreign Affairs in October 1976, Amory Lovins presented his vision of two vastly different and seemingly irreconcilable paths that energy provision might take into the future. One path was a ``hard`` path, characterized by extensive development of large, capital-intensive centralized electrical generating facilities and their peripherals, designed with little consideration given to the matching of these facilities to the requirements of the end-use needs. The second, ``soft`` path was characterized by energy technologies that are diverse, operate on renewable energy flows, are relatively simple, less capital-intensive, and matched in scale and energy quality to end-use needs. One of the most controversial arguments in the Lovins` paper was that the ``hard`` and ``soft`` paths are culturally and institutionally antagonistic. In retrospect, it seems this argument was self-fulfilling, for the history of the energy debate throughout the developed world since the appearance of the Lovins` article has been marked by an either-or antagonism that has left little room for serious discussion of a ``middle-path.`` In this paper, we argue that ``middle-path,`` paved with elements of both the soft and hard, is especially suited for developing countries, since they do not now carry the burden of an existing and extensive ``hard path`` energy infrastructure.

  1. Recurring middle Pleistocene outburst floods in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Froese, D.G.; Smith, D.G.; Westgate, J.A.; Ager, T.A.; Preece, S.J.; Sandhu, A.; Enkin, R.J.; Weber, F.

    2003-01-01

    Recurring glacial outburst floods from the Yukon-Tanana Upland are inferred from sediments exposed along the Yukon River near the mouth of Charley River in east-central Alaska. Deposits range from imbricate gravel and granules indicating flow locally extending up the Yukon valley, to more distal sediments consisting of at least 10 couplets of planar sands, granules, and climbing ripples with up-valley paleocurrent indicators overlain by massive silt. An interglacial organic silt, occurring within the sequence, indicates at least two flood events are associated with an earlier glaciation, and at least three flood events are associated with a later glaciation which postdates the organic silt. A minimum age for the floods is provided by a glass fission track age of 560,000 ?? 80,000 yr on the GI tephra, which occurs 8 m above the flood beds. A maximum age of 780,000 yr for the floods is based on normal magnetic polarity of the sediments. These age constraints allow us to correlate the flood events to the early-middle Pleistocene. And further, the outburst floods indicate extensive glaciation of the Yukon-Tanana Upland during the early-middle Pleistocene, likely representing the most extensive Pleistocene glaciation of the area. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinally extensive optic neuritis in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Graves, Jennifer; Kraus, Verena; Soares, Bruno P; Hess, Christopher P; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Extensive optic nerve demyelinating lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults could indicate a diagnosis other than multiple sclerosis with worse prognosis such as neuromyelitis optica. We report the frequency of longitudinally extensive lesions in children with first events of optic neuritis. Subjects had brain or orbit MRI within 3 months of onset and were evaluated at the University of California, San Francisco, Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Center. Lesion length, determined by T2 hyperintensity or contrast enhancement, was blindly graded as absent, focal or longitudinally extensive (at least 2 contiguous segments of optic nerve). Of 25 subjects, 9 (36%) had longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Extensive lesions were not associated with non-multiple sclerosis versus multiple sclerosis diagnosis (P = 1.00). No association between age and lesion extent was observed (P = .26). Prospective studies are needed to determine if longitudinally extensive optic neuritis can predict visual outcome.

  3. Middle Atmosphere Electrodynamics (MAE). Middle atmospheric electrodynamics during MAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The recent revival and strong motivation for research in middle atmospheric electrodynamics can be attributed, in large part, to the discovery of large (V/m) electric fields within the lower mesosphere during the decade prior to MAP. Subsequent rocket soundings appeared to verify the preliminary findings. During the MAP era, more sophisticated techniques have been employed to obtain measurements which respond positively to criticisms of earlier results, and which provide more insight regarding the character of the fields. The occurrence of mesospheric V/m electric fields now seems to require the presence of aerosols, of local winds and related dynamics, and of an atmospheric electrical conductivity less than 10(-10)S/m. Furthermore, new theoretical ideas describing the origin of the V/m fields are consistent with the measurements. The current status of results regarding V/m fields in the middle atmosphere is reviewed in light of the more widely accepted electric field structure for this region from rocket, balloon and modeling results.

  4. Middle Miocene dispersals of apes.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Kelley, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The earliest record of fossil apes outside Africa is in the latest early Miocene of Turkey and eastern Europe. There were at least 2, and perhaps 4, species of ape, which were found associated with subtropical mixed environments of forest and more open woodland. Postcranial morphology is similar to that of early Miocene primates and indicates mainly generalized arboreal quadrupedal behaviours similar to those of less specialized New World monkeys such as Cebus. Robust jaws and thick enamelled teeth indicate a hard fruit diet. The 2 best known species of fossil ape are known from the site of Paşalar in Turkey. They have almost identical molar and jaw morphology. Molar morphology is also similar to that of specimens from Germany and Slovakia, but there are significant differences in the anterior teeth of the 2 Paşalar species. The more common species, Griphopithecus alpani, shares mainly primitive characters with early and middle Miocene apes in Africa, and it is most similar phenetically to Equatorius africanus from Maboko Island and Kipsaramon. The second species is assigned to a new species of Kenyapithecus, an African genus from Fort Ternan in Kenya, on the basis of a number of shared derived characters of the anterior dentition, and it is considered likely that there is a phylogenetic link between them. The African sites all date from the middle Miocene, similar in age to the Turkish and European ones, and the earliest emigration of apes from Africa coincides with the closure of the Tethys Sea preceding the Langhian transgression. Environments indicated for the African sites are mixtures of seasonal woodlands with some forest vegetation. The postcrania of both African taxa again indicate generalized arboreal adaptation but lacking specialized arboreal function. This middle Miocene radiation of both African and non-African apes was preceded by a radiation of arboreal catarrhine primates in the early Miocene, among which were the earliest apes. The earliest

  5. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  6. The Science of Middle Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an "alteration" or "disturbance" to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the "middle nature" proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of "actively transforming nature into culture." It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native species, maximizing

  7. Timing, distribution, amount, and style of Cenozoic extension in the northern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Christopher D.; McGrew, Allen J.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Snoke, Arthur W.; Brueseke, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    This field trip examines contrasting lines of evidence bearing on the timing and structural style of Cenozoic (and perhaps late Mesozoic) extensional deformation in northeastern Nevada. Studies of metamorphic core complexes in this region report extension beginning in the early Cenozoic or even Late Cretaceous, peaking in the Eocene and Oligocene, and being largely over before the onset of “modern” Basin and Range extension in the middle Miocene. In contrast, studies based on low-temperature thermochronology and geologic mapping of Eocene and Miocene volcanic and sedimentary deposits report only minor, localized extension in the Eocene, no extension at all in the Oligocene and early Miocene, and major, regional extension in the middle Miocene. A wealth of thermochronologic and thermobarometric data indicate that the Ruby Mountains–East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex (RMEH) underwent ~170 °C of cooling and 4 kbar of decompression between ca. 85 and ca. 50 Ma, and another 450 °C cooling and 4–5 kbar decompression between ca. 50 and ca. 21 Ma. These data require ~30 km of exhumation in at least two episodes, accommodated at least in part by Eocene to early Miocene displacement on the major west-dipping mylonitic zone and detachment fault bounding the RMEH on the west (the mylonitic zone may also have been active during an earlier phase of crustal extension). Meanwhile, Eocene paleovalleys containing 45–40 Ma ash-flow tuffs drained eastward from northern Nevada to the Uinta Basin in Utah, and continuity of these paleovalleys and infilling tuffs across the region indicate little, if any deformation by faults during their deposition. Pre–45 Ma deformation is less constrained, but the absence of Cenozoic sedimentary deposits and mappable normal faults older than 45 Ma is also consistent with only minor (if any) brittle deformation. The presence of ≤1 km of late Eocene sedimentary—especially lacustrine—deposits and a low-angle angular

  8. Cretaceous to Recent extension in the Bering Strait region, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Miller, Elizabeth L.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Hannula, Kimberly A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Gans, Phillip B.

    1995-06-01

    A key issue presented by the geology of northern Alaska concerns the demise of the Brooks Range going west toward the Bering Strait region. The main Brookian tectonic and stratigraphic elements continue into the Russian Far East, but the thick crustal root and high elevations that define the modern physiographic Brooks Range die out approaching the Bering and Chukchi shelves, which form an unusually broad area of submerged continental crust. Structural, geochronologic, and apatite fission-track data indicate that at least three episodes of extension may have affected the crust beneath the Bering Strait region, in the middle to Late Cretaceous, Eocene-early Oligocene, and Pliocene(?)-Recent. This extension may explain the present thinner crust of the region, the formation of extensive continental shelves, and the dismemberment and southward translation of tectonic elements as they are traced from the Brooks Range toward Russia. Evidence for these events is recorded within a gently tilted 10- to 15-km thick crustal section exposed on the western Seward Peninsula. The earliest episode is documented at high structural levels by the postcollision exhumation history of blueschists. Structural data indicate exhumation was accomplished in part by thinning of the crust during north-south extension bracketed between 120 and 90 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ages. The Kigluaik Mountains gneiss dome rose through the crust during the later stages of this extension at 91 Ma. Similar gneiss domes occur within a broad, discontinuous belt of Cretaceous magmatism linking interior Alaska with northeast Russia; mantle-derived melts within this belt likely heated the crust and facilitated extension. Apatite fission-track ages indicate cooling below ≈120-85°C occurred sometime between 100 and 70 Ma, and the area subsequently resided at shallow crustal depths (<3-4 km) until the present. This suggests that denudation of deep levels of the crust by erosion and/or tectonism was mostly

  9. Across the Pacific: Climate Evolution in the Middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, L. R.; Wade, B.; Holbourn, A. E.; Leng, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first high-resolution (3 kyr) astronomically-tuned record of δ18O and δ13C from planktonic foraminifera for the equatorial Pacific Ocean (16.5-13.5 Myr). Our data provides exciting new information on sea surface temperatures and primary productivity changes at the tropics during the middle Miocene at a resolution not achieved in any previous study, which sheds new light on the middle Miocene climatic transition (MMCT) and associated carbon-isotope excursion. Reliable sea surface temperature estimates are crucial to any reconstruction and modelling of past ocean salinity and density, water column stratification, thermohaline circulation, and ice volume. Despite extensive studies of benthic foraminifera, existing planktonic foraminiferal records of this interval are extremely scarce and of low resolution, with samples representing time intervals of 2x105 and 5x105 years. Previous studies have been hindered by the absence of biogenic carbonate (e.g., Leg 199). Consequently the impact of global warming and cooling on tropical surface waters and the propagation of orbital cycles in the Earth System are unknown. In 2009 Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321 recovered lower-middle Miocene sediments with high sedimentation rates (30m/myr), continuous recovery, and orbital cyclicity from the east equatorial Pacific Ocean. At Site U1338 planktonic foraminifera are abundant and diverse in the lower and middle Miocene sediments and exceptionally well preserved. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed open pore spaces, little evidence of calcitic overgrowth on the wall surface and in many cases preserved spines (Fox and Wade, in press). We compare our data from Site U1338 to Site 1146 in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, to reconstruct bottom and surface water conditions and changes in ocean dynamics across the equatorial Pacific during this highly complex interval of climate history.

  10. Across the Pacific: Climate Evolution in the Middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lyndsey; Wade, Bridget; Holbourn, Ann; Leng, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    We present the first high-resolution (3 kyr) astronomically-tuned record of δ18O and δ13C from planktonic foraminifera for the equatorial Pacific Ocean (16.5-13.5 Myr). Our data provides exciting new information on sea surface temperatures and primary productivity changes at the tropics during the middle Miocene at a resolution not achieved in any previous study, which sheds new light on the middle Miocene climatic transition (MMCT) and associated carbon-isotope excursion. Reliable sea surface temperature estimates are crucial to any reconstruction and modelling of past ocean salinity and density, water column stratification, thermohaline circulation, and ice volume. Despite extensive studies of benthic foraminifera, existing planktonic foraminiferal records of this interval are extremely scarce and of low resolution, with samples representing time intervals of 2x105and 5x105 years. Previous studies have been hindered by the absence of biogenic carbonate (e.g., Leg 199). Consequently the impact of global warming and cooling on tropical surface waters and the propagation of orbital cycles in the Earth System are unknown. In 2009 Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321 recovered lower-middle Miocene sediments with high sedimentation rates (30m/myr), continuous recovery, and orbital cyclicity from the east equatorial Pacific Ocean. At Site U1338 planktonic foraminifera are abundant and diverse in the lower and middle Miocene sediments and exceptionally well preserved. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed open pore spaces, little evidence of calcitic overgrowth on the wall surface and in many cases preserved spines (Fox and Wade, 2013). We compare our data from Site U1338 to Site 1146 in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, to reconstruct bottom and surface water conditions and changes in ocean dynamics across the equatorial Pacific during this highly complex interval of climate history.

  11. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy.

  12. [Implantable middle ear hearing aids].

    PubMed

    à Wengen, D F

    2004-01-01

    Conventional acoustic hearing aids are limited in their performance. Due to physical laws their amplification of sound is limited to within 5 kHz. However, the frequencies between 5 and 10 kHz are essential for understanding consonants. Words can only be understood correctly if their consonants can be understood. Furthermore noise amplification remains a problem with hearing aids. Other problems consist of recurrent infections of the external auditory canal, intolerance for occlusion of the ear canal, feedback noise, and resonances in speech or singing. Implantable middle ear hearing aids like the Soundbridge of Symphonix-Siemens and the MET of Otologics offer improved amplification and a more natural sound. Since the first implantation of a Soundbridge in Switzerland in 1996 almost one thousand patients have been implanted worldwide. The currents systems are semi-implantable. The external audio processor containing the microphone, computer chip, battery and radio system is worn in the hair bearing area behind the ear. Implantation is only considered after unsuccessful fitting of conventional hearing aids. In Switzerland the cost for these implantable hearing aids is covered by social insurances. Initially the cost for an implant is higher than for hearing aids. However, hearing aids need replacement every 5 or 6 years whereas implants will last 20 to 30 years. Due to the superior sound quality and the improved understanding of speech in noise, the number of patients with implantable hearing aids will certainly increase in the next years. Other middle ear implants are in clinical testing.

  13. Middle and upper Cambrian platform evolution and paleogeography, northwestern Montana, northern Idaho, and northeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, J.H.; Hayden, L.L.

    1987-08-01

    In western Montana, three Middle and Late Cambrian correlative Grand Cycles commence with inner detrital basal half cycles overlain by middle carbonate half cycles. Each half cycle represents up to one formation with the Park to Pilgrim, shale to carbonate transition, an example of one complete cycle. As with other regions of the Cambrian Cordilleran shelf, cycle components are closely related to paleogeographic position, producing differences that make correlation across depositional belts difficult. However, combined lithologic paleontologic, and cyclic correlations from southwestern Montana to isolated outcrops in northwestern Montana, northern Idaho, and northeastern Washington outline platform evolution and paleogeography. Early Middle Cambrian ramp deposition occurred with non-tectonic highs (Montania) in northwestern Montana and possible distally steepened ramps in northern Idaho. After eastward transgression, upward-shallowing Middle Cambrian carbonates formed algal-peritidal complexes that extended from central Montana to northeastern Washington. These complexes were influenced by clastic influx from central Idaho (Lemhi arch .), but they completely covered Montania and separated an eastern intrashale basin from the outer ramp. During the Late Cambrian, below wave base distal ramp carbonate deposition returned to northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. However, the distal ramp was separated from the intrashelf basin until Early Ordovician by the still existent but less extensive peritidal complexes. The ramp that developed over portions of the three states differed considerably from the cratonic margin in southern British Columbia, described by Aitken in 1966 and 1978, as a stationary accretionary rim on its seaward side persisting from Middle Cambrian to Middle Ordovician time.

  14. An alternative method of middle vault reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Holger G; Friedman, Oren; Sherris, David A; Kern, Eugene B

    2006-01-01

    Surgery of the nasal valves is a challenging aspect of rhinoplasty surgery. The middle nasal vault assumes an important role in certain aspects of nasal valve collapse. Techniques that address pathologies of the middle vault include the placement of spreader grafts and the butterfly graft. We present an alternative technique of middle vault reconstruction that allows simultaneous repair of nasal valve collapse and creation of a smooth dorsal profile. The surgical technique is described in detail and representative cases are discussed.

  15. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  16. Extensive Reading: Students' Performance and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez de Morgado, Nelly

    2009-01-01

    Reading is thought to be a crucial skill in the EFL learning process, and Extensive Reading a very useful strategy. However, very few teachers implement it on a regular basis. The process of introducing Extensive Reading (ER) is considered far too expensive, complicated, and time-consuming. One way to encourage its use would be to more deeply…

  17. A New Funding Model for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paul W.; Otto, Daniel M.; Ouart, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional funding model of the Cooperative Extension System has been stretched to its limits by increasing demand for information and programs without concurrent increases in funding by the public sector. As the social, economic, and political environments have evolved and become more complex, extension is often asked to apply the expertise…

  18. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  19. Extension Excellence in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1985-01-01

    The author suggests that the business of extension is getting people to apply knowledge and use information. He makes observations concerning people and their use of information and knowledge. He presents five characteristics upon which future extension programs should be built. (CT)

  20. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  1. Small Businessmen's Perceptions of University Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglah, Mohammad A.; Dopp, Arvid D.

    A survey was made in Clark County, Wisconsin, of small businessmen's knowledge and perception of university extension. The businessmen appeared most knowledgeable about Extension programs offered through mass media, but less knowledgeable about local staff affiliation and relationship to the University of Wisconsin. They participated in Extension…

  2. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

  3. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  4. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  5. 75 FR 77663 - Information Collection Extension Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... of the Secretary Information Collection Extension Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... comment on information collection extension request in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995... Information Report--29 CFR part 31 (Title VI of the Civil Rights Act), Nondiscrimination--Disability--29 CFR...

  6. 77 FR 70742 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ..., technology, and related economic and statistical information. This information is used to assess the adequacy.... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information... Act of 1995, an information collection request to the OMB for a three-year extension, with changes,...

  7. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  8. 10 CFR 903.23 - Rate extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rate extensions. 903.23 Section 903.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area...

  9. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  10. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  11. 10 CFR 903.23 - Rate extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rate extensions. 903.23 Section 903.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area...

  12. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  13. 10 CFR 903.23 - Rate extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rate extensions. 903.23 Section 903.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area...

  14. 10 CFR 903.23 - Rate extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rate extensions. 903.23 Section 903.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area...

  15. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extensions. 52.691 Section 52.691 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated...

  16. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extensions. 52.691 Section 52.691 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated...

  17. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extensions. 52.691 Section 52.691 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated...

  18. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extensions. 52.691 Section 52.691 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated...

  19. 40 CFR 52.691 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extensions. 52.691 Section 52.691 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Idaho § 52.691 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority delegated...

  20. 27 CFR 13.92 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extensions. 13.92 Section 13.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING PROCEEDINGS Miscellaneous § 13.92 Extensions. An applicant...

  1. 27 CFR 13.92 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extensions. 13.92 Section 13.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... certificate holder may apply to the appropriate TTB officer deciding the appeal for an extension of any...

  2. 27 CFR 13.92 - Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extensions. 13.92 Section 13.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... certificate holder may apply to the appropriate TTB officer deciding the appeal for an extension of any...

  3. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b) All...

  4. Extension Learners' Use of Electronic Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenthner, Joseph F.; Swan, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Extension clientele use electronic technology for entertainment, communication, and business. Educational programs that use electronic technology can enhance learning. To learn more about use of electronic technology among Extension clientele, we surveyed 80 university students and 135 potato farmers. We found that the farmers were likely to use…

  5. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b) All...

  6. Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.; Alex, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Public agricultural extension services around the world are being pressured to adapt to new funding constraints and a changing agricultural sector. The global perspective on extension is no longer that of a unified public sector service, but of a multi-institutional network of knowledge and information support for rural people. This reality and…

  7. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

  8. Extensive Reading in Enhancing Lexical Chunks Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereyra, Nilsa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the effect of extensive reading and related activities on the acquisition of lexical chunks in EFL students. Seven adult EFL learners with an Intermediate level volunteered to take part in the 16 week project following Extensive Reading principles combined with tasks based on the Lexical…

  9. An extension theorem for conformal gauge singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübbe, Christian; Tod, Paul

    2009-11-01

    We analyze conformal gauge, or isotropic, singularities in cosmological models in general relativity. Using the calculus of tractors, we find conditions in terms of tractor curvature for a local extension of the conformal structure through a cosmological singularity and prove a local extension theorem along a congruence of timelike conformal geodesics.

  10. Extension Specialists: A Self-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, John M.

    1985-01-01

    To document perceived changes in the role of the extension horticulture specialist, a national survey of state horticulture specialists was conducted in 1983. Extension specialists in horticulture appear to be moving away from the traditional activities of farm visits and personal interaction with individual producers. (CT)

  11. Extensive Reading Materials Produced by Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates that students and teachers create some of their own extensive reading materials. Learning communities act as a means of motivating and sustaining student and teacher production of extensive reading materials. The article begins by explaining learning communities. The bulk of the article has two parts. The first part focuses…

  12. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  13. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  14. 1890 Institutions' Extension Program and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adell, Jr.

    The extension role of Tuskegee Institute and the 16 black land grant colleges established by the Morrill Act of 1890 has been to diffuse among the non-university citizens of America useful and practical information on agriculture, home economics, and related areas. Tuskegee's extension efforts began in 1880 and flourished under the leadership of…

  15. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  16. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  17. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  18. An Extension to the Weibull Process Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Subt5l . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED AN EXTENSION+TO THE WEIBULL PROCESS MODEL 6. PERFORMING O’G. REPORT NUMBER I. AuTHOR() S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...indicatinq its imrportance to applications. 4 AN EXTENSION TO TE WEIBULL PROCESS MODEL 1. INTRODUCTION Recent papers by Bain and Engelhardt (1980)1 and Crow

  19. 36 CFR 251.89 - Time extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time extensions. 251.89... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.89 Time extensions. (a) Filing of notice of appeal. Time for filing a notice of appeal is not extendable. (b)...

  20. Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading…