Sample records for extensor carpi ulnaris

  1. Deep and shallow forms of the sulcus for extensor carpi ulnaris.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, T; Hojo, T; Furukawa, H

    1993-12-01

    Anatomical variations in the sulcus for the tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris were studied in 240 upper limbs. The sulcus lies between the head and the styloid process on the dorsal surface of the distal end of the ulna. This groove has deep and shallow forms and, rarely, a flat form. The sulcus was classified into 4 grades according to its depth. Grade I, a deep sulcus, was found in 51.3%. Grades II and III are shallow, but the styloid process in grade II is more prominent than in grade III. The former was found in 28.8%, the latter in 14.2%. Grade IV is a flat form. This was rare and found only in 1.3%. This variation was not age-related, but was a congenital feature.

  2. Conservative treatment of an acute traumatic extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation in a collegiate basketball player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steve M; Picconatto, William J; Alexander, Julie A; Johnson, Rachel L

    2011-01-01

    To present the case of an acute traumatic extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) subluxation in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II female basketball player. The ECU tendon is stabilized in the ulnar groove by a subsheath located inferior to the extensor retinaculum. The subsheath can be injured with forced supination, ulnar deviation, and wrist flexion, resulting in the ECU tendon subluxing in the palmar and ulnar directions during wrist circumduction. Several methods of intervention exist, but controversy remains on how to best treat this condition. Distal ulnar fracture, ulnar collateral ligament sprain, triangular fibrocartilage complex lesion, lunotriquetral instability, distal radioulnar joint injury, pisotriquetral joint injury, ECU tendinopathy or subluxation. The wrist was placed in a short-arm cast in slight extension and radial deviation for 4 weeks. At that time, the patient was still able to actively sublux the ECU tendon, so a long-arm cast was applied with the wrist in slight extension, radial deviation, and pronation for an additional 4 weeks. The ECU tendon was then found to be stable. She wore a rigid wrist brace for 3 more weeks while she pursued rehabilitation. At the final follow-up appointment, the ECU tendon remained stable, and the wrist was asymptomatic. Subluxations of the ECU are rare. If the patient does not improve with conservative measures, surgical intervention is warranted to repair the sixth dorsal compartment. A long-arm cast with the elbow flexed to 90° and the wrist in approximately 30° of extension, radial deviation, and pronation was appropriate treatment for this type of injury.

  3. Effect of simultaneous stretching of the wrist and finger extensors for lateral epicondylitis: a gross anatomical study of the tendinous origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Rikiya; Wada, Takuro; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Iba, Kousuke; Kanaya, Kohei; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    Pulling the wrist into flexion with the elbow in extension and forearm in pronation has been used as the stretching technique of wrist extensors for lateral epicondylitis. Simultaneous stretching of the fingers in addition to the wrist flexion has also been applied. However, the mechanism of this simultaneous stretching has not been clarified. This study is designed to clarify the mechanism underlying this simultaneous stretching technique based on the anatomical features of the origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Thirty-nine arms from formalin-embalmed Japanese human specimens were dissected. The features of the origins of the ECRB and EDC were macroscopically observed, and the locations of each origin on the lateral epicondyle were measured. The ECRB had a long and wide, purely tendinous origin which originated from the anterior slope of the lateral epicondyle. The tendinous origin of the index finger of the EDC (EDC-IF) arose from the posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin, with a coexisting muscular portion observed at the level of the proximal forearm. The middle finger of the EDC (EDC-MF) had a short tendinous origin with an associated muscular portion and originated proximo-laterally to the origin of the ECRB on the lateral epicondyle. In addition, the muscular origin of the EDC-MF arose on the superficial and posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin. In contrast, the ring and little fingers of the EDC originated from the tendinous septum of the extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris, and had no connection with the ECRB tendinous origin. On the basis of our anatomical findings, simultaneous stretching of the wrist extensors by wrist, index and middle fingers flexion could provide stretching force to both the tendinous origins of the ECRB and EDC through the EDC-IF and EDC-MF.

  4. Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Effective Communication Strategies.

    PubMed

    Drake, Matthew L; Ring, David C

    2016-06-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, generally known as tennis elbow, is a common condition arising in middle-aged persons. The diagnosis is typically clear based on the patient interview and physical examination alone; therefore, imaging and other diagnostic tests are usually unnecessary. The natural history of the disorder is spontaneous resolution, but it can last for >1 year. The patient's attitude and circumstances, including stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies, determine the intensity of the pain and the magnitude of the disability. Despite the best efforts of medical science, no treatments, invasive or noninvasive, have been proven to alter the natural history of the condition. Given the lack of disease-modifying treatments for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, orthopaedic surgeons can benefit from learning effective communication strategies to help convey accurate information that is hopeful and enabling.

  5. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    PubMed

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  6. The Location-Specific Role of Proteoglycans in the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Mark R.; Huffman, George R.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons like the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) that contain region-specific distributions of proteoglycans (PGs) as a result of the heterogeneous, multi-axial loads they are subjected to in vivo provide valuable models for understanding structure-function relationships in connective tissues. However, the contributions of specific PGs to FCU tendon mechanical properties are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine how the location-dependent, viscoelastic mechanical properties of the FCU tendon are impacted individually by PG-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and by two small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), biglycan and decorin. Full length FCU tendons from biglycan- and decorin-null mice were compared to wild type mice to evaluate the effects of specific SLRPs, while chondroitinase ABC digestion of isolated specimens removed from the tendon midsubstance was used to determine how chontroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) GAGs impact mechanics in mature FCU tendons. A novel combined genetic knockout/ digestion technique also was employed to compare SLRP-null and wild-type tendons in the absence of CS/DS GAGs that may impact properties in the mature state. In all genotypes, mechanical properties in the FCU tendon midsubstance were not affected by GAG digestion. Full-length tendons exhibited complex, multi-axial deformation under tension that may be associated with their in vivo loading environment. Mechanical properties were adversely affected by the absence of biglycan, and a decreased modulus localized in the center of the tendon was measured. These results help elucidate the role that local alterations in proteoglycan levels may play in processes that adversely impact tendon functionality including injury and pathology. PMID:23941206

  7. Anatomical association between wrist extensor musculature and topographical pain sensitivity maps of the elbow area.

    PubMed

    Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Ruiz, Beatriz; De-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-06-01

    High-density topographical sensitivity maps have been developed to visualize nonuniformity deep tissue pain sensitivity in, for example, lateral epicondylitis (LE). The aim of this cadaveric study was to determine the anatomical association between the topographical sensitivity maps over the elbow area and wrist extensor musculature. A topographical pressure sensitivity map consisting of 12 points forming a 3 × 4 matrix: 4 points in the superior part, 4 points in the middle, and 4 points in the lower part around the lateral epicondyle was marker on a 50-year embalmed cadaver. Color marker pins were inserted into each point. Pins were removed during the process of dissection, but the small holes created by their removal assured accurate relocation. Progressive dissection revealed that points 1 to 4 (superior line) were placed over the musculotendinous junction and belly of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle, points 6 to 8 (middle line) were placed over the musculotendinous junction and belly of the extensor digitorum communis muscle, and points 9 to 12 (inferior line) were located over the musculotendinous junction and belly of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle. It was also observed that the superficial branch of the radial nerve runs between the belly of the ECRB and extensor digitorum communis muscles. This study confirmed that anatomical location previously assumed supporting the important wrist extensor muscles, particularly the ECRB, in patients with LE as depicted by pressure pain sensitivity maps. This study also suggests a potential role of the superficial branch of the radial nerve in LE. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic triceps insufficiency managed with extensor carpi radialis longus and palmaris longus tendon grafts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dhanpal; Kumar, K Arun; Dinesh, Mc; Raj, Ranju

    2012-03-01

    Chronic triceps insufficiency, causing prolonged disability, occurs due to a missed diagnosis of an acute rupture. We report a 25 year old male with history of a significant fall sustaining multiple injuries. Since then, he had inability in extending his right elbow for which he sought intervention after a year. Diagnosis of triceps rupture was made clinicoradiologically and surgery was planned. Intraoperative findings revealed a deficient triceps with a fleck of avulsed bone from olecranon. Ipsilateral double tendon graft including extensor carpi radialis longus and palmaris longus were anchored to triceps and secured with the olecranon. Six-months follow revealed a complete active extension of elbow and a full function at the donor site.

  9. Ultrasound definition of tendon damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a OMERACT consensus-based ultrasound score focussing on the diagnostic reliability.

    PubMed

    Bruyn, George A W; Hanova, Petra; Iagnocco, Annamaria; d'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Möller, Ingrid; Terslev, Lene; Backhaus, Marina; Balint, Peter V; Filippucci, Emilio; Baudoin, Paul; van Vugt, Richard; Pineda, Carlos; Wakefield, Richard; Garrido, Jesus; Pecha, Ondrej; Naredo, Esperanza

    2014-11-01

    To develop the first ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and assess its intraobserver and interobserver reliability. We conducted a Delphi study on ultrasound-defined tendon damage and ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in RA among 35 international rheumatologists with experience in musculoskeletal ultrasound. Twelve patients with RA were included and assessed twice by 12 rheumatologists-sonographers. Ultrasound examination for tendon damage in B mode of five wrist extensor compartments (extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus; extensor pollicis longus; extensor digitorum communis; extensor digiti minimi; extensor carpi ulnaris) and one ankle tendon (tibialis posterior) was performed blindly, independently and bilaterally in each patient. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were calculated by κ coefficients. A three-grade semiquantitative scoring system was agreed for scoring tendon damage in B mode. The mean intraobserver reliability for tendon damage scoring was excellent (κ value 0.91). The mean interobserver reliability assessment showed good κ values (κ value 0.75). The most reliable were the extensor digiti minimi, the extensor carpi ulnaris, and the tibialis posterior tendons. An ultrasound reference image atlas of tenosynovitis and tendon damage was also developed. Ultrasound is a reproducible tool for evaluating tendon damage in RA. This study strongly supports a new reliable ultrasound scoring system for tendon damage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The effects of Kinesio Taping on the trajectory of the forelimb and the muscle activity of the Musculus brachiocephalicus and the Musculus extensor carpi radialis in horses

    PubMed Central

    Zellner, Antonia; Bockstahler, Barbara; Peham, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background information The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Kinesio Taping on the trajectory of the forelimb and the muscle activity of the M. brachiocephalicus and the M. extensor carpi radialis in horses. 19 horses and ponies of different breeds (body weight: 496±117 kg), gender (8 mares, 10 geldings and 3 stallions) and ages (14.9±6.9 years old) were analysed without Kinesio Tape (“no tape”), with Kinesio Tape (muscle facilitation application on both muscles of both sides, “with tape”) and immediately after Kinesio Taping (“post tape”) through kinematic motion analysis and surface electromyography on a treadmill at the walk (speed: 1.5±0.1 m/s) and trot (speed: 3.1±0.3 m/s). Results The results of the surface electromyography (maximum muscle activity at the walk and trot) and the kinematic motion analysis (maximum stride length and maximum height of the forelimbs flight arc at the walk and trot) showed that there were no significant differences between "no tape", "with tape" and "post tape". Conclusion To sum up, Kinesio Taping on the M. brachiocephalicus and the M. extensor carpi radialis does not affect (in a positive or negative manner) the trajectory of the forelimb or the muscle activity of the M. brachiocephalicus and the M. extensor carpi radialis in horses. PMID:29166657

  11. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm2), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm2). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18–0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the ‘design’ of their

  12. Desensitizing the posterior interosseous nerve alters wrist proprioceptive reflexes.

    PubMed

    Hagert, Elisabet; Persson, Jonas K E

    2010-07-01

    The presence of wrist proprioceptive reflexes after stimulation of the dorsal scapholunate interosseous ligament has previously been described. Because this ligament is primarily innervated by the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) we hypothesized altered ligamento-muscular reflex patterns following desensitization of the PIN. Eight volunteers (3 women, 5 men; mean age, 26 y; range 21-28 y) participated in the study. In the first study on wrist proprioceptive reflexes (study 1), the scapholunate interosseous ligament was stimulated through a fine-wire electrode with 4 1-ms bipolar pulses at 200 Hz, 30 times consecutively, while EMG activity was recorded from the extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris, with the wrist in extension, flexion, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation. After completion of study 1, the PIN was anesthetized in the radial aspect of the fourth extensor compartment using 2-mL lidocaine (10 mg/mL) infiltration anesthesia. Ten minutes after desensitization, the experiment was repeated as in study 1. The average EMG results from the 30 consecutive stimulations were rectified and analyzed using Student's t-test. Statistically significant changes in EMG amplitude were plotted along time lines so that the results of study 1 and 2 could be compared. Dramatic alterations in reflex patterns were observed in wrist flexion, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation following desensitization of the PIN, with an average of 72% reduction in excitatory reactions. In ulnar deviation, the inhibitory reactions of the extensor carpi ulnaris were entirely eliminated. In wrist extension, no differences in the reflex patterns were observed. Wrist proprioception through the scapholunate ligament in flexion, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation depends on an intact PIN function. The unchanged reflex patterns in wrist extension suggest an alternate proprioceptive pathway for this position. Routine excision of

  13. Wrist muscle activity of khatrah approach in Mameluke technique using traditional bow archery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariffin, Muhammad Shahimi; Rambely, Azmin Sham; Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd

    2018-04-01

    An investigation of khatrah technique in archery was carried out. An electromyography (EMG) experiment was conducted towards six wrist muscles which are flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum communis for both arms. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and activity data were recorded. The bow arm produced a higher muscle force compared to draw arm muscles during release phase. However, the muscle forces produced by bow arm had a consistency in term of pattern throughout the phases. In conclusion, the forces generated by the professional archer produced a force benchmark at the wrist joint to alleviate the risk of injury.

  14. Comparison of Muscle Activation during Dominant Hand Wrist Flexion when Writing.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohee

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the difference in muscle activation of the dominant upper extremity in right-handed and left-handed persons during writing. [Subjects] There were 36 subjects (16 left- handers/ 20 right- handers), and the study was conducted from 03/01/2012 to 30/3/2012. [Methods] Six electrodes were attached to the FCU (flexor carpi ulnaris), FCR (flexor carpi radialis), ECU (extensor carpi ulnaris), ECR (extensor carpi radialis), and both UT (upper trapezius) muscles. [Results] FCU muscle activation was 16.77±9.12% in left-handers and 10.29±4.13% (%MVIC) in right-handers. FCR muscle activation was 19.09±9.43% in left-handers and 10.64±5.03% in right-handers. In addition, the UT muscle activation on the writing hand side was 11.91±5.79% in left-handers and 1.66±1.19% in right-handers. [Conclusion] As a result of this study, it was discovered that left-handers used more wrist flexion in performance of the writing task with the dominant upper extremity than right-handers, and that the left-handers activated the wrist and shoulder muscles more than the right-handers. These results indicate a potential danger of musculoskeletal disease in left-hander.

  15. Surgical Treatment of Traumatic Myositis Ossificans of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Muscle in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Morton, Bridget A; Hettlich, Bianca F; Pool, Roy R

    2015-07-01

    To report clinical signs, diagnostic imaging findings, and outcome in a dog with traumatic myositis ossificans of the origin of the extensor carpi radialis muscle. Clinical report. An 8-month-old intact female Irish Setter Dog. After radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of an osseous proliferation arising from the cranial cortex of the right distal humeral diaphysis, the protruding bone was surgically removed and evaluated by histopathology. Traumatic myositis ossificans was successfully treated with surgical removal of the osseous proliferation resulting in improved postoperative range of motion of the right elbow joint. There was no evidence of lameness or abnormal bone regrowth associated with the surgical site radiographically at follow up. Surgical removal of a traumatic myositis ossificans lesion resulted in full return to function in a young, competitive show dog. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Wrist kinetics after luno-triquetral dissociation: the changes in moment arms of the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin Bo; Xie, Ren Gou; Yu, Xiao Wei; Chen, Feng

    2002-11-01

    Wrist biomechanics after luno-triquetral (LT) dissociation is important for understanding the clinical sequelae of the disease and for determining its treatment options. The LT interosseous ligament plays an important role in stabilizing the joint and damage to the ligament would be expected to significantly increase moment arms of tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), the principal ulnar wrist flexor. We investigated the changes in moment arms of FCU tendon after various amounts of sectioning of the ligaments proven to be associated with LT dissociation. In six fresh frozen cadaveric upper extremities, excursions of the FCU tendon were recorded simultaneously with wrist joint angulation during wrist flexion-extension and radioulnar deviation. Tendon excursions were measured in intact wrists, in wrists with sectioning of the dorsal portion of the LT interosseous ligament, in wrists with sectioning of the entire LT interosseous ligament, and finally in wrists with further sectioning of the dorsal radiotriquetral and intercarpal ligaments. Moment arms of the tendon were calculated from tendon excursions and joint motion angulations and expressed as percentage changes from those in the intact wrist. During wrist flexion-extension, moment arms of the FCU tendon after sectioning of the entire LT interosseous ligament and after sectioning of the two capsular ligaments were 112 +/- 7% and 114 +/- 8%, respectively; these values were significantly greater than those in the intact wrist. During radioulnar deviation, the moment arms were 114 +/- 11% after sectioning of the dorsal portion of the LT interosseous ligament, 134 +/- 15% after sectioning of the entire ligament, and 153 +/- 18% after sectioning of the capsular ligaments, again being significantly greater than the normal wrist. Increase in moment arms of the FCU tendon after loss of integrity of the LT interosseous ligament and dorsal capsular ligaments may contribute to clinical sequelae of LT dissociation and

  17. A randomized intervention trial to reduce mechanical exposures in the Colombian flower industry.

    PubMed

    Barrero, L H; Ceballos, C; Ellegast, R; Pulido, J A; Monroy, M; Berrio, S; Quintana, L A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions to reduce mechanical demands and upper-extremity MSDs is scarce in agriculture. We conducted an intervention to reduce mechanical exposures during manual flower cutting through job rotation, education and reduction of force requirements. One-hundred and twenty workers (20 to 60 years old; 89% women) from six companies that cultivate roses participated in this study. Three companies were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. We studied changes between baseline and follow-up in self-reported effort and upper-extremity postures, kinematics and muscular activity. Most of the observed changes were moderate for both groups. The intervention group showed differential improvements compared to the control group for the maximum wrist radial deviation and forearm pronation, and acceleration of the forearm supination-pronation and elbow flexion-extension; and the muscular activity of the flexor and extensor carpi radialis and the flexor carpi ulnaris. However, we also observed that the maximum ulnar deviation, velocity of the wrist flexion-extension and muscular activity of the extensor carpi ulnaris improved more in the control group. These mixed results may be related to limited time for intervention adjustment, and uncontrolled task changes in the control group. Future research should address these issues and test other solutions.

  18. Transfer of extensor carpi radialis brevis as an extensor to extensor motor transfer (EEMT) in ulnar nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Allah Rakha; Bhatti, Anisuddin; Mehboob, Ghulam

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate functional outcome and correction of deformity with extensor carpiradialis brevis motor transfer to replace the intrinsic muscles as an extensor to extensor motor transfer (EEMT). This was a prospective observational study with one group pretest posttest design conducted from 1996 to 2004. Convenience sampling technique was used and the sample size was twenty one. The independent variable was transfer of extensor carpiradialis brevis to replace the intrinsic muscles. The dependent variable was functional outcome and the correction of deformity. The extraneous variables were age, sex interval between injury and transfer as well as local factors related to wound and grafts used. The average follow up was 22.5 months. The mean preoperative unassisted extensor lag was 56.79 +/- 10.39 which improved to 9.6% +/- 5.4 (correction of 83%) at six months after surgery. With open hand assessment 76.19% reported good to excellent results, while 79.89% achieved good to excellent results with closed hand assessment. The mechanism of closing was good to excellent in 89.42% cases, however only 71.42% patients considered their hands good to excellent. Significant problems were seen with use of tendoachilles as a graft. Extensor carpiradialis brevis transfer to replace the intrinsic muscles as an extensor to extensor motor transfer can achieve good functional outcome as well as correction of deformity despite shortcomings in physical rehabilitation.

  19. Joint capsule attachment to the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin: an anatomical study with possible implications regarding the etiology of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Nimura, Akimoto; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Imatani, Junya; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Akita, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    To identify the unique anatomical characteristic of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) origin and points of differentiation from other extensors and to clarify the specific relationship of the ECRB to the underlying structures. We studied the origin of each extensor macroscopically for its muscular and tendinous parts; to identify the relationship between the ECRB origin and the deeper structures, we also examined the attachment of the joint capsule under the ECRB origin. The ECRB simply originated as a tendon without any muscle, whereas other extensors originated as a mixture of tendon and muscle. At the anterior part of the ECRB origin, the thin attachment of the joint capsule (average width, 3.3 mm) lay deep to the ECRB and was distinct. However, at the posterodistal portion, the joint capsule, annular ligament, and supinator were intermingled and originated as a single wide sheet from the humerus (average width, 10.7 mm). The anterior part of the ECRB origin was delicate, because the ECRB origin was purely tendinous, and the attachment of the articular capsule was thin compared with that of the posterodistal attachment. This thin attachment could be an initial factor leading to the development of lateral epicondylitis. The results of the current study may enhance magnetic resonance imaging understanding and may help clarify the etiology of the lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 4-corner arthrodesis and proximal row carpectomy: a biomechanical comparison of wrist motion and tendon forces.

    PubMed

    Debottis, Daniel P; Werner, Frederick W; Sutton, Levi G; Harley, Brian J

    2013-05-01

    Controversy exists as to whether a proximal row carpectomy (PRC) is a better procedure than scaphoid excision with 4-corner arthrodesis for preserving motion in the painful posttraumatic arthritic wrist. The purpose of this study was to determine how the kinematics and tendon forces of the wrist are altered after PRC and 4-corner arthrodesis. We tested 6 fresh cadaver forearms for the extremes of wrist motion and then used a wrist simulator to move them through 4 cyclic dynamic wrist motions, during which time we continuously recorded the tendon forces. We repeated the extremes of wrist motion measurements and the dynamic motions after scaphoid excision with 4-corner arthrodesis, and then again after PRC. We analyzed extremes of wrist motion and the peak tendon forces required for each dynamic motion using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Wrist extremes of motion significantly decreased after both the PRC and 4-corner arthrodesis compared with the intact wrist. Wrist flexion decreased on average 13° after 4-corner arthrodesis and 12° after PRC. Extension decreased 20° after 4-corner arthrodesis and 12° after PRC. Four-corner arthrodesis significantly decreased wrist ulnar deviation from the intact wrist. Four-corner arthrodesis allowed more radial deviation but less ulnar deviation than the PRC. The average peak tendon force was significantly greater after 4-corner arthrodesis than after PRC for the extensor carpi ulnaris during wrist flexion-extension, circumduction, and dart throw motions. The peak forces were significantly greater after 4-corner arthrodesis than in the intact wrist for the extensor carpi ulnaris during the dart throw motion and for the flexor carpi ulnaris during the circumduction motion. The peak extensor carpi radialis brevis force after PRC was significantly less than in the intact wrist. The measured wrist extremes of motion decreased after both 4-corner arthrodesis and PRC. Larger peak tendon forces were required to achieve

  1. Monosynaptic Ia projections from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm motoneurones in humans.

    PubMed

    Marchand-Pauvert, V; Nicolas, G; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E

    2000-05-15

    Heteronymous Ia excitatory projections from intrinsic hand muscles to human forearm motoneurones (MNs) were investigated. Changes in firing probability of single motor units (MUs) in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) were studied after electrical stimuli were applied to the median and ulnar nerve at wrist level and to the corresponding homonymous nerve at elbow level. Homonymous facilitation, occurring at the same latency as the H reflex, and therefore attributed to monosynaptic Ia EPSPs, was found in all the sampled units. In many MUs an early facilitation was also evoked by heteronymous low-threshold afferents from intrinsic hand muscles. The low threshold (between 0.5 and 0.6 times motor threshold (MT)) and the inability of a pure cutaneous stimulation to reproduce this effect indicate that it is due to stimulation of group I muscle afferents. Evidence for a similar central delay (monosynaptic) in heteronymous as in homonymous pathways was accepted when the difference in latencies of the homonymous and heteronymous peaks did not differ from the estimated supplementary afferent conduction time from wrist to elbow level by more than 0.5 ms (conduction velocity in the fastest Ia afferents between wrist and elbow levels being equal to 69 m s-1). A statistically significant heteronymous monosynaptic Ia excitation from intrinsic hand muscles supplied by both median and ulnar nerves was found in MUs belonging to all forearm motor nuclei tested (although not in ECU MUs after ulnar stimulation). It was, however, more often found in flexors than in extensors, in wrist than in finger muscles and in muscles operating in the radial than in the ulnar side. It is argued that the connections of Ia afferents from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm MNs, which are stronger and more widely distributed than in the cat

  2. Cellular properties of extensor carpi radialis brevis and trapezius muscles in healthy males and females.

    PubMed

    Green, Howard J; Ranney, Don; Burnett, Margaret; Iqbal, Sobia; Kyle, Natasha; Lounsbury, David; Ouyang, Jing; Tupling, A Russell; Smith, Ian C; Stewart, Riley; Tick, Heather

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we sought to determine whether differences in cellular properties associated with energy homeostasis could explain the higher incidence of work-related myalgia in trapezius (TRAP) compared with extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB). Tissue samples were obtained from the ECRB (n = 19) and TRAP (n = 17) of healthy males and females (age 27.9 ± 2.2 and 28.1 ± 1.5 years, respectively; mean ± SE) and analyzed for properties involved in both ATP supply and utilization. The concentration of ATP and the maximal activities of creatine phosphokinase, phosphorylase, and phosphofructokinase were higher (P < 0.05) in ECRB than TRAP. Succinic dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and cytochrome c oxidase were not different between muscles. The ECRB also displayed a higher concentration of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and greater sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and uptake. No differences existed between muscles for either monocarboxylate transporters or glucose transporters. It is concluded that the potentials for high-energy phosphate transfer, glycogenolysis, glycolysis, and excitation-contraction coupling are higher in ECRB than TRAP. Histochemical measurements indicated that the muscle differences are, in part, related to differing amounts of type II tissue. Depending on the task demands, the TRAP may experience a greater metabolic and excitation-contraction coupling strain than the ECRB given the differences observed.

  3. Effect of elbow and forearm position on contact pressure between the extensor origin and the lateral side of the capitellum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Izumi, Tomoki; Wada, Takuro; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Bone-to-tendon contact in the origin of the common extensor tendons is considered to be one of the causes of lateral epicondylitis. Some factors, including elbow and forearm position, varus stress to the elbow, or contraction of the wrist extensor tendons, are considered to affect this bone-to-tendon contact. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the elbow and forearm position on bone-tendon interface. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the position of the elbow and forearm on the contact pressure of the tendinous origin of the common wrist and finger extensors. We used 8 fresh cadaveric upper extremities. Contact pressure between the origin of the common extensor tendons and the lateral side of the capitellum was measured with a pressure sensor and was compared among various conditions, including elbow flexion angle (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°), forearm rotation position (neutral and 81.5° pronation position), and varus stress load of the elbow (none, gravity on the forearm, and gravity on the forearm +1.96 Nm). Contact pressure was also measured during tension force of the extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and extensor digitorum communis by 0, 9.8, and 19.6 N. Contact pressure was significantly increased with the elbow extension position, forearm pronation position, and varus stress to the elbow under tension of the extensor carpi radialis longus or extensor carpi radialis brevis. This study provides data about the amount of contact pressure between bone and tendon at the origin of the common extensor tendons in the elbow. This information may lead to a better understanding of, and better treatment for, lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effects of extensor synovectomy and excision of the distal ulna in rheumatoid arthritis on long-term function.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abhilash; Ball, Cathy; Freidin, Andrew J; Nanchahal, Jagdeep

    2010-09-01

    Objective outcomes data after excision of the distal ulna in rheumatoid arthritis are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional results of this surgery in the long term. We prospectively collected data on range of motion (22 wrists), visual analog pain scores (14 wrists), and grip strength measured using a Jamar dynamometer (20 hands) in a group of 23 patients (26 wrists) preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months, and a minimum of 5 years postoperatively (range, 5.3-10.4 y). The Jebsen-Taylor hand function test was administered to 9 patients at the same time points. A subgroup of patients also underwent extensor carpi radialis longus to extensor carpi ulnaris tendon transfer (11 wrists). At one year, there were improvements in wrist pronation and supination, which were maintained at final follow-up. Active radial deviation decreased significantly at 3 months (p = .01) and one year (p = .02); this remained reduced at final follow-up (not significant). Wrist extension and active ulnar deviation showed slight improvements by one year, but reduced to levels below that measured preoperatively by final follow-up. Wrist flexion was significantly reduced at all time points postoperatively. Grip strength showed improvement from 10.0 kg (standard deviation [SD] 4.1 kg) preoperatively to 12.5 kg (SD 4.6 kg) 1 year after surgery and returned to preoperative levels (9.5 kg, SD 5.6 kg) by final follow-up. Wrist pain was significantly reduced from a mean score of 5 (SD 4) preoperatively to 2 (SD 2) postoperatively (p = .01). The Jebsen-Taylor hand function test showed improvements in writing and card turning. In the long term, excision of the distal ulna in rheumatoid patients results in an improvement in some aspects of hand function. There is a significant (p = .01) reduction in wrist pain but a reduction of wrist flexion. Therapeutic IV. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tendon transfer to reconstruct wrist extension in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2003-04-01

    This study reports on 20 children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy who underwent a tendon transfer to reconstruct wrist extension. The mean age at the time of tendon transfer was 8 years. There were seven patients with Erb's palsy and the remaining 13 had total palsy. The flexor carpi ulnaris was utilized 15 times and the flexor carpi radialis five times. The transferred tendon was sutured to the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis. The result of the transfer was assessed according to a modified Medical Research Council (MRC) muscle grading system. A good result was obtained in 18 patients (modified MRC grade of 4) and a fair result (modified MRC grade of 3) in two. The choice of tendon transfer to reconstruct the wrist drop deformity in various conditions including adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries is discussed.

  6. Mechanical Strength of the Side-to-Side Tendon Attachment for Mismatched Tendon Sizes and Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Fridén, Jan; Tirrell, Timothy F.; Bhola, Siddharth; Lieber, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Certain combinations are advised against in tendon transfers due to size or shape mismatches between donor and recipient tendons. In this study, ultimate load, stiffness and Young’s modulus were measured in two tendon-to-tendon attachments with intentionally mismatched donor and recipient tendons - pronator teres (PT)-to-extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)-to-extensor digitorum communis (EDC). FCU-EDC attachments failed at higher loads than PT-to-ECRB attachments but they had similar modulus and stiffness values. Ultimate tensile strength of the tendon attachments exceeded the maximum predicted contraction force of any of the affected muscles, with safety factors of 4x and 2x for the FCU-to-EDC and PT-to-ECRB constructs, respectively. This implies that size and shape mismatch should not be a contraindication to tendon attachment in transfers. Further, these safety factors strongly suggest that no postoperative immobilization of these attachments is necessary. PMID:24413573

  7. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  8. Factors associated with operative treatment of enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin.

    PubMed

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Faghfouri, Aram; Ring, David

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with variation in the rate of surgery for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (eECRB). We used a large database from 3 academic hospitals including 5964 patients with the diagnosis of eECRB from 2001 to 2007. Of those, 244 patients (4%) had surgery for eECRB. We used the date of the first encounter as the date of diagnosis. We also recorded the date of the first cortisone injection and surgery for eECRB. We used Cox multivariable regression analysis to find factors associated with surgery. We considered the following explanatory factors: age, sex, race, diabetes, a diagnosis of major depression, a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, hospital, provider (surgeon vs. nonsurgeon), corticosteroid injection, and the time from diagnosis to the first cortisone injection. The hazard ratio of having surgery was 12-times greater if the initial provider was an orthopedic surgeon rather a nonsurgeon and 1.7-times greater at 1 of the 2 hospitals. The rate of surgery varied substantially, ranging from 0% to 22%. Corticosteroid injection delayed the time to surgery but was ultimately associated with a higher rate of surgery. The majority (86%) of surgeries were done within 1 year of the first documented office visit. It seems likely that an emphasis on the preferences and values of the patient rather than the surgeon would decrease the variation in surgery rates for eECRB observed in this study. Methods for optimizing the influence of patient preferences and values on decision making (eg, decision aids) merit additional study. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Robotic Assistance on Reducing Neuromuscular Effort and Fatigue during Extravehicular Activity Glove Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Kaci E.; Deshpande, Ashish D.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Jonathan M.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    The three-layered, pressurized space suit glove worn by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew members during missions commonly causes hand and forearm fatigue. The Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG), a Phase VI EVA space suit glove modified with robotic grasp-assist capabilities, has been developed to augment grip strength in order to improve endurance and reduce the risk of injury in astronauts. The overall goals of this study were to i) quantify the neuromuscular modulations that occur in response to wearing a conventional Phase VI space suit glove (SSG) during a fatiguing task, and ii) determine the efficacy of Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG) in reversing the adverse neuromuscular modulations and restoring altered muscular activity to barehanded levels. Six subjects performed a fatigue sequence consisting of repetitive dynamic-gripping interspersed with isometric grip-holds under three conditions: barehanded, wearing pressurized SSG, and wearing pressurized SSRG. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from six forearm muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor digitorum (ED), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)) and subjective fatigue ratings were collected during each condition. Trends in amplitude and spectral distributions of the sEMG signals were used to derive metrics quantifying neuromuscular effort and fatigue that were compared across the glove conditions. Results showed that by augmenting finger flexion, the SSRG successfully reduced the neuromuscular effort needed to close the fingers of the space suit glove in more than half of subjects during two types of tasks. However, the SSRG required more neuromuscular effort to extend the fingers compared to a conventional SSG in many subjects. Psychologically, the SSRG aided subjects in feeling less fatigued during short periods of intense work compared to the SSG. The results of this study reveal the promise of the SSRG as a

  10. Small flake, big problem: an unreported cause of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Durrant, C A T; Bantick, G

    2010-01-01

    Fracture of the base of the third metacarpal with associated avulsion of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon is a rare injury. We report such a fracture and the unusual resulting complication of division of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by the avulsed bony fragment. Careful monitoring using lateral radiographs is needed to make the diagnosis and displacement of the avulsed fragment warrants open reduction and internal fixation.

  11. Procedure Oriented Torsional Anatomy of the Forearm for Spasticity Injection.

    PubMed

    Chiou-Tan, Faye; Cianca, John; John, Joslyn; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Pandit, Sindhu; Taber, Katherine H

    2015-01-01

    : This is the second in a series of articles related to the concept of "torsional" anatomy. The objective of this article is to provide musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) anatomy of the forearm in the position of hemispastic flexion as a reference relevant to needle procedures. The MSKUS images were obtained in a healthy human subject. Marker dots were placed over common injection sites in the forearm for spasticity. The MSKUS probe was centered over each dot to obtain a cross-sectional view. A pair of MSKUS images was recorded for each site: the first in anatomic neutral and second in hemiparetic spastic position. The images were compared side to side. In addition, a video recording was made at each site to track the movement of the muscles and nerves during internal rotation. The pronator teres (PT) rotated medially and the brachialis and biceps tendon rotated in view. In addition, the median nerve became more superficial. The flexor carpi radialis rotated medially and was replaced by PT and the median nerve. The flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus rotated medially and were replaced by the flexor carpi radialis, PT and median nerve. The flexor digitorum superficialis was replaced by the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and radial nerve. The brachioradialis was replaced by the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis. Intended muscle targets rotate out of view and injection range. These are replaced by other muscles and nerves that could inadvertently be injected. This potentially could result in both increased complications and decreased efficacy of the procedure. It is hoped that this series of images will increase the accuracy and safety of needle placement for spasticity injections in the forearm.

  12. Incidental magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin are more common with age.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Wouter F; Janssen, Stein J; Ring, David; Chen, Neal

    2016-07-01

    Patients with enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) demonstrate signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is likely that these MRI changes persist for many years or may be permanent, regardless of symptoms, and represent an estimation of disease prevalence. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of incidental signal changes in the ECRB origin increases with age. We searched MRI reports of 3374 patients who underwent an MRI scan, including the elbow, for signal changes in the ECRB origin. Medical records were reviewed for symptoms consistent with ECRB enthesopathy. Prevalences of incidental and symptomatic signal changes were calculated and stratified by age. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to test whether age, sex, and race were independently associated with ECRB enthesopathy and calculated odds ratios. Signal changes in ECRB origin were identified on MRI scans of 369 of 3374 patients (11%) without a clinical suspicion of tennis elbow. The prevalence increased from 5.7% in patients aged between 18 and 30 years up to 16% in patients aged 71 years and older. Older age (odds ratio, 1.04; P <.001) was independently associated with the incidental finding of ECRB enthesopathy on elbow MRI scans. Increased MRI signal in the ECRB origin is common in symptomatic and in asymptomatic elbows. Our findings support the concept that ECRB enthesopathy is a highly prevalent, self-limited process that seems to affect a minimum of 1 in approximately every 7 people. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Feasibility of Functional Electrical Stimulation to Improve Upper Extremity Function in a Two-year-old Child with Perinatal Stroke: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Musselman, Kristin E; Manns, Patricia; Dawe, Jaclyn; Delgado, Rhina; Yang, Jaynie F

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility (i.e. tolerability, adherence) of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for the upper extremity (UE) in a two-year-old child with perinatal stroke. Forty hours of FES over eight weeks was prescribed. FES to the hemiplegic triceps, extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum was timed with reaching during play. Assessments were performed before, during, and two months post-intervention. UE function (Melbourne Assessment 2 (MA2), Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA)) and spasticity (Modified Tardieu with electrogoniometry and electromyography) were measured. The mother completed a semi-structured interview post-intervention. Descriptive statistics were used for adherence and UE measures. A repeated-measures ANOVA compared Modified Tardieu parameters (e.g. catch angle) over time. Conventional content analysis was used for the interview data. The child completed 39.2/40 hours. Immediately post-intervention, improvements were observed on MA2's Range of Motion subscale and catch angle (Modified Tardieu, p < 0.001). Two months post-intervention, improvements were observed on MA2's Accuracy and Fluency subscales. No change in AHA score occurred. Three themes emerged from the interview: (1) Ingredients for program success; (2) Information about the FES device; and (3) The child's response. UE FES was feasible in a two-year-old child with hemiplegia.

  14. The Elbow-EpiTrainer: a method of delivering graded resistance to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Effectiveness of a prototype device in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Navsaria, Rishi; Ryder, Dionne M; Lewis, Jeremy S; Alexander, Caroline M

    2015-03-01

    Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylopathy (LE) is experienced as the lateral elbow has a reported prevalence of 1.3%, with symptoms lasting up to 18 months. LE is most commonly attributed to tendinopathy involving the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon. The aim of tendinopathy management is to alleviate symptoms and restore function that initially involves relative rest followed by progressive therapeutic exercise. To assess the effectiveness of two prototype exercises using commonly available clinical equipment to progressively increase resistance and activity of the ECRB. Eighteen healthy participants undertook two exercise progressions. Surface electromyography was used to record ECRB activity during the two progressions, involving eccentric exercises of the wrist extensors and elbow pronation exercises using a prototype device. The two progressions were assessed for their linearity of progression using repeated ANOVA and linear regression analysis. Five participants repeated the study to assess reliability. The exercise progressions led to an increase in ECRB electromyographic (EMG) activity (p<0.001). A select progression of exercises combining the two protocols increased EMG activity in a linear fashion (p<0.001). The ICC values indicated good reliability (ICC>0.7) between the first and second tests for five participants. Manipulation of resistance and leverage with the prototype exercises was effective in creating significant increases of ECRB normalised EMG activity in a linear manner that may, with future research, become useful to clinicians treating LE. In addition, between trial reliability for the device to generate a consistent load was acceptable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Sexual dimorphism of extensor carpi radialis muscle size, isometric force, relaxation rate and stamina during the breeding season of the frog Rana temporaria Linnaeus 1758.

    PubMed

    Navas, Carlos A; James, Rob S

    2007-02-01

    Mating success of individual male frogs within explosive breeding species can depend on their ability to compete for a mate and to hold onto that mate during amplexus. Such importance of amplexus has resulted in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the morphology and contractile characteristics of the anuran forelimb muscles used during amplexus. The aims of our study were to use an explosive breeding frog (Rana temporaria) during the breeding season to compare extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle length, mass, isometric activation times, relaxation times, absolute force, relative force (stress) and fatigue between male and female frogs. We found that ECR muscle mass and length were greater (tenfold and 1.4-fold, respectively), absolute tetanic muscle force and relative tetanic force (stress) were greater (16-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively) and relaxation times were slower in males than in females. Male ECR muscles incompletely relaxed during fatigue tests and showed less fatigue than female muscles. These sex differences are likely to be beneficial to the male frogs in allowing them to produce relatively high absolute muscle forces for prolonged periods of time to hold onto their mate during amplexus.

  16. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    PubMed

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  17. Pisiform bursitis: a forgotten pathology.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Ferdinando; Gregoli, Bettina; Bortolotto, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Pisiform bursitis is a disease often forgotten in both everyday practice and medical literature. The pisiform bursa is not constant; when present, it is located between the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris and pisiform bone. Bursitis causes pain in the medial side of the wrist and enters into the differential diagnosis of various diseases of this anatomic region, in particular, with enthesitis of the flexor carpi ulnaris and the ganglion of piso-pyramidal compartment. We present the sonographic appearance of pisiform bursitis in a symptomatic patient. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A randomized intervention trial to reduce mechanical exposures in the Colombian flower industry.

    PubMed

    Barrero, L H; Ceballos, C; Ellegast, R; Pulido, J A; Monroy, M; Berrio, S; Quintana, L A

    2014-01-01

    flexor carpi ulnaris; although the opposite was true for the extensor carpi ulnaris. Important although sometimes mixed results were achieved with this field intervention, focusing on postural and force requirement demands. The positive results are encouraging considering the presence of typical limitations observed in field intervention studies.

  19. [Muscular control of scapholunate instability. An experimental study].

    PubMed

    León-López, M M; García-Elías, M; Salvà-Coll, G; Llusá-Perez, M; Lluch-Bergadà, A

    2014-01-01

    As long as the neuromuscular stabilizers are intact, a lesion of the scapholunate ligament may or may not progress to a carpal instability. The mechanisms by which the muscles compensate this defect are not very well known. We designed an experimental study with the aim of clarifying these mechanisms. Using 10 fresh wrists, with no pre-existing lesions, we studied the movements of the scaphoid, triquetrum and capitate produced by the isometrical loading of the muscles which move the wrist, each of them isolated or combined, before and after cutting off the scapholunate ligaments. To do this, we placed sensors in each of these bones and used the Fastrack system to record these movements. The simultaneous loading of the muscles of the wrist produce rotational movements in flexion and supination of the proximal carpal row. After cutting off the scapholunate ligaments, the scaphoid rotates in pronation and flexion, while the triquetrum rotates in pronation and extension. In this situation of a scapholunate lesion, the muscles that worsen the carpal dexasation are the extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi ulnaris. On the other hand, the isolated loading of the radial muscles reduce the scapholunate diastasis, thus improving the carpal alignment. In dynamic scapholunate instabilities, isometric contraction of the ulnar carpal muscles must be avoided, as it promotes the scapholunate diastasis. The rest of the muscles have the opposite effect, stabilizing the carpus when primary stabilizers have failed. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuromuscular partitioning in the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis based on intramuscular nerve distribution patterns: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    PubMed

    Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Ravichandiran, Nisanthini; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; McKee, Nancy H; Richardson, Denyse; Oliver, Michele; Agur, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Differential activation of specific regions within a skeletal muscle has been linked to the presence of neuromuscular compartments. However, few studies have investigated the extra- or intramuscular innervation throughout the muscle volume of extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of neuromuscular partitions in ECRL and ECRB based on the extra- and intramuscular innervation using three-dimensional modeling. The extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution was digitized and reconstructed in 3D in all the muscle volumes using Autodesk Maya in seven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age, 75.7 ± 15.2 years). The intramuscular nerve distribution was modeled in all the muscle volumes. ECRL was found to have two neuromuscular compartments, superficial and deep. One branch from the radial nerve proper was found to innervate ECRL. This branch was divided into anterior and posterior branches to the superficial and deep compartments, respectively. Five innervation patterns were identified in ECRB with partitioning of the muscle belly into two, three, or four compartments, in a proximal to distal direction depending on the number of nerve branches entering the muscle belly. The ECRL and ECRB both demonstrated neuromuscular compartmentalization based on intramuscular innervation. According to the partitioning hypothesis, a muscle may be differentially activated depending on the required function of the muscle, thus allowing multifunctional muscles to contribute to a variety of movements. Therefore, the increased number of neuromuscular partitions in ECRB when compared with ECRL could be due to the need for more differential recruitment in the ECRB depending on force requirements. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A pilot study to determine whether differences exist in histochemical properties between the trapezius and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles in women with work-related myalgia.

    PubMed

    Green, Howard J; Ranney, Don; Burnett, Margaret; Galvin, Patti; Kyle, Natasha; Iqbal, Sobia; Lounsbury, David; Ouyang, Jing; Smith, Ian C; Stewart, Riley; Tick, Heather; Tupling, A Russell

    2014-04-01

    To investigate fibre-type abnormalities in women with work-related myalgia (WRM), tissue samples were extracted from their trapezius (TRAP) and the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscles and compared with healthy controls (CON). For the ECRB samples (CON, n = 6; WRM, n = 11), no differences (P > 0.05) were found between groups for any of the properties examined, namely fibre-type (I, IIA, IIX, IIAX) distribution, cross-sectional fibre area, capillary counts (CC), capillary to fibre area ratio, and succinic dehydrogenase activity. For the TRAP samples (CON, n = 6; WRM, n = 8), the only difference (P < 0.05) observed between groups was for CC (CON > WRM), which was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) when age was used a covariant. A comparison of the properties of these 2 muscles in the CON group indicated a higher (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) percentage of type I and type IIA fibres, respectively, in the TRAP as well as higher (P < 0.05) CC, which was not specific to fibre type. These preliminary results suggest that the properties employed to characterize fibre types do not differentiate CON from WRM for either the TRAP or ECRB. As a consequence, the role of inherent fibre-type differences between these muscles in the pathogenesis of WRM remains uncertain.

  2. Preliminary observations on high energy phosphates and metabolic pathway and transporter potentials in extensor carpi radialis brevis and trapezius muscles of women with work-related myalgia.

    PubMed

    Green, Howard J; Ranney, Don; Burnett, Margaret; Galvin, Patti; Kyle, Natasha; Lounsbury, David; Ouyang, Jing; Smith, Ian C; Stewart, Riley; Tick, Heather; Tupling, A Russell

    2014-11-01

    This study compared both the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and the trapezius (TRAP) muscles of women with work-related myalgia (WRM) with healthy controls (CON) to determine whether abnormalities existed in cellular energy status and the potentials of the various metabolic pathways and segments involved in energy production and substrate transport. For both the ECRB (CON, n = 6-9; WRM, n = 13) and the TRAP (CON, n = 6-7; WRM, n = 10), no differences (P > 0.05) were found for the concentrations (in millimoles per kilogram of dry mass) of ATP, PCr, lactate, and glycogen. Similarly, with one exception, the maximal activities (in moles per milligram of protein per hour) of mitochondrial enzymes representative of the citric acid cycle (CAC), the electron transport chain (ETC), and β-oxidation, as well as the cytosolic enzymes involved in high energy phosphate transfer, glycogenolysis, glycolysis, lactate oxidation, and glucose phosphorylation were not different (P > 0.05). The glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, and the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4, were also normal in WRM. It is concluded that, in general, abnormalities in the resting energy and substrate state, the potential of the different metabolic pathways and segments, as well as the glucose and monocarboxylate transporters do not appear to be involved in the cellular pathophysiology of WRM.

  3. Cross-talk in mechanomyographic signals from the forearm muscles during sub-maximal to maximal isometric grip force.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Anamul; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, R Badlishah; Sundaraj, Sebastian; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Ali, Md Asraf

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed: i) to examine the relationship between the magnitude of cross-talk in mechanomyographic (MMG) signals generated by the extensor digitorum (ED), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscles with the sub-maximal to maximal isometric grip force, and with the anthropometric parameters of the forearm, and ii) to quantify the distribution of the cross-talk in the MMG signal to determine if it appears due to the signal component of intramuscular pressure waves produced by the muscle fibers geometrical changes or due to the limb tremor. Twenty, right-handed healthy men (mean ± SD: age  = 26.7±3.83 y; height  = 174.47±6.3 cm; mass  = 72.79±14.36 kg) performed isometric muscle actions in 20% increment from 20% to 100% of the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). During each muscle action, MMG signals generated by each muscle were detected using three separate accelerometers. The peak cross-correlations were used to quantify the cross-talk between two muscles. The magnitude of cross-talk in the MMG signals among the muscle groups ranged from, R2(x, y) = 2.45-62.28%. Linear regression analysis showed that the magnitude of cross-talk increased linearly (r2 = 0.857-0.90) with the levels of grip force for all the muscle groups. The amount of cross-talk showed weak positive and negative correlations (r2 = 0.016-0.216) with the circumference and length of the forearm respectively, between the muscles at 100% MVIC. The cross-talk values significantly differed among the MMG signals due to: limb tremor (MMGTF), slow firing motor unit fibers (MMGSF) and fast firing motor unit fibers (MMGFF) between the muscles at 100% MVIC (p<0.05, η2 = 0.47-0.80). The results of this study may be used to improve our understanding of the mechanics of the forearm muscles during different levels of the grip force.

  4. Longitudinal, lateral and transverse axes of forearm muscles influence the crosstalk in the mechanomyographic signals during isometric wrist postures.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Anamul; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, R Badlishah; Sundaraj, Sebastian; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Ali, Md Asraf

    2014-01-01

    In mechanomyography (MMG), crosstalk refers to the contamination of the signal from the muscle of interest by the signal from another muscle or muscle group that is in close proximity. The aim of the present study was two-fold: i) to quantify the level of crosstalk in the mechanomyographic (MMG) signals from the longitudinal (Lo), lateral (La) and transverse (Tr) axes of the extensor digitorum (ED), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscles during isometric wrist flexion (WF) and extension (WE), radial (RD) and ulnar (UD) deviations; and ii) to analyze whether the three-directional MMG signals influence the level of crosstalk between the muscle groups during these wrist postures. Twenty, healthy right-handed men (mean ± SD: age = 26.7±3.83 y; height = 174.47±6.3 cm; mass = 72.79±14.36 kg) participated in this study. During each wrist posture, the MMG signals propagated through the axes of the muscles were detected using three separate tri-axial accelerometers. The x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis of the sensor were placed in the Lo, La, and Tr directions with respect to muscle fibers. The peak cross-correlations were used to quantify the proportion of crosstalk between the different muscle groups. The average level of crosstalk in the MMG signals generated by the muscle groups ranged from: 34.28-69.69% for the Lo axis, 27.32-52.55% for the La axis and 11.38-25.55% for the Tr axis for all participants and their wrist postures. The Tr axes between the muscle groups showed significantly smaller crosstalk values for all wrist postures [F (2, 38) = 14-63, p<0.05, η2 = 0.416-0.769]. The results may be applied in the field of human movement research, especially for the examination of muscle mechanics during various types of the wrist postures.

  5. 70° frontal visualization of lateral compartment of the elbow allows extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon release with preservation of the radial lateral collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Paolo; Fossati, Chiara; Zottarelli, Leonardo; Brady, Paul C; Cabitza, Paolo; Randelli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the radial component of the lateral collateral ligament (R-LCL) and extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) are consistently visible, using a 70° arthroscope, as parallel structures in the extra-articular space of the elbow, and to evaluate the clinical outcomes of these techniques in a series of patients. An arthroscopic ECRB tendon release was performed between 2008 and 2010. Eighteen patients were retrospectively evaluated at a minimum of 24 months' follow-up. The surgeon performed the ECRB release while protecting the R-LCL and viewing the structures extra-articularly with a 70° arthroscope through the anteromedial portal. Patients underwent surgery if they presented with localized tenderness and pain not responding to conservative treatment for 12 months and had magnetic resonance imaging scans indicating tendinopathy or degeneration. Arthritis, posterolateral rotatory instability, trauma, and previous surgeries were exclusion criteria. Intraoperative videos were reviewed and a clinical examination was performed by an independent reviewer at 24 months postoperatively. Patients were also evaluated with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score; Andrews-Carson score; and shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Direct varus stress was applied in extension and flexion (40°), and the posterolateral pivot-shift and chair tests were performed. Visualization with the 70° arthroscope through the anteromedial portal was successful in all of the cases (100%). Visualization of the residual ECRB tendon stump, as well as the posterior common extensor tendon, was also achieved 94% of the time. The final mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score and Andrews-Carson score were 82.5 (range, 60 to 100) and 185.3 (range, 125 to 200), respectively. The mean postoperative score on the shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire was 20.14 (range, 5 to 57.5). Clinical tests showed stability in all the cases. The 70° arthroscope

  6. Anatomic factors related to the cause of tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Bunata, Robert E; Brown, David S; Capelo, Roderick

    2007-09-01

    The pathogenesis of lateral epicondylitis remains unclear. Our purpose was to study the anatomy of the lateral aspect of the elbow under static and dynamic conditions in order to identify bone-to-tendon and tendon-to-tendon contact or rubbing that might cause abrasion of the tissues. Eighty-five cadaveric elbows were examined to determine details related to the bone structure and musculotendinous origins. We identified the relative positions of the musculotendinous units and the underlying bone when the elbow was in different degrees of flexion. We also recorded the contact between the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the lateral edge of the capitellum as elbow motion occurred, and we sought to identify the areas of the capitellum and extensor carpi radialis brevis where contact occurs. The average site of origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis on the humerus lay slightly medial and superior to the outer edge of the capitellum. As the elbow was extended, the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis rubbed against the lateral edge of the capitellum while the extensor carpi radialis longus compressed the brevis against the underlying bone. The extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon has a unique anatomic location that makes its undersurface vulnerable to contact and abrasion against the lateral edge of the capitellum during elbow motion.

  7. Histological assessment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    PubMed

    Semisch, M; Hagert, E; Garcia-Elias, M; Lluch, A; Rein, S

    2016-06-01

    The morphological structure of the seven components of triangular fibrocartilage complexes of 11 cadaver wrists of elderly people was assessed microscopically, after staining with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Elastica van Gieson. The articular disc consisted of tight interlaced fibrocartilage without blood vessels except in its ulnar part. Volar and dorsal radioulnar ligaments showed densely parallel collagen bundles. The subsheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, the ulnotriquetral and ulnolunate ligament showed mainly mixed tight and loose parallel tissue. The ulnolunate ligament contained tighter parallel collagen bundles and clearly less elastic fibres than the ulnotriquetral ligament. The ulnocarpal meniscoid had an irregular morphological composition and loose connective tissue predominated. The structure of the articular disc indicates a buffering function. The tight structure of radioulnar and ulnolunate ligaments reflects a central stabilizing role, whereas the ulnotriquetral ligament and ulnocarpal meniscoid have less stabilizing functions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The effect of caloric restriction on the forelimb skeletal muscle fibers of the hypertrophic myostatin null mice.

    PubMed

    Elashry, Mohamed I; Matsakas, Antonios; Wenisch, Sabine; Arnhold, Stefan; Patel, Ketan

    2017-06-01

    Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized. The effect of a five week dietary limitation on five anatomically and structurally different forelimb muscles was examined. C57/BL6 wild type (Mstn +/+ ) and myostatin null (Mstn -/- ) mice were either given a standard rodent normal daily diet ad libitum (ND) or 60% food restriction (FR) for a 5 week period. M. triceps brachii Caput laterale (T.lateral), M. triceps brachii Caput longum (T.long), M. triceps brachii Caput mediale (T.medial), M. extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and M. flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) were dissected, weighted and processed for immunohistochemistry. Muscle mass, fibers cross sectional areas (CSA) and myosin heavy chain types IIB, IIX, IIA and type I were analyzed. We provide evidence that caloric restriction results in muscle specific weight reduction with the fast myofibers being more prone to atrophy. We show that slow fibers are less liable to dietary restriction induced muscle atrophy. The effect of dietary restriction was more pronounced in Mstn -/- muscles to implicate the oxidative fibers compared to Mstn +/+ . Furthermore, peripherally located myofibers are more susceptible to dietary induced reduction compared to deep fibers. We additionally report that dietary restriction alters the glycolytic phenotype of the Mstn -/- into the oxidative form in a muscle dependent manner. In summary our study shows that calorie restriction alters muscle fiber profile of forelimb muscles of Myostatin null mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Gmb

  9. Functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Hackl, M; Bercher, M; Wegmann, K; Müller, L P; Dargel, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) and the surrounding forearm extensors. Using 81 human cadaveric upper extremities, the anatomy of the forearm extensors-especially the anconeus, supinator and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)-was analyzed. After removal of aforementioned extensors the functional anatomy of the LCLC was analyzed. The origin of the LCLC was evaluated for isometry. The insertion types of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) were analyzed and classified. The ECU runs parallel to the RCL to dynamically preserve varus stability. The supinator and anconeus muscle fibers coalesce with the LCLC and lengthen during pronation. The anconeus fibers run parallel to the LUCL in full flexion. The LCLC consists of the annular ligament (AL) and the isometric radial collateral ligament (RCL). During elbow flexion, its posterior branches (LUCL) tighten while the anterior branches loosen. When performing a pivot shift test, the loosened LUCL fibers do not fully tighten in full extension. The LUCL inserts along with the AL at the supinator crest. Three different insertion types could be observed. The LUCL represents the posterior branch of the RCL rather than a distinct ligament. It is non-isometric and lengthens during elbow flexion. The RCL was found to be of vital importance for neutralization of posterolateral rotatory forces. Pronation of the forearm actively stabilizes the elbow joint as the supinator, anconeus and biceps muscle work in unison to increase posterolateral rotatory stability.

  10. Differential activation of motor units in the wrist extensor muscles during the tonic vibration reflex in man.

    PubMed Central

    Romaiguère, P; Vedel, J P; Azulay, J P; Pagni, S

    1991-01-01

    1. Single motor unit activity was recorded in the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles of five healthy human subjects, using metal microelectrodes. 2. Motor units were characterized on the basis of their twitch contraction times and their force recruitment thresholds during voluntary imposed-ramp contractions. 3. The discharge patterns of forty-three motor units were studied during tonic vibration reflex elicited by prolonged (150 s) trains of vibration (30 Hz) applied to the distal tendons of the muscles. The temporal relationships between the individual small tendon taps of the vibratory stimulus and the motor unit impulses were analysed on dot raster displays and post-stimulus time histograms. 4. After tendon taps, the impulses of motor units with long twitch contraction times (mean +/- S.D., 47.2 +/- 10.7 ms) and low recruitment thresholds (0.88 +/- 0.6 N) formed a single narrow peak (P1) with a latency (22.7 +/- 1.4 ms) which was comparable to that of the tendon jerk in the extensor carpi radialis muscles. These motor units were named 'P1 units'. On the other hand, the response of motor units with shorter twitch contraction times (31.1 +/- 3.3 ms) and higher recruitment thresholds (3.21 +/- 1.3 N) showed two peaks: a short latency (23.4 +/- 1.3 ms) P1 peak similar to the previous one and a P2 peak occurring 9.4 +/- 1.2 ms later. These motor units were named 'P1-P2 units'. 5. When the reflex contraction increased slowly, the P1 peaks of 'P1-P2 units' were clearly predominant at the beginning of the contraction, during the rising phase of the motor unit discharge frequency, while the P2 peaks became predominant when the units had reached their maximal discharge frequency. 6. Increasing the tendon vibration frequency (35, 55, 75, 95 Hz) did not modify the 'P1 unit' discharge pattern. Due to interference between vibration period and peak latencies, increasing the vibration frequency caused the P1 and P2 peaks of 'P1-P2 units

  11. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  12. Assessment of Myoelectric Controller Performance and Kinematic Behavior of a Novel Soft Synergy-Inspired Robotic Hand for Prosthetic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fani, Simone; Bianchi, Matteo; Jain, Sonal; Pimenta Neto, José Simões; Boege, Scott; Grioli, Giorgio; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Myoelectric artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human–robot interactions. Therefore, to reduce early abandonment of terminal devices, we propose that controllers should be designed so as to ensure effective task accomplishment in a natural fashion. In this work, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three types of myoelectric controller algorithms based on surface electromyography to control an underactuated and multi-degrees of freedom prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro. The goal of the present study was to identify the myoelectric algorithm that best mimics the native hand movements. As a preliminary step, we first quantified the repeatability of the SoftHand Pro finger movements and identified the electromyographic recording sites for able-bodied individuals with the highest signal-to-noise ratio from two pairs of muscles, i.e., flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis, and flexor carpi radialis/extensor carpi ulnaris. Able-bodied volunteers were then asked to execute reach-to-grasp movements, while electromyography signals were recorded from flexor digitorum superficialis/extensor digitorum communis as this was identified as the muscle pair characterized by high signal-to-noise ratio and intuitive control. Subsequently, we tested three myoelectric controllers that mapped electromyography signals to position of the SoftHand Pro. We found that a differential electromyography-to-position mapping ensured

  13. Muscular forearm activation in hand-grip tasks with superimposition of mechanical vibrations.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, L; Tirabasso, A; Lunghi, A; Di Giovanni, R; Sacco, F; Marchetti, E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the muscular activation of the forearm, with or without vibration stimuli at different frequencies while performing a grip tasks of 45s at various level of exerted force. In 16 individuals, 9 females and 7 males, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of extensor carpi radialis longus and the flexor carpi ulnari muscles were assessed. At a short latency from onset EMG, RMS and the level of MU synchronization were assessed to evaluate the muscular adaptations. Whilst a trend of decay of EMG Median frequency (MDFd) was employed as an index of muscular fatigue. Muscular tasks consists of the grip of an instrumented handle at a force level of 20%, 30%, 40%, 60% of the maximum voluntary force. Vibration was supplied by a shaker to the hand in mono-frequential waves at 20, 30, 33 and 40Hz. In relation to EMG, RMS and MU synchronization, the muscular activation does not seem to change with the superimposition of the mechanical vibrations, on the contrary a lower MDFd was observed at 33Hz than in absence of vibration. This suggests an early muscular fatigue induced by vibration due to the fact that 33Hz is a resonance frequency for the hand-arm system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Pulley for strengthening a muscle replacement operation across two joints in brachial plexus lesion: description of the surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Schaller, E; Becker, M H

    1994-01-01

    The reconstruction of lost muscle functions in cases of brachial plexus lesion is possible even in those cases where primary nerve reconstruction was not performed or unsuccessful. If there are only few motor nerves available, we prefer free latissimus dorsi transplantation or pedicled latissimus dorsi transposition for replacement of biceps and finger flexors. The combination of elbow flexion and finger flexion becomes possible when the transposed motor is passed around a suitable pulley in the elbow region like the flexor carpi ulnaris or carpi radialis.

  15. Operator performance and localized muscle fatigue in a simulated space vehicle control task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Fourier transforms in a special purpose computer were utilized to obtain power spectral density functions from electromyograms of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachioradialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, brachialis, and pronator teres in eight subjects performing isometric tracking tasks in two directions utilizing a prototype spacecraft rotational hand controller. Analysis of these spectra in general purpose computers aided in defining muscles involved in performing the task, and yielded a derived measure potentially useful in predicting task termination. The triceps was the only muscle to show significant differences in all possible tests for simple effects in both tasks and, overall, was the most consistently involved of the six muscles. The total power monitored for triceps, biceps, and brachialis dropped to minimal levels across all subjects earlier than for other muscles. However, smaller variances existed for the biceps, brachioradialis, brachialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles and could provide longer predictive times due to smaller standard deviations for a greater population range.

  16. The detection of the capsular tear at the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon in chronic tennis elbow: the value of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography arthrography.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Koichi; Tamakawa, Mitsuharu; Onda, Kazunori; Iba, Kosuke; Sonoda, Tomoko; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Wada, Takuro

    2011-04-01

    This study compared the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) in the assessment of capsular tears at the undersurface of the extensor carpi radials brevis tendon in chronic tennis elbow using arthroscopy as a gold standard. Because of the higher spatial resolution of CT, we hypothesized that CTA is superior to MRI for assessing capsular tears. We retrospectively reviewed 19 consecutive patients with chronic tennis elbow with preoperative MRI and CTA studies who underwent arthroscopic surgery. Three observers with different levels of training and experience (musculoskeletal radiologist, experienced elbow surgeon, and hand fellow) evaluated the capsular tear by MRI and CTA in a blinded manner. The results of the MRI and CTA were compared and the agreement among the 3 observers was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Then, the results of the MRI and CTA examinations were compared with the intraoperative findings of the arthroscopic examination. The sensitivity, specificity, and κ value were calculated. The ICC of CTA (0.855) was superior to MRI (0.645). The sensitivity, specificity, and κ value of CTA were superior to those of MRI in each of the 3 observers. The κ value was 0.79, 0.89, and 0.79 for CTA, and 0.48, 0.48, and 0.27 for MRI for the radiologist, surgeon, and fellow, respectively. CTA was a reliable and accurate diagnostic modality compared with MRI to detect the capsular tear in patients with chronic tennis elbow. CTA was less influenced by the observer's experience. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative assessment of physical and cognitive ergonomics associated with robotic and traditional laparoscopic surgeries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyusung I; Lee, Mija R; Clanton, Tameka; Clanton, Tamera; Sutton, Erica; Park, Adrian E; Marohn, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    We conducted this study to investigate how physical and cognitive ergonomic workloads would differ between robotic and laparoscopic surgeries and whether any ergonomic differences would be related to surgeons' robotic surgery skill level. Our hypothesis is that the unique features in robotic surgery will demonstrate skill-related results both in substantially less physical and cognitive workload and uncompromised task performance. Thirteen MIS surgeons were recruited for this institutional review board-approved study and divided into three groups based on their robotic surgery experiences: laparoscopy experts with no robotic experience, novices with no or little robotic experience, and robotic experts. Each participant performed six surgical training tasks using traditional laparoscopy and robotic surgery. Physical workload was assessed by using surface electromyography from eight muscles (biceps, triceps, deltoid, trapezius, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, thenar compartment, and erector spinae). Mental workload assessment was conducted using the NASA-TLX. The cumulative muscular workload (CMW) from the biceps and the flexor carpi ulnaris with robotic surgery was significantly lower than with laparoscopy (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the CMW from the trapezius was significantly higher with robotic surgery than with laparoscopy (p < 0.05), but this difference was only observed in laparoscopic experts (LEs) and robotic surgery novices. NASA-TLX analysis showed that both robotic surgery novices and experts expressed lower global workloads with robotic surgery than with laparoscopy, whereas LEs showed higher global workload with robotic surgery (p > 0.05). Robotic surgery experts and novices had significantly higher performance scores with robotic surgery than with laparoscopy (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that the physical and cognitive ergonomics with robotic surgery were significantly less challenging. Additionally, several ergonomic components

  18. Evaluating the Ergonomics of Flexible Ureteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Wesley W; Lee, Gyusung; Ziemba, Justin B; Ko, Joan S; Matlaga, Brian R

    2017-10-01

    To date, the ergonomics of flexible ureteroscopy (URS) have not been well described. We performed a study to assess the biomechanical stresses on urologists performing URS and to investigate the effect of ureteroscope type on these parameters. Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activation level of muscle groups involved in URS. Surface EMG electrodes (Delsys, Boston, MA) were placed on the right and left thenar, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), biceps, triceps, and deltoid. Three endoscopes were studied: single-use digital (Boston Scientific LithoVue), reusable digital (Karl Storz Flex-X c ), and reusable fiber-optic (Karl Storz Flex-X 2 ). Each ureteroscope was used to perform a set sequence of navigation and procedural tasks in a training model. EMG data were processed and normalized to compare the maximum voluntary contractions between muscle groups. Cumulative muscular workload (CMW) and average muscular work per second (AWS) were used for comparative analysis. For navigational tasks, CMW and AWS were greatest for the ECU, followed in descending order by right and left thenar, FCU, biceps, deltoid, and triceps. For procedural tasks, CMW and AWS were greatest for the right thenar, followed in descending order by the left thenar, ECU, FCU, triceps, biceps, and deltoid. During navigational tasks, both LithoVue and Flex-X c had lower CMWs for every muscle group than Flex-X 2 (p < 0.05). LithoVue and Flex-X c had similar AWS and both were lower than Flex-X 2 for the right thenar, ECU, biceps, and deltoid activation (p < 0.05). During procedural tasks, both LithoVue and Flex-X c had lower CMWs and AWS for right and left thenar, ECU, and biceps than Flex-X 2 (p < 0.05). This study provides the first description of EMG-measured ergonomics of URS. Both the single-use and reusable digital ureteroscopes have similar profiles, and both have significantly better ergonomic metrics than the reusable fiber-optic ureteroscope.

  19. Hip-Extensor Strength, Trunk Posture, and Use of the Knee-Extensor Muscles During Running.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hsiang-Ling; Powers, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    Diminished hip-muscle performance has been proposed to contribute to various knee injuries. To determine the association between hip-extensor muscle strength and sagittal-plane trunk posture and the relationships among hip-extensor muscle strength and hip- and knee-extensor work during running. Descriptive laboratory study. Musculoskeletal biomechanical laboratory. A total of 40 asymptomatic recreational runners, 20 men (age = 27.1 ± 7.0 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.69 m, mass = 71.1 ± 8.2 kg) and 20 women (age = 26.2 ± 5.8 years, height = 1.65 ± 0.74 m, mass = 60.6 ± 6.6 kg), participated. Maximum isometric strength of the hip extensors was assessed using a dynamometer. Sagittal-plane trunk posture (calculated relative to the global vertical axis) and hip- and knee-extensor work (sum of energy absorption and generation) during the stance phase of running were quantified while participants ran over ground at a controlled speed of 3.4 m/s. We used Pearson product moment correlations to examine the relationships among hip-extensor strength, mean sagittal-plane trunk-flexion angle, hip-extensor work, and knee-extensor work. Hip-extensor strength was correlated positively with trunk-flexion angle (r = 0.55, P < .001) and hip-extensor work (r = 0.46, P = .003). It was correlated inversely with knee-extensor work (r = -0.39, P = .01). All the correlations remained after adjusting for sex. Our findings suggest that runners with hip-extensor weakness used a more upright trunk posture. This strategy led to an overreliance on the knee extensors and may contribute to overuse running injuries at the knee.

  20. Hip-Extensor Strength, Trunk Posture, and Use of the Knee-Extensor Muscles During Running

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Hsiang-Ling; Powers, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Diminished hip-muscle performance has been proposed to contribute to various knee injuries. Objective:  To determine the association between hip-extensor muscle strength and sagittal-plane trunk posture and the relationships among hip-extensor muscle strength and hip- and knee-extensor work during running. Design:  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting:  Musculoskeletal biomechanical laboratory. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 40 asymptomatic recreational runners, 20 men (age = 27.1 ± 7.0 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.69 m, mass = 71.1 ± 8.2 kg) and 20 women (age = 26.2 ± 5.8 years, height = 1.65 ± 0.74 m, mass = 60.6 ± 6.6 kg), participated. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Maximum isometric strength of the hip extensors was assessed using a dynamometer. Sagittal-plane trunk posture (calculated relative to the global vertical axis) and hip- and knee-extensor work (sum of energy absorption and generation) during the stance phase of running were quantified while participants ran over ground at a controlled speed of 3.4 m/s. We used Pearson product moment correlations to examine the relationships among hip-extensor strength, mean sagittal-plane trunk-flexion angle, hip-extensor work, and knee-extensor work. Results:  Hip-extensor strength was correlated positively with trunk-flexion angle (r = 0.55, P < .001) and hip-extensor work (r = 0.46, P = .003). It was correlated inversely with knee-extensor work (r = −0.39, P = .01). All the correlations remained after adjusting for sex. Conclusions:  Our findings suggest that runners with hip-extensor weakness used a more upright trunk posture. This strategy led to an overreliance on the knee extensors and may contribute to overuse running injuries at the knee. PMID:27513169

  1. Differences in Muscle Activity During Cable Resistance Training Are Influenced by Variations in Handle Types.

    PubMed

    Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-07-01

    Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers

  2. A Novel Feature Optimization for Wearable Human-Computer Interfaces Using Surface Electromyography Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiong; Zhao, Yacong; Zhang, Yu; Zhong, Xuefei; Fan, Zhaowen

    2018-01-01

    The novel human-computer interface (HCI) using bioelectrical signals as input is a valuable tool to improve the lives of people with disabilities. In this paper, surface electromyography (sEMG) signals induced by four classes of wrist movements were acquired from four sites on the lower arm with our designed system. Forty-two features were extracted from the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Optimal channels were determined from single-channel classification performance rank. The optimal-feature selection was according to a modified entropy criteria (EC) and Fisher discrimination (FD) criteria. The feature selection results were evaluated by four different classifiers, and compared with other conventional feature subsets. In online tests, the wearable system acquired real-time sEMG signals. The selected features and trained classifier model were used to control a telecar through four different paradigms in a designed environment with simple obstacles. Performance was evaluated based on travel time (TT) and recognition rate (RR). The results of hardware evaluation verified the feasibility of our acquisition systems, and ensured signal quality. Single-channel analysis results indicated that the channel located on the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) performed best with mean classification accuracy of 97.45% for all movement’s pairs. Channels placed on ECU and the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) were selected according to the accuracy rank. Experimental results showed that the proposed FD method was better than other feature selection methods and single-type features. The combination of FD and random forest (RF) performed best in offline analysis, with 96.77% multi-class RR. Online results illustrated that the state-machine paradigm with a 125 ms window had the highest maneuverability and was closest to real-life control. Subjects could accomplish online sessions by three sEMG-based paradigms, with average times of 46.02, 49.06 and 48.08 s, respectively. These

  3. Mental practice and mirror therapy associated with conventional physical therapy training on the hemiparetic upper limb in poststroke rehabilitation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Oliveira, Rafael; Cintia Dos Santos Vieira, Paula; Rodrigues Martinho Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda; Patrizzi, Lislei Jorge; Ferreira de Oliveira, Sabrina; Pascucci Sande de Souza, Luciane Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The presence of sensory and motor deficits is common in patients post stroke. Mental practice (MP) and mirror therapy (MT) can be used as therapeutic techniques for poststroke rehabilitation. Important results have been demonstrated, although they have not established the patients' functional gain or related results of muscle electromyographic (EMG) data to functionality. The aim was to investigate EMG activity and sensory, motor, and functional performance in hemiparetic limbs of patients with stroke after intervention with MP and MT associated with conventional physical therapy training (CPTT). Seven patients were treated twice weekly during 8 weeks with MP and MT associated with CPTT of the affected upper limb. The Fugl-Meyer scale and the Barthel Index (BI) were applied to assess sensorimotor ability and independence of patients. Activation of the upper trapezius, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, and extensor carpi radialis was evaluated by means of EMG symmetry index and muscle co-activation measurements. There were statistically significant differences between pre- and postassessment findings for the motor, sensory, and mobility domains of the Fugl-Meyer scale, as well as for BI evaluation. No statistically significant differences were observed when the pre- and posttest symmetry and co-activation data were compared, although there were qualitative changes. The protocol was effective for improving motor, sensory, and mobility aspects, as well as function involved in activities of daily living. Qualitative changes in symmetry and muscle co-contraction were found, indicating a possible improvement in upper limb rehabilitation of patients with stroke.

  4. Reconstructive operations for the upper limb after brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Rühmann, Oliver; Schmolke, Stephan; Bohnsack, Michael; Carls, Jörg; Flamme, Christian; Wirth, Carl Joachim

    2004-07-01

    Limited function due to paralysis following brachial plexus lesions can be improved by secondary operations of the bony and soft tissue. Between April 1994 and December 2000, 109 patients suffering from arm-plexus lesions underwent a total of 144 reconstructive operations guided by our concept of integrated therapy. The average age at the time of surgery was 32 years (range: 15-59). The following operations were performed: shoulder arthrodesis (23), trapezius transfer (74), rotation osteotomy of humerus (9), triceps to biceps transposition (9), transposition of forearm flexors or extensors (8), latissimus transfer (7), pectoralis transfer (1), teres major transfer (1), transposition of flexor carpi ulnaris to the tendons of extensor digitorum (10), and wrist arthrodesis (2). Prospectively, in all patients, the grade of muscle power of the affected upper extremity was evaluated prior to surgery. The follow-up period for all 144 operations was, on average, 22 months (range: 6-74). By means of operative measures, almost all patients obtained an improvement of shoulder function (100%) and stability (>90%), elbow flexion (85%), and hand, finger, and thumb (100%). When muscles malfunction after brachial plexus lesions, one should take into account the individual neuromuscular defect, passive joint function, and bony deformities; different procedures such as muscle transpositions, arthrodeses, and corrective osteotomies can then be performed to improve function of the upper extremity. Each form of operative treatment presents patients with certain benefits and all are integrated into a total treatment plan for the affected extremity.

  5. Patterns of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury associated with severely dorsally displaced extra-articular distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Johan H; Adolfsson, Lars E

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine triangular fibrocartilage (TFCC) injury patterns associated with unstable, extra-articular dorsally displaced distal radius fractures. Twenty adult patients with an Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO), type A2 or A3, distal radius fracture with an initial dorsal angulation greater than 20° were included. Nine had a tip fracture (distal to the base) of the ulnar styloid and 11 had no such fracture. They were all openly explored from an ulnopalmar approach and TFCC injuries were documented. Eleven patients also underwent arthroscopy and intra-articular pathology was recorded. All patients had TFCC lesions of varying severity, having an extensor carpi ulnaris subsheath avulsion in common. Eighteen out of 20 also displayed deep foveal radioulnar ligament lesions, with decreasingly dorsal fibres remaining. The extent of this foveal injury could not be appreciated by radiocarpal arthroscopy. Severe displacement of an extra-articular radius fracture suggests an ulnar-sided ligament injury to the TFCC. The observed lesions concur with findings in a previous cadaver study. The lesions follow a distinct pattern affecting both radioulnar as well as ulnocarpal stabilisers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of motion artifact on mechanomyography: A comparative study of microphones and accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Posatskiy, A O; Chau, T

    2012-04-01

    Mechanomyography (MMG) is an important kinesiological tool and potential communication pathway for individuals with disabilities. However, MMG is highly susceptible to contamination by motion artifact due to limb movement. A better understanding of the nature of this contamination and its effects on different sensing methods is required to inform robust MMG sensor design. Therefore, in this study, we recorded MMG from the extensor carpi ulnaris of six able-bodied participants using three different co-located condenser microphone and accelerometer pairings. Contractions at 30% MVC were recorded with and without a shaker-induced single-frequency forearm motion artifact delivered via a custom test rig. Using a signal-to-signal-plus-noise-ratio and the adaptive Neyman curve-based statistic, we found that microphone-derived MMG spectra were significantly less influenced by motion artifact than corresponding accelerometer-derived spectra (p⩽0.05). However, non-vanishing motion artifact harmonics were present in both spectra, suggesting that simple bandpass filtering may not remove artifact influences permeating into typical MMG bands of interest. Our results suggest that condenser microphones are preferred for MMG recordings when the mitigation of motion artifact effects is important. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Exposure of the Distal Humerus Using a Triceps Hemi-peel Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-14

    kin and Deshmukh .17 A posterior midline incision is made over the elbow, and the skin and subcutaneous tissue are reflected medially and laterally...approach, as described by Deakin and Deshmukh ,17 reflects the triceps insertion in a lateral to medial direction and releas- es the anconeus insertion to...semiconstrained total elbow arthro- plasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000; 82:1379- 1386. 17. Deakin DE, Deshmukh SC. The triceps-flex- or carpi ulnaris (TRIFCU

  8. Dissection of a single rat muscle-tendon complex changes joint moments exerted by neighboring muscles: implications for invasive surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Maas, Huub; Baan, Guus C; Huijing, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate mechanical functioning of a single skeletal muscle, active within a group of (previously) synergistic muscles. For this purpose, we assessed wrist angle-active moment characteristics exerted by a group of wrist flexion muscles in the rat for three conditions: (i) after resection of the upper arm skin; (ii) after subsequent distal tenotomy of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU); and (iii) after subsequent freeing of FCU distal tendon and muscle belly from surrounding tissues (MT dissection). Measurements were performed for a control group and for an experimental group after recovery (5 weeks) from tendon transfer of FCU to extensor carpi radialis (ECR) insertion. To assess if FCU tenotomy and MT dissection affects FCU contributions to wrist moments exclusively or also those of neighboring wrist flexion muscles, these data were compared to wrist angle-moment characteristics of selectively activated FCU. FCU tenotomy and MT dissection decreased wrist moments of the control group at all wrist angles tested, including also angles for which no or minimal wrist moments were measured when activating FCU exclusively. For the tendon transfer group, wrist flexion moment increased after FCU tenotomy, but to a greater extent than can be expected based on wrist extension moments exerted by selectively excited transferred FCU. We conclude that dissection of a single muscle in any surgical treatment does not only affect mechanical characteristics of the target muscle, but also those of other muscles within the same compartment. Our results demonstrate also that even after agonistic-to-antagonistic tendon transfer, mechanical interactions with previously synergistic muscles do remain present.

  9. High-Resolution 3T MR Imaging of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex

    PubMed Central

    von Borstel, Donald; Wang, Michael; Small, Kirstin; Nozaki, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    This study is intended as a review of 3Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). The recent advances in MR imaging, which includes high field strength magnets, multi-channel coils, and isotropic 3-dimensional (3D) sequences have enabled the visualization of precise TFCC anatomy with high spatial and contrast resolution. In addition to the routine wrist protocol, there are specific techniques used to optimize 3T imaging of the wrist; including driven equilibrium sequence (DRIVE), parallel imaging, and 3D imaging. The coil choice for 3T imaging of the wrist depends on a number of variables, and the proper coil design selection is critical for high-resolution wrist imaging with high signal and contrast-to-noise ratio. The TFCC is a complex structure and is composed of the articular disc (disc proper), the triangular ligament, the dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments, the meniscus homologue, the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon sheath, and the ulnolunate and ulnotriquetral ligaments. The Palmer classification categorizes TFCC lesions as traumatic (type 1) or degenerative (type 2). In this review article, we present clinical high-resolution MR images of normal TFCC anatomy and TFCC injuries with this classification system. PMID:27535592

  10. High-Resolution 3T MR Imaging of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex.

    PubMed

    von Borstel, Donald; Wang, Michael; Small, Kirstin; Nozaki, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-10

    This study is intended as a review of 3Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). The recent advances in MR imaging, which includes high field strength magnets, multi-channel coils, and isotropic 3-dimensional (3D) sequences have enabled the visualization of precise TFCC anatomy with high spatial and contrast resolution. In addition to the routine wrist protocol, there are specific techniques used to optimize 3T imaging of the wrist; including driven equilibrium sequence (DRIVE), parallel imaging, and 3D imaging. The coil choice for 3T imaging of the wrist depends on a number of variables, and the proper coil design selection is critical for high-resolution wrist imaging with high signal and contrast-to-noise ratio. The TFCC is a complex structure and is composed of the articular disc (disc proper), the triangular ligament, the dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments, the meniscus homologue, the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon sheath, and the ulnolunate and ulnotriquetral ligaments. The Palmer classification categorizes TFCC lesions as traumatic (type 1) or degenerative (type 2). In this review article, we present clinical high-resolution MR images of normal TFCC anatomy and TFCC injuries with this classification system.

  11. The intersection syndrome: Ultrasound findings and their diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    Montechiarello, S.; Miozzi, F.; D’Ambrosio, I.; Giovagnorio, F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The intersection syndrome is a well-known overuse syndrome of the distal forearm. It is characterized by noninfectious, inflammatory changes involving the area of intersection of the first (abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis) and second (extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis) extensor compartments in the dorsoradial aspect of the distal forearm. Imaging modalities used to diagnosis this syndrome include ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this report is to describe typical US findings in the intersection syndrome and to demonstrate the diagnostic value of this approach. Materials and methods We reviewed US findings in 4 patients (mean age 40 years) referred to our staff for symptoms suggestive of the intersection syndrome (pain, swelling, erythema, and edema of the wrist). Results In all 4 cases, the US examination revealed peritendinous edema and synovial fluid within the tendon sheaths at the intersection between the first and the second dorsal extensor tendon compartments. Discussion Our experience shows that the intersection syndrome is associated with typical signs on US. This imaging modality can be considered a reliable tool for diagnosing this syndrome and may eliminate the need for other more expensive tests. PMID:23396515

  12. Lateral epicondylosis and calcific tendonitis in a golfer: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yuill, Erik A.; Lum, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detail the progress of a young female amateur golfer who developed chronic left arm pain while playing golf 8 months prior to her first treatment visit. Clinical Features Findings included pain slightly distal to the lateral epicondyle of the elbow, decreased grip strength, and positive orthopedic testing. Diagnostic ultrasound showed thickening of the common extensor tendon origin indicating lateral epicondylosis. Radiographs revealed an oval shaped calcified density in the soft tissue adjacent to the lateral humeral epicondyle, indicating calcific tendonitis of the common extensor tendon origin. Intervention and Outcome Conventional care was aimed at decreasing the repetitive load on the common extensor tendon, specifically the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Soft tissue techniques, exercises and stretches, and an elbow brace helped to reduce repetitive strain. Outcome measures included subjective pain ratings, and follow up imaging 10 weeks after treatment began. Conclusion A young female amateur golfer with chronic arm pain diagnosed as lateral epicondylosis and calcific tendonitis was relieved of her pain after 7 treatments over 10 weeks of soft tissue and physical therapy focusing specifically on optimal healing and decreasing the repetitive load on the extensor carpi radialis brevis. PMID:22131570

  13. Dorsal Arthroscopic Approach and Intra-Articular Anatomy of the Bovine Antebrachiocarpal and Middle Carpal Joints.

    PubMed

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Desrochers, André

    2016-07-01

    To determine arthroscopic approaches to the dorsal synovial compartments of the antebrachiocarpal and middle carpal joints in adult cattle, and to describe the arthroscopic intra-articular anatomy from each approach. Ex vivo study. Six fresh adult bovine cadavers. Two carpi were injected with latex and dissected to determine the ideal location for arthroscopic portals. Arthroscopy of the antebrachiocarpal and middle carpal joints of 10 carpi was then performed. The dorsolateral approach was made between the extensor carpi radialis and common digital extensor tendons. The dorsomedial approach was made medial to the extensor carpi radialis tendon, midway between the distal radius and proximal row of carpal bones (antebrachiocarpal joint) and midway between the two rows of carpal bones (middle carpal joint), with the joint in flexion. Arthroscopy of the antebrachiocarpal joint allowed visualization of the distal radius, proximal aspect of the radial, intermediate and ulnar carpal bones, and a palmar ligament located between the radius and the intermediate carpal bone. The approach to the middle carpal joint allowed visualization of the distal aspect of the radial, intermediate, and ulnar carpal bones, the proximal aspect of the fourth and fused second and third carpal bones and an interosseous ligament. The most lateral articular structures (lateral glenoid cavity of the distal radius, ulnar carpal and fourth carpal bones) were difficult to assess. Dorsal approaches to the antebrachiocarpal and middle carpal joints allowed visualization of most intra-articular dorsal structures in adult cattle. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Braulio; Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião de; Dionísio, Valdeci Carlos; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2012-02-01

    This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques.

  15. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    PubMed Central

    PASTERNAK-JÚNIOR, Braulio; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião; DIONÍSIO, Valdeci Carlos; PÉCORA, Jesus Djalma; SILVA, Ricardo Gariba

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Material and Methods The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. Results There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. Conclusion The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques. PMID:22437679

  16. Customizing Extensor Reconstruction in Vascularized Toe Joint Transfers to Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joints: A Strategic Approach for Correcting Extensor Lag.

    PubMed

    Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Shih-Heng; Lien, Shwu-Huei; Lin, Chih-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Yu-Te

    2017-04-01

    Vascularized toe proximal interphalangeal joint transfer allows the restoration of damaged joints. However, extensor lag and poor arc of motion have been reported. The authors present their outcomes of treatment according to a novel reconstructive algorithm that addresses extensor lag and allows for consistent results postoperatively. Vascularized toe joint transfers were performed in a consecutive series of 26 digits in 25 patients. The average age was 30.5 years, with 14 right and 12 left hands. Reconstructed digits included eight index, 10 middle, and eight ring fingers. Simultaneous extensor reconstructions were performed and eight were centralization of lateral bands, five were direct extensor digitorum longus-to-extensor digitorum communis repairs, and 13 were central slip reconstructions. The average length of follow-up was 16.7 months. The average extension lag was 17.9 degrees. The arc of motion was 57.7 degrees (81.7 percent functional use of pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion). There was no significant difference in the reconstructed proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion for the handedness (p = 0.23), recipient digits (p = 0.37), or surgical experience in vascularized toe joint transfer (p = 0.25). The outcomes of different techniques of extensor mechanism reconstruction were similar in terms of extensor lag, arc of motion, and reconstructed finger arc of motion compared with the pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. With this treatment algorithm, consistent outcomes can be produced with minimal extensor lag and maximum use of potential toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. Therapeutic, IV.

  17. Extensor Tendon Injuries and Repairs in the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kontor, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Due to their superficial course, the extensor tendons are frequently lacerated over the dorsum of the hand and fingers. Excellent functional results are obtained in repairs of simple tendon lacerations. ‘Open’ mallet lacerations over the distal IP joint or involving the central extensor slip over the proximal IP joint require more precise suturing methods. More proximal extensor tendon divisions near the wrist involve dissection of the retracted finger extensors or long thumb extensor in the distal forearm and more formal tendon repairs, including a possible tendon transfer to the thumb. ‘Closed injuries’, with varying degrees of extensor tendon disruption, occur at three main sites. The mallet injury at the DIP joint and the boutonnière deformity over the PIP joint are sometimes recognized late, but respond to conservative splinting for a minimum of four weeks with guarded motion avoiding secondary stiffening of the remaining small joints of the hand. Surgery of closed injuries most frequently involves the intra-articular traction fracture type of mallet deformities in which the DIP joint has taken the brunt of the injury. PMID:21286174

  18. Extensor Tendon Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Hand. Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Figures Figure 1 - Extensor tendons, located on the ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  19. Prevalence of and referred pain from myofascial trigger points in the forearm muscles in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Referred pain and pain characteristics evoked from the extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum communis, and brachioradialis muscles was investigated in 20 patients with lateral epicondylalgia (LE) and 20-matched controls. Both groups were examined for the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in a blinded fashion. The quality and location of the evoked referred pain, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the lateral epicondyle on the right upper extremity (symptomatic side in patients, and dominant-side on controls) were recorded. Several lateral elbow pain parameters were also evaluated. Within the patient group, the elicited referred pain by manual exploration of 13 out of 20 (65%) extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles, 12/20 (70%) extensor carpi radialis longus muscles, 10/20 (50%) brachioradialis muscles, and 5/20 (25%) extensor digitorum communis muscles, shares similar pain patterns as their habitual lateral elbow and forearm pain. The mean number of muscles with TrPs for each patient was 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1,4] of which 2 (95% CI 1,3) were active, and 0.9 (95% CI 0,2) were latent TrPs. Control participants only had latent TrPs (mean: 0.4; 95% CI 0,2). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P<0.001), but not for latent TrPs (P>0.05). The referred pain pattern was larger in patients than in controls, with pain referral to the lateral epicondyle (proximally) and to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the patients, and confined to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the controls. Patients with LE showed a significant (P<0.001) lower PPT (mean: 2.1 kg/cm; 95% CI 0.8, 4 kg/cm) as compared with controls (mean: 4.5 kg/cm; 95% CI 3, 7 kg/cm). Within the patient group, PPT at the lateral epicondyle was negatively correlated with both the total number of TrPs (rs=-0.63; P=0.003) and the number of active TrPs (rs=-0.5; P=0.02): the greater the

  20. Surface Electromyography of the Forearm Musculature During the Windmill Softball Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Remaley, D. Trey; Fincham, Bryce; McCullough, Bryan; Davis, Kirk; Nofsinger, Charles; Armstrong, Charles; Stausmire, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies investigating the windmill softball pitch have focused primarily on shoulder musculature and function, collecting limited data on elbow and forearm musculature. Little information is available in the literature regarding the forearm. This study documents forearm muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity that has not been previously published. Purpose: Elbow and upper extremity overuse injuries are on the rise in fast-pitch softball pitchers. This study attempts to describe forearm muscle activity in softball pitchers during the windmill softball pitch. Overuse injuries can be prevented if a better understanding of mechanics is defined. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Surface EMG and high-speed videography was used to study forearm muscle activation patterns during the windmill softball pitch on 10 female collegiate-level pitchers. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle was used as a normalizing value. Each subject was tested during a single laboratory session per pitcher. Data included peak muscle activation, average muscle activation, and time to peak activation for 6 pitch types: fastball, changeup, riseball, curveball, screwball, and dropball. Results: During the first 4 phases, muscle activity (seen as signal strength on the EMG recordings) was limited and static in nature. The greatest activation occurred in phases 5 and 6, with increased signal strength, evidence of stretch-shortening cycle, and different muscle characteristics with each pitch style. These 2 phases of the windmill pitch are where the arm is placed in the 6 o’clock position and then at release of the ball. The flexor carpi ulnaris signal strength was significantly greater than the other forearm flexors. Timing of phases 1 through 5 was successively shorter for each pitch. There was a secondary pattern of activation in the flexor carpi ulnaris in phase 4 for all pitches except the fastball and riseball. Conclusion: During the 6

  1. Topographical anatomy of the radial nerve and its muscular branches related to surface landmarks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyejin; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Gil, Young-Chun; Choi, Yun-Rak; Yang, Hee-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Understanding of the anatomy of the radial nerve and its branches is vital to the treatment of humeral fracture or the restoration of upper extremity function. In this study, we dissected 40 upper extremities from adult cadavers to locate the course of the radial nerve and the origins and insertions of the branches of the radial nerve using surface landmarks. The radial nerve reached and left the radial groove and pierced the lateral intermuscular septum, at the levels of 46.7, 60.5, and 66.8% from the acromion to the transepicondylar line, respectively. Branches to the long head of the triceps brachii originated in the axilla, and branches to the medial and lateral heads originated in the axilla or in the arm. The muscular attachments to the long, medial, and lateral heads were on average 34.0 mm proximal, 16.4 mm distal, and 19.3 mm proximal to the level of inferior end of the deltoid muscle, respectively. The radial nerve innervated 65.0% of the brachialis muscles. Branches to the brachioradialis and those to the extensor carpi radialis longus arose from the radial nerve above the transepicondylar line. Branches to the extensor carpi radialis brevis usually arose from the deep branch of radial nerve (67.5%); however, in some cases, branches to the extensor carpi radialis brevis arose from either the radial nerve (20.0%) or the superficial branch of the radial nerve (12.5%). Using these data, the course of the radial nerve can be estimated by observing the surface of the arm. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Digital image analysis of striated skeletal muscle tissue injury during reperfusion after induced ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosero Salazar, Doris Haydee; Salazar Monsalve, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Conditions such as surgical procedures or vascular diseases produce arterial ischemia and reperfusion injuries, which generate changes in peripheral tissues and organs, for instance, in striated skeletal muscle. To determine such changes, we conducted an experimental method in which 42 male Wistar rat were selected, to be undergone to tourniquet application on the right forelimb and left hind limb, to induce ischemia during one and three hours, followed by reperfusion periods starting at one hour and it was prolonged up to 32 days. Extensor carpi radialis longus and soleus respectively, were obtained to be processed for histochemical and morphometric analysis. By means of image processing and detection of regions of interest, variations of areas occupied by muscle fibers and intramuscular extracellular matrix (IM-ECM) throughout reperfusion were observed. In extensor carpi radialis longus, results shown reduction in the area occupied by muscle fibers; this change is significant between one hour and three hours ischemia followed by 16 hours, 48 hours and 32 days reperfusión (p˂0.005). To compare only periods of reperfusión that continued to three hours ischemia, were found significant differences, as well. For area occupied by IM-ECM, were identified increments in extensor carpi radialis longus by three hours ischemia and eight to 16 days reperfusion; in soleus, was observed difference by one hour ischemia with 42 hours reperfusion, and three hours ischemia followed by four days reperfusion (p˂0.005). Skeletal muscle develops adaptive changes in longer reperfusion, to deal with induced injury. Descriptions beyond 32 days reperfusion, can determine recovering normal pattern.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of a laparoscopic robotized needle holder on ergonomics and skills.

    PubMed

    Bensignor, Thierry; Morel, Guillaume; Reversat, David; Fuks, David; Gayet, Brice

    2016-02-01

    Laparoscopy generates technical and ergonomics difficulties due to limited degrees of freedom (DOF) of forceps. To reduce this limitation, a new 5-mm robotized needle holder with two intracorporeal DOF, Jaimy(®), has been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on ergonomics and skills. Fourteen surgeons including eight senior and six residents were crossover randomized and stratified based on experience. Three suturing tasks were performed with both Jaimy(®) and a classic needle holder (NH): task 1: Peg-Board; task 2: hexagonal suture; task 3: frontal suture. Postural ergonomics of the dominant arm were evaluated with an ergonomics score (RULA score) thanks to motion capture, and muscular ergonomics with electromyography of six muscular groups (flexor and extensor carpis, biceps, triceps, deltoid, trapeze). Performance outcomes are a quantitative and qualitative score, and skills outcomes are the measurement of the number of movements and the path length travelled by the instrument. The RULA score showed a statistically improved posture with Jaimy(®) (p < 0.001). The cumulative muscular workload (CMW) of four muscles was not different. However, the CMW was in favor of the NH for the flexor carpi ulnaris (p < 0.001) and the triceps (p = 0.027). The number of movements was not different (p = 0.39) although the path length was shorter with Jaimy(®) (p = 0.012). The score for task 1 was in favor of the NH (p = 0.006) with a higher quantity score. Task 2 score was not different (p = 0.086): The quality part of the score was in favor of Jaimy(®) (p = 0.009) and the quantity part was higher with the NH (p = 0.04). The score for task 3 was higher with Jaimy(®) (p = 0.001). This study suggests that the use of a robotized needle holder improves both posture and the quality of laparoscopic sutures.

  4. Experimental characterization of post rigor mortis human muscle subjected to small tensile strains and application of a simple hyper-viscoelastic model.

    PubMed

    Gras, Laure-Lise; Laporte, Sébastien; Viot, Philippe; Mitton, David

    2014-10-01

    In models developed for impact biomechanics, muscles are usually represented with one-dimensional elements having active and passive properties. The passive properties of muscles are most often obtained from experiments performed on animal muscles, because limited data on human muscle are available. The aim of this study is thus to characterize the passive response of a human muscle in tension. Tensile tests at different strain rates (0.0045, 0.045, and 0.45 s⁻¹) were performed on 10 extensor carpi ulnaris muscles. A model composed of a nonlinear element defined with an exponential law in parallel with one or two Maxwell elements and considering basic geometrical features was proposed. The experimental results were used to identify the parameters of the model. The results for the first- and second-order model were similar. For the first-order model, the mean parameters of the exponential law are as follows: Young's modulus E (6.8 MPa) and curvature parameter α (31.6). The Maxwell element mean values are as follows: viscosity parameter η (1.2 MPa s) and relaxation time τ (0.25 s). Our results provide new data on a human muscle tested in vitro and a simple model with basic geometrical features that represent its behavior in tension under three different strain rates. This approach could be used to assess the behavior of other human muscles. © IMechE 2014.

  5. Design and validation of a desk-free and posture-independent input device.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Hui; Su, Mu-Chuan

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates variations in performance, postures and strains on the hand-arm-shoulder musculature during the operation of a wireless mouse, trackpad and a new input device. The device is held between the flexed index and middle fingers with the palm facing sideways. The buttons and wheels are activated by flexion and/or rolling of the thumb. Eleven males and nine females participated in the study. All subjects performed an aiming task to test the pointing and dragging functions. The results of this study reveal that the new pointing device allowed users to adopt more ergonomic postures and has the advantage of reduced muscular loadings of the upper extremities. Mean (SD) muscular activities (%RVC) using the wireless mouse, the trackpad and the new input device were as follows: trapezius: 3.0 (1.7), 4.4 (2.9) and 1.4 (1.0), and extensor carpi ulnaris: 7.3 (4.4), 14.5 (8.4) and 5.6 (3.1), respectively. The device was used in a variety of hand positions, alternatively. The size of the working area was far greater when the new input device was used than when the two conventional analogues were used. Although reasonable performance was not achieved, the results support recommendations concerning the redesign of the device. The ergonomic efforts in the design of the input device are of heuristic value, providing a basis for future development.

  6. Measurement of fatigue in knee flexor and extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Y; Senda, M; Oka, T; Yagata, Y; Takahara, Y; Nagashima, H; Inoue, H

    2000-04-01

    In order to examine fatigue of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and to investigate the characteristics of muscular fatigue in different sports, a Cybex machine was used to measure muscle fatigue and recovery during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Eighteen baseball players, 12 soccer players and 13 marathon runners were studied. Each subject was tested in the sitting position and made to perform 50 consecutive right knee bends and stretches at maximum strength. This was done 3 times with an interval of 10 min between each series. The peak torque to body weight ratio and the fatigue rate were determined in each case. In all subjects, the peak torque to body weight ratio was higher for extensors than flexors. Over the 3 trials, the fatigue rate of extensors showed little change, while that of flexors had a tendency to increase. In each subject, knee extensors showed a high fatigue rate but a quick recovery, while knee flexors showed a low fatigue rate but a slow recovery. As the marathon runners had the smallest fatigue rates for both flexors and extensors, we concluded that marathon runners had more stamina than baseball players and soccer players.

  7. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  8. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:27065561

  9. Changes of Excitability in M1 Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Differ Between Presence and Absence of Voluntary Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Higashi, Toshio; Tsurumi, Takamasa; Kasai, Tatsuya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate excitability changes in the human motor cortex induced by variable therapeutic electrical stimulations (TESs) with or without voluntary drive. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from extensor and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles at rest and during FCR muscle contraction after the application of…

  10. Walking and Running Require Greater Effort from the Ankle than the Knee Extensor Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, Juha-Pekka; Korhonen, Marko T; Ruggiero, Luca; Kuitunen, Sami; Suominen, Harri; Heinonen, Ari; Mikkola, Aki; Avela, Janne

    2016-11-01

    The knee and ankle extensors as human primary antigravity muscle groups are of utmost importance in a wide range of locomotor activities. Yet, we know surprisingly little about how these muscle groups work, and specifically, how close to their maximal capacities they function across different modes and intensity of locomotion. Therefore, to advance our understanding of locomotor constraints, we determined and compared relative operating efforts of the knee and ankle extensors during walking, running, and sprinting. Using an inverse dynamics biomechanical analysis, the muscle forces of the knee and ankle extensors during walking (1.6 m·s), running (4.1 m·s), and sprinting (9.3 m·s) were quantified and then related to maximum forces of the same muscle groups obtained from a reference hopping test that permitted natural elastic limb behavior. During walking, the relative effort of the ankle extensors was almost two times greater compared with the knee extensors (35% ± 6% vs 19% ± 5%, P < 0.001). Changing walking to running decreased the difference in the relative effort between the extensor muscle groups, but still, the ankle extensors operated at a 25% greater level than the knee extensors (84% ± 12% vs 63% ± 17%, P < 0.05). At top speed sprinting, the ankle extensors reached their maximum operating level, whereas the knee extensors still worked well below their limits, showing a 25% lower relative effort compared with the ankle extensors (96% ± 11% vs 72% ± 19%, P < 0.01). Regardless of the mode of locomotion, humans operate at a much greater relative effort at the ankle than knee extensor muscles. As a consequence, the great demand on ankle extensors may be a key biomechanical factor limiting our locomotor ability and influencing the way we locomote and adapt to accommodate compromised neuromuscular system function.

  11. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the baseline value. Our results indicate that tissue oxygenation significantly decreases during brief, low levels of static muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle

  12. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    PubMed

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  13. Coactivation index of children with congenital upper limb reduction deficiencies before and after using a wrist-driven 3D printed partial hand prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Jorge M; Dimitrios, Katsavelis; Peck, Jean L; Srivastava, Rakesh; Pierce, James E; Dudley, Drew R; Salazar, David A; Young, Keaton J; Knarr, Brian A

    2018-06-08

    Co-contraction is the simultaneous activation of agonist and antagonist muscles that produces forces around a joint. It is unknown if the use of a wrist-driven 3D printed transitional prostheses has any influence on the neuromuscular motor control strategies of the affected hand of children with unilateral upper-limb reduction deficiencies. Thus, the purpose of the current investigation was to examine the coactivation index (CI) of children with congenital upper-limb reduction deficiencies before and after 6 months of using a wrist-driven 3D printed partial hand prosthesis. Electromyographic activity of wrist flexors and extensors (flexor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum) was recorded during maximal voluntary contraction of the affected and non-affected wrists. Co-contraction was calculated using the coactivation index and was expressed as percent activation of antagonist over agonist. Nine children (two girls and seven boys, 6 to 16 years of age) with congenital upper-limb deficiencies participated in this study and were fitted with a wrist-driven 3D printed prosthetic hand. From the nine children, five (two girls and three boys, 7 to 10 years of age) completed a second visit after using the wrist-driven 3D printed partial hand prosthesis for 6 months. Separate two-way repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to analyze the coactivation index and strength data. There was a significant main effect for hand with the affected hand resulting in a higher coactivation index for flexion and extension than the non-affected hand. For wrist flexion there was a significant main effect for time indicating that the affected and non-affected hand had a significantly lower coactivation index after a period of 6 months. The use of a wrist-driven 3D printed hand prosthesis lowered the coactivation index by 70% in children with congenital upper limb reduction deficiencies. This reduction in coactivation and possible improvement in motor control strategies can potentially

  14. A comparison of muscular activity during single and double mouse clicks.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Stefan; Forsman, Mikael; Hallbeck, Susan

    2005-05-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the neck/shoulder region and the upper extremities are a common problem among computer workers. Occurrences of motor unit (MU) double discharges with very short inter-firing intervals (doublets) have been hypothesised as a potential additional risk for overuse of already exhausted fibres during long-term stereotyped activity. Doublets are reported to be present during double-click mouse work tasks. A few comparative studies have been carried out on overall muscle activities for short-term tasks with single types of actions, but none on occurrences of doublets during double versus single clicks. The main purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity levels of single and double mouse clicks during a long-term combined mouse/keyboard work task. Four muscles were studied: left and right upper trapezius, right extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and right flexor carpi ulnaris. Additionally, MU activity was analysed through intramuscular electromyography in the EDC muscle for a selection of subjects. The results indicate that double clicking produces neither higher median or 90th percentile levels in the trapezius and EDC muscles, nor a higher disposition for MU doublets, than does single clicking. Especially for the 90th percentile levels, the indications are rather the opposite (in the EDC significantly higher during single clicks in 8 of 11 subjects, P < 0.05). Although it cannot be concluded from the present study that double clicks are harmless, there were no signs that double clicks during computer work generally constitute a larger risk factor for WMSDs than do single clicks.

  15. Novel magnetomechanical MR compatible vibrational device for producing kinesthetic illusion during fMRI.

    PubMed

    Carr, Sarah J; Borreggine, Kristin; Heilman, Jeremiah; Griswold, Mark; Walter, Benjamin L

    2013-11-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) can provide insights into the functioning of the sensorimotor system, which is of particular interest in studying people with movement disorders or chronic pain conditions. This creates a demand for manipulanda that can fit and operate within the environment of a MRI scanner. Here, the authors present a magnetomechanical device that delivers a vibrotactile sensation to the skin with a force of approximately 9 N. MRI compatibility of the device was tested in a 3 T scanner using a phantom to simulate the head. Preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of the device at producing cortical and subcortical activity was also conducted with a group of seven healthy subjects. The vibration was applied to the right extensor carpi ulnaris tendon to induce a kinesthetic illusion of flexion and extension of the wrist. The MRI compatibility tests showed the device did not produce image artifacts and the generated electromagnetic field did not disrupt the static magnetic field of the scanner or its operation. The subject group results showed activity in the contralateral putamen, premotor cortex, and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Ipsilaterally, there was increased activity in the superior and inferior parietal lobules. Areas that activated bilaterally included the thalamus, anterior cingulate, secondary somatosensory areas (S2), temporal lobes, and visual association areas. This device offers an effective tool with precise control over the vibratory stimulus, delivering higher forces than some other types of devices (e.g., piezoelectric actuators). It can be useful for investigating sensory systems and sensorimotor integration.

  16. Histological studies on the triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Evans, E J; Pemberton, D J

    1990-01-01

    The triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist was serially sectioned for routine histology. Results from eight dissecting room cadavers show that the complex is attached to hyaline cartilage on the radius via its articular disc. In contrast, the dorsal and volar radio-ulnar ligaments attach to the radius via zones of calcified and uncalcified fibrocartilage. The articular disc is thus a wide labrum that provides an articular surface for the ulna and for the carpal bones, and the radio-ulnar ligaments strengthen the attachment of the disc to the radius. Medially, the complex divides into upper and lower laminae. Arching strands of collagen fibres emerge from the upper lamina and pass through a region of highly vascular connective tissue to be attached to the ulna between the articular cartilage on the head and that at the tip of the styloid process. Much of the ulnar attachment is via zones of calcified and uncalcified fibrocartilage which blend with the adjacent articular cartilages. Such an arrangement of tissues prevents undue wear and tear at the ulnar attachment zone during pronation and supination of the forearm. The lower lamina blends with the sheath of extensor carpi ulnaris and the ulnar collateral ligament and allows the whole complex to attach to the carpal and metacarpal bones. The meniscus homologue is a region of dense irregular connective tissue with no independent histological identity. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:2272909

  17. The influence of fat infiltration of back extensor muscles on osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    So, Kwang-Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Choong-Young; Kim, Jeong-Seok; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study. To investigate the influence of fat infiltration at low back extensor muscles on osteoporotic vertebral fracture. In persons with stronger back muscles, the risk of osteoporotic vertebral fractures will likely be lower than in those persons with weaker back muscles. However, the degree of influence of fat infiltration of the back extensor muscle on osteoporotic vertebral fracture remains controversial. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients who had undergone lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging and bone mineral density (BMD) were enrolled in this study. The amount of low back extensor muscle was determined using the pseudocoloring technique on an axial view of the L3 level. The patients were divided into two groups: osteoporotic vertebral fracture group (group A) and non-fracture group (group B). The amount of low back extensor muscle is compared with BMD, degenerative change of disc, osteophyte grade of facet joint and promontory angle to reveal the association between these factors. A negative correlation is found between age and the amount of low back extensor muscle (p=0.001). The amount of low back extensor muscle in group A and group B was 60.3%±14.5% and 64.2%±9.3% respectively, thus showing a significantly smaller amount of low back extensor muscle in the osteoporotic vertebral fracture group (p=0.015). Fat infiltration of low back extensor muscle was increased in osteoporotic vertebral fracture patients. Therefore, fat infiltration of low back extensor muscle in an elderly person may be a risk factor of osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

  18. Elbow flexor and extensor muscle weakness in lateral epicondylalgia.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Brooke K; Bisset, Leanne; Vicenzino, Bill

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether deficits of elbow flexor and extensor muscle strength exist in lateral epicondylalgia (LE) in comparison with a healthy control population. Cross-sectional study. 150 participants with unilateral LE were compared with 54 healthy control participants. Maximal isometric elbow flexion and extension strength were measured bilaterally using a purpose-built standing frame such that gripping was avoided. The authors found significant side differences in elbow extensor (-6.54 N, 95% CI -11.43 to -1.65, p=0.008, standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.45) and flexor muscle strength (-11.26 N, 95% CI -19.59 to -2.94, p=0.009, SMD -0.46) between LE and control groups. Within the LE group, only elbow extensor muscle strength deficits between sides was significant (affected-unaffected: -2.94 N, 95% CI -5.44 to -0.44). Small significant deficits of elbow extensor and flexor muscle strength exist in the affected arm of unilateral LE in comparison with healthy controls. Notably, comparing elbow strength between the affected and unaffected sides in unilateral epicondylalgia is likely to underestimate these deficits. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12609000051246.

  19. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    PubMed

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  <  0.05). The results suggest that in manual muscle testing starting position can affect the isometric strength of elbow extensors since supine-lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  20. Vibration-Induced Kinesthetic Illusions and Corticospinal Excitability Changes.

    PubMed

    Mancheva, Kapka; Rollnik, Jens D; Wolf, Werner; Dengler, Reinhard; Kossev, Andon

    2017-01-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate the changes of corticospinal excitability during kinesthetic illusions induced by tendon vibration. Motor-evoked potentials in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the vibrated flexor carpi radialis and its antagonist, extensor carpi radialis. The illusions were evoked under vision conditions without feedback for the position of the wrist (open or closed eyes). In these two conditions motor-evoked potential changes during vibration in the antagonist were not identical. This discrepancy may be a result of 2 simultaneously acting, different and opposite influences and the balance between them depends on visual conditions. Thus, the illusion was accompanied by the facilitation of corticospinal excitability in both vibrated muscle and its antagonist.

  1. Pedicled unipolar latissimus dorsi flap for reconstruction of finger extensor *

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Kasai, Tokio; Hibino, Naohito; Ishii, Seiji; Mitsuhashi, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We describe the use of a pedicled unipolar latissimus dorsi flap to restore finger extension. The patient had large defects in the radial nerve and extensor musculature. A long-tailed, 50-cm-long flap was prepared, which enabled the end of the flap to be sutured to the extensor digitorum. PMID:28470032

  2. Muscle recruitment variations during wrist flexion exercise: MR evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleckenstein, J. L.; Watumull, D.; Bertocci, L. A.; Nurenberg, P.; Peshock, R. M.; Payne, J. A.; Haller, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many exercise protocols used in physiological studies assume homogeneous and diffuse muscle recruitment. To test this assumption during a "standard" wrist flexion protocol, variations in muscle recruitment were assessed using MRI in eight healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Variations were assessed by comparing the right to the left forearms and the effect of slight (15 degrees) pronation or supination at the wrist. RESULTS: Postexercise imaging showed focal regions of increased signal intensity (SI), indicating relatively strong recruitment, most often in entire muscles, although occasionally only in subvolumes of muscles. In 15 of 26 studies, flexor carpi radialis (FCR) showed more SI than flexor carpi ulnaris, while in 11 studies SI in these muscles increased equivalently. Relatively greater FCR recruitment was seen during pronation and/or use of the nondominant side. Palmaris longus, a wrist flexor, did not appear recruited in 4 of 11 forearms in which it was present. A portion of the superficial finger flexor became hyperintense in 89% of studies, while recruitment of the deep finger flexor was seen only in 43%. CONCLUSION: Inter- and intraindividual variations in forearm muscle recruitment should be anticipated in physiological studies of standard wrist flexion exercise protocols.

  3. Relationships between explosive and maximal triple extensor muscle performance and vertical jump height.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eunwook; Norcross, Marc F; Johnson, Sam T; Kitagawa, Taichi; Hoffman, Mark

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between maximum vertical jump height and (a) rate of torque development (RTD) calculated during 2 time intervals, 0-50 milliseconds (RTD50) and 0-200 milliseconds (RTD200) after torque onset and (b) peak torque (PT) for each of the triple extensor muscle groups. Thirty recreationally active individuals performed maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVIC) of the hip, knee and ankle extensors, and a countermovement vertical jump. Rate of torque development was calculated from 0 to 50 (RTD50) and 0 to 200 (RTD200) milliseconds after the onset of joint torque. Peak torque was identified and defined as the maximum torque value during each MVIC trial. Greater vertical jump height was associated with greater knee and ankle extension RTD50, RTD200, and PT (p ≤ 0.05). However, hip extension RTD50, RTD200, and PT were not significantly related to maximal vertical jump height (p > 0.05). The results indicate that 47.6 and 32.5% of the variability in vertical jump height was explained by knee and ankle extensor RTD50, respectively. Knee and ankle extensor RTD50 also seemed to be more closely related to vertical jump performance than RTD200 (knee extensor: 28.1% and ankle extensor: 28.1%) and PT (knee extensor: 31.4% and ankle extensor: 13.7%). Overall, these results suggest that training specifically targeted to improve knee and ankle extension RTD, especially during the early phases of muscle contraction, may be effective for increasing maximal vertical jump performance.

  4. Soreness-related changes in three-dimensional running biomechanics following eccentric knee extensor exercise.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Schilling, Brian K; Melcher, Dan A; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed an isolated eccentric knee extensor damaging protocol to elicit DOMS. Biomechanics of over-ground running at a set speed of 3.35 m s -1 ±5% were measured before eccentric exercise (baseline) and, 24 h and 48 h following exercise in the presence of knee extensor DOMS. Knee flexion ROM was reduced at 48 h (P = 0.01; d = 0.26), and peak knee extensor moment was reduced at 24 h (P = 0.001; d = 0.49) and 48 h (P < 0.001; d = 0.68) compared to baseline. Frontal and transverse plane biomechanics were unaffected by the presence of DOMS (P > 0.05). Peak positive ankle and knee joint powers and, peak negative knee joint power were all reduced from baseline to 24 h and 48 h (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that knee extensor DOMS greatly influences sagittal knee joint angular kinetics and, reduces sagittal power production at the ankle joint. However, knee extensor DOMS does not affect frontal and transverse plane lower limb joint biomechanics during running.

  5. Effect of Superimposed Electromyostimulation on Back Extensor Strengthening: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Kwan Sik; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2016-09-01

    Park, JH, Seo, KS, and Lee, S-U. Effect of superimposed electromyostimulation on back extensor strengthening: a pilot study. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2470-2475, 2016-Electromyostimulation (EMS) superimposed on voluntary contraction (VC) can increase muscle strength. However, no study has examined the effect of superimposing EMS on back extensor strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of superimposed EMS on back extensor strengthening in healthy adults. Twenty healthy men, 20-29 years of age, without low-back pain were recruited. In the EMS group, electrodes were attached to bilateral L2 and L4 paraspinal muscles. Stimulation intensity was set for maximally tolerable intensity. With VC, EMS was superimposed for 10 seconds followed by a 20-second rest period. The same protocol was used in the sham stimulation (SS) group, except that the stimulation intensity was set at the lowest intensity (5 mA). All subjects performed back extension exercise using a Swiss ball, with 10 repetitions per set, 2 sets each day, 5 times a week for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in isokinetic strength of the back extensor using an isokinetic dynamometer. Additionally, endurance was measured using the Sorensen test. After 2 weeks of back extension exercise, the peak torque and endurance increased significantly in both groups (p ≤ 0.05). Effect size between the EMS group and the SS group was medium in strength and endurance. However, there was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups. In conclusion, 2 weeks of back extensor strengthening exercise was effective for strength and endurance. Superimposing EMS on back extensor strengthening exercise could provide an additional effect on increasing strength.

  6. [Reconstruction of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by transposition of the extensor indicis tendon].

    PubMed

    Loos, A; Kalb, K; Van Schoonhoven, J; Landsleitner Dagger, B

    2003-12-01

    Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus-tendon (EPL) is a frequent complication after distal radius fractures. Other traumatic and non-traumatic reasons for this tendon lesion are known, including a theory about a disorder in the blood supply to the tendon itself. We examined 40 patients after reconstruction of the EPL-tendon in a mean follow-up time of 30 months. All patients were clinically examined and a DASH questionnaire was answered by all patients. The method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon was the transposition of the extensor indicis-tendon. After the operations the thumb was put in a splint for four weeks in a "hitch-hiker's-position". 31 ruptures of the tendon (77.5 %) were a result of trauma. In 20 of them (50 %) a distal radius fracture had occurred. Clinical examination included measurements of the movement of the thumb- and index-finger joints, the grip strength and the maximal span of the hand. Significant differences were not found. The isolated extension of the index finger was possible in all patients. But it was reduced in ten cases which represent 25 %. Our results were evaluated by the Geldmacher score to evaluate the reconstruction of the EPL-tendon. 20 % excellent, 65 % good, 12.5 % fair and 2.5 % poor results were reached. The Geldmacher score was used critically. We suggest its modification for the evaluation of thumb abduction. The DASH score reached a functional value of ten points which represents a very good result. In conclusion the extensor indicis-transposition is a safe method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon. Its substantial advantage is taking a healthy muscle as the motor, thereby avoiding the risk of using a degenerated muscle in late tendon reconstruction. A powerful extension of the index finger will be maintained by physical education. Generally, the loss of the extension of the index finger is negligible. It does not disturb the patients. But it has to be discussed with the patient before the operation.

  7. Extensor Mechanism Disruption after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Series and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-02-04

    Extensor mechanism disruption following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but devastating complication. These patients may require revision of the implants, but even then, it may not be possible to restore the normal function of the knee after the disruption. The patterns of extensor mechanism disruption can broadly be classified into three types: suprapatellar (quadriceps tendon rupture), transpatellar (patellar fracture), or infrapatellar (patellar tendon rupture). Infrapatellar tendon ruptures are the worst injuries, as they carry maximum morbidity and are challenging to manage. The disruption of the extensor mechanism may occur either intra-operatively or in the immediate postoperative period due to an injury. The treatment of extensor mechanism complications after TKA may include either nonsurgical management or surgical intervention in the form of primary repair or reconstruction with autogenous, allogeneic, or synthetic substitutes. We have provided an algorithm for the management of extensor mechanism disruption after TKA.

  8. Rupture of the extensor hood of the fifth toe: a rare injury.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Sara; Gaba, Suchi; Mangwani, Jitendra

    2017-02-27

    Closed injuries of the extensor hood of the lesser toes are rare and seldom reported in the literature. We present the case of a woman aged 25 years who presented to the orthopaedic fracture clinic with a 2-week history of pain in the left fifth toe and inability to extend following a ballet dancing session. Investigations showed no fracture on plain radiographs, but an ultrasound scan demonstrated rupture to the extensor hood of the little toe. Successful surgical repair of the extensor hood was performed, and the patient made a good recovery with return to dancing activities. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Validity and test–retest reliability of a novel simple back extensor muscle strength test

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Amy T; Weeks, Benjamin Kurt; Horan, Sean A; Little, Andrew; Watson, Steven L; Beck, Belinda Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and determine convergent validity and reliability of a simple and inexpensive clinical test to quantify back extensor muscle strength. Methods: Two testing sessions were conducted, 7 days apart. Each session involved three trials of standing maximal isometric back extensor muscle strength using both the novel test and isokinetic dynamometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validation was examined with Pearson correlations (r). Test–retest reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients are presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Linear regression was used to examine the ability of peak back extensor muscle strength to predict indices of lumbar spine bone mineral density and strength. Results: A total of 52 healthy adults (26 men, 26 women) aged 46.4 ± 20.4 years were recruited from the community. A strong positive relationship was observed between peak back extensor strength from hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry (r = 0.824, p < 0.001). For the novel back extensor strength test, short- and long-term reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.971–0.990), p < 0.001 and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.901 (95% confidence interval, 0.833–0.943), p < 0.001, respectively). Limits of agreement for short-term repeated back extensor strength measures with the novel back extensor strength protocol were −6.63 to 7.70 kg, with a mean bias of +0.71 kg. Back extensor strength predicted 11% of variance in lumbar spine bone mineral density (p < 0.05) and 9% of lumbar spine index of bone structural strength (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our novel hand-held dynamometer method to determine back extensor muscle strength is quick, relatively inexpensive, and reliable; demonstrates

  10. The impact of working technique on physical loads - an exposure profile among newspaper editors.

    PubMed

    Lindegård, A; Wahlström, J; Hagberg, M; Hansson, G-A; Jonsson, P; Wigaeus Tornqvist, E

    2003-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible associations between working technique, sex, symptoms and level of physical load in VDU-work. A study group of 32 employees in the editing department of a daily newspaper answered a questionnaire, about physical working conditions and symptoms from the neck and the upper extremities. Muscular load, wrist positions and computer mouse forces were measured. Working technique was assessed from an observation protocol for computer work. In addition ratings of perceived exertion and overall comfort were collected. The results showed that subjects classified as having a good working technique worked with less muscular load in the forearm (extensor carpi ulnaris p=0.03) and in the trapezius muscle on the mouse operating side (p=0.02) compared to subjects classified as having a poor working technique. Moreover there were no differences in gap frequency (number of episodes when muscle activity is below 2.5% of a reference contraction) or muscular rest (total duration of gaps) between the two working technique groups. Women in this study used more force (mean force p=0.006, peak force p=0.02) expressed as % MVC than the men when operating the computer mouse. No major differences were shown in muscular load, wrist postures, perceived exertion or perceived comfort between men and women or between cases and symptom free subjects. In conclusion a good working technique was associated with reduced muscular load in the forearm muscles and in the trapezius muscle on the mouse operating side. Moreover women used more force (mean force and peak force) than men when operating the click button (left button) of the computer mouse.

  11. Function and structure of the deep cervical extensor muscles in patients with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Schomacher, Jochen; Falla, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    The deep cervical extensors are anatomically able to control segmental movements of the cervical spine in concert with the deep cervical flexors. Several investigations have confirmed changes in cervical flexor muscle control in patients with neck pain and as a result, effective evidence-based therapeutic exercises have been developed to address such dysfunctions. However, knowledge on how the deep extensor muscles behave in patients with neck pain disorders is scare. Structural changes such as higher concentration of fat within the muscle, variable cross-sectional area and higher proportions of type II fibres have been observed in the deep cervical extensors of patients with neck pain compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest that the behaviour of the deep extensors may be altered in patients with neck pain. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent series of studies confirm that patients display reduced activation of the deep cervical extensors as well as less defined activation patterns. This article provides an overview of the various different structural and functional changes in the deep neck extensor muscles documented in patients with neck pain. Relevant recommendations for the management of muscle dysfunction in patients with neck pain are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A single group, pretest-posttest clinical trial for the effects of dry needling on wrist flexors spasticity after stroke.

    PubMed

    Fakhari, Zahra; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mansouri, Korosh; Radinmehr, Hojjat

    2017-01-01

    Spasticity is a common complication after stroke. Dry needling (DN) is suggested as a novel method for treatment of muscle spasticity. To explore the effects of DN on wrist flexors spasticity poststroke. A single group, pretest-posttest clinical trial was used. Twenty nine patients with stroke (16 male; mean age 54.3 years) were tested at baseline (T0), immediately after DN (T1), and one hour after DN (T2). DN was applied for flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and flexor carpi ulnaris on the affected arm for single session, one minute per muscle. The Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS), passive resistance force, wrist active and passive range of motion, Box and Block Test, and FCR H-reflex were outcome measures. Significant reductions in MMAS scores were seen both immediately after DN and at 1-hour follow-up (median 2 at T0 to 1 at T1 and T2). There were significant improvements in other measures between the baseline values at T0 and those recorded immediately after the DN at T1 or one hour later at T2. This study suggests that DN reduced wrist flexors spasticity and alpha motor neuron excitability in patients with stroke, and improvements persisted for one hour after DN.

  13. [Experience in using xeomin in the treatment of arm and hand spasticity in the early rehabilitation phase of stroke].

    PubMed

    Kostenko, E V; Petrova, L V; Ganzhula, P A; Lisenker, L N; Otcheskaia, O V; Khozova, A A; Boĭko, A N

    2012-01-01

    To reduce arm and hand spasticity, 28 patients in the early rehabilitation phase of ischemic hemisphere stroke received injections of the botulinum toxin A preparation xeomin in the content of complex rehabilitation programs. The following muscles: m. biceps brachii, m. flexor digitorum profundus, m. flexor digitorum superficialis, m. flexor carpi ulnaris, m. flexor carpi radialis were injected according to standard scheme. The total dose of drug was 200U in moderate (2-3 scores on the Ashworth scale) and 300U in marked (3-4 scores on the Ashworth scale) spasticity. Efficacy and safety of treatment was assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks after injections. Xeomin significantly (p<0.05) reduced muscle tonus in patients with post-stroke spasticity of different severity. Clinical effect was seen 2 weeks after injection, it reached maximum at week 4 and then slowly decreased to week 16. The improved functional activity of the paretic arm (due to patient's and caregiver's reports) remained for to 12 weeks. The treatment was most effective in the group of patients with moderate spasticity. The correlation analysis confirmed that the severity of spasticity increased with the disease duration that reduced rehabilitation efficiency. The treatment with xeomin was safe, no serious side-effects were found.

  14. Vibration-evoked reciprocal inhibition between human wrist muscles.

    PubMed

    Cody, F W; Plant, T

    1989-01-01

    Reciprocal inhibition of the voluntarily contracting wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis, ECR) evoked by proprioceptive afferent input from the flexor (flexor carpi radialis, FCR), was studied in healthy human subjects. Vibration of the FCR tendon was used to elicit Ia-dominated afferent discharge whilst inhibition of ECR was assessed as the reduction in asynchronous, on-going EMG. A small early phase of inhibition (I1) was evident in 25% of trials. The latency (ca. 25 ms) of this component suggested that it was mediated by an Ia oligosynaptic. possibly 'classical' disynaptic, inhibitory pathway. A later and apparently separate phase of reduced activity (I2, ca. 40 ms) was, however, far more consistently observed (96% of trials) and of greater magnitude. The I2 component was usually followed, some 20 ms later, by a phase of elevated activity (E1, 72% trials). Reductions in simultaneously recorded net extensor torque commenced at about 60 ms following the onset of flexor tendon vibration, i.e. some 20 ms after the main I2 EMG component. These mechanical responses must have almost exclusively resulted from reciprocal inhibition of extensor EMG since vibration of the relaxed FCR evoked minimal excitatory flexor activity. The reflex pattern, in any individual subject, was relatively unaffected by altering the duration of the vibration train between one and nineteen cycles (125 Hz). This suggests that the entire response complex resulted largely from the initial afferent volley. The sizes of both the I1 and I2 reductions in ECR activity increased with increasing voluntary extensor contraction so that their depths remained constant proportions of background EMG. Very similar results were obtained when reciprocal inhibition of FCR was produced by vibration of the belly of ECR. Thus, reciprocal inhibition between wrist muscles is mainly expressed as a rather stereotyped, short duration reduction in EMG whose depth is determined by the pre-existing level of motor

  15. The influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination during weightlifting.

    PubMed

    Hu, Boyi; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar muscle fatigue is a potential risk factor for the development of low back pain. In this study, we investigated the influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns during weightlifting. Each of the 15 male subjects performed five repetitions of weightlifting tasks both before and after a lumbar extensor muscle fatiguing protocol. Lumbar muscle electromyography was collected to assess fatigue. Trunk kinematics was recorded to calculate lumbar-pelvic continuous relative phase (CRP) and CRP variability. Results showed that fatigue significantly reduced the average lumbar-pelvic CRP value (from 0.33 to 0.29 rad) during weightlifting. The average CRP variability reduced from 0.17 to 0.15 rad, yet this change ws statistically not significant. Further analyses also discovered elevated spinal loading during weightlifting after the development of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar extensor muscle fatigue should be avoided in an occupational environment. Lumbar extensor muscle fatigue generates more in-phase lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns and elevated spinal loading during lifting. Such increase in spinal loading may indicate higher risk of back injury. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar muscle fatigue should be avoided to reduce the risk of LBP.

  16. Reduced servo-control of fatigued human finger extensor and flexor muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Hagbarth, K E; Bongiovanni, L G; Nordin, M

    1995-01-01

    1. In healthy human subjects holding the index finger semi-extended at the metacarpophalangeal joint against a moderate load, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the finger extensor and flexor muscles during different stages of muscle fatigue. The aim was to study the effect of muscle fatigue on the level of background EMG activity and on the reflex responses to torque pulses causing sudden extensor unloadings. Paired comparisons were made between the averaged EMG and finger deflection responses under two conditions: (1) at a stage of fatigue (following a sustained co-contraction) when great effort was required to maintain the finger position, and (2) under non-fatigue conditions while the subject tried to produce similar background EMG levels to those in the corresponding fatigue trials. 2. Both the unloading reflex in the extensor and the concurrent stretch reflex in the flexor were significantly less pronounced and had a longer latency in the fatigue trials. Consequently, the finger deflections had a larger amplitude and were arrested later in the fatigue trials. 3. It is concluded that--with avoidance of 'automatic gain compensation', i.e. reflex modifications attributable to differences in background EMG levels--the servo-like action of the unloading and stretch reflexes is reduced in fatigued finger extensor and flexor muscles. PMID:7562624

  17. Vibration influence on control of single motor unit activity.

    PubMed

    Malouin, F; Simard, T

    1978-03-01

    Effects of vibratory stimulation and maximal isometric contraction on a fine motor control task were evaluated in 17 human subjects. Electromyographic audiovisual feedback cues derived from two fine-wire bipolar electrodes, inserted to a depth of 12 and 6 mm respectively, were used to train the subjects to isolate a motor unit in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. A specially designed compressed air driven vibrator providing vibratory stimulation with an amplitude of 2 mm and a frequency range of 120-160 cycles per second was applied to the muscle tendon. A significant decrease was found in the subjects; ability to isolate the pretest motor unit during and after continuous and interrupted periods of vibration and following a maximal isometric contraction of the extensor carpi radials brevis muscle. Individual variations in the subjects' responses to the forms of application of the vibratory stimulus, electrode preference and feedback specificity were observed. Results suggest that marked spatial recruitment of motor units, brought into action by the vibration stimulus or by the maximal isometric contraction, interfered with inhibitory mechanisms necessary to achieve isolation and control of a single motor unit. A therapeutic application of vibration, based on the marked spatial recruitment observed during and after vibration, is proposed for muscle reeducation.

  18. An electromyographic analysis of two handwriting grasp patterns.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Pedro Henrique Tavares Queiroz; da Cruz, Daniel Marinho Cezar; Magna, Luis Alberto; Ferrigno, Iracema Serrat Vergotti

    2013-08-01

    Handwriting is a fundamental skill needed for the development of daily-life activities during lifetime and can be performed using different forms to hold the writing object. In this study, we monitored the sEMG activity of trapezius, biceps brachii, extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor digitorum superficialis during a handwriting task with two groups of subjects using different grasp patterns. Twenty-four university students (thirteen males and eleven females; mean age of 22.04±2.8years) were included in this study. We randomly invited 12 subjects that used the Dynamic Tripod grasp and 12 subjects that used the Static Tripod grasp. The static tripod group showed statistically significant changes in the sEMG activity of trapezium and biceps brachii muscles during handwriting when compared to dynamic tripod group's subjects. No significant differences were found in extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor digitorum superficialis activities among the two groups. The findings in this study suggest an increased activity of proximal muscles among subjects using a transitional grasp, indicating potential higher energy expenditure and muscular harm with the maintenance of this motor pattern in handwriting tasks, especially during the progression in academic life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Postmortem Freezing on Passive Properties of Rabbit Extensor Digtorum Longus Muscle Tendon Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-14

    AD-A266 429 INSTITUTE REPORT NO. 483 Effects of Postmortem Freezing on Passive Properties of Rabbit Extensor Digtorum Longus Muscle Tendon Complex D...Extensor Digtorum Longus Muscle Tendon Complex -- Paul H. Leitschuh, Tammy J. Doherty, Dean C. Taylor, Daniel E. Brooks, John B. Ryan This document has...ABSTRACT The tensile properties of the extensor digitorum longus muscle tendon unit (EDL MTU) were studied in 16 white male New Zealand rabbits in both

  20. Identification of human-generated forces on wheelchairs during total-body extensor thrusts.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong-Wook; Patrangenaru, Vlad; Singhose, William; Sprigle, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    Involuntary extensor thrust experienced by wheelchair users with neurological disorders may cause injuries via impact with the wheelchair, lead to the occupant sliding out of the seat, and also damage the wheelchair. The concept of a dynamic seat, which allows movement of a seat with respect to the wheelchair frame, has been suggested as a potential solution to provide greater freedom and safety. Knowledge of the human-generated motion and forces during unconstrained extensor thrust events is of great importance in developing more comfortable and effective dynamic seats. The objective of this study was to develop a method to identify human-generated motions and forces during extensor thrust events. This information can be used to design the triggering system for a dynamic seat. An experimental system was developed to automatically track the motions of the wheelchair user using a video camera and also measure the forces at the footrest. An inverse dynamic approach was employed along with a three-link human body model and the experimental data to predict the human-generated forces. Two kinds of experiments were performed: the first experiment validated the proposed model and the second experiment showed the effects of the extensor thrust speed, the footrest angle, and the seatback angle. The proposed method was tested using a sensitivity analysis, from which a performance index was deduced to help indicate the robust region of the force identification. A system to determine human-generated motions and forces during unconstrained extensor thrusts was developed. Through experiments and simulations, the effectiveness and reliability of the developed system was established.

  1. Anatomic relationship of the proximal nail matrix to the extensor hallucis longus tendon insertion.

    PubMed

    Palomo López, P; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, R; López López, D; Prados Frutos, J C; Alfonso Murillo González, J; Losa Iglesias, M E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the relationship of the terminal extensor hallucis longus tendon insertion to the proximal limit of the nail matrix of the great toe. Fifty fresh-frozen human cadaver great toes with no evidence of trauma (average age, 62.5 years; 29 males and 21 females) were used for this study. Under 25X magnification, the proximal limit of the nail matrix and the terminal bony insertion of the extensor hallucis longus tendons were identified. The distance from the terminal tendon insertion to the nail matrix was ascertained using precision calipers, an optical microscope, and autocad(®) software for windows. Twenty-five great toes were placed in a neutral formalin solution and further analysed by histological longitudinal-sections. The specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically to determine the presence of the extensor hallucis longus tendon along the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx of each great toe. The main result we found in great toes was that the extensor tendon is between the matrix and the phalanx and extends dorsally to the distal aspect of the distal phalanx in all, 100%, specimens. The nail matrix of the great toe is not attached to the periosteum of the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanx as is the case for fingers, because the extensor hallucis tendon is plantar or directly underneath the nail matrix and the tendon is dorsal to the bone. We have found that the extensor tendon is between the matrix and the phalanx and extends dorsally to the distal aspect of the distal phalanx. The nail matrix of the great toe is not attached to the periosteum of the dorsal aspect of the base of distal phalanx as is the case in fingers, because the extensor hallucis tendon is plantar or directly underneath the nail matrix and the tendon is dorsal to the bone. Our anatomic study demonstrates that the proximal limit of the matrix and nail bed of the human great toe are dorsal and

  2. Nonparetic Knee Extensor Strength Is the Determinant of Exercise Capacity of Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. Design. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. Results. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Conclusions. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living. PMID:25197712

  3. Nonparetic knee extensor strength is the determinant of exercise capacity of community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO₂ peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  4. Rate of Torque Development and Feedforward Control of the Hip and Knee Extensors: Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Stearns-Reider, Kristen M; Powers, Christopher M

    2017-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether women demonstrate decreased rate of torque development (RTD) of the hip and knee extensors and altered onset timing of the vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus during a drop-jump task when compared with men. On average, women demonstrated significantly lower normalized RTD of the hip extensors (women: 11.6 ± 1.3 MVT.s -1 , men: 13.1 ± 0.9 MVT.s -1 ; p ≤ .01); however, there was no significant difference in knee extensor RTD. Women also demonstrated significantly earlier activation of their vastus lateralis (women: 206.0 ± 130.6 ms, men: 80.9 ± 69.6 ms; p ≤ .01) and gluteus maximus (women: 85.7 ± 58.6 ms, men: 54.5 ± 35.4 ms; p = .02). In both men and women, there was a significant negative correlation between the hip extensor RTD and the vastus lateralis electromyographic onset time (men: r = -.386, p = .046; women: r = -.531, p = .008). The study findings suggest that women may utilize a feedforward control strategy in which they activate their knee extensors earlier than men to compensate for deficits in hip extensor RTD. The impaired capacity to rapidly stabilize the hip and knee joints during dynamic maneuvers may contribute to the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury observed in women.

  5. Associations of knee extensor strength and standing balance with physical function in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Liang, Zhiqi; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Bryant, Adam L; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Clark, Ross A

    2011-12-01

    Knee extensor strength is an important correlate of physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis; however, it remains unclear whether standing balance is also a correlate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional associations of knee extensor strength, standing balance, and their interaction with physical function. One hundred four older adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting a total knee replacement (mean ± SD age 67 ± 8 years) participated. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Standing balance performance was measured by the center of pressure displacement during quiet standing on a balance board. Physical function was measured by the self-report Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and by the 10-meter fast-pace gait speed test. After adjustment for demographic and knee pain variables, we detected significant knee strength by standing balance interaction terms for both SF-36 physical function and fast-pace gait speed. Interrogation of the interaction revealed that standing balance in the anteroposterior plane was positively related to physical function among patients with lower knee extensor strength. Conversely, among patients with higher knee extensor strength, the standing balance-physical function associations were, or tended to be, negative. These findings suggest that although standing balance was related to physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis, this relationship was complex and dependent on knee extensor strength level. These results are of importance in developing intervention strategies and refining theoretical models, but they call for further study. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Effects of the forearm support band on wrist extensor muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Knebel, P T; Avery, D W; Gebhardt, T L; Koppenhaver, S L; Allison, S C; Bryan, J M; Kelly, A

    1999-11-01

    A crossover experimental design with repeated measures. To determine whether the forearm support band alters wrist extensor muscle fatigue. Fatigue of the wrist extensor muscles is thought to be a contributing factor in the development of lateral epicondylitis. The forearm support band is purported to reduce or prevent symptoms of lateral epicondylitis but the mechanism of action is unknown. Fifty unimpaired subjects (36 men, 14 women; mean age = 29 +/- 6 years) were tested with and without a forearm support band before and after a fatiguing bout of exercise. Peak wrist extension isometric force, peak isometric grip force, and median power spectral frequency for wrist extensor electromyographic activity were measured before and after exercise and with and without the forearm support band. A 2 x 2 repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze the data, followed by univariate analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Peak wrist extension isometric force, peak grip isometric force, and median power spectral frequency were all reduced after exercise. However, there was a significant reduction in peak grip isometric force and peak wrist extension isometric force values for the with-forearm support band condition (grip force 28%, wrist extension force 26%) compared to the without-forearm support band condition (grip force 18%, wrist extension force 15%). Wearing the forearm support band increased the rate of fatigue in unimpaired individuals. Our findings do not support the premise that wearing the forearm support band reduces muscle fatigue in the wrist extensors.

  7. Bilateral movements increase sustained extensor force in the paretic arm.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2018-04-01

    Muscle weakness in the extensors poststroke is a common motor impairment. Unfortunately, research is unclear on whether bilateral movements increase extensor force production in the paretic arm. This study investigated sustained force production while stroke individuals maximally extended their wrist and fingers on their paretic arm. Specifically, we determined isometric force production in three conditions: (a) unilateral paretic arm, (b) unilateral nonparetic arm, and (c) bilateral (both arms executing the same movement simultaneously). Seventeen chronic stroke patients produced isometric sustained force by executing wrist and fingers extension in unilateral and bilateral contraction conditions. Mean force, force variability (coefficient of variation), and signal-to-noise ratio were calculated for each contraction condition. Analysis of two-way (Arm × Type of Condition: 2 × 2; Paretic or Nonparetic Arm × Unilateral or Bilateral Conditions) within-subjects ANOVAs revealed that the bilateral condition increased sustained force in the paretic arm, but reduced sustained force in the nonparetic arm. Further, although the paretic arm exhibited more force variability and less signal-to-noise ratio than the nonparetic arm during a unilateral condition, there were no differences when participants simultaneously executed isometric contractions with both arms. Our unique findings indicate that bilateral contractions transiently increased extensor force in the paretic arm. Implications for Rehabilitation Bilateral movements increased isometric wrsit extensor force in paretic arms and redcued force in nonparetic arms versus unilateral movements. Both paretic and nonparetic arms produced similar force variability and signal-to-noise ratio during bilateral movements. Increased sustained force in the paretic arm during the bilateral condition indicates that rehabilitation protocols based on bilateral movements may be beneficial for functional recovery.

  8. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anatomic Considerations for Plating of the Distal Ulna

    PubMed Central

    Hazel, Antony; Nemeth, Nicole; Bindra, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to examine the anatomy of the distal ulna and identify an interval that would be amenable to plating and would not cause impingement during wrist rotation nor irritation to the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon. Methods Six cadaveric forearms were dissected and the arc of the articular surface of the distal ulna was measured. The distal ulna was divided up as a clock face, with the ulnar styloid being assigned the 12 o'clock position, and the location of the ECU was identified accordingly. The distance from the ulnar styloid to where the dorsal sensory ulnar nerve crosses from volar to dorsal was also measured. Based on these measurements a safe zone was defined. Results A safe zone was identified between the 12 and 2 o'clock position on the right wrist, and between the 10 and 12 o'clock on the left wrist. The dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve crossed from volar to dorsal position at a variable location near the ulnar styloid. Two commercially available plates were utilized and could be placed in our designated interval and did not cause impingement when the forearm was rotated fully. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a location for plating of the distal ulna that avoids impingement during forearm rotation and that is outside of the footprint of the ECU subsheath. Clinical Relevance Plating of the distal ulna may be necessary with distal ulna fracture, and although plate placement may be dictated by the fracture pattern, it is important to understand the implications of plate placement. Although the ideal plate may not be possible because of comminution, the patient can be educated in regards to potential for tendon irritation, loss of motion, or need for hardware removal. PMID:26261745

  10. The prevalence, variety and impact of wrist problems in elite professional golfers on the European Tour

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Roger; O'Connor, Phil; Campbell, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Golf is a popular sport played by an estimated 57 million people. Previous studies on wrist injuries in elite golfers have been of simple design and have demonstrated such injuries to be frequent, although no studies report the incidence, variety, severity or impact on the activity of wrist injuries in detail. This prospective cross-sectional study assesses these factors in a cohort of elite professional golfers. Methods European Tour golfers eligible to compete at the 2009 BMW PGA Championship at Wentworth were studied. Study design involved the completion of a structured questionnaire supplemented by interview and examination when required, with performance statistics provided by the European Tour. The severity of injury was assessed by the number of missed tournaments and the amount of time of missed practice. Results 128 of 153 eligible golfers, (84%) completed the study with 38 golfers (30%) reporting 43 problems. The majority of injuries (67%) occurred in the leading wrist at the most common location, the ulnar side of the wrist (35%). 87% of all ulnar-sided and 100% of radial-sided problems were in the leading wrist. Conclusions There were clear side differences reported by the players with the lead wrist demonstrating much higher injury rates in all areas. The most significant injury, in terms of absence from competition, was extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation. Specific injuries are explained in relation to the biomechanics of the golf swing. Most structural injuries have a specific treatment and rehabilitation plan, which can involve significant periods of time away from the sport, while the management of many of the more minor problems is through alterations in technique or practice regimes, aiming to keep a golfer playing during recovery. PMID:24014125

  11. Open extensor tendon injuries: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Patillo, Dominic; Rayan, Ghazi M

    2012-01-01

    To report the epidemiology, mechanism, anatomical location, distribution, and severity of open extensor tendon injuries in the digits, hand, and forearm as well as the frequency of associated injuries to surrounding bone and soft tissue. Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who had operative repair of open digital extensor tendon injuries in all zones within an 11-year period. Data was grouped according to patient characteristics, zone of injury, mechanism of injury, and presence of associated injury. Statistical analysis was used to determine the presence of relevant associations. Eighty-six patients with 125 severed tendons and 105 injured digits were available for chart reviews. Patients were predominantly males (83%) with a mean age of 34.2 years and the dominant extremity was most often injured (60%). The thumb was the most commonly injured (25.7%), followed by middle finger (24.8), whereas small finger was least affected (10.5%). Sharp laceration was the most common mechanism of injury (60%), and most of these occurred at or proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Most saw injuries occurred distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint. Zone V was the most commonly affected in the fingers (27%) while zone VT was the most commonly affected in the thumb (69%). Associated injuries to bone and soft tissue occurred in 46.7% of all injuries with saw and crush/avulsions being predictive of fractures and damage to the underlying joint capsule. The extensor mechanism is anatomically complex, and open injuries to the dorsum of the hand, wrist, and forearm, especially of crushing nature and those inflicted by saws, must be thoroughly evaluated. Associated injuries should be ruled out in order to customize surgical treatment and optimize outcome.

  12. Extensor tendon injury during cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Fetal laceration is a recognized complication of cesarean delivery; however, major injuries are rare. The case of a healthy newborn who sustained an injury to the extensor pollicis longus tendon during cesarean delivery is reported. The tendon was repaired surgically on the sixth day of life with good recovery of function. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical, Radiologic, and Legal Significance of "Extensor Response" in Posttraumatic Coma.

    PubMed

    Firsching, Raimund; Woischneck, Dieter; Langejürgen, Alexander; Parreidt, Andreas; Bondar, Imre; Skalej, Martin; Röhl, Friedrich; Voellger, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The timely detection of neurologic deterioration can be critical for the survival of a neurosurgical patient following head injury. Because little reliable evidence is available on the prognostic value of the clinical sign "extensor response" in comatose posttraumatic patients, we investigated the correlation of this clinical sign with outcome and with early radiologic findings from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective analysis of prospectively obtained data included 157 patients who had remained in a coma for a minimum of 24 hours after traumatic brain injury. All patients received a 1.5-T MRI within 10 days (median: 2 days) of the injury. The correlations between clinical findings 12 and 24 hours after the injury-in particular, extensor response and pupillary function, MRI findings, and outcome after 1 year-were investigated. Statistical analysis included contingency tables, Fisher exact test, odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs), and weighted κ values. There were 48 patients with extensor response within the first 24 hours after the injury. Patients with extensor response (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies coma grade III) statistically were significantly more likely to harbor MRI lesions in the brainstem when compared with patients in a coma who had no further deficiencies (coma grade I; p = 0.0004 by Fisher exact test, OR 10.8 with 95% CI, 2.7-42.5) and patients with unilateral loss of pupil function (coma grade II; p = 0.0187, OR 2.8 with 95% CI, 1.2-6.5). The correlation of brainstem lesions as found by MRI and outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale after 1 year was also highly significant (p ≤ 0.016). The correlation of extensor response and loss of pupil function with an unfavorable outcome and with brainstem lesions revealed by MRI is highly significant. Their sudden onset may be associated with the sudden onset of brainstem dysfunction and should therefore be regarded as one of the most

  14. Is the Sørensen test valid to assess muscle fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles?

    PubMed

    Demoulin, Christophe; Boyer, Mathieu; Duchateau, Jacques; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Jidovtseff, Boris; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies have quantified the degree of fatigue characterized by the decline in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the trunk extensors induced by the widely used Sørensen test. Measure the degree of fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles induced by the Sørensen test. Eighty young healthy subjects were randomly divided into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG), each including 50% of the two genders. The EG performed an isometric MVC of the trunk extensors (pre-fatigue test) followed by the Sørensen test, the latter being immediately followed by another MVC (post-fatigue test). The CG performed only the pre- and post-fatigue tests without any exertion in between. The comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue tests revealed a significant (P< 0.05) decrease in MVC force normalized by body mass (-13%) in the EG, whereas a small increase occurred in the CG (+2.7%, P= 0.001). This study shows that the Sørensen test performed until failure in a young healthy population results in a reduced ability of the trunk extensor muscles to generate maximal force, and indicates that this test is valid for the assessment of fatigue in trunk extensor muscles.

  15. Effect of hypnotic suggestion on knee extensor neuromuscular properties in resting and fatigued states

    PubMed Central

    Antonini Philippe, Roberta; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypnotic suggestions can alter knee extensor neuromuscular function at rest and during exercise. Methods Thirteen healthy volunteers (8 men and 5 women, 27 ± 3 years old) took part in this counterbalanced, crossover study including two experimental (hypnosis and control) sessions. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was tested before and after hypnosis suggestion by using a combination of voluntary contraction, transcutaneous femoral nerve electrical stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A fatiguing exercise (sustained submaximal contraction at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force) was also performed to evaluate the potential influence of hypnosis on the extent and origin of neuromuscular adjustments. Results Hypnosis did not (p>0.05) alter MVC force or knee extensor neural properties. Corticospinal excitability, assessed with the amplitude of knee extensor motor evoked potentials, was also unchanged (p>0.05), as was the level of intracortical inhibition assessed with paired pulse TMS (short-interval intracortical inhibition, SICI). Time to task failure (~300 s) was not different (p>0.05) between the two sessions; accordingly, hypnosis did not influence neuromuscular adjustments measured during exercise and at task failure (p>0.05). Conclusion Hypnotic suggestions did not alter neuromuscular properties of the knee extensor muscles under resting condition or during/after exercise, suggesting that hypnosis-induced improvement in exercise performance and enhanced corticospinal excitability might be limited to highly susceptible participants. PMID:29684047

  16. Elbow flexor fatigue modulates central excitability of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Copithorne, David B; Power, Kevin E; Drinkwater, Eric; Behm, David G

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of exercise-induced elbow flexor fatigue on voluntary force output, electromyographic (EMG) activity and motoneurone excitability of the nonexercised knee extensor muscles. Eleven participants attended 3 testing sessions: (i) control, (ii) unilateral fatiguing elbow flexion and (iii) bilateral fatiguing elbow flexion (BiFlex). The nonfatigued knee extensor muscles were assessed with thoracic motor evoked potentials (TMEPs), maximal compound muscle action potential (Mmax), knee extensor maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), and normalized EMG activity before and at 30 s, 3 min, and 5 min postexercise. BiFlex showed significantly lower (Δ = -18%, p = 0.03) vastus lateralis (VL) normalized EMG activity compared with the control session whereas knee extension MVC force did not show any statistical difference between the 3 conditions (p = 0.12). The TMEP·Mmax(-1) ratio measured at the VL showed a significantly higher value (Δ = +46%, p = 0.003) following BiFlex compared with the control condition at 30 s postexercise. The results suggest that the lower VL normalized EMG following BiFlex might have been due to a reduction in supraspinal motor output because spinal motoneuronal responses demonstrated substantially higher value (30 s postexercise) and peripheral excitability (compound muscle action potential) showed no change following BiFelex than control condition.

  17. Abnormal flexor carpi radialis H-reflex as a specific indicator of C7 as compared with C6 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaojun; Zhu, Yu; Lv, Feizhou; Ma, Xiaosheng; Xia, Xinlei; Wang, Lixun; Jin, Xiang; Weber, Robert; Jiang, Jianyuan; Anuvat, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    The H-reflex of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR H-reflex) has not been commonly used for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy when compared with the routinely tested soleus H-reflex. Although both S1 and S2 roots innervate the soleus, the H-reflex is selectively related to S1 nerve root function clinically. Flexor carpi radialis is also innervated by two nerve roots which are C6 and C7. Although they are among the most common roots involved in cervical radiculopathy, few studies reported if the attenuation of the FCR H-reflex is caused by lesions affecting C7 or C6 nerve roots, or both. We aimed to identify whether an abnormal FCR H-reflex was attributed to the C7 or C6 nerve root lesion, or both. The sensitivities of needle electromyography, FCR H-reflex, and provocative tests in unilateral C7 or C6 radiculopathy were also compared in this study. A concentric needle electrode recorded bilateral FCR H-reflexes in 41 normal subjects (control group), 51 patients with C7 radiculopathy, and 54 patients with C6 radiculopathy. Clinical, radiological, and surgical approaches identified the precise single cervical nerve root involved in all patient groups. The H-reflex and M-wave latencies were measured and compared bilaterally. Abnormal FCR H-reflex was defined as the absence of the H-reflex or a side-to-side difference over 1.5 milliseconds which was based on the normal side-to-side difference of the H-reflex latency of 16.9 milliseconds (SD = 1.7 milliseconds) from the control group. We also determined standard median and ulnar conduction and needle electromyography. The provocative tests included bilateral determination of the Shoulder Abduction and Spurling's tests in all radiculopathy group patients. Abnormal FCR H-reflexes were recorded in 45 (88.2%) of C7 radiculopathy group patients, and 2 (3.7%) of C6 radiculopathy group patients (P < 0.05). Needle electromyography was abnormal in 41 (80.4%) of C7 radiculopathy patients and 43 (79.6%) of C6 radiculopathy

  18. The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.

    PubMed

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2018-01-01

    Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Fat Infiltration in Cervical Extensor Muscles on Cervical Lordosis and Neck Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Lim, Seong-An; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2018-06-01

    Weakness of cervical extensor muscles causes loss of cervical lordosis, which could also cause neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fat infiltration in cervical extensor muscles on cervical lordosis and neck pain. Fifty-six patients who suffered from neck pain were included in this study. Fat infiltration in cervical extensor muscles was measured at each level of C2-3 and C6-7 using axial magnetic resonance imaging. The visual analogue scale (VAS), 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were used for clinical assessment. The mean fat infiltration was 206.3 mm 2 (20.3%) at C2-3 and 240.6 mm 2 (19.5%) at C6-7. Fat infiltration in cervical extensor muscles was associated with high VAS scores at both levels ( p = 0.047 at C2-3; p = 0.009 at C6-7). At C2-3, there was a negative correlation between fat infiltration of the cervical extensor muscles and cervical lordosis (r = -0.216; p = 0.020). At C6-7, fat infiltration in the cervical extensor muscles was closely related to NDI ( p = 0.003) and SF-12 ( p > 0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between cervical lordosis and clinical outcomes (VAS, p = 0.112; NDI, p = 0.087; and SF-12, p > 0.05). These results suggest that fat infiltration in the upper cervical extensor muscles has relevance to the loss of cervical lordosis, whereas fat infiltration in the lower cervical extensor muscles is associated with cervical functional disability.

  20. Long-latency reflexes of elbow and shoulder muscles suggest reciprocal excitation of flexors, reciprocal excitation of extensors, and reciprocal inhibition between flexors and extensors

    PubMed Central

    Meriggi, Jenna; Parikh, Nidhi; Saad, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Postural corrections of the upper limb are required in tasks ranging from handling an umbrella in the changing wind to securing a wriggling baby. One complication in this process is the mechanical interaction between the different segments of the arm where torque applied at one joint induces motion at multiple joints. Previous studies have shown the long-latency reflexes of shoulder muscles (50–100 ms after a limb perturbation) account for these mechanical interactions by integrating information about motion of both the shoulder and elbow. It is less clear whether long-latency reflexes of elbow muscles exhibit a similar capability and what is the relation between the responses of shoulder and elbow muscles. The present study utilized joint-based loads tailored to the subjects' arm dynamics to induce well-controlled displacements of their shoulder and elbow. Our results demonstrate that the long-latency reflexes of shoulder and elbow muscles integrate motion from both joints: the shoulder and elbow flexors respond to extension at both joints, whereas the shoulder and elbow extensors respond to flexion at both joints. This general pattern accounts for the inherent flexion-extension coupling of the two joints arising from the arm's intersegmental dynamics and is consistent with spindle-based reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow flexors, reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow extensors, and across-joint inhibition between the flexors and extensors. PMID:26864766

  1. Electromyographic reflexes evoked in human flexor carpi radialis by tendon vibration.

    PubMed

    Cody, F W; Goodwin, C N; Richardson, H C

    1990-10-01

    The rectified, electromyographic (EMG) reflexes evoked in the voluntarily contracting flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle by vibration of its tendon were studied in healthy human subjects. Responses comprised a prominent, transient, short-latency (SL, 20-25 ms) increase in EMG, attributed to Ia mono- and/or oligo-synaptic action, followed by a series of less pronounced troughs and peaks of activity. Evidence of continuing Ia mono- or oligo-synaptic action was indicated by (i) the presence of small subpeaks, at vibration frequency, superimposed upon the excitatory components and (ii) the occurrence of a separate reduction in EMG, of consistent latency (ca. 30 ms), after cessation of stimulation. Progressively shortening the train of vibration from 29 cycles (at 145 Hz) to a single cycle significantly reduced net, excitatory reflex activity. Gradually increasing the level (10-50% maximum) of pre-existing voluntary contraction on top of which reflexes were elicited, by moderately prolonged (29 cycles) trains of vibration, resulted in small increases, in absolute terms, in SL peaks and in later, excitatory EMG activity. Excitatory reflexes, when normalised for pre-stimulus EMG, however, declined in an approximately hyperbolic manner with increasing background activity over this range. Thus, effective "automatic gain compensation" does not operate for vibration reflexes in FCR.

  2. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

    PubMed Central

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12h (both limbs) and 36h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36h at 60°/s and for 60h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical

  3. Clinical Sign for Missed Decompression of a Separate Extensor Pollicis Brevis Compartment in de Quervain's Disease.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Niels

    2017-08-01

    Persistent pain despite previous surgery for de Quervain's disease might be due to an overlooked septum between the abductor pollicis longus tendon slips and the extensor pollicis brevis tendon, or an overlooked completely separate compartment for the extensor pollicis brevis tendon alone. In both of these instances, extension of the MP joint of the thumb against resistance elicits pain at the distal level of the first extensor compartment of the wrist. When this sign is positive, revisional surgery and decompression of the remaining septum or separate compartment is indicated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Fracture of the proximal tibia after revision total knee arthroplasty with an extensor mechanism allograft.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gregg R; Levine, Harlan B; Sporer, Scott M; Hartzband, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Extensor mechanism reconstruction with an extensor mechanism allograft (EMA) remains one of the most reliable methods for treating the extensor mechanism deficient total knee arthroplasty. We report 3 patients who were treated with an EMA who sustained a proximal tibial shaft fracture. In all 3 cases, a short tibial component was present that ended close to the level of the distal extent of the bone block. When performing an EMA, it is important to recognize that the tibial bone block creates a stress riser and revision to a long-stemmed tibial component should be strongly considered to bypass this point to minimize the risk of fracture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future. PMID:25143650

  6. A Reconstructive Stabilization Technique for Nontraumatic or Chronic Traumatic Extensor Tendon Subluxation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Baek, Jong Hun; Lee, Jung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Subluxation of the extensor tendon results from a disruption to the sagittal band at the metacarpophalangeal joint. When conservative treatment fails to correct the subluxation, surgical treatment may be necessary. Surgical techniques for chronic cases vary in graft source and graft pathway. We present a surgical technique to recentralize and stabilize the extensor tendon using a residual ruptured sagittal band. This technique is simple and effective without donor site morbidity and seems to provide potential biomechanical advantages by restoring nearly normal anatomy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.

  8. Restoration of Central Programmed Movement Pattern by Temporal Electrical Stimulation-Assisted Training in Patients with Spinal Cerebellar Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Chang, Yao-Shun; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wong, Alice M K; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted triphasic electromyography (EMG) patterns of agonist and antagonist muscle pairs during fast goal-directed movements have been found in patients with hypermetria. Since peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) and motor training may modulate motor cortical excitability through plasticity mechanisms, we aimed to investigate whether temporal ES-assisted movement training could influence premovement cortical excitability and alleviate hypermetria in patients with spinal cerebellar ataxia (SCA). The EMG of the agonist extensor carpi radialis muscle and antagonist flexor carpi radialis muscle, premovement motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the flexor carpi radialis muscle, and the constant and variable errors of movements were assessed before and after 4 weeks of ES-assisted fast goal-directed wrist extension training in the training group and of general health education in the control group. After training, the premovement MEPs of the antagonist muscle were facilitated at 50 ms before the onset of movement. In addition, the EMG onset latency of the antagonist muscle shifted earlier and the constant error decreased significantly. In summary, temporal ES-assisted training alleviated hypermetria by restoring antagonist premovement and temporal triphasic EMG patterns in SCA patients. This technique may be applied to treat hypermetria in cerebellar disorders. (This trial is registered with NCT01983670.).

  9. Fresh-frozen Complete Extensor Mechanism Allograft versus Autograft Reconstruction in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanyin; Zhang, Hongtao; Ma, Qiong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yinglong; Fan, Qingyu; Ma, Baoan

    2016-01-01

    Different clinical results have been reported in the repair of extensor mechanism disruption using fresh-frozen complete extensor mechanism (CEM) allograft, creating a need for a better understanding of fresh-frozen CME allograft reconstruction. Here, we perform histological and biomechanical analyses of fresh-frozen CEM allograft or autograft reconstruction in an in vivo rabbit model. Our histological results show complete incorporation of the quadriceps tendon into the host tissues, patellar survival and total integration of the allograft tibia, with relatively fewer osteocytes, into the host tibia. Vascularity and cellularity are reduced and delayed in the allograft but exhibit similar distributions to those in the autograft. The infrapatellar fat pad provides the main blood supply, and the lowest cellularity is observed in the patellar tendon close to the tibia in both the allograft and autograft. The biomechanical properties of the junction of quadriceps tendon and host tissues and those of the allograft patellar tendon are completely and considerably restored, respectively. Therefore, fresh-frozen CEM allograft reconstruction is viable, but the distal patellar tendon and the tibial block may be the weak links of the reconstruction. These findings provide new insight into the use of allograft in repairing disruption of the extensor mechanism. PMID:26911538

  10. Fresh-frozen Complete Extensor Mechanism Allograft versus Autograft Reconstruction in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyin; Zhang, Hongtao; Ma, Qiong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yinglong; Fan, Qingyu; Ma, Baoan

    2016-02-25

    Different clinical results have been reported in the repair of extensor mechanism disruption using fresh-frozen complete extensor mechanism (CEM) allograft, creating a need for a better understanding of fresh-frozen CME allograft reconstruction. Here, we perform histological and biomechanical analyses of fresh-frozen CEM allograft or autograft reconstruction in an in vivo rabbit model. Our histological results show complete incorporation of the quadriceps tendon into the host tissues, patellar survival and total integration of the allograft tibia, with relatively fewer osteocytes, into the host tibia. Vascularity and cellularity are reduced and delayed in the allograft but exhibit similar distributions to those in the autograft. The infrapatellar fat pad provides the main blood supply, and the lowest cellularity is observed in the patellar tendon close to the tibia in both the allograft and autograft. The biomechanical properties of the junction of quadriceps tendon and host tissues and those of the allograft patellar tendon are completely and considerably restored, respectively. Therefore, fresh-frozen CEM allograft reconstruction is viable, but the distal patellar tendon and the tibial block may be the weak links of the reconstruction. These findings provide new insight into the use of allograft in repairing disruption of the extensor mechanism.

  11. The variation of the strength of neck extensor muscles and semispinalis capitis muscle size with head and neck position.

    PubMed

    Rezasoltani, A; Nasiri, R; Faizei, A M; Zaafari, G; Mirshahvelayati, A S; Bakhshidarabad, L

    2013-04-01

    Semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) is a massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a main head and neck extensor muscle. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of head and neck positions on the strength of neck extensor muscles and size of SECM in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women students voluntarily participated in this study. An ultrasonography apparatus (Hitachi EUB 525) and a system of tension-meter were used to scan the right SECM at the level of third cervical spine and to measure the strength of neck extensor muscles at three head and neck positions. Neck extensor muscles were stronger in neutral than flexion or than extension positions while the size of SECM was larger in extension than neutral or than flexion position. The force generation capacity of the main neck extensor muscle was lower at two head and neck flexion and extension positions than neutral position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extensor tendinopathy of the elbow assessed with sonoelastography: histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Andrea S; Pamminger, Mathias; Halpern, Ethan J; Abd Ellah, Mohamed M H; Moriggl, Bernhard; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Deml, Christian; Sztankay, Judit; Klima, Guenther; Jaschke, Werner R

    2017-08-01

    To compare agreement between conventional B-mode ultrasound (US) and compression sonoelastography (SEL) of the common extensor tendons of the elbow with histological evaluation. Twenty-six common extensor tendons were evaluated in 17 cadavers (11 females, median age 85 years and 6 males, median age 80 years). B-mode US was graded into: Grade 1, homogeneous fibrillar pattern; grade 2, hypoechoic areas and/or calcifications <30%; and grade 3 > 30%. SEL was graded into: Grade 1 indicated blue (hardest) to green (hard); grade 2 yellow (soft); and grade 3 red (softest). B-mode US, SEL, and a combined grading score incorporating both were compared to histological findings in 76 biopsies. Histological alterations were detected in 55/76 biopsies. Both modalities showed similar results (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy 84%, 81%, and 83% for B-mode US versus 85%, 86%, and 86% for SEL, respectively, P > 0.3). However, a combination of both resulted in significant improvement in sensitivity (96%, P < 0.02) without significant change in specificity (81%, P < 0.3), yielding an improved overall accuracy (92%). Combined imaging of the extensor tendons with both modalities is superior to either modality alone for predicting the presence of pathologic findings on histology. • Combination of B-mode US and SEL proved efficiency in diagnosing lateral epicondylitis. • Combination of B-mode US and SEL in lateral epicondylitis correlates to histology. • Combination of both modalities provides improved sensitivity without loss of specificity.

  13. Isometric endurance of the back extensors in school-aged adolescents with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Olubusola E; Mbada, Chidozie E; Akosile, Christopher O; Agbeja, Oyinade A

    2009-01-01

    Studies on back extensor endurance in adolescents are scarce. This study sought to establish reference data and pattern of back extensor endurance in school-aged adolescents with and without low-back pain (LBP) from Nigeria. This study recruited 625 adolescents aged 11 to 19 years from eight randomly selected secondary schools. The modified Biering-Sørensen test of Static Muscular Endurance (BSME) was used to assess isometric endurance of the back extensors. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected. A modified LBP questionnaire was used to assess the presence of LBP. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to analyze data. Significance was set at 0.05 alpha-level. The mean isometric holding time (IHT) of all the participants was 132.9 $\\pm$ 65.6. Males had significantly higher significant (p=0.026) IHT than females. Adolescents without LBP had a higher significant IHT (p=0.042) than those with reported history of previous LBP and those with present LBP (p=0.000) respectively. Using percentile values, poor endurance was defined as IHT that is < 90.0 s and < 67 s for males and females respectively; medium endurance was defined as IHT that ranged between 90 and 193 s and 67 and 170 s for males and females respectively while good endurance was defined as IHT that is > 193 s and > 170 s for males and females respectively. IHT was significantly related to each of body mass index, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Isometric back extensors endurance in Nigerian adolescents was comparable to the original Biering-Sørensen mean value. Majority of the participants had medium endurance performance with the back endurance pattern in the ratio 1:2:1. Male had higher isometric back extensors endurance than females. Decreased isometric back extensors endurance was associated with the presence of LBP in adolescents.

  14. Development of wrist rehabilitation robot and interface system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ikuo; Matsui, Miki; Inagawa, Naohiro; Hachisuka, Kenji; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Akiko; Saeki, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    The authors have developed a practical wrist rehabilitation robot for hemiplegic patients. It consists of a mechanical rotation unit, sensor, grip, and computer system. A myoelectric sensor is used to monitor the extensor carpi radialis longus/brevis muscle and flexor carpi radialis muscle activity during training. The training robot can provoke training through myoelectric sensors, a biological signal detector and processor in advance, so that patients can undergo effective training of extention and flexion in an excited condition. In addition, both-wrist system has been developed for mirror effect training, which is the most effective function of the system, so that autonomous training using both wrists is possible. Furthermore, a user-friendly screen interface with easily recognizable touch panels has been developed to give effective training for patients. The developed robot is small size and easy to carry. The developed aspiring interface system is effective to motivate the training of patients. The effectiveness of the robot system has been verified in hospital trails.

  15. Knee extension range of motion and self-report physical function in total knee arthroplasty: mediating effects of knee extensor strength

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knee extensor strength and knee extension range of motion (ROM) are important predictors of physical function in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the relationship between the two knee measures remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in knee extensor strength mediate the association between changes in knee extension ROM and self-report physical function. Methods Data from 441 patients with a TKA were collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Self-report measure of physical function was assessed by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Knee extensor strength was measured by handheld dynamometry and knee extension ROM by goniometry. A bootstrapped cross product of coefficients approach was used to evaluate mediation effects. Results Mediation analyses, adjusted for clinicodemographic measures, revealed that the association between changes in knee extension ROM and SF-36 physical function was mediated by changes in knee extensor strength. Conclusions In patients with TKA, knee extensor strength mediated the influence of knee extension ROM on physical function. These results suggest that interventions to improve the range of knee extension may be useful in improving knee extensor performance. PMID:23332039

  16. Isokinetic Evaluation of the Hip Flexor and Extensor Muscles: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zapparoli, Fabricio Yuri; Riberto, Marcelo

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic dynamometry testing is a safe and reliable method accepted as the "gold standard" in the evaluation of muscle strength in the open kinetic chain. Isokinetic hip examinations face problems in the standardization of the position of the equipment axis, in the individual being examined, and in the adjustment of the lever arm and in stabilization strategies for the patients during the tests. Identification of the methodologic procedures with best reproducibility is also needed. To review the literature to evaluate the parameters used for the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles and its reproducibility. This is a systematic literature review of the Cochrane, LILACS, PEDro, PubMed, and SciELO databases. The inclusion criteria were articles on the evaluation of hip flexor and/or extensor muscular strength with an isokinetic dynamometer and articles that analyzed the ICC or Pearson's reproducibility. The information extracted was positioning of the patient; positioning of the dynamometer axis; positioning of the lever arm; angular speed; sample size, pathology; type of contraction; and ICC and Pearson's results. 204 articles were found, from which 14 were selected that evaluated hip flexor and extensor muscles, involving 550 individuals who were submitted to an isokinetic hip evaluation. Five articles obtained the best result in reproducibility and had their methodology analyzed. To obtain better reproducibility of the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles, the following recommendations must be followed: the individual must be positioned in the supine position and the dynamometer axis must be aligned with the greater trochanter of the femur. The positioning of the lever arm must be in the most distal region of the thigh possible. The angular speed used to analyze torque peak and muscle work was 60°/s, and to evaluate the muscle power it was 180°/s, with concentric and eccentric contractions being analyzed.

  17. Effects of 17-day spaceflight on knee extensor muscle function and size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, Per A.; Berg, Hans E.; Bring, Daniel; Evans, Harlan J.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally held that space travelers experience muscle dysfunction and atrophy during exposure to microgravity. However, observations are scarce and reports somewhat inconsistent with regard to the time course, specificity and magnitude of such changes. Hence, we examined four male astronauts (group mean approximately 43 years, 86 kg and 183 cm) before and after a 17-day spaceflight (Space Transport System-78). Knee extensor muscle function was measured during maximal bilateral voluntary isometric and iso-inertial concentric, and eccentric actions. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the knee extensor and flexor, and gluteal muscle groups was assessed by means of magnetic resonance imaging. The decrease in strength (P<0.05) across different muscle actions after spaceflight amounted to 10%. Eight ambulatory men, examined on two occasions 20 days apart, showed unchanged (P>0.05) muscle strength. CSA of the knee extensor and gluteal muscles, each decreased (P<0.05) by 8%. Knee flexor muscle CSA showed no significant (P>0.05) change. The magnitude of these changes concord with earlier results from ground-based studies of similar duration. The results of this study, however, do contrast with the findings of no decrease in maximal voluntary ankle plantar flexor force previously reported in the same crew.

  18. Hip and knee extensor moments predict vertical jump height in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Brent, Jensen L; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-07-01

    Biomechanical factors, such as hip and knee extensor moments, related to drop jump (DJ) performance have not been investigated in adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to determine the key independent biomechanical variables that predict overall vertical jump performance in adolescent girls. Sixteen high school adolescent girls from club-sponsored and high school-sponsored volleyball teams performed DJ at 3 different drop heights (15, 30, and 45 cm). A motion analysis system consisting of 10 digital cameras and a force platform was used to calculate vertical jump height, joint angles, and joint moments during the tasks. A multiple linear regression was used to determine the biomechanical parameters that were best predictive of vertical jump height at each box drop distance. The 2 predictor variables in all 3 models were knee and hip extensor moments. The models predicted 82.9, 81.9, and 88% of the vertical jump height variance in the 15, 30, and 45 cm trials, respectively. The results of the investigation indicate that knee and hip joint moments are the main contributors to vertical jump height during the DJ in adolescent girls. Strength and conditioning specialists attempting to improve vertical jump performance should target power and strength training to the hip and knee extensors in their athletes.

  19. Immediate effect of mental practice with and without mirror therapy on muscle activation in hemiparetic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Caires, Tamise Aguiar; Rodrigues Martinho Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda; Patrizzi, Lislei Jorge; de Almeida Oliveira, Rafael; Pascucci Sande de Souza, Luciane Aparecida

    2017-10-01

    Mental practice (MP) consists of the repeated mental rehearsal of a physical skill without movement, called motor imagery (MI). Studies show that MP and MI associated mirror therapy (MPMT) may improve muscle control of the upper limbs in hemiparesis. This study aimed to evaluate muscle activation during active flexion of the wrist (MA), MP, and MPMT in patients with history of stroke and hemiparesis. Individuals diagnosed with stroke showing sequelae of upper limb hemiparesis were enrolled. The flexor carpi ulnaris was analyzed using electromyography during tasks (MA, MP, MPMT) involving wrist flexion. Greater electromyographic activity was detected during MP and MPMT techniques compared to active movement (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between MP and MPMT (p = 0.56). These results were found in both the affected limb and unaffected limb. Immediate effects on muscle activation are experienced during MP and MPMT, and muscle activity was similar with both therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on operative findings and pathogenic factors in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Kurihara, K; Nagano, T

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of operative findings obtained in 44 cases of ulnar nerve neuropathy at the elbow in an attempt to help elucidate the pathogenetic factors for the condition. Distinction must be made between Lig. epitrochleo-anconeum or a ligament-like thickening at the same site and the tendinous arch of M. flexor carpi ulnaris. These 2 sites constitute the entrapment points for the condition. A thick tendinous arch, Lig. epitrochleo-anconeum of M. anconeus epitrochlearis deters the ulnar nerve from being mobile, thereby contributing to the development of neuropathy with trauma acting as a precipitating factor. Dislocation of the ulnar nerve cannot be considered a factor of major etiologic significance. An important part is played by the tendinous arch in the pathogenesis of neuropathy, regardless of whether it is in association with ganglion, osteochondromatosis or osteoarthritis. In surgery for ulnar neuropathy decompression of the nerve is of primary necessity. Division of the tendinous arch is mandatory. Medial epicondylectomy may be added as required.

  1. Characterization of focal muscle compression under impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. J.; Sory, D. R.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    In modern wars over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome of the extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions.

  2. Common extensor origin release in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis - role justified?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy of operative management in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Forty patients included in this study were referred by general practitioners with a diagnosis of tennis elbow to the orthopaedic department at a district general hospital over a five year period. All had two or more steroid injections at the tender spot, without permanent relief of pain. All subsequently underwent simple fasciotomy of the extensor origin. Of forty patients thirty five had improvement in pain and function, two had persistent symptoms and three did not perceive any improvement. Twenty five had excellent, ten had well, two had fair and three had poor outcomes (recurrent problem; pain at rest and night). Two patients underwent revision surgery. Majority of the patients had improvement in pain and function following operative treatment. In this study, an extensor fasciotomy was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for refractory chronic lateral epicondylitis; however, further studies are warranted. PMID:20459701

  3. A study of hyperelastic models for predicting the mechanical behavior of extensor apparatus.

    PubMed

    Elyasi, Nahid; Taheri, Kimia Karimi; Narooei, Keivan; Taheri, Ali Karimi

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus. The results indicated that the Mooney-Rivlin model predicts an unstable behavior in the balance biaxial deformation of the extensor apparatus, while the Ogden order 1 represents a stable behavior, although the fitting of experimental data and theoretical model was not satisfactory. However, the Ogden order 6 model was unstable in the simple tension mode and the Ogden order 5 and general exponential models presented accurate and stable results. In order to reduce the material parameters, the invariants model with four material parameters was investigated and this model presented the minimum error and stable behavior in all deformation modes. The ABAQUS Explicit solver was coupled with the VUMAT subroutine code of the invariants model to simulate the mechanical behavior of the central and terminal slips of the extensor apparatus during the passive finger flexion, which is important in the prediction of boutonniere deformity and chronic mallet finger injuries, respectively. Also, to evaluate the adequacy of constitutive models in simulations, the results of the Ogden order 5 were presented. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the better fittings of the invariants model compared with the Ogden model.

  4. A genetically defined asymmetry underlies the inhibitory control of flexor–extensor locomotor movements

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Olivier; Zhang, Jingming; Grossmann, Katja S; Dyck, Jason; Kim, Jun C; Dymecki, Susan; Gosgnach, Simon; Goulding, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    V1 and V2b interneurons (INs) are essential for the production of an alternating flexor–extensor motor output. Using a tripartite genetic system to selectively ablate either V1 or V2b INs in the caudal spinal cord and assess their specific functions in awake behaving animals, we find that V1 and V2b INs function in an opposing manner to control flexor–extensor-driven movements. Ablation of V1 INs results in limb hyperflexion, suggesting that V1 IN-derived inhibition is needed for proper extension movements of the limb. The loss of V2b INs results in hindlimb hyperextension and a delay in the transition from stance phase to swing phase, demonstrating V2b INs are required for the timely initiation and execution of limb flexion movements. Our findings also reveal a bias in the innervation of flexor- and extensor-related motor neurons by V1 and V2b INs that likely contributes to their differential actions on flexion–extension movements. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04718.001 PMID:26465208

  5. Delayed recovery of the affected finger extensors at chronic stage in a stroke patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Han Do

    2017-10-01

    A 33-year-old male presented with complete weakness of the right extremities due to corona radiata infarct. The main concerns of the patient is recovery of hand function especially related to finger extension. Right corona radiata infarct. He underwent physical therapy and occupational therapy at the outpatient clinic of the rehabilitation department of the same university hospital until 2 years after onset. In addition, he underwent neuromuscular electrical stimulation for the right finger extensors continuously until 4 years after onset. At 6 months after onset, the weakness of his right side recovered to subnormal state except for the right finger extensors which were completely weak. At 1.5 years after onset, the right finger extensors began to show slow and continuous recovery. At 4 years after onset, the patient showed motor recovery in the right finger extensors to the extent that he was able to move against gravity. Discontinuation of the left corticospinal tract was observed on 2-month diffusion tensor tractography (DTT); however, the integrity of this discontinuation had recovered to the primary motor cortex on 4-year DTT. On 2-month transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), no motor-evoked potential was evoked; in contrast, motor-evoked potentials were obtained at the right-hand muscle on 4-year TMS study. We demonstrated unusual delayed and long-term recovery of the affected finger extensors in a patient with corona radiata infarct using DTT and TMS.

  6. Case study of Berengario da Carpi and Lorenzo de' Medici.

    PubMed

    Lippi, D

    2017-09-01

    Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (c.1460-c.1530) made several important advances in anatomy, being universally considered the founder of 'animated anatomy' (anatomia animata). In addition to being a famous anatomist, Berengario was also a highly regarded surgeon. One of his famous clients was Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino (1492-1519). In 1517, Lorenzo suffered a skull injury from an harquebus shot and Berengario was asked to come to his bedside. Lorenzo's case gave Berengario the opportunity to write his Tractatus de Fractura Calve sive Cranei, published in Bologna by Gerolamo Benedetti in 1518. Berengario addressed his treatise to Lorenzo himself. This illustrated monograph was the most original neurosurgical treatise at that time, as Berengario was able to cite both from contemporary information and from his own direct observation all possible kinds of skull fracture, including the relationship between the site of the lesions and the resulting neurological effects. At the end of the book, Berengario explained and illustrated the surgical equipment to be used in each case, depicting a drill previously unseen in a medical volume and providing the recipe for a human dressing, a kind of poultice made of mummified human remins, to be applied regularly to wounds. Lorenzo de' Medici died in 1519 and was buried in the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence. His corpse was exhumed in 1875 and 1947. The casts of his skull made on those occasions are now preserved in the museums of Florence University, and clearly show evidence of the wound. Read more about the stories behind this masterpiece in an essay online. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Treatise on skull fractures by Berengario da Carpi (1460-1530).

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2009-11-01

    Jacopo Berengario was born in Carpi, a medieval city close to Modena (northern Italy), circa 1460. He studied medicine at Bologna University and, in 1489, graduated in philosophy and medicine. He was appointed lecturer in anatomy and surgery at the same university, a position that he maintained for 24 years. Between 1514 and 1523, Berengario published some important anatomic and surgical works, which gave considerable fame to him.Commentaria... supra Anatomiam Mundini (Commentary... on the Anatomy of Mondino), published in 1521, constitutes the first example of an illustrated anatomic textbook ever printed. The anatomic illustrations were intended for explaining the text. Artistically speaking, the plates are typical examples of the Renaissance period and worthy of the greatest consideration.De Fractura Calvae sive Cranei (On Fracture of the Calvaria or Cranium), published in Bologna in 1518, is the first treatise devoted to head injuries ever printed. It is a landmark in the development of cranial surgery that went through numerous editions. The text was prepared in 2 months and dedicated to Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, who experienced a skull injury in the occipital region. Berengario wanted to demonstrate to other physicians his knowledge of anatomy and his expertise on the brain and head traumas. The book includes the illustration of an entire surgical kit or a corpus instrumentorum for performing cranial operations, which appeared for the first time in a printed book. However, Berengario's highly commendable aim was to indicate to the reader the step-by-step procedure of craniotomy for management of skull fractures along with the sequential use of the previously presented instruments.

  8. Hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance in females with and without patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Van Cant, Joachim; Pitance, Laurent; Feipel, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported strength deficit in hip abduction, extension and external rotation in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) when compared with healthy control; however, there is conflicting evidence for a decrease in hip muscle endurance. Therefore, it seems important to evaluate hip muscle endurance in females with PFP. Moreover, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance have not yet been evaluate in females with PFP. To compare hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance between females with and without PFP. Twenty females with PFP (mean age, 21.1 years) and 76 healthy females (mean age, 20.5 years) were recruited. Subject performed three endurance clinical tests: (1) The hip abductor isometric endurance test, (2) The Sorensen test and (3) The heel rise test. Group differences were assessed using an independent t tests, or Mann-Whitney U tests for non-normally distributed data. Subjects with PFP exhibited significantly lower hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance than healthy controls. On average, subjects with PFP had deficits of 16% in hip abduction, 14% in trunk extension and 26% in ankle plantar flexion. Females with PFP exhibited diminished hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance compared to healthy controls.

  9. Effect of unilateral knee extensor fatigue on force and balance of the contralateral limb.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shruti; Budden, Shawn; Byrne, Jeannette M; Behm, David G

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue in one limb can decrease force production in the homologous muscle as well as other muscles of the non-fatigued limb affecting balance. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of unilateral knee extensor fatigue on the non-fatigued limb's standing balance, muscle force and activation. Sixteen healthy male subjects performed pre-fatigue balance trials, warm-up exercises, maximum voluntary isometric contractions, a knee extensors fatigue protocol, and post-fatigue balance trials. The fatigue protocol consisted of sets of 15 consecutive isometric contractions of 16 s each with 4 s recovery between repetitions, which were performed at 30% peak force for the dominant knee extensor muscles. Additional sets of contractions continued until a 50% decrease in MVIC knee extensor force was observed. Pre- and post-fatigue balance assessment consisted of transition from double to single leg standing and also single leg standing trials, which were performed bilaterally and in randomized order. The peak force and F100 were significantly decreased by 44.8% (ES = 2.54) and 39.9% (ES = 0.59), respectively, for the fatigued limb post-fatigue. There were no significant changes in the non-fatigued limb's muscle force, activation, muscle onset timing or postural stability parameters. While the lack of change in non-fatigued limb force production is in agreement with some of the previous literature in this area, the lack of effect on postural measures directly contradicts earlier work. It is hypothesized that discrepancies in the duration and the intensity of the fatigue protocol may have accounted for this discrepancy.

  10. Treatment of chronic extensor tendons lesions of the fingers.

    PubMed

    Bellemère, P

    2015-09-01

    Chronic finger extensor apparatus injuries are the result of the initial acute treatment having failed or being flawed. Because of their chronic nature, these injuries present various amounts of tendon retraction, tendon callus lengthening, peritendinous scar adhesions, static and dynamic imbalances with the flexor apparatus and intrinsic muscles, and joint contractures. This article will review the anatomy of the extensor mechanism and then will outline by location, the various clinical pictures that are secondary to chronic tendon injury. The clinical presentation of these injuries can be highly variable but their symptomatology and treatment are very specific. Of the possible therapeutic strategies for chronic mallet finger with or without associated swan-neck deformity, chronic boutonniere deformity, chronic sagittal band injuries, old ruptures on the dorsum of the wrist and traumatic defects in multiple tissues, conservative treatment is often the main element. Secondary surgical repair is not free of complications, and the results are often lacking. Rehabilitation and orthotic bracing are an integral part of the management of these injuries, no matter which treatment method is being considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age.

    PubMed

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Ageberg, Eva; Englund, Martin

    2017-10-01

    To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data on isometric knee extensor strength, weight, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, parental education and adult occupation from Swedish registries. We identified participants diagnosed with knee OA or knee injury from 1987 to 2010 through the National Patient Register. We estimated the HR of knee OA using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional regression model. To assess the influence of adult knee injury and occupation, we performed a formal mediation analysis. The mean (SD) knee extensor strength was 234 (47) Nm, the mean (SD) weight was 66 (9.3) kg. During 24 years (median) of follow-up starting at the age of 35 years, 2049 persons were diagnosed with knee OA. The adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident knee OA was 1.12 (1.06 to 1.18) for each SD of knee extensor strength and 1.18 (1.15 to 1.21) per 5 kg of body weight. Fifteen per cent of the increase in OA risk due to higher knee extensor strength could be attributed to knee injury and adult occupation. Higher knee extensor strength in adolescent men was associated with increased risk of knee OA by middle age, challenging the current tenet of low muscle strength being a risk factor for OA. We confirmed higher weight to be a strong risk factor for knee OA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Rhythmic Isometric Fatigue Patterns of the Elbow Flexors and Knee Extensors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordway, George A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    During a rhythmic, all-out task, the rates of fatigue experienced by elbow flexor and knee extendor muscle groups tend to differ, with the elbow flexors fatiguing more rapidly initially, but reaching a plateau at a relatively higher level than the knee extensors. (Author)

  13. Relationship between leg extensor muscle strength and knee joint loading during gait before and after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vahtrik, Doris; Gapeyeva, Helena; Ereline, Jaan; Pääsuke, Mati

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate an isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the leg extensor muscles and its relationship with knee joint loading during gait prior and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Custom-made dynamometer was used to assess an isometric MVC force of the leg extensor muscles and 3-D motion analysis system was used to evaluate the knee joint loading during gait in 13 female patients (aged 49-68 years) with knee osteoarthritis. Patients were evaluated one day before, and three and six months following TKA in the operated and non-operated leg. Six months after TKA, MVC force of the leg extensor muscles for the operated leg did not differ significantly as compared to the preoperative level, whereas it remained significantly lower for the non-operated leg and controls. The knee flexion moment and the knee joint power during mid stance of gait was improved six months after TKA, remaining significantly lowered compared with controls. Negative moderate correlation between leg extensor muscles strength and knee joint loading for the operated leg during mid stance was noted three months after TKA. The correlation analysis indicates that due to weak leg extensor muscles, an excessive load is applied to knee joint during mid stance of gait in patients, whereas in healthy subjects stronger knee-surrounding muscles provide stronger knee joint loading during gait. III (correlational study). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex Comparison of Knee Extensor Size, Strength and Fatigue Adaptation to Sprint Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Liam; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Bradburn, Steven; Baig, Osamah; Slevin, Mark; McPhee, Jamie S

    2018-03-12

    Regular sprint interval training (SIT) improves whole-body aerobic capacity and muscle oxidative potential, but very little is known about knee extensor anabolic or fatigue resistance adaptations, or whether effects are similar for males and females. The purpose of this study was to compare sex-related differences in knee extensor size, torque-velocity relationship and fatigability adaptations to 12 weeks SIT. Sixteen males and fifteen females (mean (SEM) age: 41 (±2.5) yrs) completed measurements of total body composition assessed by DXA, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSAQ) assessed by MRI, the knee extensor torque-velocity relationship (covering 0 - 240°·sec) and fatigue resistance, which was measured as the decline in torque from the first to the last of 60 repeated concentric knee extensions performed at 180°·sec. SIT consisted of 4 x 20 second sprints on a cycle ergometer set at an initial power output of 175% of power at VO2max, three times per week for 12 weeks. CSAQ increased by 5% (p=0.023) and fatigue resistance improved 4.8% (p=0.048), with no sex differences in these adaptations (sex comparisons: p=0.140 and p=0.282, respectively). Knee extensor isometric and concentric torque was unaffected by SIT in both males and females (p>0.05 for all velocities). 12 weeks SIT, totalling 4 minutes very intense cycling per week, significantly increased fatigue resistance and CSAQ similarly in males and females, but did not significantly increase torque in males or females. These results suggest that SIT is a time-effective training modality for males and females to increase leg muscle size and fatigue resistance.

  15. Peroneal perforator-based peroneus longus tendon and sural neurofasciocutaneous composite flap transfer for a large soft-tissue defect of the forearm: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kenji; Saijo, Hiroto; Fujioka, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    We describe the use of a composite flap composed of a sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and a vascularized peroneus longus tendon for the reconstruction of severe composite forearm tissue defects in a patient. A 43-year-old man had his left arm caught in a conveyor belt resulting in a large soft-tissue defect of 18 × 11 cm over the dorsum forearm. The extensor carpi radialis, superficial radial nerve, and radial artery were severely damaged. A free neurofasciocutaneous composite flap measuring 16 × 11 cm was outlined on the patient's left lower leg to allow simultaneous skin, tendon, nerve, and artery reconstruction. The flap, which included the peroneus longus tendon, was elevated on the subfascial plane. After the flap was transferred to the recipient site, the peroneal artery was anastomosed to the radial artery in a flow-through manner. The vascularized tendon graft with 15 cm in length was used to reconstruct the extensor carpi radialis longus tendon defect using an interlacing suture technique. As the skin paddle of the sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and the vascularized peroneus longus tendon graft were linked by the perforator and minimal fascial tissue, the skin paddle was able to rotate and slide with comparative ease. The flap survived completely without any complications. The length of follow-up was 12 months and was uneventful. Range of motion of his left wrist joint was slightly limited to 75 degrees. This novel composite flap may be useful for reconstructing long tendon defects associated with extensive forearm soft tissue defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Strength deficits identified with concentric action of the hip extensors and eccentric action of the hamstrings predispose to hamstring injury in elite sprinters.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2008-08-01

    Prospective cohort study. In this prospective cohort study of elite sprinters, muscle strength of the hip extensors, as well as of the knee extensors and flexors, was measured to determine a possible relationship between strength deficits and subsequent hamstring injury within 12 months of testing. The method used for testing muscle strength simulated the specific muscle action during late swing and early contact phases when sprinting. There have been no prospective studies in elite sprinters that examine the concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of the hip extensors and the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in a manner that reflects their actions in late swing or early contact phases of sprinting. Consequently, the causal relationship between hip and thigh muscle strength and hamstring injury in elite sprinters may not be fully understood. Isokinetic testing was performed on 30 male elite sprinters to assess hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscle strength. The occurrence of hamstring injury among the subjects was determined during the year following the muscle strength measurements. The strength of the hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscles, as well as the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors- quadriceps ratios were compared. Hamstring injury occurred in 6 subjects during the 1-year period. Isokinetic testing at a speed of 60 degrees /s revealed weakness of the injured limb with eccentric action of the hamstring muscles and during concentric action of the hip extensors. When performing a side-to-side comparison for the injured sprinters, the hamstring injury always occurred on the weaker side. Differences in the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors-quadriceps strength ratios were also evident between uninjured and injured limbs, and this was attributable to deficits in hamstring strength. Hamstring injury in elite sprinters was associated with weakness during eccentric action of the hamstrings and weakness during concentric action of

  17. A Novel Two-Velocity Method for Elaborate Isokinetic Testing of Knee Extensors.

    PubMed

    Grbic, Vladimir; Djuric, Sasa; Knezevic, Olivera M; Mirkov, Dragan M; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-09-01

    Single outcomes of standard isokinetic dynamometry tests do not discern between various muscle mechanical capacities. In this study, we aimed to (1) evaluate the shape and strength of the force-velocity relationship of knee extensors, as observed in isokinetic tests conducted at a wide range of angular velocities, and (2) explore the concurrent validity of a simple 2-velocity method. Thirteen physically active females were tested for both the peak and averaged knee extensor concentric force exerted at the angular velocities of 30°-240°/s recorded in the 90°-170° range of knee extension. The results revealed strong (0.960extensors and, if supported by further research, other muscles. This brief and fatigue-free testing procedure could discern between muscle force, velocity, and power-producing capacities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Corticospinal excitability for hand muscles during motor imagery of foot changes with imagined force level

    PubMed Central

    Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The object of this study was to clarify whether corticospinal excitability controlling hand muscles changes concurrently with increases in the imagined contraction level of foot dorsiflexion. Twelve participants performed actual and imagined dorsiflexion of their right foot at three different EMG levels (10, 40 or 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction). During isometric actual- or imagined- dorsiflexion, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the right hand area of the left primary motor cortex. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR). During actual contraction, MEP amplitudes of ECR and FCR increased with an increased EMG level of dorsiflexion. Similarly, during imagery contraction, MEP amplitudes of ECR and FCR increased with the intensity of imagery contraction. Furthermore, a correlation between MEP amplitude during actual contraction and imagery contraction was observed for both ECR and FCR. Motor imagery of foot contraction induced an enhancement of corticospinal excitability for hand muscles that was dependent on the imagined contraction levels, just as what was observed when there was an actual contraction. PMID:28957398

  19. V1 and v2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-04-02

    Reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here, we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. V1 and V2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M.; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C.; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally-located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity. PMID:24698273

  1. Forearm Muscle Oxygenation Decreases During Low Levels of Brief, Isometric Contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy Gita; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, Alan R.; Rempel, D. M.; Hargens, Murthy G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Regional muscle pain syndromes can be caused by repeated and sustained exertion of a specific muscle. Such exertion may elevate local tissue fluid pressure, reduce blood flow and tissue oxygenation (TO2), and cause fatigue, pain and functional deficits of the Involved muscle. Low levels (less than 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) of prolonged static contraction of the upper extremity are common In many occupational settings and May cause fatigue. The purpose of our Investigation was to determine whether TO2 decreases significantly at low levels of static contraction of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB).

  2. Electromyographic activity of the trunk extensor muscles: effect of varying hip position and lumbar posture during Roman chair exercise.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John M; Verna, Joe L; Manini, Todd M; Mooney, Vert; Graves, James E

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of hip position and lumbar posture on the surface electromyographic activity of the trunk extensors during Roman chair exercise. Descriptive, repeated measures. University-based musculoskeletal research laboratory. Twelve healthy volunteers (7 men, 5 women; age range, 18-35y) without a history of low back pain were recruited from a university setting. Not applicable. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded from the lumbar extensor, gluteal, and hamstring musculature during dynamic Roman chair exercise. For each muscle group, electromyographic activity (mV/rep) was compared among exercises with internal hip rotation and external hip rotation and among exercises by using a typical lumbar posture (nonbiphasic) and a posture that accentuated lumbar lordosis (biphasic). For the lumbar extensors, electromyographic activity during exercise was 18% greater with internal hip rotation than external hip rotation (P< or =.05) and was 25% greater with a biphasic posture than with a nonbiphasic posture (P< or =.05). For the gluteals and hamstrings, there was no difference in electromyographic activity between internal and external hip rotation or between biphasic and nonbiphasic postures (P >.05). The level of recruitment of the lumbar extensors can be modified during Roman chair exercise by altering hip position and lumbar posture. Clinicians can use these data to develop progressive exercise protocols for the lumbar extensors with a variety of resistance levels without the need for complex equipment. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  3. The effects of trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue on postural control and trunk proprioception in young, healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Larson, Dennis J; Brown, Stephen H M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce both trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue, on separate occasions, and compare their effects on standing postural control and trunk proprioception, as well as look at the effects of a recovery period on these outcome measures. A total of 20 individuals participated, with 10 (5 males and 5 females) completing either a standing postural control or lumbar axial repositioning protocol. Participants completed their randomly assigned protocol on two occasions, separated by at least 4  days, with either their trunk extensor or abdominal muscles being fatigued on either day. Postural control centre of pressure variables and trunk proprioception errors were compared pre- and post-fatigue. Results showed that both trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue significantly degraded standing postural control immediately post-fatigue, with recovery occurring within 2 min post-fatigue. In general, these degradative effects on postural control appeared to be greater when the trunk extensor muscles were fatigued compared to the abdominal muscles. No statistically significant changes in trunk proprioception were found after either fatigue protocol. The present findings demonstrate our body's ability to quickly adapt and reweight somatosensory information to maintain postural control and trunk proprioception, as well as illustrate the importance of considering the abdominal muscles, along with the trunk extensor muscles, when considering the impact of fatigue on trunk movement and postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of 7-days dry immersion in combination with mechanical stimulation of foot support zones upon resistance to fatigue of knee extensors and flexors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netreba, A. I.; Khusnutdiniva, D. R.; Vinogradova, O. L.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2005-08-01

    The aim of investigation was to reveal the effect of supportlessness in combination with artificial stimulation of foot support zones on fatigue resistance of knee extensors and flexors in static and rhythmic tests. 10 volunteers were exposed to 7 days dry immersion (DI). 4 of them were subjected to mechanical stimulation of foot support zones. 7-day DI did not evoke any changes in fatigue resistance during rhythmic contractions of knee extensors and flexors in both groups. Static test revealed significant decrease of fatigue resistance of both knee flexors and extensors. In the group with stimulation of support zones unfavorable effects of immersion were minimized for knee extensors but not for flexors. Thus support withdrawal is associated with a decrease of fatigue resistance for both knee flexors and extensors only under conditions of static tension. Artificial stimulation of support zones of the foot selectively affects the posture muscles.

  5. Long-term outcomes following plate stabilization to address spontaneous luxation of the long digital extensor tendon of origin in 2 dogs.

    PubMed

    Hasiuk, Michelle M M; Drygas, Kevin A; Lewis, Daniel D

    2017-11-01

    Two dogs with spontaneous luxation of the long digital extensor tendon of origin were managed by performing a sulcoplasty and applying a plate bridging the extensor sulcus. Lameness resolved and neither dog had recurrence of lameness 59 and 15 months following surgery.

  6. Endoscopic-assisted Repair of Neglected Rupture or Rerupture After Primary Repair of Extensor Hallucis Longus Tendon.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing; Chang, Joseph Jeremy; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Rerupture of the extensor hallucis longus tendon after primary repair and neglected rupture of the tendon poses surgical challenges to orthopedic surgeons. Open exploration and repair of the tendon ends usually requires large incision and extensive dissection. This may induce scarring and adhesion around the repaired tendon. Endoscopic-assisted repair has the advantage of minimally invasive surgery including less soft tissue trauma and scar formation and better cosmetic result. The use of Krackow locking suture and preservation of the extensor retinacula allow early mobilization of the great toe.

  7. The effects of two different frequencies of whole-body vibration on knee extensors strength in healthy young volunteers: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Akpinar, M.; Polat, S.; Yildiz, A.; Oral, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on knee extensors muscle strength in healthy young volunteers. Twenty-two eligible healthy untrained young women aged 22-31 years were allocated randomly to the 30-Hz (n=11) and 50-Hz (n=11) groups. They participated in a supervised WBV training program that consisted of 24 sessions on a synchronous vertical vibration platform (peak-to-peak displacement: 2-4 mm; type of exercises: semi-squat, one-legged squat, and lunge positions on right leg; set numbers: 2-24) three times per week for 8 weeks. Isometric and dynamic strength of the knee extensors were measured prior to and at the end of the 8-week training. In the 30-Hz group, there was a significant increase in the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (p=0.039) and the concentric peak torque (p=0.018) of knee extensors and these changes were significant (p<0.05) compared with the 50-Hz group. In addition, the eccentric peak torque of knee extensors was increased significantly in both groups (p<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.873). We concluded that 8 weeks WBV training in 30 Hz was more effective than 50 Hz to increase the isometric contraction and dynamic strength of knee extensors as measured using peak concentric torque and equally effective with 50 Hz in improving eccentric torque of knee extensors in healthy young untrained women. PMID:26636279

  8. Sex comparisons of non-local muscle fatigue in human elbow flexors and knee extensors

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W.; Wages, Nathan P.; Carr, Joshua C.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To examine non-local muscle fatigue (NLMF) in both contralateral homologous and non-related heterogonous muscles for both sexes. Methods: Ten men and nine women participated in this study. After the familiarization visit, subjects completed four separate randomly sequenced experimental visits, during which the fatiguing interventions (six sets of 30-second maximal isometric contractions) were performed on either their right elbow flexors or knee extensors. Before (Pre-) and after (Post-) the fatiguing interventions, the isometric strength and the corresponding surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude were measured for the non-exercised left elbow flexors or knee extensors. Results: For the non-exercised elbow flexors, the isometric strength decreased for both sexes (sex combined mean±SE: Pre vs. Post=339.67±18.02 N vs. 314.41±16.37 N; p<0.001). For the non-exercised knee extensors, there is a time ´ sex interaction (p=0.025), showing a decreased isometric knee extension strength for men (Pre vs. Post =845.02±66.26 N vs. 817.39±67.64 N; p=0.019), but not for women. Conclusions: The presence of NMLF can be affected by factors such as sex and muscle being tested. Women are less likely to demonstrate NLMF in lower body muscle groups. PMID:29504584

  9. Reliability and Validity of a New Method for Isometric Back Extensor Strength Evaluation Using A Hand-Held Dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Won; Baek, Sora; Kim, Hong Young; Park, Jung-Gyoo; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the reliability and validity of a new method for isometric back extensor strength measurement using a portable dynamometer. A chair equipped with a small portable dynamometer was designed (Power Track II Commander Muscle Tester). A total of 15 men (mean age, 34.8±7.5 years) and 15 women (mean age, 33.1±5.5 years) with no current back problems or previous history of back surgery were recruited. Subjects were asked to push the back of the chair while seated, and their isometric back extensor strength was measured by the portable dynamometer. Test-retest reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). For the validity assessment, isometric back extensor strength of all subjects was measured by a widely used physical performance evaluation instrument, BTE PrimusRS system. The limit of agreement (LoA) from the Bland-Altman plot was evaluated between two methods. The test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC=0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.91). The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated acceptable agreement between the two methods: the lower 95% LoA was -63.1 N and the upper 95% LoA was 61.1 N. This study shows that isometric back extensor strength measurement using a portable dynamometer has good reliability and validity.

  10. Knee Extensor Strength and Risk of Structural, Symptomatic, and Functional Decline in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten; Eckstein, Felix; Øiestad, Britt Elin

    2017-05-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We systematically identified and methodologically appraised all longitudinal studies (≥1-year followup) reporting an association between knee extensor strength and structural (tibiofemoral, patellofemoral), symptomatic (self-reported, knee replacement), or functional (subjective, objective) decline in individuals with or at risk of radiographic or symptomatic KOA. Results were pooled for each of the above associations using meta-analysis, or if necessary, summarized according to a best-evidence synthesis. Fifteen studies were included, evaluating >8,000 participants (51% female), with a followup time between 1.5 and 8 years. Meta-analysis revealed that lower knee extensor strength was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC] pain: odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10-1.67) and functional decline (WOMAC function: OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.00-1.89, and chair-stand task: OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.03-1.04), but not increased risk of radiographic tibiofemoral joint space narrowing (JSN) (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.84-1.56). No trend in risk was observed for KOA status (present versus absent). Best-evidence synthesis showed inconclusive evidence for lower knee extensor strength being associated with increased risk of patellofemoral deterioration. Meta-analysis showed that lower knee extensor strength is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and functional deterioration, but not tibiofemoral JSN. The risk of patellofemoral deterioration in the presence of knee extensor strength deficits is inconclusive. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. The Effect of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy on Stifle Extensor Mechanism Load: A Canine Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Drew, Jarrod O; Glyde, Mark R; Hosgood, Giselle L; Hayes, Alex J

    2018-02-01

     To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on stifle extensor mechanism load in an ex vivo cruciate-intact canine cadaveric model.   Ex vivo mechanical testing study.  Cadaveric canine pelvic limbs ( n  = 6).  A 21-mm tibial radial osteotomy was performed on pelvic limbs ( n  = 6) prior to being mounted into a load-bearing limb press. The proximal tibial segment was incrementally rotated until the anatomical tibial plateau angle had been rotated to at least 1°. The proportional change in stifle extensor mechanism load between the anatomical tibial plateau angle and the neutralized (∼6.5 degrees) and over-rotated (∼1°) tibial plateau angle was analysed using a one-sample t -test against a null hypothesis of no change. A p -value ≤0.05 was considered significant.  There was no significant change in the stifle extensor mechanism load from the anatomical tibial plateau angle (308 N [261-355 N]) to the neutralized tibial plateau angle (313 N [254-372 N]; p =.81), or from the anatomical tibial plateau angle to the over-rotated tibial plateau angle (303 N [254-352 N; p  = 0.67).  Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy does not significantly alter stifle extensor mechanism load at either a neutralized or over-rotated tibial plateau angle in our cruciate-intact model. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  12. Salvage of the lower limb after a full thickness burn with loss of the knee extensor mechanism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sarraf, Khaled M; Atherton, Duncan D; Jayaweera, Asantha R; Gibbons, Charles E; Jones, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    We report on a 79-year-old woman who underwent salvage of the knee and lower leg using a Whichita Fusion Nail for knee arthrodesis, combined with a medial gastrocnemius muscle flap for a 3% contact burn that resulted in loss of the extensor mechanism. This provided an alternative to above-knee amputation when extensor mechanism reconstruction was not feasible.

  13. Reliability and Validity of a New Method for Isometric Back Extensor Strength Evaluation Using A Hand-Held Dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reliability and validity of a new method for isometric back extensor strength measurement using a portable dynamometer. Methods A chair equipped with a small portable dynamometer was designed (Power Track II Commander Muscle Tester). A total of 15 men (mean age, 34.8±7.5 years) and 15 women (mean age, 33.1±5.5 years) with no current back problems or previous history of back surgery were recruited. Subjects were asked to push the back of the chair while seated, and their isometric back extensor strength was measured by the portable dynamometer. Test-retest reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). For the validity assessment, isometric back extensor strength of all subjects was measured by a widely used physical performance evaluation instrument, BTE PrimusRS system. The limit of agreement (LoA) from the Bland-Altman plot was evaluated between two methods. Results The test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC=0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.91). The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated acceptable agreement between the two methods: the lower 95% LoA was −63.1 N and the upper 95% LoA was 61.1 N. Conclusion This study shows that isometric back extensor strength measurement using a portable dynamometer has good reliability and validity. PMID:29201818

  14. The effect of current flow direction on motor hot spot allocation by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stephani, Caspar; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of pulse configurations and current direction for corticospinal activation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In 11 healthy subjects (8 female), a motor map for the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), extensor carpi radialis, and biceps brachii (BB) muscles of the dominant side was established. Starting from a manually determined hot spot of the FDI representation, we measured MEPs at equal oriented points on an hexagonal grid, with 7 MEPs recorded at each point, using the following pulse configurations: posteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-P), anteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-A), biphasic with the more relevant second cycle oriented posteriorly (Bi-P) as well as a reversed biphasic condition (Bi-A). For each pulse configuration, a hot spot was determined and a center of gravity (CoG) was calculated. We found that the factor current direction had an effect on location of the CoG-adjusted hot spot in the cranio-caudal axis but not in the latero-medial direction with anteriorly directed pulses locating the CoG more anteriorly and vice versa. In addition, the CoG for the FDI was more laterally than the cortical representations for the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) which were registered as well. The results indicate that direction of the current pulse should be taken into account for determination of the motor representation of a muscle by TMS. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  15. Muscular responses appear to be associated with existence of kinesthetic perception during combination of tendon co-vibration and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Eriko; Kaneko, Fuminari; Katayose, Masaki

    2017-11-01

    The afferent inputs from peripheral sensory receptors and efferent signals from the central nervous system that underlie intentional movement can contribute to kinesthetic perception. Previous studies have revealed that tendon vibration to wrist muscles elicits an excitatory response-known as the antagonist vibratory response-in muscles antagonistic to the vibrated muscles. Therefore, the present study aimed to further investigate the effect of tendon vibration combined with motor imagery on kinesthetic perception and muscular activation. Two vibrators were applied to the tendons of the left flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis. When the vibration frequency was the same between flexors and extensors, no participant perceived movement and no muscle activity was induced. When participants imagined flexing their wrists during tendon vibration, the velocity of perceptual flexion movement increased. Furthermore, muscle activity of the flexor increased only during motor imagery. These results demonstrate that kinesthetic perception can be induced during the combination of motor imagery and co-vibration, even with no experience of kinesthetic perception from an afferent input with co-vibration at the same frequency. Although motor responses were observed during combined co-vibration and motor imagery, no such motor responses were recorded during either co-vibration alone or motor imagery alone, suggesting that muscular responses during the combined condition are associated with kinesthetic perception. Thus, the present findings indicate that kinesthetic perception is influenced by the interaction between afferent input from muscle spindles and the efferent signals that underlie intentional movement. We propose that the physiological behavior resulting from kinesthetic perception affects the process of modifying agonist muscle activity, which will be investigated in a future study.

  16. Characterization of Focal Muscle Compression Under Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Ben; Sory, David; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien; Curry, Richard; Clasper, Jon; Proud, William; Williams, Alun; Brown, Kate

    2015-06-01

    The pattern of battle injuries sustained in modern wars shows that over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome in extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions. Funding provided by the Royal British Legion.

  17. Extensor indicis proprius tendon transfer using shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Lamouille, J; Müller, C; Aubry, S; Bensamoun, S; Raffoul, W; Durand, S

    2017-06-01

    The means for judging optimal tension during tendon transfers are approximate and not very quantifiable. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of quantitatively assessing muscular mechanical properties intraoperatively using ultrasound elastography (shear wave elastography [SWE]) during extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer. We report two cases of EIP transfer for post-traumatic rupture of the extensor pollicis longus muscle. Ultrasound acquisitions measured the elasticity modulus of the EIP muscle at different stages: rest, active extension, active extension against resistance, EIP section, distal passive traction of the tendon, after tendon transfer at rest and then during active extension. A preliminary analysis was conducted of the distribution of values for this modulus at the various transfer steps. Different shear wave velocity and elasticity modulus values were observed at the various transfer steps. The tension applied during the transfer seemed close to the resting tension if a traditional protocol were followed. The elasticity modulus varied by a factor of 37 between the active extension against resistance step (565.1 kPa) and after the tendon section (15.3 kPa). The elasticity modulus values were distributed in the same way for each patient. The therapeutic benefit of SWE elastography was studied for the first time in tendon transfers. Quantitative data on the elasticity modulus during this test may make it an effective means of improving intraoperative adjustments. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Isovariant extensors and the characterization of equivariant homotopy equivalences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, Sergei M.

    2012-10-01

    We extend the well-known theorem of James-Segal to the case of an arbitrary family F of conjugacy classes of closed subgroups of a compact Lie group G: a G-map f\\colon{X}\\to{Y} of metric \\operatorname{Equiv}_{F}- {ANE}-spaces is a G-homotopy equivalence if and only if it is a weak G- F-homotopy equivalence. The proof is based on the theory of isovariant extensors, which is developed in this paper and enables us to endow F-classifying G-spaces with an additional structure.

  19. The relationship between EMG activity and extensor moment generation in the erector spinae muscles during bending and lifting activities.

    PubMed

    Dolan, P; Adams, M A

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between EMG activity and extensor moment generation in the erector spinae muscles was investigated under isometric and concentric conditions. The full-wave rectified and averaged EMG signal was recorded from skin-surface electrodes located over the belly of the erector spinae at the levels of T10 and L3, and compared with measurements of extensor moment. The effects of muscle length and contraction velocity were studied by measuring the overall curvature (theta) and rate of change of curvature (d theta/dt) of the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane, using the '3-Space Isotrak' system. Isometric contractions were investigated with the subjects pulling up on a load cell attached to the floor. Hand height was varied to produce different amounts of lumbar flexion, as indicated by changes in lumbar curvature. The extensor moment was found to be linearly related to EMG activity, and the 'gradient' and 'intercept' of the relationship were themselves dependent upon the lumbar curvature at the time of testing. Concentric contractions were investigated with the subjects extending from a seated toe-touching position, at various speeds, while the torque exerted on the arm of a Cybex dynamometer was continuously measured. Under these conditions the EMG signal (E) was higher than the isometric signal (E0) associated with the same torque. E and E0 were related as follows: E0 = E/(1 + A d theta/dt), where A = 0.0014 exp (0.045P) and P = percentage lumbar flexion. This equation was used to correct the EMG data for the effect of contraction velocity. The corrected data were then used, in conjunction with the results of the isometric calibrations, to calculate the extensor moment generated by the erector spinae muscles during bending and lifting activities. The extensor moment can itself be used to calculate the compressive force acting on the lumbar spine.

  20. Traumatic Extensor Tendon Injuries to the Hand: Clinical Anatomy, Biomechanics, and Surgical Procedure Review.

    PubMed

    Colzani, Giulia; Tos, Pierluigi; Battiston, Bruno; Merolla, Giovanni; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Artiaco, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The extensor apparatus is a complex muscle-tendon system that requires integrity or optimal reconstruction to preserve hand function. Anatomical knowledge and the understanding of physiopathology of extensor tendons are essential for an accurate diagnosis of extensor tendon injuries (ETIs) of the hand and wrist, because these lesions are complex and commonly observed in clinical practice. A careful clinical history and assessment still remain the first step for the diagnosis, followed by US and MR to confirm the suspect of ETI or to investigate some doubtful conditions and rule out associate lesions. During last decades the evolution of surgical techniques and rehabilitative treatment protocol led to gradual improvement in clinical results of ETI treatment and surgical repair. Injury classification into anatomical zones and the evaluation of the characteristics of the lesions are considered key points to select the appropriate treatment for ETI. Both conservative and surgical management can be indicated in ETI, depending on the anatomical zone and on the characteristics of the injuries. As a general rule, an attempt of conservative treatment should be performed when the lesion is expected to have favorable result with nonoperative procedure. Many surgical techniques have been proposed over the time and with favorable results if the tendon injury is not underestimated and adequately treated. Despite recent research findings, a lack of evidence-based knowledge is still observed in surgical treatment and postoperative management of ETI. Further clinical and biomechanical investigations would be advisable to clarify this complex issue.

  1. Traumatic Extensor Tendon Injuries to the Hand: Clinical Anatomy, Biomechanics, and Surgical Procedure Review

    PubMed Central

    Colzani, Giulia; Tos, Pierluigi; Battiston, Bruno; Merolla, Giovanni; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Artiaco, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The extensor apparatus is a complex muscle-tendon system that requires integrity or optimal reconstruction to preserve hand function. Anatomical knowledge and the understanding of physiopathology of extensor tendons are essential for an accurate diagnosis of extensor tendon injuries (ETIs) of the hand and wrist, because these lesions are complex and commonly observed in clinical practice. A careful clinical history and assessment still remain the first step for the diagnosis, followed by US and MR to confirm the suspect of ETI or to investigate some doubtful conditions and rule out associate lesions. During last decades the evolution of surgical techniques and rehabilitative treatment protocol led to gradual improvement in clinical results of ETI treatment and surgical repair. Injury classification into anatomical zones and the evaluation of the characteristics of the lesions are considered key points to select the appropriate treatment for ETI. Both conservative and surgical management can be indicated in ETI, depending on the anatomical zone and on the characteristics of the injuries. As a general rule, an attempt of conservative treatment should be performed when the lesion is expected to have favorable result with nonoperative procedure. Many surgical techniques have been proposed over the time and with favorable results if the tendon injury is not underestimated and adequately treated. Despite recent research findings, a lack of evidence-based knowledge is still observed in surgical treatment and postoperative management of ETI. Further clinical and biomechanical investigations would be advisable to clarify this complex issue. PMID:27616821

  2. Activity patterns of extrinsic finger flexors and extensors during movements of instructed and non-instructed fingers.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Nathalie; Stegeman, Dick F; van den Noort, Josien C; H E J Veeger, DirkJan; Maas, Huub

    2018-02-01

    The fingers of the human hand cannot be controlled fully independently. This phenomenon may have a neurological as well as a mechanical basis. Despite previous studies, the neuromechanics of finger movements are not fully understood. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the activation and coactivation patterns of finger specific flexor and extensor muscle regions during instructed single finger flexion and (2) to determine the relationship between enslaved finger movements and respective finger muscle activation. In 9 healthy subjects (age 22-29), muscle activation was assessed during single finger flexion using a 90 surface electromyography electrode grid placed over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor digitorum (ED). We found (1) no significant differences in muscle activation timing between fingers, (2) considerable muscle activity in flexor and extensor regions associated with the non-instructed fingers and (3) no correlation between the muscle activations and corresponding movement of non-instructed fingers. A clear disparity was found between the movement pattern of the non-instructed fingers and the activity pattern of the corresponding muscle regions. This suggests that mechanical factors, such as intertendinous and myofascial connections, may also affect finger movement independency and need to be taken into consideration when studying finger movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuromuscular plasticity in the locust after permanent removal of an excitatory motoneuron of the extensor tibiae muscle.

    PubMed

    Büschges, A; Djokaj, S; Bässler, D; Bässler, U; Rathmayer, W

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of the larval insect nervous system to compensate for the permanent loss of one of the two excitatory motoneurons innervating a leg muscle was investigated in the locust (Locusta migratoria). In the fourth instar, the fast extensor tibiae (FETi) motoneuron in the mesothoracic ganglion was permanently removed by photoinactivation with a helium-cadmium laser. Subsequently, the animals were allowed to develop into adulthood. When experimental animals were tested as adults after final ecdysis, fast-contracting fibers in the most proximal region of the corresponding extensor muscle, which are normally predominantly innervated by FETi only, uniformly responded to activity of the slow extensor tibiae (SETi) neuron. In adult operated animals, single pulses to SETi elicited large junctional responses in the fibers which resulted in twitch contractions of these fibers similar to the responses to FETi activity in control animals. The total number of muscle fibers, their properties as histochemically determined contractional types (fast and slow), and their distribution were not affected by photoinactivation of FETi. Possible mechanisms enabling the larval neuromuscular system to compensate for the loss of FETi through functionally similar innervation by a different motoneuron, i.e. SETi, are discussed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Knee stabilisation following infected knee arthroplasty with bone loss and extensor mechanism impairment using a modular cemented nail.

    PubMed

    Rao, M C; Richards, O; Meyer, C; Jones, R Spencer

    2009-12-01

    Infected Total Knee Replacement with significant bone loss and loss of extensor mechanism poses a difficult management problem. Arthrodesis relying on bony union can be difficult to achieve and can result in significant limb shortening. We retrospectively looked at the outcome of seven patients with significant bone loss and extensor mechanism insufficiency following infected TKR who underwent knee stabilisation using a modular cemented nail. The nail relied on the strong coupling mechanism between the modular femoral and tibial components. Pain score improved from a mean of 7.9 pre-operatively to 1.5 post-operatively at a mean follow up of 39.6 months (range 7-68) months. Two patients underwent technically easy revision nailing for recurrent infection and aseptic loosening. The Endo-Model(R) Knee Fusion Nail (Newsplint, UK/Waldemar Link, GmbH & Co. KG, Hamburg, Germany) has good early results in terms of pain relief and provides a stable knee in cases with significant bone loss and extensor mechanism insufficiency following an infected TKR thus avoiding an above knee amputation.

  5. A novel approach using tendon vibration of the human flexor carpi radialis muscle to study spinal reflexes.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kenneth; de Bruin, Hubert; Archambeault, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although most muscle spindle investigations have used the cat model and invasive measurement techniques, several investigators have used microneurography to record from the Ia and II fibres in humans during tendon vibration. In these studies the muscle spindle primary endings are stimulated using transverse vibration of the tendon at reflex sub-threshold amplitudes. Others have used low amplitude vibration and the stretch evoked M-wave response to determine reflex properties during both agonist and antagonist voluntary contractions. In the past we have developed a PC based instrument that uses Labview and a linear servomotor to study tendon reflex properties by recording stretch evoked M-wave responses from single tendon taps or electrical stimuli to the afferent nerve. In this paper we describe a further development of this system to provide precise vibrations of the tendon up to 65 Hz with amplitudes up to 4 mm. The resultant M-wave train is extracted from background noise via phase coherent subtractive filtering. Test results from vibrating the human distal flexor carpi radialis tendon at 10 and 30 Hz, for relaxed, slight flexion and slight extension, are also presented.

  6. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors

    PubMed Central

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1) concentric contraction without preactivation (CON), (2) concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC), and (3) concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO). Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees). Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees) of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees) of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. PMID:27414804

  7. The extensor digitorum brevis: histological and histochemical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Jennekens, F. G. I.; Tomlinson, B. E.; Walton, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) obtained at necropsy from 26 subjects without known neuromuscular disease were examined histologically and histochemically. In the two youngest subjects, aged 2 months and 8 years, a mosaic distribution of type I and type II fibres was present. From the second decade onwards, increasing with age, the mosaic pattern was gradually replaced by groups of type I and type II fibres and areas of grouped fibre atrophy appeared. It is suggested that these findings may be explained by a slow process of denervation and reinnervation. This process does not seem to occur to the same extent in three other distal limb muscles from which specimens were also examined. Images PMID:4260286

  8. Rehabilitation of flexor and extensor tendon injuries in the hand: current updates.

    PubMed

    Howell, Julianne W; Peck, Fiona

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, a significant amount of research in the field of tendon injury in the hand has contributed to advances in both surgical and rehabilitation techniques. The introduction of early motion has improved tendon healing, reduced complications, and enhanced final outcomes. There is overwhelming evidence to show that carefully devised rehabilitation programs are critical to achieving favourable outcomes. Whatever the type, or level, of flexor or extensor injury, the ultimate goal of both the surgeon and therapist is to protect the repair, modify peritendinous adhesions, promote optimal tendon excursion and preserve joint motion. Early tendon motion regimens are initiated at surgery or within 5 days post repair. Intra-operative information from the surgeon to the therapist is vital to the choice of splint protected position to reduce repair rupture/gap forces, and to commencement of active, or splint controlled, motion for tendon excursion. Decisions should align with the phases of healing, the clinician's observations, frequent range of motion measurements and patient input. Clinical concepts pertinent to early motion rehabilitation decisions are presented by zone of injury for both flexor and extensor tendons during the early phases of healing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head, neck, shoulder, and arm muscles reproduces pain symptoms in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gröbli, Christian; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fischer, Christine Stebler; Boesch, Daniel; Froidevaux, Philippe; Stocker, Lilian; Weissmann, Richard; González-Iglesias, Javier

    2012-07-01

    To describe the prevalence and referred pain area of trigger points (TrPs) in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers, and to analyze if the referred pain pattern elicited from TrPs completely reproduces the overall spontaneous pain pattern. Sixteen (62% women) blue-collar and 19 (75% women) white-collar workers were included in this study. TrPs in the temporalis, masseter, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, oblique capitis inferior, levator scapulae, scalene, pectoralis major, deltoid, infraspinatus, extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus, extensor digitorum communis, and supinator muscles were examined bilaterally (hyper-sensible tender spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response with snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain pattern with palpation) by experienced assessors blinded to the participants' condition. TrPs were considered active when the local and referred pain reproduced any symptom and the patient recognized the pain as familiar. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomic maps, digitized, and measured. Blue-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 3) active and 10 (SD: 5) latent TrPs, whereas white-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 4) active and 11 (SD: 6) latent TrPs (P>0.548). No significant differences in the distribution of active and latent TrPs in the analyzed muscles between groups were found. Active TrPs in the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, levator scapulae, and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles were the most prevalent in both groups. Significant differences in referred pain areas between muscles (P<0.001) were found; pectoralis major, infraspinatus, upper trapezius, and scalene muscles showed the largest referred pain areas (P<0.01), whereas the temporalis, masseter, and splenius capitis muscles showed the smallest (P<0.05). The combination of the referred pain from TrPs reproduced the overall clinical pain area in all participants. Blue-collar and white-collar workers

  10. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy for treatment of common extensor tendinosis in the elbow.

    PubMed

    McShane, John M; Nazarian, Levon N; Harwood, Marc I

    2006-10-01

    Chronic tendinosis of the common extensor tendon of the lateral elbow can be a difficult problem to treat. We report our experience with sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy to relieve pain and improve function in patients with this condition. We performed sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy on 58 consecutive patients who had persistent pain and disability resulting from common extensor tendinosis. Under a local anesthetic and sonographic guidance, a needle was advanced into the common extensor tendon, and the tip of the needle was used to repeatedly fenestrate the tendinotic tissue. Calcifications, if present, were mechanically fragmented, and the adjacent bony surface of the apex and face of the epicondyle were abraded. Finally, the fenestrated tendon was infiltrated with a solution containing corticosteroid mixed with bupivacaine. After the procedure, patients were instructed to perform passive stretches and to undergo physical therapy. During a subsequent telephone interview, patients answered questions about their experience, their functioning level, and their perceptions of procedure outcome. Fifty-five (95%) of 58 patients were contacted by telephone and agreed to participate in the study. Thirty-five (63.6%) of 55 respondents reported excellent outcomes, 16.4% good, 7.3% fair, and 12.7% poor. The average follow-up time from the date of the procedure to the date of the interview was 28 months (range, 17-44 months). No adverse events were reported; 85.5% stated that they would refer a friend or close relative for the procedure. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy for lateral elbow tendinosis is a safe, effective, and viable alternative for patients in whom all other nonsurgical treatments failed.

  11. Optimal early active mobilisation protocol after extensor tendon repairs in zones V and VI: A systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Collocott, Shirley Jf; Kelly, Edel; Ellis, Richard F

    2018-03-01

    Early mobilisation protocols after repair of extensor tendons in zone V and VI provide better outcomes than immobilisation protocols. This systematic review investigated different early active mobilisation protocols used after extensor tendon repair in zone V and VI. The purpose was to determine whether any one early active mobilisation protocol provides superior results. An extensive literature search was conducted to identify articles investigating the outcomes of early active mobilisation protocols after extensor tendon repair in zone V and VI. Databases searched were AMED, Embase, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL. Studies were included if they involved participants with extensor tendon repairs in zone V and VI in digits 2-5 and described a post-operative rehabilitation protocol which allowed early active metacarpophalangeal joint extension. Study designs included were randomised controlled trials, observational studies, cohort studies and case series. The Structured Effectiveness Quality Evaluation Scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. Two types of early active mobilisation protocols were identified: controlled active motion protocols and relative motion extension splinting protocols. Articles describing relative motion extension splinting protocols were more recent but of lower methodological quality than those describing controlled active motion protocols. Participants treated with controlled active motion and relative motion extension splinting protocols had similar range of motion outcomes, but those in relative motion extension splinting groups returned to work earlier. The evidence reviewed suggested that relative motion extension splinting protocols may allow an earlier return to function than controlled active motion protocols without a greater risk of complication.

  12. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; P<0.001) and between EMG activity and submaximal isometric torque (r ⩾ 0.99; P<0.05), for both extensor and flexor muscles. Intraclass correlation coefficients were comprised between 0.87 and 0.95, and standard errors of measurement were lower than 9% for all contraction modes. The mean difference in peak torque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in muscle activity during hand-dexterity tasks between women with arthritis and a healthy reference group.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Sofia; Nilsdotter, Anna; Thorstensson, Carina; Bremander, Ann

    2014-05-15

    Impaired hand function is common in patients with arthritis and it affects performance of daily activities; thus, hand exercises are recommended. There is little information on the extent to which the disease affects activation of the flexor and extensor muscles during these hand-dexterity tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation during such tasks in subjects with arthritis and in a healthy reference group. Muscle activation was measured in m. extensor digitorium communis (EDC) and in m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) with surface electromyography (EMG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 20), hand osteoarthritis (HOA, n = 16) and in a healthy reference group (n = 20) during the performance of four daily activity tasks and four hand exercises. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured to enable intermuscular comparisons, and muscle activation is presented as %MVIC. The arthritis group used a higher %MVIC than the reference group in both FCR and EDC when cutting with a pair of scissors, pulling up a zipper and-for the EDC-also when writing with a pen and using a key (p < 0.02). The exercise "rolling dough with flat hands" required the lowest %MVIC and may be less effective in improving muscle strength. Women with arthritis tend to use higher levels of muscle activation in daily tasks than healthy women, and wrist extensors and flexors appear to be equally affected. It is important that hand training programs reflect real-life situations and focus also on extensor strength.

  14. Decrements in knee extensor and flexor strength are associated with performance fatigue during simulated basketball game-play in adolescent, male players.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Delextrat, Anne; Spiteri, Tania; Dalbo, Vincent J; Stanton, Robert; Kean, Crystal O

    2018-04-01

    This study quantified lower-limb strength decrements and assessed the relationships between strength decrements and performance fatigue during simulated basketball. Ten adolescent, male basketball players completed a circuit-based, basketball simulation. Sprint and jump performance were assessed during each circuit, with knee flexion and extension peak concentric torques measured at baseline, half-time, and full-time. Decrement scores were calculated for all measures. Mean knee flexor strength decrement was significantly (P < 0.05) related to sprint fatigue in the first half (R = 0.65), with dominant knee flexor strength (R = 0.67) and dominant flexor:extensor strength ratio (R = 0.77) decrement significantly (P < 0.05) associated with sprint decrement across the entire game. Mean knee extensor strength (R = 0.71), dominant knee flexor strength (R = 0.80), non-dominant knee flexor strength (R = 0.75), mean knee flexor strength (R = 0.81), non-dominant flexor:extensor strength ratio (R = 0.71), and mean flexor:extensor strength ratio (R = 0.70) decrement measures significantly (P < 0.05) influenced jump fatigue during the entire game. Lower-limb strength decrements may exert an important influence on performance fatigue during basketball activity in adolescent, male players. Consequently, training plans should aim to mitigate lower-limb fatigue to optimise sprint and jump performance during game-play.

  15. Discharge behavior of motor units in knee extensors during the initial stage of constant-force isometric contraction at low force level.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Mifuyu

    2002-03-01

    To elucidate the strategy of the activity of motor units (MUs) to maintain a constant-force isometric contraction, I examined the behavior of MUs in knee extensor muscles [(vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF)] during a sustained contraction at 5% of maximal voluntary contraction for 5 min. In all cases, the spike interval exhibited an elongating trend, and two discharge patterns were observed, continuous discharge and decruitment. In continuous-discharge MUs, the trend slope was steep immediately after the onset of constant force (steep phase), and then became gentle (gentle phase). Decruitments were observed frequently during each phase, and additional MU recruitment was observed throughout the contraction. The mean value of recruitment threshold force did not differ among the extensors. The mean spike interval at the onset of constant-force isometric contractions was shorter in RF than in VL. However, there were no differences in the duration and extent of the elongating trend, decruitment time and recruitment time among the extensors. The electromyogram of the antagonist biceps femoris muscle revealed no compensatory change for extensor activity. These results indicated that at a low force level, the strategy employed by the central nervous system to maintain constant force appears to involve cooperation among elongating trends in the spike interval, decruitment following elongation, and additional MU recruitment in synergistic muscles.

  16. The effect of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training in the ACL-injured knee.

    PubMed

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C; Milligan, Peter; Clinton, Melissa; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of different loads of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training on anterior knee laxity and function in the ACL-injured (ACLI) knee. Fifty-eight ACLI subjects were randomised to one of three (12-week duration) training groups. The STAND group trained according to a standardised rehabilitation protocol. Subjects in the LOW and HIGH group trained as did the STAND group but with the addition of seated knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20 repetition maximum (RM) and 20 sets of 2RM, respectively. Anterior knee laxity and measurements of physical and subjective function were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Thirty-six subjects were tested at both baseline and 12 weeks (STAND n = 13, LOW n = 11, HIGH n = 12). The LOW group demonstrated a reduction in 133 N anterior knee laxity between baseline and 12 weeks testing when compared to the HIGH and the STAND groups (p = 0.009). Specifically, the trained-untrained knee laxity decreased an average of approximately 5 mm in the LOW group while remaining the same in the other two groups. Twelve weeks of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20RM led to a reduction in anterior knee laxity in the ACLI knee. This reduction in laxity does not appear to offer any significant short-term functional advantages when compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. These results indicate that knee laxity can be decreased with resistance training of the thigh muscles. Randomised controlled trial, Level II.

  17. Gouty involvement of the patella and extensor mechanism of the knee mimicking aggressive neoplasm. A case series.

    PubMed

    Kester, Christopher; Wallace, Matthew T; Jelinek, James; Aboulafia, Albert

    2018-06-01

    Gout is a common inflammatory crystal deposition disease that occurs in many joints throughout the body. Active gout is most often associated with painful synovitis causing searing joint pains, but gout can also produce large masses of space-occupying deposits called tophi. Tophi are most frequently seen in juxta-articular locations with or without bony erosion and are often misdiagnosed as degenerative joint disease. Soft tissue deposits and tendon involvement are also known manifestations of gout, but can present with indeterminate and alarming findings on imaging. We present three cases of tophaceous gout mimicking aggressive neoplasms in the extensor mechanism of the knee. All cases presented as extensor tendon masses eroding into the patella, with imaging findings initially concerning for primary musculoskeletal malignancy.

  18. Proximity of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex to Key Surrounding Structures and Safety Assessment of an Arthroscopic Repair Technique: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Kuremsky, Marshall A; Habet, Nahir; Peindl, Richard D; Gaston, R Glenn

    2016-12-01

    To quantify the distance of the dorsal ulnar sensory branch, floor of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) subsheath, and ulnar neurovascular bundles from the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), and secondarily to assess the safety of an all-inside arthroscopic repair of the TFCC with a commonly used meniscal repair device with respect to the aforementioned structures. A custom K-wire with 1-mm gradation was used to determine the distance of at-risk structures from the periphery of the TFCC in 13 above-elbow human cadaver specimens. An all-inside repair of the TFCC at the location of a Palmer 1B tear was then performed using a commonly employed meniscal repair device. The distance from the deployed devices to the structure in closest proximity was then measured using digital calipers. The mean distance from the deployed device to the nearest structure of concern for iatrogenic injury was 9.4 mm (range, 5-15 mm). The closest structure to iatrogenic injury was usually, but not always, the dorsal ulnar sensory nerve in 9 of 13 wrists (69.2%) at 9.3 mm (range, 5-15 mm); on 3 occasions it was instead the ulnar nerve (23.1%) at 9.5 mm (range, 9-10 mm), and on 1 occasion 6 mm from the flexor digitorum profundus to the little finger (7.7%). Forearm rotation had no significant effect on measured distances (ulnar nerve: P = .98; dorsal sensory: P = .89; ECU: P = .90). The largest influence of forearm rotation was a 0.4-mm difference between pronation and supination with respect to the distance of the TFCC periphery on the ECU subsheath. An all-inside arthroscopic TFCC repair using a commonly used meniscal repair device appears safe with respect to nearby neurovascular structures and tendons under typical arthroscopic conditions. An all-inside arthroscopic TFCC repair using a commonly employed meniscal repair device appears safe in terms of proximity to important structures although further clinical investigation is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy

  19. Work-Related Pain in Extrinsic Finger Extensor Musculature of Instrumentalists Is Associated with Intracellular pH Compartmentation during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Torres, Angel; Rosset-Llobet, Jaume; Pujol, Jesus; Fàbregas, Sílvia; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Although non-specific pain in the upper limb muscles of workers engaged in mild repetitive tasks is a common occupational health problem, much is unknown about the associated structural and biochemical changes. In this study, we compared the muscle energy metabolism of the extrinsic finger extensor musculature in instrumentalists suffering from work-related pain with that of healthy control instrumentalists using non-invasive phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). We hypothesize that the affected muscles will show alterations related with an impaired energy metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 19 volunteer instrumentalists (11 subjects with work-related pain affecting the extrinsic finger extensor musculature and 8 healthy controls). We used 31P-MRS to find deviations from the expected metabolic response to exercise in phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), Pi/PCr ratio and intracellular pH kinetics. We observed a reduced finger extensor exercise tolerance in instrumentalists with myalgia, an intracellular pH compartmentation in the form of neutral and acid compartments, as detected by Pi peak splitting in 31P-MRS spectra, predominantly in myalgic muscles, and a strong association of this pattern with the condition. Conclusions/Significance Work-related pain in the finger extrinsic extensor muscles is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise, non-invasively detectable by 31P-MRS and consistent with the simultaneous energy production by oxidative metabolism and glycolysis. We speculate that a deficit in energy production by oxidative pathways may exist in the affected muscles. Two possible explanations for this would be the partial and/or local reduction of blood supply and the reduction of the muscle oxidative capacity itself. PMID:20161738

  20. Sex differences in neuromuscular function after repeated eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrea; Baxter, Jake; Eischer, Claire; Gage, Matt; Hunter, Sandra; Yoon, Tejin

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the mechanisms for force and power reduction during and up to 48 h after maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles in young men and women. 13 men (22.8 ± 2.6 years) and 13 women (21.6 ± 2.2 years) performed 150 maximal effort eccentric contractions (5 sets of 30) with the knee extensor muscles at 60° s -1 . Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVCC) were performed before and after the 150 eccentric contractions. The MVCCs involved a set of two isokinetic contractions at 60° s -1 and sets of isotonic contractions performed at seven different resistance loads (1 N m, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% MVIC). Electrical stimulation was used during the MVICs and at rest to determine changes in voluntary activation and contractile properties. At baseline, men were stronger than women (MVIC: 276 ± 48 vs. 133 ± 37 N m) and more powerful (MVCC: 649 ± 77 vs. 346 ± 78 W). At termination of the eccentric contractions, voluntary activation, resting twitch amplitude, and peak power during concentric contractions at the seven loads and at 60° s -1 decreased (P < 0.05) similarly in the men and women. At 48 h post-exercise, the MVIC torque, power (for loads ≥20-60% MVIC), and voluntary activation remained depressed (P < 0.05), but the resting twitch had returned to baseline (P > 0.05) with no sex differences. Central mechanisms were primarily responsible for the depressed maximal force production up to 48 h after repeated eccentric contractions of the knee extensors and these mechanisms were similar in men and women.

  1. Knee Extensor Strength and Gait Characteristics After Minimally Invasive Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty vs Minimally Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Braito, Matthias; Giesinger, Johannes M; Fischler, Stefan; Koller, Arnold; Niederseer, David; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    In light of the existing lack of evidence, it was the aim of this study to compare gait characteristics and knee extensor strength after medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty (MUKA) with those after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), given the same standardized minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approach in both groups. Patients scheduled for MIS-MUKA or MIS-TKA as part of clinical routine were invited to participate. A posterior cruciate ligament-retaining total knee design was used for all MIS-TKA. A 3-dimensional gait analysis was performed preoperatively with a VICON system and at 8 weeks postoperative to determine temporospatial parameters, ground reaction forces, joint angles, and joint moments. At the same 2 times, isokinetic tests were performed to obtain peak values of knee extensor torque. A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted and included the main effects time (before and after surgery) and surgical group and the group-by-time interaction effect. Fifteen MIS-MUKA patients and 17 MIS-TKA patients were eligible for the final analysis. The groups showed no differences regarding age, body mass index, sex, side treated, or stage of osteoarthritis. We determined neither intergroup differences nor time × group interactions for peak knee extensor torque or any gait parameters (temporospatial, ground reaction forces, joint angles, and joint moments). It is concluded that MUKA is not superior to TKA with regard to knee extensor strength or 3-dimensional gait characteristics at 8 weeks after operation. As gait characteristics and knee extensor strength are only 2 of the various potential outcome parameters (knee scores, activity scores…) and quadriceps strength might take a longer time to recover, our findings should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of once weekly NMES training on knee extensors fatigue and body composition in a person with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Caudill, Caelb; Khalil, Refka E

    2016-01-01

    Single-subject case (male, 33 years of age, T6 SCI AIS A). To determine the effect of surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training conducted once weekly on improving fatigue resistance as well as regional and whole body composition in an individual with spinal cord injury (SCI). Laboratory setting within a SCI Center. Surface NMES resistance training (RT) of the paralyzed knee extensors was conducted once weekly for 12 weeks using ankle weights. Knee extensor fatigue index was determined by the number of repetitions (reps) achieved out of 30 reps. Total and regional body composition including percentage body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) were conducted before the first session and one week after the last training session using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The participant had a compliance rate of 83% and he was able to lift 6 and 2 lbs on the right and left legs, respectively. Right knee extensors showed greater fatigue resistance compared to the left one. Leg LM increased by 6% accompanied with decrease in arm, trunk and total body LM by -4.7%, -13%, -5%, respectively. The %BF increased by 8%, 7.3%, 15.5%, 11.5% for arm, legs, trunk and total body. Once weekly of NMES RT evokes local positive changes in leg LM without reciprocating the continuous loss in LM or gain in FM in other regions and total body. Training was effective in increasing strength as well as fatigue resistance of the trained knee extensors.

  3. Influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt before and after the performance of a fatigue protocol.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Felipe C; Peixoto, Jennifer G; Vicente, Eduardo J D; Chagas, Paula S C; Fonseca, Diogo S

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of data in the literature for determining the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilting and, thus, on lumbar stability. To assess the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt. Ten healthy young subjects were recruited, with a body mass index (BMI) below 24.9 kg/m(2) and leg length discrepancy below 1 cm. The BMI, pelvic perimeter and lower-limb lengths were assessed and, subsequently, the degrees of hemi-pelvic tilt and asymmetry between them were analyzed using lateral view photographs of the subjects in a standing position, using SAPO (Software for Postural Assessment). Next, fatigue was induced in the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on the dominant side, and after that the hemi-pelvic tilt and the asymmetry between the hemi-pelvises were reassessed. The Pearson r and Student t tests were conducted at the significance level of alpha=0.05. There were no significant correlations between the confounding variables and asymmetry of the hemi-pelvic angles. There were significant changes in the hemi-pelvic angle of the dominant side (t=3.760; p=0.004). Fatigue in the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle can generate increases in the tilt angle of the ipsilateral pelvis.

  4. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on leg flexor and extensor isokinetic strength in elite women athletes.

    PubMed

    Sekir, U; Arabaci, R; Akova, B; Kadagan, S M

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of static and dynamic stretching of the leg flexors and extensors on concentric and eccentric peak torque (PT) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the leg extensors and flexors in women athletes. Ten elite women athletes completed the following intervention protocol in a randomized order on separate days: (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching, and (c) dynamic stretching. Stretched muscles were the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. Before and after the stretching or control intervention, concentric and eccentric isokinetic PT and EMG activity of the leg extensors and flexors were measured at 60 and 180 degrees/s. Concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength at both test speeds displayed a significant decrease following static stretching (P<0.01-0.001). In contrast, a significant increase was observed after dynamic stretching for these strength parameters (P<0.05-0.001). Parallel to this, normalized EMG amplitude parameters exhibited significant decreases following static (P<0.05-0.001) and significant increases following dynamic stretching (P<0.05-0.001) during quadriceps and hamstring muscle actions at both concentric and eccentric testing modes. Our findings suggest that dynamic stretching, as opposed to static or no stretching, may be an effective technique for enhancing muscle performance during the pre-competition warm-up routine in elite women athletes.

  6. Poor correlation between handgrip strength and isokinetic performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles in community-dwelling elderly women.

    PubMed

    Felicio, Diogo Carvalho; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Assumpção, Alexandra Miranda; de Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna Resende; de Queiroz, Barbara Zille; da Silva, Juscelio Pereira; de Brito Rosa, Naysa Maciel; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between handgrip strength and performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles determined using an isokinetic dynamometer in community-dwelling elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Sample selection for the study was made by convenience, and 221 (71.07 ± 4.93 years) community-dwelling elderly women were included. Knee flexor and extensor muscle performance was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro. The isokinetic variables chosen for analysis were peak torque, peak torque/bodyweight, total work/bodyweight, total work, average power, and agonist/antagonist ratio at the angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. Assessment of handgrip strength was carried out using the Jamar dynamometer. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to identify intervariable correlations. Only knee flexor peak torque (60°/s) and average power (60°/s), and knee extensor peak torque (180°/s) and total work (180°/s) were significantly (P < 0.05), yet poorly, correlated with handgrip strength (r < 0.30). The majority of analyses did not show any correlation between variables assessed by isokinetic dynamometer and handgrip dynamometer. Caution is required when generalizing handgrip strength as a predictor of global muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly women. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Activity of thoracic and lumbar epaxial extensors during postural responses in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Fung, J.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the role of trunk extensor muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions during postural adjustments in the freely standing cat. The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface. The muscles segregate into two regional groups separated by a short transition zone, according to the spatial pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) responses. The upper thoracic muscles (T5-9) respond best to posteriorly directed translations, whereas the lumbar muscles (T13 to L7) respond best to anterior translations. The transition group muscles (T10-12) respond to almost all translations. Muscles group according to vertebral level rather than muscle species. The upper thoracic muscles change little in their response with changes in stance distance (fore-hindpaw separation) and may act to stabilize the intervertebral angles of the thoracic curvature. Activity in the lumbar muscles increases along with upward rotation of the pelvis (iliac crest) as stance distance decreases. Lumbar muscles appear to stabilize the pelvis with respect to the lumbar vertebrae (L7-sacral joint). The transition zone muscles display a change in spatial tuning with stance distance, responding to many directions of translation at short distances and focusing to respond best to contralateral translations at the long stance distance.

  8. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  9. Validity and reliability of an instrumented leg-extension machine for measuring isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Caroline; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Jacomel, Gabriel Fernandes; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Santos, Daniela Pacheco dos; Scoz, Robson Dias; Roesler, Helio

    2015-05-20

    Isometric muscle strength of knee extensors has been assessed for estimating performance, evaluating progress during physical training, and investigating the relationship between isometric and dynamic/functional performance. To assess the validity and reliability of an adapted leg-extension machine for measuring isometric knee extensor force. Validity (concurrent approach) and reliability (test and test-retest approach) study. University laboratory. 70 healthy men and women aged between 20 and 30 y (39 in the validity study and 31 in the reliability study). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values calculated for the maximum voluntary isometric torque of knee extensors at 30°, 60°, and 90°, measured with the prototype and with an isokinetic dynamometer (ICC2,1, validity study) and measured with the prototype in test and retest sessions, scheduled from 48 h to 72 h apart (ICC1,1, reliability study). In the validity analysis, the prototype showed good agreement for measurements at 30° (ICC2,1 = .75, SEM = 18.2 Nm) and excellent agreement for measurements at 60° (ICC2,1 = .93, SEM = 9.6 Nm) and at 90° (ICC2,1 = .94, SEM = 8.9 Nm). Regarding the reliability analysis, between-days' ICC1,1 were good to excellent, ranging from .88 to .93. Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable difference based on test-retest ranged from 11.7 Nm to 18.1 Nm and 32.5 Nm to 50.1 Nm, respectively, for the 3 analyzed knee angles. The analysis of validity and repeatability of the prototype for measuring isometric muscle strength has shown to be good or excellent, depending on the knee joint angle analyzed. The new instrument, which presents a relative low cost and easiness of transportation when compared with an isokinetic dynamometer, is valid and provides consistent data concerning isometric strength of knee extensors and, for this reason, can be used for practical, clinical, and research purposes.

  10. Measurement of maximal isometric torque and muscle quality of the knee extensors and flexors in healthy 50- to 70-year-old women.

    PubMed

    Francis, Peter; Toomey, Clodagh; Mc Cormack, William; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Muscle quality is defined as strength per unit muscle mass. The aim of this study was to measure the maximal voluntary isometric torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups in healthy older women and to develop an index of muscle quality based on the combined knee extensor and flexor torque per unit lean tissue mass (LTM) of the upper leg. One hundred and thirty-six healthy 50- to 70-year-old women completed an initial measurement of isometric peak torque of the knee extensors and flexors (Con-Trex MJ; CMV AG, Dubendorf, Switzerland) that was repeated 7 days later. Subsequently, 131 women returned for whole- and regional-body composition analysis (iDXA ™ ; GE Healthcare, Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire, UK). Isometric peak torque demonstrated excellent within-assessment reliability for both the knee extensors and flexors (ICC range: 0·991-1·000). Test-retest reliability was lower (ICC range: 0·777-0·828) with an observed mean increase of 5% in peak torque [6·2 (17·2) N m] on the second day of assessment (P<0·001). The relative mean decrease in combined isometric peak torque (-12·2%; P = 0·001) was double that of the relative, non-significant, median difference in upper leg LTM (-5·3%; P = 0·102) between those in the 5th and 6th decade. The majority of difference in peak isometric torque came from the knee extensors (15·1 N m, P<0·001 versus 2·4 N m, P = 0·234). Isometric peak torque normalized for upper leg LTM (muscle quality) was 8% lower between decades (P = 0·029). These findings suggest strength per unit tissue may provide a better indication of age-related differences in muscle quality prior to change in LTM. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A pilot study of contralateral homonymous muscle activity simulated electrical stimulation in chronic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Osu, Rieko; Otaka, Yohei; Ushiba, Junichi; Sakata, Sachiko; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Liu, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    For the recovery of hemiparetic hand function, a therapy was developed called contralateral homonymous muscle activity stimulated electrical stimulation (CHASE), which combines electrical stimulation and bilateral movements, and its feasibility was studied in three chronic stroke patients with severe hand hemiparesis. Patients with a subcortical lesion were asked to extend their wrist and fingers bilaterally while an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle in the unaffected hand. Electric stimulation was applied to the homonymous wrist and finger extensors of the affected side. The intensity of the electrical stimulation was computed based on the EMG and scaled so that the movements of the paretic hand looked similar to those of the unaffected side. The patients received 30-minutes of therapy per day for 2 weeks. Improvement in the active range of motion of wrist extension was observed for all patients. There was a decrease in the scores of modified Ashworth scale in the flexors. Fugl-Meyer assessment scores of motor function of the upper extremities improved in two of the patients. The results suggest a positive outcome can be obtained using the CHASE system for upper extremity rehabilitation of patients with severe hemiplegia.

  12. Activation amplitude and temporal synchrony among back extensor and abdominal muscles during a controlled transfer task: comparison of men and women.

    PubMed

    Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Butler, Heather L; Kozey, John W

    2012-08-01

    Muscle synergies are important for spinal stability, but few studies examine temporal responses of spinal muscles to dynamic perturbations. This study examined activation amplitudes and temporal synergies among compartments of the back extensor and among abdominal wall muscles in response to dynamic bidirectional moments of force. We further examined whether responses were different between men and women. 19 women and 18 men performed a controlled transfer task. Surface electromyograms from bilateral sites over 6 back extensor compartments and 6 abdominal wall muscle sites were analyzed using principal component analysis. Key features were extracted from the measured electromyographic waveforms capturing amplitude and temporal variations among muscle sites. Three features explained 97% of the variance. Scores for each feature were computed for each measured waveform and analysis of variance found significant (p<.05) muscle main effects and a sex by muscle interaction. For the back extensors, post hoc analysis revealed that upper and more medial sites were recruited to higher amplitudes, medial sites responded to flexion moments, and the more lateral sites responded to lateral flexion moments. Women had more differences among muscle sites than men for the lateral flexion moment feature. For the abdominal wall muscles the oblique muscles responded with synergies related to fiber orientation, with women having higher amplitudes and more responsiveness to the lateral flexion moment than men. Synergies between the abdominal and back extensor sites as the moment demands change are discussed. These findings illustrate differential activation among erector spinae compartments and abdominal wall muscle sites supporting a highly organized pattern of response to bidirectional external moments with asynchronies more apparent in women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Superior Effects of Eccentric to Concentric Knee Extensor Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Profiles of Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Trevor Chung-Ching; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Huang, Guan-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that eccentric training of knee extensors is effective for improving blood insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles to a greater extent than concentric training in young women. However, it is not known whether this is also the case for elderly individuals. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that eccentric training of the knee extensors would improve physical function and health parameters (e.g., blood lipid profiles) of older adults better than concentric training. Healthy elderly men (60–76 years) were assigned to either eccentric training or concentric training group (n = 13/group), and performed 30–60 eccentric or concentric contractions of knee extensors once a week. The intensity was progressively increased over 12 weeks from 10 to 100% of maximal concentric strength for eccentric training and from 50 to 100% for concentric training. Outcome measures were taken before and 4 days after the training period. The results showed that no sings of muscle damage were observed after any sessions. Functional physical fitness (e.g., 30-s chair stand) and maximal concentric contraction strength of the knee extensors increased greater (P ≤ 0.05) after eccentric training than concentric training. Homeostasis model assessment, oral glucose tolerance test and whole blood glycosylated hemoglobin showed improvement of insulin sensitivity only after eccentric training (P ≤ 0.05). Greater (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in fasting triacylglycerols, total, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols were evident after eccentric training than concentric training, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols increased only after eccentric training. These results support the hypothesis and suggest that it is better to focus on eccentric contractions in exercise medicine. PMID:28443029

  14. The interaction between the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius and its influence on the extensor apparatus of the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Grob, Karl; Manestar, Mirjana; Filgueira, Luis; Kuster, Markus S; Gilbey, Helen; Ackland, Timothy

    2018-03-01

    Although the vastus medialis (VM) is closely associated with the vastus intermedius (VI), there is a lack of data regarding their functional relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomical interaction between the VM and VI with regard to their origins, insertions, innervation and function within the extensor apparatus of the knee joint. Eighteen human cadaveric lower limbs were investigated using macro-dissection techniques. Six limbs were cut transversely in the middle third of the thigh. The mode of origin, insertion and nerve supply of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint were studied. The architecture of the VM and VI was examined in detail, as was their anatomical interaction and connective tissue linkage to the adjacent anatomical structures. The VM originated medially from a broad hammock-like structure. The attachment site of the VM always spanned over a long distance between: (1) patella, (2) rectus femoris tendon and (3) aponeurosis of the VI, with the insertion into the VI being the largest. VM units were inserted twice-once on the anterior and once on the posterior side of the VI. The VI consists of a complex multi-layered structure. The layers of the medial VI aponeurosis fused with the aponeuroses of the tensor vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis. Together, they form the two-layered intermediate layer of the quadriceps tendon. The VM and medial parts of the VI were innervated by the same medial division of the femoral nerve. The VM consists of multiple muscle units inserting into the entire VI. Together, they build a potential functional muscular complex. Therefore, the VM acts as an indirect extensor of the knee joint regulating and adjusting the length of the extensor apparatus throughout the entire range of motion. It is of clinical importance that, besides the VM, substantial parts of the VI directly contribute to the medial pull on the patella and help to maintain medial tracking of the patella during knee

  15. Neck Flexor and Extensor Muscle Endurance in Subclinical Neck Pain: Intrarater Reliability, Standard Error of Measurement, Minimal Detectable Change, and Comparison With Asymptomatic Participants in a University Student Population.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Ana S; Lameiras, Carina; Silva, Anabela G

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess intrarater reliability and to calculate the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) for deep neck flexor and neck extensor muscle endurance tests, and compare the results between individuals with and without subclinical neck pain. Participants were students of the University of Aveiro reporting subclinical neck pain and asymptomatic participants matched for sex and age to the neck pain group. Data on endurance capacity of the deep neck flexors and neck extensors were collected by a blinded assessor using the deep neck flexor endurance test and the extensor endurance test, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), SEM, and MDC were calculated for measurements taken within a session by the same assessor. Differences between groups for endurance capacity were investigated using a Mann-Whitney U test. The deep neck flexor endurance test (ICC = 0.71; SEM = 6.91 seconds; MDC = 19.15 seconds) and neck extensor endurance test (ICC = 0.73; SEM = 9.84 minutes; MDC = 2.34 minutes) are reliable. No significant differences were found between participants with and without neck pain for both tests of muscle endurance (P > .05). The endurance capacity of the deep neck flexors and neck extensors can be reliably measured in participants with subclinical neck pain. However, the wide SEM and MDC might limit the sensitivity of these tests. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Upright posture of man and morphologic evolution of the musculi extensores digitorum pedis with reference to evolutionary myology. III].

    PubMed

    Kaneff, A

    1986-01-01

    The following anatomical objects were studied with regard to myology during evolution: M. extensor hallucis longus (MEHL), M. extensor digitorum longus (MEDL) with M. peroneus tertius (MP III), M. peroneus brevis (MPB) with M. peroneus digiti V (MPD V), M. extensor hallucis brevis (MEHB), M. extensor digitorum brevis (MEDB), and the Retinaculum musculorum extensorum imum (RMEI). The study was carried out by the preparation of 3 different groups of material. The 1st group consists of lower extremities of humans. The number of the extremities differs for the particular objects between 151 and 358 (see page 381). The 2nd group of material consists of 122 Membra pelvina from Marsupialia, Insectivora, and Primates. Table 1 shows as well the mammalian species as the number of the studied extremities. The extremities of the 1st and 2nd group were preserved in an manner suitable for a macroscopic preparation. The 3rd group of material consists of 71 lower extremities from embryos and fetus. The lower legs and feet were stained either according to the method described by Morel and Bassal with eosin added or according to Weigert. From this material, complete series of cross sections were prepared. Table 2 shows the age of the embryos (VCL [mm]) as well as the number of the studied extremities. It is important that up to the age of 46 mm VCL the difference in the age of the embryos usually amounts from 0.5 to 1.0 mm. This small difference in the age of the embryos and fetus allows a very good follow up of the changes in construction during the organogenesis. The comparison of the 3 different groups shows the following changes for the above mentioned muscles: The M. extensor hallucis longus (MEHL) is a muscle which is not split. The same result applies for its tendon which inserts at the distal phalanx of the hallux. This primitive form of the muscle amounts actually to 51.12% in human beings. In 48.88% of the cases, additional tendons and muscles are formed by the MEHL. Most

  17. Lumbar extensor muscle force control is associated with disability in people with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Pranata, Adrian; Perraton, Luke; El-Ansary, Doa; Clark, Ross; Fortin, Karine; Dettmann, Tim; Brandham, Robert; Bryant, Adam

    2017-07-01

    The ability to control lumbar extensor force output is necessary for daily activities. However, it is unknown whether this ability is impaired in chronic low back pain patients. Similarly, it is unknown whether lumbar extensor force control is related to the disability levels of chronic low back pain patients. Thirty-three chronic low back pain and 20 healthy people performed lumbar extension force-matching task where they increased and decreased their force output to match a variable target force within 20%-50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Force control was quantified as the root-mean-square-error between participants' force output and target force across the entire, during the increasing and decreasing portions of the force curve. Within- and between-group differences in force-matching error and the relationship between back pain group's force-matching results and their Oswestry Disability Index scores were assessed using ANCOVA and linear regression respectively. Back pain group demonstrated more overall force-matching error (mean difference=1.60 [0.78, 2.43], P<0.01) and more force-matching error while increasing force output (mean difference=2.19 [1.01, 3.37], P<0.01) than control group. The back pain group demonstrated more force-matching error while increasing than decreasing force output (mean difference=1.74, P<0.001, 95%CI [0.87, 2.61]). A unit increase in force-matching error while decreasing force output is associated with a 47% increase in Oswestry score in back pain group (R 2 =0.19, P=0.006). Lumbar extensor muscle force control is compromised in chronic low back pain patients. Force-matching error predicts disability, confirming the validity of our force control protocol for chronic low back pain patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proximal forearm extensor muscle strain is reduced when driving nails using a shock-controlled hammer.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Kimberly A; Maza, Maria; Pérez-Vázquez, Carlos E; Yen, Thomas Y; Kijowski, Richard; Liu, Fang; Radwin, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Repetitive hammer use has been associated with strain and musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigated if using a shock-control hammer reduces forearm muscle strain by observing adverse physiological responses (i.e. inflammation and localized edema) after use. Three matched framing hammers were studied, including a wood-handle, steel-handle, and shock-control hammer. Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of these hammers at a fatiguing pace of one strike every second, to seat 20 nails in a wood beam. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan the forearm muscles for inflammation before the task, immediately after hammering, and one to two days after. Electromyogram signals were measured to estimate grip exertions and localized muscle fatigue. High-speed video was used to calculate the energy of nail strikes. While estimated grip force was similar across the three hammers, the shock-control hammer had 40% greater kinetic energy upon impact and markedly less proximal extensor muscle edema than the wood-handle and steel-handle hammers, immediately after use (p<.05). Less edema observed for the shock-control hammer suggests that isolating handle shock can mitigate strain in proximal forearm extensor muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between functional electrical stimulation duty cycle and fatigue in wrist extensor muscles of patients with hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Packman-Braun, R

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a sample of patients with hemiparesis secondary to cerebrovascular accident, the relationship between the ratio of stimulus on time to off time and muscle fatigue using a commercial electrical stimulation unit. An experimental model was used to test the hypothesis that the smaller the stimulus off time relative to stimulus on time, the greater will be the muscle fatigue over time. The wrist extensor muscles of 18 patients with hemiparesis were stimulated electrically, and isometric force output was recorded continuously using an adapted strain gauge-recorder apparatus. For each testing session, peak on time of the electrical stimulus was set at 5 seconds, and off time was set at 5, 15, or 25 seconds. Six randomly assigned treatment groups participated in three separate treatment sessions in a different order at 48-hour intervals. Treatment sessions were continued either until wrist extensor muscle force output decreased to 50% of its initial value or for a maximum of 30 minutes. Data analysis revealed that significant differences in muscle tension developed among all duty cycles (p less than .01). Duty-cycle ratios of 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 were shown to be progressively less fatiguing. Within the limits of this investigation, the 1:5 duty-cycle ratio was determined to be the best suited for initial use in programs of prolonged stimulation to the wrist extensor muscles of patients with hemiparesis. The hypothesis was accepted that the smaller the stimulus off time (rest interval) with respect to the stimulus on time, the greater will be the muscle fatigue over time.

  20. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow - Implication for treatment?

    PubMed

    Spang, C; Alfredson, H

    2017-06-01

    Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin and eosin, H and E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. IV.

  1. Influence of fatigue on upper limb muscle activity and performance in tennis.

    PubMed

    Rota, Samuel; Morel, Baptiste; Saboul, Damien; Rogowski, Isabelle; Hautier, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    The study examined the fatigue effect on tennis performance and upper limb muscle activity. Ten players were tested before and after a strenuous tennis exercise. Velocity and accuracy of serve and forehand drives, as well as corresponding surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of eight upper limb muscles were measured. EMG and force were also evaluated during isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVC). Significant decreases were observed after exercise in serve accuracy (-11.7%) and velocity (-4.5%), forehand accuracy (-25.6%) and consistency (-15.6%), as well as pectoralis major (PM) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) IMVC strength (-13.0% and -8.2%, respectively). EMG amplitude decreased for PM and FCR in serve, forehand and IMVC, and for extensor carpi radialis in forehand. No modification was observed in EMG activation timing during strokes or in EMG frequency content during IMVC. Several hypotheses can be put forward to explain these results. First, muscle fatigue may induce a reduction in activation level of PM and forearm muscles, which could decrease performance. Second, conscious or subconscious strategies could lead to a redistribution of muscle activity to non-fatigued muscles in order to protect the organism and/or limit performance losses. Otherwise, the modifications of EMG activity could also illustrate the strategies adopted to manage the speed-accuracy trade-off in such a complex task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine in combination with levomethadone/fenpipramide in healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Amendt, H-L; Siedenburg, J S; Steffensen, N; Söbbeler, F J; Schütter, A; Tünsmeyer, J; Rohn, K; Kästner, S B R; Tipold, A; Stein, V M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two sedation protocols on transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (TMMEPs) after transcranial magnetic stimulation in medium sized dogs. Onset latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes, elicited in the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial muscles, were analysed in 10 healthy Beagles that received either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine in combination with levomethadone/fenpipramide, in a crossover design. Similar TMMEP recordings could be made using both sedation protocols at 80-90% stimulation intensity; however, there were significantly shorter onset latencies with the acepromazine-levomethadone/fenpipramide protocol at 100% stimulation intensity. Reference values were established and it was concluded that both drug combinations are feasible for measuring TMMEPs in medium sized dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Case of anti VGKC-complex antibody associated disorder presenting with severe pain and fasciculations predominant in unilateral upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Hara, Kenju; Watanabe, Osamu; Shibano, Ken; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    A 21-year-old man complained of severe pain and muscle twitching localized in his right arm. Neurological examination showed muscle fasciculations in his right forearm but no myokymia or myotonia. Needle electromyography revealed fibrillation potentials in his biceps brachii muscle and extensor carpi radialis muscle at rest but no myokymic discharges. His serum anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibody level was significantly high (194.2pM; controls <100pM). Although anticonvulsant therapy relieved his pain, he was readmitted to our hospital because of severe pain in his left arm and both thighs three months later. A high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy followed by steroid pulse therapy relieved his pain. This case with neither muscle cramp nor myokymia expands the phenotype of anti VGKC-complex antibody associated disorder.

  4. Do changes in neuromuscular activation contribute to the knee extensor angle-torque relationship?

    PubMed

    Lanza, Marcel B; Balshaw, Thomas G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of the study? Do changes in neuromuscular activation contribute to the knee extensor angle-torque relationship? What is the main finding and its importance? Both agonist (quadriceps) and antagonist coactivation (hamstrings) differed with knee joint angle during maximal isometric knee extensions and thus both are likely to contribute to the angle-torque relationship. Specifically, two independent measurement techniques showed quadriceps activation to be lower at more extended positions. These effects might influence the capacity for neural changes in response to training and rehabilitation at different knee joint angles. The influence of joint angle on knee extensor neuromuscular activation is unclear, owing in part to the diversity of surface electromyography (sEMG) and/or interpolated twitch technique (ITT) methods used. The aim of the study was to compare neuromuscular activation, using rigorous contemporary sEMG and ITT procedures, during isometric maximal voluntary contractions (iMVCs) of the quadriceps femoris at different knee joint angles and examine whether activation contributes to the angle-torque relationship. Sixteen healthy active men completed two familiarization sessions and two experimental sessions of isometric knee extension and knee flexion contractions. The experimental sessions included the following at each of four joint angles (25, 50, 80 and 106 deg): iMVCs (with and without superimposed evoked doublets); submaximal contractions with superimposed doublets; and evoked twitch and doublet contractions whilst voluntarily passive, and knee flexion iMVC at the same knee joint positions. The absolute quadriceps femoris EMG was normalized to the peak-to-peak amplitude of an evoked maximal M-wave, and the doublet-voluntary torque relationship was used to calculate activation with the ITT. Agonist activation, assessed with both normalized EMG and the ITT, was reduced at the more extended compared with the more flexed

  5. Triplet firing origin in human motor units: emerging hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Kudina, Lydia P; Andreeva, Regina E

    2016-03-01

    A specific feature of motor unit (MU) firing behaviour is rhythmic trains of single discharges at low rate resulting from the prolonged motoneuronal afterhyperpolarization. However, some MUs exhibit occasional doublets with uniquely short interspike intervals (2.5-20.0 ms). Motoneuronal delayed depolarization is commonly accepted to be doublet underlying mechanism. Apart from doublets, much scarcer MU triple discharges were described, but their mechanisms are disputable. The aim of the present study was to analyse MU triplet firing origin in healthy humans. MU triple discharges occasionally arising during gentle voluntary muscle contractions were compared with those arising in axons during motor nerve stimulation. Firing pattern was analysed in 109 MUs of four muscles: the tibialis anterior, the flexor carpi ulnaris, the abductor pollicis brevis, and the abductor digiti minimi. Our findings present evidence that during voluntary contractions two kinds of MU triplet firing can be occasionally observed: "true" motoneuronal triplets (interspike intervals of 3.6-17.3 ms) with the delayed depolarization as the possible underlying mechanism and axonal triple discharges including the M-response and F-wave. The findings can be useful not only for understanding mechanisms of the very rare motoneuronal firing in healthy humans but also for estimation of pathological triplet firing origin.

  6. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    PubMed

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P < 0.01) twitch and tetanus contraction times compared with BEH+/+ mice, but only EDL displayed lower (P < 0.05) specific force. SOL and EDL of age-matched but not younger BEH mice showed greater exercise-induced CK efflux compared with BEH+/+ mice. In summary, myostatin dysfunction leads to impairment in muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  7. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

    PubMed

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  8. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow – Implication for treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Spang, C.; Alfredson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Methods: Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin & eosin, H&E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). Results: All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. Conclusion: The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. Level of Evidence: IV. PMID:28574416

  9. Conservative management of partial extensor tendon lacerations greater than half the width of the tendon in manual workers.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2015-04-01

    Conservative management (without suturing or splints) of partial extensor tendon lacerations greater than half the width of the tendon has not been previously investigated. In this prospective study, a total of 45 injured tendons (with lacerations involving 55%-90% of the width of the tendon) in 39 patients were treated conservatively. Injury zones I, III, and V of the fingers; and zones I and III of the thumb were excluded. Immediate non-resistive active mobilization was initiated and continued for 4 weeks, followed by resistive exercises. Patients were allowed to go back to work after 6 weeks. There were no cases of ruptures, triggering, infection, or complex regional pain syndrome. At final follow-up (8-9 months after injury), all patients obtained full range of motion with no extension lags. All patients were able to go back to normal duties. We conclude that early active motion without the use of splints or sutures in major extensor tendon lacerations in zones II, IV, VI-VIII of the fingers; and zones II, IV, and V of the thumb is safe.

  10. Speed, not magnitude, of knee extensor torque production is associated with self-reported knee function early after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chao-Jung; Indelicato, Peter A; Moser, Michael W; Vandenborne, Krista; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2015-11-01

    To examine the magnitude and speed of knee extensor torque production at the initiation of advanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation and the associations with self-reported knee function. Twenty-eight subjects who were 12 weeks post-ACL reconstruction and 28 age- and sex-matched physically active controls participated in this study. Knee extensor torque was assessed bilaterally with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s. The variables of interest were peak torque, average rate of torque development, time to peak torque and quadriceps symmetry index. Knee function was assessed with the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF). Peak torque and average rate of torque development were lower on the surgical side compared to the non-surgical side and controls. Quadriceps symmetry index was lower in subjects with ACL reconstruction compared to controls. On the surgical side, average rate of torque development was positively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = 0.379) while time to peak torque was negatively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = -0.407). At the initiation of advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation, the surgical side displayed deficits in peak torque and average rate of torque development. A higher rate of torque development and shorter time to peak torque were associated with better self-reported knee function. The results suggest that the rate of torque development should be addressed during advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation and faster knee extensor torque generation may lead to better knee function. III.

  11. Study on connectivity between coherent central rhythm and electromyographic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Tong, Kai-yu; Chan, Suk-tak; Wong, Wan-wa; Lui, Ka-him; Tang, Kwok-wing; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2008-09-01

    Whether afferent feedback contributes to the generation of cortico-muscular coherence (CMCoh) remains an open question. In the present study, a multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) model and partial directed coherence (PDC) were applied to investigate the causal influences between the central rhythm and electromyographic (EMG) signals in the process of CMCoh. The system modeling included activities from the contralateral and ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and the time series from extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles. The results showed that afferent sensory feedback could also play an important role for the generation of CMCoh. Meanwhile, significant coherence between the EMG signals and the activities in the SMA was found in two subjects out of five. Connectivity analysis revealed a significant descending information flow which possibly reflected direct recruitment on the motoneurons from the SMA to facilitate motor control.

  12. Sit-to-Stand Movement in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: Relationship with Knee Extensor Torque and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Pavao, Silvia Leticia; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Salvini, Tania de Fatima; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sit-to-stand (STS) movement, knee extensor torque and social participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven spastic hemiplegic CP patients (8.0 plus or minus 2.2 years), classified by the Gross Motor Function Classification System as I and II, and 18 typical children (8.4 plus or…

  13. Leg extensor muscle strength, postural stability, and fear of falling after a 2-month home exercise program in women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rätsepsoo, Monika; Gapeyeva, Helena; Sokk, Jelena; Ereline, Jaan; Haviko, Tiit; Pääsuke, Mati

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to compare the leg extensor muscle strength, the postural stability, and the fear of falling in the women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) before and after a 2-month home exercise program (HEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 17 women aged 46-72 years with late-stage knee joint OA scheduled for total knee arthroplasty participated in this study before and after the 2-month HEP with strengthening, stretching, balance, and step exercises. The isometric peak torque (PT) of the leg extensors and postural stability characteristics when standing on a firm or a foam surface for 30 seconds were recorded. The fear of falling and the pain intensity (VAS) were estimated. RESULTS. A significant increase in the PT and the PT-to-body weight (PT-to-BW) ratio of the involved leg as well as the bilateral PT and the PT-to-BW ratio was found after the 2-month HEP compared with the data before the HEP (P<0.05). The PT and the PT-to-BW ratio of the involved leg were significantly lower compared with the uninvolved leg before the HEP (P<0.05). The center of the pressure sway length (foam surface) decreased significantly after the HEP (P<0.05). Significant correlations were found between the PT of the involved leg and the bilateral PT and the fear of falling and between the PT of the involved leg and the postural sway (foam surface) before the HEP. CONCLUSIONS. After the 2-month HEP, the leg extensor muscle strength increased and the postural sway length on a foam surface decreased. The results indicate that the increased leg extensor muscle strength improves postural stability and diminishes the fear of falling in women with late-stage knee joint OA.

  14. Induction of cortical plasticity for reciprocal muscles by paired associative stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kirimoto, Hikari; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Makoto; Shimizu, Shinobu; Ishizaka, Ikuyo; Yamada, Sumio; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Fukuda, Michinari; Onishi, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is widely used to induce plasticity in the human motor cortex. Although reciprocal inhibition of antagonist muscles plays a fundamental role in human movements, change in cortical circuits for reciprocal muscles by PAS is unknown. Methods We investigated change in cortical plasticity for reciprocal muscles during PAS. PAS consisted of 200 pairs of peripheral electric stimulation of the right median nerve at the wrist at a frequency of 0.25 Hz followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left M1 at the midpoint between the center of gravities of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles. Measures of motor cortical excitability included resting motor threshold (RMT), GABAA-mediated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and GABAB-mediated long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). Results Motor evoked potential amplitude-conditioned LICI for the FCR muscle was significantly decreased after PAS (P = 0.020), whereas that for the ECR muscle was significantly increased (P = 0.033). Changes in RMT and SICI for the FCR and ECR muscles were not significantly different before and after PAS. Corticospinal excitability for both reciprocal muscles was increased during PAS, but GABAB-mediated cortical inhibitory functions for the agonist and antagonist muscles were reciprocally altered after PAS. Conclusion These results implied that the cortical excitability for reciprocal muscles including GABAB-ergic inhibitory systems within human M1 could be differently altered by PAS. PMID:25365805

  15. Dynamics of neurons controlling movements of a locust hind leg. III. Extensor tibiae motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Newland, P L; Kondoh, Y

    1997-06-01

    Imposed movements of the apodeme of the femoral chordotonal organ (FeCO) of the locust hind leg elicit resistance reflexes in extensor and flexor tibiae motor neurons. The synaptic responses of the fast and slow extensor tibiae motor neurons (FETi and SETi, respectively) and the spike responses of SETi were analyzed with the use of the Wiener kernel white noise method to determine their response properties. The first-order Wiener kernels computed from soma recordings were essentially monophasic, or low passed, indicating that the motor neurons were primarily sensitive to the position of the tibia about the femorotibial joint. The responses of both extensor motor neurons had large nonlinear components. The second-order kernels of the synaptic responses of FETi and SETi had large on-diagonal peaks with two small off-diagonal valleys. That of SETi had an additional elongated valley on the diagonal, which was accompanied by two off-diagonal depolarizing peaks at a cutoff frequency of 58 Hz. These second-order components represent a half-wave rectification of the position-sensitive depolarizing response in FETi and SETi, and a delayed inhibitory input to SETi, indicating that both motor neurons were directionally sensitive. Model predictions of the responses of the motor neurons showed that the first-order (linear) characterization poorly predicted the actual responses of FETi and SETi to FeCO stimulation, whereas the addition of the second-order (nonlinear) term markedly improved the performance of the model. Simultaneous recordings from the soma and a neuropilar process of FETi showed that its synaptic responses to FeCO stimulation were phase delayed by about -30 degrees at 20 Hz, and reduced in amplitude by 30-40% when recorded in the soma. Similar configurations of the first and second-order kernels indicated that the primary process of FETi acted as a low-pass filter. Cross-correlation between a white noise stimulus and a unitized spike discharge of SETi again

  16. Reconstruction of long digital extensor tendon by cranial tibial muscle fascia graft in a dog.

    PubMed

    Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures.

  17. Reconstruction of long digital extensor tendon by cranial tibial muscle fascia graft in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures. PMID:27872726

  18. [Obtaining a fermented chickpea extract (Cicer arietinum L.) and its use as a milk extensor].

    PubMed

    Morales de León, J; Cassís Nosthas, M L; Cecin Salomón, P

    2000-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is cultivated in the North part of México and it is considered a good source of vegetal protein of low cost (20% average), nevertheless, the 80% used for the exportation and only the 20% less was used for animal feeding. The main objective in this study is to obtain a fermented chickpea extract for using in dairy extensor. Chickpea water absorbtion kinetics were carried out in e temperature conditions:while the conditions were established, chickpea was grounded and fermented in different amounts with its natural flora, L. casei, L. plantarum and a mixture culture of both microorganism in logarithmic phase. The results showed that the presence of microorganism of chickpea natural flora interferes during the fermentation, so before the inoculation it was necessary treat the chickpea extract (CE) terminally in a dilution 1:4 during 20 min at 7.7 kg/cm2 of pressure. The use of a mixture culture of 5% of L. casei and 5% L. plantarum inoculated in MRS broth was used to decrease fermentation time. Its addition in logarithmic phase to the sterile chickpea extract increased the lactic acid production and decreased the pH value in 6 h which was less time that one obtained with each of lactobacillus. The fermented extract obtained finally, presented similar sensory characteristics to the ones of dairy products. Therefore, chickpea is a good alternative as a extensor for this kind of products.

  19. Electrophysiological assessment of piano players' back extensor muscles on a regular piano bench and chair with back rest.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, Kavan; Minaskanian, Rafael; Maboudi, Seyed Ebrahim; Oskouei, Ali E

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Sitting position is the dominant position for a professional pianist. There are many static and dynamic forces which affect musculoskeletal system during sitting. In prolonged sitting, these forces are harmful. The aim of this study was to compare pianists' back extensor muscles activity during playing piano while sitting on a regular piano bench and a chair with back rest. [Subjects and Methods] Ten professional piano players (mean age 25.4 ± 5.28, 60% male, 40% female) performed similar tasks for 5 hours in two sessions: one session sitting on a regular piano bench and the other sitting on a chair with back rest. In each session, muscular activity was assessed in 3 ways: 1) recording surface electromyography of the back-extensor muscles at the beginning and end of each session, 2) isometric back extension test, and 3) musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire. [Results] There were significantly lesser muscular activity, more ability to perform isometric back extension and better personal comfort while sitting on a chair with back rest. [Conclusion] Decreased muscular activity and perhaps fatigue during prolonged piano playing on a chair with back rest may reduce acquired musculoskeletal disorders amongst professional pianists.

  20. Electrophysiological assessment of piano players’ back extensor muscles on a regular piano bench and chair with back rest

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Kavan; Minaskanian, Rafael; Maboudi, Seyed Ebrahim; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Sitting position is the dominant position for a professional pianist. There are many static and dynamic forces which affect musculoskeletal system during sitting. In prolonged sitting, these forces are harmful. The aim of this study was to compare pianists’ back extensor muscles activity during playing piano while sitting on a regular piano bench and a chair with back rest. [Subjects and Methods] Ten professional piano players (mean age 25.4 ± 5.28, 60% male, 40% female) performed similar tasks for 5 hours in two sessions: one session sitting on a regular piano bench and the other sitting on a chair with back rest. In each session, muscular activity was assessed in 3 ways: 1) recording surface electromyography of the back-extensor muscles at the beginning and end of each session, 2) isometric back extension test, and 3) musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire. [Results] There were significantly lesser muscular activity, more ability to perform isometric back extension and better personal comfort while sitting on a chair with back rest. [Conclusion] Decreased muscular activity and perhaps fatigue during prolonged piano playing on a chair with back rest may reduce acquired musculoskeletal disorders amongst professional pianists. PMID:29410569

  1. Hypogravity-induced atrophy of rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ellis, S.; Slocum, G. R.; Satyanarayana, T.; Bain, J. L.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans to hypogravity causes weakening of their skeletal muscles. This problem was studied in rats exposed to hypogravity for 7 days aboard Spacelab 3. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 hours postflight for histochemical, biochemical, and ultrastructural analyses. The majority of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus fibers exhibited simple cell shrinkage. However, approximately 1% of the fibers in flight soleus muscles appeared necrotic. Flight muscle fibers showed increased glycogen, lower subsarcolemmal staining for mitochondrial enzymes, and fewer subsarcolemmal mitochondria. During atrophy, myofibrils were eroded by multiple focal losses of myofilaments; lysosomal autophagy was not evident. Tripeptidylaminopeptidase and calcium-activated protease activities of flight soleus fibers were significantly increased, implying a role in myofibril breakdown. Simple fiber atrophy appears to account for muscle weakening during spaceflight, but fiber necrosis is also a contributing factor.

  2. Flexor and extensor muscle tone evaluated using the quantitative pendulum test in stroke and parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Wei; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexor and extensor muscle tone of the upper limbs in patients with spasticity or rigidity and to investigate the difference in hypertonia between spasticity and rigidity. The two experimental groups consisted of stroke patients and parkinsonian patients. The control group consisted of age and sex-matched normal subjects. Quantitative upper limb pendulum tests starting from both flexed and extended joint positions were conducted. System identification with a simple linear model was performed and model parameters were derived. The differences between the three groups and two starting positions were investigated by these model parameters and tested by two-way analysis of variance. In total, 57 subjects were recruited, including 22 controls, 14 stroke patients and 21 parkinsonian patients. While stiffness coefficient showed no difference among groups, the number of swings, relaxation index and damping coefficient showed changes suggesting significant hypertonia in the two patient groups. There was no difference between these two patient groups. The test starting from the extended position constantly manifested higher muscle tone in all three groups. In conclusion, the hypertonia of parkinsonian and stroke patients could not be differentiated by the modified pendulum test; the elbow extensors showed a higher muscle tone in both control and patient groups; and hypertonia of both parkinsonian and stroke patients is velocity dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and Applications of a Self-Contained, Non-Invasive EVA Joint Angle and Muscle Fatigue Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranniger, C. U.; Sorenson, E. A.; Akin, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Maryland Space Systems Laboratory, as a participant in NASA's INSTEP program, is developing a non-invasive, self-contained sensor system which can provide quantitative measurements of joint angles and muscle fatigue in the hand and forearm. The goal of this project is to develop a system with which hand/forearm motion and fatigue metrics can be determined in various terrestrial and zero-G work environments. A preliminary study of the prototype sensor systems and data reduction techniques for the fatigue measurement system are presented. The sensor systems evaluated include fiberoptics, used to measure joint angle, surface electrodes, which measure the electrical signals created in muscle as it contracts; microphones, which measure the noise made by contracting muscle; and accelerometers, which measure the lateral muscle acceleration during contraction. The prototype sensor systems were used to monitor joint motion of the metacarpophalangeal joint and muscle fatigue in flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris in subjects performing gripping tasks. Subjects were asked to sustain a 60-second constant-contraction (isometric) exercise and subsequently to perform a repetitive handgripping task to failure. Comparison of the electrical and mechanical signals of the muscles during the different tasks will be used to evaluate the applicability of muscle signal measurement techniques developed for isometric contraction tasks to fatigue prediction in quasi-dynamic exercises. Potential data reduction schemes are presented.

  4. Electrophysiological appraisal of relative segmental motoneurone pool excitability in flexor and extensor.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, M A

    1978-01-01

    F responses recorded from flexor and extensor muscles were analysed in 18 normal subjects and in 16 patients with motor system abnormalities. The prominence of the F responses was evaluated quantitatively by determining the persistence--that is, the fraction of measurable F responses which actually occur after a series of supramaximal stimuli--and average amplitude of the F responses. In the normal resting state, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the "central excitatory states" of motoneurones is greater in the antigravity muscles than in those muscles not stretched by gravity. This pattern was disrupted in eight of the 16 patients with motor system abnormalities caused by central nervous system lesions. These changes reflect a clinically testable aspect of the pathophysiology of certain motor system disorders. PMID:690640

  5. Embryonic development of the innervation of the locust extensor tibiae muscle by identified neurons: formation and elimination of inappropriate axon branches.

    PubMed

    Myers, C M; Whitington, P M; Ball, E E

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular dye fills have been used to reveal the pattern of embryonic growth of each of the four neurons which innervate the extensor tibiae muscle (ETi) of the hind leg of the locust. The growth cone of the slow extensor tibiae motoneuron (SETi), the first of the four neurons to leave the central nervous system, pioneers nerve 3 (N3). The fast extensor motoneuron (FETi), the next neuron to grow out, follows earlier outgrowing motoneurons into the periphery in nerve 5 (N5) and then rejoins SETi in N3. As it transfers from N5 to N3, it is transiently dye-coupled to the Tr1 pioneer neuron which spans the gap between the two nerves. It then follows SETi onto the ETi muscle in the femur. The common inhibitory neuron and the dorsal unpaired median neuron (DUMETi) follow SETi and FETi in nerves 3B2 and 5B1, respectively. SETi's growth cone requires almost twice as long to reach ETi as those of the three later motoneurons, all of which follow preexisting neural pathways. At least three of the four developing motoneurons form one or more axon branches not found in the adult. These branches may occur (1) at segmental boundaries; (2) where the nerve, which the growth cone is following, itself branches or the growth cone encounters another nerve; or (3) when the axon continues to grow beyond its target muscle. These findings contrast with the apparent absence of inappropriate axon branches in another developing locust neuromuscular system and during the innervation of zebrafish myotomes, but resemble in some ways the transient production of inappropriate axonal branches reported for embryonic leech motoneurons.

  6. Intra-dialytic electrostimulation of leg extensors may improve exercise tolerance and quality of life in hemodialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Dobsak, Petr; Homolka, Pavel; Svojanovsky, Jan; Reichertova, Anna; Soucek, Miroslav; Novakova, Marie; Dusek, Ladislav; Vasku, Jaromir; Eicher, Jean-Christophe; Siegelova, Jarmila

    2012-01-01

    Hemodialyzed (HD) patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit lower fitness as a consequence of chronic uremic changes that trigger various structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities in skeletal muscles. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the effect of rehabilitation (RHB) training on a bicycle ergometer and electromyostimulation (EMS) of leg extensors in HD patients with ESRD. Thirty-two HD patients (18 men/14 women; mean age 61.1 ± 8.8 years) were randomized into three groups: (i) exercise training (ET; n = 11) on bicycle ergometer 2 × 20 min; (ii) EMS (n = 11) where stimulation (10 Hz) of leg extensors was applied for 60 min; and (iii) controls (CON; n = 10) without exercise. Exercising was performed between the 2nd and the 3rd hour of HD, three times a week, 20 weeks in total. Ergometric test was performed in order to evaluate peak workload (W(peak)), 6-min corridor walking test (CWT) to evaluate the distance walked, and dynamometry of leg extensors to assess muscle power (F(max)). Urea clearance was monitored and expressed as standard parameters: spKt/V, spKt/V equilibrated (spKt/V-e), and the urea removal ratio (URR). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the questionnaire SF-36. A significant increase of F(max) (P = 0.040 in group ET; P = 0.032 in group EMS), of 6-min CWT (P < 0.001 in ET group; P = 0.042 in EMS group), and of W(peak) (P = 0.041 in ET group) was observed. In both exercising groups, significant increase of spKt/V, spKt/V-e, and URR was found as compared with initial values (P < 0.05). In both exercising groups, highly significant changes in summarized mental functions were found (P = 0.001); in summarized physical components, significant improvement was observed in the ET group (P = 0.006). Intradialytic RHB showed comparable positive effects on functional parameters, urea clearance, and QoL. Intradialytic EMS might represent wide therapeutic possibility in the near future. © 2011, Copyright the Authors

  7. Effect of immobilization and retraining on torque-velocity relationship of human knee flexor and extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Labarque, V L; Eijnde, B Op 't; Van Leemputte, M

    2002-01-01

    The effect of 2 weeks immobilization of the uninjured right knee and 10 weeks of retraining on muscle torque-velocity characteristics was investigated in nine young subjects. Left and right knee extension and flexion maximal voluntary isometric torque (Tmax) and dynamic torque at 60 degrees s(-1) (T60) and 180 degrees x s(-1) (T180) were measured before (PRE) and after immobilization (POST) and after 3 (R3) and 10 (R10) weeks of dynamic retraining. The torque-velocity relationship was quantified by expressing T60 and T180 relative to Tmax (NT60 and NT180, respectively). For the right extensor muscles, percutaneous biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle and fibre type distribution was measured. POST extension and flexion torque (mean of Tmax, T60 and T180) decreased by 27% and 11%, respectively. During the course of the experiment, the changes in NT60 and NT180 were similar. POST extensor muscle NTV (mean of NT60 and NT180) was decreased significantly (12%, P<0.05), but no significant change was found for flexor muscle NTV (+ 3%). At R3 Tmax, dynamic torque and NTV were restored to normal. Unlike isometric torque, NTV did not change from R3 to R10. No changes in fibre type distribution were found. The adaptation of muscle length is suggested as the mechanism to explain the change in NTV.

  8. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  9. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task.

    PubMed

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki; Osawa, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Otaka, Yohei; Sugawara, Kenichi

    2017-09-29

    To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion (Increasing phase), the peak value of the sine wave, during the gradual reduction (Decreasing phase), and after completion of the task. The MEP ratio, as the ratio of imaged MEPs to resting-state, was compared between pre- and post-training at each time point. In the ECR muscle, the MEP ratio significantly increased during the Increasing phase and at the peak force of dorsiflexion imagery after training. Moreover, the MEP ratio was significantly greater in the Increasing phase than in the Decreasing phase. In the FCR, there were no significant consistent changes. Corticospinal excitability during motor imagery in an isometric contraction task was modulated in relation to the phase of force control after image construction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Contribution from motor unit firing adaptations and muscle co-activation during fatigue.

    PubMed

    Contessa, Paola; Letizi, John; De Luca, Gianluca; Kline, Joshua C

    2018-03-14

    The control of motor unit firing behavior during fatigue is still debated in the literature. Most studies agree that the central nervous system increases the excitation to the motoneuron pool to compensate for decreased force contributions of individual motor units and sustain muscle force output during fatigue. However, some studies claim that motor units may decrease their firing rates despite increased excitation, contradicting the direct relationship between firing rates and excitation that governs the voluntary control of motor units. To investigate whether the control of motor units in fact changes with fatigue, we measured motor unit firing behavior during repeated contractions of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle while concurrently monitoring the activation of surrounding muscles - including the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, and pronator teres. Across all subjects, we observed an overall increase in FDI activation and motor unit firing rates by the end of the fatigue task. However, in some subjects we observed increases in FDI activation and motor unit firing rates only during the initial phase of the fatigue task, followed by subsequent decreases during the late phase of the fatigue task while the co-activation of surrounding muscles increased. These findings indicate that the strategy for sustaining force output may occasionally change leading to increases in the relative activation of surrounding muscles while the excitation to the fatiguing muscle decreases. Importantly, irrespective of changes in the strategy for sustaining force output, the control properties regulating motor unit firing behavior remain unchanged during fatigue.

  11. Muscle dependency of corticomuscular coherence in upper and lower limb muscles and training-related alterations in ballet dancers and weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Ushiyama, Junichi; Takahashi, Yuji; Ushiba, Junichi

    2010-10-01

    It has been well documented that the 15- to 35-Hz oscillatory activity of the sensorimotor cortex shows coherence with the muscle activity during weak to moderate steady contraction. To investigate the muscle dependency of the corticomuscular coherence and its training-related alterations, we quantified the coherence between electroencephalogram (EEG) from the sensorimotor cortex and rectified electromyogram (EMG) from five upper limb (first dorsal interosseous, flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii) and four lower limb muscles (soleus, tibialis anterior, biceps femoris, rectus femoris), while maintaining a constant force level at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle, in 24 untrained, 12 skill-trained (ballet dancers), and 10 strength-trained (weightlifters) individuals. Data from untrained subjects demonstrated the muscle dependency of corticomuscular coherence. The magnitude of the EEG-EMG coherence was significantly greater in the distally located lower limb muscles, such as the soleus and tibialis anterior, than in the upper or other lower limb muscles in untrained subjects (P < 0.05). These results imply that oscillatory coupling between the sensorimotor cortex and spinal motoneurons during steady contraction differs among muscles, according to the functional role of each muscle. In addition, the ballet dancers and weightlifters showed smaller EEG-EMG coherences than the untrained subjects, especially in the lower limb muscles (P < 0.05). These results indicate that oscillatory interaction between the sensorimotor cortex and spinal motoneurons can be changed by long-term specialized use of the muscles and that this neural adaptation may lead to finer control of muscle force during steady contraction.

  12. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Gian M; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads.

  13. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Migliaccio, Gian M.; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  14. Surface EMG characteristics of people with multiple sclerosis during static contractions of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sasha M; Hughes, Adrienne R; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hunter, Angus M

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether any alterations existed in surface electromyography (sEMG) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) during isometric contractions of the knee extensors. Fifteen people with MS and 14 matched controls (mean ± SD age and body mass index 53·7 ± 10·5 versus 54·6 ± 9·6 years and 27·7 ± 6·1 versus 26·5 ± 4, respectively) completed 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors. sEMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis where muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) and sEMG amplitude (RMS) were assessed. Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and physical activity with the use of accelerometry. People with MS showed significantly (P<0·05) faster MFCV during MVC (6·6 ± 2·7 versus 4·7 ± 1·4 m s(-1) ) and all submaximal contractions, while RMS was significantly (P<0·05) less (0·11 ± 0·03 versus 0·24 ± 0·06 mV) in comparison with the controls. MVC along with specific thigh lean mass to torque, rate of force development and mean physical activity were significantly (P<0·01) less in PwMS. People with MS have elevated MFCV alongside reduced RMS during isometric contraction. This elevation in MFCV should be accounted for when interpreting sEMG from people with MS. © 2010 University of Stirling. Clinical physiology and Functional Imaging © 2010 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  15. Influence of patellofemoral bracing on pain, knee extensor torque, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher M; Doubleday, Kathryn L; Escudero, Carina

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a patellofemoral brace on pain response, knee extensor torque production, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Sixteen females between the ages of 14 and 46 with diagnosis of PFP participated. Knee extensor torque was measured by using a LIDO isokinetic dynamometer. Pain levels were documented by using the Visual Analog Pain Scale. Stride characteristics during the conditions of free walk, fast walk, ascend stairs, descend stairs, ascend ramp, and descend ramp were obtained with a stride analyzer unit. EMG activity of the vasti musculature was recorded by using indwelling, bipolar, wire electrodes. Knee joint motion was assessed by using a VICON motion analysis system. All testing was performed with and without the Bauerfeind Genutrain P3 patellofemoral brace. There were no significant differences in torque production, pain levels, and stride characteristics between braced and non-braced trials. In addition, there were no significant differences in mean vasti EMG between braced and non-braced trials. When averaged across all conditions, a small but statistically significant increase in knee flexion was found during the braced trials. Although the current study did not find significant improvements in the clinical measures evaluated, 8 of the 16 subjects did experience a decrease in knee pain. This finding suggests that certain patients with PFP may respond favorably to bracing, and criteria must be established to determine which patients would best benefit from such an intervention.

  16. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy for treatment of common extensor tendinosis in the elbow: is a corticosteroid necessary?

    PubMed

    McShane, John M; Shah, Vinil N; Nazarian, Levon N

    2008-08-01

    Chronic refractory common extensor tendinosis of the lateral elbow has been shown to respond to sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy (PNT) followed by corticosteroid injection. In this analysis, we attempted to determine whether the corticosteroid is a necessary component of the procedure. We performed PNT on 57 consecutive patients (age range, 34-61 years) with persistent pain and disability resulting from common extensor tendinosis. Under a local anesthetic and sonographic guidance, a needle was advanced into the tendon, and the tip of the needle was used to fenestrate the tendinotic tissue, break up any calcifications, and abrade the adjacent bone. After the procedure, patients underwent a specified physical therapy protocol. During a subsequent telephone interview, patients answered questions about their symptoms, the level of functioning, and perceptions of the procedure outcome. Of the 52 patients who agreed to participate in the study, 30 (57.7%) reported excellent outcomes, 18 (34.6%) good, 1 (1.9%) fair, and 3 (5.8%) poor. The average follow-up time from the date of the procedure to the telephone interview was 22 months (range, 7-38 months). No adverse events were reported, and 90% stated that they would refer a friend or close relative for the procedure. Sonographically guided PNT for refractory lateral elbow tendinosis is an effective procedure, and subsequent corticosteroid injection is not necessary.

  17. Commercial golf glove effects on golf performance and forearm muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Darroch, Paul; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike C

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether or not commercial golf gloves influence performance variables and forearm muscle activity during golf play. Fifteen golfers participated in the laboratory based study, each performing 8 golf swings with a Driver and 7-iron whilst wearing a glove and 8 without wearing the glove. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance performance variables were calculated. Surface electromyography was recorded from the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor carpi radialis brevis on both forearm muscles. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance was significantly higher when using the Driver with the glove in comparison to the Driver without the glove (p < 0.05). No significant differences were evident when using the 7-iron and no significant differences were displayed in muscle activity in either of the conditions. Findings from this study suggest that driving performance is improved when wearing a glove.

  18. Selectivity of conventional electrodes for recording motor evoked potentials: An investigation with high-density surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Gallina, Alessio; Peters, Sue; Neva, Jason L; Boyd, Lara A; Garland, S Jayne

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation and measured with conventional bipolar electromyography (EMG) are influenced by crosstalk from non-target muscles. MEPs were recorded in healthy participants using conventional EMG electrodes placed over the extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and high-density surface EMG (HDsEMG). Fifty MEPs at 120% resting and active motor threshold were recorded. To determine the contribution of ECR to the MEPs, the amplitude distribution across HDsEMG channels was correlated with EMG activity recorded during a wrist extension task. Whereas the conventional EMG identified MEPs from ECR in >90% of the stimulations, HDsEMG revealed that spatial amplitude distribution representative of ECR activation was observed less frequently at rest than while holding a contraction (P < 0.001). MEPs recorded with conventional EMG may contain crosstalk from non-target muscles, especially when the stimulation is applied at rest. Muscle Nerve 55: 828-834, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An electromyographic study of the effect of hand grip sizes on forearm muscle activity and golf performance.

    PubMed

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Hunter, Henry H; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike Chris

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the differences in surface electromyography (EMG) activity of two forearm muscles in the lead and trail arm at specific phases of the golf swing using a 7-iron with three different grip sizes among amateur and professional golfers. Fifteen right-handed male golfers performed five golf swings using golf clubs with three different grip sizes. Surface EMG was used to measure muscle activity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) on both forearms. There were no significant differences in forearm muscle activity when using the three golf grips within the group of 15 golfers (p > 0.05). When using the undersize grip, club head speed significantly increased (p = 0.044). During the backswing and downswing phases, amateurs produced significantly greater forearm muscle activity with all three grip sizes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, forearm muscle activity is not affected by grip sizes. However, club head speed increases when using undersize grips.

  20. Elbow arthroscopy: setup, portal placement, and simple procedures.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Vitale, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy has become an accepted treatment for numerous elbow conditions, including loose bodies, lateral epicondylitis, contractures, painful osteophytes, synovitis, osteochondritis dissecans, synovial plica, and osteoarthritis. It is absolutely necessary that the treating surgeon have complete knowledge of elbow anatomy. Three options exist for patient positioning: supine, prone, and lateral decubitus. Standard arthroscopic probes, grasping forceps, punches, and motorized shavers and burrs are used in the procedure. Retractors are essential for visualizing, exposing, and protecting nerves. Specially designed capsular biters can be used to develop a plane between the capsule and the surrounding soft tissues to facilitate capsulotomy and capsulectomy. Among elbow arthroscopists, the sequence of portal placement varies; however, there is little variation in the exact location of portal placement because of neurovascular constraints. Loose body removal and extensor carpi radialis brevis release for lateral epicondylitis are common procedures suitable for the beginning arthroscopist. For beginning and advanced procedures, the surgeon's skill and competence must be at a level consistent with the procedure to avoid complications.

  1. The effects of lumbar extensor strength on disability and mobility in patients with persistent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Helmhout, Pieter H; Witjes, Marloes; Nijhuis-VAN DER Sanden, Ria W; Bron, Carel; van Aalst, Michiel; Staal, J Bart

    2017-04-01

    It is assumed that low back pain patients who use pain-avoiding immobilizing strategies may benefit from specific back flexion and extension exercises aimed at reducing sagittal lumbar hypomobility. The aim of this study was to test this potential working mechanism in chronic low back pain patients undergoing lumbar extensor strengthening training. A single-group prospective cohort design was used in this study. Patients with persistent low back complaints for at least 2 years were recruited at a specialized physical therapy clinics center. They participated in a progressive 11-week lumbar extensor strength training program, once a week. At baseline, sagittal lumbar mobility in flexion and extension was measured with a computer-assisted inclinometer. Self-rated pain intensity was measured using a visual analogue scale, back-specific functional status was assessed with the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale and the Patient Specific Complains questionnaire. Statistically significant improvements were found in pain (28% decrease) and functional disability (23% to 36% decrease). Most progress was seen in the first 5 treatment weeks. Lumbar mobility in flexion showed non-significant increases over time (+12%). Pre-post treatment changes in flexion and extension mobility did not contribute significantly to the models. The retained factors together explained 15% to 48% of the variation in outcome. Specific lumbar strengthening showed clinically relevant improvements in pain and disability in patients with persistent chronic low back pain. These improvements did not necessarily relate to improvements in lumbar mobility. Parameters representing other domains of adaptations to exercise may be needed to evaluate the effects of back pain management.

  2. Age-Related Differences in Maximal and Rapid Torque Characteristics of the Hip Extensors and Dynamic Postural Balance in Healthy, Young and Old Females.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Ty B; Thiele, Ryan M; Thompson, Brennan J

    2017-02-01

    Palmer, TB, Thiele, RM, and Thompson, BJ. Age-related differences in maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensors and dynamic postural balance in healthy, young and old females. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 480-488, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine age-related differences in maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and dynamic postural balance in healthy, young and older females. Eleven younger (age, 26 ± 8 years) and 11 older (age, 67 ± 8 years) females performed 2 isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Absolute and relative peak torque (PT) and rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (0-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Dynamic postural balance was assessed using a commercially designed balance testing device, which provides a measurement of dynamic stability based on the overall stability index (OSI). Results indicated that absolute PT and early (RTD50) and late (RTD200) RTD variables were lower (p = 0.009-0.050), and postural OSI was higher (p = 0.011) in the old compared with the younger females; however, no differences were observed for relative PT or RTD variables (p = 0.113-0.895). A significant relationship was also observed in the older (r = -0.601; p = 0.050) but not the younger (r = -0.132; p = 0.698) females between RTD50 and OSI. The lower absolute PT and RTD and higher OSI values for the old females may contribute to the increased functional limitations often observed in older adults. The significant relationship observed in the older females between OSI and RTD50 perhaps suggests that these age-related declines in explosive strength may be an important characteristic relevant to dynamic balance scores, especially in older populations.

  3. Central and peripheral fatigue in knee and elbow extensor muscles after a long-distance cross-country ski race.

    PubMed

    Boccia, G; Dardanello, D; Zoppirolli, C; Bortolan, L; Cescon, C; Schneebeli, A; Vernillo, G; Schena, F; Rainoldi, A; Pellegrini, B

    2017-09-01

    Although elbow extensors (EE) have a great role in cross-country skiing (XC) propulsion, previous studies on neuromuscular fatigue in long-distance XC have investigated only knee extensor (KE) muscles. In order to investigate the origin and effects of fatigue induced by long-distance XC race, 16 well-trained XC skiers were tested before and after a 56-km classical technique race. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured for both KE and EE. Furthermore, electrically evoked double twitch during MVC and at rest were measured. MVC decreased more in KE (-13%) than in EE (-6%, P = 0.016), whereas the peak RFD decreased only in EE (-26%, P = 0.02) but not in KE. The two muscles showed similar decrease in voluntary activation (KE -5.0%, EE -4.8%, P = 0.61) and of double twitch amplitude (KE -5%, EE -6%, P = 0.44). A long-distance XC race differently affected the neuromuscular function of lower and upper limbs muscles. Specifically, although the strength loss was greater for lower limbs, the capacity to produce force in short time was more affected in the upper limbs. Nevertheless, both KE and EE showed central and peripheral fatigue, suggesting that the origins of the strength impairments were multifactorial for the two muscles. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Clarification of Eponymous Anatomical Terminology: Structures Named After Dr Geoffrey V. Osborne That Compress the Ulnar Nerve at the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Wali, Arvin R; Gabel, Brandon; Mitwalli, Madhawi; Tubbs, R Shane; Brown, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    In 1957, Dr Geoffrey Osborne described a structure between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon that placed excessive pressure on the ulnar nerve. Three terms associated with such structures have emerged: Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia. As anatomical language moves away from eponymous terminology for descriptive, consistent nomenclature, we find discrepancies in the use of anatomic terms. This review clarifies the definitions of the above 3 terms. We conducted an extensive electronic search via PubMed and Google Scholar to identify key anatomical and surgical texts that describe ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. We searched the following terms separately and in combination: "Osborne's band," "Osborne's ligament," and "Osborne's fascia." A total of 36 papers were included from 1957 to 2016. Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia were found to inconsistently describe the etiology of ulnar neuritis, referring either to the connective tissue between the 2 heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle as described by Dr Osborne or to the anatomically distinct fibrous tissue between the olecranon process of the ulna and the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The use of eponymous terms to describe ulnar pathology of the elbow remains common, and although these terms allude to the rich history of surgical anatomy, these nonspecific descriptions lead to inconsistencies. As Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia are not used consistently across the literature, this research demonstrates the need for improved terminology to provide reliable interpretation of these terms among surgeons.

  5. Anatomical considerations of fascial release in ulnar nerve transposition: a concept revisited.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Mark A; Gasco, Jaime; Mokhtee, David B; Brown, Justin M

    2015-11-01

    Surgical transposition of the ulnar nerve to alleviate entrapment may cause otherwise normal structures to become new sources of nerve compression. Recurrent or persistent neuropathy after anterior transposition is commonly attributable to a new distal compression. The authors sought to clarify the anatomical relationship of the ulnar nerve to the common aponeurosis of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles following anterior transposition of the nerve. The intermuscular septa of the proximal forearm were explored in 26 fresh cadaveric specimens. The fibrous septa and common aponeurotic insertions of the flexor-pronator muscle mass were evaluated in relation to the ulnar nerve, with particular attention to the effect of transposition upon the nerve in this region. An intermuscular aponeurosis associated with the FCU and FDS muscles was present in all specimens. Transposition consistently resulted in angulation of the nerve during elbow flexion when this fascial septum was not released. The proximal site at which the nerve began to traverse this fascial structure was found to be an average of 3.9 cm (SD 0.7 cm) from the medial epicondyle. The common aponeurosis encountered between the FDS and FCU muscles represents a potential site of posttransposition entrapment, which may account for a subset of failed anterior transpositions. Exploration of this region with release of this structure is recommended to provide an unconstrained distal course for a transposed ulnar nerve.

  6. Development of a Compact Wireless Laplacian Electrode Module for Electromyograms and Its Human Interface Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yutaka; Miyazawa, Kenji; Mori, Hiroki; Miyagi, Manabi; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira; Hoshino, Hiroshi; Noshiro, Makoto; Ueno, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a compact wireless Laplacian electrode module for electromyograms (EMGs). One of the advantages of the Laplacian electrode configuration is that EMGs obtained with it are expected to be sensitive to the firing of the muscle directly beneath the measurement site. The performance of the developed electrode module was investigated in two human interface applications: character-input interface and detection of finger movement during finger Braille typing. In the former application, the electrode module was combined with an EMG-mouse click converter circuit. In the latter, four electrode modules were used for detection of finger movements during finger Braille typing. Investigation on the character-input interface indicated that characters could be input stably by contraction of (a) the masseter, (b) trapezius, (c) anterior tibialis and (d) flexor carpi ulnaris muscles. This wide applicability is desirable when the interface is applied to persons with physical disabilities because the disability differs one to another. The investigation also demonstrated that the electrode module can work properly without any skin preparation. Finger movement detection experiments showed that each finger movement was more clearly detectable when comparing to EMGs recorded with conventional electrodes, suggesting that the Laplacian electrode module is more suitable for detecting the timing of finger movement during typing. This could be because the Laplacian configuration enables us to record EMGs just beneath the electrode. These results demonstrate the advantages of the Laplacian electrode module. PMID:23396194

  7. Changes in the activity of trunk and hip extensor muscles during bridge exercises with variations in unilateral knee joint angle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juseung; Park, Minchul

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared abdominal and hip extensor muscle activity during a bridge exercise with various knee joint angles. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy male subjects performed a bridge exercise in which the knee joint angle was altered. While subjects performed the bridge exercise, external oblique, internal oblique, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus muscle activity was measured using electromyography. [Results] The bilateral external and internal oblique muscle activity was significantly higher at 0° knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The bilateral gluteus maximus muscle activity was significantly different at 0° of knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The ipsilateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly increased at 90° and 60° of knee flexion compared to 120°, and significantly decreased at 0° knee flexion compared with 120°, 90°, and 60°. The contralateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly higher at 60° of knee flexion than at 120°, and significantly higher at 0° of knee flexion than at 120°, 90°, and 60°. [Conclusion] Bridge exercises performed with knee flexion less than 90° may be used to train the ipsilateral semitendinosus. Furthermore, bridge exercise performed with one leg may be used to train abdominal and hip extensor muscles.

  8. Contribution of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength on Sex-Specific Energy Absorption and Torsional Joint Stiffness During Drop Jumping

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Randy J.; Shultz, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Lower extremity injury often occurs during abrupt deceleration when attempting to change the body's direction. Although sex-specific biomechanics have been implicated in the greater risk of acute knee injury in women than in men, it is unknown if sex differences in thigh strength affect sex-specific energy absorption and torsional joint stiffness patterns. Objective: To determine sex differences in energy absorption patterns and joint stiffnesses of the lower extremity during a drop jump and to determine if these sex differences were predicted by knee extensor and flexor strength. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory environment. Patients or Other Participants: Recreationally active, college-aged students (41 women: age  =  22.1 ± 2.9 years, height  =  1.63 ± 0.07 m, mass  =  59.3 ± 8.0 kg; 40 men: age  =  22.4 ± 2.8 years, height  =  1.77 ± 0.1 m, mass  =  80.9 ± 14.1 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed knee flexor and extensor maximal voluntary isometric contractions followed by double-leg drop-jump landings. Main Outcome Measure(s): Lower extremity joint energetics (J × N−1 × m−1) and torsional joint stiffnesses (Nm × N−1 × m−1 × degrees−1) were calculated for the hip, knee, and ankle during the initial landing phase. Body weight was measured in newtons and height was measured in meters. Sex comparisons were made and sex-specific regressions determined if thigh muscle strength (Nm/kg) predicted sagittal-plane landing energetics and stiffnesses. Results: Women absorbed 69% more knee energy and had 36% less hip torsional stiffness than men. In women, greater knee extensor strength predicted greater knee energy absorption (R2  =  0.11, P  =  .04), and greater knee flexor strength predicted greater hip torsional stiffness (R2  =  0.12, P  =  .03). Conclusions: Sex-specific biomechanics during the deceleration phase of a drop jump revealed that women used a

  9. Contribution of knee flexor and extensor strength on sex-specific energy absorption and torsional joint stiffness during drop jumping.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Randy J; Shultz, Sandra J

    2010-01-01

    Lower extremity injury often occurs during abrupt deceleration when attempting to change the body's direction. Although sex-specific biomechanics have been implicated in the greater risk of acute knee injury in women than in men, it is unknown if sex differences in thigh strength affect sex-specific energy absorption and torsional joint stiffness patterns. To determine sex differences in energy absorption patterns and joint stiffnesses of the lower extremity during a drop jump and to determine if these sex differences were predicted by knee extensor and flexor strength. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory environment. Recreationally active, college-aged students (41 women: age  =  22.1 ± 2.9 years, height  =  1.63 ± 0.07 m, mass  =  59.3 ± 8.0 kg; 40 men: age  =  22.4 ± 2.8 years, height  =  1.77 ± 0.1 m, mass  =  80.9 ± 14.1 kg). Participants performed knee flexor and extensor maximal voluntary isometric contractions followed by double-leg drop-jump landings. Lower extremity joint energetics (J × N(-1) × m(-1)) and torsional joint stiffnesses (Nm × N(-1) × m(-1) × degrees(-1)) were calculated for the hip, knee, and ankle during the initial landing phase. Body weight was measured in newtons and height was measured in meters. Sex comparisons were made and sex-specific regressions determined if thigh muscle strength (Nm/kg) predicted sagittal-plane landing energetics and stiffnesses. Women absorbed 69% more knee energy and had 36% less hip torsional stiffness than men. In women, greater knee extensor strength predicted greater knee energy absorption (R(2)  =  0.11, P  =  .04), and greater knee flexor strength predicted greater hip torsional stiffness (R(2)  =  0.12, P  =  .03). Sex-specific biomechanics during the deceleration phase of a drop jump revealed that women used a strategy to attempt to decrease system stiffness. Additionally, only female strength values were predictive of landing energetics and stiffnesses

  10. Biomechanical Analysis of All-Inside, Arthroscopic Suture Repair Versus Extensor Retinaculum Capsulorrhaphy for Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears With Instability.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amar A; Alhandi, Ali A; Milne, Edward; Dy, Christopher J; Latta, Loren L; Ouellette, E Anne

    2016-03-01

    To assess ulnocarpal joint stability after treatment of a peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury with all-inside arthroscopic suture repair (SR), extensor retinaculum capsulorrhaphy with the Herbert sling (HS), and a combination of both (SR+HS). Twelve fresh-frozen, age-matched, upper-extremity specimens intact from the distal humerus were prepared. Nondestructive mechanical testing was performed to assess native ulnocarpal joint stability and load-displacement curves were recorded. A peripheral, ulnar-sided TFCC injury was created with arthroscopic assistance, and mechanical testing was performed. Each specimen was treated with SR or HS and testing was repeated. The 6 specimens treated with SR were then treated with HS (SR+HS), and testing was repeated. We used paired Student t tests for statistical analysis within cohorts. For all cohorts, there was an average increase in ulnar translation after the creation of a peripheral TFCC injury and an average decrease after repair. Herbert sling decreased translation by 21%, SR decreased translation by 12%, and SR+HS decreased translation by 26%. Suture repair plus HS and HS reduce ulnar translation the most after a peripheral TFCC injury, followed by SR alone. Ulnocarpal joint stability should be assessed clinically in patients with peripheral TFCC injury, and consideration should be made for using extensor capsulorrhaphy in isolation or as an adjunct to SR as a treatment option. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  12. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    CARBERRY, STEVEN; BRINKMEIER, HEINRICH; ZHANG, YAXIN; WINKLER, CLAUDIA K.; OHLENDIECK, KAY

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20–25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  13. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Aue Sobol, Nanna; Andersen, Lars L.; Kiel, Peter; Løfholm, Peter; Magnusson, S. Peter; Krogsgaard, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. Methods. 31 males and 19 females were randomized to HRT (n = 24) or LRT (n = 26) from week 8–20 after ACL-reconstruction. Leg extensor power, joint laxity, and self-reported knee function were measured before and 7, 14, and 20 weeks after surgery. Hop tests were assessed before and after 20 weeks. Results. Power in the injured leg was 90% (95% CI 86–94%) of the noninjured leg, decreasing to 64% (95% CI 60–69%) 7 weeks after surgery. During the resistance training phase there was a significant group by time interaction for power (P = 0.020). Power was regained more with HRT compared to LRT at week 14 (84% versus 73% of noninjured leg, resp.; P = 0.027) and at week 20 (98% versus 83% of noninjured leg, resp.; P = 0.006) without adverse effects on joint laxity. No other between-group differences were found. Conclusion. High-intensity resistance training during rehabilitation after ACL-reconstruction can improve muscle power without adverse effects on joint laxity. PMID:24877078

  14. Mirror illusion reduces motor cortical inhibition in the ipsilateral primary motor cortex during forceful unilateral muscle contractions.

    PubMed

    Zult, Tjerk; Goodall, Stuart; Thomas, Kevin; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-04-01

    Forceful, unilateral contractions modulate corticomotor paths targeting the resting, contralateral hand. However, it is unknown whether mirror-viewing of a slowly moving but forcefully contracting hand would additionally affect these paths. Here we examined corticospinal excitability and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of the right-ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy young adults under no-mirror and mirror conditions at rest and during right wrist flexion at 60% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During the no-mirror conditions neither hand was visible, whereas in the mirror conditions participants looked at the right hand's reflection in the mirror. Corticospinal excitability increased during contractions in the left flexor carpi radialis (FCR) (contraction 0.41 mV vs. rest 0.21 mV) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) (contraction 0.56 mV vs. rest 0.39 mV), but there was no mirror effect (FCR: P = 0.743, ηp (2) = 0.005; ECR: P = 0.712, ηp (2) = 0.005). However, mirror-viewing of the contracting and moving wrist attenuated SICI relative to test pulse in the left FCR by ∼9% compared with the other conditions (P < 0.05, d ≥ 0.62). Electromyographic activity in the resting left hand prior to stimulation was not affected by the mirror (FCR: P = 0.255, ηp (2) = 0.049; ECR: P = 0.343, ηp (2) = 0.035) but increased twofold during contractions. Thus viewing the moving hand in the mirror and not just the mirror image of the nonmoving hand seems to affect motor cortical inhibitory networks in the M1 associated with the mirror image. Future studies should determine whether the use of a mirror could increase interlimb transfer produced by cross-education, especially in patient groups with unilateral orthopedic and neurological conditions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on motor cortex excitability upon release of tonic muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Higashi, Toshio

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurophysiological triggers underlying muscle relaxation from the contracted state, and to examine the mechanisms involved in this process and their subsequent modification by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to produce motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in 23 healthy participants, wherein motor cortex excitability was examined at the onset of voluntary muscle relaxation following a period of voluntary tonic muscle contraction. In addition, the effects of afferent input on motor cortex excitability, as produced by NMES during muscle contraction, were examined. In particular, two NMES intensities were used for analysis: 1.2 times the sensory threshold and 1.2 times the motor threshold (MT). Participants were directed to execute constant wrist extensions and to release muscle contraction in response to an auditory "GO" signal. MEPs were recorded from the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles, and TMS was applied at three different time intervals (30, 60, and 90 ms) after the "GO" signal. Motor cortex excitability was greater during voluntary ECR and FCR relaxation using high-intensity NMES, and relaxation time was decreased. Each parameter differed significantly between 30 and 60 ms. Moreover, in both muscles, SICI was larger in the presence than in the absence of NMES. Therefore, the present findings suggest that terminating a muscle contraction triggers transient neurophysiological mechanisms that facilitate the NMES-induced modulation of cortical motor excitability in the period prior to muscle relaxation. High-intensity NMES might facilitate motor cortical excitability as a function of increased inhibitory intracortical activity, and therefore serve as a transient trigger for the relaxation of prime mover muscles in a therapeutic context.

  16. Mirror illusion reduces motor cortical inhibition in the ipsilateral primary motor cortex during forceful unilateral muscle contractions

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Stuart; Thomas, Kevin; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Forceful, unilateral contractions modulate corticomotor paths targeting the resting, contralateral hand. However, it is unknown whether mirror-viewing of a slowly moving but forcefully contracting hand would additionally affect these paths. Here we examined corticospinal excitability and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of the right-ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy young adults under no-mirror and mirror conditions at rest and during right wrist flexion at 60% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During the no-mirror conditions neither hand was visible, whereas in the mirror conditions participants looked at the right hand's reflection in the mirror. Corticospinal excitability increased during contractions in the left flexor carpi radialis (FCR) (contraction 0.41 mV vs. rest 0.21 mV) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) (contraction 0.56 mV vs. rest 0.39 mV), but there was no mirror effect (FCR: P = 0.743, ηp2 = 0.005; ECR: P = 0.712, ηp2 = 0.005). However, mirror-viewing of the contracting and moving wrist attenuated SICI relative to test pulse in the left FCR by ∼9% compared with the other conditions (P < 0.05, d ≥ 0.62). Electromyographic activity in the resting left hand prior to stimulation was not affected by the mirror (FCR: P = 0.255, ηp2 = 0.049; ECR: P = 0.343, ηp2 = 0.035) but increased twofold during contractions. Thus viewing the moving hand in the mirror and not just the mirror image of the nonmoving hand seems to affect motor cortical inhibitory networks in the M1 associated with the mirror image. Future studies should determine whether the use of a mirror could increase interlimb transfer produced by cross-education, especially in patient groups with unilateral orthopedic and neurological conditions. PMID:25632077

  17. Proprioceptive guidance of human voluntary wrist movements studied using muscle vibration.

    PubMed Central

    Cody, F W; Schwartz, M P; Smit, G P

    1990-01-01

    1. The alterations in voluntary wrist extension and flexion movement trajectories induced by application of vibration to the tendon of flexor carpi radialis throughout the course of the movement, together with the associated EMG patterns, have been studied in normal human subjects. Both extension and flexion movements were routinely of a target amplitude of 30 deg and made against a torque load of 0.32 N m. Flexor tendon vibration consistently produced undershooting of voluntary extension movements. In contrast, voluntary flexion movements were relatively unaffected. 2. The degree of vibration-induced undershooting of 1 s voluntary extension movements was graded according to the amplitude (0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 mm) of flexor tendon vibration. 3. As flexor vibration was initiated progressively later (at greater angular thresholds) during the course of 1 s voluntary extension movements, and the period of vibration was proportionately reduced, so the degree of vibration-induced undershooting showed a corresponding decline. 4. Varying the torque loads (0.32, 0.65 and 0.97 N m) against which 1 s extension movements were made, and thereby the strength of voluntary extensor contraction, produced no systematic changes in the degree of flexor vibration-induced undershooting. 5. Analysis of EMG patterns recorded from wrist flexor and extensor muscles indicated that vibration-induced undershooting of extension movements resulted largely from a reduction in activity in the prime-mover rather than increased antagonist activity. The earliest reductions in extensor EMG commenced some 40 ms after the onset of vibration, i.e. well before voluntary reaction time; these initial responses were considered to be 'automatic' in nature. 6. These results support the view that the central nervous system utilizes proprioceptive information in the continuous regulation of moderately slow voluntary wrist movements. Proprioceptive sensory input from the passively lengthening antagonist muscle

  18. The prevalence of the extensor digiti minimi tendon of the hand and its variants in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-01-01

    The extensor digiti minimi (EDM) is frequently used in the case of an abduction deformity of the little finger. It is also considered as a main resource for tendon transfer. However, it shows many variations in the human hand, which include splitting into two or more slips and sending a slip to the fourth finger, named the extensor digiti minimi et quarti (EDMQ). The aim of this systematic review is to perform an evidence synthesis on the prevalence of the EDM and its variants. Twenty-six cadaveric studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 2247 hands. Meta-analysis results yielded an overall pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) of the EDM of 99.7% and PPEs of 11.5, 77.6, 7 and 0.6% for the single-, double-, triple- and quadruple-slip EDM, respectively. For the single-slip EDM, the frequencies were such that Indians > Middle Eastern > Europeans > Japanese > North Americans. For the double-slip EDM, the frequencies were such that Japanese > North Americans = Europeans > Middle Eastern > Indians. No significance was found with regard to hand side. The true EDMQ prevalence was found to be at 7.3%, whereas its crude prevalence was 8%. This artilce offers reference values on the prevalence of the EDM and its variants, which are thought to be highly relevant to both anatomists and clinicians.

  19. Aging Does Not Alter Tendon Mechanical Properties During Homeostasis, but does Impair Flexor Tendon Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Jessica E.; Bah, Ibrahima; Jonason, Jennifer H.; Buckley, Mark R.; Loiselle, Alayna E.

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an important factor in disrupted homeostasis of many tissues. While an increased incidence of tendinopathy and tendon rupture are observed with aging, it is unclear whether this is due to progressive changes in tendon cell function and mechanics over time, or an impaired repair reaction from aged tendons in response to insult or injury. In the present study we examined changes in the mechanical properties of Flexor Digitorum Longus (FDL), Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (FCU), and tail fascicles in both male and female C57Bl/6 mice between 3-27 months of age to better understand the effects of sex and age on tendon homeostasis. No change in max load at failure was observed in any group over the course of aging, although there were significant decreases in toe and linear stiffness in female mice from 3-months to 15, and to 22-27-months. No changes in cell proliferation were observed with aging, although an observable decrease in cellularity occurred in 31-month old tendons. Given that aging did not dramatically alter tendon mechanical homeostasis we hypothesized that a disruption in tendon homeostasis, via acute injury would result in an impaired healing response. Significant decreases in max load, stiffness, and yield load were observed in repairs of 22-month old mice, relative to 4-month old mice. No changes in cell proliferation were observed between young and aged, however a dramatic loss of bridging collagen extracellular matrix was observed in aged repairs suggest that matrix production, but not cell proliferation leads to impaired tendon healing with aging. PMID:28419543

  20. Comparative study on the muscular load of the arms using hair driers.

    PubMed

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the muscular load of the arm when combing the hair using different "kuru-kuru" type of hair driers. Ten female students (20-24 years old) volunteered as subjects. Five combing patterns were conducted as follows: 1) comb outer layer of right side of hair using right hand, 2) comb outer layer of left side of hair using right hand, 3) comb inner layer of left side of hair using right hand, 4) comb outer layer of back hair using right hand, and 5) comb inner layer of right side of hair using left hand. Surface EMGs were recorded from M. flexor carpi ulnaris, M. brachioradialis, M. biceps brachii, M. triceps brachii, M. deltoideus and M. trapezius of both sides of body. Integrated EMGs (iEMGs) were used to evaluate muscular load for each of the seven different types of hair driers used. The relationship between iEMGs and weight, center of gravity, diameter, length, and circumference of each hair drier were examined. The weight of hair driers tended to be the effective factor on the muscular load. Muscular load also had a tendency to be affected by the shape of the grips. With regard to the hand size, the longer the thumb length, the smaller is the muscular load. It was suggested that a relatively large diameter of the bulb-shaped grip of the drier gave a smaller muscular load among the hair driers examined in the present experiment.

  1. Anatomy of the inferior extensor retinaculum and its role in lateral ankle ligament reconstruction: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Dalmau-Pastor, M; Yasui, Y; Calder, J D; Karlsson, J; Kerkhoffs, G M M J; Kennedy, J G

    2016-04-01

    The inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) is an aponeurotic structure, which is in continuation with the anterior part of the sural fascia. The IER has often been used to augment the reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments, for instance in the Broström-Gould procedure, with good outcomes reported. However, its anatomy has not been described in detail and only a few studies are available on this structure. The presence of a non-constant oblique supero-lateral band appears to be important. This structure defines whether the augmentation of the lateral ankle ligaments reconstruction is performed using true IER or only the anterior part of the sural fascia. It is concluded that the use of this structure will have an impact on the resulting ankle stability.

  2. Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Fatigability of the Knee Extensors Post-Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kirking, Meghan; Berrios Barillas, Reivian; Nelson, Philip Andrew; Hunter, Sandra Kay; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. Methods: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women) with chronic stroke (≥6 months) and 23 (12 men, 11 women) nonstroke controls participated in the study. Participants performed an intermittent isometric contraction task (6 s contraction, 3 s rest) at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque until failure to maintain the target torque. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation and contractile properties were assessed with electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. Results: Individuals with stroke had a briefer task duration (greater fatigability) than nonstroke individuals (24.1 ± 17 min vs. 34.9 ± 16 min). Men were more fatigable than women for both nonstroke controls and individuals with stroke (17.9 ± 9 min vs. 41.6 ± 15 min). Individuals with stroke had less fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties and women with stroke differed in their muscle activation strategy during the fatiguing contractions. Conclusions: Men and women fatigue differently post-stroke and this may be due to the way they neurally activate muscle groups. PMID:28085089

  3. Multipulse transcranial electrical stimulation (TES): normative data for motor evoked potentials in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Journée, Sanne Lotte; Journée, Henricus Louis; de Bruijn, Cornelis Marinus; Delesalle, Cathérine John Ghislaine

    2018-04-03

    There are indications that transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) assesses the motor function of the spinal cord in horses in a more sensitive and reproducible fashion than transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, no normative data of TES evoked motor potentials (MEP) is available. In this prospective study normative data of TES induced MEP wave characteristics (motor latency times (MLT); amplitude and waveform) was obtained from the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and tibial cranialis (TC) muscles in a group of healthy horses to create a reference frame for functional diagnostic purposes. For the 12 horses involved in the study 95% confidence intervals for MLTs were 16.1-22.6 ms and 31.9-41.1 ms for ECR and TC muscles respectively. Intra-individual coefficients of variation (CV) and mean of MLTs were: ECR: 2.2-8,2% and 4.5% and TC: 1.4-6.3% and 3.5% respectively. Inter-individual CVs for MLTs were higher, though below 10% on all occasions. The mean ± sd of MEP amplitudes was respectively 3.61 ± 2.55 mV (ECR muscle left) and 4.53 ± 3.1 mV (right) and 2.66 ± 2.22 mV (TC muscle left) and 2.55 ± 1.85 mV (right). MLTs showed no significant left versus right differences. All MLTs showed significant (p < 0.05) voltage dependent decreases with slope coefficients of linear regression for ECR: - 0.049; - 0.061 ms/V and TC: - 0.082; - 0.089 ms/V (left; right). There was a positive correlation found between height at withers and MLTs in all 4 muscle groups. Finally, reliable assessment of MEP characteristics was for all muscle groups restricted to a transcranial time window of approximately 15-19 ms. TES is a novel and sensitive technique to assess spinal motor function in horses. It is easy applicable and highly reproducible. This study provides normative data in healthy horses on TES induced MEPs in the extensor carpi radialis and tibialis cranialis muscles bilaterally. No significant differences between MLTs of the

  4. Alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism influences knee extensor peak power response to strength training in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Delmonico, Matthew J; Kostek, Matthew C; Doldo, Neil A; Hand, Brian D; Walsh, Sean; Conway, Joan M; Carignan, Craig R; Roth, Stephen M; Hurley, Ben F

    2007-02-01

    The alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism has been associated with muscle power performance in cross-sectional studies. We examined baseline knee extensor concentric peak power (PP) and PP change with approximately 10 weeks of unilateral knee extensor strength training (ST) using air-powered resistance machines in 71 older men (65 [standard deviation = 8] years) and 86 older women (64 [standard deviation = 9] years). At baseline in women, the XX genotype group had an absolute (same resistance) PP that was higher than the RR (p =.005) and RX genotype groups (p =.02). The women XX group also had a relative (70% of one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) PP that was higher than that in the RR (p =.002) and RX groups (p =.008). No differences in baseline absolute or relative PP were observed between ACTN3 genotype groups in men. In men, absolute PP change with ST in the RR (n = 16) group approached a significantly higher value than in the XX group (n = 9; p =.07). In women, relative PP change with ST in the RR group (n = 16) was higher than in the XX group (n = 17; p =.02). The results indicate that the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism influences the response of quadriceps muscle power to ST in older adults.

  5. Cross-education of wrist extensor strength is not influenced by non-dominant training in right-handers.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Timothy A; Frazer, Ashlyn K; Horvath, Deanna M; Pearce, Alan J; Howatson, Glyn; Kidgell, Dawson J

    2016-09-01

    Cross-education of strength has been proposed to be greater when completed by the dominant limb in right handed humans. We investigated whether the direction of cross-education of strength and corticospinal plasticity are different following right or left limb strength training in right-handed participants. Changes in strength, muscle thickness and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analyzed in 23 adults who were exposed to 3-weeks of either right-hand strength training (RHT) or left-hand strength training (LHT). Maximum voluntary wrist extensor strength in both the trained and untrained limb increased, irrespective of which limb was trained, with TMS revealing reduced corticospinal inhibition. Cross-education of strength was not limited by which limb was trained and reduced corticospinal inhibition was not just confined to the trained limb. Critically, from a behavioral perspective, the magnitude of cross-education was not limited by which limb was trained.

  6. Trunk extensor and flexor strength capacity in healthy young elite athletes aged 11-15 years.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Juliane; Mueller, Steffen; Stoll, Josefine; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Differences in trunk strength capacity because of gender and sports are well documented in adults. In contrast, data concerning young athletes are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess the maximum trunk strength of adolescent athletes and to investigate differences between genders and age groups. A total of 520 young athletes were recruited. Finally, 377 (n = 233/144 M/F; 13 ± 1 years; 1.62 ± 0.11 m height; 51 ± 12 kg mass; training: 4.5 ± 2.6 years; training sessions/week: 4.3 ± 3.0; various sports) young athletes were included in the final data analysis. Furthermore, 5 age groups were differentiated (age groups: 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 years; n = 90, 150, 42, 43, and 52, respectively). Maximum strength of trunk flexors (Flex) and extensors (Ext) was assessed in all subjects during isokinetic concentric measurements (60°·s(-1); 5 repetitions; range of motion: 55°). Maximum strength was characterized by absolute peak torque (Flexabs, Extabs; N·m), peak torque normalized to body weight (Flexnorm, Extnorm; N·m·kg(-1) BW), and Flexabs/Extabs ratio (RKquot). Descriptive data analysis (mean ± SD) was completed, followed by analysis of variance (α = 0.05; post hoc test [Tukey-Kramer]). Mean maximum strength for all athletes was 97 ± 34 N·m in Flexabs and 140 ± 50 N·m in Extabs (Flexnorm = 1.9 ± 0.3 N·m·kg(-1) BW, Extnorm = 2.8 ± 0.6 N·m·kg(-1) BW). Males showed statistically significant higher absolute and normalized values compared with females (p < 0.001). Flexabs and Extabs rose with increasing age almost 2-fold for males and females (Flexabs, Extabs: p < 0.001). Flexnorm and Extnorm increased with age for males (p < 0.001), however, not for females (Flexnorm: p = 0.26; Extnorm: p = 0.20). RKquot (mean ± SD: 0.71 ± 0.16) did not reveal any differences regarding age (p = 0.87) or gender (p = 0.43). In adolescent athletes, maximum trunk strength must be discussed in a gender- and age-specific context. The Flexabs/Extabs ratio revealed

  7. Morphological and biochemical changes in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats orbited in Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Slocum, T.; Bain, J. L. W.; Sedlak, F. R.; Elis, S.; Satyanarayana, T.

    1985-01-01

    Muscle atrophy in rats exposed to hypogravity for seven days aboard Spacelab 3 is examined. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 days postflight, and prepared for enzyme studies and electron microscopy. Simple cell shrinkage was found, with a mean fiber area decrease of 35.8 percent for soleus and 24.9 percent for extensor digitorum longus (EDL) flight muscle fibers, as compared with control muscle fibers. EDL and soleus muscles showed increases in alkaline myofibrillar ATPase, alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and glycogen, and a decrease in NADH dehydrogenase staining. The 26 percent increase in calcium activated protease suggests that the focal degradation of myofibrils is the key process of myofibril breakdown. The presence in the flight soleus muscles of one percent necrotic fibers is unexplained. The observed shift towards histochemical fast-muscle type properties is consistent with previous findings.

  8. Successful conservative treatment outcomes and clinical characteristics of congenital hypoplasia of the extensor tendon central slip.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, N; Uemura, T; Nakamura, H

    2017-03-01

    Congenital hypoplasia of the extensor tendon central slip is a rare entity. This article describes the clinical characteristics in a series of 22 fingers in 16 patients (mean age: 10 months), and the outcomes of conservative treatment. Nine of 22 fingers were classified as slender or hypoplastic. Treatment with bracing was successful in 21 digits, resulting in full active extension of the proximal interphalangeal joint at a mean of 8.5 months after treatment. Bracing was unsuccessful in one digit, in which operative treatment resulted in a successful outcome. Some residual deformity was observed in ten fingers after a mean follow-up period of 2 years and 1 month. Congenital hypoplasia of the central slip can be treated successfully by the conservative hand bracing when worn with full compliance. Treatment time is extended by the infrequent application of the hand brace or in the case of hypoplastic slender fingers. IV.

  9. Limb salvage after infected knee arthroplasty with bone loss and extensor mechanism deficiency using a modular segmental replacement system.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Surena; Milby, Andrew H; Garino, Jonathan P

    2011-09-01

    Multiple total knee arthroplasty revisions pose significant surgical challenges, such as bone loss and soft tissue compromise. For patients with bone loss and extensor mechanism insufficiency after total knee arthroplasty, arthrodesis is a treatment option for the avoidance of amputation. However, arthrodesis is both difficult to achieve in situations with massive bone loss and potentially undesirable due to the dramatic shortening that follows. Although intramedullary nailing for knee arthrodesis has been widely reported, this technique has traditionally relied on the achievement of bony union. We report a case of a patient with massive segmental bone loss in which a modular intercalary prosthesis was used for arthrodesis to preserve limb length without bony union. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long digital extensor tendon mineralization and cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Katie C; Perry, James A; Duncan, Colleen G; Duerr, Felix M

    2014-07-01

    To report clinical and histopathologic features of long digital extensor (LDE) tendon mineralization with concurrent cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture in a dog. Case report. 1.5-year-old, male castrated, English bulldog mix weighing 31.5 kg. Pre- and postoperative orthogonal radiographs, arthroscopic evaluation, arthrotomy with en bloc surgical excision, and histopathologic analysis of the excised LDE tendon. There was radiographic evidence of mineralization in the region of the proximal LDE and stifle instability suggestive of CCL rupture. Arthroscopy, and subsequent arthrotomy, showed complete tearing of the CCL and an intact but grossly thickened LDE. No evidence of avulsion or bony proliferation associated with the LDE was appreciated. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tenectomy of the LDE returned the dog to normal weight-bearing. No evidence of ectopic mineralization in the affected limb or similar clinical signs in the contralateral limb have been observed in 12 months follow-up. LDE tenectomy followed by stabilization of the stifle by TPLO resulted in a functional outcome. Mineralization without concurrent avulsion of the LDE has not been reported in dogs; however, posterolateral tendon injury in people has been linked to knee instability and cruciate ligament rupture. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. [Isokinetic profile of knee flexors and extensors in a population of rugby players].

    PubMed

    Larrat, E; Kemoun, G; Carette, P; Teffaha, D; Dugue, B

    2007-06-01

    We aimed to assess the isokinetic profile of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee within a population of rugby players. This was a descriptive study. The rugby players underwent bilateral isokinetic assessment of knee flexion and extension on a CON-TREX MJ isokinetic dynamometer functioning at four angular frequencies - 90, 120, 180 and 240 degrees/s - in a concentric manner. The isokinetic parameters were peak torque, mean power, and mean work in relation to weight and femoral bicep: quadriceps ratio. The population included 16 "Federal 1" (semi-professional) rugby players with mean age 25 years (range 20-33 years). The players were divided into two groups: "forward" players (props, hookers, second line, third line) and "back" players (scrum, inside, center, wing, tail). The values of the isokinetic parameters did not reveal use of a preferred limb. Consequently, peak torque and mean power were higher in forward players than back players, whereas back players showed a higher relative power throughout the isokinetic test. Among rugby players, forward and back players showed differences in several isokinetic parameters. Accurate knowledge of the equilibrium between the knee's effector muscles is important for stability of the joint, to not only minimize articular accidents but also pinpoint force imbalances, thereby preventing muscular lesions during the sports season.

  12. Mechanical allodynia in human glabrous skin mediated by low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors with unmyelinated fibres.

    PubMed

    Nagi, Saad S; Mahns, David A

    2013-11-01

    We recently showed that C-tactile fibres (CTs) in human hairy skin (anterior leg) mediate crossover between innocuous touch and noxious touch, i.e. mechanical allodynia. Although there is no evidence for existence of a phenotypically identical class of CTs in human glabrous skin, the 'qualia' of affective stimuli are comparable across skin types. In 42 healthy subjects, muscle pain was induced by infusing hypertonic saline (5 %) into flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. Concurrently, sinusoidal vibration (200 Hz-200 μm) was applied to glabrous skin of little finger. The neural substrate of allodynia was determined by employing conduction blocks of myelinated (ulnar nerve compression) and unmyelinated (low-dose intra-dermal anaesthesia) fibres. In order to compare the expression of allodynia across spinal segments and skin types, vibration was also applied to glabrous skin of index finger and hairy skin of dorsal forearm. In addition, high-precision brushing stimuli were applied at speeds of 1.0 and 3.0 cm s(-1) to digital glabrous skin with absent myelinated fibres. During muscle pain, vibration caused a significant and reproducible increase in pain (allodynia). This effect persisted during blockade of myelinated fibres, but was abolished by inactivation of unmyelinated cutaneous fibres. The vibration-evoked effects were found to be comparable across spinal segments and skin types. Furthermore, brushing produced a near-identical expression of C-fibre-mediated allodynia. Prior to induction and upon cessation of muscle pain, vibration and brushing were reported as non-painful. Based on these results, we postulate that a functional homologue of the CTs (hairy skin) mediates allodynia in human glabrous skin.

  13. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  14. Influence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in the fluctuation of the submaximal isometric torque of knee extensors in patients with early-grade osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Andressa; Mello, Marco T.; Serrão, Paula R.; Luz, Roberta P.; Bittencourt, Lia R.; Mattiello, Stela M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) alters the fluctuation of submaximal isometric torque of the knee extensors in patients with early-grade osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: The study included 60 male volunteers, aged 40 to 70 years, divided into four groups: Group 1 (G1) - Control (n=15): without OA and without OSA; Group 2 (G2) (n=15): with OA and without OSA; Group 3 (G3) (n=15): without OA and with OSA; and Group 4 (G4) (n=15) with OA and with OSA. Five patients underwent maximal isometric contractions of 10 seconds duration each, with the knee at 60° of flexion to determine peak torque at 60°. To evaluate the fluctuation of torque, 5 submaximal isometric contractions (50% of maximum peak torque) of 10 seconds each, which were calculated from the standard deviation of torque and coefficient of variation, were performed. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between groups for maximum peak torque, while G4 showed a lower value compared with G1 (p=0.005). Additionally, for the average torque exerted, G4 showed a lower value compared to the G1 (p=0.036). However, no differences were found between the groups for the standard deviation (p=0.844) and the coefficient of variation (p=0.143). CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that OSA did not change the parameters of the fluctuation of isometric submaximal torque of knee extensors in patients with early-grade OA. PMID:26443974

  15. Monkey extensor digitorum communis motoneuron pool: Proximal dendritic trees and small motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Arthur B; Cheney, Paul D; Jenny, Andrew K

    2018-05-14

    Transverse sections of the monkey cervical spinal cord from a previous study (Jenny and Inukai, 1983) were reanalyzed using Neurolucida to create a three-dimensional display of extensor digitorum communis (EDC) motoneurons and proximal dendrites that had been labeled with horse radish peroxidase (HRP). The EDC motoneuron pool was located primarily in the C8 and T1 segments of the spinal cord. Small motoneurons (cell body areas less than 500 μm 2 and presumed to be gamma motoneurons) comprised about ten percent of the motoneurons and were located throughout the length of the motoneuron pool. Most small motoneurons were oblong in shape and had one or two major dendrites originating from the cell body in the transverse plane of section. The majority of the HRP labeled dendritic trees were directed either superiorly, dorsal-medially to the mid zone area between the base of the dorsal horn and the upper portion of the ventral horn, or medially to the ventromedial gray matter. The longer HRP labeled dendrites usually continued in the same radial direction as when originating from the cell body. As such we considered the radial direction of the longer proximal HRP labeled dendrites to be a reasonable estimate of the radial direction of the more distal dendritic tree. Our data suggest that the motoneuron dendritic tree as seen in transverse section has direction-oriented dendrites that extend toward functional terminal regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transfer of supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve in C7-T1 brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flavio

    2010-07-01

    In C7-T1 palsies of the brachial plexus, shoulder and elbow function are preserved, but finger motion is absent. Finger flexion has been reconstructed by tendon or nerve transfers. Finger extension has been restored ineffectively by attaching the extensor tendons to the distal aspect of the dorsal radius (termed tenodesis) or by tendon transfers. In these palsies, supinator muscle function is preserved, because innervation stems from the C-6 root. The feasibility of transferring supinator branches to the posterior interosseous nerve has been documented in a previous anatomical study. In this paper, the authors report the clinical results of supinator motor nerve transfer to the posterior interosseous nerve in 4 patients with a C7-T1 root lesion. Four adult patients with C7-T1 root lesions underwent surgery between 5 and 7 months postinjury. The patients had preserved motion of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist, but they had complete palsy of finger motion. They underwent finger flexion reconstruction via transfer of the brachialis muscle, and finger and thumb extension were restored by transferring the supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve. This nerve transfer was performed through an incision over the proximal third of the radius. Dissection was carried out between the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the extensor digitorum communis. The patients were followed up as per regular protocol and underwent a final evaluation 12 months after surgery. To document the extent of recovery, the authors assessed the degree of active metacarpophalangeal joint extension of the long fingers. The thumb span was evaluated by measuring the distance between the thumb pulp and the lateral aspect of the index finger. Surgery to transfer the supinator motor branches to the posterior interosseous nerve was straightforward. Twelve months after surgery, all patients were capable of opening their hand and could fully extend their metacarpophalangeal joints. The

  17. The reliability and validity of a designed setup for the assessment of static back extensor force and endurance in older women with and without hyperkyphosis.

    PubMed

    Roghani, Taybeh; Khalkhali Zavieh, Minoo; Rahimi, Abbas; Talebian, Saeed; Manshadi, Farideh Dehghan; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; King, Nicole; Katzman, Wendy

    2018-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability and validity of a designed load cell setup for the measurement of back extensor muscle force and endurance. The study sample included 19 older women with hyperkyphosis, mean age 67.0 ± 5.0 years, and 14 older women without hyperkyphosis, mean age 63.0 ± 6.0 years. Maximum back extensor force and endurance were measured in a sitting position with a designed load cell setup. Tests were performed by the same examiner on two separate days within a 72-hour interval. The intra-rater reliability of the measurements was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard errors of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). The validity of the setup was determined using Pearson correlation analysis and independent t-test. Using our designed load cell, the values of ICC indicated very high reliability of force measurement (hyperkyphosis group: 0.96, normal group: 0.97) and high reliability of endurance measurement (hyperkyphosis group: 0.82, normal group: 0.89). For all tests, the values of SEM and MDC were low in both groups. A significant correlation between two documented forces (load cell force and target force) and significant differences in the muscle force and endurance among the two groups were found. The measurements of static back muscle force and endurance are reliable and valid with our designed setup in older women with and without hyperkyphosis.

  18. Myoelectrically controlled wrist robot for stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robot-assisted rehabilitation is an advanced new technology in stroke rehabilitation to provide intensive training. Post-stroke motor recovery depends on active rehabilitation by voluntary participation of patient’s paretic motor system as early as possible in order to promote reorganization of brain. However, voluntary residual motor efforts to the affected limb have not been involved enough in most robot-assisted rehabilitation for patients after stroke. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of robot-assisted rehabilitation using myoelectric control on upper limb motor recovery. Methods In the present study, an exoskeleton-type rehabilitation robotic system was designed to provide voluntarily controlled assisted torque to the affected wrist. Voluntary intention was involved by using the residual surface electromyography (EMG) from flexor carpi radialis(FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR)on the affected limb to control the mechanical assistance provided by the robotic system during wrist flexion and extension in a 20-session training. The system also applied constant resistant torque to the affected wrist during the training. Sixteen subjects after stroke had been recruited for evaluating the tracking performance and therapeutical effects of myoelectrically controlled robotic system. Results With the myoelectrically-controlled assistive torque, stroke survivors could reach a larger range of motion with a significant decrease in the EMG signal from the agonist muscles. The stroke survivors could be trained in the unreached range with their voluntary residual EMG on the paretic side. After 20-session rehabilitation training, there was a non-significant increase in the range of motion and a significant decrease in the root mean square error (RMSE) between the actual wrist angle and target angle. Significant improvements also could be found in muscle strength and clinical scales. Conclusions These results indicate that robot

  19. Motor Cortex-Evoked Activity in Reciprocal Muscles Is Modulated by Reward Probability

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kirimoto, Hikari; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Mineo; Yamada, Sumio; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Fukuda, Michinari; Onishi, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal intracortical projections for agonist and antagonist muscles exist in the primary motor cortex (M1), and reward may induce a reinforcement of transmission efficiency of intracortical circuits. We investigated reward-induced change in M1 excitability for agonist and antagonist muscles. Participants were 8 healthy volunteers. Probabilistic reward tasks comprised 3 conditions of 30 trials each: 30 trials contained 10% reward, 30 trials contained 50% reward, and 30 trials contained 90% reward. Each trial began with a cue (red fixation cross), followed by blue circle for 1 s. The subjects were instructed to perform wrist flexion and press a button with the dorsal aspect of middle finger phalanx as quickly as possible in response to disappearance of the blue circle without looking at their hand or the button. Two seconds after the button press, reward/non-reward stimulus was randomly presented for 2-s duration. The reward stimulus was a picture of Japanese 10-yen coin, and each subject received monetary reward at the end of experiment. Subjects were not informed of the reward probabilities. We delivered transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left M1 at the midpoint between center of gravities of agonist flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and antagonist extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles at 2 s after the red fixation cross and 1 s after the reward/non-reward stimuli. Relative motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes at 2 s after the red fixation cross were significantly higher for 10% reward probability than for 90% reward probability, whereas relative MEP amplitudes at 1 s after reward/non-reward stimuli were significantly higher for 90% reward probability than for 10% and 50% reward probabilities. These results implied that reward could affect the horizontal intracortical projections in M1 for agonist and antagonist muscles, and M1 excitability including the reward-related circuit before and after reward stimulus could be differently altered by reward

  20. Clinical Outcomes following median to radial nerve transfers

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In this study the authors evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with radial nerve palsy who underwent nerve transfers utilizing redundant fascicles of median nerve (innervating the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles) to the posterior interosseous nerve and the nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical records of 19 patients with radial nerve injuries who underwent nerve transfer procedures using the median nerve as a donor nerve were included. All patients were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system. Results The mean age of patients was 41 years (range 17 – 78 years). All patients received at least 12 months of follow-up (20.3 ± 5.8 months). Surgery was performed at a mean of 5.7 ± 1.9 months post-injury. Post-operative functional evaluation was graded according to the following scale: grades MRC 0/5 - MRC 2/5 were considered poor outcomes, while MRC of 3/5 was a fair result, MRC grade 4/5 was a good result, and grade 4+/5 was considered an excellent outcome. Seventeen patients (89%) had a complete radial nerve palsy while two patients (11%) had intact wrist extension but no finger or thumb extension. Post-operatively all patients except one had good to excellent recovery of wrist extension. Twelve patients recovered good to excellent finger and thumb extension, two patients had fair recovery, five patients had a poor recovery. Conclusions The radial nerve is a commonly injured nerve, causing significant morbidity in affected patients. The median nerve provides a reliable source of donor nerve fascicles for radial nerve reinnervation. This transfer was first performed in 1999 and evolved over the subsequent decade. The important nuances of both surgical technique and motor re-education critical for to the success of this transfer have been identified and are discussed. PMID:21168979

  1. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  2. Five-day course of paired associative stimulation fails to improve motor function in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Tarri, Mohamed; Brimhat, Nabila; Gasq, David; Lepage, Benoît; Loubinoux, Isabelle; De Boissezon, Xavier; Marque, Philippe; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation has been studied as a therapeutic adjunct for upper-limb recovery in patients with stroke. One type of stimulation, paired associative stimulation (PAS), has effects on plasticity in both patients and healthy participants. Lasting several hours, these effects are reversible and topographically specific. The goal was to investigate the presence of a lasting increase in motor cortex plasticity for extensor wrist muscles - extensor carpi radialis (ECR) - and an improvement in upper-limb function after 5 days of daily PAS in patients at the subacute post-stroke stage. A total of 24 patients (mean [SD] age 50.1 [12.1] years, weeks since stroke 10.1 [5.3]) were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomly assigned to the PAS or sham group (n=13 and n=11). For the PAS group, patients underwent a 5-day course of electrical peripheral stimulation combined with magnetic cortical stimulation applied to the ECR muscle in a single daily session at 0.1Hz for 30min; patients with sham treatment received minimal cortical stimulation. Both patient groups underwent 2 hr of conventional physiotherapy. Variations in the motor evoked potential (MEP) surface area of the ECR muscle and Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper-Limb motor scores were analysed up to day 12. The 2 groups did not differ in electrophysiological or motor parameters. Repeated PAS sessions seemed to affect only patients with low initial cortical excitability. We found considerable variability in PAS effects between patients and across the sessions. We failed to induce a lasting effect with PAS in the present study. PAS does not seem to be the main method for post-stroke brain stimulation. Perhaps recruitment of patients could be more selective, possibly targeting those with a wide altered ipsilesional corticomotor pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute Postexercise Time Course Responses of Hypertrophic vs. Power-Endurance Squat Exercise Protocols on Maximal and Rapid Torque of the Knee Extensors.

    PubMed

    Conchola, Eric C; Thiele, Ryan M; Palmer, Ty B; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a medium-intensity high-volume vs. explosive squat protocol on the postexercise time course responses of maximal and rapid strength of the knee extensors. Seventeen resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 2.6 years) performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the knee extensors before and after performing a squat workout using either a low-intensity fast velocity (LIFV) (5 × 16 at 40% 1 repetition maximum) or a traditional high-intensity slow velocity (TISV) (5 × 8 at 80% 1RM) exercise protocol. For each MVC, peak torque (PT), peak rate of torque development (RTDpeak), absolute (RTDabs), and relative RTD (RTDnorm) at early (0-50 milliseconds) and late (100-200 milliseconds) phases of muscle contraction were examined at pre- (Pre) and post-exercise at 0, 7, 15, and 30 (Post0...30) minutes. There were no intensity × time interactions for any variables (p = 0.098-0.832). Peak torque was greater at Pre than Post0 and Post7 (p = 0.001-0.016) but was not greater than Post15 and Post30 (p = 0.010-0.189). RTDpeak and early absolute RTD (RTD50abs) were greater at Pre than all postexercise time phases (p = 0.001-0.050); however, later absolute RTD (RTD100-200abs) was only greater at Pre than Post0 and Post30 (p = 0.013-0.048). Early relative RTD (RTD50norm) was only higher at Pre compared with Post0 (p = 0.023), whereas no differences were observed for later relative RTD (RTD100-200norm) (p = 0.920-0.990). Low-intensity fast velocity and TISV squat protocols both yielded acute decreases in maximal and rapid strength capacities following free-weight squats, with rapid strength showing slower recovery characteristics than maximal strength.

  4. Functional and morphological adaptations to aging in knee extensor muscles of physically active men.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2013-10-01

    It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.

  5. Does arterial health affect VO2peak and muscle oxygenation in a sedentary cohort?

    PubMed

    Lizamore, Catherine Anne; Stoner, Lee; Lucas, Samuel John Edwin; Lucero, Adam; Hamlin, Michael John

    2015-02-01

    An association between arterial health and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) has been demonstrated; however, little is known about how arterial health influences muscular oxygenation during exercise. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the relations between arterial health, VO2peak, and muscle oxygenation in a middle-age sedentary population. Radial augmentation index (AIx) (via pulse wave analysis) of 21 sedentary middle-age participants (15 females and six males; age, 54.7 ± 5.4; body mass index, 29.0 ± 4.7 kg·m; mean ± SD) was assessed, and on another day ( < 7 d), participants completed a modified Bruce protocol (MBP). Using near-infrared spectroscopy, total oxygenation index (TOI) of the left flexor carpi ulnaris and the left vastus lateralis were monitored throughout the MBP. Independent and average (arm + leg) percentage decrease in TOI between stage 1 of the MBP and maximal exertion (TOIdiff) during MBP was calculated. Changes between dependent variables were correlated using Pearson product-moment correlations and were interpreted as follows: r > 0.5, strong; 0.5 > r > 0.3, moderate; and r < 0.3, weak. We observed moderate negative correlation between AIx and VO2peak (r = -0.34, -0.63 to -0.03; Pearson correlation, 90% confidence limits) and strong negative correlation between AIx and average TOIdiff (r = -0.58, -0.78 to -0.27). The VO2peak and average TOIdiff were strongly correlated (r = 0.55, 0.23-0.77). Arterial health seems to be an important determinant of muscle oxygenation during exercise. In turn, muscle oxygenation during exercise is strongly related to VO2peak. Developing training modalities to prioritize arterial health outcomes may be a useful way of improving VO2peak in this population.

  6. The efficacy of novel anatomical sites for the assessment of muscle oxygenation during central hypovolemia.

    PubMed

    Sprick, Justin D; Soller, Babs R; Rickards, Caroline A

    2016-11-01

    Muscle tissue oxygenation (SmO 2 ) can track central blood volume loss associated with hemorrhage. Traditional peripheral measurement sites (e.g., forearm) may not be practical due to excessive movement or injury (e.g., amputation). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three novel anatomical sites for the assessment of SmO 2 under progressive central hypovolemia. 10 male volunteers were exposed to stepwise prone lower body negative pressure to decrease central blood volume, while SmO 2 was assessed at four sites-the traditional site of the flexor carpi ulnaris (ARM), and three novel sites not previously investigated during lower body negative pressure, the deltoid, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius. SmO 2 at the novel sites was compared to the ARM sensor and to stroke volume responses. A reduction in SmO 2 was detected by the ARM sensor at the first level of lower body negative pressure (-15 mmHg; P = 0.007), and at -30 (the deltoid), -45 (latissimus dorsi), and -60 mmHg lower body negative pressure (trapezius) at the novel sites (P ≤ 0.04). SmO 2 responses at all novel sites were correlated with responses at the ARM (R ≥ 0.89), and tracked the reduction in stroke volume (R ≥ 0.87); the latissimus dorsi site exhibited the strongest linear correlations (R ≥ 0.96). Of the novel sensor sites, the latissimus dorsi exhibited the strongest linear associations with SmO 2 at the ARM, and with reductions in central blood volume. These findings have important implications for detection of hemorrhage in austere environments (e.g., combat) when use of a peripheral sensor may not be ideal, and may facilitate incorporation of these sensors into uniforms. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  7. Effects of flexor-pronator muscle loading on valgus stability of the elbow with an intact, stretched, and resected medial ulnar collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Udall, John H; Fitzpatrick, Michael J; McGarry, Michelle H; Leba, Thu-Ba; Lee, Thay Q

    2009-01-01

    The medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) is an important passive stabilizer to the valgus stresses that athletes experience during overhead throwing motion. However, the role of the flexor-pronator muscles as active stabilizers to valgus stress is not well defined in the literature. The objectives of this study were to quantify the relative contribution of the individual flexor-pronator muscles to valgus stability of the elbow and how this relationship was affected by ligament status. A custom elbow testing system and Microscribe 3DLX were used for biomechanical testing. Flexor-pronator muscles were loaded to simulate contraction, and the valgus angle of the elbow was measured in eight cadaveric specimens at 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees of elbow flexion with 3 different valgus torques applied to the forearm. Loads based on muscle cross-sectional area were applied to the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and pronator teres (PT). The effect of each muscle was evaluated by unloading the individual muscle while the other 2 remained loaded, resulting in 5 loading conditions: no muscles loaded, all muscles loaded, unloaded FCU, unloaded FDS, and unloaded PT. Valgus angle was measured for 3 MUCL ligament conditions: intact, stretched, and cut. The effect of muscle loading on valgus angle was similar for each ligament condition. Loading the flexor-pronator muscles significantly decreased valgus angle of the elbow in all testing conditions (P < .01). Unloading the FDS significantly increased valgus angle compared to all muscles loaded in all testing conditions (P < .016). Unloading the FCU and PT significantly increased valgus angle in less than half of the testing conditions. The FDS, PT, and FCU are all active stabilizers of the elbow to valgus stress. The FDS is the biggest contributor amongst the flexor-pronator muscles.

  8. Intramuscular Connective Tissue Differences in Spastic and Control Muscle: A Mechanical and Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Marije; Smeulders, Mark J.; Kreulen, Michiel; Huijing, Peter A.; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) of the spastic type is a neurological disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks. Secondary to the spasticity, muscle adaptation is presumed to contribute to limitations in the passive range of joint motion. However, the mechanisms underlying these limitations are unknown. Using biopsies, we compared mechanical as well as histological properties of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU) from CP patients (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 10). The sarcomere slack length (mean 2.5 µm, SEM 0.05) and slope of the normalized sarcomere length-tension characteristics of spastic fascicle segments and single myofibre segments were not different from those of control muscle. Fibre type distribution also showed no significant differences. Fibre size was significantly smaller (1933 µm2, SEM 190) in spastic muscle than in controls (2572 µm2, SEM 322). However, our statistical analyses indicate that the latter difference is likely to be explained by age, rather than by the affliction. Quantities of endomysial and perimysial networks within biopsies of control and spastic muscle were unchanged with one exception: a significant thickening of the tertiary perimysium (3-fold), i.e. the connective tissue reinforcement of neurovascular tissues penetrating the muscle. Note that this thickening in tertiary perimysium was shown in the majority of CP patients, however a small number of patients (n = 4 out of 23) did not have this feature. These results are taken as indications that enhanced myofascial loads on FCU is one among several factors contributing in a major way to the aetiology of limitation of movement at the wrist in CP and the characteristic wrist position of such patients. PMID:24977410

  9. Parecoxib increases muscle pain threshold and relieves shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hufei; Liu, Xinhe; Jiang, Hongye; Liu, Zimeng; Zhang, Xu-Yu; Xie, Hong-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Postlaparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP) remains a common problem after laparoscopies. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure pain threshold (PPT) of different muscles and PLSP after gynecologic laparoscopy, and to explore the effect of parecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on the changes of PPT. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups; group P and group C. In group P, parecoxib 40 mg was intravenously infused at 30 minutes before surgery and 8 and 20 hours after surgery. In group C, normal saline was infused at the corresponding time point. PPT assessment was performed 1 day before surgery and at postoperative 24 hours by using a pressure algometer at bilateral shoulder muscles (levator scapulae and supraspinatus) and forearm (flexor carpi ulnaris). Meanwhile, bilateral shoulder pain was evaluated through visual analog scale score at 24 hours after surgery. Preoperative PPT level of the shoulder, but not of the forearm, was significantly and negatively correlated with the intensity of ipsilateral PLSP. In group C, PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, decreased after laparoscopy at postoperative 24 hours. The use of parecoxib significantly improved the decline of PPT levels of bilateral shoulder muscles (all P <0.01). Meanwhile, parecoxib reduced the incidence of PLSP (group P: 45% vs group C: 83.3%; odds ratio: 0.164; 95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.382; P <0.001) and the intensity of bilateral shoulder pain (both P <0.01). Preoperative PPT levels of shoulder muscles are closely associated with the severity of shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy. PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, significantly decreased after surgery. Parecoxib improved the decrease of PPT and relieved PLSP.

  10. Effect of tendon tensioning: an in vitro study in porcine extensor tendons.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael; Vaisman, Alex; Meleán, Patricio; Figueroa, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Graft tensioning is a controversial issue in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) that has not achieved consensus between peers. The purpose of this study is to determine if after tensioning tendon length and resistance to maximal load changes. We performed an in vitro study with 50 porcine extensors tendons. The first group (P=25) was tensioned with 80 N (19.97 lb) for 10 min, using an ACL graft preparation board. The second group (C=25) was used as control and was not tensioned. The average initial (groups P and C) and post tensioning tendon length (group C) were measured; the average initial and post tensioning tendon diameter were measured as well. All samples were fixated in a tube-clamp system connected to a tension sensor. The samples were stressed with continuous and progressive tension until ultimate failure at maximum load (UFML) occurs. The initial mean length was: P before tensioning=13.4 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 10.5-16.5); P after tensioning=13.8 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 11.5-16.5); C=13 mm+/-1.35 mm (p=0.005). The mean diameter was: P=5.6 mm (4.5-6); C=5.5 mm (range 4.5-6) (p>0.05). The UFML was: P=189.7 N (114-336); C=229.9 N (143-365) (p=0.029). Tendon tensioning with 80 N for 10 min produced 3% average elongation. These could be beneficial in ACLR since tendon tensioning decreases elongation of the graft after fixation. Regardless, tendon tensioning is not innocuous since it diminishes their resistance when continuously stressed until complete failure occurs.

  11. Effects of mouse slant and desktop position on muscular and postural stresses, subject preference and performance in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Gaudez, Clarisse; Cail, François

    2016-11-01

    This study compared muscular and postural stresses, performance and subject preference in women aged 18-40 years using a standard mouse, a vertical mouse and a slanted mouse in three different computer workstation positions. Four tasks were analysed: pointing, pointing-clicking, pointing-clicking-dragging and grasping-pointing the mouse after typing. Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) activities were greater using the standard mouse compared to the vertical or slanted mouse. In all cases, the wrist position remained in the comfort zone recommended by standard ISO 11228-3. The vertical mouse was less comfortable and more difficult to use than the other two mice. FDS and ECR activities, shoulder abduction and wrist extension were greater when the mouse was placed next to the keyboard. Performance and subject preference were better with the unrestricted mouse positioning on the desktop. Grasping the mouse after typing was the task that caused the greatest stress. Practitioner Summary: In women, the slanted mouse and the unrestricted mouse positioning on the desktop provide a good blend of stresses, performance and preference. Unrestricted mouse positioning requires no keyboard, which is rare in practice. Placing the mouse in front of the keyboard, rather than next to it, reduced the physical load.

  12. Electrical and Mechanical Responses in Deep Abdominal Extensor Muscles of Crayfish and Lobster

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Bernard C.; Parnas, I.

    1965-01-01

    Electrical and mechanical studies have been made of the deep abdominal extensor muscles, medial (DEAM) and lateral (DEAL), of crayfish and lobster. The medial muscle responds to direct (intracellular) and indirect stimulation with a transient membrane depolarization which exhibits the properties of a propagated non-decremental action potential but does not overshoot the zero level. The amplitude is about 30 mv in crayfish and 50 mv in lobster. It is followed by a fast all-or-none twitch whose duration at 20°C is 30 to 50 msec. and whose developed tension is 500 gm/cm2 or about half the tetanic value. Membrane potential is K+-dependent and immersion in high K+ induces a brief transient tension rise as in other twitch-type muscles. The action potential and twitch are normal even if all external Na+ is replaced with sucrose but vary with external Ca++, the action potential increasing 8 to 10 mv for a twofold increase in Ca++. The lateral muscle (DEAL) is much slower and responds to intracellular stimulation only with an electrotonic or a local response. Mechanical responses and relaxation speeds are slow with minimal duration of contraction of 0.5 to 2 seconds. Immersion in high K solutions induces large maintained tensions. Sarcomere length in the fast DEAM is uniform and about 2 µ at rest, but in the DEAL speed is less and sarcomere length is greater averaging about 4.5 µ but with a mixed population of fibers. PMID:14324996

  13. Treatment with Riluzole Restores Normal Control of Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles during Locomotion in Adult Rats after Sciatic Nerve Crush at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Cabaj, Anna M.; Sławińska, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN) and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S) or Riluzole (R) after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R) or 2nd (2S and 2R) day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs) identified in investigated muscles. S rats with 2–8 and 10–28 MUs that survived in Sol and EDL muscles respectively showed increases in the duration and duty factor of muscle EMG activity and a loss of correlation between the duty factors of muscle activity, and abnormal flexor-extensor co-activation 3 months after SNC. R rats with 5, 6 (Sol) and 15–29 MUs (EDL) developed almost normal EMG activity of both Sol and control EDL muscles, whereas EDL muscles with SNC showed a lack of recovery. R rats with 8 (Sol) and 23–33 (EDL) MUs developed almost normal EMG activities of all four muscles. A subgroup of S rats with a lack of recovery and R rats with almost complete recovery that had similar number of MUs (8 and 24–28 vs 8 and 23–26), showed that the number of MUs was not the only determinant of treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated that rats with SNC failed to develop normal muscle activity due to malfunction of neuronal circuits attenuating EDL muscle activity during the stance phase, whereas treatment with Riluzole enabled almost normal EMG activity of Sol and EDL muscles during locomotor movement. PMID:28095499

  14. Treatment with Riluzole Restores Normal Control of Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles during Locomotion in Adult Rats after Sciatic Nerve Crush at Birth.

    PubMed

    Zmysłowski, Wojciech; Cabaj, Anna M; Sławińska, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN) and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S) or Riluzole (R) after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R) or 2nd (2S and 2R) day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs) identified in investigated muscles. S rats with 2-8 and 10-28 MUs that survived in Sol and EDL muscles respectively showed increases in the duration and duty factor of muscle EMG activity and a loss of correlation between the duty factors of muscle activity, and abnormal flexor-extensor co-activation 3 months after SNC. R rats with 5, 6 (Sol) and 15-29 MUs (EDL) developed almost normal EMG activity of both Sol and control EDL muscles, whereas EDL muscles with SNC showed a lack of recovery. R rats with 8 (Sol) and 23-33 (EDL) MUs developed almost normal EMG activities of all four muscles. A subgroup of S rats with a lack of recovery and R rats with almost complete recovery that had similar number of MUs (8 and 24-28 vs 8 and 23-26), showed that the number of MUs was not the only determinant of treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated that rats with SNC failed to develop normal muscle activity due to malfunction of neuronal circuits attenuating EDL muscle activity during the stance phase, whereas treatment with Riluzole enabled almost normal EMG activity of Sol and EDL muscles during locomotor movement.

  15. Multiple Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath Involving Both Flexor and Extensor Tendons in a Single Digit: A Case Report and Review of the Literatures.

    PubMed

    Min, Hak Jin; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jae Woo; Yeom, Jae Woo

    2018-06-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a common neoplasm of the hand. This tumor is usually solitary. Multi focal origin of the tumor is considered unusual and very few cases of multiple GCTTS have been reported. We report a 48-year-old female patient who presented with three separate painless nodules in same index finger since three years. The two masses located on dorsal aspect, and the other one located on volar aspect. The imaging studies revealed three separated masses without any connection. We performed excisional biopsy and found multiple tumors, attached to flexor and extensor tendon. The final histopathologic diagnosis was GCTTS.

  16. Autologous tenocyte injection for the treatment of severe, chronic resistant lateral epicondylitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan; Breidahl, William; Mackie, Katherine E; Lin, Zhen; Qin, An; Chen, Jimin; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-12-01

    Severe chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE) is associated with degenerative tendon changes, extracellular matrix breakdown, and tendon cell loss. On the basis of positive outcomes from preclinical studies, this study is the first clinical trial of autologous tenocyte injection (ATI) on severe tendinopathy associated with chronic LE. Autologous tenocyte injection is a safe and effective procedure that enables a reduction in pain and improvement in function in resistant LE. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients with severe refractory LE underwent clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before intervention. A patellar tendon needle biopsy was performed under local anesthetic, and tendon cells were expanded by in vitro culture. Tenocytes used for the injection were characterized by flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Autologous tenocytes were injected into the site of tendinopathy identified at the origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon under ultrasound guidance on a single occasion. Patients underwent serial clinical evaluations and repeat MRI at 12 months after intervention. A total of 20 consecutive patients were included in the study. Three patients withdrew consent after enrollment and before ATI. No adverse event was reported at either biopsy or injection sites. Furthermore, no infection or excessive fibroblastic reaction was found in any patient at the injection site. Clinical evaluation revealed an improvement in mean visual analog scale scores, for a maximum pain score from 5.94 at the initial assessment to 0.76 at 12 months (P < .001). Mean quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and grip strength scores also significantly improved over the 12-month follow-up (QuickDASH score, 45.88 [baseline] to 3.84; grip strength, 20.17 kg [baseline] to 37.38 kg; P < .001). With use of a validated MRI scoring system, the grade of tendinopathy at the common extensor origin improved significantly by

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves isometric time to exhaustion of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Angius, L; Pageaux, B; Hopker, J; Marcora, S M; Mauger, A R

    2016-12-17

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can increase cortical excitability of a targeted brain area, which may affect endurance exercise performance. However, optimal electrode placement for tDCS remains unclear. We tested the effect of two different tDCS electrode montages for improving exercise performance. Nine subjects underwent a control (CON), placebo (SHAM) and two different tDCS montage sessions in a randomized design. In one tDCS session, the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and the cathodal on contralateral forehead (HEAD), while for the other montage the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and cathodal electrode above the shoulder (SHOULDER). tDCS was delivered for 10min at 2.0mA, after which participants performed an isometric time to exhaustion (TTE) test of the right knee extensors. Peripheral and central neuromuscular parameters were assessed at baseline, after tDCS application and after TTE. Heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and leg muscle exercise-induced muscle pain (PAIN) were monitored during the TTE. TTE was longer and RPE lower in the SHOULDER condition (P<0.05). Central and peripheral parameters, and HR and PAIN did not present any differences between conditions after tDCS stimulation (P>0.05). In all conditions maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) significantly decreased after the TTE (P<0.05) while motor-evoked potential area (MEP) increased after TTE (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that SHOULDER montage is more effective than HEAD montage to improve endurance performance, likely through avoiding the negative effects of the cathode on excitability. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women.

    PubMed

    Komi, P V; Bosco, C

    1978-01-01

    An alternating cycle of eccentric-concentric contractions in locomotion represents a sequence when storage and utilization of elastic energy takes place. It is possible that this storage capacity and its utilization depends on the imposed stretch loads in activated muscles, and that sex differences may be present in these phenomena. To investigate these assumed differences, subjects from both sexes and of good physical condition performed vertical jumps on the force-platform from the following experimental conditions: squatting jump (SJ) from a static starting position; counter-movement jump (CMJ) from a free standing position and with a preparatory counter-movement; drop jumps (DJ) from the various heights (20 to 100 cm) on to the platform followed immediately by a vertical jump. In all subjects the SJ, in which condition no appreciable storage of elastic energy takes place, produced the lowest height of rise of the whole body center of gravity (C.G.). The stretch load (drop height) influenced the performance so that height of rise of C. of G. increased when the drop height increased from 26 up to 62 cm (males) and from 20 to 50 cm (females). In all jumping conditions the men jumped higher than the women. However, examination of the utilization of elastic energy indicated that in CMJ the female subjects were able to utilize most (congruent to 90%) of the energy produced in the prestretching phase. Similarly, in DJ the overall change in positive energy over SJ condition was higher in women as compared to men. Thus the results suggest that although the leg extensor muscles of the men subjects could sustain much higher stretch loads, the females may be able to utilize a greater portion of the stored elastic energy in jumping activities.

  19. Intensity dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on corticospinal excitability in chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lynda M; Edwards, Dylan J; Ruffini, Giulio; Labar, Douglas; Stampas, Argyrios; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Cortes, Mar

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) intensity on corticospinal excitability and affected muscle activation in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Single-blind, randomized, sham-controlled, crossover study. Medical research institute and rehabilitation hospital. Volunteers (N = 9) with chronic SCI and motor dysfunction in wrist extensor muscles. Three single session exposures to 20 minutes of a-tDCS (anode over the extensor carpi radialis [ECR] muscle representation on the left primary motor cortex, cathode over the right supraorbital area) using 1 mA, 2 mA, or sham stimulation, delivered at rest, with at least 1 week between sessions. Corticospinal excitability was assessed with motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the ECR muscle using surface electromyography after transcranial magnetic stimulation. Changes in spinal excitability, sensory threshold, and muscle strength were also investigated. Mean MEP amplitude significantly increased by approximately 40% immediately after 2mA a-tDCS (pre: 0.36 ± 0.1 mV; post: 0.47 ± 0.11 mV; P = .001), but not with 1 mA or sham. Maximal voluntary contraction measures remained unaltered across all conditions. Sensory threshold significantly decreased over time after 1mA (P = .002) and 2mA (P = .039) a-tDCS and did not change with sham. F-wave persistence showed a nonsignificant trend for increase (pre: 32% ± 12%; post: 41% ± 10%; follow-up: 46% ± 12%) after 2 mA stimulation. No adverse effects were reported with any of the experimental conditions. The a-tDCS can transiently raise corticospinal excitability to affected muscles in patients with chronic SCI after 2 mA stimulation. Sensory perception can improve with both 1 and 2 mA stimulation. This study gives support to the safe and effective use of a-tDCS using small electrodes in patients with SCI and highlights the importance of stimulation intensity. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  20. Tendon-bone graft for tendinous mallet fingers following failed splinting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Ze; Huang, Xiuge; Zhu, Hongwei; Yu, Yadong

    2013-12-01

    To describe and assess a surgical technique for the treatment of tendinous mallet fingers after failed conservative treatment. From January 2010 to March 2012, 28 tendinous mallet fingers in 28 patients were treated. All patients had greater than 25° extensor lags after 6 to 8 weeks of splinting. Four patients had a second trial of splinting, which also failed. A tendon-bone graft, taken from the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the third metacarpal base, was used for reconstruction. The mean time between the injury and operation was 74 days. The mean preoperative extension lag was 34°. Five patients reported pain in the distal interphalangeal joint. At the final follow-up, patients rated the level of pain on the distal interphalangeal and wrist joints using a visual analog scale. Joint motion was graded with the Crawford criteria. Hand function was assessed with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. Patients reported on their satisfaction based on the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Bone healing was achieved in all patients at a mean of 5 weeks. Position of bone graft was maintained until bone healing was evident in all cases. At the mean follow-up period of 15 months, nail deformity was not noted. No patient reported pain on the distal interphalangeal joint or wrist. The mean residual extension lag of the distal interphalangeal joints was 4°. The results showed that 24 digits were excellent and 4 were good based on the Crawford criteria. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores averaged 1, and 27 patients were satisfied with appearance of the hand. One patient sometimes felt uncomfortable regarding the appearance. A tendon-bone graft is a useful and reliable technique for the treatment of tendinous mallet fingers after failed splinting. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Systematic Review of Tennis Elbow Surgery: Open Versus Arthroscopic Versus Percutaneous Release of the Common Extensor Origin.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Todd P; Issa, Kimona; Gilbert, Benjamin T; Hanly, Brian; Festa, Anthony; McInerney, Vincent K; Scillia, Anthony J

    2017-06-01

    To compare complications, function, pain, and patient satisfaction after conventional open, percutaneous, or arthroscopic release of the extensor origin for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. A thorough review of 4 databases-PubMed, EBSCOhost, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) Plus, and Scopus-was performed to identify all studies that addressed surgical management of lateral epicondylitis. We included (1) studies published between 2000 and 2015 and (2) studies with clearly defined surgical techniques. We excluded (1) non-English-language manuscripts, (2) isolated case reports, (3) studies with fewer than 10 subjects, (4) animal studies, (5) studies with additional adjunctive procedures aside from release of the extensor origin, (6) clinical or systematic review manuscripts, (7) studies with a follow-up period of 6 months or less, and (8) studies in which less than 80% of patients completed follow-up. Each study was analyzed for complication rates, functional outcomes, pain, and patient satisfaction. Thirty reports were identified that included 848 open, 578 arthroscopic, and 178 percutaneous releases. Patients within each release group had a similar age (46 years vs 46 years vs 48 years; P = .9 and P = .4, respectively), whereas there was a longer follow-up time in patients who underwent surgery by an open technique (49.4 months vs 42.6 months vs 23 months, P < .001). There were no differences in complication rates among these techniques (3.8% vs 2.9% vs 3.9%; P = .5 and P = .9, respectively). However, open techniques were correlated with higher surgical-site infection rates than arthroscopic techniques (0.7% vs 0%, P = .04). Mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores were substantially better with both open and arthroscopic techniques than with percutaneous release (19.9 points vs 21.3 points vs 29 points, P < .001). In addition, there was less pain reported in the arthroscopic and percutaneous release

  2. Agonist contraction during intermittent theta burst stimulation enhances motor cortical plasticity of the wrist flexors.

    PubMed

    Mirdamadi, J L; Suzuki, L Y; Meehan, S K

    2015-03-30

    Differences in cortical control across the different muscles of the upper limb may mitigate the efficacy of TMS interventions targeting a specific muscle. The current study sought to determine whether weak concurrent contraction during TMS could enhance the efficacy of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) in the forearm flexors. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were elicited from the flexor (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) motor cortical hotspots before and after iTBS over the FCR cortical hotspot. During iTBS the FCR was either relaxed (iTBS-Relax) or tonically contracted to 10% of maximum voluntary force (iTBS-Contract). iTBS-Relax failed to produce consistent potentiation of MEPFCR amplitude. Individuals with a relatively lower RMTFCR compared RMTECR demonstrated MEPFCR facilitation post-iTBS-Relax. Individuals with relatively higher RMTFCR demonstrated less facilitation and even suppression of MEPFCR amplitude. iTBS-Contract facilitated MEPFCR amplitude but only for MEPFCR evoked from the ECR hotspot. Interactions between overlapping cortical representations determine the efficacy of iTBS. Tonic contraction increases the efficacy of iTBS by enhancing the volume of the cortical representation. However, metaplastic effects may attenuate the enhancement of MEP gain at the motor cortical hotspot. The use of TMS as an adjunct to physical therapy should account for inter-muscle interactions when targeting muscles of the forearm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is posterior synovial plica excision necessary for refractory lateral epicondylitis of the elbow?

    PubMed

    Rhyou, In Hyeok; Kim, Kang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopic treatments for lateral epicondylitis including débridement of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) origin (Baker technique) or resection of the radiocapitellar synovial plica reportedly improve symptoms. However the etiology of the disease and the role of the plica remain unclear. We asked if posterior radiocapitellar synovial plica excision made any additional improvement in pain or function after arthroscopic ECRB release. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients who had arthroscopic treatment for refractory lateral epicondylitis between November 2003 and October 2009. Twenty patients (Group A) underwent the Baker technique and 18 patients (Group B) underwent a combination of the Baker technique and posterior synovial plica excision. The minimum followup was 36 months (mean, 46 months; range, 36-72 months) for Group A and 25 months (mean, 30 months; range, 25-36 months) for Group B. Postoperatively we obtained VAS pain and DASH scores for each group. Two years postoperatively, we found no differences in the VAS pain score or DASH: the mean VAS pain scores were 0.3 points in Group A and 0.4 points in Group B, and the DASH scores were 5.1 points and 6.1 points respectively. The addition of débridement of the posterior synovial fold did not appear to enhance either pain relief or function compared with the classic Baker technique without decortication.

  4. Measuring of the compensation of a nerve root in a cervical schwannoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Masahiko; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Kazuo; Toyota, Kouichiro; Kato, Yoshihiko; Li, Zhenglin; Kawai, Shinya

    2003-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman experienced numbness and hypesthesia of the right C6 dermatome a year ago. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an enhanced tumor continuing into the foramen from the spinal cord at the C5/6 intervertebral level. It was thought to be an Eden type 2 schwannoma. Right unilateral laminectomy was performed on C5. The tumor was present in the intradural area and arose from the right C6 anterior root. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from the deltoid, biceps, and extensor carpi radial (ECR) muscles were recorded following electric cervical nerve root stimulation (0.2 ms duration, and 7 mA intensity). CMAPs of large amplitude were obtained from the deltoid, biceps, and ECR muscles following C5 root stimulation, but those following C6 root stimulation were small. As a result it was determined that the right C6 root was not associated with the nerve distribution for these muscles, so it was resected en bloc with the tumor. No apparent loss of motor function was observed. Standard needle electromyography showed no denervation potentials or decrease in motor unit potentials in either the deltoid or biceps muscles. Intraoperative investigation for compensation of nerve root is clinically useful for determining whether resection of a nerve root results in muscle weakness after surgery for a cervical schwannoma.

  5. Joint Moment-Angle Properties of the Hip Extensors in Subjects With and Without Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Kindel, Curtis; Challis, John

    2018-04-01

    Strength deficits of hip extension in individuals with patellofemoral syndrome are commonly reported in literature. No literature to date has examined these deficits with variable positions of the knee and hip; altering knee angle alters the length and therefore potentially the force produced by the biarticular muscles. Beyond strength, neuromuscular control can also be assessed through the analysis of isometric joint moment steadiness. Subjects consisted of a group of individuals with patellofemoral syndrome (n = 9), and a group of age- and size-matched controls with no symptoms (n = 9). Maximum isometric joint moments for hip extension were measured at 4 points within the joint's range of motion, at 2 different knee positions (0° and 90°) for each group. The joint moment signals were analyzed by computing signal Coefficient of Variation (CV). The results indicate that no significant differences were found between the groups of subjects for the hip extension moments when the knee was extended. However, there was a significant difference between the groups for the joint moments of hip extension with the knee flexed at all 4 hip positions. Results also showed hip extension CV values to be significantly higher in the patellofemoral group compared with the control group, indicating greater signal noise and therefore poorer neuromuscular control of the hip extensor musculature. This study demonstrated that individuals with patellofemoral syndrome have reduced hip extension strength and reduced neuromuscular control with the knee flexed compared with a control group. These results have implications for the etiology of patellofemoral syndrome and its rehabilitation.

  6. Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Silva, Juscélio P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Pereira, Leani S M

    2011-01-01

    Frailty syndrome in elderly people is characterized by a reduction of energy reserves and also by a decreased of resistance to stressors, resulting in an increase of vulnerability. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load in pre-frail elder women with regards to the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and their correlation. Thrity-two pre-frail community-dwelling women participated in this study. Potential participants with cognitive impairment (MEEM), lower extremities orthopedic surgery, fractures, inability to walk unaided, neurological diseases, acute inflammatory disease, tumor growth, regular physical activity and current use of immunomodulators were excluded. All partcipants were evaluated by a blinded assessor using: Timed up and go (TUG), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) and knee extensor muscle strength (Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180(0)/s). The intervention consisted of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 70% of 1RM, three times/ week for ten weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Spearman tests After the intervention, it was observed statistical significance on the work at 180(0)/s (F=12.71, p=0.02), on the power at 180(0)/s (F=15.40, p=0.02) and on the functional capacity (TUG, F=9.54, p=0.01; TC10, F=3.80, p=0.01). There was a good negative and statistically significant correlation between the TUG and work at 60(0)/s, such as the TUG and work at 180(0)/s (r=-0.65, p=0.01; r=-0.72, p=0.01). The intervention improved the muscular power and the functional capacity. The increase of the power correlated with function, which is an important variable of the quality of life in the pre-frail elders. Article registered in the ISRCT register under number ISRCTN62824599.

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of the aging soleus and extensor digitorum longus rat muscles using TMT labeling and mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Daniela F. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C.; Lima, Diogo B.; Nicastro, Humberto; Lorenzetti, Fábio M.; Filho, Mário S.; Hirabara, Sandro M.; Alves, Paulo H. M.; Moresco, James J.; Yates, John R.; Lancha, Antonio H.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia describes an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function that ultimately impairs metabolism, leads to poor balance, frequent falling, limited mobility, and a reduction in quality of life. Here we investigate the pathogenesis of sarcopenia through a proteomic shotgun approach. Briefly, we employed tandem mass tags (TMT) to quantitate and compare the protein profiles obtained from young versus old rat slow-twitch type of muscle (soleus) and a fast-twitch type of muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL). Our results disclose 3452 and 1848 proteins identified from soleus and EDL muscles samples of which 78 and 174 were found to be differentially expressed, respectively. In general, most of the proteins were structural related, involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, detoxification, or transport. Aging affected soleus and EDL muscles differently and several proteins were regulated in opposite ways. For example, pyruvate kinase had its expression and activity different in both soleus and EDL muscles. We were able to verify with existing literature many of our differentially expressed proteins as candidate aging biomarkers, and most importantly, disclose several new candidate biomarkers such as the glioblastoma amplified sequence (GAS), zero beta-globin, and prolargin. PMID:24001182

  8. The role of propriospinal neuronal network in transmitting the alternating muscular activities of flexor and extensor in parkinsonian tremor.

    PubMed

    Hao, M; He, X; Lan, N

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that normal cyclic movement of human arm and resting limb tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with the oscillatory neuronal activities in different cerebral networks, which are transmitted to the antagonistic muscles via the same spinal pathway. There are mono-synaptic and multi-synaptic corticospinal pathways for conveying motor commands. This study investigates the plausible role of propriospinal neuronal (PN) network in the C3-C4 levels in multi-synaptic transmission of cortical commands for oscillatory movements. A PN network model is constructed based on known neurophysiological connections, and is hypothesized to achieve the conversion of cortical oscillations into alternating antagonistic muscle bursts. Simulations performed with a virtual arm (VA) model indicate that without the PN network, the alternating bursts of antagonistic muscle EMG could not be reliably generated, whereas with the PN network, the alternating pattern of bursts were naturally displayed in the three pairs of antagonist muscles. Thus, it is suggested that oscillations in the primary motor cortex (M1) of single and double tremor frequencies are processed at the PN network to compute the alternating burst pattern in the flexor and extensor muscles.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of the aging soleus and extensor digitorum longus rat muscles using TMT labeling and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Daniela F S; Carvalho, Paulo C; Lima, Diogo B; Nicastro, Humberto; Lorenzeti, Fábio M; Siqueira-Filho, Mário; Hirabara, Sandro M; Alves, Paulo H M; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R; Lancha, Antonio H

    2013-10-04

    Sarcopenia describes an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function that ultimately impairs metabolism and leads to poor balance, frequent falling, limited mobility, and a reduction in quality of life. Here we investigate the pathogenesis of sarcopenia through a proteomic shotgun approach. In brief, we employed tandem mass tags to quantitate and compare the protein profiles obtained from young versus old rat slow-twitch type of muscle (soleus) and a fast-twitch type of muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL). Our results disclose 3452 and 1848 proteins identified from soleus and EDL muscles samples, of which 78 and 174 were found to be differentially expressed, respectively. In general, most of the proteins were structural related and involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, detoxification, or transport. Aging affected soleus and EDL muscles differently, and several proteins were regulated in opposite ways. For example, pyruvate kinase had its expression and activity different in both soleus and EDL muscles. We were able to verify with existing literature many of our differentially expressed proteins as candidate aging biomarkers and, most importantly, disclose several new candidate biomarkers such as the glioblastoma amplified sequence, zero β-globin, and prolargin.

  10. Non-linear dynamics in muscle fatigue and strength model during maximal self-perceived elbow extensors training.

    PubMed

    Gacesa, Jelena Popadic; Ivancevic, Tijana; Ivancevic, Nik; Paljic, Feodora Popic; Grujic, Nikola

    2010-08-26

    Our aim was to determine the dynamics in muscle strength increase and fatigue development during repetitive maximal contraction in specific maximal self-perceived elbow extensors training program. We will derive our functional model for m. triceps brachii in spirit of traditional Hill's two-component muscular model and after fitting our data, develop a prediction tool for this specific training system. Thirty-six healthy young men (21 +/- 1.0 y, BMI 25.4 +/- 7.2 kg/m(2)), who did not take part in any formal resistance exercise regime, volunteered for this study. The training protocol was performed on the isoacceleration dynamometer, lasted for 12 weeks, with a frequency of five sessions per week. Each training session included five sets of 10 maximal contractions (elbow extensions) with a 1 min resting period between each set. The non-linear dynamic system model was used for fitting our data in conjunction with the Levenberg-Marquardt regression algorithm. As a proper dynamical system, our functional model of m. triceps brachii can be used for prediction and control. The model can be used for the predictions of muscular fatigue in a single series, the cumulative daily muscular fatigue and the muscular growth throughout the training process. In conclusion, the application of non-linear dynamics in this particular training model allows us to mathematically explain some functional changes in the skeletal muscle as a result of its adaptation to programmed physical activity-training. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strength characterization of knee flexor and extensor muscles in Prader-Willi and obese patients.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Paolo; Vismara, Luca; Menegoni, Francesco; Baccalaro, Gabriele; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano

    2009-05-06

    despite evidence of an obesity-related disability, there is a lack of objective muscle functional data in overweight subjects. Only few studies provide instrumental strength measurements in non-syndromal obesity, whereas no data about Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the lower limb muscle function of patients affected by PWS as compared to non-syndromal obesity and normal-weight subjects. We enrolled 20 obese (O) females (age: 29.1 +/- 6.5 years; BMI: 38.1 +/- 3.1), 6 PWS females (age: 27.2 +/- 4.9 years; BMI: 45.8 +/- 4.4) and 14 healthy normal-weight (H) females (age: 30.1 +/- 4.7 years; BMI: 21 +/- 1.6). Isokinetic strength during knee flexion and extension in both lower limbs at the fixed angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 180 degrees /s, 240 degrees /s was measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer. the H, O and PWS populations appear to be clearly stratified with regard to muscle strength.: PWS showed the lowest absolute peak torque (PT) for knee flexor and extensor muscles as compared to O (-55%) and H (-47%) (P = 0.00001). O showed significantly higher strength values than H as regard to knee extension only (P = 0.0014). When strength data were normalised by body weight, PWS showed a 50% and a 70% reduction in PT as compared to O and H, respectively. Knee flexors strength values were on average half of those reported for extension in all of the three populations. the novel aspect of our study is the determination of objective measures of muscle strength in PWS and the comparison with O and H patients. The objective characterization of muscle function performed in this study provides baseline and outcome measures that may quantify specific strength deficits amendable with tailored rehabilitation programs and monitor effectiveness of treatments.

  12. [Relieving pre-exam anxiety syndrome with wrist-ankle acupuncture: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Shu, Shi; Li, Tong-ming; Fang, Fan-fu; He, Hou-luo; Zhou, Qing-hui; Gu, Wei; Zhou, Shuang

    2011-06-01

    Pre-exam anxiety syndrome is a common condition occurring in pre-exam students and directly affects their examination performance and physical state. Wrist-ankle acupuncture has significant therapeutic effects in treating mental disorders and may also relieve the symptoms of pre-exam anxiety syndrome. To assess the therapeutic effect of wrist-ankle acupuncture on pre-exam anxiety syndrome. A total of 60 students who met the inclusion criteria of pre-exam anxiety syndrome were enrolled from a university in Shanghai and they were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. There were 30 cases in each group, and no case failed to follow-up. In the treatment group, wrist-ankle acupuncture was adopted to point upper 1 bilaterally (impression between flexor carpi ulnaris tendon and ulnar margin), and there was no requirement for Deqi (arrival of qi). In the control group, sham acupuncture was adopted. The treatment was applied 3 times totally in both groups one week before the exam, once every other day, each time with the needles retained for 30 min. The therapeutic effects were compared between two groups. Before and after 3 treatments, Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) and Expectation and Treatment Credibility Scale (ETCS) were measured and evaluated. The therapeutic effect experienced by the treatment group was better than that of the control group (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in TAS and ETCS before treatment between the two groups. The scores of TAS after treatment in two groups were higher than those before treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01). There were statistical differences in TAS absolute difference and TAS relative difference between the two groups and the treatment group had better results (P<0.05, P<0.01). After treatment, patients in the treatment group had higher scores in ETCS than those in the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). No adverse reaction was reported. Wrist-ankle acupuncture can relieve the symptoms of pre

  13. Extensor Pollicis Longus Injury in Addition to De Quervain’s with Text Messaging on Mobile Phones

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bhaskaranand; Bhat, Anil K; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To do a clinical and ultrasonic evaluation of subjects with thumb pain with text messaging. Background: Thumbs are commonly used for text messaging, which are not as well designed for fine manipulative or dexterous work. Repetitive use as in text messaging can lead to the injury to the tendons of the thumb. Materials and Methods: Ninety eight students with symptoms of Repetitive Strain Type of injuries of the thumb were selected from a survey and evaluated both clinically and by ultrasound analysis of the musculotendinous unit of the thumb to note changes due to excessive use of the mobile phone. Age and sex matched controls were also subjected to ultrasound evaluation. Results: Clinical examination showed positive Finkelstein test in 40% of the cases, significant reduction in the lateral and tip pinch strengths in the cases. Ultrasound detected changes in the first and the third compartments in 19% of the cases. Conclusion: Isolated cases of pain in the thumb have been reported but this study noted changes both clinically and by ultrasound in the tendons of the thumb. These changes should be taken as warning signs of possible subclinical changes taking place in the soft tissues of the thumb in these subjects due to repetitive use of mobile phones and thus, making them prone for developing painful Musculoskeletal Disorders. Application: Repetitive use of mobile phones for text messaging can lead to the damage of Extensor pollicis longus of the thumb in addition to the tendons of the first compartment of the wrist. PMID:25584249

  14. MR imaging of patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: is the common extensor tendon an isolated lesion?

    PubMed

    Qi, Liang; Zhu, Zheng-Feng; Li, Feng; Wang, Ren-Fa

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether an injury of the common extensor tendon (CET) is associated with other abnormalities in the elbow joint and find the potential relationships between these imaging features by using a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-three patients were examined with 3.0 T MR. Two reviewers were recruited for MR images evaluation. Image features were recorded in terms of (1) the injury degree of CET; (2) associated injuries in the elbow joint. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the injury degree of CET and associated abnormalities of the elbow joint, correlations were considered significant at p<0.05. Total 24 elbows in 23 patients were included. Various degrees of injuries were found in total 24 CETs (10 mild, 7 moderate and 7 severe). Associated abnormalities were detected in accompaniments of the elbow joints including ligaments, tendons, saccussynovialis and muscles. A significantly positive correlation (r = 0.877,p<0.01) was found in injuries of CET and lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL). Injury of the CET is not an isolated lesion for lateral picondylitis, which is mostly accompanied with other abnormalities, of which the LUCL injury is the most commonly seen in lateral epicondylitis, and there is a positive correlation between the injury degree in CET and LUCL.

  15. Trunk extensor and flexor strength of long-distance race car drivers and physically active controls.

    PubMed

    Baur, Heiner; Muller, Steffen; Pilz, Frederike; Mayer, Patrizia; Mayer, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Seventy percent of motor sports athletes report low back pain. Information on the physical capacity of race car drivers is limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum trunk extensor and flexor strength of elite race car drivers and physically active controls. Thirteen elite race car drivers and 13 controls were measured in concentric mode for maximal trunk flexion and extension at 60° x s(-1) and 120° x s(-1). Peak torque (mean ± s) at 60° x s(-1) in trunk extension was 283 ± 80 N x m in the drivers and 260 ± 88 N x m in controls (P > 0.05). At 120° x s(-1), drivers produced peak torques of 248 ± 55 N x m compared with 237 ± 74 N x m for controls (P > 0.05). Peak torques in flexion were less than in extension for both groups (60° x s(-1): drivers 181 ± 56 N x m, controls 212 ± 54 N x m, P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): drivers 191 ± 57 N x m, controls 207 ± 48 N x m, P > 0.05). Individual ratios of flexion to extension forces exhibited ratios of 0.88 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.93 (120° x s(-1)) for controls and 0.66 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.77 (120° x s(-1)) for drivers (60° x s(-1): P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): P > 0.05). The maximum strength performance capacity of the trunk muscles of elite motor sport athletes competing in long-distance racing did not differ from that of anthropometrically matched and physically active controls.

  16. Strength characterization of knee flexor and extensor muscles in Prader-Willi and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Capodaglio, Paolo; Vismara, Luca; Menegoni, Francesco; Baccalaro, Gabriele; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano

    2009-01-01

    Background despite evidence of an obesity-related disability, there is a lack of objective muscle functional data in overweight subjects. Only few studies provide instrumental strength measurements in non-syndromal obesity, whereas no data about Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the lower limb muscle function of patients affected by PWS as compared to non-syndromal obesity and normal-weight subjects. Methods We enrolled 20 obese (O) females (age: 29.1 ± 6.5 years; BMI: 38.1 ± 3.1), 6 PWS females (age: 27.2 ± 4.9 years; BMI: 45.8 ± 4.4) and 14 healthy normal-weight (H) females (age: 30.1 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 21 ± 1.6). Isokinetic strength during knee flexion and extension in both lower limbs at the fixed angular velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s was measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer. Results the H, O and PWS populations appear to be clearly stratified with regard to muscle strength.: PWS showed the lowest absolute peak torque (PT) for knee flexor and extensor muscles as compared to O (-55%) and H (-47%) (P = 0.00001). O showed significantly higher strength values than H as regard to knee extension only (P = 0.0014). When strength data were normalised by body weight, PWS showed a 50% and a 70% reduction in PT as compared to O and H, respectively. Knee flexors strength values were on average half of those reported for extension in all of the three populations. Conclusion the novel aspect of our study is the determination of objective measures of muscle strength in PWS and the comparison with O and H patients. The objective characterization of muscle function performed in this study provides baseline and outcome measures that may quantify specific strength deficits amendable with tailored rehabilitation programs and monitor effectiveness of treatments. PMID:19419559

  17. [Statistical (Poisson) motor unit number estimation. Methodological aspects and normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle of healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Murga Oporto, L; Menéndez-de León, C; Bauzano Poley, E; Núñez-Castaín, M J

    Among the differents techniques for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) there is the statistical one (Poisson), in which the activation of motor units is carried out by electrical stimulation and the estimation performed by means of a statistical analysis based on the Poisson s distribution. The study was undertaken in order to realize an approximation to the MUNE Poisson technique showing a coprehensible view of its methodology and also to obtain normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) from a healthy population. One hundred fourteen normal volunteers with age ranging from 10 to 88 years were studied using the MUNE software contained in a Viking IV system. The normal subjects were divided into two age groups (10 59 and 60 88 years). The EDB MUNE from all them was 184 49. Both, the MUNE and the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were significantly lower in the older age group (p< 0.0001), showing the MUNE a better correlation with age than CMAP amplitude ( 0.5002 and 0.4142, respectively p< 0.0001). Statistical MUNE method is an important way for the assessment to the phisiology of the motor unit. The value of MUNE correlates better with the neuromuscular aging process than CMAP amplitude does.

  18. Effects of concurrent physical and cognitive demands on muscle activity and heart rate variability in a repetitive upper-extremity precision task.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Lyskov, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies of concurrent physical and cognitive demands have addressed tasks of limited relevance to occupational work, and with dissociated physical and cognitive task components. This study investigated effects on muscle activity and heart rate variability of executing a repetitive occupational task with an added cognitive demand integral to correct task performance. Thirty-five healthy females performed 7.5 min of standardized repetitive pipetting work in a baseline condition and a concurrent cognitive condition involving a complex instruction for correct performance. Average levels and variabilities of electromyographic activities in the upper trapezius and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles were compared between these two conditions. Heart rate and heart rate variability were also assessed to measure autonomic nervous system activation. Subjects also rated perceived fatigue in the neck-shoulder region, as well as exertion. Concurrent cognitive demands increased trapezius muscle activity from 8.2% of maximum voluntary exertion (MVE) in baseline to 9.0% MVE (p = 0.0005), but did not significantly affect ECR muscle activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, perceived fatigue or exertion. Trapezius muscle activity increased by about 10%, without any accompanying cardiovascular response to indicate increased sympathetic activation. We suggest this slight increase in trapezius muscle activity to be due to changed muscle activation patterns within or among shoulder muscles. The results suggest that it may be possible to introduce modest cognitive demands necessary for correct performance in repetitive precision work without any major physiological effects, at least in the short term.

  19. Objective measurement of tissue tension in myofascial trigger point areas before and during the administration of anesthesia with complete blocking of neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Johannes; Neustadt, Beate; Buchmann-Barthel, Katharina; Rudolph, Soeren; Klauer, Thomas; Reis, Olaf; Smolenski, Ulrich; Buchmann, Hella; Wagner, Klaus F; Haessler, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) are extremely frequent in the human musculoskeletal system. Despite this, little is known about their etiology. Increased muscular tension in the trigger point area could be a major factor for the development of MTPs. To investigate the impact of muscular tension in the taut band with an MTP and thereby, the spinal excitability of associated segmental neurons, we objectively measured the tissue tension in MTPs before and during the administration of anesthesia using a transducer. Three target muscles (m. temporalis, upper part of m. trapezius, and m. extensor carpi radialis longus) with an MTP and 1 control muscle without an MTP were examined in 62 patients scheduled for an operation. We found significant 2-way interactions (ANOVA, P<0.05) between the analyzed regions of the target muscles dependent on the time of measurement, that is, before and during a complete blocking of neuromuscular transmission. These effects could be demonstrated for each target muscle separately. An increased muscle tension in MTPs, and not a primary local inflammation with enhanced viscoelasticity, was the main result of our investigation. We interpret this increased muscular tension in the taut band with an MTP as increased spinal segmental excitability. In line with this, we assume a predominant, but not unique, impact of increased spinal excitability resulting in an augmented tension of segmental-associated muscle fibers for the etiology of MTP. Consequently, postisometric relaxation might be a promising therapeutic option for MTPs.

  20. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous bone drilling for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang Ho; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Bo Ra

    2018-01-01

    To determine the clinical efficacy of sonographically-guided percutaneous bone drilling of the lateral epicondyle (LE) for the treatment of patients with LE. We included 24 patients with LE who reported pain in this study. All patients underwent sonographically-guided percutaneous bone drilling of the lateral epicondyle. Follow-up sonography and physical examinations were performed 1, 3 and 6 months after the procedure. The outcome measures included sonographic findings, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, maximum voluntary grip strength (MVGS) and patient-related tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) score. None of the patients had immediate complications during the procedure. The area of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tears decreased significantly at 1 month and declined gradually over the remaining 5 months of the study (p < 0.001). The mean pain VAS score was significantly lower at 6 months than preoperatively (respectively; p < 0.001). The mean MVGS increased significantly between pretreatment and 6 months post-treatment (p < 0.001), whereas the PRTEE score decreased significantly during the same period (p < 0.001). Sonographically-guided percutaneous drilling is a quick and safe treatment option for LE that can be performed in an outpatient setting. • Percutaneous drilling of the lateral condyle is effective for the treatment of LE. • The area of ECRB tears can be measured by US-guided saline injection. • US-guided percutaneous drilling is a quick and safe treatment option for LE.

  1. Partial weight support differentially affects corticomotor excitability across muscles of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Runnalls, Keith D.; Anson, Greg; Wolf, Steven L.; Byblow, Winston D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Partial weight support may hold promise as a therapeutic adjuvant during rehabilitation after stroke by providing a permissive environment for reducing the expression of abnormal muscle synergies that cause upper limb impairment. We explored the neurophysiological effects of upper limb weight support in 13 healthy young adults by measuring motor‐evoked potentials (MEPs) from transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex and electromyography from anterior deltoid (AD), biceps brachii (BB), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), and first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Five levels of weight support, varying from none to full, were provided to the arm using a commercial device (Saebo Mobile Arm Support). For each level of support, stimulus–response (SR) curves were derived from MEPs across a range of TMS intensities. Weight support affected background EMG activity in each of the four muscles examined (P <0.0001 for each muscle). Tonic background activity was primarily reduced in the AD. Weight support had a differential effect on the size of MEPs across muscles. After curve fitting, the SR plateau for ECR increased at the lowest support level (P =0.004). For FDI, the SR plateau increased at the highest support level (P =0.0003). These results indicate that weight support of the proximal upper limb modulates corticomotor excitability across the forearm and hand. The findings support a model of integrated control of the upper limb and may inform the use of weight support in clinical settings. PMID:25501435

  2. Treatment of osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint by resection-suspension-interposition arthoplasty using the split abductor pollicis longus tendon.

    PubMed

    Harenberg, P S; Jakubietz, M G; Jakubietz, R G; Schmidt, K; Meffert, R H

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of pain and gain of functionality in symptomatic osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint. Idiopathic, rheumatic, or posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint. RELATIVE CONTRAINDICATIONS: Poor general condition, poor condition of the hand's soft tissue/skin, chronic regional pain syndrome, current or recent infections of the hand, heavy manual labor (decision on a by-case basis). Supine position, hand pronated or slightly tilted. Upper arm tourniquet (Esmarch's method). Loupe magnification. Incision over the first extensor compartment. Exposure and incision of the thumb's basal joint. Resection of the trapezium. Exposure of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon. Longitudinal split of the tendon harvesting the distally based ulnar part of the tendon. The split APL tendon is wrapped around the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle tendon, suturing it to the tendon and back to itself. The rest of the split APL tendon is placed into the gap between the scaphoid and the first metacarpal bone, which is followed by wound closure. Plaster cast (thumb abduction splint) for 4 weeks. Stable commercially available wrist brace for at least 2 more weeks. There were no significant differences between the FCR arthroplasty (Epping's method) and the APL arthroplasty (Wulle's technique) regarding pain (visual analog scale), disability/usability (DASH score), or range of motion. Patients who had undergone APL arthroplasty showed significantly better grip and pinch strength. Furthermore, the operating time was significantly shorter and scars were significantly smaller in APL arthroplasty.

  3. Use of electromyography for the diagnosis of equine hyperkalemic periodic paresis.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J A; Naylor, J M; Crichlow, E C

    1990-01-01

    The use of electromyography (EMG) as a diagnostic aid for equine hyperkalemic periodic paresis (EHPP) was investigated in seven affected and seven control horses. Affected horses were confirmed positive for EHPP either by elevated serum potassium concentration with clinical signs of myotonia, or by inducing hyperkalemia and clinical signs using oral potassium chloride challenge. All horses were asymptomatic at the time EMG was performed, using bipolar fine wire needle electrodes. The myopotentials were recorded on magnetic tape and displayed on paper charts for analysis. Insertional and resting activity were recorded from the right supraspinatus, triceps, extensor carpi radialis and gluteal muscles in standing horses. Myotonic discharges were seen in six of seven affected horses but not in any of the controls. All seven affected horses and two control horses had prolonged insertional activity. Five out of seven affected horses and one control horse displayed spontaneous motor unit discharges unrelated to recording electrode movement. Myoelectrical potentials containing closely timed muscle potentials, i.e. doublets, were found in all affected horses, with four of seven affected horses also showing triplets. These potentials were not observed in any of the controls. No obvious difference in activity was observed among the four muscle sites tested. It is concluded that EMG is a safe and useful tool for diagnosing EHPP in horses not currently displaying clinical signs. Myotonic discharges and doublets appear to be the most diagnostically significant electromyographic abnormalities in EHPP affected horses. PMID:2249182

  4. Effects of chronic administration of clenbuterol on contractile properties and calcium homeostasis in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Pascal; Douillard, Aymerick; Galbes, Olivier; Ramonatxo, Christelle; Py, Guillaume; Candau, Robin; Lacampagne, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Clenbuterol, a β2-agonist, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a shift from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic muscle fiber type profile. However, the cellular mechanisms of the effects of chronic clenbuterol administration on skeletal muscle are not completely understood. As the intracellular Ca2+ concentration must be finely regulated in many cellular processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on force, fatigue, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscles (the extensor digitorum longus, EDL, muscle), as they are more sensitive to clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were chronically treated with 4 mg.kg-1 clenbuterol or saline vehicle (controls) for 21 days. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, Ca2+-transient amplitude and Ca2+ spark properties. EDL muscles from clenbuterol-treated animals displayed hypertrophy, a shift from slow to fast fiber type profile and increased absolute force, while the relative force remained unchanged and resistance to fatigue decreased compared to control muscles from rats treated with saline vehicle. Compared to control animals, clenbuterol treatment decreased Ca2+-transient amplitude, Ca2+ spark amplitude and frequency and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load was markedly reduced. Conversely, calpain activity was increased by clenbuterol chronic treatment. These results indicate that chronic treatment with clenbuterol impairs Ca2+ homeostasis and this could contribute to the remodeling and functional impairment of fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

  5. [Investigation of maximal motor nerve conductivity and distal latency before and after galvanic cell bath (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Trnavsky, G

    1982-04-30

    Measurements about maximal motor nerve conductivity of ulnaris and medianus were carried out before and after constant galvanisation from neck to hand. Significant results of conductivity, distal latency and amplitude of summation potential could not be registered neither by plus nor by minus pole at the hand.

  6. Immunohistochemical Mapping of Sensory Nerve Endings in the Human Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex.

    PubMed

    Rein, Susanne; Semisch, Manuel; Garcia-Elias, Marc; Lluch, Alex; Zwipp, Hans; Hagert, Elisabet

    2015-10-01

    The triangular fibrocartilage complex is the main stabilizer of the distal radioulnar joint. While static joint stability is constituted by osseous and ligamentous integrity, the dynamic aspects of joint stability chiefly concern proprioceptive control of the compressive and directional muscular forces acting on the joint. Therefore, an investigation of the pattern and types of sensory nerve endings gives more insight in dynamic distal radioulnar joint stability. We aimed to (1) analyze the general distribution of sensory nerve endings and blood vessels; (2) examine interstructural distribution of sensory nerve endings and blood vessels; (3) compare the number and types of mechanoreceptors in each part; and (4) analyze intrastructural distribution of nerve endings at different tissue depth. The subsheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon sheath, the ulnocarpal meniscoid, the articular disc, the dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments, and the ulnolunate and ulnotriquetral ligaments were dissected from 11 human cadaver wrists. Sensory nerve endings were counted in five levels per specimen as total cell amount/cm(2) after staining with low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75, protein gene product 9.5, and S-100 protein and thereafter classified according to Freeman and Wyke. All types of sensory corpuscles were found in the various structures of the triangular fibrocartilage complex with the exception of the ulnolunate ligament, which contained only Golgi-like endings, free nerve endings, and unclassifiable corpuscles. The articular disc had only free nerve endings. Furthermore, free nerve endings were the predominant sensory nerve ending (median, 72.6/cm(2); range, 0-469.4/cm(2)) and more prevalent than all other types of mechanoreceptors: Ruffini (median, 0; range, 0-5.6/cm(2); difference of medians, 72.6; p < 0.001), Pacini (median, 0; range, 0-3.8/cm(2); difference of medians, 72.6; p < 0.001), Golgi-like (median, 0; range, 0-2.1/cm(2); difference of medians, 72

  7. Reliability and validity of the Performance Recorder 1 for measuring isometric knee flexor and extensor strength.

    PubMed

    Neil, Sarah E; Myring, Alec; Peeters, Mon Jef; Pirie, Ian; Jacobs, Rachel; Hunt, Michael A; Garland, S Jayne; Campbell, Kristin L

    2013-11-01

    Muscular strength is a key parameter of rehabilitation programs and a strong predictor of functional capacity. Traditional methods to measure strength, such as manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD), are limited by the strength and experience of the tester. The Performance Recorder 1 (PR1) is a strength assessment tool attached to resistance training equipment and may be a time- and cost-effective tool to measure strength in clinical practice that overcomes some limitations of MMT and HHD. However, reliability and validity of the PR1 have not been reported. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability was assessed using the PR1 in healthy adults (n  =  15) during isometric knee flexion and extension. Criterion-related validity was assessed through comparison of values obtained from the PR1 and Biodex® isokinetic dynamometer. Test-retest reliability was excellent for peak knee flexion (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) and knee extension (ICC  =  0.96, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99). Inter-rater reliability was also excellent for peak knee flexion (ICC  =  0.95, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) and peak knee extension (ICC  =  0.97, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). Validity was moderate for peak knee flexion (ICC  =  0.75, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.92) but poor for peak knee extension (ICC  =  0.37, 95% CI: 0, 0.73). The PR1 provides a reliable measure of isometric knee flexor and extensor strength in healthy adults that could be used in the clinical setting, but absolute values may not be comparable to strength assessment by gold-standard measures.

  8. Neuromuscular adjustments of the knee extensors and plantar flexors following match-play tennis in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Périard, Julien D; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that impairments in lower limb maximal strength and voluntary activation (VA) are exacerbated following match-play tennis in hot compared with cool conditions. Methods Torque and VA were evaluated during brief (5 s) and sustained (20 s) maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF) in 12 male tennis players before (pre) and after (post, 24 h and 48 h) ∼115 min of play in hot (∼37°C) and cool (∼22°C) conditions. Results Rectal temperature was higher following play in hot than in cool (∼39.2 vs ∼38.5°C; p<0.05). Torque production decreased from prematch to postmatch during the brief and sustained contractions in hot (KE: ∼22%; PF: ∼13%) and cool (KE: ∼9%, PF: ∼7%) (p<0.05). KE strength losses in hot were greater than in cool (p<0.05) and persisted for 24 h (p<0.05). Postmatch brief and sustained KE VA was lower in hot than in cool (p<0.05), in which VA was maintained. PF VA was maintained throughout the protocol. Peak twitch torque and maximum rates of torque development and relaxation in the KE and PF were equally reduced postmatch relative to prematch in hot and cool conditions (p<0.05), and were restored near baseline within 24 h. Conclusions Neuromuscular system integrity of the lower limbs is compromised immediately following match-play tennis in hot and cool conditions due to the development of peripheral fatigue. The larger and persistent KE strength losses observed under heat stress are associated with greater levels of central fatigue especially during sustained contractions. PMID:24668379

  9. The histochemical profile of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle differentiates after birth and dedifferentiates in senescence.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, M; Laurer, H; Maier, B; Frank, J; Marzi, I; Steudel, W-I; Mautes, A

    2007-01-01

    Age dependent motor unit dedifferentiation is a key component of impaired muscle function in advanced age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rat muscle histochemical profile during the lifespan of an individual has an age-specific pattern since comprehensive longitudinal studies of muscle differentiation after birth and dedifferentiation in advanced age are scarce. Our results show that extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) is comprised only of two fiber types after birth, type slow-oxidative (SO) and type SDH-intermediate (SDH-INT), the latter being indicative for the presence of polyneuronal innervation. In contrast to the constantly growing cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers, a dramatic decrease in SDH-INT proportion occurs between day 14 and 21 after birth resulting in a complete loss of fiber type SDH-INT at the age of 90 days (p<0.05). At the age of 270 days, the fiber type composition of rat EDL dedifferentiates as shown by the reappearance of the SDH-INT type with a further increase at the age of 540 days (p<0.05). These changes in histochemical fiber type spectra are brought about by fiber type conversion within the fast twich fibers. The findings of the present study provide further evidence that fiber type conversion is a basic mechanism leading to motor unit differentiation and dedifferentiation during ontogenesis. Fiber type conversion shows a distinct time specific pattern and is also characteristic for motor unit regeneration after peripheral nerve repair. Factors that influence fiber type conversion and thereby motor unit organization may provide a future therapeutic option to enhance the regenerative capacity of motor units.

  10. Does change in isolated lumbar extensor muscle function correlate with good clinical outcome? A secondary analysis of data on change in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability in chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Steele, James; Fisher, James; Perrin, Craig; Conway, Rebecca; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Smith, Dave

    2018-01-12

    Secondary analysis of data from studies utilising isolated lumbar extension exercise interventions for correlations among changes in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Studies reporting isolated lumbar extension strength changes were examined for inclusion criteria including: (1) participants with chronic low back pain, (2) intervention ≥ four weeks including isolated lumbar extension exercise, (3) outcome measures including isolated lumbar extension strength, pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and disability (Oswestry Disability Index). Six studies encompassing 281 participants were included. Correlations among change in isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Participants were grouped as "met" or "not met" based on minimal clinically important changes and between groups comparisons conducted. Isolated lumbar extension strength and Visual Analogue Scale pooled analysis showed significant weak to moderate correlations (r = -0.391 to -0.539, all p < 0.001). Isolated lumbar extension strength and Oswestry Disability Index pooled analysis showed significant weak correlations (r = -0.349 to -0.470, all p < 0.001). For pain and disability, isolated lumbar extension strength changes were greater for those "met" compared with those "not met" (p < 0.001-0.008). Improvements in isolated lumbar extension strength may be related to positive and meaningful clinical outcomes. As many other performance outcomes and clinical outcomes are not related, isolated lumbar extension strength change may be a mechanism of action affecting symptom improvement. Implications for Rehabilitation Chronic low back pain is often associated with deconditioning of the lumbar extensor musculature. Isolated lumbar extension exercise has been shown to condition this musculature and also reduce pain and disability. This study shows significant correlations between increases in isolated lumbar extension strength and reductions in pain and

  11. Knee Extensor Rate of Torque Development Before and After Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy, With Analysis of Neuromuscular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cobian, Daniel G; Koch, Cameron M; Amendola, Annunziato; Williams, Glenn N

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Descriptive, prospective single-cohort longitudinal study. Background Though rapid torque development is essential in activities of daily living and sports, it hasn't been specifically tested by most physical therapists or incorporated into rehabilitation programs until late in the treatment process. Little evidence is available on quadriceps torque development capacity before and after arthroscopic knee surgery. Objectives To study knee extensor rate of torque development, contributing mechanisms, and associations with strength and patient-reported outcomes before and during the first 6 weeks after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Methods Twenty subjects (mean ± SD age, 42.3 ± 13.7 years; body mass index, 26.6 ± 3.1 kg/m 2 ) were tested before surgery, and at 2 and 5 weeks after surgery. Quadriceps muscle volume, strength, activation, rate of torque development, and patient-reported outcomes were evaluated across the study period. Results Significant side-to-side differences in quadriceps strength and voluntary rate of torque development were observed at each time point (P<.05). Changes in muscle activity were associated with changes in rapid torque development capacity. Side-to-side rate of torque development deficits after surgery were associated with lower patient-reported outcomes scores. Conclusion Diminished rapid torque development capacity is common in arthroscopic meniscal debridement patients. This reduced capacity is associated with an inability to quickly recruit and drive the quadriceps muscles (neural mechanisms) and not muscle atrophy or other peripheral factors tested. Patient-reported outcomes are associated with quadriceps rate of torque development, but not strength or muscle size. Rapid torque development warrants greater attention in rehabilitation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):945-956. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7310.

  12. Loss of knee extensor torque complexity during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions occurs exclusively above the critical torque.

    PubMed

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The complexity of knee extensor torque time series decreases during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions. We hypothesized that because of peripheral fatigue, this loss of torque complexity would occur exclusively during contractions above the critical torque (CT). Nine healthy participants performed isometric knee extension exercise (6 s of contraction, 4 s of rest) on six occasions for 30 min or to task failure, whichever occurred sooner. Four trials were performed above CT (trials S1-S4, S1 being the lowest intensity), and two were performed below CT (at 50% and 90% of CT). Global, central, and peripheral fatigue were quantified using maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) with femoral nerve stimulation. The complexity of torque output was determined using approximate entropy (ApEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis-α scaling exponent (DFA-α). The MVC torque was reduced in trials below CT [by 19 ± 4% (means ± SE) in 90%CT], but complexity did not decrease [ApEn for 90%CT: from 0.82 ± 0.03 to 0.75 ± 0.06, 95% paired-samples confidence intervals (CIs), 95% CI = -0.23, 0.10; DFA-α from 1.36 ± 0.01 to 1.32 ± 0.03, 95% CI -0.12, 0.04]. Above CT, substantial reductions in MVC torque occurred (of 49 ± 8% in S1), and torque complexity was reduced (ApEn for S1: from 0.67 ± 0.06 to 0.14 ± 0.01, 95% CI = -0.72, -0.33; DFA-α from 1.38 ± 0.03 to 1.58 ± 0.01, 95% CI 0.12, 0.29). Thus, in these experiments, the fatigue-induced loss of torque complexity occurred exclusively during contractions performed above the CT. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. The effect of open kinetic chain knee extensor resistance training at different training loads on anterior knee laxity in the uninjured.

    PubMed

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C

    2016-04-01

    The commonly used open kinetic chain knee extensor (OKCKE) exercise loads the sagittal restraints to knee anterior tibial translation. To investigate the effect of different loads of OKCKE resistance training on anterior knee laxity (AKL) in the uninjured knee. non-clinical trial. Randomization into one of three supervised training groups occurred with training 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Subjects in the LOW and HIGH groups performed OKCKE resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20 repetition maximum (RM) and 20 sets of 2RM, respectively. Subjects in the isokinetic training group (ISOK) performed isokinetic OKCKE resistance training using 2 sets of 20 maximal efforts. AKL was measured using the KT2000 arthrometer with concurrent measurement of lateral hamstrings muscle activity at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Twenty six subjects participated (LOW n = 9, HIGH n = 10, ISOK n = 7). The main finding from this study is that a 12-week OKCKE resistance training programme at loads of 20 sets of 2RM, leads to an increase in manual maximal AKL. OKCKE resistance training at high loads (20 sets of 2RM) increases AKL while low load OKCKE resistance training (2 sets of 20RM) and isokinetic OKCKE resistance training at 2 sets of 20RM does not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of isometric cervical flexor and isometric cervical extensor system exercises on patients with neuromuscular imbalance and cervical crossed syndrome associated forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaejin; Kim, Dohyeon; Yu, Kyunghoon; Cho, Youngki; You, Joshua H

    2018-01-01

    Isometric cervical flexor system exercise (ICF) and isometric cervical extensor system exercise (ICE) are cervical stabilization techniques that have been used to restore cervical crossed syndrome (CCS)-associated forward head posture. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying motor control mechanisms remain elusive. The purpose of present study was investigating the concurrent therapeutic effects of ICF and ICE on muscle size, muscle imbalance ratio, and muscle recruitment sequence using ultrasound imaging and electromyography. A total of 18 participants (7 females; age=24±4.0 years) with CCS associated with forward head posture underwent ICF and ICE. Paired t-test analysis was used for statistical analysis. Paired t-test analysis showed that sternocleidomastoid thickness was greater during ICF than ICE. Similarly, cross-sectional area and horizontal thickness of the longus colli were greater during ICE than ICF. The upper trapezius/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio and the pectoralis major/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio were significantly decreased during the application of ICE compared to ICF. These results provide compelling, mechanistic evidence as to how ICE is more beneficial for the restoration of neuromuscular imbalance than ICF in individuals with CCS.

  15. Task- and time-dependent modulation of Ia presynaptic inhibition during fatiguing contractions performed by humans

    PubMed Central

    Maerz, Adam H.; Gould, Jeffrey R.; Enoka, Roger M.

    2011-01-01

    Presynaptic modulation of Ia afferents converging onto the motor neuron pool of the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) was compared during contractions (20% of maximal force) sustained to failure as subjects controlled either the angular position of the wrist while supporting an inertial load (position task) or exerted an equivalent force against a rigid restraint (force task). Test Hoffmann (H) reflexes were evoked in the ECR by stimulating the radial nerve above the elbow. Conditioned H reflexes were obtained by stimulating either the median nerve above the elbow or at the wrist (palmar branch) to assess presynaptic inhibition of homonymous (D1 inhibition) and heteronymous Ia afferents (heteronymous Ia facilitation), respectively. The position task was briefer than the force task (P = 0.001), although the maximal voluntary force and electromyograph for ECR declined similarly at failure for both tasks. Changes in the amplitude of the conditioned H reflex were positively correlated between the two conditioning methods (P = 0.02) and differed between the two tasks (P < 0.05). The amplitude of the conditioned H reflex during the position task first increased (129 ± 20.5% of the initial value, P < 0.001) before returning to its initial value (P = 0.22), whereas it increased progressively during the force task to reach 122 ± 17.4% of the initial value at failure (P < 0.001). Moreover, changes in conditioned H reflexes were associated with the time to task failure and force fluctuations. The results suggest a task- and time-dependent modulation of presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents during fatiguing contractions. PMID:21543747

  16. The effect of motor imagery with specific implement in expert badminton player.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Wang, S; Shi, F-Y; Guan, Y; Wu, Y; Zhang, L-L; Shen, C; Zeng, Y-W; Wang, D-H; Zhang, J

    2014-09-05

    Motor skill can be improved with mental simulation. Implements are widely used in daily life and in various sports. However, it is unclear whether the utilization of implements enhances the effect of mental simulation. The present study was designed to investigate the different effects of motor imagery in athletes and novices when they handled a specific implement. We hypothesize that athletes have better motor imagery ability than novices when they hold a specific implement for the sport. This is manifested as higher motor cortical excitability in athletes than novices during motor imagery with the specific implement. Sixteen expert badminton players and 16 novices were compared when they held a specific implement such as a badminton racket and a non-specific implement such as a a plastic bar. Motor imagery ability was measured with a self-evaluation questionnaire. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to test the motor cortical excitability during motor imagery. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor carpi radialis muscles were recorded. Athletes reported better motor imagery than novices when they held a specific implement. Athletes exhibited more MEP facilitation than novices in the FDI muscle with the specific implement applied during motor imagery. The MEP facilitation is correlated with motor imagery ability in athletes. We conclude that the effects of motor imagery with a specific implement are enhanced in athletes compared to novices and the difference between two groups is caused by long-term physical training of athletes with the specific implement. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Arthroscopic Debridement Versus Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection: A Prospective, Randomized, Comparative Study of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis With a Nearly 2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dellabiancia, Fabio; Ricci, Annamaria; Mussoni, Maria Pia; Nucci, Simonetta; Zanoli, Gustavo; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections and arthroscopic lateral release in treating chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE). Patients who had a clinical diagnosis of LE confirmed by ultrasound (US) were included in this study. A total of 101 patients received arthroscopic release (n = 50) or US-guided PRP injections (n = 51). Outcomes were assessed using a visual analog scale for pain, the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and a calibrated hand dynamometer for grip strength. Both patient groups experienced significant improvement in all measures. Between-group comparisons showed a significantly higher value in the PRP group only for grip strength at week 8 (P = .0073); all other significant differences were in favor of arthroscopy: overall pain (P = .0021), night pain (P = .0013), and PRTEE score (P = .0013) at week 104 and grip strength at weeks 24, 52, and 104 (all P < .0001). Consumption of rescue pain medication was not significantly different between the groups. The present findings suggest that (1) PRP injections and arthroscopic extensor carpi radialis brevis release are both effective in the short and medium term; (2) PRP patients experienced a significant worsening of pain at 2 years; (3) arthroscopic release ensured better long-term outcomes in terms of pain relief and grip strength recovery; and (4) both procedures were safe and well accepted by patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced corticobulbar excitability in chronic smokers during visual exposure to cigarette smoking cues

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Carmelo M.; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Cesari, Paola; Rafal, Robert D.; Nitsche, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of chronic smokers report altered activity of several neural regions involved in the processing of rewarding outcomes. Neuroanatomical evidence suggests that these regions are directly connected to the tongue muscle through the corticobulbar pathways. Accordingly, we examined whether corticobulbar excitability might be considered a somatic marker for nicotine craving. Methods We compared motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes recorded from the tongue and the extensor carpi radialis (control muscle) of chronic smokers under drug withdrawal and intake conditions as well as a nonsmoker group. All participants were tested during passive exposure to pictures showing a smoking cue or a meaningless stimulus. In the intake condition, chronic smokers were asked to smoke a real cigarette (CSn: group 1) or a placebo (CSp: group 2). Results Results show that MEP amplitudes recorded from the tongues of participants in the CSn and CSp groups under the withdrawal condition were selectively enhanced during exposure to a smoking cue. However, this effect on tongue MEP amplitudes disappeared in the intake condition for both the CSn and CSp groups. Limitations Limitations include the fact that the study was conducted in 2 different laboratories, the small sample size, the absence of data on chronic smoker craving strength and the different tastes of the real and placebo cigarettes. Conclusion These results suggest that, in chronic smokers, tongue muscle MEP amplitudes are sensitive to neural processes active under the physiological status of nicotine craving. This finding implicates a possible functional link between neural excitability of the corticobulbar pathway and the reward system in chronic smokers. PMID:24485386

  19. Developmental profile of slow hand movement oscillation coupling in humans.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Katherine M; Stephens, John A; Farmer, Simon F

    2011-05-01

    In adults, slow hand and finger movements are characterized by 6- to 12-Hz discontinuities visible in the raw records and spectra of motion signals such as acceleration. This pulsitile behavior is correlated with motor unit synchronization at 6-12 Hz as shown by significant coherence at these frequencies between pairs of motor units and between the motor units and the acceleration recorded from the limb part controlled by the muscle, suggesting that it has a central origin. In this study, we examined the correlation between this 6- to 12-Hz pulsatile behavior and muscle activity as a function of childhood development. Sixty-eight participants (ages 4-25 yr) performed static wrist extensions against gravity or slow wrist extension and flexion movements while extensor carpi radialis muscle electromyographic (EMG) and wrist acceleration signals were simultaneously recorded. Coherence between EMG and acceleration within the 6- to 12-Hz frequency band was used as an index of the strength of the relation between central drive and the motor output. The main findings of the study are 1) EMG-acceleration coherence increased with increases in age, with the age differences being greater under movement conditions and the difference between conditions increasing with age; 2) the EMG signal showed increases in normalized power with increases in age under both conditions; and 3) coherence under movement conditions was moderately positively correlated with manual dexterity. These findings indicate that the strength of the 6- to 12-Hz central oscillatory drive to the motor output increases through childhood development and may contribute to age-related improvements in motor skills.

  20. Comprehensive Hand Repetitive Intensive Strengthening Training (CHRIST)-induced morphological changes in muscle size and associated motor improvement in a child with cerebral palsy: an experimenter-blind study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ryul; You, Joshua H; Lee, Nam Gi; Oh, Jin Hwan; Cha, You Jin

    2009-01-01

    This case study was conducted to determine Comprehensive Hand Repetitive Intensive Strengthening Training (CHRIST)-induced morphological changes in the commonly affected extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and triceps brachii (TRI) muscle and associated muscle strength and motor performance in a child with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) using standardized clinical tests and ultrasound imaging. A single case study with pre-/post-test. A 4.9-year-old female, diagnosed with hemiparetic CP. The child received a 5-week course of CHRIST course, comprising of 60-minute periods a day, five times a week. A real-time ultrasound imaging was performed to determine the CHRIST-induced changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the ECR and TRI. Clinical tests including the modified Wolf Motor function test (WMFT), the modified Jebsen-taylor hand function test (Jebsen hand) and the modified Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) questionnaire were used to compare the intervention-related changes in motor performance in upper extremity. Ultrasound imaging data showed that the CSAs of both ECR and TRI muscles of the affected upper limb at relaxation and contraction states were enhanced and these therapy-induced morphological changes were associated with enhanced muscle strength and gross motor performance in reaching and grasping skills. Our results suggest that the CHRIST is effective in treating muscle weakness and motor function in a child with hemiparetic CP. This is the first evidence in literature that might shed light on the therapeutic efficacy of our novel intervention on muscle size, associated muscle strength and motor improvement.

  1. Evaluating biomechanics of user-selected sitting and standing computer workstation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michael Y; Barbir, Ana; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-11-01

    A standing computer workstation has now become a popular modern work place intervention to reduce sedentary behavior at work. However, user's interaction related to a standing computer workstation and its differences with a sitting workstation need to be understood to assist in developing recommendations for use and set up. The study compared the differences in upper extremity posture and muscle activity between user-selected sitting and standing workstation setups. Twenty participants (10 females, 10 males) volunteered for the study. 3-D posture, surface electromyography, and user-reported discomfort were measured while completing simulated tasks with each participant's self-selected workstation setups. Sitting computer workstation associated with more non-neutral shoulder postures and greater shoulder muscle activity, while standing computer workstation induced greater wrist adduction angle and greater extensor carpi radialis muscle activity. Sitting computer workstation also associated with greater shoulder abduction postural variation (90th-10th percentile) while standing computer workstation associated with greater variation for should rotation and wrist extension. Users reported similar overall discomfort levels within the first 10 min of work but had more than twice as much discomfort while standing than sitting after 45 min; with most discomfort reported in the low back for standing and shoulder for sitting. These different measures provide understanding in users' different interactions with sitting and standing and by alternating between the two configurations in short bouts may be a way of changing the loading pattern on the upper extremity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscle power is an important measure to detect deficits in muscle function in hip osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Christensen, Helle Elisabeth; Kjaer, Michael; Beyer, Nina

    2017-07-01

    To investigate between-leg differences in hip and thigh muscle strength and leg extensor power in patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis. Further, to compare between-leg differences in knee extensor strength and leg extensor power between patients and healthy peers. Seventy-two patients (60-87 years) with radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis not awaiting hip replacement and 35 healthy peers (63-82 years) were included. Hip and thigh muscle strength and leg extensor power were measured in patients and knee extensor strength and leg extensor power in healthy. The symptomatic extremity in patients was significantly (p < 0.05, paired t-test) weaker compared with the non-symptomatic extremity for five hip muscles (8-17%), knee extensors (11%) and leg extensor power (19%). Healthy older adults had asymmetry in knee extensor strength (6%, p < 0.05) comparable to that found in patients, but had no asymmetry in leg extensor power. Patients had generalized weakening of the affected lower extremity and numerically the largest asymmetry was evident for leg extensor power. In contrast, healthy peers had no asymmetry in leg extensor power. These results indicate that exercise interventions focusing on improving leg extensor power of the symptomatic lower extremity and reducing asymmetry may be beneficial for patients with hip osteoarthritis. Implications for Rehabilitation Even in patients with mild symptoms not awaiting hip replacement a generalized muscle weakening of the symptomatic lower extremity seems to be present. Between-leg differences in leg extensor power (force × velocity) appears to be relatively large (19%) in patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis in contrast to healthy peers who show no asymmetry. Compared to muscle strength the relationship between functional performance and leg extensor power seems to be stronger, and more strongly related to power of the symptomatic lower extremity. Our results indicate that exercise

  3. Two case reports-Use of relative motion orthoses to manage extensor tendon zones III and IV and sagittal band injuries in adjacent fingers.

    PubMed

    Hirth, Melissa J; Howell, Julianne W; O'Brien, Lisa

    Case report. Injuries to adjacent fingers with differing extensor tendon (ET) zones and/or sagittal band pose a challenge to therapists as no treatment guidelines exist. This report highlights how the relative motion flexion/extension (RMF/RME) concepts were combined into one orthosis to manage a zone IV ET repair (RME) and a zone III central slip repair (RMF) in adjacent fingers (Case 1); and how a single RME orthosis was adapted to limit proximal interphalangeal joint motion to manage multi-level ET zone III-IV injuries and a sagittal band repair in adjacent fingers (case 2). Adapted relative motion orthoses allowed early active motion and graded exercises based on clinical reasoning and evidence. Outcomes were standard TAM% and Miller's criteria. 'Excellent' and 'good' outcomes were achieved by twelve weeks post surgery. Both cases returned to unrestricted work at 6 and 7 weeks. Neither reported functional deficits at discharge. Outcomes in 2 cases involving multiple digit injuries exceeded those previously reported for ET zone III-IV repairs. Relative motion orthoses can be adapted and applied to multi-finger injuries, eliminating the need for multiple, bulky or functionally-limiting orthoses. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Baseline Mechanical and Neuromuscular Profile of Knee Extensor and Flexor Muscles in Professional Soccer Players at the Start of the Pre-Season

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Oscar; Serrano-Gómez, Virginia; Hernández-Mendo, Antonio; Morales-Sánchez, Verónica

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and neuromuscular profile of knee extensor and flexor muscles in professional soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and to calculate percentages for symmetry, as well as examine differences according to the player’s positional role. The vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) of 16 professional soccer players were evaluated by means of tensiomyography (TMG) on the first day of the pre-season. A paired-samples t test (p < .05) was used to compare the dominant and non-dominant lower limb. One-way ANOVA was applied, with the positional role as an independent factor. No differences were observed between the dominant and non-dominant leg. The highest degree of symmetry corresponded to the VM (92.5 ± 2.7%), and the lowest to the BF (80.7 ± 10.9%). The positional role was associated with significant differences in some of the variables for the BF, RF and VM, although only the half-relaxation time in the BF and the time to sustain force in the VM differed across all the playing positions considered. TMG was shown to be a useful way of evaluating the neuromuscular characteristics of soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and of establishing baseline values for individual players. PMID:28828075

  5. Baseline Mechanical and Neuromuscular Profile of Knee Extensor and Flexor Muscles in Professional Soccer Players at the Start of the Pre-Season.

    PubMed

    García-García, Oscar; Serrano-Gómez, Virginia; Hernández-Mendo, Antonio; Morales-Sánchez, Verónica

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and neuromuscular profile of knee extensor and flexor muscles in professional soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and to calculate percentages for symmetry, as well as examine differences according to the player's positional role. The vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) of 16 professional soccer players were evaluated by means of tensiomyography (TMG) on the first day of the pre-season. A paired-samples t test (p < .05) was used to compare the dominant and non-dominant lower limb. One-way ANOVA was applied, with the positional role as an independent factor. No differences were observed between the dominant and non-dominant leg. The highest degree of symmetry corresponded to the VM (92.5 ± 2.7%), and the lowest to the BF (80.7 ± 10.9%). The positional role was associated with significant differences in some of the variables for the BF, RF and VM, although only the half-relaxation time in the BF and the time to sustain force in the VM differed across all the playing positions considered. TMG was shown to be a useful way of evaluating the neuromuscular characteristics of soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and of establishing baseline values for individual players.

  6. The Position of the Patella and Extensor Mechanism Affects Intraoperative Compartmental Loads During Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Pilot Study Using Intraoperative Sensing to Guide Soft Tissue Balance.

    PubMed

    Schnaser, Erik; Lee, Yuo-yu; Boettner, Friedrich; Gonzalez Della Valle, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    The achievement of a well-balanced total knee arthroplasty is necessary for long-term success. We hypothesize that the dislocation of the patella during surgery affects the distribution of loads in the medial and lateral compartments. Intraoperative load sensors were used to record medial and lateral compartment loads in 56 well-balanced TKAs. Loads were recorded in full extension, relaxed extension, at 45 and 90° of flexion at full gravity-assisted flexion, with the patella in four different positions: dislocated (everted and not), located, and located and secured with two retinacular sutures. The loads in the lateral compartment in flexion were higher with a dislocated patella than with a located patella (P<0.001). A lateralized extensor mechanism artificially increases in the lateral compartment loads in flexion during TKA surgery. Instruments that allow intraoperative soft tissue balance with the patella in a physiologic position are more likely to replicate postoperative compartment loads. II (prospective comparative study). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ESCAPS study protocol: a feasibility randomised controlled trial of ‘Early electrical stimulation to the wrist extensors and wrist flexors to prevent the post-stroke complications of pain and contractures in the paretic arm’

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher-Smith, Joanna C; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Sprigg, Nikola; James, Marilyn; Walker, Marion F; Allatt, Kate; Mehta, Rajnikant; Pandyan, Anand D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 70% of patients with stroke experience impaired arm function, which is persistent and disabling for an estimated 40%. Loss of function reduces independence in daily activities and impacts on quality of life. Muscles in those who do not recover functional movement in the stroke affected arm are at risk of atrophy and contractures, which can be established as early as 6 weeks following stroke. Pain is also common. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of delivering early intensive electrical stimulation (ES) to prevent post-stroke complications in the paretic upper limb. Methods and analysis This is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (n=40) with embedded qualitative studies (patient/carer interviews and therapist focus groups) and feasibility economic evaluation. Patients will be recruited from the Stroke Unit at the Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Trust within 72 h after stroke. Participants will be randomised to receive usual care or usual care and early ES to the wrist flexors and extensors for 30 min twice a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. The initial treatment(s) will be delivered by an occupational therapist or physiotherapist who will then train the patient and/or their nominated carer to self-manage subsequent treatments. Ethics and dissemination This study has been granted ethical approval by the National Research Ethics Service, East Midlands Nottingham1 Research Ethics Committee (ref: 15/EM/0006). To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind of the early application (within 72 h post-stroke) of ES to both the wrist extensors and wrist flexors of stroke survivors with upper limb impairment. The results will inform the design of a definitive randomised controlled trial. Dissemination will include 2 peer-reviewed journal publications and presentations at national conferences. Trial

  8. Comparison Between Elite and Subelite Swimmers on Dry Land and Tumble Turn Leg Extensor Force-Time Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julian V; Pyne, David B; Haff, G Greg; Newton, Robert U

    2018-06-01

    Jones, JV, Pyne, DB, Haff, GG, and Newton, RU. Comparison between elite and subelite swimmers on dry land and tumble turn leg extensor force-time characteristics. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1762-1769, 2018-Elite swimmers demonstrate faster swimming turn times that are potentially a result of having better strength-power characteristics than subelite swimmers. We quantified differences between dry-land and swimming turn force-time characteristics in elite swimmers and subelite swimmers. Subelite (11 males: 17.4 ± 0.6 years; 10 females: 17.1 ± 0.6 years) and elite swimmers (15 male: 23.2 ± 2.3 years; 7 female: 21.6 ± 2.5 years) were tested in a cross-sectional design. All swimmers performed a body weight and loaded (20 kg females, 30 kg males) squat jump (SJ) on a portable force platform. On the same day, all swimmers completed swimming turn analyses using a force platform fixed within the pool wall. The magnitude of difference between groups was estimated using a standardized mean difference (effect size statistic). Elite male and female swimmers had superior swimming turn and dry-land force-time characteristics to subelite swimmers in all tests. The standardized mean differences between groups ranged from small to very large. The largest differences were SJ peak velocity unloaded (3.07 ± 1.0 m·s males, 3.49 ± 2.29 m·s females; standardized mean difference ± 90% confidence limits) and SJ peak power unloaded (2.59 ± 0.79 w male, 2.80 ± 1.64 w female) with elite male and female swimmers having a ∼25-50% higher performance than the subelites in both characteristics. Elite swimmers exhibit superior strength and power characteristics for the swimming turn compared with younger and less experienced swimmers. A well-planned and executed strength and conditioning program is needed for emerging swimmers to develop these qualities, as they transition to senior levels.

  9. Knee strength, power and stair performance of the elderly 5 years after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Li, Yumeng; Kakar, Rumit S; Fu, Yang-Chieh; Mahoney, Ormonde M; Kinsey, Tracy L; Simpson, Kathy J

    2018-04-13

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been shown to demonstrate some satisfactory short-term outcomes. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports on midterm or long-term knee extensor strength and leg extensor power post-UKA. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (1) to assess the isokinetic knee extensor strength, leg extensor power and stair performance of elderly participants at 5 years UKA post-operation; (2) to compare the differences in knee extensor strength and leg extensor power between the UKA and contralateral healthy limbs. Nineteen elderly participants (75 ± 5 years) who had a medial or a lateral compartment UKA at 5 years post-operation were recruited. The isokinetic knee extensor strength and leg extensor power were measured. The stair performance was tested on a 4-step stair, and ascent and descent velocities were calculated. The pain level was assessed. The UKA limbs' knee extensor strength and leg extensor power were 1.01 ± 0.39 Nm/kg and 0.98 ± 0.27 W/kg, respectively. The stair ascent and descent velocities were 0.37 ± 0.07 and 0.38 ± 0.11 m/s, respectively. In addition, the UKA limbs exhibited comparable knee strength and leg power relative to the contralateral limbs. In general, the knee extensor strength and leg extensor power exhibited by the UKA limbs at 5 years post-operation may be typical in comparison with the normative data. We suggest that UKA is a satisfactory treatment in regard to the recovery of knee strength, leg power and ability to climb up and down stairs.

  10. Parallel facilitatory reflex pathways from the foot and hip to flexors and extensors in the injured human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Knikou, Maria; Kay, Elizabeth; Schmit, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Spinal integration of sensory signals associated with hip position, muscle loading, and cutaneous sensation of the foot contributes to movement regulation. The exact interactive effects of these sensory signals under controlled dynamic conditions are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to establish the effects of combined plantar cutaneous afferent excitation and hip movement on the Hoffmann (H) and flexion reflexes in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). The flexion and H-reflexes were elicited through stimulation of the right sural (at non-nociceptive levels) and posterior tibial nerves respectively. Reflex responses were recorded from the ipsilateral tibialis anterior (TA) (flexion reflex) and soleus (H-reflex) muscles. The plantar cutaneous afferents were stimulated at three times the perceptual threshold (200 Hz, 24-ms pulse train) at conditioning–test intervals that ranged from 3 to 90 ms. Sinusoidal movements were imposed to the right hip joint at 0.2 Hz with subjects supine. Control and conditioned reflexes were recorded as the hip moved in flexion and extension. Leg muscle activity and sagittal-plane joint torques were recorded. We found that excitation of plantar cutaneous afferents facilitated the soleus H-reflex and the long latency flexion reflex during hip extension. In contrast, the short latency flexion reflex was depressed by plantar cutaneous stimulation during hip flexion. Oscillatory joint forces were present during the transition phase of the hip movement from flexion to extension when stimuli were delivered during hip flexion. Hip-mediated input interacts with feedback from the foot sole to facilitate extensor and flexor reflex activity during the extension phase of movement. The interactive effects of these sensory signals may be a feature of impaired gait, but when they are appropriately excited, they may contribute to locomotion recovery in these patients. PMID:17543951

  11. Effect of exercise on age-related changes in collagen fibril diameter distributions in the common digital extensor tendons of young horses.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lindsey J; Goodship, Allen E; Birch, Helen L; Patterson-Kane, Janet C

    2005-04-01

    To determine whether specific treadmill exercise regimens would accelerate age-related changes in collagen fibril diameter distributions in the common digital extensor tendon (CDET) of the forelimbs of young Thoroughbreds. 24 female Thoroughbreds. Horses were trained for 18 weeks (6 horses; short term) or 18 months (5 horses; long term) on a high-speed treadmill; 2 age-matched control groups (6 horses/group) performed walking exercise only. Horses were (mean +/- SD) 24 +/- 1 months and 39 +/- 1 months old at termination of the short-term and long-term regimens, respectively. Midmetacarpal CDET specimens were obtained and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Diameter and area of at least 1,000 collagen fibrils/specimen were measured by use of computerized image analysis. Mass-average diameter (MAD) of collagen fibrils and collagen fibril index were calculated for each horse. Collagen fibril MAD for the older horses was significantly less than that for the younger horses. Exercise did not significantly affect fibril diameter or distributions in either age group, and collagen fibril index did not differ significantly between groups. Age-related reduction in collagen fibril MAD agreed with findings for other tendons and species. Training did not accelerate age-related change in the CDET in contrast to a reported decrease in collagen fibril MAD in the superficial digital flexor tendon of horses trained long term. Our results support the concept that the functionally distinct nature of the CDET and superficial digital flexor tendon in horses results in fundamentally different responses to high-speed exercise regimens.

  12. Age-related degeneration in leg-extensor muscle-tendon units decreases recovery performance after a forward fall: compensation with running experience.

    PubMed

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2007-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether the lower muscle-tendon units (MTUs) capacities in older affect their ability to recover balance with a single-step after a fall, and to examine whether running experience enhances and protects this motor skill in young and old adults. The investigation was conducted on 30 older and 19 younger divided into two subgroups: runners versus non-active. In previous studies we documented that the older had lower leg extensor muscle strength and tendon stiffness while running had no effect on MTUs capacities. The current study examined recovery mechanics of the same individuals after an induced forward fall. Younger were better able to recover balance with a single-step compared to older (P < 0.001); this ability was associated with a more effective body configuration at touchdown (more posterior COM position relative to the recovery foot, P <0.001). MTUs capacities classified 88.6% of the subjects into single- or multiple-steppers. Runners showed a superior ability to recover balance with a single-step (P < 0.001) compared to non-active subjects due to a more effective mechanical response during the stance phase (greater knee joint flexion, P <0.05). We concluded that the age-related degeneration of the MTUs significantly diminished the older adults' ability to restore balance with a single-step. Running seems to enhance and protect this motor skill. We suggested that runners, due to their running experience, could update the internal representation of mechanisms responsible for the control of dynamic stability during a forward fall and, thus, were able to restore balance more often with a single-step compared to the non-active subjects.

  13. Modulation of motor cortex excitability by paired peripheral and transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Hatice; Albu, Sergiu; Rothwell, John; Leon, Daniel; Flores, Cecilia; Opisso, Eloy; Tormos, Josep Maria; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2017-10-01

    Repetitive application of peripheral electrical stimuli paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 cortex at low frequency, known as paired associative stimulation (PAS), is an effective method to induce motor cortex plasticity in humans. Here we investigated the effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) combined with low frequency rTMS ('magnetic-PAS') on intracortical and corticospinal excitability and whether those changes were widespread or circumscribed to the cortical area controlling the stimulated muscle. Eleven healthy subjects underwent three 10min stimulation sessions: 10HzrPMS alone, applied in trains of 5 stimuli every 10s (60 trains) on the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle; rTMS alone at an intensity 120% of ECR threshold, applied over motor cortex of ECR and at a frequency of 0.1Hz (60 stimuli) and magnetic PAS, i.e., paired rPMS and rTMS. We recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from ECR and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles. We measured resting motor threshold, motor evoked potentials (MEP) amplitude at 120% of RMT, short intracortical inhibition (SICI) at interstimulus interval (ISI) of 2ms and intracortical facilitation (ICF) at an ISI of 15ms before and immediately after each intervention. Magnetic-PAS , but not rTMS or rPMS applied separately, increased MEP amplitude and reduced short intracortical inhibition in ECR but not in FDI muscle. Magnetic-PAS can increase corticospinal excitability and reduce intracortical inhibition. The effects may be specific for the area of cortical representation of the stimulated muscle. Application of magnetic-PAS might be relevant for motor rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term evaluation of arthroscopic management of tennis elbow; including resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

    PubMed

    Babaqi, AbdulRahman A; Kotb, Mohammed M; Said, Hatem G; AbdelHamid, Mohamed M; ElKady, Hesham A; ElAssal, Maher A

    2014-06-01

    There has been controversy regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Different surgical techniques for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis prescribed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of arthroscopic management including resection of the radio-capitellar capsular complex, using different validated scores. In this study, arthroscopic resection of a capsular fringe complex was done beside debridement of the undersurface of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB). Thirty-one patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for a minimum of 6 months had surgery. In all patients, a collar-like band of radio-capitellar capsular complex was found to impinge on the radial head and subluxate into the radio-capitellar joint with manipulation under direct vision. Outcomes were assessed using Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI), the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), beside visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction criteria. After arthroscopic surgery, overall satisfaction was extremely positive, over the 31 patients, 93.5% of the patients are satisfied. The mean score for pain improved from 8.64 to 1.48 points. The total PRTEE improved from 55.53 to 10.39 points. The mean MEPI score was improved from 61.82 to 94.10 points. DASH score also improved from 24.46 to 4.81 points. All improvements are statistically significant (P < 0.05). Arthroscopic release of ECRB in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis is a reproducible method with a marked improvement in function within a short period, with special consideration for resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

  15. Spinal Interneurons and Forelimb Plasticity after Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rombola, Angela M.; Rousseau, Celeste A.; Mercier, Lynne M.; Fitzpatrick, Garrett M.; Reier, Paul J.; Fuller, David D.; Lane, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) disrupts bulbospinal projections to motoneurons controlling the upper limbs, resulting in significant functional impairments. Ongoing clinical and experimental research has revealed several lines of evidence for functional neuroplasticity and recovery of upper extremity function after SCI. The underlying neural substrates, however, have not been thoroughly characterized. The goals of the present study were to map the intraspinal motor circuitry associated with a defined upper extremity muscle, and evaluate chronic changes in the distribution of this circuit following incomplete cSCI. Injured animals received a high cervical (C2) lateral hemisection (Hx), which compromises supraspinal input to ipsilateral spinal motoneurons controlling the upper extremities (forelimb) in the adult rat. A battery of behavioral tests was used to characterize the time course and extent of forelimb motor recovery over a 16 week period post-injury. A retrograde transneuronal tracer – pseudorabies virus – was used to define the motor and pre-motor circuitry controlling the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) muscle in spinal intact and injured animals. In the spinal intact rat, labeling was observed unilaterally within the ECRL motoneuron pool and within spinal interneurons bilaterally distributed within the dorsal horn and intermediate gray matter. No changes in labeling were observed 16 weeks post-injury, despite a moderate degree of recovery of forelimb motor function. These results suggest that recovery of the forelimb function assessed following C2Hx injury does not involve recruitment of new interneurons into the ipsilateral ECRL motor pathway. However, the functional significance of these existing interneurons to motor recovery requires further exploration. PMID:25625912

  16. Local vibration inhibits H-reflex but does not compromise manual dexterity and does not increase tremor.

    PubMed

    Budini, Francesco; Laudani, Luca; Bernardini, Sergio; Macaluso, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the effects of local vibration on upper limb postural and kinetic tremor, on manual dexterity and on spinal reflex excitability. Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease in spinal reflex excitability and in force fluctuations in the lower limb but an increase in force fluctuation in the upper limbs. As hand steadiness is of vital importance in many daily-based tasks, and local vibration may also be applied in movement disorders, we decided to further explore this phenomenon. Ten healthy volunteers (26±3years) were tested for H reflex, postural and kinetic tremor and manual dexterity through a Purdue test. EMG was recorded from flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Measurements were repeated at baseline, after a control period during which no vibration was delivered and after vibration. Intervention consisted in holding for two minutes a vibrating handle (frequency 75Hz, displacement∼7mm), control consisted in holding for two minutes the same handle powered off. Reflex excitability decreased after vibration whilst postural tremor and manual dexterity were not affected. Peak kinetic tremor frequency increased from baseline to control measurements (P=0.002). Co-activation EDC/FCR increased from control to vibration (P=0.021). These results show that two minutes local vibration lead to a decrease in spinal excitability, did not compromise manual dexterity and did not increase tremor; however, in contrast with expectations, tremor did not decrease. It is suggested that vibration activated several mechanisms with opposite effects, which resulted in a neutral outcome on postural and kinetic tremor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. MOTOR CORTICAL PLASTICITY IN EXTRINSIC HAND MUSCLES IS DETERMINED BY THE RESTING THRESHOLDS OF OVERLAPPING REPRESENTATIONS

    PubMed Central

    MIRDAMADI, J. L.; SUZUKI, L. Y.; MEEHAN, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the properties that govern the effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) interventions is critical to clinical application. Extrapolation to clinical populations has been limited by high inter-subject variability and a focus on intrinsic muscles of the hand in healthy populations. Therefore, the current study assessed variability of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), a patterned TMS protocol, across an agonist–antagonist pair of extrinsic muscles of the hand. Secondarily, we assessed whether concurrent agonist contraction could enhance the efficacy of cTBS. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were simultaneously recorded from the agonist flexor (FCR) and antagonist extensor (ECR) carpi radialis before and after cTBS over the FCR hotspot. cTBS was delivered with the FCR relaxed (cTBS-Relax) or during isometric wrist flexion (cTBS-Contract). cTBS-Relax suppressed FCR MEPs evoked from the FCR hotspot. However, the extent of FCR MEP suppression was strongly correlated with the relative difference between FCR and ECR resting motor thresholds. cTBS-Contract decreased FCR suppression but increased suppression of ECR MEPs elicited from the FCR hotspot. The magnitude of ECR MEP suppression following cTBS-Contract was independent of the threshold-amplitude relationships observed with cTBS-Relax. Contraction alone had no effect confirming the effect of cTBS-Contract was driven by the interaction between neuromuscular activity and cTBS. Interactions across muscle representations should be taken into account when predicting cTBS outcomes in healthy and clinical populations. Contraction during cTBS may be a useful means of focusing aftereffects when differences in baseline excitability across overlapping agonist–antagonist cortical representations may mitigate the inhibitory effect of cTBS. PMID:27425211

  18. An Acute Exposure to Muscle Vibration Decreases Knee Extensors Force Production and Modulates Associated Central Nervous System Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Souron, Robin; Besson, Thibault; McNeil, Chris J.; Lapole, Thomas; Millet, Guillaume Y.

    2017-01-01

    Local vibration (LV) has been recently validated as an efficient training method to improve muscle strength. Understanding the acute effects may help elucidate the mechanism(s). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a single bout of prolonged LV on knee extensor force production and corticospinal responsiveness of vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in healthy young and old adults. Across two visits, 23 adult subjects (20–75 years old) performed pre- and post-test measurements, separated by 30-min of either rest (control; CON) or LV. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force was assessed and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evaluate cortical voluntary activation (VATMS) as well as the motor evoked potential (MEP) and silent period (SP). In 11 young adults, thoracic electrical stimulation was used to assess the thoracic motor evoked potential (TMEP). Although MVC decreased after both CON (−6.3 ± 4.4%, p = 0.01) and LV (−12.9 ± 7.7%, p < 0.001), the MVC loss was greater after LV (p = 0.001). Normalized maximal electromyographic (EMG) activity decreased after LV for both VL (−25.1 ± 10.7%) and RF (−20.9 ± 16.5%; p < 0.001), while it was unchanged after CON (p = 0.32). For RF, the TMEP and MEP/TMEP ratio decreased (p = 0.01) and increased (p = 0.01) after LV, respectively. Both measures were unchanged for VL (p = 0.27 and p = 0.15, respectively). No changes were reported for TMS-related parameters. These results confirm our hypothesis that modulations within the central nervous system would accompany the significant reduction of maximal voluntary force. A reduced motoneuron excitability seems to explain the decreased MVC after prolonged LV, as suggested by reductions in maximal EMG (all subjects) and TMEP area (data from 11 young subjects). A concomitant increased cortical excitability seems to compensate for lower excitability at the spinal level. PMID:29118698

  19. Fatigue reduces the complexity of knee extensor torque fluctuations during maximal and submaximal intermittent isometric contractions in man

    PubMed Central

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue increases the amplitude of fluctuations in torque output during isometric contractions, but the effect of fatigue on the temporal structure, or complexity, of these fluctuations is not known. We hypothesised that fatigue would result in a loss of temporal complexity and a change in fractal scaling of the torque signal during isometric knee extensor exercise. Eleven healthy participants performed a maximal test (5 min of intermittent maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs), and a submaximal test (contractions at a target of 40% MVC performed until task failure), each with a 60% duty factor (6 s contraction, 4 s rest). Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling of torque were quantified by calculating approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scaling exponent α. Fresh submaximal contractions were more complex than maximal contractions (mean ± SEM, submaximal vs. maximal: ApEn 0.65 ± 0.09 vs. 0.15 ± 0.02; SampEn 0.62 ± 0.09 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02; DFA α 1.35 ± 0.04 vs. 1.55 ± 0.03; all P < 0.005). Fatigue reduced the complexity of submaximal contractions (ApEn to 0.24 ± 0.05; SampEn to 0.22 ± 0.04; DFA α to 1.55 ± 0.03; all P < 0.005) and maximal contractions (ApEn to 0.10 ± 0.02; SampEn to 0.10 ± 0.02; DFA α to 1.63 ± 0.02; all P < 0.01). This loss of complexity and shift towards Brownian-like noise suggests that as well as reducing the capacity to produce torque, fatigue reduces the neuromuscular system's adaptability to external perturbations. PMID:25664928

  20. Physical and functional measures related to low back pain in individuals with lower-limb amputation: an exploratory pilot study.

    PubMed

    Friel, Karen; Domholdt, Elizabeth; Smith, Douglas G

    2005-01-01

    For this study, we compared the physical impairments and functional deficits of individuals with lower-limb amputation (LLA) for those with and without low back pain (LBP). Nineteen participants with LLA were placed into two groups based on visual analog scores of LBP. We assessed functional limitations, iliopsoas length, hamstring length, abdominal strength, back extensor strength, and back extensor endurance. Data analysis included correlations and t-tests. We found significant correlations between pain score and functional limitations, iliopsoas length, and back extensor endurance. We also detected significant differences in functional limitations, iliopsoas length, back extensor strength, and back extensor endurance between those with and without LBP. We saw significant differences in back extensor strength and back extensor endurance between those with transtibial and transfemoral amputations. Differences exist in physical measures of individuals with LLA with and without LBP. Clinicians should consider these impairments in individuals with amputation who experience LBP. Because of the participants' characteristics, these findings may be applicable to veterans with LLA.

  1. Reliability and Validity of Isometric Knee Extensor Strength Test With Hand-Held Dynamometer Depending on Its Fixation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Kuel; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kang, Si Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer (HHD) depending on its fixation in measuring isometric knee extensor strength by comparing the results with an isokinetic dynamometer. Methods Twenty-seven healthy female volunteers participated in this study. The subjects were tested in seated and supine position using three measurement methods: isometric knee extension by isokinetic dynamometer, non-fixed HHD, and fixed HHD. During the measurement, the knee joints of subjects were fixed at a 35° angle from the extended position. The fixed HHD measurement was conducted with the HHD fixed to distal tibia with a Velcro strap; non-fixed HHD was performed with a hand-held method without Velcro fixation. All the measurements were repeated three times and among them, the maximum values of peak torque were used for the analysis. Results The data from the fixed HHD method showed higher validity than the non-fixed method compared with the results of the isokinetic dynamometer. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between fixed HHD and isokinetic dynamometer method were statistically significant (supine-right: r=0.806, p<0.05; seating-right: r=0.473, p<0.05; supine-left: r=0.524, p<0.05), whereas Pearson correlation coefficients between non-fixed dynamometer and isokinetic dynamometer methods were not statistically significant, except for the result of the supine position of the left leg (r=0.384, p<0.05). Both fixed and non-fixed HHD methods showed excellent inter-rater reliability. However, the fixed HHD method showed a higher reliability than the non-fixed HHD method by considering the intraclass correlation coefficient (fixed HHD, 0.952-0.984; non-fixed HHD, 0.940-0.963). Conclusion Fixation of HHD during measurement in the supine position increases the reliability and validity in measuring the quadriceps strength. PMID:24639931

  2. The susceptibility of the knee extensors to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage is not affected by leg dominance but by exercise order.

    PubMed

    Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Laglaine, T; Croisier, J-L

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were first to compare the response of dominant and non-dominant legs to eccentric exercise and second, to examine whether there is an effect of exercise order on the magnitude of symptoms associated with intense eccentric protocols. Eighteen young men performed three sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic (60° s(-1)) contractions of the knee extensors (range of motion, ROM: 0°-100°, 0 = full extension) using either dominant or non-dominant leg. They repeated a similar eccentric bout using the contralateral leg 6 weeks later. The sequence of leg's use was allocated to create equally balanced groups. Four indirect markers of muscle damage including subjective pain intensity, maximal isometric strength, muscle stiffness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before and 24 h after exercise. All markers changed significantly following the eccentric bout performed either by dominant or non-dominant legs, but no significant difference was observed between legs. Interestingly, the comparison between the first and second eccentric bouts revealed that muscle soreness (-42%, P<0.001), CK activity (-62%, P<0.05) and strength loss (-54%, P<0.01) were significantly lower after the second bout. This study suggests that leg dominance does not influence the magnitude of exercise-induced muscle damage and supports for the first time the existence of a contralateral protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the lower limbs. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Two-stage knee arthrodesis with a modular intramedullary nail due to septic failure of revision total knee arthroplasty with extensor mechanism deficiency.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Max J; Schmolders, Jan; Wimmer, Matthias D; Strauss, Andreas C; Ploeger, Milena M; Wirtz, Dieter C; Gravius, Sascha; Randau, Thomas M

    2017-10-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection is a serious complication and reconstruction after failed revision total knee arthroplasty with significant bone loss and compromised soft-tissues can be challenging. Objective of this study was to assess clinical and functional results, implant survival and infection recurrence rates in patients treated with two-stage arthrodesis after failed revision TKA with extensor mechanism deficiencies due to PJI, and to identify the factors that affect outcomes after surgery. Thirty seven patients with PJI treated within a two-stage exchange and reimplantation of an arthrodesis nail between 2008 and 2014 were included. Systemic and local risk factors were graded preoperatively according to McPherson et al. All patients were treated according to a structured treatment algorithm. Clinical and functional evaluation was performed using the Oxford Knee Score and the Visual Analogue Scale. Thirty two of 37 patients (86.5%) were graded as free of infection. Five patients (13.5%) had recurrent infection after arthrodesis with the need of revision surgery. Mean leg-length discrepancy was 2.2cm. The mean VAS for pain was three, the mean Oxford Knee Score was 38±9. Total implant survival at a 74month follow-up was 74.3% (95% CI: 45.4 to 91.1%), as determined by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Local McPherson Score, as well as number of revisions was found to be of significant influence to the survival rate. Septic failure of revision knee arthroplasty can be effectively treated with two-stage arthrodesis using a modular intramedullary nail, providing a stable and painless limb with satisfactory functional results and acceptable infection eradication rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of the Y-Balance Test with Lower-limb Strength of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between Y-balance test (YBT) distance and the lower-limb strength of adult women. [Subjects] Forty women aged 45 to 80 years volunteered for this study. [Methods] The participants were tested for maximal muscle strength of the lower limbs (hip extensors, hip flexors, hip abductors, knee extensors, knee flexors, and ankle dorsiflexors) and YBT distances in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to quantify the linear relationships between YBT distances and lower-limb strength. [Results] Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT anterior distance. Hip extensor, hip abductor, and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with the YBT posteromedial distance. Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT posterolateral distance. [Conclusion] There was a weak correlation between lower-limb strength (hip extensors, hip abductors, and knee flexors) and dynamic postural control as measured by the YBT. PMID:24926122

  5. Use of botulinum toxin type A in the management of neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Linda J; Louden, Emily J; Lippert, William C; Allgier, Allison J; Foad, Susan L; Mehlman, Charles T

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate functional outcomes and the impact on surgical interventions after the use of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) for muscle imbalance, cocontractions, or contractures with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. A retrospective cohort study. A brachial plexus center in a tertiary children's hospital. Fifty-nine patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (75 injection procedures, 91 muscles and/or muscle groups) received BoNT-A injections (mean age at injection, 36.2 months; range, 6-123 months; 31 boys; 30 right-sided injuries, 28 left-sided injuries, 1 bilateral injury). Data collected retrospectively from medical records, from procedure notes and clinic visits before BoNT-A use, at ≤6 months follow-up (BoNT-A active [BA]) and at ≥7 months follow-up (BoNT-A not active [BNA]) included demographics, injection indication, side, and site(s), previous surgical history, occupational therapy and/or physical therapy plan, and outcome measurements. Outcomes assessed before and after injections included active and passive range of motion, Mallet and Toronto scores, parent comments about arm function, preinjection surgical considerations, and postinjection surgical history. Injection procedures included 51 to shoulder internal rotators, 15 triceps, 15 pronator teres, 9 biceps, and 1 flexor carpi ulnaris. Active and passive shoulder external rotation (SER) range of motion improved after shoulder internal rotator injections (P = .0003 and P = .002, respectively), as did Mallet scores with BA; the latter were sustained with BNA. Surgical intervention was averted, modified, or deferred after BoNT-A in 45% (n = 20) under surgical consideration before BoNT-A. Active elbow flexion improved in 67% (P = .005), sustained BNA (P = .004) after triceps injections; 2 of 7 patients averted surgery. Active supination improved with BA (P = .002), with gains sustained BNA (P = .016). Passive elbow extension improved after biceps injections by an average 17° (P

  6. Effect of fascicle composition on ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve transfer (Oberlin transfer) in neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brandon W; Chulski, Nicholas J; Little, Ann A; Chang, Kate W C; Yang, Lynda J S

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) continues to be a problematic occurrence impacting approximately 1.5 per 1000 live births in the United States, with 10%-40% of these infants experiencing permanent disability. These children lose elbow flexion, and one surgical option for recovering it is the Oberlin transfer. Published data support the use of the ulnar nerve fascicle that innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris as the donor nerve in adults, but no analogous published data exist for infants. This study investigated the association of ulnar nerve fascicle choice with functional elbow flexion outcome in NBPP. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective study of 13 cases in which infants underwent ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve transfer for NBPP at a single institution. They collected data on patient demographics, clinical characteristics, active range of motion (AROM), and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) (using 4 ulnar nerve index muscles). Standard statistical analysis compared pre- and postoperative motor function improvement between specific fascicle transfer (1-2 muscles for either wrist flexion or hand intrinsics) and nonspecific fascicle transfer (> 2 muscles for wrist flexion and hand intrinsics) groups. RESULTS The patients' average age at initial clinic visit was 2.9 months, and their average age at surgical intervention was 7.4 months. All NBPPs were unilateral; the majority of patients were female (61%), were Caucasian (69%), had right-sided NBPP (61%), and had Narakas grade I or II injuries (54%). IONM recordings for the fascicular dissection revealed a donor fascicle with nonspecific innervation in 6 (46%) infants and specific innervation in the remaining 7 (54%) patients. At 6-month follow-up, the AROM improvement in elbow flexion in adduction was 38° in the specific fascicle transfer group versus 36° in the nonspecific fascicle transfer group, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.93). CONCLUSIONS Both specific and

  7. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis in chronic lateral epicondylitis: short-term and long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Valera-Garrido, Fermín; Minaya-Muñoz, Francisco; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is a novel minimally invasive approach which consists of the application of a galvanic current through an acupuncture needle. Objective To evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic effectiveness of a multimodal programme (PNE, eccentric exercise (EccEx) and stretching) in the short term for patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, and to determine whether the clinical outcomes achieved decline over time. Methods A one-way repeated measures study was performed in a clinical setting in 36 patients presenting with lateral epicondylitis. The patients received one session of US-guided PNE per week over 4–6 weeks, associated with a home programme of EccEx and stretching. The main outcome measures were severity of pain, disability (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire), structural tendon changes (US), hypervascularity and patients’ perceptions of overall outcome. Measurements at 6, 26 and 52 weeks follow-up included recurrence rates (increase in severity of pain or disability compared with discharge), perception of overall outcome and success rates. Results All outcome measures registered significant improvements between pre-intervention and discharge. Most patients (n=30, 83.3%) rated the overall outcome as ‘successful’ at 6 weeks. The ultrasonographic findings showed that the hypoechoic regions and hypervascularity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis changed significantly. At 26 and 52 weeks, all participants (n=32) perceived a ‘successful’ outcome. Recurrence rates were null after discharge and at follow-up at 6, 26 and 52 weeks. Conclusions Symptoms and degenerative structural changes of chronic lateral epicondylitis are reduced after US-guided PNE associated with EccEx and stretching, with encouragingly low recurrences in the mid to long term. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02085928. PMID:25122629

  8. Central command increases muscular oxygenation of the non-exercising arm at the early period of voluntary one-armed cranking.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kei; Matsukawa, Kanji; Asahara, Ryota; Liang, Nan; Endo, Kana; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Michioka, Kensuke; Sasaki, Yu; Hamada, Hironobu; Yamashita, Kaori; Watanabe, Tae; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine whether central command increases oxygenation in non-contracting arm muscles during contralateral one-armed cranking and whether the oxygenation response caused by central command differs among skeletal muscles of the non-exercising upper limb. In 13 male subjects, the relative changes in oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) of the non-contracting arm muscles [the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR)] were measured during voluntary one-armed cranking (intensity, 35-40% of maximal voluntary effort) and mental imagery of the one-armed exercise for 1 min. Voluntary one-armed cranking increased ( P  <   0.05) the Oxy-Hb of the triceps, biceps, and ECR muscles to the same extent (15 ± 4% of the baseline level, 17 ± 5%, and 16 ± 4%, respectively). The greatest increase in the Oxy-Hb was observed in the deltoid muscle. Intravenous injection of atropine (10-15  μ g/kg) and/or propranolol (0.1 mg/kg) revealed that the increased Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles consisted of the rapid atropine-sensitive and delayed propranolol-sensitive components. Mental imagery of the exercise increased the Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles. Motor-driven passive one-armed cranking had little influence on the Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles. It is likely that central command plays a role in the initial increase in oxygenation in the non-contracting arm muscles via sympathetic cholinergic vasodilatation at the early period of one-armed cranking. The centrally induced increase in oxygenation may not be different among the distal arm muscles but may augment in the deltoid muscle. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  9. Bilateral primary motor cortex circuitry is modulated due to theta burst stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex and bimanual training.

    PubMed

    Neva, Jason L; Vesia, Michael; Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2015-08-27

    Motor preparatory and execution activity is enhanced after a single session of bimanual visuomotor training (BMT). Recently, we have shown that increased primary motor cortex (M1) excitability occurs when BMT involves simultaneous activation of homologous muscles and these effects are enhanced when BMT is preceded by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to the left dorsal premotor cortex (lPMd). The neural mechanisms underlying these modulations are unclear, but may include interhemispheric interactions between homologous M1s and connectivity with premotor regions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible intracortical and interhemispheric modulations of the extensor carpi radials (ECR) representation in M1 bilaterally due to: (1) BMT, (2) iTBS to lPMd, and (3) iTBS to lPMd followed by BMT. This study tests three related hypotheses: (1) BMT will enhance excitability within and between M1 bilaterally, (2) iTBS to lPMd will primarily enhance left M1 (lM1) excitability, and (3) the combination of these interventions will cause a greater enhancement of bilateral M1 excitability. We used single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to quantify M1 circuitry bilaterally. The results demonstrate the neural mechanisms underlying the early markers of rapid functional plasticity associated with BMT and iTBS to lPMd primarily relate to modulations of long-interval inhibitory (i.e. GABAB-mediated) circuitry within and between M1s. This work provides novel insight into the underlying neural mechanisms involved in M1 excitability changes associated with BMT and iTBS to lPMd. Critically, this work may inform rehabilitation training and stimulation techniques that modulate cortical plasticity after brain injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Modulation of left primary motor cortex excitability after bimanual training and intermittent theta burst stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Neva, Jason L; Vesia, Michael; Singh, Amaya M; Staines, W Richard

    2014-03-15

    Bimanual visuomotor movement training (BMT) enhances the excitability of human preparatory premotor and primary motor (M1) cortices compared to unimanual movement. This occurs when BMT involves mirror symmetrical movements of both upper-limbs (in-phase) but not with non-symmetrical movements (anti-phase). The neural mechanisms mediating the effect of BMT is unclear, but may involve interhemispheric connections between homologous M1 representations as well as the dorsal premotor cortices (PMd). The purpose of this study is to assess how intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of the left PMd affects left M1 excitability, and the possible combined effects of iTBS to left PMd applied before a single session of BMT. Left M1 excitability was quantified using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in terms of both the amplitudes and spatial extent of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) before and multiple time points following (1) BMT, (2) iTBS to left PMd or (3) iTBS to left PMd and BMT. Although there was not a greater increase in either specific measure of M1 excitability due to the combination of the interventions, iTBS applied before BMT showed that both the spatial extent and global MEP amplitude for the ECR became larger in parallel, whereas the spatial extent was enhanced with BMT alone and global MEP amplitude was enhanced with iTBS to left PMd alone. These results suggest that the modulation of rapid functional M1 excitability associated with BMT and iTBS of the left PMd could operate under related early markers of neuro-plastic mechanisms, which may be expressed in concurrent and distinct patterns of M1 excitability. Critically, this work may guide rehabilitation training and stimulation techniques that modulate cortical excitability after brain injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Handedness-related asymmetry in transmission in a system of human cervical premotoneurones.

    PubMed

    Marchand-Pauvert, V; Mazevet, D; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E; Pol, S; Pradat-Diehl, P

    1999-04-01

    The possibility was investigated that human handedness is associated with an asymmetrical cortical and/or peripheral control of the cervical premotoneurones (PreMNs) that have been shown to mediate part of the descending command to motoneurones of forearm muscles. Heteronymous facilitation evoked in the ongoing voluntary extensor carpi radialis (ECR) electromyographic activity (EMG) by weak (0.8 times motor threshold) stimulation of the musculo-cutaneous (MC) nerve was assessed during tonic co-contraction of biceps and ECR. Suppression evoked by stimulation of a cutaneous nerve (superficial radial, SR) at 4 times perception threshold in both the voluntary EMG and in the motor evoked potential (MEP) elicited in ECR by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was investigated during isolated ECR contraction. Measurements were performed within time windows or at interstimulus intervals where peripheral and cortical inputs may interact at the level of PreMNs. Results obtained on both sides were compared in consistent right- and left-handers. MC-induced facilitation of the voluntary ECR EMG was significantly larger on the preferred side, whereas there was no asymmetry in the SR-evoked depression of the ongoing ECR EMG. In addition, the suppression of the ECR MEP by the same SR stimulation was more pronounced on the dominant side during unilateral, but not during bilateral, ECR contraction. It is argued that (1) asymmetry in MC-induced facilitation of the voluntary EMG reflects a greater efficiency of the peripheral heteronymous volley in facilitating PreMNs on the dominant side; (2) asymmetry in SR-induced suppression of the MEP during unilateral ECR contraction, which is not paralleled by a similar asymmetry of voluntary EMG suppression, reflects a higher excitability of cortical neurones controlling inhibitory spinal pathways to cervical PreMNs on the preferred side.

  12. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis in chronic lateral epicondylitis: short-term and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Valera-Garrido, Fermín; Minaya-Muñoz, Francisco; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is a novel minimally invasive approach which consists of the application of a galvanic current through an acupuncture needle. To evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic effectiveness of a multimodal programme (PNE, eccentric exercise (EccEx) and stretching) in the short term for patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, and to determine whether the clinical outcomes achieved decline over time. A one-way repeated measures study was performed in a clinical setting in 36 patients presenting with lateral epicondylitis. The patients received one session of US-guided PNE per week over 4-6 weeks, associated with a home programme of EccEx and stretching. The main outcome measures were severity of pain, disability (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire), structural tendon changes (US), hypervascularity and patients' perceptions of overall outcome. Measurements at 6, 26 and 52 weeks follow-up included recurrence rates (increase in severity of pain or disability compared with discharge), perception of overall outcome and success rates. All outcome measures registered significant improvements between pre-intervention and discharge. Most patients (n=30, 83.3%) rated the overall outcome as 'successful' at 6 weeks. The ultrasonographic findings showed that the hypoechoic regions and hypervascularity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis changed significantly. At 26 and 52 weeks, all participants (n=32) perceived a 'successful' outcome. Recurrence rates were null after discharge and at follow-up at 6, 26 and 52 weeks. Symptoms and degenerative structural changes of chronic lateral epicondylitis are reduced after US-guided PNE associated with EccEx and stretching, with encouragingly low recurrences in the mid to long term. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02085928. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  13. The effects of a muscle resistance program on the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in pre-frail elderly women: a randomized crossover clinical trial--a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Silva, Juscelio P; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Dias, João M D; Dias, Rosangela C; Pereira, Leani S M

    2010-07-28

    With the increase in the elderly population, a growing number of chronic degenerative diseases and a greater dependency on caregivers have been observed. Elderly persons in states of frailty remain more susceptible to significant health complications. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and levels of functionality and muscle strength, suggesting that muscle-strengthening measures can aid in inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study will be verified the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load during a ten-week period in pre-frail elderly women with attention to the following outcomes: (1) plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), (2) functional capacity and (3) knee extensor muscle strength. The study design is a randomized crossover clinical trial evaluating 26 elderly women (regardless of their race and/or social condition) who are community residents, older than 65, and classified as pre-frail according to the criteria previously described by Fried et al. (2004). All subjects will be assessed using the Timed up and go and 10-Meter Walk Test functional tests. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha will be assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with high sensitivity kits (QuantikineHS, R&D Systems Minneapolis, MN, U.S.). Knee extensor muscle strength will be assessed using the Byodex System 3 Pro(R) isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180 degrees/s. The intervention will consist of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 50 to 70% of 1RM (maximal resistance) three times per week for ten weeks. The volunteers will be randomized into two groups: group E, the intervention group, and group C, the control group that did not initiate any new activities during the initial study period (ten weeks). After the initial period, group C will begin the intervention and group E will maintain everyday activities without

  14. Comparison of physical fitness between rice farmers with and without chronic low back pain: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Taechasubamorn, Panada; Nopkesorn, Tawesak; Pannarunothai, Supasit

    2010-12-01

    To compare physical fitness between rice farmers with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and a healthy control group. Sixty-eight rice farmers with CLBP were matched according to age and sex with healthy farmers. All subjects underwent nine physical fitness tests for body composition, lifting capacity, static back extensor endurance, leg strength, static abdominal endurance, handgrip strength, hamstring flexibility, posterior leg and back muscles flexibility and abdominal flexibility. There was no significant difference between CLBP and healthy groups for all tests, except the static back extensor endurance. The back extensor endurance times of the CLBP group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p = 0.002). Static back extensor endurance is the deficient physical fitness in CLBP rice farmers. Back extensor endurance training should be emphasized in both prevention and rehabilitation programs.

  15. The Effect of Adductor Canal Block on Knee Extensor Muscle Strength 6 Weeks After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rousseau-Saine, Nicolas; Williams, Stephan R; Girard, François; Hébert, Luc J; Robin, Florian; Duchesne, Luc; Lavoie, Frédéric; Ruel, Monique

    2018-03-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reduces knee extensor muscle strength (KES) in the operated limb for several months after the surgery. Immediately after TKA, compared to either inguinal femoral nerve block or placebo, adductor canal block (ACB) better preserves KES. Whether this short-term increase in KES is maintained several weeks after surgery remains unknown. We hypothesized that 48 hours of continuous ACB immediately after TKA would improve KES 6 weeks after TKA, compared to placebo. Patients scheduled for primary unilateral TKA were randomized to receive either a continuous ACB (group ACB) or a sham block (group SHAM) for 48 hours after surgery. Primary outcome was the difference in maximal KES 6 weeks postoperatively, measured with a dynamometer during maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Secondary outcomes included postoperative day 1 (POD1) and day 2 (POD2) KES, pain scores at rest and peak effort, and opioid consumption; variation at 6 weeks of Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, patient satisfaction, and length of hospital stay. Sixty-three subjects were randomized and 58 completed the study. Patients in group ACB had less pain at rest during POD1 and during peak effort on POD1 and POD2, consumed less opioids on POD1 and POD2, and had higher median KES on POD1. There was no significant difference between groups for median KES on POD2, variation of Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, patient satisfaction, and length of stay. There was no difference between groups in median KES 6 weeks after surgery (52 Nm [31-89 Nm] for group ACB vs 47 Nm [30-78 Nm] for group SHAM, P= .147). Continuous ACB provides better analgesia and KES for 24-48 hours after surgery, but does not affect KES 6 weeks after TKA. Further research could evaluate whether standardized and optimized rehabilitation over the long term would allow early KES improvements with ACB to be maintained over a period of weeks or months.

  16. Effects of combined and classic training on different isometric rate of force development parameters of leg extensors in female volleyball players: Discriminative analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Branislav, Rajić; Milivoj, Dopsaj; Abella, Carlos Pablos; Deval, Vicente Caratalla; Siniša, Karišik

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to verify the effects of the combined and classic training of different isometric rates of force development (RFD) parameters of legs. Materials and Methods: Three groups of female athletes was tested: Experimental group (N = 12), classically trained group (N = 11), and control group (N = 20) of athletes. The isometric “standing leg extension” and “Rise on Toes” tests were conducted to evaluate the maximal force, time necessary time to reach it and the RFD analyzed at 100 ms, 180 ms, 250 ms from the onset, and 50-100% of its maximal result. Results: The maximal RFD of legs and calves are dominant explosive parameters. Special training enhanced the RFD of calves of GROUPSPEC at 100 ms (P = 0.05), at 180 ms (P = 0.039), at 250 ms (P = 0.039), at 50% of the Fmax (P = 0.031) and the Fmax (P = 0.05). Domination of GROUPSPEC toward GROUPCLASS and GROUPCONTROL is in case of legs at 100 ms (P = 0.04); at 180 ms (P = 0.04); at 250 ms (P = 0.00); at 50% of the Fmax (P = 0.01) and at the Fmax (P = 0.00); in case of calves at 100 ms (P = 0.07); 180 ms (P = 0.001); at 250 ms (P = 0.00); at 50% of the Fmax (P = 0.00) and at Fmax (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Dominant explosive factors are maximal RFD of leg extensors and calves, and legs at 250ms. Specific training enhanced explosiveness of calves of GROUPSPEC general and partial domination of GROUPSPEC by 87% over GROUPCLASS, and 35% over GROUPCONTROL. PMID:24497853

  17. Computer simulations of neural mechanisms explaining upper and lower limb excitatory neural coupling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background When humans perform rhythmic upper and lower limb locomotor-like movements, there is an excitatory effect of upper limb exertion on lower limb muscle recruitment. To investigate potential neural mechanisms for this behavioral observation, we developed computer simulations modeling interlimb neural pathways among central pattern generators. We hypothesized that enhancement of muscle recruitment from interlimb spinal mechanisms was not sufficient to explain muscle enhancement levels observed in experimental data. Methods We used Matsuoka oscillators for the central pattern generators (CPG) and determined parameters that enhanced amplitudes of rhythmic steady state bursts. Potential mechanisms for output enhancement were excitatory and inhibitory sensory feedback gains, excitatory and inhibitory interlimb coupling gains, and coupling geometry. We first simulated the simplest case, a single CPG, and then expanded the model to have two CPGs and lastly four CPGs. In the two and four CPG models, the lower limb CPGs did not receive supraspinal input such that the only mechanisms available for enhancing output were interlimb coupling gains and sensory feedback gains. Results In a two-CPG model with inhibitory sensory feedback gains, only excitatory gains of ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 26%. In a two-CPG model with excitatory sensory feedback gains, excitatory gains of contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 100%. However, within a given excitatory sensory feedback gain, enhancement due to excitatory interlimb gains could only reach levels up to 20%. Interconnecting four CPGs to have ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling, contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling, and bilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling could enhance motor output up to 32

  18. Transposition of branches of radial nerve innervating supinator to posterior interosseous nerve for functional reconstruction of finger and thumb extension in 4 patients with middle and lower trunk root avulsion injuries of brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Cong, Xiao-Bing; Huang, Qi-Shun; Ai, Fang-Xin; Liu, Yu-Tian; Lu, Xiao-Cheng; Li, Jin; Weng, Yu-Xiong; Chen, Zhen-Bing

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reconstruction of the thumb and finger extension function in patients with middle and lower trunk root avulsion injuries of the brachial plexus. From April 2010 to January 2015, we enrolled in this study 4 patients diagnosed with middle and lower trunk root avulsion injuries of the brachial plexus via imaging tests, electrophysiological examinations, and clinical confirmation. Muscular branches of the radial nerve, which innervate the supinator in the forearm, were transposed to the posterior interosseous nerve to reconstruct the thumb and finger extension function. Electrophysiological findings and muscle strength of the extensor pollicis longus and extensor digitorum communis, as well as the distance between the thumb tip and index finger tip, were monitored. All patients were followed up for 24 to 30 months, with an average of 27.5 months. Motor unit potentials (MUP) of the extensor digitorum communis appeared at an average of 3.8 months, while MUP of the extensor pollicis longus appeared at an average of 7 months. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) appeared at an average of 9 months in the extensor digitorum communis, and 12 months in the extensor pollicis longus. Furthermore, the muscle strength of the extensor pollicis longus and extensor digitorum communis both reached grade III at 21 months. Lastly, the average distance between the thumb tip and index finger tip was 8.8 cm at 21 months. In conclusion, for patients with middle and lower trunk injuries of the brachial plexus, transposition of the muscular branches of the radial nerve innervating the supinator to the posterior interosseous nerve for the reconstruction of thumb and finger extension function is practicable and feasible.

  19. Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Niehoff, Anja; Epro, Gaspar; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry. Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention. This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable to change in the elderly following a

  20. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (p<0.05). Reductions in KE RTD occurred within the 0–200 ms epoch after contraction onset postmatch and at 24 h, compared with prematch, independent of environmental conditions (p<0.05). A similar reduction in the KE peak RTD was also observed postmatch relative to prematch (p<0.05). No differences in KE RTD values were observed after normalisation to MVC torque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  1. Effects of Lumbar Strengthening Exercise in Lower-Limb Amputees With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Kyung; Yang, Hee Seung; Yang, Hea-Eun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Ahn, Bo Ram; Kwon, Hyup; Lee, Ju Hwan; Jung, Suk; Choi, Hyun Chul; Yun, Sun Keaung; Ahn, Dong Young; Sim, Woo Sob

    2018-02-01

    To analyze the effect of lumbar strengthening exercise in lower-limb amputees with chronic low back pain. We included in this prospective study 19 lower-limb amputees who had experienced low back pain for longer than 6 months. Participants were treated with 30-minute lumbar strengthening exercises, twice weekly, for 8 weeks. We used the visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire, and measured parameters such as iliopsoas length, abdominal muscle strength, back extensor strength, and back extensor endurance. In addition, we assessed the isometric peak torque and total work of the trunk flexors and extensors using isokinetic dynamometer. The pre- and post-exercise measurements were compared. Compared with the baseline, abdominal muscle strength (from 4.4±0.7 to 4.8±0.6), back extensor strength (from 2.6±0.6 to 3.5±1.2), and back extensor endurance (from 22.3±10.7 to 46.8±35.1) improved significantly after 8 weeks. The VAS decreased significantly from 4.6±2.2 to 2.6±1.6 after treatment. Furthermore, the peak torque and total work of the trunk flexors and extensors increased significantly (p<0.05). Lumbar strengthening exercise in lower-limb amputees with chronic low back pain resulted in decreased pain and increased lumbar extensor strength. The lumbar strengthening exercise program is very effective for lower-limb amputees with chronic low back pain.

  2. The first metatarsal web space: its applied anatomy and usage in tracing the first dorsal metatarsal artery in thumb reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Qing; Li, Jun; Zhong, Shi-Zhen; Xu, Da-Chuan; Xu, Xiao-Shan; Guo, Yuan-Fa; Wang, Xin-Min; Li, Zhu-Yi; Zhu, Yue-Liang

    2004-12-01

    To clarify the anatomical relationship of the structures in the first toe webbing space for better dissection of toes in thumb reconstruction. The first dorsal metatarsal artery, the first deep transverse metatarsal ligament and the extensor expansion were observed on 42 adult cadaveric lower extremities. Clinically the method of tracing the first dorsal metatarsal artery around the space of the extensor expansion was used in 36 cases of thumb reconstruction. The distal segments of the first dorsal metatarsal artery of Gilbert types I and II were located superficially to the extensor expansion. The harvesting time of a toe was shortened from 90 minutes to 50 minutes with 100% survival of reconstructed fingers. The distal segment of the first dorsal metatarsal artery lies constantly at the superficial layer of the extensor expansion. Most of the first metatarsal arteries of Gilbert types I and II can be easily located via the combined sequential and reverse dissection around the space of the extensor expansion.

  3. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases.

    PubMed

    Brincks, John; Christensen, Lars Ejsing; Rehnquist, Mette Voigt; Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    To improve walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of walking. This study examined strategies in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. In general, no differences were found between speed-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest that mildly disabled persons with MS used similar kinetic strategies as healthy controls to increase walking speed.

  4. Myosin heavy chain isoform composition and Ca(2+) transients in fibres from enzymatically dissociated murine soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Juan C; Bolaños, Pura; Caputo, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Electrically elicited Ca(2+) transients reported with the fast Ca(2+) dye MagFluo-4 AM and myosin heavy chain (MHC) electrophoretic patterns were obtained in intact, enzymatically dissociated fibres from adult mice extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. Thirty nine fibres (23 from soleus and 16 from EDL) were analysed by both fluorescence microscopy and electrophoresis. These fibres were grouped as follows: group 1 included 13 type I and 4 type IC fibres; group 2 included 2 type IIC, 3 IIA and 1 I/IIA/IIX fibres; group 3 included 4 type IIX and 1 type IIX/IIB fibres; group 4 included 2 type IIB/IIX and 9 type IIB fibres. Ca(2+) transients obtained in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 had the following kinetic parameters (mean +/- s.e.m.): amplitude (F/F): 0.61 +/- 0.05, 0.53 +/- 0.08, 0.61 +/- 0.06 and 0.61 +/- 0.03; rise time (ms): 1.64 +/- 0.05, 1.35 +/- 0.05, 1.18 +/- 0.06 and 1.14 +/- 0.04; half-amplitude width (ms): 19.12 +/- 1.85, 11.86 +/- 3.03, 4.62 +/- 0.31 and 4.23 +/- 0.37; and time constants of decay (tau(1) and tau(2), ms): 3.33 +/- 0.13 and 52.48 +/- 3.93, 2.69 +/- 0.22 and 41.06 +/- 9.13, 1.74 +/- 0.06 and 12.88 +/- 1.93, and 1.56 +/- 0.11 and 9.45 +/- 1.03, respectively. The statistical differences between the four groups and the analysis of the distribution of the parameters of Ca(2+) release and clearance show that there is a continuum from slow to fast, that parallels the MHC continuum from pure type I to pure IIB. However, type IIA fibres behave more like IIX and IIB fibres regarding Ca(2+) release but closer to type I fibres regarding Ca(2+) clearance. In conclusion, we show for the first time the diversity of Ca(2+) transients for the whole continuum of fibre types and correlate this functional diversity with the structural and biochemical diversity of the skeletal muscle fibres.

  5. Lower extremity muscle functions during full squats.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D G E; Wilson, Jean-Marie J; St Pierre, Taunya A

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the functions of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles about their associated joints during full (deep-knee) squats. Muscle function was determined from joint kinematics, inverse dynamics, electromyography, and muscle length changes. The subjects were six experienced, male weight lifters. Analyses revealed that the prime movers during ascent were the monoarticular gluteus maximus and vasti muscles (as exemplified by vastus lateralis) and to a lesser extent the soleus muscles. The biarticular muscles functioned mainly as stabilizers of the ankle, knee, and hip joints by working eccentrically to control descent or transferring energy among the segments during scent. During the ascent phase, the hip extensor moments of force produced the largest powers followed by the ankle plantar flexors and then the knee extensors. The hip and knee extensors provided the initial bursts of power during ascent with the ankle extensors and especially a second burst from the hip extensors adding power during the latter half of the ascent.

  6. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18-23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65-88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men's mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men.

  7. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  8. Analysis of muscle fiber conduction velocity during finger flexion and extension after stroke.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Megan O; Qiu, Dan; Hoffmann, Gilles; Zhou, Ping; Kamper, Derek G

    2017-05-01

    Stroke survivors experience greater strength deficits during finger extension than finger flexion. Prior research indicates relatively little observed weakness is directly attributable to muscle atrophy. Changes in other muscle properties, however, may contribute to strength deficits. This study measured muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) in a finger flexor and extensor muscle to infer changes in muscle fiber-type after stroke. Conduction velocity was measured using a linear EMG surface electrode array for both extensor digitorum communis and flexor digitorum superficialis in 12 stroke survivors with chronic hand hemiparesis and five control subjects. Measurements were made in both hands for all subjects. Stroke survivors had either severe (n = 5) or moderate (n = 7) hand impairment. Absolute MFCV was significantly lower in the paretic hand of severely impaired stroke patients compared to moderately impaired patients and healthy control subjects. The relative MFCV between the two hands, however, was quite similar for flexor muscles across all subjects and for extensor muscles for the neurologically intact control subjects. However, MFCV for finger extensors was smaller in the paretic as compared to the nonparetic hand for both groups of stroke survivors. One explanation for reduced MFCV may be a type-II to type-I muscle fiber, especially in extrinsic extensors. Clinically, therapists may use this information to develop therapeutic exercises targeting loss of type-II fiber in extensor muscles.

  9. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyung Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok; Park, Moon Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait.

  10. The effect of the training with the different combinations of frequency and peak-to-peak vibration displacement of whole-body vibration on the strength of knee flexors and extensors

    PubMed Central

    Król, P; Sobota, G; Polak, A; Bacik, B; Juras, G

    2017-01-01

    Whole-body vibration training has become a popular method used in sports and physiotherapy. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different vibration frequency and peak-to-peak displacement combinations on men knee flexors and extensors strength in isokinetic conditions. The sample consisted of 49 male subjects randomly allocated to seven comparative groups, six of which exercised on a vibration platform with parameters set individually for the groups. The experimental groups were exposed to vibrations 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The pre- and post- isokinetic strength tests, with the angular velocities of 240°/s and 30°/s, were recorded prior to and 2 days after the training. After 4 weeks of whole-body vibration training, a significant increase was noted regarding the mean values of peak torque, average peak torque and total work for knee flexors at high angular velocity in Groups I (60 Hz/4 mm) and V (40 Hz/2 mm) (p<0.05). The mean percentage values of post-training changes to study parameters suggest that the training had the most beneficial effect in Groups I (60 Hz/4 mm) and IV (60 Hz/2 mm) (p<0.05). Whole-body vibrations during static exercise beneficially affected knee flexor strength profile in young men at high angular velocity. The combinations of 60 Hz/4 mm seem to have the most advantageous effects on muscle strength parameters. PMID:28566806

  11. Muscle metabolism and activation heterogeneity by combined 31P chemical shift and T2 imaging, and pulmonary O2 uptake during incremental knee-extensor exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Daniel T.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Whipp, Brian J.; Ward, Susan A.; McIntyre, Dominick J.; Ladroue, Christophe; Griffiths, John R.; Kemp, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of skeletal muscle substrate depletion, metabolite accumulation, and fatigue during large muscle-mass exercise is not well understood. Measurement of intramuscular energy store degradation and metabolite accumulation is confounded by muscle heterogeneity. Therefore, to characterize regional metabolic distribution in the locomotor muscles, we combined 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical shift imaging, and T2-weighted imaging with pulmonary oxygen uptake during bilateral knee-extension exercise to intolerance. Six men completed incremental tests for the following: 1) unlocalized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and 2) spatial determination of 31P metabolism and activation. The relationship of pulmonary oxygen uptake to whole quadriceps phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) was inversely linear, and three of four knee-extensor muscles showed activation as assessed by change in T2. The largest changes in [PCr], [inorganic phosphate] ([Pi]) and pH occurred in rectus femoris, but no voxel (72 cm3) showed complete PCr depletion at exercise cessation. The most metabolically active voxel reached 11 ± 9 mM [PCr] (resting, 29 ± 1 mM), 23 ± 11 mM [Pi] (resting, 7 ± 1 mM), and a pH of 6.64 ± 0.29 (resting, 7.08 ± 0.03). However, the distribution of 31P metabolites and pH varied widely between voxels, and the intervoxel coefficient of variation increased between rest (∼10%) and exercise intolerance (∼30–60%). Therefore, the limit of tolerance was attained with wide heterogeneity in substrate depletion and fatigue-related metabolite accumulation, with extreme metabolic perturbation isolated to only a small volume of active muscle (<5%). Regional intramuscular disturbances are thus likely an important requisite for exercise intolerance. How these signals integrate to limit muscle power production, while regional “recruitable muscle” energy stores are presumably still available, remains uncertain. PMID:23813534

  12. Effect of Exercise-Induced Enhancement of the Leg-Extensor Muscle-Tendon Unit Capacities on Ambulatory Mechanics and Knee Osteoarthritis Markers in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Niehoff, Anja; Epro, Gaspar; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Methods Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry. Results Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention. Conclusions This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable

  13. Medial Elbow Joint Space Increases With Valgus Stress and Decreases When Cued to Perform A Maximal Grip Contraction.

    PubMed

    Pexa, Brett S; Ryan, Eric D; Myers, Joseph B

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicates that the amount of valgus torque placed on the elbow joint during overhead throwing is higher than the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) can tolerate. Wrist and finger flexor muscle activity is hypothesized to make up for this difference, and in vitro studies that simulated activity of upper extremity musculature, specifically the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris, support this hypothesis. To assess the medial elbow joint space at rest, under valgus stress, and under valgus stress with finger and forearm flexor contraction by use of ultrasonography in vivo. Controlled laboratory study. Participants were 22 healthy males with no history of elbow dislocation or UCL injury (age, 21.25 ± 1.58 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight, 79.43 ± 18.50 kg). Medial elbow joint space was measured by use of ultrasonography during 3 separate conditions: at rest (unloaded), under valgus load (loaded), and with a maximal grip contraction under a valgus load (loaded-contracted) in both limbs. Participants lay supine with their arm abducted 90° and elbow flexed 30° with the forearm in full supination. A handgrip dynamometer was placed in the participants' hand to grip against during the contracted condition. Images were reduced in ImageJ to assess medial elbow joint space. A 2-way (condition × limb) repeated-measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to assess changes in medial elbow joint space. Post hoc testing was performed with a Bonferroni adjustment to assess changes within limb and condition. The medial elbow joint space was significantly larger in the loaded condition (4.91 ± 1.16 mm) compared with the unloaded condition (4.26 ± 1.23 mm, P < .001, d = 0.712) and the loaded-contracted condition (3.88 ± 0.94 mm, P < .001, d = 1.149). No significant change was found between the unloaded and loaded-contracted conditions ( P = .137). Medial elbow joint space increases under a valgus load and then

  14. Asymmetric Operation of the Locomotor Central Pattern Generator in the Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toshiaki; Kiehn, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The rhythmic voltage oscillations in motor neurons (MNs) during locomotor movements reflect the operation of the pre-MN central pattern generator (CPG) network. Recordings from MNs can thus be used as a method to deduct the organization of CPGs. Here, we use continuous conductance measurements and decomposition methods to quantitatively assess the weighting and phase tuning of synaptic inputs to different flexor and extensor MNs during locomotor-like activity in the isolated neonatal mice lumbar spinal cord preparation. Whole cell recordings were obtained from 22 flexor and 18 extensor MNs in rostral and caudal lumbar segments. In all flexor and the large majority of extensor MNs the extracted excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances alternate but with a predominance of inhibitory conductances, most pronounced in extensors. These conductance changes are consistent with a “push–pull” operation of locomotor CPG. The extracted excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances varied between 2 and 56% of the mean total conductance. Analysis of the phase tuning of the extracted synaptic conductances in flexor and extensor MNs in the rostral lumbar cord showed that the flexor-phase–related synaptic conductance changes have sharper locomotor-phase tuning than the extensor-phase–related conductances, suggesting a modular organization of premotor CPG networks consisting of reciprocally coupled, but differently composed, flexor and extensor CPG networks. There was a clear difference between phase tuning in rostral and caudal MNs, suggesting a distinct operation of CPG networks in different lumbar segments. The highly asymmetric features were preserved throughout all ranges of locomotor frequencies investigated and with different combinations of locomotor-inducing drugs. The asymmetric nature of CPG operation and phase tuning of the conductance profiles provide important clues to the organization of the rodent locomotor CPG and are compatible with a

  15. Age Differences in Dynamic Fatigability and Variability of Arm and Leg Muscles: Associations with Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Senefeld, Jonathon; Yoon, Tejin; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is not known whether the age-related increase in fatigability of fast dynamic contractions in lower limb muscles also occurs in upper limb muscles. We compared age-related fatigability and variability of maximal-effort repeated dynamic contractions in the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles; and determined associations between fatigability, variability of velocity between contractions and functional performance. Methods 35 young (16 males; 21.0±2.6 years) and 32 old (18 males; 71.3±6.2 years) adults performed a dynamic fatiguing task involving 90 maximal-effort, fast, concentric, isotonic contractions (1 contraction/3 s) with a load equivalent to 20% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque with the elbow flexor and knee extensor muscles on separate days. Old adults also performed tests of balance and walking endurance. Results Old adults had greater fatigue-related reductions in peak velocity compared with young adults for both the elbow flexor and knee extensor muscles (P<0.05) with no sex differences (P>0.05). Old adults had greater variability of peak velocity during the knee extensor, but not during the elbow flexor fatiguing task. The age difference in fatigability was greater for the knee extensor muscles (35.9%) compared with elbow flexor muscles (9.7%, P<0.05). Less fatigability of the knee extensor muscles was associated with greater walking endurance (r=−0.34, P=0.048) and balance (r=−0.41, P=0.014) among old adults. Conclusions An age-related increase in fatigability of a dynamic fatiguing task was greater for the knee extensor compared with the elbow flexor muscles in males and females, and greater fatigability was associated with lesser walking endurance and balance. PMID:27989926

  16. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyung-Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Materials and Methods Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Results Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in