Extensor Tendon Injuries and Repairs in the Hand
Kontor, J. A.
Due to their superficial course, the extensor tendons are frequently lacerated over the dorsum of the hand and fingers. Excellent functional results are obtained in repairs of simple tendon lacerations. ‘Open’ mallet lacerations over the distal IP joint or involving the central extensor slip over the proximal IP joint require more precise suturing methods. More proximal extensor tendon divisions near the wrist involve dissection of the retracted finger extensors or long thumb extensor in the distal forearm and more formal tendon repairs, including a possible tendon transfer to the thumb. ‘Closed injuries’, with varying degrees of extensor tendon disruption, occur at three main sites. The mallet injury at the DIP joint and the boutonnière deformity over the PIP joint are sometimes recognized late, but respond to conservative splinting for a minimum of four weeks with guarded motion avoiding secondary stiffening of the remaining small joints of the hand. Surgery of closed injuries most frequently involves the intra-articular traction fracture type of mallet deformities in which the DIP joint has taken the brunt of the injury. PMID:21286174
Extensor tendon injury during cesarean delivery.
Fetal laceration is a recognized complication of cesarean delivery; however, major injuries are rare. The case of a healthy newborn who sustained an injury to the extensor pollicis longus tendon during cesarean delivery is reported. The tendon was repaired surgically on the sixth day of life with good recovery of function. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Open extensor tendon injuries: an epidemiologic study.
Patillo, Dominic; Rayan, Ghazi M
To report the epidemiology, mechanism, anatomical location, distribution, and severity of open extensor tendon injuries in the digits, hand, and forearm as well as the frequency of associated injuries to surrounding bone and soft tissue. Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who had operative repair of open digital extensor tendon injuries in all zones within an 11-year period. Data was grouped according to patient characteristics, zone of injury, mechanism of injury, and presence of associated injury. Statistical analysis was used to determine the presence of relevant associations. Eighty-six patients with 125 severed tendons and 105 injured digits were available for chart reviews. Patients were predominantly males (83%) with a mean age of 34.2 years and the dominant extremity was most often injured (60%). The thumb was the most commonly injured (25.7%), followed by middle finger (24.8), whereas small finger was least affected (10.5%). Sharp laceration was the most common mechanism of injury (60%), and most of these occurred at or proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Most saw injuries occurred distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint. Zone V was the most commonly affected in the fingers (27%) while zone VT was the most commonly affected in the thumb (69%). Associated injuries to bone and soft tissue occurred in 46.7% of all injuries with saw and crush/avulsions being predictive of fractures and damage to the underlying joint capsule. The extensor mechanism is anatomically complex, and open injuries to the dorsum of the hand, wrist, and forearm, especially of crushing nature and those inflicted by saws, must be thoroughly evaluated. Associated injuries should be ruled out in order to customize surgical treatment and optimize outcome.
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Rehabilitation of flexor and extensor tendon injuries in the hand: current updates.
Howell, Julianne W; Peck, Fiona
In recent years, a significant amount of research in the field of tendon injury in the hand has contributed to advances in both surgical and rehabilitation techniques. The introduction of early motion has improved tendon healing, reduced complications, and enhanced final outcomes. There is overwhelming evidence to show that carefully devised rehabilitation programs are critical to achieving favourable outcomes. Whatever the type, or level, of flexor or extensor injury, the ultimate goal of both the surgeon and therapist is to protect the repair, modify peritendinous adhesions, promote optimal tendon excursion and preserve joint motion. Early tendon motion regimens are initiated at surgery or within 5 days post repair. Intra-operative information from the surgeon to the therapist is vital to the choice of splint protected position to reduce repair rupture/gap forces, and to commencement of active, or splint controlled, motion for tendon excursion. Decisions should align with the phases of healing, the clinician's observations, frequent range of motion measurements and patient input. Clinical concepts pertinent to early motion rehabilitation decisions are presented by zone of injury for both flexor and extensor tendons during the early phases of healing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.
Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi
A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.
Traumatic Extensor Tendon Injuries to the Hand: Clinical Anatomy, Biomechanics, and Surgical Procedure Review.
Colzani, Giulia; Tos, Pierluigi; Battiston, Bruno; Merolla, Giovanni; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Artiaco, Stefano
The extensor apparatus is a complex muscle-tendon system that requires integrity or optimal reconstruction to preserve hand function. Anatomical knowledge and the understanding of physiopathology of extensor tendons are essential for an accurate diagnosis of extensor tendon injuries (ETIs) of the hand and wrist, because these lesions are complex and commonly observed in clinical practice. A careful clinical history and assessment still remain the first step for the diagnosis, followed by US and MR to confirm the suspect of ETI or to investigate some doubtful conditions and rule out associate lesions. During last decades the evolution of surgical techniques and rehabilitative treatment protocol led to gradual improvement in clinical results of ETI treatment and surgical repair. Injury classification into anatomical zones and the evaluation of the characteristics of the lesions are considered key points to select the appropriate treatment for ETI. Both conservative and surgical management can be indicated in ETI, depending on the anatomical zone and on the characteristics of the injuries. As a general rule, an attempt of conservative treatment should be performed when the lesion is expected to have favorable result with nonoperative procedure. Many surgical techniques have been proposed over the time and with favorable results if the tendon injury is not underestimated and adequately treated. Despite recent research findings, a lack of evidence-based knowledge is still observed in surgical treatment and postoperative management of ETI. Further clinical and biomechanical investigations would be advisable to clarify this complex issue.
Traumatic Extensor Tendon Injuries to the Hand: Clinical Anatomy, Biomechanics, and Surgical Procedure Review
Colzani, Giulia; Tos, Pierluigi; Battiston, Bruno; Merolla, Giovanni; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Artiaco, Stefano
The extensor apparatus is a complex muscle-tendon system that requires integrity or optimal reconstruction to preserve hand function. Anatomical knowledge and the understanding of physiopathology of extensor tendons are essential for an accurate diagnosis of extensor tendon injuries (ETIs) of the hand and wrist, because these lesions are complex and commonly observed in clinical practice. A careful clinical history and assessment still remain the first step for the diagnosis, followed by US and MR to confirm the suspect of ETI or to investigate some doubtful conditions and rule out associate lesions. During last decades the evolution of surgical techniques and rehabilitative treatment protocol led to gradual improvement in clinical results of ETI treatment and surgical repair. Injury classification into anatomical zones and the evaluation of the characteristics of the lesions are considered key points to select the appropriate treatment for ETI. Both conservative and surgical management can be indicated in ETI, depending on the anatomical zone and on the characteristics of the injuries. As a general rule, an attempt of conservative treatment should be performed when the lesion is expected to have favorable result with nonoperative procedure. Many surgical techniques have been proposed over the time and with favorable results if the tendon injury is not underestimated and adequately treated. Despite recent research findings, a lack of evidence-based knowledge is still observed in surgical treatment and postoperative management of ETI. Further clinical and biomechanical investigations would be advisable to clarify this complex issue. PMID:27616821
Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas
Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265
Treatment of chronic extensor tendons lesions of the fingers.
Chronic finger extensor apparatus injuries are the result of the initial acute treatment having failed or being flawed. Because of their chronic nature, these injuries present various amounts of tendon retraction, tendon callus lengthening, peritendinous scar adhesions, static and dynamic imbalances with the flexor apparatus and intrinsic muscles, and joint contractures. This article will review the anatomy of the extensor mechanism and then will outline by location, the various clinical pictures that are secondary to chronic tendon injury. The clinical presentation of these injuries can be highly variable but their symptomatology and treatment are very specific. Of the possible therapeutic strategies for chronic mallet finger with or without associated swan-neck deformity, chronic boutonniere deformity, chronic sagittal band injuries, old ruptures on the dorsum of the wrist and traumatic defects in multiple tissues, conservative treatment is often the main element. Secondary surgical repair is not free of complications, and the results are often lacking. Rehabilitation and orthotic bracing are an integral part of the management of these injuries, no matter which treatment method is being considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Small flake, big problem: an unreported cause of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture.
Durrant, C A T; Bantick, G
Fracture of the base of the third metacarpal with associated avulsion of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon is a rare injury. We report such a fracture and the unusual resulting complication of division of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by the avulsed bony fragment. Careful monitoring using lateral radiographs is needed to make the diagnosis and displacement of the avulsed fragment warrants open reduction and internal fixation.
Conservative management of partial extensor tendon lacerations greater than half the width of the tendon in manual workers.
Al-Qattan, Mohammad M
Conservative management (without suturing or splints) of partial extensor tendon lacerations greater than half the width of the tendon has not been previously investigated. In this prospective study, a total of 45 injured tendons (with lacerations involving 55%-90% of the width of the tendon) in 39 patients were treated conservatively. Injury zones I, III, and V of the fingers; and zones I and III of the thumb were excluded. Immediate non-resistive active mobilization was initiated and continued for 4 weeks, followed by resistive exercises. Patients were allowed to go back to work after 6 weeks. There were no cases of ruptures, triggering, infection, or complex regional pain syndrome. At final follow-up (8-9 months after injury), all patients obtained full range of motion with no extension lags. All patients were able to go back to normal duties. We conclude that early active motion without the use of splints or sutures in major extensor tendon lacerations in zones II, IV, VI-VIII of the fingers; and zones II, IV, and V of the thumb is safe.
[Reconstruction of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by transposition of the extensor indicis tendon].
Loos, A; Kalb, K; Van Schoonhoven, J; Landsleitner Dagger, B
Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus-tendon (EPL) is a frequent complication after distal radius fractures. Other traumatic and non-traumatic reasons for this tendon lesion are known, including a theory about a disorder in the blood supply to the tendon itself. We examined 40 patients after reconstruction of the EPL-tendon in a mean follow-up time of 30 months. All patients were clinically examined and a DASH questionnaire was answered by all patients. The method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon was the transposition of the extensor indicis-tendon. After the operations the thumb was put in a splint for four weeks in a "hitch-hiker's-position". 31 ruptures of the tendon (77.5 %) were a result of trauma. In 20 of them (50 %) a distal radius fracture had occurred. Clinical examination included measurements of the movement of the thumb- and index-finger joints, the grip strength and the maximal span of the hand. Significant differences were not found. The isolated extension of the index finger was possible in all patients. But it was reduced in ten cases which represent 25 %. Our results were evaluated by the Geldmacher score to evaluate the reconstruction of the EPL-tendon. 20 % excellent, 65 % good, 12.5 % fair and 2.5 % poor results were reached. The Geldmacher score was used critically. We suggest its modification for the evaluation of thumb abduction. The DASH score reached a functional value of ten points which represents a very good result. In conclusion the extensor indicis-transposition is a safe method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon. Its substantial advantage is taking a healthy muscle as the motor, thereby avoiding the risk of using a degenerated muscle in late tendon reconstruction. A powerful extension of the index finger will be maintained by physical education. Generally, the loss of the extension of the index finger is negligible. It does not disturb the patients. But it has to be discussed with the patient before the operation.
A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture.
Cetinkaya, Engin; Aydin, Canan Gonen; Akman, Yunus Emre; Gul, Murat; Arikan, Yavuz; Aycan, Osman Emre; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz Selim
Quadriceps tendon injuries are rare. There is a limited number of studies in the literature, reporting partial quadriceps tendon ruptures. We did not find any study reporting an isolated vastus intermedius tendon injury in the literature. A 22 years old professional rugby player with the complaints of pain in the right lower limb, decreased range of motion in right knee and a mass in the mid-anterior of the right thigh applied following an overloading on his hyperflexed knee during a rugby match. T2 sequence magnetic resonance images revealed discontinuity in the vastus intermedius tendon and intramuscular hematoma. The patient has been conservatively treated. Quadriceps tendon ruptures generally occur after the 4th decade in the presence of degenerative changes. Our case is a young professional rugby player. Isolated vastus intermedius tendon rupture is unusual. Conservative treatment is performed as the intermedius tendon is in the deepest layer of the quadriceps muscle. We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture
Cetinkaya, Engin; Aydin, Canan Gonen; Akman, Yunus Emre; Gul, Murat; Arikan, Yavuz; Aycan, Osman Emre; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz Selim
Introduction Quadriceps tendon injuries are rare. There is a limited number of studies in the literature, reporting partial quadriceps tendon ruptures. We did not find any study reporting an isolated vastus intermedius tendon injury in the literature. Presentation of case A 22 years old professional rugby player with the complaints of pain in the right lower limb, decreased range of motion in right knee and a mass in the mid-anterior of the right thigh applied following an overloading on his hyperflexed knee during a rugby match. T2 sequence magnetic resonance images revealed discontinuity in the vastus intermedius tendon and intramuscular hematoma. The patient has been conservatively treated. Discussion Quadriceps tendon ruptures generally occur after the 4th decade in the presence of degenerative changes. Our case is a young professional rugby player. Isolated vastus intermedius tendon rupture is unusual. Conservative treatment is performed as the intermedius tendon is in the deepest layer of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy. PMID:26298093
Anatomic relationship of the proximal nail matrix to the extensor hallucis longus tendon insertion.
Palomo López, P; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, R; López López, D; Prados Frutos, J C; Alfonso Murillo González, J; Losa Iglesias, M E
The purpose of this study was to delineate the relationship of the terminal extensor hallucis longus tendon insertion to the proximal limit of the nail matrix of the great toe. Fifty fresh-frozen human cadaver great toes with no evidence of trauma (average age, 62.5 years; 29 males and 21 females) were used for this study. Under 25X magnification, the proximal limit of the nail matrix and the terminal bony insertion of the extensor hallucis longus tendons were identified. The distance from the terminal tendon insertion to the nail matrix was ascertained using precision calipers, an optical microscope, and autocad(®) software for windows. Twenty-five great toes were placed in a neutral formalin solution and further analysed by histological longitudinal-sections. The specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically to determine the presence of the extensor hallucis longus tendon along the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx of each great toe. The main result we found in great toes was that the extensor tendon is between the matrix and the phalanx and extends dorsally to the distal aspect of the distal phalanx in all, 100%, specimens. The nail matrix of the great toe is not attached to the periosteum of the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanx as is the case for fingers, because the extensor hallucis tendon is plantar or directly underneath the nail matrix and the tendon is dorsal to the bone. We have found that the extensor tendon is between the matrix and the phalanx and extends dorsally to the distal aspect of the distal phalanx. The nail matrix of the great toe is not attached to the periosteum of the dorsal aspect of the base of distal phalanx as is the case in fingers, because the extensor hallucis tendon is plantar or directly underneath the nail matrix and the tendon is dorsal to the bone. Our anatomic study demonstrates that the proximal limit of the matrix and nail bed of the human great toe are dorsal and
The Incidence of Acute Traumatic Tendon Injuries in the Hand and Wrist: A 10-Year Population-based Study
de Jong, Johanna P.; Nguyen, Jesse T.; Sonnema, Anne J. M.; Nguyen, Emily C.; Amadio, Peter C.
Background Acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand and wrist are commonly encountered in the emergency department. Despite the frequency, few studies have examined the true incidence of acute traumatic tendon injuries in the hand and wrist or compared the incidences of both extensor and flexor tendon injuries. Methods We performed a retrospective population-based cohort study of all acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand and wrist in a mixed urban and rural Midwest county in the United States between 2001-2010. A regional epidemiologic database and medical codes were used to identify index cases. Epidemiologic information including occupation, year of injury, mechanism of injury and the injured tendon and zone were recorded. Results During the 10-year study period there was an incidence rate of 33.2 injuries per 100,000 person-years. There was a decreasing rate of injury during the study period. Highest incidence of injury occurred at 20-29 years of age. There was significant association between injury rate and age, and males had a higher incidence than females. The majority of cases involved a single tendon, with extensor tendon injuries occurring more frequently than flexor tendons. Typically, extensor tendon injuries involved zone three of the index finger, while flexor tendons involved zone two of the index finger. Work-related injuries accounted for 24.9% of acute traumatic tendon injuries. The occupations of work-related injuries were assigned to major groups defined by the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification structure. After assigning these patients' occupations to respective major groups, the most common groups work-related injuries occurred in construction and extraction occupations (44.2%), food preparation and serving related occupations (14.4%), and transportation and material moving occupations (12.5%). Conclusions Epidemiology data enhances our knowledge of injury patterns and may play a role in the prevention and treatment of future
Effects of Postmortem Freezing on Passive Properties of Rabbit Extensor Digtorum Longus Muscle Tendon Complex
AD-A266 429 INSTITUTE REPORT NO. 483 Effects of Postmortem Freezing on Passive Properties of Rabbit Extensor Digtorum Longus Muscle Tendon Complex D...Extensor Digtorum Longus Muscle Tendon Complex -- Paul H. Leitschuh, Tammy J. Doherty, Dean C. Taylor, Daniel E. Brooks, John B. Ryan This document has...ABSTRACT The tensile properties of the extensor digitorum longus muscle tendon unit (EDL MTU) were studied in 16 white male New Zealand rabbits in both
Conservative treatment of an acute traumatic extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation in a collegiate basketball player: a case report.
Patterson, Steve M; Picconatto, William J; Alexander, Julie A; Johnson, Rachel L
To present the case of an acute traumatic extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) subluxation in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II female basketball player. The ECU tendon is stabilized in the ulnar groove by a subsheath located inferior to the extensor retinaculum. The subsheath can be injured with forced supination, ulnar deviation, and wrist flexion, resulting in the ECU tendon subluxing in the palmar and ulnar directions during wrist circumduction. Several methods of intervention exist, but controversy remains on how to best treat this condition. Distal ulnar fracture, ulnar collateral ligament sprain, triangular fibrocartilage complex lesion, lunotriquetral instability, distal radioulnar joint injury, pisotriquetral joint injury, ECU tendinopathy or subluxation. The wrist was placed in a short-arm cast in slight extension and radial deviation for 4 weeks. At that time, the patient was still able to actively sublux the ECU tendon, so a long-arm cast was applied with the wrist in slight extension, radial deviation, and pronation for an additional 4 weeks. The ECU tendon was then found to be stable. She wore a rigid wrist brace for 3 more weeks while she pursued rehabilitation. At the final follow-up appointment, the ECU tendon remained stable, and the wrist was asymptomatic. Subluxations of the ECU are rare. If the patient does not improve with conservative measures, surgical intervention is warranted to repair the sixth dorsal compartment. A long-arm cast with the elbow flexed to 90° and the wrist in approximately 30° of extension, radial deviation, and pronation was appropriate treatment for this type of injury.
Quadriceps tendon injuries in national football league players.
Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D
Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There
Extensor indicis proprius tendon transfer using shear wave elastography.
Lamouille, J; Müller, C; Aubry, S; Bensamoun, S; Raffoul, W; Durand, S
The means for judging optimal tension during tendon transfers are approximate and not very quantifiable. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of quantitatively assessing muscular mechanical properties intraoperatively using ultrasound elastography (shear wave elastography [SWE]) during extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer. We report two cases of EIP transfer for post-traumatic rupture of the extensor pollicis longus muscle. Ultrasound acquisitions measured the elasticity modulus of the EIP muscle at different stages: rest, active extension, active extension against resistance, EIP section, distal passive traction of the tendon, after tendon transfer at rest and then during active extension. A preliminary analysis was conducted of the distribution of values for this modulus at the various transfer steps. Different shear wave velocity and elasticity modulus values were observed at the various transfer steps. The tension applied during the transfer seemed close to the resting tension if a traditional protocol were followed. The elasticity modulus varied by a factor of 37 between the active extension against resistance step (565.1 kPa) and after the tendon section (15.3 kPa). The elasticity modulus values were distributed in the same way for each patient. The therapeutic benefit of SWE elastography was studied for the first time in tendon transfers. Quantitative data on the elasticity modulus during this test may make it an effective means of improving intraoperative adjustments. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tendon rupture associated with excessive smartphone gaming.
Gilman, Luke; Cage, Dori N; Horn, Adam; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P
Excessive use of smartphones has been associated with injuries. A 29-year-old, right hand-dominant man presented with chronic left thumb pain and loss of active motion from playing a Match-3 puzzle video game on his smartphone all day for 6 to 8 weeks. On physical examination, the left extensor pollicis longus tendon was not palpable, and no tendon motion was noted with wrist tenodesis. The thumb metacarpophalangeal range of motion was 10° to 80°, and thumb interphalangeal range of motion was 30° to 70°. The clinical diagnosis was rupture of the left extensor pollicis longus tendon. The patient subsequently underwent an extensor indicis proprius (1 of 2 tendons that extend the index finger) to extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer. During surgery, rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon was seen between the metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints. The potential for video games to reduce pain perception raises clinical and social considerations about excessive use, abuse, and addiction. Future research should consider whether pain reduction is a reason some individuals play video games excessively, manifest addiction, or sustain injuries associated with video gaming.
A Reconstructive Stabilization Technique for Nontraumatic or Chronic Traumatic Extensor Tendon Subluxation.
Lee, Jae Hoon; Baek, Jong Hun; Lee, Jung Seok
Subluxation of the extensor tendon results from a disruption to the sagittal band at the metacarpophalangeal joint. When conservative treatment fails to correct the subluxation, surgical treatment may be necessary. Surgical techniques for chronic cases vary in graft source and graft pathway. We present a surgical technique to recentralize and stabilize the extensor tendon using a residual ruptured sagittal band. This technique is simple and effective without donor site morbidity and seems to provide potential biomechanical advantages by restoring nearly normal anatomy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Endoscopic-assisted Repair of Neglected Rupture or Rerupture After Primary Repair of Extensor Hallucis Longus Tendon.
Lui, Tun Hing; Chang, Joseph Jeremy; Maffulli, Nicola
Rerupture of the extensor hallucis longus tendon after primary repair and neglected rupture of the tendon poses surgical challenges to orthopedic surgeons. Open exploration and repair of the tendon ends usually requires large incision and extensive dissection. This may induce scarring and adhesion around the repaired tendon. Endoscopic-assisted repair has the advantage of minimally invasive surgery including less soft tissue trauma and scar formation and better cosmetic result. The use of Krackow locking suture and preservation of the extensor retinacula allow early mobilization of the great toe.
Extensor Mechanism Disruption after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Series and Review of Literature.
Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul
Extensor mechanism disruption following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but devastating complication. These patients may require revision of the implants, but even then, it may not be possible to restore the normal function of the knee after the disruption. The patterns of extensor mechanism disruption can broadly be classified into three types: suprapatellar (quadriceps tendon rupture), transpatellar (patellar fracture), or infrapatellar (patellar tendon rupture). Infrapatellar tendon ruptures are the worst injuries, as they carry maximum morbidity and are challenging to manage. The disruption of the extensor mechanism may occur either intra-operatively or in the immediate postoperative period due to an injury. The treatment of extensor mechanism complications after TKA may include either nonsurgical management or surgical intervention in the form of primary repair or reconstruction with autogenous, allogeneic, or synthetic substitutes. We have provided an algorithm for the management of extensor mechanism disruption after TKA.
Acute flexor tendon injury following midshaft radius and ulna fractures in a paediatric patient.
Williams, James; Wharton, Rupert; Peev, Peter; Horwitz, Maxim
Delayed rupture of the extensor and flexor tendons are recognised complications of distal radius fractures. However, acute flexor tendon rupture in the context of forearm fractures is rare. A twelve-year-old female sustained midshaft fractures of the radius and ulna. Intra-operatively the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) was found to be stripped from its musculotendinous junction at the level of the fracture fragment. The ruptured tendon was repaired using a modified Krackow technique at the time of fracture fixation. The repair was protected in plaster of Paris prior to referral to the paediatric hand clinic. The patient made a full recovery. Flexor tendon injury is a rare but potentially devastating consequence of acute forearm fractures. High energy trauma, significant volar angulation of the fracture fragment and clinical signs of flexor tendon injury should raise suspicion of this injury. A high index of suspicion in conjunction with repeat clinical examination of flexor tendon function should be performed before opting for closed management or intramedullary nailing in paediatric patients.
Effect of tendon tensioning: an in vitro study in porcine extensor tendons.
Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael; Vaisman, Alex; Meleán, Patricio; Figueroa, Francisco
Graft tensioning is a controversial issue in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) that has not achieved consensus between peers. The purpose of this study is to determine if after tensioning tendon length and resistance to maximal load changes. We performed an in vitro study with 50 porcine extensors tendons. The first group (P=25) was tensioned with 80 N (19.97 lb) for 10 min, using an ACL graft preparation board. The second group (C=25) was used as control and was not tensioned. The average initial (groups P and C) and post tensioning tendon length (group C) were measured; the average initial and post tensioning tendon diameter were measured as well. All samples were fixated in a tube-clamp system connected to a tension sensor. The samples were stressed with continuous and progressive tension until ultimate failure at maximum load (UFML) occurs. The initial mean length was: P before tensioning=13.4 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 10.5-16.5); P after tensioning=13.8 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 11.5-16.5); C=13 mm+/-1.35 mm (p=0.005). The mean diameter was: P=5.6 mm (4.5-6); C=5.5 mm (range 4.5-6) (p>0.05). The UFML was: P=189.7 N (114-336); C=229.9 N (143-365) (p=0.029). Tendon tensioning with 80 N for 10 min produced 3% average elongation. These could be beneficial in ACLR since tendon tensioning decreases elongation of the graft after fixation. Regardless, tendon tensioning is not innocuous since it diminishes their resistance when continuously stressed until complete failure occurs.
Long digital extensor tendon mineralization and cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog.
Kennedy, Katie C; Perry, James A; Duncan, Colleen G; Duerr, Felix M
To report clinical and histopathologic features of long digital extensor (LDE) tendon mineralization with concurrent cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture in a dog. Case report. 1.5-year-old, male castrated, English bulldog mix weighing 31.5 kg. Pre- and postoperative orthogonal radiographs, arthroscopic evaluation, arthrotomy with en bloc surgical excision, and histopathologic analysis of the excised LDE tendon. There was radiographic evidence of mineralization in the region of the proximal LDE and stifle instability suggestive of CCL rupture. Arthroscopy, and subsequent arthrotomy, showed complete tearing of the CCL and an intact but grossly thickened LDE. No evidence of avulsion or bony proliferation associated with the LDE was appreciated. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tenectomy of the LDE returned the dog to normal weight-bearing. No evidence of ectopic mineralization in the affected limb or similar clinical signs in the contralateral limb have been observed in 12 months follow-up. LDE tenectomy followed by stabilization of the stifle by TPLO resulted in a functional outcome. Mineralization without concurrent avulsion of the LDE has not been reported in dogs; however, posterolateral tendon injury in people has been linked to knee instability and cruciate ligament rupture. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
MR imaging of patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: is the common extensor tendon an isolated lesion?
Qi, Liang; Zhu, Zheng-Feng; Li, Feng; Wang, Ren-Fa
To investigate whether an injury of the common extensor tendon (CET) is associated with other abnormalities in the elbow joint and find the potential relationships between these imaging features by using a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-three patients were examined with 3.0 T MR. Two reviewers were recruited for MR images evaluation. Image features were recorded in terms of (1) the injury degree of CET; (2) associated injuries in the elbow joint. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the injury degree of CET and associated abnormalities of the elbow joint, correlations were considered significant at p<0.05. Total 24 elbows in 23 patients were included. Various degrees of injuries were found in total 24 CETs (10 mild, 7 moderate and 7 severe). Associated abnormalities were detected in accompaniments of the elbow joints including ligaments, tendons, saccussynovialis and muscles. A significantly positive correlation (r = 0.877,p<0.01) was found in injuries of CET and lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL). Injury of the CET is not an isolated lesion for lateral picondylitis, which is mostly accompanied with other abnormalities, of which the LUCL injury is the most commonly seen in lateral epicondylitis, and there is a positive correlation between the injury degree in CET and LUCL.
Chronic triceps insufficiency managed with extensor carpi radialis longus and palmaris longus tendon grafts.
Singh, Dhanpal; Kumar, K Arun; Dinesh, Mc; Raj, Ranju
Chronic triceps insufficiency, causing prolonged disability, occurs due to a missed diagnosis of an acute rupture. We report a 25 year old male with history of a significant fall sustaining multiple injuries. Since then, he had inability in extending his right elbow for which he sought intervention after a year. Diagnosis of triceps rupture was made clinicoradiologically and surgery was planned. Intraoperative findings revealed a deficient triceps with a fleck of avulsed bone from olecranon. Ipsilateral double tendon graft including extensor carpi radialis longus and palmaris longus were anchored to triceps and secured with the olecranon. Six-months follow revealed a complete active extension of elbow and a full function at the donor site.
Reconstruction of long digital extensor tendon by cranial tibial muscle fascia graft in a dog.
Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi
Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures.
Reconstruction of long digital extensor tendon by cranial tibial muscle fascia graft in a dog
Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi
Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures. PMID:27872726
Investigating tendon mineralisation in the avian hindlimb: a model for tendon ageing, injury and disease
Agabalyan, Natacha A; Evans, Darrell J R; Stanley, Rachael L
Mineralisation of the tendon tissue has been described in various models of injury, ageing and disease. Often resulting in painful and debilitating conditions, the processes underlying this mechanism are poorly understood. To elucidate the progression from healthy tendon to mineralised tendon, an appropriate model is required. In this study, we describe the spontaneous and non-pathological ossification and calcification of tendons of the hindlimb of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The appearance of the ossified avian tendon has been described previously, although there have been no studies investigating the developmental processes and underlying mechanisms leading to the ossified avian tendon. The tissue and cells from three tendons – the ossifying extensor and flexor digitorum longus tendons and the non-ossifying Achilles tendon – were analysed for markers of ageing and mineralisation using histology, immunohistochemistry, cytochemistry and molecular analysis. Histologically, the adult tissue showed a loss of healthy tendon crimp morphology as well as markers of calcium deposits and mineralisation. The tissue showed a lowered expression of collagens inherent to the tendon extracellular matrix and presented proteins expressed by bone. The cells from the ossified tendons showed a chondrogenic and osteogenic phenotype as well as tenogenic phenotype and expressed the same markers of ossification and calcification as the tissue. A molecular analysis of the gene expression of the cells confirmed these results. Tendon ossification within the ossified avian tendon seems to be the result of an endochondral process driven by its cells, although the roles of the different cell populations have yet to be elucidated. Understanding the role of the tenocyte within this tissue and the process behind tendon ossification may help us prevent or treat ossification that occurs in injured, ageing or diseased tendon. PMID:23826786
Two case reports-Use of relative motion orthoses to manage extensor tendon zones III and IV and sagittal band injuries in adjacent fingers.
Hirth, Melissa J; Howell, Julianne W; O'Brien, Lisa
Case report. Injuries to adjacent fingers with differing extensor tendon (ET) zones and/or sagittal band pose a challenge to therapists as no treatment guidelines exist. This report highlights how the relative motion flexion/extension (RMF/RME) concepts were combined into one orthosis to manage a zone IV ET repair (RME) and a zone III central slip repair (RMF) in adjacent fingers (Case 1); and how a single RME orthosis was adapted to limit proximal interphalangeal joint motion to manage multi-level ET zone III-IV injuries and a sagittal band repair in adjacent fingers (case 2). Adapted relative motion orthoses allowed early active motion and graded exercises based on clinical reasoning and evidence. Outcomes were standard TAM% and Miller's criteria. 'Excellent' and 'good' outcomes were achieved by twelve weeks post surgery. Both cases returned to unrestricted work at 6 and 7 weeks. Neither reported functional deficits at discharge. Outcomes in 2 cases involving multiple digit injuries exceeded those previously reported for ET zone III-IV repairs. Relative motion orthoses can be adapted and applied to multi-finger injuries, eliminating the need for multiple, bulky or functionally-limiting orthoses. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Fan; Nerlich, Michael; Docheva, Denitsa
Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring joint movement. With advanced age, tendons become more prone to degeneration followed by injuries. Tendon repair often requires lengthy periods of rehabilitation, especially in elderly patients. Existing medical and surgical treatments often fail to regain full tendon function. The development of novel treatment methods has been hampered due to limited understanding of basic tendon biology. Recently, it was discovered that tendons, similar to other mesenchymal tissues, contain tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) which possess the common stem cell properties. The current strategies for enhancing tendon repair consist mainly of applying stem cells, growth factors, natural and artificial biomaterials alone or in combination. In this review, we summarise the basic biology of tendon tissues and provide an update on the latest repair proposals for tendon tears. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:332-342. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160075 PMID:28828182
Optimal early active mobilisation protocol after extensor tendon repairs in zones V and VI: A systematic review of literature.
Collocott, Shirley Jf; Kelly, Edel; Ellis, Richard F
Early mobilisation protocols after repair of extensor tendons in zone V and VI provide better outcomes than immobilisation protocols. This systematic review investigated different early active mobilisation protocols used after extensor tendon repair in zone V and VI. The purpose was to determine whether any one early active mobilisation protocol provides superior results. An extensive literature search was conducted to identify articles investigating the outcomes of early active mobilisation protocols after extensor tendon repair in zone V and VI. Databases searched were AMED, Embase, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL. Studies were included if they involved participants with extensor tendon repairs in zone V and VI in digits 2-5 and described a post-operative rehabilitation protocol which allowed early active metacarpophalangeal joint extension. Study designs included were randomised controlled trials, observational studies, cohort studies and case series. The Structured Effectiveness Quality Evaluation Scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. Two types of early active mobilisation protocols were identified: controlled active motion protocols and relative motion extension splinting protocols. Articles describing relative motion extension splinting protocols were more recent but of lower methodological quality than those describing controlled active motion protocols. Participants treated with controlled active motion and relative motion extension splinting protocols had similar range of motion outcomes, but those in relative motion extension splinting groups returned to work earlier. The evidence reviewed suggested that relative motion extension splinting protocols may allow an earlier return to function than controlled active motion protocols without a greater risk of complication.
Long-term outcomes following plate stabilization to address spontaneous luxation of the long digital extensor tendon of origin in 2 dogs.
Hasiuk, Michelle M M; Drygas, Kevin A; Lewis, Daniel D
Two dogs with spontaneous luxation of the long digital extensor tendon of origin were managed by performing a sulcoplasty and applying a plate bridging the extensor sulcus. Lameness resolved and neither dog had recurrence of lameness 59 and 15 months following surgery.
Mechanisms of tendon injury and repair
Thomopoulos, Stavros; Parks, William C.; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Derwin, Kathleen A.
Tendon disorders are common and lead to significant disability, pain, healthcare cost, and lost productivity. A wide range of injury mechanisms exist leading to tendinopathy or tendon rupture. Tears can occur in healthy tendons that are acutely overloaded (e.g., during a high speed or high impact event) or lacerated (e.g., a knife injury). Tendinitis or tendinosis can occur in tendons exposed to overuse conditions (e.g., an elite swimmer’s training regimen) or intrinsic tissue degeneration (e.g., age-related degeneration). The healing potential of a torn or pathologic tendon varies depending on anatomic location (e.g., Achilles vs. rotator cuff) and local environment (e.g., intrasynovial vs. extrasynovial). Although healing occurs to varying degrees, in general healing of repaired tendons follows the typical wound healing course, including an early inflammatory phase, followed by proliferative and remodeling phases. Numerous treatment approaches have been attempted to improve tendon healing, including growth factor- and cell-based therapies and rehabilitation protocols. This review will describe the current state of knowledge of injury and repair of the three most common tendinopathies-- flexor tendon lacerations, Achilles tendon rupture, and rotator cuff disorders-- with a particular focus on the use of animal models for understanding tendon healing. PMID:25641114
Hand Surgeon Reporting of Tendon Rupture Following Distal Radius Volar Plating
Monaco, Nathan A.; Dwyer, C. Liam; Ferikes, Alex J.; Lubahn, John D.
Background: Volar plate fixation with locked screws has become the preferred treatment of displaced distal radius fractures that cannot be managed nonoperatively. This treatment, however, is not without complication. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of hand surgeons, over a 12-month period, have experienced a tendon complication when using volar plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Methods: A total of 3022 hand surgeons were e-mailed a link to an online questionnaire regarding their observation and treatment of tendon injuries associated with volar plating of distal radius fractures. Responses were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 596 (20%) respondents, 199 (33%) surgeons reported encountering at least one flexor tendon injury after distal radius volar plating over the past year of practice. The flexor pollicis longus was the most commonly reported tendon injury (254, 75%). Palmaris longus grafting (118, 37%) and tendon transfer (114, 36%) were the most often reported treatments following this complication. A total of 216 respondents (36%) also encountered 324 cases of extensor tendon rupture after volar plating of distal radius fractures, with tendon transfer (88%) being the preferred treatment option. Conclusions: Both flexor and extensor tendon ruptures can be seen after volar plating of distal radius fractures. Surgeons should be aware of these complications. Critical assessment of hardware position at the time of index procedure is recommended to avoid complications. Long-term studies are needed to standardize approaches to managing tendon rupture following volar plating of distal radius fractures. PMID:27698628
Hand Surgeon Reporting of Tendon Rupture Following Distal Radius Volar Plating.
Monaco, Nathan A; Dwyer, C Liam; Ferikes, Alex J; Lubahn, John D
Background: Volar plate fixation with locked screws has become the preferred treatment of displaced distal radius fractures that cannot be managed nonoperatively. This treatment, however, is not without complication. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of hand surgeons, over a 12-month period, have experienced a tendon complication when using volar plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Methods: A total of 3022 hand surgeons were e-mailed a link to an online questionnaire regarding their observation and treatment of tendon injuries associated with volar plating of distal radius fractures. Responses were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 596 (20%) respondents, 199 (33%) surgeons reported encountering at least one flexor tendon injury after distal radius volar plating over the past year of practice. The flexor pollicis longus was the most commonly reported tendon injury (254, 75%). Palmaris longus grafting (118, 37%) and tendon transfer (114, 36%) were the most often reported treatments following this complication. A total of 216 respondents (36%) also encountered 324 cases of extensor tendon rupture after volar plating of distal radius fractures, with tendon transfer (88%) being the preferred treatment option. Conclusions: Both flexor and extensor tendon ruptures can be seen after volar plating of distal radius fractures. Surgeons should be aware of these complications. Critical assessment of hardware position at the time of index procedure is recommended to avoid complications. Long-term studies are needed to standardize approaches to managing tendon rupture following volar plating of distal radius fractures.
Achilles tendon injury risk factors associated with running.
Lorimer, Anna V; Hume, Patria A
Research into the nature of overuse Achilles tendon injuries is extensive, yet uncertainty remains around how to identify athletes susceptible to Achilles tendon injury. To identify the strength of evidence for biomechanical risk factors associated with Achilles tendon injuries. SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Web of Science and PubMed were searched for Achilles tendon injury risk factors and biomechanical measures which are altered in runners with Achilles tendon injuries, excluding ruptures. Fifteen articles were included in the analysis. Two variables, high vertical forces and high arch, showed strong evidence for reduced injury risk. High propulsive forces and running on stiffer surfaces may also be protective. Only one biomechanical variable, high braking force, showed clear evidence for increasing Achilles injury risk. Gait retraining to direct the centre of mass further forward to reduce high braking force could be useful in decreasing the risk of Achilles injury. The majority of biomechanical risk factors examined showed unclear results, which is likely due to the multifactorial nature of Achilles overuse injuries. Many risk factors are related to how the athlete's body interacts with the environment during gait, including ground reaction forces, muscle activity both prior to landing and immediately post ground contact, and joint motion throughout stance. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of Achilles tendon injuries in running athletes but most effects remain unclear. Advice for athletes recovering from Achilles tendon injuries could include avoiding soft surfaces and reducing the pace of recovery runs. Orthotic intervention could assist athletes with low arches but modification of pronation should be viewed with caution. Strength training and gait retraining could be beneficial for reducing injury risk.
Tendon and ligament injuries: the genetic component
September, Alison V; Schwellnus, Martin P; Collins, Malcolm
Tendons and ligaments within the upper and lower limbs are some of the more common sites of musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity. Several extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been shown to be associated with these injuries. More recently, studies have suggested that there is also, at least in part, a genetic component to the Achilles tendon, rotator cuff and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, specific genes have not been suggested to be associated with rotator cuff or anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Sequence variants of the tenascin C (TNC) gene, on the other hand, have been shown to be associated with Achilles tendinopathies and Achilles tendon ruptures, whereas a variant of the collagen V α 1 (COL5A1) gene has also been shown to be associated with Achilles tendinopathies. Both genes encode for important structural components of tendons and ligaments. The COL5A1 gene encodes for a component of type V collagen, which has an important role in regulating collagen fibre assembly and fibre diameters. The TNC gene, on the other hand, encodes for TNC, which regulates the tissue's response to mechanical load. To date, only variants in two genes have been shown to be associated with Achilles tendon injuries. In addition, although specific genes have not been identified, investigators have suggested that there is also a genetic component to both rotator cuff and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. In future, specific genotypes associated with increased risk of injury to specific tendons and ligaments can prevent these injuries by identifying individuals at higher risk. PMID:17261551
Multiple Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath Involving Both Flexor and Extensor Tendons in a Single Digit: A Case Report and Review of the Literatures.
Min, Hak Jin; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jae Woo; Yeom, Jae Woo
Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a common neoplasm of the hand. This tumor is usually solitary. Multi focal origin of the tumor is considered unusual and very few cases of multiple GCTTS have been reported. We report a 48-year-old female patient who presented with three separate painless nodules in same index finger since three years. The two masses located on dorsal aspect, and the other one located on volar aspect. The imaging studies revealed three separated masses without any connection. We performed excisional biopsy and found multiple tumors, attached to flexor and extensor tendon. The final histopathologic diagnosis was GCTTS.
Central Tendon Injuries of Hamstring Muscles: Case Series of Operative Treatment.
Lempainen, Lasse; Kosola, Jussi; Pruna, Ricard; Puigdellivol, Jordi; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari
As compared with injuries involving muscle only, those involving the central hamstring tendon have a worse prognosis. Limited information is available regarding the surgical treatment of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings. To describe the operative treatment and outcomes of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings among athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eight athletes (6 top level, 2 recreational) with central hamstring tendon injuries underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. The indication for surgery was recurrent (n = 6) or acute (n = 2) central hamstring tendon injury. All patients followed the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and return to play was monitored. Magnetic resonance imaging found a central tendon injury in all 3 hamstring muscles (long head of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus) with disrupted tendon ends. In acute and recurrent central tendon injuries, full return to play was achieved at 2.5 to 4 months. There were no adverse events during follow-up. Central tendon injuries of the hamstrings can be successfully repaired surgically after acute and recurrent ruptures.
Central Tendon Injuries of Hamstring Muscles: Case Series of Operative Treatment
Lempainen, Lasse; Kosola, Jussi; Pruna, Ricard; Puigdellivol, Jordi; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari
Background: As compared with injuries involving muscle only, those involving the central hamstring tendon have a worse prognosis. Limited information is available regarding the surgical treatment of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings. Purpose: To describe the operative treatment and outcomes of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings among athletes. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eight athletes (6 top level, 2 recreational) with central hamstring tendon injuries underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. The indication for surgery was recurrent (n = 6) or acute (n = 2) central hamstring tendon injury. All patients followed the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and return to play was monitored. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging found a central tendon injury in all 3 hamstring muscles (long head of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus) with disrupted tendon ends. In acute and recurrent central tendon injuries, full return to play was achieved at 2.5 to 4 months. There were no adverse events during follow-up. Conclusion: Central tendon injuries of the hamstrings can be successfully repaired surgically after acute and recurrent ruptures. PMID:29479545
Treatment of mallet finger deformity with a modified palmaris longus tendon graft through a bone tunnel.
Liu, Zengbing; Ma, Kai; Huang, Dong
To investigate the clinical effect of treating mallet finger deformity using a modified palmaris longus tendon graft through a bone tunnel. Altogether, 21 patients with mallet finger deformity (16 men, 5 women; average age 31 years, range 19-47 years) were treated with a modified palmaris longus tendon graft through a bone tunnel during 18 months (2014-2016). Four index fingers, seven middle fingers, eight ring fingers, and two little fingers were treated for four cutting injuries, eleven finger sprains, four crush injuries, and two twist injuries (7 open and 14 closed injuries). Duration from injury to surgery was 9 h to 13 weeks. Three patients underwent surgery after 6 weeks of unsuccessful conservative treatment. No tendon was attached to the extensor tendon insertion in 16 patients, and 5 had residual tendon of <0.2 cm attached. All patients had distal segment flexion deformity and dorsiflexion disorder. Surgery comprised transverse penetration and vertical drilling of the base of the distal phalanx (2.0 and 2.5 mm diameter drills). Equal shallow semitendinosus pieces of the palmaris longus tendon (4 cm) were obtained from the sagittal end and were passed through a dorsal bone hole, emerging from a transverse bone hole. The two bundles were sutured to the main tendon. Tension was adjusted, and the broken ends were sutured. The distal interphalangeal joints were fixed in hyperextension. All patients were followed for 7-16 months (average 6.0 ± 0.3 months) postoperatively. All 21 patients had grade A wound healing, with no complications (e.g., necrotic wound, recurrence, joint stiffness). The mallet finger deformity was corrected with good appearance, no obvious abnormalities, and satisfactory flexion and extension. Two patients had a superficial wound infection. Each recovered after symptomatic treatment. One patient had a mild result, with limited extension. There were no recurrences. Results were evaluated according to Patel et al.'s system, which revealed
[Ultrasound diagnostics of muscle and tendon injuries].
Stević, Ruza; Masulović, Dragan
Sonography is a useful technique for the investigation of a number of musculoskeletal disorders. The most common indication for ultrasonography of muscles and tendons is the diagnosis of traumatic lesions, distinguishing them from other disorders and follow- up of healing process. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of ultrasound in the diagnosis of muscle and tendon injuries. The study included 170 patients (148 male and 22 female), mean age 29.6 years (range 14-60 years). All examinations were performed by linear transducer of 7.5-10 MHz, with longitudinal and transverse scanning. Ultrasound examination followed physical examination. Traumatic lesions of muscles were diagnosed in 113 patients (66.7%) and tendon injuries in 57 cases (33.2%). The muscle changes detected by ultrasonography were the following: 70 (61.9%) partial and two (1.76%) complete ruptures, 22 (19.46%) haematoma, 9 (7.96%) strains grade I, 4 fibroses and 4 ossifying myositis 4 (3.5%, respectively). Complications of muscle injuries were diagnosed in two cases, a muscular hernia and an arteriovenous fistula. Among tendon injuries, 21 (33.8%) ruptures and 36 (66.1%) tendinitis were diagnosed. Accompanying effusion in the bursa of patients with tendon injuries was found in 9 cases. Ultrasonography allowed visualization and objective assessment of the type and the extent of traumatic pathomorphological changes of muscles and tendons. Such diagnostic possibilities of ultrasonography are especially important in the choice of appropriate therapy.
Extensor Pollicis Longus Injury in Addition to De Quervain’s with Text Messaging on Mobile Phones
Kumar, Bhaskaranand; Bhat, Anil K; Venugopal, Anand
Objective: To do a clinical and ultrasonic evaluation of subjects with thumb pain with text messaging. Background: Thumbs are commonly used for text messaging, which are not as well designed for fine manipulative or dexterous work. Repetitive use as in text messaging can lead to the injury to the tendons of the thumb. Materials and Methods: Ninety eight students with symptoms of Repetitive Strain Type of injuries of the thumb were selected from a survey and evaluated both clinically and by ultrasound analysis of the musculotendinous unit of the thumb to note changes due to excessive use of the mobile phone. Age and sex matched controls were also subjected to ultrasound evaluation. Results: Clinical examination showed positive Finkelstein test in 40% of the cases, significant reduction in the lateral and tip pinch strengths in the cases. Ultrasound detected changes in the first and the third compartments in 19% of the cases. Conclusion: Isolated cases of pain in the thumb have been reported but this study noted changes both clinically and by ultrasound in the tendons of the thumb. These changes should be taken as warning signs of possible subclinical changes taking place in the soft tissues of the thumb in these subjects due to repetitive use of mobile phones and thus, making them prone for developing painful Musculoskeletal Disorders. Application: Repetitive use of mobile phones for text messaging can lead to the damage of Extensor pollicis longus of the thumb in addition to the tendons of the first compartment of the wrist. PMID:25584249
Tendon Mineralization Is Progressive and Associated with Deterioration of Tendon Biomechanical Properties, and Requires BMP-Smad Signaling in the Mouse Achilles Tendon Injury Model
Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Hast, Michael W.; Liu, Min; Usami, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi
Ectopic tendon mineralization can develop following tendon rupture or trauma surgery. The pathogenesis of ectopic tendon mineralization and its clinical impact have not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we utilized a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to determine whether ectopic tendon mineralization alters the biomechanical properties of the tendon and whether BMP signaling is involved in this condition. A complete transverse incision was made at the midpoint of the right Achilles tendon in 8-week-old CD1 mice and the gap was left open. Ectopic cartilaginous mass formation was found in the injured tendon by 4 weeks post-surgery and ectopic mineralization was detected at 8–10 weeks post-surgery. Ectopic mineralization grew over time and volume of the mineralized materials of 25-weeks samples was about 2.5 fold bigger than that of 10-weeks samples, indicating that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive. In vitro mechanical testing showed that max force, max stress and mid-substance modulus in the 25-weeks samples were significantly lower than the 10-weeks samples. We observed substantial increases in expression of bone morphogenetic protein family genes in injured tendons 1 week post-surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that phosphorylation of both Smad1 and Smad3 were highly increased in injured tendons as early as 1 week post-injury and remained high in ectopic chondrogenic lesions 4 weeks post-injury. Treatment with the BMP receptor kinase inhibitor (LDN193189) significantly inhibited injury-induced tendon mineralization. These findings indicate that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive, involves BMP signaling and associated with deterioration of tendon biomechanical properties. PMID:26825318
Current Concepts in Examination and Treatment of Elbow Tendon Injury
Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Nirschl, Robert; Renstrom, Per
Context: Injuries to the tendons of the elbow occur frequently in the overhead athlete, creating a significant loss of function and dilemma to sports medicine professionals. A detailed review of the anatomy, etiology, and pathophysiology of tendon injury coupled with comprehensive evaluation and treatment information is needed for clinicians to optimally design treatment programs for rehabilitation and prevention. Evidence Acquisitions: The PubMed database was searched in January 2012 for English-language articles pertaining to elbow tendon injury. Results: Detailed information on tendon pathophysiology was found along with incidence of elbow injury in overhead athletes. Several evidence-based reviews were identified, providing a thorough review of the recommended rehabilitation for elbow tendon injury. Conclusions: Humeral epicondylitis is an extra-articular tendon injury that is common in athletes subjected to repetitive upper extremity loading. Research is limited on the identification of treatment modalities that can reduce pain and restore function to the elbow. Eccentric exercise has been studied in several investigations and, when coupled with a complete upper extremity strengthening program, can produce positive results in patients with elbow tendon injury. Further research is needed in high-level study to delineate optimal treatment methods. PMID:24427389
Gap junction protein expression and cellularity: comparison of immature and adult equine digital tendons
Stanley, Rachael L; Fleck, Roland A; Becker, David L; Goodship, Allen E; Ralphs, Jim R; Patterson-Kane, Janet C
Injury to the energy-storing superficial digital flexor tendon is common in equine athletes and is age-related. Tenocytes in the superficial digital flexor tendon of adult horses appear to have limited ability to respond adaptively to exercise or prevent the accumulation of strain-induced microdamage. It has been suggested that conditioning exercise should be introduced during the growth period, when tenocytes may be more responsive to increased quantities or intensities of mechanical strain. Tenocytes are linked into networks by gap junctions that allow coordination of synthetic activity and facilitate strain-induced collagen synthesis. We hypothesised that there are reductions in cellular expression of the gap junction proteins connexin (Cx) 43 and 32 during maturation and ageing of the superficial digital flexor tendon that do not occur in the non-injury-prone common digital extensor tendon. Cryosections from the superficial digital flexor tendon and common digital extensor tendon of 5 fetuses, 5 foals (1–6 months), 5 young adults (2–7 years) and 5 old horses (18–33 years) were immunofluorescently labelled and quantitative confocal laser microscopy was performed. Expression of Cx43 and Cx32 protein per tenocyte was significantly higher in the fetal group compared with all other age groups in both tendons. The density of tenocytes was found to be highest in immature tissue. Higher levels of cellularity and connexin protein expression in immature tendons are likely to relate to requirements for tissue remodelling and growth. However, if further studies demonstrate that this correlates with greater gap junctional communication efficiency and synthetic responsiveness to mechanical strain in immature compared with adult tendons, it could support the concept of early introduction of controlled exercise as a means of increasing resistance to later injury. PMID:17848160
Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox.
Thwin, San San; Fazlin, Fazlin; Than, Myo
Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3-14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery.
Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox
Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo
INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976
High-resolution US and MR imaging of peroneal tendon injuries.
Taljanovic, Mihra S; Alcala, Jennifer N; Gimber, Lana H; Rieke, Joshua D; Chilvers, Margaret M; Latt, L Daniel
Injuries of the peroneal tendon complex are common and should be considered in every patient who presents with chronic lateral ankle pain. These injuries occur as a result of trauma (including ankle sprains), in tendons with preexisting tendonopathy, and with repetitive microtrauma due to instability. The peroneus brevis and peroneus longus tendons are rarely torn simultaneously. Several anatomic variants, including a flat or convex fibular retromalleolar groove, hypertrophy of the peroneal tubercle at the lateral aspect of the calcaneus, an accessory peroneus quartus muscle, a low-lying peroneus brevis muscle belly, and an os peroneum, may predispose to peroneal tendon injuries. High-resolution 1.5-T and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with use of dedicated extremity coils and high-resolution ultrasonography (US) with high-frequency linear transducers and dynamic imaging are proved to adequately depict the peroneal tendons for evaluation and can aid the orthopedic surgeon in injury management. An understanding of current treatment approaches for partial- and full-thickness peroneal tendon tears, subluxation and dislocation of these tendons with superior peroneal retinaculum (SPR) injuries, intrasheath subluxations, and peroneal tendonopathy and tenosynovitis can help physicians achieve a favorable outcome. Patients with low functional demands do well with conservative treatment, while those with high functional demands may benefit from surgery if nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. Radiologists should recognize the normal anatomy and specific pathologic conditions of the peroneal tendons at US and MR imaging and understand the various treatment options for peroneal tendon and SPR superior peroneal retinaculum injuries. Online supplemental material is available for this article. RSNA, 2015
An Overview of the Management of Flexor Tendon Injuries
Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W
Flexor tendon injuries still remain a challenging condition to manage to ensure optimal outcome for the patient. Since the first flexor tendon repair was described by Kirchmayr in 1917, several approaches to flexor tendon injury have enabled successful repairs rates of 70-90%. Primary surgical repair results in better functional outcome compared to secondary repair or tendon graft surgery. Flexor tendon injury repair has been extensively researched and the literature demonstrates successful repair requires minimal gapping at the repair site or interference with tendon vascularity, secure suture knots, smooth junction of tendon end and having sufficient strength for healing. However, the exact surgical approach to achieve success being currently used among surgeons is still controversial. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the results of studies demonstrating the current knowledge regarding the optimal approach for flexor tendon repair. Post-operative rehabilitation for flexor tendon surgery is another area, which has caused extensive debate in hand surgery. The trend to more active mobilisation protocols seems to be favoured but further study in this area is needed to find the protocol, which achieves function and gliding but avoids rupture of the tendons. Lastly despite success following surgery complications commonly still occur post surgery, including adhesion formation, tendon rupture and stiffness of the joints. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the appropriate management of these difficulties post surgery. New techniques in management of flexor tendon will also be discussed including external laser devices, addition of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:22431948
[Secondary tendon reconstruction on the thumb].
Bickert, B; Kremer, T; Kneser, U
Closed tendon ruptures of the thumb that require secondary reconstruction can affect the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons. Treatment of rupture of the EPB tendon consists of refixation to the bone and temporary transfixation of the joint. In the case of preexisting or posttraumatic arthrosis, definitive arthrodesis of the thumb is the best procedure. Closed ruptures of the EPL and FPL tendons at the wrist joint cannot be treated by direct tendon suture. Rupture of the EPL tendon occurs after distal radius fractures either due to protruding screws or following conservative treatment especially in undisplaced fractures. Transfer of the extensor indicis tendon to the distal EPL stump is a good option and free interposition of the palmaris longus tendon is a possible alternative. The tension should be adjusted to slight overcorrection, which can be checked intraoperatively by performing the tenodesis test. Closed FPL ruptures at the wrist typically occur 3-6 months after osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures with palmar plates and are mostly characterized by crepitation and pain lasting for several weeks. They can be prevented by premature plate removal, synovectomy and carpal tunnel release. For treatment of a ruptured FPL tendon in adult patients the options for tendon reconstruction should be weighed up against the less complicated tenodesis or arthrodesis of the thumb interphalangeal joint.
Collagen fibrils in functionally distinct tendons have differing structural responses to tendon rupture and fatigue loading.
Herod, Tyler W; Chambers, Neil C; Veres, Samuel P
In this study we investigate relationships between the nanoscale structure of collagen fibrils and the macroscale functional response of collagenous tissues. To do so, we study two functionally distinct classes of tendons, positional tendons and energy storing tendons, using a bovine forelimb model. Molecular-level assessment using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), functional crosslink assessment using hydrothermal isometric tension (HIT) analysis, and ultrastructural assessment using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study undamaged, ruptured, and cyclically loaded samples from the two tendon types. HIT indicated differences in both crosslink type and crosslink density, with flexor tendons having more thermally stable crosslinks than the extensor tendons (higher TFmax of >90 vs. 75.1±2.7°C), and greater total crosslink density than the extensor tendons (higher t1/2 of 11.5±1.9 vs. 3.5±1.0h after NaBH4 treatment). Despite having a lower crosslink density than flexor tendons, extensor tendons were significantly stronger (37.6±8.1 vs. 23.1±7.7MPa) and tougher (14.3±3.6 vs. 6.8±3.4MJ/m(3)). SEM showed that collagen fibrils in the tougher, stronger extensor tendons were able to undergo remarkable levels of plastic deformation in the form of discrete plasticity, while those in the flexor tendons were not able to plastically deform. When cyclically loaded, collagen fibrils in extensor tendons accumulated fatigue damage rapidly in the form of kink bands, while those in flexor tendons did not accumulate significant fatigue damage. The results demonstrate that collagen fibrils in functionally distinct tendons respond differently to mechanical loading, and suggests that fibrillar collagens may be subject to a strength vs. fatigue resistance tradeoff. Collagen fibrils-nanoscale biological cables-are the fundamental load-bearing elements of all structural human tissues. While all collagen fibrils share common features, such as being composed of a
Effect of elbow and forearm position on contact pressure between the extensor origin and the lateral side of the capitellum.
Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Izumi, Tomoki; Wada, Takuro; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko
Bone-to-tendon contact in the origin of the common extensor tendons is considered to be one of the causes of lateral epicondylitis. Some factors, including elbow and forearm position, varus stress to the elbow, or contraction of the wrist extensor tendons, are considered to affect this bone-to-tendon contact. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the elbow and forearm position on bone-tendon interface. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the position of the elbow and forearm on the contact pressure of the tendinous origin of the common wrist and finger extensors. We used 8 fresh cadaveric upper extremities. Contact pressure between the origin of the common extensor tendons and the lateral side of the capitellum was measured with a pressure sensor and was compared among various conditions, including elbow flexion angle (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°), forearm rotation position (neutral and 81.5° pronation position), and varus stress load of the elbow (none, gravity on the forearm, and gravity on the forearm +1.96 Nm). Contact pressure was also measured during tension force of the extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and extensor digitorum communis by 0, 9.8, and 19.6 N. Contact pressure was significantly increased with the elbow extension position, forearm pronation position, and varus stress to the elbow under tension of the extensor carpi radialis longus or extensor carpi radialis brevis. This study provides data about the amount of contact pressure between bone and tendon at the origin of the common extensor tendons in the elbow. This information may lead to a better understanding of, and better treatment for, lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Genetic Factors in Tendon Injury: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Vaughn, Natalie H.; Stepanyan, Hayk; Gallo, Robert A.; Dhawan, Aman
Background: Tendon injury such as tendinopathy or rupture is common and has multiple etiologies, including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The genetic influence on susceptibility to tendon injury is not well understood. Purpose: To analyze the published literature regarding genetic factors associated with tendon injury. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A systematic review of published literature was performed in concordance with the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to identify current evidence for genetic predisposition to tendon injury. PubMed, Ovid, and ScienceDirect databases were searched. Studies were included for review if they specifically addressed genetic factors and tendon injuries in humans. Reviews, animal studies, or studies evaluating the influence of posttranscription factors and modifications (eg, proteins) were excluded. Results: Overall, 460 studies were available for initial review. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles were ultimately included for qualitative synthesis. Upon screening of references of these 11 articles, an additional 15 studies were included in the final review, for a total of 26 studies. The genetic factors with the strongest evidence of association with tendon injury were those involving type V collagen A1, tenascin-C, matrix metalloproteinase–3, and estrogen-related receptor beta. Conclusion: The published literature is limited to relatively homogenous populations, with only level 3 and level 4 data. Additional research is needed to make further conclusions about the genetic factors involved in tendon injury. PMID:28856171
Mechanical Strength of the Side-to-Side Tendon Attachment for Mismatched Tendon Sizes and Shapes
Fridén, Jan; Tirrell, Timothy F.; Bhola, Siddharth; Lieber, Richard L.
Summary Certain combinations are advised against in tendon transfers due to size or shape mismatches between donor and recipient tendons. In this study, ultimate load, stiffness and Young’s modulus were measured in two tendon-to-tendon attachments with intentionally mismatched donor and recipient tendons - pronator teres (PT)-to-extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)-to-extensor digitorum communis (EDC). FCU-EDC attachments failed at higher loads than PT-to-ECRB attachments but they had similar modulus and stiffness values. Ultimate tensile strength of the tendon attachments exceeded the maximum predicted contraction force of any of the affected muscles, with safety factors of 4x and 2x for the FCU-to-EDC and PT-to-ECRB constructs, respectively. This implies that size and shape mismatch should not be a contraindication to tendon attachment in transfers. Further, these safety factors strongly suggest that no postoperative immobilization of these attachments is necessary. PMID:24413573
A dynamic traction splint for the management of extrinsic tendon tightness.
Dovelle, S; Heeter, P K; Phillips, P D
The dynamic traction splint designed by therapists at Walter Reed Army Medical Center is used for the management of extrinsic extensor tendon tightness commonly seen in brachial plexus injuries and traumatic soft tissue injuries of the upper extremity. The two components of the splint allow for simultaneous maximum flexion of the MCP and IP joints. This simple and economical splint provides an additional modality to any occupational therapy service involved in the management of upper extremity disorders.
Rupture of the extensor hood of the fifth toe: a rare injury.
Venturini, Sara; Gaba, Suchi; Mangwani, Jitendra
Closed injuries of the extensor hood of the lesser toes are rare and seldom reported in the literature. We present the case of a woman aged 25 years who presented to the orthopaedic fracture clinic with a 2-week history of pain in the left fifth toe and inability to extend following a ballet dancing session. Investigations showed no fracture on plain radiographs, but an ultrasound scan demonstrated rupture to the extensor hood of the little toe. Successful surgical repair of the extensor hood was performed, and the patient made a good recovery with return to dancing activities. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Clinical Sign for Missed Decompression of a Separate Extensor Pollicis Brevis Compartment in de Quervain's Disease.
Persistent pain despite previous surgery for de Quervain's disease might be due to an overlooked septum between the abductor pollicis longus tendon slips and the extensor pollicis brevis tendon, or an overlooked completely separate compartment for the extensor pollicis brevis tendon alone. In both of these instances, extension of the MP joint of the thumb against resistance elicits pain at the distal level of the first extensor compartment of the wrist. When this sign is positive, revisional surgery and decompression of the remaining septum or separate compartment is indicated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Incidence and Association of CT Findings of Ankle Tendon Injuries in Patients Presenting With Ankle and Hindfoot Fractures.
Golshani, Ashkahn; Zhu, Liang; Cai, Chunyan; Beckmann, Nicholas M
Tendon injuries are a commonly encountered finding in ankle CT examinations performed for fractures. This study was designed to identify the incidence and associations of tendon injuries in ankle CT examinations performed for fractures. A retrospective review was performed of 410 patients who underwent ankle CT during a 6-year period. Tendon injuries were common, seen in 25% of all ankle CT examinations. Tendon subluxation-dislocation accounted for most of the tendon injuries (77 of 196 total injuries). Pilon fractures carried 2.2 times increased risk of tibialis posterior tendon injury (p = 0.0094). Calcaneus fractures carried 11.86 times increased risk of peroneus brevis tendon and 10.71 times increased risk of peroneus longus tendon injury (p < 0.0001). Calcaneus fractures also carried 5.21 times increased risk of flexor hallucis longus tendon injury (p = 0.0024). Talus fracture was associated with injury to all flexor compartment tendons. Talus fractures carried 3.43 times increased risk of tibialis posterior tendon injury (p < 0.0001), 4.51 times increased risk of flexor digitorum longus tendon injury (p = 0.0005), and 6.97 times increased risk of flexor hallucis longus tendon injury (p < 0.0001). Calcaneal fractures are prone to peroneal tendon injury, and talus fractures are prone to flexor tendon injury. In patients with pilon fractures, it is important to look for tibialis posterior tendon injury, specifically for entrapment. Overall, the most common type of injury is tendon malalignment, so it is imperative to know the normal tendon paths and associated bony landmarks to identify tendon injury.
[Injuries of the peroneal tendons : Often overlooked].
Klos, K; Knobe, M; Randt, T; Simons, P; Mückley, T
Injuries of the peroneal tendons are rare and often overlooked. Typical pathologies are tendinitis, tears and dislocation. Accompanying injuries are fractures. They are often associated with instability in the ankle and rearfoot deformities; therefore, these pathologies should be excluded or taken into consideration in the treatment. The clinical examination is crucial for the diagnosis. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations are very helpful; however, the true extent of the tendon pathology is often first seen during surgery. Bony injuries and deformities are assessed radiographically and by computed tomography (CT). Although conservative treatment is generally used at the beginning of therapy, progression is more likely to occur in the case of tears; therefore, the correct timing for an operative therapy should not be missed. Dislocations are the domain of operative therapy. Acute tendinitis, on the other hand, is usually accessible to conservative therapy if it is not the result of a gross deformity. Rehabilitation after operative treatment is demanding and prolonged especially after operative therapy of peroneal tendon tears. The results to be expected appear promising.
Fresh-frozen Complete Extensor Mechanism Allograft versus Autograft Reconstruction in Rabbits
Chen, Guanyin; Zhang, Hongtao; Ma, Qiong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yinglong; Fan, Qingyu; Ma, Baoan
Different clinical results have been reported in the repair of extensor mechanism disruption using fresh-frozen complete extensor mechanism (CEM) allograft, creating a need for a better understanding of fresh-frozen CME allograft reconstruction. Here, we perform histological and biomechanical analyses of fresh-frozen CEM allograft or autograft reconstruction in an in vivo rabbit model. Our histological results show complete incorporation of the quadriceps tendon into the host tissues, patellar survival and total integration of the allograft tibia, with relatively fewer osteocytes, into the host tibia. Vascularity and cellularity are reduced and delayed in the allograft but exhibit similar distributions to those in the autograft. The infrapatellar fat pad provides the main blood supply, and the lowest cellularity is observed in the patellar tendon close to the tibia in both the allograft and autograft. The biomechanical properties of the junction of quadriceps tendon and host tissues and those of the allograft patellar tendon are completely and considerably restored, respectively. Therefore, fresh-frozen CEM allograft reconstruction is viable, but the distal patellar tendon and the tibial block may be the weak links of the reconstruction. These findings provide new insight into the use of allograft in repairing disruption of the extensor mechanism. PMID:26911538
Fresh-frozen Complete Extensor Mechanism Allograft versus Autograft Reconstruction in Rabbits.
Chen, Guanyin; Zhang, Hongtao; Ma, Qiong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yinglong; Fan, Qingyu; Ma, Baoan
Different clinical results have been reported in the repair of extensor mechanism disruption using fresh-frozen complete extensor mechanism (CEM) allograft, creating a need for a better understanding of fresh-frozen CME allograft reconstruction. Here, we perform histological and biomechanical analyses of fresh-frozen CEM allograft or autograft reconstruction in an in vivo rabbit model. Our histological results show complete incorporation of the quadriceps tendon into the host tissues, patellar survival and total integration of the allograft tibia, with relatively fewer osteocytes, into the host tibia. Vascularity and cellularity are reduced and delayed in the allograft but exhibit similar distributions to those in the autograft. The infrapatellar fat pad provides the main blood supply, and the lowest cellularity is observed in the patellar tendon close to the tibia in both the allograft and autograft. The biomechanical properties of the junction of quadriceps tendon and host tissues and those of the allograft patellar tendon are completely and considerably restored, respectively. Therefore, fresh-frozen CEM allograft reconstruction is viable, but the distal patellar tendon and the tibial block may be the weak links of the reconstruction. These findings provide new insight into the use of allograft in repairing disruption of the extensor mechanism.
Reconstruction of the extensor mechanism with fresh-frozen tendon allograft in total knee arthroplasty.
Llombart Blanco, Rafael; Valentí, Andrés; Díaz de Rada, Pablo; Mora, Gonzalo; Valentí, Juan R
Patellar tendon rupture after total knee replacement is a rare and highly limiting injury with multifactorial aetiology. Many reconstruction techniques have been described with not very predictable results. The use of allografts has been accepted as a suitable solution. A series of seven patients with patellar tendon rupture treated with fresh-frozen tendon allograft reconstruction after knee arthroplasty is presented. Median follow-up is 25 months (20-31). Functional assessment improved, and the knee society score and knee functional score improved from 26 and 16 to 82 and 55, respectively. Median extension lag was 5° (0°-20°), with a median range of motion of 95° (70-100). Radiological study showed a rise of the patella of 22.26 mm. The use of fresh-frozen allografts as a solution to patellar tendon ruptures after knee arthroplasty seems to provide acceptable results. Increased patellar height does not seem to affect functionality. Case series, Level IV.
Initial experience with visualizing hand and foot tendons by dual-energy computed tomography.
Deng, Kai; Sun, Cong; Liu, Cheng; Ma, Rui
To assess the feasibility of visualizing hand and foot tendons by dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Twenty patients who suffered from hand or feet pains were scanned on dual-source CT (Definition, Forchheim, Germany) with dual-energy mode at tube voltages of 140 and 80 kV and a corresponding ratio of 1:4 between tube currents. The reconstructed images were postprocessed by volume rendering techniques (VRT) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). All of the suspected lesions were confirmed by surgery or follow-up studies. Twelve patients (total of 24 hands and feet, respectively) were found to be normal and the other eight patients (total of nine hands and feet, respectively) were found abnormal. Dual-energy techniques are very useful in visualizing tendons of the hands and feet, such as flexor pollicis longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis/profundus tendon, Achilles tendon, extensor hallucis longus tendon, and extensor digitorum longus tendon, etc. It can depict the whole shape of the tendons and their fixation points clearly. Peroneus longus tendon in the sole of the foot was not displayed very well. The distal ends of metacarpophalangeal joints with extensor digitoium tendon and extensor pollicis longus tendon were poorly shown. The lesions of tendons such as the circuitry, thickening, and adherence were also shown clearly. Dual-energy CT offers a new method to visualize tendons of the hand and foot. It could clearly display both anatomical structures and pathologic changes of hand and foot tendons.
Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Tendinous Knee Extensor Mechanism Injuries.
Ibounig, T; Simons, T A
Quadriceps and patella tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries often resulting from minor trauma typically consisting of an eccentric contraction of the quadriceps muscle. Since rupture of a healthy tendon is very rare, such injuries usually represent the end stage of a long process of chronic tendon degeneration and overuse. This review aims to give an overview of the current understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnostic principles, and recommended treatment protocols as supported by the literature and institutional experience. A non-systematic review of the current literature on the subject was conducted and reflected against the current practice in our level 1 trauma center. Risk factors for patella and quadriceps tendon rupture include increasing age, repetitive micro-trauma, genetic predisposition, and systemic diseases, as well as certain medications. Diagnosis is based on history and clinical findings, but can be complemented by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Accurate diagnosis at an early stage is of utmost importance since delay in surgical repair of over 3 weeks results in significantly poorer outcomes. Operative treatment of acute ruptures yields good clinical results with low complication rates. Use of longitudinal transpatellar drill holes is the operative method of choice in the majority of acute cases. In chronic ruptures, tendon augmentation with auto- or allograft should be considered. Postoperative treatment protocols in the literature range from early mobilization with full weight bearing to cast immobilization for up to 12 weeks. Respecting the biology of tendon healing, we advocate the use of a removable knee splint or orthotic with protected full weight bearing and limited passive mobilization for 6 weeks. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.
Tendon transfer to reconstruct wrist extension in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.
Al-Qattan, M M
This study reports on 20 children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy who underwent a tendon transfer to reconstruct wrist extension. The mean age at the time of tendon transfer was 8 years. There were seven patients with Erb's palsy and the remaining 13 had total palsy. The flexor carpi ulnaris was utilized 15 times and the flexor carpi radialis five times. The transferred tendon was sutured to the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis. The result of the transfer was assessed according to a modified Medical Research Council (MRC) muscle grading system. A good result was obtained in 18 patients (modified MRC grade of 4) and a fair result (modified MRC grade of 3) in two. The choice of tendon transfer to reconstruct the wrist drop deformity in various conditions including adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries is discussed.
Acute traumatic rupture of the patellar tendon in pediatric population: Case series and review of the literature.
Ali Yousef, Mohamed Abdelhamid; Rosenfeld, Scott
Intact knee extensor mechanism is required for the normal function of the lower extremity. Patellar tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury with peak age incidence around 40 years and usually occurs midsubstance. The occurrence of pure patellar tendon rupture without bony avulsion is an extremely rare injury in the pediatric population with few cases reported in the literature with limited information regarding frequency, complications, and outcomes in children. However, due to increased participation in sports and high-energy recreational activities during childhood, the frequency of such injuries has progressively increased. To evaluate the frequency of pediatric patellar tendon rupture injuries and describe the radiological findings, treatment modalities, and outcome of such injuries. Demographic and clinical data on a series of patients who sustained patellar tendon rupture were reviewed. These data included age at time of injury, sex, laterality, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, complications, presence or absence of Osgood-Schlatter disease, diagnostic imaging such as plain radiographs and magnetic resonance images (MRI), surgical technique, method of fixation, period of postoperative immobilization, total duration of physiotherapy, time to return to sports activities and follow-up duration. Insall-Salvati ratio was calculated on the preoperative lateral x-ray. The functional outcome was evaluated with regard to final knee active range of motion (AROM), manual quadriceps muscle testing, and presence or the absence of terminal extension lag. Clinical outcome rating using knee society score (KSS) was performed and functional outcome was further classified according to the calculated score. Five male patients with patellar tendon rupture (7%) were identified among 71 pediatric patients who sustained acute traumatic injury of the knee extensor mechanism. The mean age at the time of injury was 13.6 years (range: 12-15 years). The injury occurred in
Ultrasound definition of tendon damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a OMERACT consensus-based ultrasound score focussing on the diagnostic reliability.
Bruyn, George A W; Hanova, Petra; Iagnocco, Annamaria; d'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Möller, Ingrid; Terslev, Lene; Backhaus, Marina; Balint, Peter V; Filippucci, Emilio; Baudoin, Paul; van Vugt, Richard; Pineda, Carlos; Wakefield, Richard; Garrido, Jesus; Pecha, Ondrej; Naredo, Esperanza
To develop the first ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and assess its intraobserver and interobserver reliability. We conducted a Delphi study on ultrasound-defined tendon damage and ultrasound scoring system of tendon damage in RA among 35 international rheumatologists with experience in musculoskeletal ultrasound. Twelve patients with RA were included and assessed twice by 12 rheumatologists-sonographers. Ultrasound examination for tendon damage in B mode of five wrist extensor compartments (extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus; extensor pollicis longus; extensor digitorum communis; extensor digiti minimi; extensor carpi ulnaris) and one ankle tendon (tibialis posterior) was performed blindly, independently and bilaterally in each patient. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were calculated by κ coefficients. A three-grade semiquantitative scoring system was agreed for scoring tendon damage in B mode. The mean intraobserver reliability for tendon damage scoring was excellent (κ value 0.91). The mean interobserver reliability assessment showed good κ values (κ value 0.75). The most reliable were the extensor digiti minimi, the extensor carpi ulnaris, and the tibialis posterior tendons. An ultrasound reference image atlas of tenosynovitis and tendon damage was also developed. Ultrasound is a reproducible tool for evaluating tendon damage in RA. This study strongly supports a new reliable ultrasound scoring system for tendon damage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Bromelain in the early phase of healing in acute crush Achilles tendon injury.
Aiyegbusi, A I; Duru, F I O; Anunobi, C C; Noronha, C C; Okanlawon, A O
Bromelain, an enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple plant has been proposed as a treatment for reducing pain and swelling following acute muscle injuries but studies are yet to be done on its effect on tendon healing. This study therefore investigated the effects of bromelain on tenocyte proliferation and the tendon malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the early stage of healing in a crush injury to the Achilles tendon of Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty four male rats were divided randomly into three groups; groups 2 and 3 had induced crush injury to the left Achilles tendon. Group 1; nil injury and nil treatment, Group 2; nil treatment, Group 3; oral bromelain treatment. Bromelain was given at a dosage of 7 mg/kg body weight daily over the first 14 days post-injury. On day 15 post injury, the animals were killed and the tendons excised and processed for histological study and MDA assay. The results showed a significant increase in the tenocyte population in the bromelain group; p < 0.05. There was, however, no significant difference in the MDA level. Based on this study, 600 GDU bromelain given once daily in acute tendon injury at a dosage of 7 mg/kg promoted healing by stimulating tenocyte proliferation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sports Injury-Related Fingers and Thumb Deformity Due to Tendon or Ligament Rupture.
Bai, Rong-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Bo; Zhan, Hui-Li; Qian, Zhan-Hua; Wang, Nai-Li; Liu, Yue; Li, Wen-Ting; Yin, Yu-Ming
Hand injuries are very common in sports, such as skiing and ball sports. One of the major reasons causing hand and finger deformity is due to ligament and tendon injury. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high-resolution 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate the complex anatomy of the fingers and thumb, especially the tendons and ligaments, and provide the accurate diagnosis of clinically important fingers and thumbs deformity due to ligamentous and tendinous injuries during sport activities. Sixteen fresh un-embalmed cadaveric hands were harvested from eight cadavers. A total of 20 healthy volunteers' hands and 44 patients with fingers or thumb deformity due to sports-related injuries were included in this study. All subjects had MR examination with T1-weighted images and proton density-weighted imaging with fat suppression (PD FS) in axial, coronal, and sagittal plane, respectively. Subsequently, all 16 cadaveric hands were sliced into 2-mm thick slab with a band saw (six in coronal plane, six in sagittal plane, and four in axial plane). The correlation of anatomic sections and the MRI characteristics of tendons of fingers and the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) at the metacarpal phalangeal joint (MCPJ) of thumb between 20 healthy volunteers and 44 patients (confirmed by surgery) were analyzed. The normal ligaments and tendons in 16 cadaveric hands and 20 volunteers' hands showed uniform low-signal intensity on all the sequences of the MRI. Among 44 patients with tendinous and ligamentous injuries in the fingers or thumb, 12 cases with UCL injury at MCPJ of the thumb (Stener lesion = 8 and non-Stener lesion = 4), 6 cases with the central slip injury, 12 cases with terminal tendon injury, and 14 cases with flexor digitorum profundus injury. The ligaments and tendons disruption manifested as increased signal intensity and poor definition, discontinuity, and heterogeneous signal intensity of the involved ligaments and tendons. Sports
Use of quantitative analysis of sonographic brightness for detection of early healing of tendon injury in horses.
Micklethwaite, L; Wood, A K; Sehgal, C M; Polansky, M; Dowling, B A; Dart, A J; Rose, R J; Hodgson, D R
To determine whether quantitative analysis of sonographic brightness could be used to detect healing of an induced injury of the superficial digital flexor tendon in horses and whether rate of healing was influenced by equine recombinant growth hormone. 8 clinically normal Standardbreds. A localized injury was created in the left and right superficial digital flexor tendons of each horse by injection of 2,000 units of collagenase. After injury, 4 horses received equine recombinant growth hormone, a possible promoter of tendon healing. Sonographic images (7.5 MHz) of the flexor tendons and ligaments of the metacarpal region were recorded on videotape prior to injury and weekly for 7 weeks after injury. Images were digitized, and sonographic brightness of tendons and ligaments was calculated. Collagenase-induced injury was sonographically similar to naturally occurring injury. After injury, sonographic brightness of the tendon decreased; after 3 weeks, brightness progressively increased, although by 7 weeks brightness had not returned to preinjury value. Equine recombinant growth hormone had no significant effect on the rate of tendon healing, as evaluated sonographically or at necropsy. As healing developed, alterations in sonographic brightness of injured tendons coincided with real changes in tendon structure. Quantitative sonographic brightness could be used to accurately monitor healing of equine tendon and ligament injuries and investigate the efficacy of various treatment regimens.
Lateral epicondylosis and calcific tendonitis in a golfer: a case report and literature review
Yuill, Erik A.; Lum, Grant
Objective To detail the progress of a young female amateur golfer who developed chronic left arm pain while playing golf 8 months prior to her first treatment visit. Clinical Features Findings included pain slightly distal to the lateral epicondyle of the elbow, decreased grip strength, and positive orthopedic testing. Diagnostic ultrasound showed thickening of the common extensor tendon origin indicating lateral epicondylosis. Radiographs revealed an oval shaped calcified density in the soft tissue adjacent to the lateral humeral epicondyle, indicating calcific tendonitis of the common extensor tendon origin. Intervention and Outcome Conventional care was aimed at decreasing the repetitive load on the common extensor tendon, specifically the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Soft tissue techniques, exercises and stretches, and an elbow brace helped to reduce repetitive strain. Outcome measures included subjective pain ratings, and follow up imaging 10 weeks after treatment began. Conclusion A young female amateur golfer with chronic arm pain diagnosed as lateral epicondylosis and calcific tendonitis was relieved of her pain after 7 treatments over 10 weeks of soft tissue and physical therapy focusing specifically on optimal healing and decreasing the repetitive load on the extensor carpi radialis brevis. PMID:22131570
Hip-Extensor Strength, Trunk Posture, and Use of the Knee-Extensor Muscles During Running.
Teng, Hsiang-Ling; Powers, Christopher M
Diminished hip-muscle performance has been proposed to contribute to various knee injuries. To determine the association between hip-extensor muscle strength and sagittal-plane trunk posture and the relationships among hip-extensor muscle strength and hip- and knee-extensor work during running. Descriptive laboratory study. Musculoskeletal biomechanical laboratory. A total of 40 asymptomatic recreational runners, 20 men (age = 27.1 ± 7.0 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.69 m, mass = 71.1 ± 8.2 kg) and 20 women (age = 26.2 ± 5.8 years, height = 1.65 ± 0.74 m, mass = 60.6 ± 6.6 kg), participated. Maximum isometric strength of the hip extensors was assessed using a dynamometer. Sagittal-plane trunk posture (calculated relative to the global vertical axis) and hip- and knee-extensor work (sum of energy absorption and generation) during the stance phase of running were quantified while participants ran over ground at a controlled speed of 3.4 m/s. We used Pearson product moment correlations to examine the relationships among hip-extensor strength, mean sagittal-plane trunk-flexion angle, hip-extensor work, and knee-extensor work. Hip-extensor strength was correlated positively with trunk-flexion angle (r = 0.55, P < .001) and hip-extensor work (r = 0.46, P = .003). It was correlated inversely with knee-extensor work (r = -0.39, P = .01). All the correlations remained after adjusting for sex. Our findings suggest that runners with hip-extensor weakness used a more upright trunk posture. This strategy led to an overreliance on the knee extensors and may contribute to overuse running injuries at the knee.
Focal Experimental Injury Leads to Widespread Gene Expression and Histologic Changes in Equine Flexor Tendons
Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J.; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B.; Little, Christopher B.; Smith, Margaret M.
It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re-injury
Hip-Extensor Strength, Trunk Posture, and Use of the Knee-Extensor Muscles During Running
Teng, Hsiang-Ling; Powers, Christopher M.
Context: Diminished hip-muscle performance has been proposed to contribute to various knee injuries. Objective: To determine the association between hip-extensor muscle strength and sagittal-plane trunk posture and the relationships among hip-extensor muscle strength and hip- and knee-extensor work during running. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Musculoskeletal biomechanical laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 40 asymptomatic recreational runners, 20 men (age = 27.1 ± 7.0 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.69 m, mass = 71.1 ± 8.2 kg) and 20 women (age = 26.2 ± 5.8 years, height = 1.65 ± 0.74 m, mass = 60.6 ± 6.6 kg), participated. Main Outcome Measure(s): Maximum isometric strength of the hip extensors was assessed using a dynamometer. Sagittal-plane trunk posture (calculated relative to the global vertical axis) and hip- and knee-extensor work (sum of energy absorption and generation) during the stance phase of running were quantified while participants ran over ground at a controlled speed of 3.4 m/s. We used Pearson product moment correlations to examine the relationships among hip-extensor strength, mean sagittal-plane trunk-flexion angle, hip-extensor work, and knee-extensor work. Results: Hip-extensor strength was correlated positively with trunk-flexion angle (r = 0.55, P < .001) and hip-extensor work (r = 0.46, P = .003). It was correlated inversely with knee-extensor work (r = −0.39, P = .01). All the correlations remained after adjusting for sex. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that runners with hip-extensor weakness used a more upright trunk posture. This strategy led to an overreliance on the knee extensors and may contribute to overuse running injuries at the knee. PMID:27513169
The interfascicular matrix enables fascicle sliding and recovery in tendon, and behaves more elastically in energy storing tendons
Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Godinho, Marta S.C.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R.C.
While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. PMID:25958330
The interfascicular matrix enables fascicle sliding and recovery in tendon, and behaves more elastically in energy storing tendons.
Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Godinho, Marta S C; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C
While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation
Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil
Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future. PMID:25143650
Matrix metabolism rate differs in functionally distinct tendons.
Birch, Helen L; Worboys, Sarah; Eissa, Sabry; Jackson, Brendan; Strassburg, Sandra; Clegg, Peter D
Tendon matrix integrity is vital to ensure adequate mechanical properties for efficient function. Although historically tendon was considered to be relatively inert, recent studies have shown that tendon matrix turnover is active. During normal physiological activities some tendons are subjected to stress and strains much closer to their failure properties than others. Tendons with low safety margins are those which function as energy stores such as the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) and human Achilles tendon (AT). We postulate therefore that energy storing tendons suffer a higher degree of micro-damage and thus have a higher rate of matrix turnover than positional tendons. The hypothesis was tested using tissue from the equine SDFT and common digital extensor tendon (CDET). Matrix turnover was assessed indirectly by a combination of measurements for matrix age, markers of degradation, potential for degradation and protein expression. Results show that despite higher cellularity, the SDFT has lower relative levels of mRNA for collagen types I and III. Non-collagenous proteins, although expressed at different levels per cell, do not appear to differ between tendon types. Relative levels of mRNA for MMP1, MMP13 and both pro-MMP3 and MMP13 protein activity were significantly higher in the CDET. Correspondingly levels of cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were higher in the CDET and tissue fluorescence lower suggesting more rapid turnover of the collagenous component. Reduced or inhibited collagen turnover in the SDFT may account for the high level of degeneration and subsequent injury compared to the CDET.
Musculoskeletal injuries in the ultramarathon: the 1990 Westfield Sydney to Melbourne run.
Fallon, K E
OBJECTIVE: To document the injuries sustained by participants in a 1005 km ultramarathon. METHODS: Clinical notes were reviewed on entrants in the 1005 km Sydney to Melbourne ultramarathon. An injury was recorded following self referral by a participant or if the history obtained from the runner or his support crew indicated the likelihood of a significant injury which could have an impact upon performance. RESULTS: 64 injuries were found in 32 runners. The knee (31.3%) and ankle (28.1%) regions were most commonly injured. The most common single diagnosis was retropatellar pain syndrome, and Achilles tendinitis and medial tibial stress syndrome were the next most common injuries. Peritendinitis/tendinitis of the tendons passing under the extensor retinaculum at the ankle, an injury infrequently reported in other sports, was common (19% of all injuries). CONCLUSIONS: The injuries were typically associated with running but 12 (19% of the total) involved the tendons of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the lower leg, and in almost every case the major site of inflammation was at the extensor retinaculum at the anterior aspect of the ankle. This injury appears to be relatively specific to the ultramarathon-"ultramarathoner's ankle". Images p321-a PMID:9015594
Saw injuries causing phalangeal neck fractures in adults.
Al-Qattan, Mohammad M
The outcome of adult phalangeal neck fractures caused by saws has not been previously investigated. Over a 15-year period, a total of 36 cases of saw-related injuries resulting in phalangeal neck fractures of the middle phalanx of the finger or the proximal phalanx of the thumb were treated. All injuries were industrial and covered by insurance. They were all adult males with type II fractures. The fracture were managed by K-wire fixation, immobilizing the distal joint only. The proximal joints were mobilized immediately after surgery and the K-wire was removed after 5 weeks. The following 2 patterns of saw injuries were observed: dorsal impact injuries resulting in a phalangeal neck fracture and concurrent extensor tendon injury (group I, n = 20 patients), and dorsolateral impact injuries resulting in concurrent extensor (± partial flexor) tendon and nerve injury (group II, n = 16 patients). The outcome with respect to range of motion and return to work was significantly better in the former group. Major complications such as nonunion, malunion, avascular necrosis of the phalangeal head, osteomyelitis, or contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joints were not observed. Two patients (1 in each group) had superficial pin-site infection. It was concluded that adult phalangeal neck fractures caused by saws is a separate entity from the previously reported series of closed phalangeal neck fractures in adults.
Strength deficits identified with concentric action of the hip extensors and eccentric action of the hamstrings predispose to hamstring injury in elite sprinters.
Sugiura, Yusaku; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiichi
Prospective cohort study. In this prospective cohort study of elite sprinters, muscle strength of the hip extensors, as well as of the knee extensors and flexors, was measured to determine a possible relationship between strength deficits and subsequent hamstring injury within 12 months of testing. The method used for testing muscle strength simulated the specific muscle action during late swing and early contact phases when sprinting. There have been no prospective studies in elite sprinters that examine the concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of the hip extensors and the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in a manner that reflects their actions in late swing or early contact phases of sprinting. Consequently, the causal relationship between hip and thigh muscle strength and hamstring injury in elite sprinters may not be fully understood. Isokinetic testing was performed on 30 male elite sprinters to assess hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscle strength. The occurrence of hamstring injury among the subjects was determined during the year following the muscle strength measurements. The strength of the hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscles, as well as the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors- quadriceps ratios were compared. Hamstring injury occurred in 6 subjects during the 1-year period. Isokinetic testing at a speed of 60 degrees /s revealed weakness of the injured limb with eccentric action of the hamstring muscles and during concentric action of the hip extensors. When performing a side-to-side comparison for the injured sprinters, the hamstring injury always occurred on the weaker side. Differences in the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors-quadriceps strength ratios were also evident between uninjured and injured limbs, and this was attributable to deficits in hamstring strength. Hamstring injury in elite sprinters was associated with weakness during eccentric action of the hamstrings and weakness during concentric action of
Construct validity of the canadian occupational performance measure in participants with tendon injury and Dupuytren disease.
van de Ven-Stevens, Lucelle A W; Graff, Maud J L; Peters, Marlijn A M; van der Linde, Harmen; Geurts, Alexander C H
In patient-centered practice, instruments need to assess outcomes that are meaningful to patients with hand conditions. It is unclear which assessment tools address these subjective perspectives best. The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) in relation to the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) in people with hand conditions. It was hypothesized that COPM scores would correlate with DASH and MHQ total scores only to a moderate degree and that the COPM, DASH questionnaire, and MHQ would all correlate weakly with measures of hand impairments. This was a validation study. The COPM, DASH questionnaire, and MHQ were scored, and then hand impairments were measured (pain [numerical rating scale], active range of motion [goniometer], grip strength [dynamometer], and pinch grip strength [pinch meter]). People who had received postsurgery rehabilitation for flexor tendon injuries, extensor tendon injuries, or Dupuytren disease were eligible. Seventy-two participants were included. For all diagnosis groups, the Pearson coefficient of correlation between the DASH questionnaire and the MHQ was higher than .60, whereas the correlation between the performance scale of the COPM and either the DASH questionnaire or the MHQ was lower than .51. Correlations of these assessment tools with measures of hand impairments were lower than .46. The small sample sizes may limit the generalization of the results. The results supported the hypotheses and, thus, the construct validity of the COPM after surgery in people with hand conditions. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.
Proteomic Analysis Reveals Age-related Changes in Tendon Matrix Composition, with Age- and Injury-specific Matrix Fragmentation*
Peffers, Mandy J.; Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Collins, John A.; Eong, Robin; Wei, Timothy K. J.; Screen, Hazel R. C.; Clegg, Peter D.
Energy storing tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), are highly prone to injury, the incidence of which increases with aging. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in increased injury in aged tendons are not well established but are thought to result in altered matrix turnover. However, little attempt has been made to fully characterize the tendon proteome nor determine how the abundance of specific tendon proteins changes with aging and/or injury. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the protein profile of normal SDFTs from young and old horses using label-free relative quantification to identify differentially abundant proteins and peptide fragments between age groups. The protein profile of injured SDFTs from young and old horses was also assessed. The results demonstrate distinct proteomic profiles in young and old tendon, with alterations in the levels of proteins involved in matrix organization and regulation of cell tension. Furthermore, we identified several new peptide fragments (neopeptides) present in aged tendons, suggesting that there are age-specific cleavage patterns within the SDFT. Proteomic profile also differed between young and old injured tendon, with a greater number of neopeptides identified in young injured tendon. This study has increased the knowledge of molecular events associated with tendon aging and injury, suggesting that maintenance and repair of tendon tissue may be reduced in aged individuals and may help to explain why the risk of injury increases with aging. PMID:25077967
Transfer of extensor carpi radialis brevis as an extensor to extensor motor transfer (EEMT) in ulnar nerve palsy.
Jamali, Allah Rakha; Bhatti, Anisuddin; Mehboob, Ghulam
To evaluate functional outcome and correction of deformity with extensor carpiradialis brevis motor transfer to replace the intrinsic muscles as an extensor to extensor motor transfer (EEMT). This was a prospective observational study with one group pretest posttest design conducted from 1996 to 2004. Convenience sampling technique was used and the sample size was twenty one. The independent variable was transfer of extensor carpiradialis brevis to replace the intrinsic muscles. The dependent variable was functional outcome and the correction of deformity. The extraneous variables were age, sex interval between injury and transfer as well as local factors related to wound and grafts used. The average follow up was 22.5 months. The mean preoperative unassisted extensor lag was 56.79 +/- 10.39 which improved to 9.6% +/- 5.4 (correction of 83%) at six months after surgery. With open hand assessment 76.19% reported good to excellent results, while 79.89% achieved good to excellent results with closed hand assessment. The mechanism of closing was good to excellent in 89.42% cases, however only 71.42% patients considered their hands good to excellent. Significant problems were seen with use of tendoachilles as a graft. Extensor carpiradialis brevis transfer to replace the intrinsic muscles as an extensor to extensor motor transfer can achieve good functional outcome as well as correction of deformity despite shortcomings in physical rehabilitation.
Intramuscular tendon involvement on MRI has limited value for predicting time to return to play following acute hamstring injury.
van der Made, Anne D; Almusa, Emad; Whiteley, Rod; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; van Hellemondt, Frank; Tol, Johannes L
Hamstring injury with intramuscular tendon involvement is regarded as a serious injury with a delay in return to play (RTP) of more than 50 days and reinjury rates up to 63%. However, this reputation is based on retrospective case series with high risk of bias. Determine whether intramuscular tendon involvement is associated with delayed RTP and elevated rates of reinjury. MRI of male athletes with an acute hamstring injury was obtained within 5 days of injury. Evaluation included standardised MRI scoring and scoring of intramuscular tendon involvement. Time to RTP and reinjury rate were prospectively recorded. Out of 70 included participants, intramuscular tendon disruption was present in 29 (41.4%) injuries. Injuries without intramuscular tendon disruption had a mean time to RTP of 22.2±7.4 days. Injuries with <50%, 50%-99% and 100% disruption of tendon cross-sectional area had a mean time to RTP of 24.0±9.7, 25.3±8.6 and 31.6±10.9 days, respectively. Injuries with full-thickness disruption took longer to RTP compared with injuries without disruption (p=0.025). Longitudinal intramuscular tendon disruption was not significantly associated with time to RTP. Waviness was present in 17 (24.3%) injuries. Mean time to RTP for injuries without and with waviness was 22.6±7.5 and 30.2±10.8 days (p=0.014). There were 11 (15.7%) reinjuries within 12 months, five (17.2%) in the group with intramuscular tendon disruption and six (14.6%) in the group without intramuscular tendon disruption. Time to RTP for injuries with full-thickness disruption of the intramuscular tendon and waviness is significantly longer (by slightly more than 1 week) compared with injuries without intramuscular tendon involvement. However, due to the considerable overlap in time to RTP between groups with and without intramuscular tendon involvement, its clinical significance for the individual athlete is limited. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text
Proteomic analysis reveals age-related changes in tendon matrix composition, with age- and injury-specific matrix fragmentation.
Peffers, Mandy J; Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Collins, John A; Eong, Robin; Wei, Timothy K J; Screen, Hazel R C; Clegg, Peter D
Energy storing tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), are highly prone to injury, the incidence of which increases with aging. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in increased injury in aged tendons are not well established but are thought to result in altered matrix turnover. However, little attempt has been made to fully characterize the tendon proteome nor determine how the abundance of specific tendon proteins changes with aging and/or injury. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the protein profile of normal SDFTs from young and old horses using label-free relative quantification to identify differentially abundant proteins and peptide fragments between age groups. The protein profile of injured SDFTs from young and old horses was also assessed. The results demonstrate distinct proteomic profiles in young and old tendon, with alterations in the levels of proteins involved in matrix organization and regulation of cell tension. Furthermore, we identified several new peptide fragments (neopeptides) present in aged tendons, suggesting that there are age-specific cleavage patterns within the SDFT. Proteomic profile also differed between young and old injured tendon, with a greater number of neopeptides identified in young injured tendon. This study has increased the knowledge of molecular events associated with tendon aging and injury, suggesting that maintenance and repair of tendon tissue may be reduced in aged individuals and may help to explain why the risk of injury increases with aging. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Descriptive analysis of retirement of Thoroughbred racehorses due to tendon injuries at the Hong Kong Jockey Club (1992-2004).
Lam, K H; Parkin, T D H; Riggs, C M; Morgan, K L
This study was part of a programme to optimise the longevity and maximise the health and welfare of the Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong. Injuries to the superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendon are the most common veterinary reason for premature retirement in this population. To describe the frequency and pattern of retirements associated with SDF tendon injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses and to compare the characteristics of these horses with those that retired for other reasons. A retrospective analysis of retirement records documented in the Hong Kong Jockey Club clinical database between 1992 and 2004 was conducted. As this is complete census data, no statistical inference to the population is necessary. The mean annual cumulative incidence of retirements due to tendon injury was 3.2% accounting for 14% of all retirements. The risk of tendon injury increased over the 12 year period from 23-4.2%. The racing career, number of starts and earnings of horses retired with tendon injuries were reduced by 25.6, 41.2 and 53.3%, respectively. Thirteen percent of these horses never raced in Hong Kong. A greater proportion of 3- and 4-year-olds and entire males were retired because of tendon injuries. Ninety-seven percent of injuries affected the forelimb, the right more frequently than the left. Only 19.7% of retired horses that had received ultrasound examination for SDF tendon injury retired for this reason. This study provides population based data on the frequency, career and economic losses associated with tendon injury induced retirement. This descriptive study has provided a useful resource for further case-control studies to investigate risk factors for retirement from racing due to tendon injury. This is the first step toward the development of management tools to reduce the incidence of tendon injury related retirement in Hong Kong.
The Role of Mechanical Loading in Tendon Development, Maintenance, Injury, and Repair
Galloway, Marc T.; Lalley, Andrea L.; Shearn, Jason T.
➤ Tendon injuries often result from excessive or insufficient mechanical loading, impairing the ability of the local tendon cell population to maintain normal tendon function. ➤ The resident cell population composing tendon tissue is mechanosensitive, given that the cells are able to alter the extracellular matrix in response to modifications of the local loading environment. ➤ Natural tendon healing is insufficient, characterized by improper collagen fibril diameter formation, collagen fibril distribution, and overall fibril misalignment. ➤ Current tendon repair rehabilitation protocols focus on implementing early, well-controlled eccentric loading exercises to improve repair outcome. ➤ Tissue engineers look toward incorporating mechanical loading regimens to precondition cell populations for the creation of improved biological augmentations for tendon repair. PMID:24005204
Extensor tendinopathy of the elbow assessed with sonoelastography: histologic correlation.
Klauser, Andrea S; Pamminger, Mathias; Halpern, Ethan J; Abd Ellah, Mohamed M H; Moriggl, Bernhard; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Deml, Christian; Sztankay, Judit; Klima, Guenther; Jaschke, Werner R
To compare agreement between conventional B-mode ultrasound (US) and compression sonoelastography (SEL) of the common extensor tendons of the elbow with histological evaluation. Twenty-six common extensor tendons were evaluated in 17 cadavers (11 females, median age 85 years and 6 males, median age 80 years). B-mode US was graded into: Grade 1, homogeneous fibrillar pattern; grade 2, hypoechoic areas and/or calcifications <30%; and grade 3 > 30%. SEL was graded into: Grade 1 indicated blue (hardest) to green (hard); grade 2 yellow (soft); and grade 3 red (softest). B-mode US, SEL, and a combined grading score incorporating both were compared to histological findings in 76 biopsies. Histological alterations were detected in 55/76 biopsies. Both modalities showed similar results (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy 84%, 81%, and 83% for B-mode US versus 85%, 86%, and 86% for SEL, respectively, P > 0.3). However, a combination of both resulted in significant improvement in sensitivity (96%, P < 0.02) without significant change in specificity (81%, P < 0.3), yielding an improved overall accuracy (92%). Combined imaging of the extensor tendons with both modalities is superior to either modality alone for predicting the presence of pathologic findings on histology. • Combination of B-mode US and SEL proved efficiency in diagnosing lateral epicondylitis. • Combination of B-mode US and SEL in lateral epicondylitis correlates to histology. • Combination of both modalities provides improved sensitivity without loss of specificity.
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A review on the use of cell therapy in the treatment of tendon disease and injuries
Sawadkar, Prasad; Mudera, Vivek
Tendon disease and injuries carry significant morbidity worldwide in both athletic and non-athletic populations. It is estimated that tendon injuries account for 30%−50% of all musculoskeletal injuries globally. Current treatments have been inadequate in providing an accelerated process of repair resulting in high relapse rates. Modern concepts in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have led to increasing interest in the application of cell therapy for the treatment of tendon disease. This review will explore the use of cell therapy, by bringing together up-to-date evidence from in vivo human and animal studies, and discuss the issues surrounding the safety and efficacy of its use in the treatment of tendon disease. PMID:25383170
Effect of exercise on age-related changes in collagen fibril diameter distributions in the common digital extensor tendons of young horses.
Edwards, Lindsey J; Goodship, Allen E; Birch, Helen L; Patterson-Kane, Janet C
To determine whether specific treadmill exercise regimens would accelerate age-related changes in collagen fibril diameter distributions in the common digital extensor tendon (CDET) of the forelimbs of young Thoroughbreds. 24 female Thoroughbreds. Horses were trained for 18 weeks (6 horses; short term) or 18 months (5 horses; long term) on a high-speed treadmill; 2 age-matched control groups (6 horses/group) performed walking exercise only. Horses were (mean +/- SD) 24 +/- 1 months and 39 +/- 1 months old at termination of the short-term and long-term regimens, respectively. Midmetacarpal CDET specimens were obtained and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Diameter and area of at least 1,000 collagen fibrils/specimen were measured by use of computerized image analysis. Mass-average diameter (MAD) of collagen fibrils and collagen fibril index were calculated for each horse. Collagen fibril MAD for the older horses was significantly less than that for the younger horses. Exercise did not significantly affect fibril diameter or distributions in either age group, and collagen fibril index did not differ significantly between groups. Age-related reduction in collagen fibril MAD agreed with findings for other tendons and species. Training did not accelerate age-related change in the CDET in contrast to a reported decrease in collagen fibril MAD in the superficial digital flexor tendon of horses trained long term. Our results support the concept that the functionally distinct nature of the CDET and superficial digital flexor tendon in horses results in fundamentally different responses to high-speed exercise regimens.
Successful conservative treatment outcomes and clinical characteristics of congenital hypoplasia of the extensor tendon central slip.
Hidaka, N; Uemura, T; Nakamura, H
Congenital hypoplasia of the extensor tendon central slip is a rare entity. This article describes the clinical characteristics in a series of 22 fingers in 16 patients (mean age: 10 months), and the outcomes of conservative treatment. Nine of 22 fingers were classified as slender or hypoplastic. Treatment with bracing was successful in 21 digits, resulting in full active extension of the proximal interphalangeal joint at a mean of 8.5 months after treatment. Bracing was unsuccessful in one digit, in which operative treatment resulted in a successful outcome. Some residual deformity was observed in ten fingers after a mean follow-up period of 2 years and 1 month. Congenital hypoplasia of the central slip can be treated successfully by the conservative hand bracing when worn with full compliance. Treatment time is extended by the infrequent application of the hand brace or in the case of hypoplastic slender fingers. IV.
A Clinical, Biological, and Biomaterials Perspective into Tendon Injuries and Regeneration
Walden, Grace; Liao, Xin; Donell, Simon; Raxworthy, Mike J.; Riley, Graham P.
Tendon injury is common and debilitating, and it is associated with long-term pain and ineffective healing. It is estimated to afflict 25% of the adult population and is often a career-ending disease in athletes and racehorses. Tendon injury is associated with high morbidity, pain, and long-term suffering for the patient. Due to the low cellularity and vascularity of tendon tissue, once damage has occurred, the repair process is slow and inefficient, resulting in mechanically, structurally, and functionally inferior tissue. Current treatment options focus on pain management, often being palliative and temporary and ending in reduced function. Most treatments available do not address the underlying cause of the disease and, as such, are often ineffective with variable results. The need for an advanced therapeutic that addresses the underlying pathology is evident. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is an emerging field that is aimed at stimulating the body's own repair system to produce de novo tissue through the use of factors such as cells, proteins, and genes that are delivered by a biomaterial scaffold. Successful tissue engineering strategies for tendon regeneration should be built on a foundation of understanding of the molecular and cellular composition of healthy compared with damaged tendon, and the inherent differences seen in the tissue after disease. This article presents a comprehensive clinical, biological, and biomaterials insight into tendon tissue engineering and regeneration toward more advanced therapeutics. PMID:27596929
An assessment of filamentous carbon fibre for the treatment of tendon injury in the horse.
Goodship, A E; Brown, P N; Yeats, J J; Jenkins, D H; Silver, I A
The results of an assessment of carbon fibre for biological use are given, with particular reference to the clinical use of the material in the treatment of equine tendon injury. Biocompatability of the fibres is assessed using fibroblast cell cultures and replacement of normal tendon with carbon fibre prostheses in experimental animals. The rationale and technique for using this material in clinical cases of tendon injury in the racehorse are described. Results are given from 62 implant operations in a limited series of 40 horses.
The prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendon injuries in Australian football players beyond a time-loss definition.
Docking, S I; Rio, E; Cook, J; Orchard, J W; Fortington, L V
Little is known about the prevalence and associated of morbidity of tendon problems. With only severe cases of tendon problems missing games, players that have their training and performance impacted are not captured by traditional injury surveillance. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of Achilles and patellar tendon problems in elite male Australian football players using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) overuse questionnaire, compared to a time-loss definition. Male athletes from 12 professional Australian football teams were invited to complete a monthly questionnaire over a 9-month period in the 2016 pre- and competitive season. The OSTRC overuse injury questionnaire was used to measure the prevalence and severity of Achilles and patellar tendon symptoms and was compared to traditional match-loss statistics. A total of 441 participants were included. Of all participants, 21.5% (95% CI: 17.9-25.6) and 25.2% (95% CI 21.3-29.4) reported Achilles or patellar tendon problems during the season, respectively. Based on the traditional match-loss definition, a combined 4.1% of participants missed games due to either Achilles or patellar tendon injury. A greater average monthly prevalence was observed during the pre-season compared to the competitive season. Achilles and patellar tendon problems are prevalent in elite male Australian football players. These injuries are not adequately captured using a traditional match-loss definition. Prevention of these injuries may be best targeted during the off- and pre-season due to higher prevalence of symptoms during the pre-season compared to during the competitive season. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[Isokinetic assessment with two years follow-up of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendons].
Condouret, J; Cohn, J; Ferret, J-M; Lemonsu, A; Vasconcelos, W; Dejour, D; Potel, J-F
This retrospective multicentric study was designed to assess the outcome of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles two years after Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare muscles recovery depending on the type of graft and individual variables like age, gender, level of sport, but also in terms of discomfort, pain and functional score. The results focused on the subjective and objective IKDC scores, SF36, the existence or not of subjective disorders and their location. The review included isokinetic muscle tests concentric and eccentric extensors/flexors but also internal rotators/external rotators with analysis of mean work and mean power. One hundred and twenty-seven patients were included with an average age 29 years (+/-10). They all had an ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendon with single or double bundles. In the serie, the average muscles deficit at two years was 10% for the flexors and extensors but with a significant dispersion. Significant differences were not noted in the mean values of all parameters in term of sex or age (over 30 years or not), neither the type of sport, nor of clinical assessment (Class A and B of objective IKDC score), nor the existence of anterior knee pain. There was a relationship between the level of extensor or flexor recovery and the quality of functional results with minimal muscle deficits close to 5% if the IKDC score was over 90 and deficits falling to 15% in the group with IKDC score less than 90. The type of reconstruction (patellar tendon versus hamstrings) had an influence on the muscle deficit. For extensors, the recovery was the same in the two groups, more than 90% at two years and the distribution of these two populations by level of deficit was quite the same. For flexors, residual deficits were significantly higher in the hamstrings group on the three studied parameters whatever the speed and the type of contraction (concentric or eccentric) with an average deficit of 14 to 18
Effect of tendon vibration during wide-pulse neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle force production in people with spinal cord injury (SCI).
Bochkezanian, Vanesa; Newton, Robert U; Trajano, Gabriel S; Vieira, Amilton; Pulverenti, Timothy S; Blazevich, Anthony J
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in skeletal muscles in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) with the aim of increasing muscle recruitment and thus muscle force production. NMES has been conventionally used in clinical practice as functional electrical stimulation (FES), using low levels of evoked force that cannot optimally stimulate muscular strength and mass improvements, and thus trigger musculoskeletal changes in paralysed muscles. The use of high intensity intermittent NMES training using wide-pulse width and moderate-intensity as a strength training tool could be a promising method to increase muscle force production in people with SCI. However, this type of protocol has not been clinically adopted because it may generate rapid muscle fatigue and thus prevent the performance of repeated high-intensity muscular contractions in paralysed muscles. Moreover, superimposing patellar tendon vibration onto the wide-pulse width NMES has been shown to elicit further increases in impulse or, at least, reduce the rate of fatigue in repeated contractions in able-bodied populations, but there is a lack of evidence to support this argument in people with SCI. Nine people with SCI received two NMES protocols with and without superimposing patellar tendon vibration on different days (i.e. STIM and STIM+vib), which consisted of repeated 30 Hz trains of 58 wide-pulse width (1000 μs) symmetric biphasic pulses (0.033-s inter-pulse interval; 2 s stimulation train; 2-s inter-train interval) being delivered to the dominant quadriceps femoris. Starting torque was 20% of maximal doublet-twitch torque and stimulations continued until torque declined to 50% of the starting torque. Total knee extensor impulse was calculated as the primary outcome variable. Total knee extensor impulse increased in four subjects when patellar tendon vibration was imposed (59.2 ± 15.8%) but decreased in five subjects (- 31.3 ± 25.7%). However, there were no
Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, 2006 Radiology Corner Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Contributors: CPT Michael...treatment of a 56-year-old man with complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon . The mechanism of injury, symptoms, and findings at physical...be used in pre-operative planning. Introduction Rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a relatively uncommon injury, but delayed diagnosis may
Patella Tendon Injuries Secondary to Cement Spacers Used at First-Stage Revision of Infected Total Knee Replacement
Wilson, Katherine; Kothwal, Rahul; Khan, Wasim S.; Williams, Rhodri; Morgan-Jones, Rhidian
We describe a series of three patients who sustained patella tendon injuries in infected total knee arthroplasties following the use of a static cement spacer at first-stage knee revision. The patella tendon injuries resulted in significant compromise to wound healing and knee stability requiring multiple surgeries. The mid-term function was poor with an Oxford score at 24 months ranging from 12 to 20. Based on our experience, we advise caution in the use of static cement spacer blocks. If they are to be used, we recommend that they should be keyed in the bone to prevent patella tendon injuries. PMID:25905106
The use of motion analysis to measure pain-related behaviour in a rat model of degenerative tendon injuries.
Fu, Sai-Chuen; Chan, Kai-Ming; Chan, Lai-Shan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Lui, Po-Yee Pauline
Chronic tendinopathy is characterized with longstanding activity-related pain with degenerative tendon injuries. An objective tool to measure painful responses in animal models is essential for the development of effective treatment for tendinopathy. Gait analysis has been developed to monitor the inflammatory pain in small animals. We reported the use of motion analysis to monitor gait changes in a rat model of degenerative tendon injury. Intratendinous injection of collagenase into the left patellar tendon of Sprague Dawley rat was used to induce degenerative tendon injury, while an equal volume of saline was injected in the control groups. Motion analyses with a high speed video camera were performed on all rats at pre-injury, 2, 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks post injection. In the end-point study, the rats were sacrificed to obtain tendon samples for histological examination after motion analyses. In the follow-up study, repeated motion analyses were performed on another group of collagenase-treated and saline-treated rats. The results showed that rats with injured patellar tendon exhibited altered walking gait as compared to the controls. The change in double stance duration in the collagenase-treated rats was reversible by administration of buprenorphrine (p=0.029), it suggested that the detected gait changes were associated with pain. Comparisons of end-point and follow-up studies revealed the confounding effects of training, which led to higher gait velocities and probably a different adaptive response to tendon pain in the trained rats. The results showed that motion analysis could be used to measure activity-related chronic tendon pain.
Treatment of peroneal nerve injuries with simultaneous tendon transfer and nerve exploration.
Ho, Bryant; Khan, Zubair; Switaj, Paul J; Ochenjele, George; Fuchs, Daniel; Dahl, William; Cederna, Paul; Kung, Theodore A; Kadakia, Anish R
Common peroneal nerve palsy leading to foot drop is difficult to manage and has historically been treated with extended bracing with expectant waiting for return of nerve function. Peroneal nerve exploration has traditionally been avoided except in cases of known traumatic or iatrogenic injury, with tendon transfers being performed in a delayed fashion after exhausting conservative treatment. We present a new strategy for management of foot drop with nerve exploration and concomitant tendon transfer. We retrospectively reviewed a series of 12 patients with peroneal nerve palsies that were treated with tendon transfer from 2005 to 2011. Of these patients, seven were treated with simultaneous peroneal nerve exploration and repair at the time of tendon transfer. Patients with both nerve repair and tendon transfer had superior functional results with active dorsiflexion in all patients, compared to dorsiflexion in 40% of patients treated with tendon transfers alone. Additionally, 57% of patients treated with nerve repair and tendon transfer were able to achieve enough function to return to running, compared to 20% in patients with tendon transfer alone. No patient had full return of native motor function resulting in excessive dorsiflexion strength. The results of our limited case series for this rare condition indicate that simultaneous nerve repair and tendon transfer showed no detrimental results and may provide improved function over tendon transfer alone.
Tendon 'turnover lengthening' technique.
Cerovac, S; Miranda, B H
Tendon defect reconstruction is amongst the most technically challenging areas in hand surgery. Tendon substance deficiency reconstruction techniques include lengthening, grafting, two-stage reconstruction and tendon transfers, however each is associated with unique challenges over and above direct repair. We describe a novel 'turnover lengthening' technique for hand tendons that has successfully been applied to the repair of several cases, including a case of attritional flexor and traumatic extensor tendon rupture in two presented patients where primary tenorrhaphy was not possible. In both cases a good post-operative outcome was achieved, as the patients were happy having returned back to normal activities of daily living such that they were discharged 12 weeks post-operatively. Our technique avoids the additional morbidity and complications associated with grafting, transfers and two stage reconstructions. It is quick, simple and reproducible for defects not exceeding 3-4 cm, provides a means of immediate one stage reconstruction, no secondary donor site morbidity and does not compromise salvage by tendon transfer and/or two-stage reconstruction in cases of failure. To our knowledge no such technique has been previously been described to reconstruct such hand tendon defects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[Rupture of the tendon of the tibialis anterior muscle : Etiology, clinical symptoms and treatment].
Waizy, H; Bouillon, B; Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Yao, D; Ettinger, S; Claassen, L; Plaass, C; Danniilidis, K; Arbab, D
Ruptures of the tendon of the tibialis anterior muscle tend to occur in the context of degenerative impairments. This mainly affects the distal avascular portion of the tendon. Owing to the good compensation through the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum muscles, diagnosis is often delayed. In addition to the clinical examination, magnetic resonance inaging (MRI) diagnostics are of particular importance, although damage or rupture of the tendon can also be demonstrated sonographically. Therapeutic measures include conservative or operative measures, depending on the clinical symptoms. Conservative stabilization of the ankle can be achieved by avoiding plantar flexion using a peroneal orthosis or an ankle-foot orthosis. Subsequent problems, such as metatarsalgia or overloading of the medial foot edge can be addressed by insoles or a corresponding shoe adjustment. An operative procedure is indicated when there is corresponding suffering due to pressure and functional impairment. The direct end-to-end reconstruction of the tendon is only rarely possible in cases of delayed diagnosis due to the degenerative situation and the retraction of the tendon stumps. Depending on the defect size and the tendon quality, various operative techniques, such as rotationplasty, free transplants or tendon transfer can be used.
Minimally invasive repair of the tibialis anterior tendon using a semitendinosus autograft.
Michels, Frederick; Van Der Bauwhede, Jan; Oosterlinck, Dirk; Thomas, Sam; Guillo, Stéphane
Ruptures of the tibialis anterior tendon are rare but can cause substantial functional deficiencies. The literature regarding the treatment of such injuries is very limited. Atraumatic ruptures often occur in the presence of an abnormal tendon structure, and retraction often makes end-to-end repair impossible. With traumatic lesions, the risk of developing both adhesions and scar tissue is high. This study assesses the results of a surgical reconstruction using the interposition of a semitendinosus tendon autograft in 12 patients. Three patients had a traumatic rupture, and 9 patients had an atraumatic rupture. In 8 patients, the procedure was carried out using a minimally invasive technique. The average postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot score was 95.7 in the atraumatic group and 94.7 in the traumatic group. Active dorsiflexion was possible after 2 to 3 weeks. We believe that the interposition of a strong, healthy tendon facilitated healing and allowed early weight bearing. All patients had good recovery of dorsiflexion and gait. Repairing a ruptured tibialis anterior tendon using a semitendinosus autograft was a reliable technique and offered a good result. With the minimally invasive approach, there was no need to divide the extensor retinaculum, which we believe allowed faster recovery and reduced the risk of adhesions and wound healing problems. Level IV, retrospective case series.
Human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells improve healing after collagenase tendon injury in the rat
Background Mesenchymal stromal cells attract much interest in tissue regeneration because of their capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origin cells, their paracrine properties and their possible use in autologous transplantations. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and reparative potential of implanted human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), prepared under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions utilizing human mixed platelet lysate as a culture supplement, in a collagenase Achilles tendon injury model in rats. Methods Eighty-one rats with collagenase-induced injury were divided into two groups. The first group received human mesenchymal stromal cells injected into the site of injury 3 days after lesion induction, while the second group received saline. Biomechanical testing, morphometry and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry of collagens I, II and III, versican and aggrecan, neovascularization, and hMSC survival were performed 2, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Results Human mesenchymal stromal cell-treated rats had a significantly better extracellular matrix structure and a larger amount of collagen I and collagen III. Neovascularization was also increased in hMSC-treated rats 2 and 4 weeks after tendon injury. MTCO2 (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II) positivity confirmed the presence of hMSCs 2, 4 and 6 weeks after transplantation. Collagen II deposits and alizarin red staining for bone were found in 6 hMSC- and 2 saline-treated tendons 6 weeks after injury. The intensity of anti-versican and anti-aggrecan staining did not differ between the groups. Conclusions hMSCs can support tendon healing through better vascularization as well as through larger deposits and better organization of the extracellular matrix. The treatment procedure was found to be safe; however, cartilage and bone formation at the implantation site should be taken into account when planning subsequent in vivo and clinical trials on tendinopathy as an expected
[Quadriceps tendon insufficiency and rupture : Treatment options in total knee arthroplasty].
Thiele, K; von Roth, P; Pfitzner, T; Preininger, B; Perka, C
Quadriceps tendon injuries and insufficiencies in total knee arthroplasty are rare, but are followed by a devastating complication that left untreated leads to a complete loss of function of the knee. This review article summarizes the functional anatomy, risk factors, and the prevalence and diagnosis of quadriceps tendon injuries, in addition to the possible management options for partial and complete ruptures. The treatment options are adapted according to the extent of the loss of function (partial, complete) and the duration of the injury (acute vs chronic). Furthermore, the choice of treatment should take into account the quality and availability of primary tissue, the patient's general health, along with their likely functional requirements. Conservative treatment is often justified in partial ruptures with good results. Complete ruptures require surgical intervention and multiple operative techniques are described. Treatment options for acute ruptures include direct primary repair with autogenous or synthetic tissue augmentation. In the case of chronic insufficiency and a lack of soft-tissue surroundings, reconstruction with the aid of a muscle flap or allograft tissue can be considered. All surgical intervention techniques used so far have been fraught with complications and rarely lead to satisfactory results. A new surgical approach to the reconstruction and augmentation of the extensor mechanism consists of the use of a synthetic mesh. The technique is described here in detail.
Nintendo Wii related Achilles tendon rupture: first reported case and literature review of motion sensing video game injuries.
Singh, Rohit; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; Moores, Thomas Steven; Patel, Amit
Achilles tendon ruptures tend to occur more commonly in healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. The injury is usually due to sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot, all of which occur during high impact activities. We present the first reported case of interactive activity with Nintendo Wii games that have resulted in Achilles tendon rupture in a 46-year-old man. There have been no previous reports of Achilles tendon rupture with Nintendo Wii usage; it is a relatively uncommon mode of injury and is rare in terms of epidemiology of motion sensing video game injuries. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Nintendo Wii related Achilles tendon rupture: first reported case and literature review of motion sensing video game injuries
Singh, Rohit; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; Moores, Thomas Steven; Patel, Amit
Achilles tendon ruptures tend to occur more commonly in healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. The injury is usually due to sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot, all of which occur during high impact activities. We present the first reported case of interactive activity with Nintendo Wii games that have resulted in Achilles tendon rupture in a 46-year-old man. There have been no previous reports of Achilles tendon rupture with Nintendo Wii usage; it is a relatively uncommon mode of injury and is rare in terms of epidemiology of motion sensing video game injuries. PMID:24827648
Achilles tendon rupture: physiotherapy and endoscopy-assisted surgical treatment of a common sports injury
Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Bozkurt, Murat; Turhan, Egemen; Dönmez, Gürhan; Demirel, Murat; Kaya, Defne; Ateşok, Kıvanç; Atay, Özgür Ahmet; Maffulli, Nicola
Although the Achilles tendon (AT) is the strongest tendon in the human body, rupture of this tendon is one of the most common sports injuries in the athletic population. Despite numerous nonoperative and operative methods that have been described, there is no universal agreement about the optimal management strategy of acute total AT ruptures. The management of AT ruptures should aim to minimize the morbidity of the injury, optimize rapid return to full function, and prevent complications. Since endoscopy-assisted percutaneous AT repair allows direct visualization of the synovia and protects the paratenon that is important in biological healing of the AT, this technique becomes a reasonable treatment option in AT ruptures. Furthermore, Achilles tendoscopy technique may decrease the complications about the sural nerve. Also, early functional postoperative physiotherapy following surgery may improve the surgical outcomes. PMID:24198562
Informing Stem Cell-Based Tendon Tissue Engineering Approaches with Embryonic Tendon Development.
Okech, William; Kuo, Catherine K
Adult tendons fail to regenerate normal tissue after injury, and instead form dysfunctional scar tissue with abnormal mechanical properties. Surgical repair with grafts is the current standard to treat injuries, but faces significant limitations including pain and high rates of re-injury. To address this, we aim to regenerate new, normal tendons to replace dysfunctional tendons. A common approach to tendon tissue engineering is to design scaffolds and bioreactors based on adult tendon properties that can direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. Despite significant progress, advances have been limited due, in part, to a need for markers and potent induction cues. Our goal is to develop novel tendon tissue engineering approaches informed by embryonic tendon development. We are characterizing structure-property relationships of embryonic tendon to identify design parameters for three-dimensional scaffolds and bioreactor mechanical loading systems to direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. We will review studies in which we quantified changes in the mechanical and biochemical properties of tendon during embryonic development and elucidated specific mechanisms of functional property elaboration. We then examined the effects of these mechanical and biochemical factors on embryonic tendon cell behavior. Using custom-designed bioreactors, we also examined the effects of dynamic mechanical loading and growth factor treatment on embryonic tendon cells. Our findings have established cues to induce tenogenesis as well as metrics to evaluate differentiation. We finish by discussing how we have evaluated the tenogenic differentiation potential of adult stem cells by comparing their responses to that of embryonic tendon cells in these culture systems.
Association of polymorphisms rs1800012 in COL1A1 with sports-related tendon and ligament injuries: a meta-analysis
Wang, Chunguang; Li, Hao; Chen, Kang; Wu, Bing; Liu, Haifeng
It has been reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800012 in COL1A1 might be associated with the susceptibility to sports-related tendon and ligament injuries such as ACL injuries, Achilles tendon injuries, shoulder dislocations and tennis elbow. But the data from different studies have been conflicting. Here we attempted to systematically summarize and clarify the association between the SNP and sports-related tendon and ligament injuries risk. Six eligible studies including 933 cases and 1,381 controls were acquired from PubMed, Web Of Science and Cochrane library databases. Significant association was identified in homozygote model (TT versus GG: OR=0.17, 95%CI 0.08-0.35, PH=0.00) and recessive model (TT versus GT/GG: OR=0.21, 95%CI 0.10-0.44, PH=0.00). Our results indicated that COL1A1 rs1800012 polymorphism may be associated with the reduced risk of sports-related tendon or ligament injuries, especially in ACL injuries, and that rare TT may played as a protective role. PMID:28206959
Transcription factor EGR1 directs tendon differentiation and promotes tendon repair
Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Charvet, Benjamin; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Havis, Emmanuelle; Ronsin, Olivier; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Robert, Nicolas; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E.; Baumberger, Tristan; Doursounian, Levon; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine
Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen. Here, we investigated the function of the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 in tendon formation, healing, and repair using rodent animal models and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adult tendons of Egr1–/– mice displayed a deficiency in the expression of tendon genes, including Scx, Col1a1, and Col1a2, and were mechanically weaker compared with their WT littermates. EGR1 was recruited to the Col1a1 and Col2a1 promoters in postnatal mouse tendons in vivo. Egr1 was required for the normal gene response following tendon injury in a mouse model of Achilles tendon healing. Forced Egr1 expression programmed MSCs toward the tendon lineage and promoted the formation of in vitro–engineered tendons from MSCs. The application of EGR1-producing MSCs increased the formation of tendon-like tissues in a rat model of Achilles tendon injury. We provide evidence that the ability of EGR1 to promote tendon differentiation is partially mediated by TGF-β2. This study demonstrates EGR1 involvement in adult tendon formation, healing, and repair and identifies Egr1 as a putative target in tendon repair strategies. PMID:23863709
Gouty involvement of the patella and extensor mechanism of the knee mimicking aggressive neoplasm. A case series.
Kester, Christopher; Wallace, Matthew T; Jelinek, James; Aboulafia, Albert
Gout is a common inflammatory crystal deposition disease that occurs in many joints throughout the body. Active gout is most often associated with painful synovitis causing searing joint pains, but gout can also produce large masses of space-occupying deposits called tophi. Tophi are most frequently seen in juxta-articular locations with or without bony erosion and are often misdiagnosed as degenerative joint disease. Soft tissue deposits and tendon involvement are also known manifestations of gout, but can present with indeterminate and alarming findings on imaging. We present three cases of tophaceous gout mimicking aggressive neoplasms in the extensor mechanism of the knee. All cases presented as extensor tendon masses eroding into the patella, with imaging findings initially concerning for primary musculoskeletal malignancy.
Proteomic differences between native and tissue‐engineered tendon and ligament
Tew, Simon R.; Peffers, Mandy; Canty‐Laird, Elizabeth G.; Comerford, Eithne
Tendons and ligaments (T/Ls) play key roles in the musculoskeletal system, but they are susceptible to traumatic or age‐related rupture, leading to severe morbidity as well as increased susceptibility to degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. Tissue engineering represents an attractive therapeutic approach to treating T/L injury but it is hampered by our poor understanding of the defining characteristics of the two tissues. The present study aimed to determine differences in the proteomic profile between native T/Ls and tissue engineered (TE) T/L constructs. The canine long digital extensor tendon and anterior cruciate ligament were analyzed along with 3D TE fibrin‐based constructs created from their cells. Native tendon and ligament differed in their content of key structural proteins, with the ligament being more abundant in fibrocartilaginous proteins. 3D T/L TE constructs contained less extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and had a greater proportion of cellular‐associated proteins than native tissue, corresponding to their low collagen and high DNA content. Constructs were able to recapitulate native T/L tissue characteristics particularly with regard to ECM proteins. However, 3D T/L TE constructs had similar ECM and cellular protein compositions indicating that cell source may not be an important factor for T/L tissue engineering. PMID:27080496
70° frontal visualization of lateral compartment of the elbow allows extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon release with preservation of the radial lateral collateral ligament.
Arrigoni, Paolo; Fossati, Chiara; Zottarelli, Leonardo; Brady, Paul C; Cabitza, Paolo; Randelli, Pietro
To determine whether the radial component of the lateral collateral ligament (R-LCL) and extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) are consistently visible, using a 70° arthroscope, as parallel structures in the extra-articular space of the elbow, and to evaluate the clinical outcomes of these techniques in a series of patients. An arthroscopic ECRB tendon release was performed between 2008 and 2010. Eighteen patients were retrospectively evaluated at a minimum of 24 months' follow-up. The surgeon performed the ECRB release while protecting the R-LCL and viewing the structures extra-articularly with a 70° arthroscope through the anteromedial portal. Patients underwent surgery if they presented with localized tenderness and pain not responding to conservative treatment for 12 months and had magnetic resonance imaging scans indicating tendinopathy or degeneration. Arthritis, posterolateral rotatory instability, trauma, and previous surgeries were exclusion criteria. Intraoperative videos were reviewed and a clinical examination was performed by an independent reviewer at 24 months postoperatively. Patients were also evaluated with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score; Andrews-Carson score; and shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Direct varus stress was applied in extension and flexion (40°), and the posterolateral pivot-shift and chair tests were performed. Visualization with the 70° arthroscope through the anteromedial portal was successful in all of the cases (100%). Visualization of the residual ECRB tendon stump, as well as the posterior common extensor tendon, was also achieved 94% of the time. The final mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score and Andrews-Carson score were 82.5 (range, 60 to 100) and 185.3 (range, 125 to 200), respectively. The mean postoperative score on the shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire was 20.14 (range, 5 to 57.5). Clinical tests showed stability in all the cases. The 70° arthroscope
Tendon transfer options about the shoulder in patients with brachial plexus injury.
Elhassan, Bassem; Bishop, Allen T; Hartzler, Robert U; Shin, Alexander Y; Spinner, Robert J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early outcome of shoulder tendon transfer in patients with brachial plexus injury and to determine the factors associated with favorable outcomes. Fifty-two patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury and a paralytic shoulder were included in the study. All patients were evaluated at a mean of nineteen months (range, twelve to twenty-eight months) postoperatively. Twelve patients had a C5-6 injury, twenty-two had a C5-7 injury, five had a C5-8 injury, and thirteen had a C5-T1 injury. Transfer of the lower portion of the trapezius muscle was performed either in isolation or as part of multiple tendon transfers to improve shoulder function. Additional muscles transferred included the middle and upper portions of the trapezius, levator scapulae, upper portion of the serratus anterior, teres major, latissimus dorsi, and pectoralis major. All patients had a stable shoulder postoperatively. Shoulder external rotation improved substantially in all patients from no external rotation (hand-on-belly position) to a mean of 20° (p = 0.001). Patients who underwent additional transfers had marginal improvement of shoulder flexion, from a mean of 10° preoperatively to 60° postoperatively, and of shoulder abduction, from a mean of 10° to 50° (p = 0.01 for each). Mean pain on a visual analog scale improved from 6 points preoperatively to 2 points postoperatively. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score improved from 59 to 47 points (p = 0.001). The mean Subjective Shoulder Value improved from 5% to 40% (p = 0.001). Greater age, higher body mass index, and more extensive nerve injury were associated with a poorer DASH score in a multivariate analysis (p = 0.003). Tendon transfers about the shoulder can improve shoulder function in patients with brachial plexus injury resulting in a paralytic shoulder. Significant improvement of shoulder external rotation but only marginal improvements of shoulder
[Upright posture of man and morphologic evolution of the musculi extensores digitorum pedis with reference to evolutionary myology. III].
The following anatomical objects were studied with regard to myology during evolution: M. extensor hallucis longus (MEHL), M. extensor digitorum longus (MEDL) with M. peroneus tertius (MP III), M. peroneus brevis (MPB) with M. peroneus digiti V (MPD V), M. extensor hallucis brevis (MEHB), M. extensor digitorum brevis (MEDB), and the Retinaculum musculorum extensorum imum (RMEI). The study was carried out by the preparation of 3 different groups of material. The 1st group consists of lower extremities of humans. The number of the extremities differs for the particular objects between 151 and 358 (see page 381). The 2nd group of material consists of 122 Membra pelvina from Marsupialia, Insectivora, and Primates. Table 1 shows as well the mammalian species as the number of the studied extremities. The extremities of the 1st and 2nd group were preserved in an manner suitable for a macroscopic preparation. The 3rd group of material consists of 71 lower extremities from embryos and fetus. The lower legs and feet were stained either according to the method described by Morel and Bassal with eosin added or according to Weigert. From this material, complete series of cross sections were prepared. Table 2 shows the age of the embryos (VCL [mm]) as well as the number of the studied extremities. It is important that up to the age of 46 mm VCL the difference in the age of the embryos usually amounts from 0.5 to 1.0 mm. This small difference in the age of the embryos and fetus allows a very good follow up of the changes in construction during the organogenesis. The comparison of the 3 different groups shows the following changes for the above mentioned muscles: The M. extensor hallucis longus (MEHL) is a muscle which is not split. The same result applies for its tendon which inserts at the distal phalanx of the hallux. This primitive form of the muscle amounts actually to 51.12% in human beings. In 48.88% of the cases, additional tendons and muscles are formed by the MEHL. Most
Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A.; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H.
Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135
Positioning Techniques to Reduce the Occurrence of DeQuervain's Tendonitis in Nursing Mothers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeQuervain's tendonitis is an inflammation of two tendons: the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus as they cross in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. Symptoms include pain, swelling along the radial aspect of the wrist, and a decrease in thumb motion. A positive Finkelstein's test at examination is seen. Frequently…
The prevalence of the extensor digiti minimi tendon of the hand and its variants in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The extensor digiti minimi (EDM) is frequently used in the case of an abduction deformity of the little finger. It is also considered as a main resource for tendon transfer. However, it shows many variations in the human hand, which include splitting into two or more slips and sending a slip to the fourth finger, named the extensor digiti minimi et quarti (EDMQ). The aim of this systematic review is to perform an evidence synthesis on the prevalence of the EDM and its variants. Twenty-six cadaveric studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 2247 hands. Meta-analysis results yielded an overall pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) of the EDM of 99.7% and PPEs of 11.5, 77.6, 7 and 0.6% for the single-, double-, triple- and quadruple-slip EDM, respectively. For the single-slip EDM, the frequencies were such that Indians > Middle Eastern > Europeans > Japanese > North Americans. For the double-slip EDM, the frequencies were such that Japanese > North Americans = Europeans > Middle Eastern > Indians. No significance was found with regard to hand side. The true EDMQ prevalence was found to be at 7.3%, whereas its crude prevalence was 8%. This artilce offers reference values on the prevalence of the EDM and its variants, which are thought to be highly relevant to both anatomists and clinicians.
Application of a novel Kalman filter based block matching method to ultrasound images for hand tendon displacement estimation.
Lai, Ting-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-I; Shih, Cho-Chiang; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chung
Information about tendon displacement is important for allowing clinicians to not only quantify preoperative tendon injuries but also to identify any adhesive scaring between tendon and adjacent tissue. The Fisher-Tippett (FT) similarity measure has recently been shown to be more accurate than the Laplacian sum of absolute differences (SAD) and Gaussian sum of squared differences (SSD) similarity measures for tracking tendon displacement in ultrasound B-mode images. However, all of these similarity measures can easily be influenced by the quality of the ultrasound image, particularly its signal-to-noise ratio. Ultrasound images of injured hands are unfortunately often of poor quality due to the presence of adhesive scars. The present study investigated a novel Kalman-filter scheme for overcoming this problem. Three state-of-the-art tracking methods (FT, SAD, and SSD) were used to track the displacements of phantom and cadaver tendons, while FT was used to track human tendons. These three tracking methods were combined individually with the proposed Kalman-filter (K1) scheme and another Kalman-filter scheme used in a previous study to optimize the displacement trajectories of the phantom and cadaver tendons. The motion of the human extensor digitorum communis tendon was measured in the present study using the FT-K1 scheme. The experimental results indicated that SSD exhibited better accuracy in the phantom experiments, whereas FT exhibited better performance for tracking real tendon motion in the cadaver experiments. All three tracking methods were influenced by the signal-to-noise ratio of the images. On the other hand, the K1 scheme was able to optimize the tracking trajectory of displacement in all experiments, even from a location with a poor image quality. The human experimental data indicated that the normal tendons were displaced more than the injured tendons, and that the motion ability of the injured tendon was restored after appropriate rehabilitation
Sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy for treatment of common extensor tendinosis in the elbow.
McShane, John M; Nazarian, Levon N; Harwood, Marc I
Chronic tendinosis of the common extensor tendon of the lateral elbow can be a difficult problem to treat. We report our experience with sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy to relieve pain and improve function in patients with this condition. We performed sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy on 58 consecutive patients who had persistent pain and disability resulting from common extensor tendinosis. Under a local anesthetic and sonographic guidance, a needle was advanced into the common extensor tendon, and the tip of the needle was used to repeatedly fenestrate the tendinotic tissue. Calcifications, if present, were mechanically fragmented, and the adjacent bony surface of the apex and face of the epicondyle were abraded. Finally, the fenestrated tendon was infiltrated with a solution containing corticosteroid mixed with bupivacaine. After the procedure, patients were instructed to perform passive stretches and to undergo physical therapy. During a subsequent telephone interview, patients answered questions about their experience, their functioning level, and their perceptions of procedure outcome. Fifty-five (95%) of 58 patients were contacted by telephone and agreed to participate in the study. Thirty-five (63.6%) of 55 respondents reported excellent outcomes, 16.4% good, 7.3% fair, and 12.7% poor. The average follow-up time from the date of the procedure to the date of the interview was 28 months (range, 17-44 months). No adverse events were reported; 85.5% stated that they would refer a friend or close relative for the procedure. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy for lateral elbow tendinosis is a safe, effective, and viable alternative for patients in whom all other nonsurgical treatments failed.
Therapeutics for tendon regeneration: a multidisciplinary review of tendon research for improved healing.
Paredes, J J; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly
Tendon injuries, known as tendinopathies, are common musculoskeletal injuries that affect a wide range of the population. Canonical tendon healing is characterized by fibrosis, scar formation, and the loss of tissue mechanical and structural properties. Understanding the regenerative tendon environment is an area of increasing interest in the field of musculoskeletal research. Previous studies have focused on utilizing individual elements from the fields of biomechanics, developmental biology, cell and growth factor therapy, and tissue engineering in an attempt to develop regenerative tendon therapeutics. Still, the specific mechanism for regenerative healing remains unknown. In this review, we highlight some of the current approaches of tendon therapeutics and elucidate the differences along the tendon midsubstance and enthesis, exhibiting the necessity of location-specific tendon therapeutics. Furthermore, we emphasize the necessity of further interdisciplinary research in order to reach the desired goal of fully understanding the mechanisms underlying regenerative healing. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Moderate treadmill running exercise prior to tendon injury enhances wound healing in aging rats
Zhang, Jianying; Yuan, Ting; Wang, James H-C.
The effect of exercise on wound healing in aging tendon was tested using a rat moderate treadmill running (MTR) model. The rats were divided into an MTR group that ran on a treadmill for 4 weeks and a control group that remained in cages. After MTR, a window defect was created in the patellar tendons of all rats and wound healing was analyzed. We found that MTR accelerated wound healing by promoting quicker closure of wounds, improving the organization of collagen fibers, and decreasing senescent cells in the wounded tendons when compared to the cage control. MTR also lowered vascularization, increased the numbers of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) and TSC proliferation than the control. Besides, MTR significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers, OCT-4 and Nanog, and tenocyte genes, Collagen I, Collagen III and tenomodulin, and down-regulated PPAR-γ, Collagen II and Runx-2 (non-tenocyte genes). These findings indicated that moderate exercise enhances healing of injuries in aging tendons through TSC based mechanisms, through which exercise regulates beneficial effects in tendons. This study reveals that appropriate exercise may be used in clinics to enhance tendon healing in aging patients. PMID:26885754
Moderate treadmill running exercise prior to tendon injury enhances wound healing in aging rats.
Zhang, Jianying; Yuan, Ting; Wang, James H-C
The effect of exercise on wound healing in aging tendon was tested using a rat moderate treadmill running (MTR) model. The rats were divided into an MTR group that ran on a treadmill for 4 weeks and a control group that remained in cages. After MTR, a window defect was created in the patellar tendons of all rats and wound healing was analyzed. We found that MTR accelerated wound healing by promoting quicker closure of wounds, improving the organization of collagen fibers, and decreasing senescent cells in the wounded tendons when compared to the cage control. MTR also lowered vascularization, increased the numbers of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) and TSC proliferation than the control. Besides, MTR significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers, OCT-4 and Nanog, and tenocyte genes, Collagen I, Collagen III and tenomodulin, and down-regulated PPAR-γ, Collagen II and Runx-2 (non-tenocyte genes). These findings indicated that moderate exercise enhances healing of injuries in aging tendons through TSC based mechanisms, through which exercise regulates beneficial effects in tendons. This study reveals that appropriate exercise may be used in clinics to enhance tendon healing in aging patients.
Specialization of tendon mechanical properties results from interfascicular differences
Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Udeze, Chineye P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R. C.
Tendons transfer force from muscle to bone. Specific tendons, including the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), also store and return energy. For efficient function, energy-storing tendons need to be more extensible than positional tendons such as the common digital extensor tendon (CDET), and when tested in vitro have a lower modulus and failure stress, but a higher failure strain. It is not known how differences in matrix organization contribute to distinct mechanical properties in functionally different tendons. We investigated the properties of whole tendons, tendon fascicles and the fascicular interface in the high-strain energy-storing SDFT and low-strain positional CDET. Fascicles failed at lower stresses and strains than tendons. The SDFT was more extensible than the CDET, but SDFT fascicles failed at lower strains than CDET fascicles, resulting in large differences between tendon and fascicle failure strain in the SDFT. At physiological loads, the stiffness at the fascicular interface was lower in the SDFT samples, enabling a greater fascicle sliding that could account for differences in tendon and fascicle failure strain. Sliding between fascicles prior to fascicle extension in the SDFT may allow the large extensions required in energy-storing tendons while protecting fascicles from damage. PMID:22764132
Specialization of tendon mechanical properties results from interfascicular differences.
Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Udeze, Chineye P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C
Tendons transfer force from muscle to bone. Specific tendons, including the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), also store and return energy. For efficient function, energy-storing tendons need to be more extensible than positional tendons such as the common digital extensor tendon (CDET), and when tested in vitro have a lower modulus and failure stress, but a higher failure strain. It is not known how differences in matrix organization contribute to distinct mechanical properties in functionally different tendons. We investigated the properties of whole tendons, tendon fascicles and the fascicular interface in the high-strain energy-storing SDFT and low-strain positional CDET. Fascicles failed at lower stresses and strains than tendons. The SDFT was more extensible than the CDET, but SDFT fascicles failed at lower strains than CDET fascicles, resulting in large differences between tendon and fascicle failure strain in the SDFT. At physiological loads, the stiffness at the fascicular interface was lower in the SDFT samples, enabling a greater fascicle sliding that could account for differences in tendon and fascicle failure strain. Sliding between fascicles prior to fascicle extension in the SDFT may allow the large extensions required in energy-storing tendons while protecting fascicles from damage.
Bilateral Patellar Tendon Rupture.
The knee is the most complex and largest joint in the body. Injuries to any part of this joint affect the entire body. There are multiple injuries that can occur to the knee, with the most common being ligament and meniscus tears. A not-so-common injury to the knee is a patellar tendon rupture. A bilateral patellar tendon rupture is extremely rare. A case study of a 43-year-old man who sustained a bilateral patellar tendon rupture while playing softball is used to present this devastating injury. This discussion includes the incidence and diagnosis of the tear, surgical repair, as well as a description of the comprehensive rehabilitation process necessary to allow the patient to return to normal physical activity. Risks and complications of this surgery and the expected outcomes are also presented.
Re-rupture rate of primarily repaired distal biceps tendon injuries.
Hinchey, John W; Aronowitz, Jessica G; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Morrey, Bernard F
Distal biceps tendon rupture is a common injury, and primary repair results in excellent return of function and strength. Complications resulting from distal biceps tendon repairs are well reported, but the incidence of re-ruptures has never been investigated. A search of the Mayo Clinic's Medical/Surgical Index was performed, and all distal biceps tendon repairs from January 1981 through May 2009 were identified. All patients who completed 12 months or more of follow-up were included. All charts were reviewed and patients contacted as necessary to identify a re-rupture. We also investigated the situation causing the re-rupture. We identified a total of 190 distal biceps tendon ruptures that underwent repair and met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 190 repairs, 172 (90.5%) were performed by the Mayo modification of the Boyd-Anderson 2-incision technique. Bilateral ruptures occurred in 13 patients (7.3%). Six primary ruptures (3.2%) occurred in women, 4 of the 6 being partial ruptures. Partial ruptures were found to be statistically more common than complete ruptures in women (P = .05). We identified 3 re-ruptures (1.5%), all occurring within 3 weeks of the index surgery. The re-rupture rate after primary repair of the distal biceps tendon is low at 1.5% and occurs within 3 weeks of index repair. This appears to be due to patient compliance and excessive force placed on repairs. We also found the incidence of women who sustain a distal biceps tendon tear to be 3.2%, with partial tears being statistically more common than complete ruptures. Level IV, case series, treatment study Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Proteomic differences between native and tissue-engineered tendon and ligament.
Kharaz, Yalda A; Tew, Simon R; Peffers, Mandy; Canty-Laird, Elizabeth G; Comerford, Eithne
Tendons and ligaments (T/Ls) play key roles in the musculoskeletal system, but they are susceptible to traumatic or age-related rupture, leading to severe morbidity as well as increased susceptibility to degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. Tissue engineering represents an attractive therapeutic approach to treating T/L injury but it is hampered by our poor understanding of the defining characteristics of the two tissues. The present study aimed to determine differences in the proteomic profile between native T/Ls and tissue engineered (TE) T/L constructs. The canine long digital extensor tendon and anterior cruciate ligament were analyzed along with 3D TE fibrin-based constructs created from their cells. Native tendon and ligament differed in their content of key structural proteins, with the ligament being more abundant in fibrocartilaginous proteins. 3D T/L TE constructs contained less extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and had a greater proportion of cellular-associated proteins than native tissue, corresponding to their low collagen and high DNA content. Constructs were able to recapitulate native T/L tissue characteristics particularly with regard to ECM proteins. However, 3D T/L TE constructs had similar ECM and cellular protein compositions indicating that cell source may not be an important factor for T/L tissue engineering. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Arthroscopic transtendinous repair of articular-sided pasta (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury.
Wang, Yi; Lu, Liangyu; Lu, Zhe; Xiao, Lei; Kang, Yifan; Wang, Zimin
To evaluate clinical efficacy of arthroscopic transtendinous repair of partial articular-sided PASTA (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury. From February 2011 to July 2014, 12 cases of PASTA, aged 29 to 72 years with an average of 52.9 ± 13.3 years, were treated arthoscopically. To repair PASTA, articular-sided rotator cuff tear was explored, injury site was punctured and labeled with PDS absorbable monofilament suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) suture, subacromial bursa was cleaned up with acromioplasty, and integrity of bursa-side rotator cuff was assessed. Then with arthroscope in glenohumeral joint, footprint of the bursa-side supraspinatus tendon was preserved, rivets were introduced into the joint through supraspinatus tendon, joint-side partial tear was sutured, and anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint was established. The patients were followed up post-operatively for 12-36 months, average 22 ± 7.3 months. The clinical outcomes were emulated with ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons) Shoulder Score system and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) Shoulder rating scale. The post-operative ASES score was 89.7 ± 5.6, higher than the pre-operative one 49.8 ± 9.8 (t = 12.25, P <0.0001). While UCLA scale increased from the pre-operative 17.3, ± 3.3 to the post-operative 30.4 ± 3.2 points (t = 9.87, P <0.0001), with a satisfaction rate of 11/12 (91.7%). Trans-tendon repair is ideal for PASTA with advantage of maximal preservation of the normal rotator cuff tissue, anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint and stable fixation of tendon-bone interface.
Ultrasonographic Imaging and Anti-inflammatory Therapy of Muscle and Tendon Injuries Using Polymer Nanoparticles
Kim, Gi-Wook; Kang, Changsun; Oh, Young-Bin; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Dongwon
Ultrasonography is a reliable diagnostic modality for muscle and tendon injuries, but it has been challenging to find right diagnosis of minor musculoskeletal injuries by conventional ultrasonographic imaging. A large amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known to be generated during tissue damages such as mechanical injury and therefore H2O2 holds great potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker for mechanical injuries in the musculoskeletal system. We previously developed poly(vanillyl alcohol-co-oxalate) (PVAX), which rapidly scavenges H2O2 and exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in H2O2-associated diseases. Based on the notion that PVAX nanoparticles generate CO2 bubbles through H2O2-triggered hydrolysis, we postulated that PVAX nanoparticles could serve as ultrasonographic contrast agents and therapeutic agents for musculoskeletal injuries associated with overproduction of H2O2. In the agarose gel phantom study, PVAX nanoparticles continuously generated CO2 bubbles to enhance ultrasonographic echogenicity significantly. Contusion injury significantly elevated the level of H2O2 in skeletal muscles and Achilles tendons. Upon intramuscular injection, PVAX nanoparticles significantly elevated the ultrasound contrast and suppressed inflammation and apoptosis in the contusion injury of musculoskeletal systems. We anticipate that PVAX nanoparticles hold great translational potential as theranostic agents for musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:28744328
Ultrasonographic Imaging and Anti-inflammatory Therapy of Muscle and Tendon Injuries Using Polymer Nanoparticles.
Kim, Gi-Wook; Kang, Changsun; Oh, Young-Bin; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Dongwon
Ultrasonography is a reliable diagnostic modality for muscle and tendon injuries, but it has been challenging to find right diagnosis of minor musculoskeletal injuries by conventional ultrasonographic imaging. A large amount of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) are known to be generated during tissue damages such as mechanical injury and therefore H 2 O 2 holds great potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker for mechanical injuries in the musculoskeletal system. We previously developed poly(vanillyl alcohol- co -oxalate) (PVAX), which rapidly scavenges H 2 O 2 and exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in H 2 O 2 -associated diseases. Based on the notion that PVAX nanoparticles generate CO 2 bubbles through H 2 O 2 -triggered hydrolysis, we postulated that PVAX nanoparticles could serve as ultrasonographic contrast agents and therapeutic agents for musculoskeletal injuries associated with overproduction of H 2 O 2 . In the agarose gel phantom study, PVAX nanoparticles continuously generated CO 2 bubbles to enhance ultrasonographic echogenicity significantly. Contusion injury significantly elevated the level of H 2 O 2 in skeletal muscles and Achilles tendons. Upon intramuscular injection, PVAX nanoparticles significantly elevated the ultrasound contrast and suppressed inflammation and apoptosis in the contusion injury of musculoskeletal systems. We anticipate that PVAX nanoparticles hold great translational potential as theranostic agents for musculoskeletal injuries.
[Use of tissue engineering in the reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries of the hand].
In his literary analysis, the author describes a novel method applied in the reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries of the hand. This procedure is named tissue engineering, and it is examined mainly under experimental circumstances. After definition of the method and descriptions of literary preliminaries the author discusses the healing process of the normal tendon tissue, then development of the scaffold, an important step of tissue engineering is described. After these topics the introduction of the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells into the scaffold, and proliferation of these cells and development of the sliding systems are presented. The mechanical resisting ability of the formed tendon tissue is also discussed. Finally, the author concludes that as long as results of experimental research cannot be successfully applied into clinical practice, well-tried tendon reconstruction operations and high quality postoperative rehabilitation are needed.
Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.
Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram
Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.
Patellar Sleeve Fracture With Ossification of the Patellar Tendon.
Damrow, Derek S; Van Valin, Scott E
Patellar sleeve fractures make up greater than 50% of all patellar fractures. They are essentially only seen in the pediatric population because of the thick periosteum and the distal patellar pole apophysis in this group. These fractures can lead to complications if not treated appropriately and in a timely fashion. Complications of missed or untreated patellar sleeve fractures include patella alta, anterior knee pain, and quadriceps atrophy. These can all result in severe limitations in activity. The authors describe a case of a 16-year-old boy who sustained a patellar sleeve fracture 3 years prior to presentation. On presentation, he had patella alta, diminished strength, 5° of extensor lag, and radiographs that revealed bone formation along the patellar tendon. Despite this, he was able to maintain a high level of activity. This case report explores how the patient could have maintained a high level of activity despite having a patellar sleeve fracture. Also, because of the delayed presentation, the patella was ossified and the quadriceps was retracted, which led to a novel approach to reconstructing his distal extensor mechanism. This approach included a V-Y advancement of the quadriceps tendon and patellar tendon reconstruction using the patient's hamstring tendon (semitendinosus). This technique, combined with physical therapy postoperatively, resulted in his return to varsity high school soccer. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this technique has not been reported for this rare condition. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e357-e359.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
[Clinical application of peroneal muscles tendon transposition in repair of Achilles tendon rupture].
Jin, Rihao; Jin, Yu; Fang, Xiulin
To discuss applied anatomy, biomechanics and surgical procedures of long peroneal muscles tendon transposition in repair of occlusive achilles tendon rupture. The blood supply and the morphology of long peroneal muscles tendon were observed in the lower extremity of 50 sides adult specimens and the mechanical tests which stretch load on the tendon were carried out. The methods were designed on the basis of the anatomical characteristics and morphology. Ten patients suffering occlusive Achilles tendon rupture were treated by using long peroneal muscles tendon transposition from March 2001 to July 2004. Among 10 patients, there were 7 males and 3 females, aging 32 to 54 years including 6 cases of jump injury, 2 cases of bruise, 1 case of step vacancy and 1 case of spontaneity injury. The interval between injury and surgery was 6 hours to 7 days in 7 fresh rupture and 21 days to 3 months in 3 old rupture. All cases belonged to occlusive Achilles tendon rupture (8 cases of complete rupture and 2 cases of incomplete rupture). The origin of long peroneal muscles was proximal tibia and fibular head, the end of them was base of first metatarsal bones and medial cuboid. The length of tendon was 13.5 +/- 2.5 cm. The width of origin tendon was 0.9 +/- 0.2 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm; the width on apex of lateral malleolus was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.4 +/- 0.1 cm, the width on head of cuboid was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm. The long peroneal muscles tendon had abundant blood supply. The results of mechanical test showed that the biggest load was 2,292.4 +/- 617.3 N on tendon calcaneus, 1,020.4 +/- 175.4 N on long peroneal muscles tendon, 752.0 +/- 165.4 N on peroneus brevis tendon and 938.2 +/- 216.7 N on tibialis posterior tendon. Ten cases of occlusive Achilles tendon rupture achieved healing by first intention and were followed up 18-24 months. No Achilles tendon re-rupture, necrosis of skin or other complications occurred
Disabling hand injuries in boxing: boxer's knuckle and traumatic carpal boss.
Melone, Charles P; Polatsch, Daniel B; Beldner, Steven
This article describes the treatment of the two most debilitating hand-related boxing injuries: boxer's knuckle and traumatic carpal boss. Recognition of the normal anatomy as well as the predictable pathology facilitates an accurate diagnosis and precision surgery. For boxer's knuckle, direct repair of the disrupted extensor hood, without the need for tendon augmentation, has been consistently employed; for traumatic carpal boss, arthrodesis of the destabilized carpometacarpal joints has been the preferred method of treatment. Precisely executed operative treatment of both injuries has resulted in a favorable outcome, as in the vast majority of cases the boxers have experienced relief of pain, restoration of function, and an unrestricted return to competition.
Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.
Karamanidis, Kiros; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Niehoff, Anja; Epro, Gaspar; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter
Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry. Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention. This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable to change in the elderly following a
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... also help the muscle and tendon absorb more force and prevent injury. Vary your exercises. Alternate high-impact sports, such as running, with low-impact sports, such as walking, biking or swimming. Avoid activities that place excessive stress on your Achilles tendons, such as hill ...
Age-related degeneration in leg-extensor muscle-tendon units decreases recovery performance after a forward fall: compensation with running experience.
Karamanidis, Kiros; Arampatzis, Adamantios
The goals of this study were to investigate whether the lower muscle-tendon units (MTUs) capacities in older affect their ability to recover balance with a single-step after a fall, and to examine whether running experience enhances and protects this motor skill in young and old adults. The investigation was conducted on 30 older and 19 younger divided into two subgroups: runners versus non-active. In previous studies we documented that the older had lower leg extensor muscle strength and tendon stiffness while running had no effect on MTUs capacities. The current study examined recovery mechanics of the same individuals after an induced forward fall. Younger were better able to recover balance with a single-step compared to older (P < 0.001); this ability was associated with a more effective body configuration at touchdown (more posterior COM position relative to the recovery foot, P <0.001). MTUs capacities classified 88.6% of the subjects into single- or multiple-steppers. Runners showed a superior ability to recover balance with a single-step (P < 0.001) compared to non-active subjects due to a more effective mechanical response during the stance phase (greater knee joint flexion, P <0.05). We concluded that the age-related degeneration of the MTUs significantly diminished the older adults' ability to restore balance with a single-step. Running seems to enhance and protect this motor skill. We suggested that runners, due to their running experience, could update the internal representation of mechanisms responsible for the control of dynamic stability during a forward fall and, thus, were able to restore balance more often with a single-step compared to the non-active subjects.
Clinical, Radiologic, and Legal Significance of "Extensor Response" in Posttraumatic Coma.
Firsching, Raimund; Woischneck, Dieter; Langejürgen, Alexander; Parreidt, Andreas; Bondar, Imre; Skalej, Martin; Röhl, Friedrich; Voellger, Benjamin
The timely detection of neurologic deterioration can be critical for the survival of a neurosurgical patient following head injury. Because little reliable evidence is available on the prognostic value of the clinical sign "extensor response" in comatose posttraumatic patients, we investigated the correlation of this clinical sign with outcome and with early radiologic findings from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective analysis of prospectively obtained data included 157 patients who had remained in a coma for a minimum of 24 hours after traumatic brain injury. All patients received a 1.5-T MRI within 10 days (median: 2 days) of the injury. The correlations between clinical findings 12 and 24 hours after the injury-in particular, extensor response and pupillary function, MRI findings, and outcome after 1 year-were investigated. Statistical analysis included contingency tables, Fisher exact test, odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs), and weighted κ values. There were 48 patients with extensor response within the first 24 hours after the injury. Patients with extensor response (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies coma grade III) statistically were significantly more likely to harbor MRI lesions in the brainstem when compared with patients in a coma who had no further deficiencies (coma grade I; p = 0.0004 by Fisher exact test, OR 10.8 with 95% CI, 2.7-42.5) and patients with unilateral loss of pupil function (coma grade II; p = 0.0187, OR 2.8 with 95% CI, 1.2-6.5). The correlation of brainstem lesions as found by MRI and outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale after 1 year was also highly significant (p ≤ 0.016). The correlation of extensor response and loss of pupil function with an unfavorable outcome and with brainstem lesions revealed by MRI is highly significant. Their sudden onset may be associated with the sudden onset of brainstem dysfunction and should therefore be regarded as one of the most
Differential activation of motor units in the wrist extensor muscles during the tonic vibration reflex in man.
Romaiguère, P; Vedel, J P; Azulay, J P; Pagni, S
1. Single motor unit activity was recorded in the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles of five healthy human subjects, using metal microelectrodes. 2. Motor units were characterized on the basis of their twitch contraction times and their force recruitment thresholds during voluntary imposed-ramp contractions. 3. The discharge patterns of forty-three motor units were studied during tonic vibration reflex elicited by prolonged (150 s) trains of vibration (30 Hz) applied to the distal tendons of the muscles. The temporal relationships between the individual small tendon taps of the vibratory stimulus and the motor unit impulses were analysed on dot raster displays and post-stimulus time histograms. 4. After tendon taps, the impulses of motor units with long twitch contraction times (mean +/- S.D., 47.2 +/- 10.7 ms) and low recruitment thresholds (0.88 +/- 0.6 N) formed a single narrow peak (P1) with a latency (22.7 +/- 1.4 ms) which was comparable to that of the tendon jerk in the extensor carpi radialis muscles. These motor units were named 'P1 units'. On the other hand, the response of motor units with shorter twitch contraction times (31.1 +/- 3.3 ms) and higher recruitment thresholds (3.21 +/- 1.3 N) showed two peaks: a short latency (23.4 +/- 1.3 ms) P1 peak similar to the previous one and a P2 peak occurring 9.4 +/- 1.2 ms later. These motor units were named 'P1-P2 units'. 5. When the reflex contraction increased slowly, the P1 peaks of 'P1-P2 units' were clearly predominant at the beginning of the contraction, during the rising phase of the motor unit discharge frequency, while the P2 peaks became predominant when the units had reached their maximal discharge frequency. 6. Increasing the tendon vibration frequency (35, 55, 75, 95 Hz) did not modify the 'P1 unit' discharge pattern. Due to interference between vibration period and peak latencies, increasing the vibration frequency caused the P1 and P2 peaks of 'P1-P2 units
Chronic Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Total Knee Arthroplasty Augmented With Synthetic Mesh.
Ormaza, Amaia; Moreta, Jesús; Mosquera, Javier; de Ugarte, Oskar Sáez; Mozos, José Luis Martinez-de Los
Tear of the quadriceps tendon after revision or primary total knee arthroplasty is a rare complication, but when it occurs, this injury has serious functional consequences. In complete tears, the outcome of direct repair is unpredictable, and several authors recommend that the suture should be reinforced. Several techniques have been described, including the use of autografts, allografts, and synthetic mesh. The goal of this study was to assess the outcomes of a reconstruction technique augmented with synthetic mesh. A retrospective study was performed involving 3 patients who had chronic partial quadriceps tendon tear after total knee revision. In 2 cases, proximal quadriceps release was performed. When conservative management failed, surgical reconstruction with suture reinforced with synthetic mesh was attempted. The knee was immobilized in full extension for 6 weeks after the surgical procedure. A minimum follow-up of 12 months was required to assess results. All reconstructions showed clinical success at a mean follow-up of 19 months. Mean Knee Society Score improved from 55.7 to 87.3, with average postoperative extensor lag of 3.3° (range, 0°-10°). The mean visual analog scale pain score was 2.3 (range, 0-4). No complications were reported. Synthetic mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for patellar tendon repairs after total knee replacement, but there have been few articles on quadriceps rupture. Surgical reconstruction with synthetic mesh is a viable option that provides good functional outcomes in chronic quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):38-42.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Angiopoietin‐like 4 promotes angiogenesis in the tendon and is increased in cyclically loaded tendon fibroblasts
Mousavizadeh, Rouhollah; Scott, Alex; Lu, Alex; Ardekani, Gholamreza S; Behzad, Hayedeh; Lundgreen, Kirsten; Ghaffari, Mazyar; McCormack, Robert G
Key points Angiopoietin‐like 4 (ANGPTL4) modulates tendon neovascularization.Cyclic loading stimulates the activity of transforming growth factor‐β and hypoxia‐inducible factor 1α and thereby increases the expression and release of ANGPTL4 from human tendon cells.Targeting ANGPTL4 and its regulatory pathways is a potential avenue for regulating tendon vascularization to improve tendon healing or adaptation. Abstract The mechanisms that regulate angiogenic activity in injured or mechanically loaded tendons are poorly understood. The present study examined the potential role of angiopoietin‐like 4 (ANGPTL4) in the angiogenic response of tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading or injury. Cyclic stretching of human tendon fibroblasts stimulated the expression and release of ANGPTL4 protein via transforming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) and hypoxia‐inducible factor 1α (HIF‐1α) signalling, and the released ANGPTL4 was pro‐angiogenic. Angiogenic activity was increased following ANGPTL4 injection into mouse patellar tendons, whereas the patellar tendons of ANGPTL4 knockout mice displayed reduced angiogenesis following injury. In human rotator cuff tendons, the expression of ANGPTL4 was correlated with the density of tendon endothelial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing a role of ANGPTL4 in the tendon. ANGPTL4 may assist in the regulation of vascularity in the injured or mechanically loaded tendon. TGF‐β and HIF‐1α comprise two signalling pathways that modulate the expression of ANGPTL4 by mechanically stimulated tendon fibroblasts and, in the future, these could be manipulated to influence tendon healing or adaptation. PMID:26670924
Distal Triceps Tendon Injuries.
Keener, Jay D; Sethi, Paul M
Acute triceps ruptures are an uncommon entity, occurring mainly in athletes, weight lifters (especially those taking anabolic steroids), and following elbow trauma. Accurate diagnosis is made clinically, although MRI may aid in confirmation and surgical planning. Acute ruptures are classified on an anatomic basis based on tear location and the degree of tendon involvement. Most complete tears are treated surgically in medically fit patients. Partial-thickness tears are managed according to the tear severity, functional demands, and response to conservative treatment. We favor an anatomic footprint repair of the triceps to provide optimal tendon to bone healing and, ultimately, functional outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rupture Following Biceps-to-Triceps Tendon Transfer in Adolescents and Young Adults With Spinal Cord Injury:
Merenda, Lisa A.; Rutter, Laure; Curran, Kimberly; Kozin, Scott H.
Background: Tendon transfer surgery can restore elbow extension in approximately 70% of persons with tetraplegia and often results in antigravity elbow extension strength. However, we have noted an almost 15% rupture/attenuation rate. Objective: This investigation was conducted to analyze potential causes in adolescents/young adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) who experienced tendon rupture or attenuation after biceps-to-triceps transfer. Methods: Medical charts of young adults with SCI who underwent biceps-to-triceps transfer and experienced tendon rupture or attenuation were reviewed. Data collected by retrospective chart review included general demographics, surgical procedure(s), use and duration of antibiotic treatment, time from tendon transfer surgery to rupture/attenuation, and method of diagnosis. Results: Twelve subjects with tetraplegia (mean age, 19 years) who underwent biceps-to-triceps reconstruction with subsequent tendon rupture or attenuation were evaluated. Mean age at time of tendon transfer was 18 years (range, 14-21 years). A fluoroquinolone was prescribed for 42% (n=5) of subjects. Tendon rupture was noted in 67% (n=8), and attenuation was noted in 33% (n=4). Average length of time from surgery to tendon rupture/attenuation was 5.7 months (range, 3-10 months). Conclusion: Potential contributing causes of tendon rupture/attenuation after transfer include surgical technique, rehabilitation, co-contraction of the transfer, poor patient compliance, and medications. In this cohort, 5 subjects were prescribed fluoroquinolones that have a US Food and Drug Administration black box concerning tendon ruptures. Currently, all candidates for upper extremity tendon transfer reconstruction are counseled on the effects of fluoroquinolones and the potential risk for tendon rupture. PMID:23459326
The relationships among spatiotemporal collagen gene expression, histology, and biomechanics following full-length injury in the murine patellar tendon.
Dyment, Nathaniel A; Kazemi, Namdar; Aschbacher-Smith, Lindsey E; Barthelery, Nicolas J; Kenter, Keith; Gooch, Cynthia; Shearn, Jason T; Wylie, Christopher; Butler, David L
Tendon injuries are major orthopedic problems that worsen as the population ages. Type-I (Col1) and type-II (Col2) collagens play important roles in tendon midsubstance and tendon-to-bone insertion healing, respectively. Using double transgenic mice, this study aims to spatiotemporally monitor Col1 and Col2 gene expression, histology, and biomechanics up to 8 weeks following a full-length patellar tendon injury. Gene expression and histology were analyzed weekly for up to 5 weeks while mechanical properties were measured at 1, 2, 5, and 8 weeks. At week 1, the healing region displayed loose granulation tissue with little Col1 expression. Col1 expression peaked at 2 weeks, but the ECM was highly disorganized and hypercellular. By 3 weeks, Col1 expression had reduced and by 5 weeks, the ECM was generally aligned along the tendon axis. Col2 expression was not seen in the healing midsubstance or insertion at any time point. The biomechanics of the healing tissue was inadequate at all time points, achieving ultimate loads and stiffnesses of 48% and 63% of normal values by 8 weeks. Future studies will further characterize the cells within the healing midsubstance and insertion using tenogenic markers and compare these results to those of tendon cells during normal development. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Quadriceps tendon autograft for arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction: use it now, use it often.
Sheean, Andrew J; Musahl, Volker; Slone, Harris S; Xerogeanes, John W; Milinkovic, Danko; Fink, Christian; Hoser, Christian
Traditional bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon ACL grafts are not without limitations. A growing body of anatomic, biomechanical and clinical data has demonstrated the utility of quadriceps tendon autograft in arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction. The quadriceps tendon autograft provides a robust volume of tissue that can be reliably harvested, mitigating the likelihood of variably sized grafts and obviating the necessity of allograft augmentation. Modern, minimally invasive harvest techniques offer the advantages of low rates of donor site morbidity and residual extensor mechanism strength deficits. New data suggest that quadriceps tendon autograft may possess superior biomechanical characteristics when compared with bone-patella tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft. However, there have been very few direct, prospective comparisons between the clinical outcomes associated with quadriceps tendon autograft and other autograft options (eg, hamstring tendon and bone-patellar tendon-bone). Nevertheless, quadriceps tendon autograft should be one of the primary options in any knee surgeon's armamentarium. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Angiopoietin-like 4 promotes angiogenesis in the tendon and is increased in cyclically loaded tendon fibroblasts.
Mousavizadeh, Rouhollah; Scott, Alex; Lu, Alex; Ardekani, Gholamreza S; Behzad, Hayedeh; Lundgreen, Kirsten; Ghaffari, Mazyar; McCormack, Robert G; Duronio, Vincent
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) modulates tendon neovascularization. Cyclic loading stimulates the activity of transforming growth factor-β and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and thereby increases the expression and release of ANGPTL4 from human tendon cells. Targeting ANGPTL4 and its regulatory pathways is a potential avenue for regulating tendon vascularization to improve tendon healing or adaptation. The mechanisms that regulate angiogenic activity in injured or mechanically loaded tendons are poorly understood. The present study examined the potential role of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) in the angiogenic response of tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading or injury. Cyclic stretching of human tendon fibroblasts stimulated the expression and release of ANGPTL4 protein via transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) signalling, and the released ANGPTL4 was pro-angiogenic. Angiogenic activity was increased following ANGPTL4 injection into mouse patellar tendons, whereas the patellar tendons of ANGPTL4 knockout mice displayed reduced angiogenesis following injury. In human rotator cuff tendons, the expression of ANGPTL4 was correlated with the density of tendon endothelial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing a role of ANGPTL4 in the tendon. ANGPTL4 may assist in the regulation of vascularity in the injured or mechanically loaded tendon. TGF-β and HIF-1α comprise two signalling pathways that modulate the expression of ANGPTL4 by mechanically stimulated tendon fibroblasts and, in the future, these could be manipulated to influence tendon healing or adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.
[Experimental study of tendon graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with cortical press-fit bolt in rabbits].
Qi, Wei; Li, Chun-bao; Wang, Jun-liang; Zhu, Juan-li; Liu, Yu-jie
To explore the histological outcomes of tendon-bone healing in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with cortical press-fit bolt (CPB). Twenty-four healthy female or male New Zealand White rabbits (2-3 months old) underwent bilateral ACL reconstruction with extensor digitorum longus tendon. A random method was used to decide one knee would receive the routine ACL reconstruction (control group) and another cortical press-fit bolt fixation (experimental group). After general anesthesia, extensor digitorum longus tendon was harvested and ACL reconstruction performed. All animals were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperation. Radiological and histological examinations were made at each timepoint. The specimens were stained with different methods to observe the pathological changes of tendon graft, bone tunnel and cortical press-fit bolt. More revascularization and massive new bone were found in tendon-bone junction of experimental group at 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperation. The circum-graft new vessel proportion of the experimental and control groups were 0.48 ± 0.12 and 0.26 ± 0.05 respectively (P < 0.05). In the experimental group, more cartilage cells were present in tendon-bone junction at 12 weeks and the circum-graft new bone areas in two groups were 0.41 ± 0.11 and 0.21 ± 0.10 mm(2) respectively (P < 0.05). Cortical press-fit blot may improve tendon-bone healing after ACL reconstruction in rabbits. The application prospects of this procedure are promising.
A comparative study of the effects of bromelain and fresh pineapple juice on the early phase of healing in acute crush achilles tendon injury.
Aiyegbusi, Ayoola I; Olabiyi, Olaleye O; Duru, Francis I O; Noronha, Cressie C; Okanlawon, Abayomi O
Bromelain, an enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple plant, has been reported to reduce pain and swelling in acute soft tissue injuries, but no study has been done to compare its effect with that of fresh pineapple juice on the healing of acute tendon injuries. This study compared the effects of commercial bromelain and fresh pineapple juice on tenocyte proliferation and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the early stage of healing in a crush injury to the Achilles tendon of Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided randomly into three groups of eight rats each; all the rats had induced crush injury to the Achilles tendon: Group 1 (control), no treatment; Group 2, oral bromelain treatment at a dosage of 7 mg/kg of body weight daily; and Group 3, fresh diluted pineapple juice at a dosage of 30 mg/kg of body weight. Treatment was given over the first 14 days post-injury. On day 15 post-injury, the animals were sacrificed, and the tendons were excised and processed for histological study and MDA assay. Results show a significant difference in the tenocyte population between the bromelain group and the control (P < .05), whereas pineapple juice also increased the tenocyte population, although not significantly (P = .36). Pineapple juice, however, significantly lowered the MDA level compared with both the control and bromelain-treated groups. Based on this study, 600 GDU bromelain given at a dosage of 7 mg/kg had a better effect on tenocyte proliferation than fresh pineapple juice given once daily in acute tendon injury.
[Reconstruction of chronic Achilles tendon rupture with flexor hallucis longus tendon harvested using a minimally invasive technique].
Miao, Xudong; Wu, Yongping; Tao, Huimin; Yang, Disheng
To evaluate the effectiveness of flexor hallucis longus tendon harvested using a minimally invasive technique in reconstruction of chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Between July 2006 and December 2009, 22 patients (22 feet) with chronic Achilles tendon rupture were treated, including 16 males and 6 females with a median age of 48 years (range, 28-65 years). The disease duration was 27-1,025 days (median, 51 days). Twenty-one patients had hooflike movement's history and 1 patient had no obvious inducement. The result of Thompson test was positive in 22 cases. The score was 53.04 +/- 6.75 according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle and hindfoot score system. MRI indicated that the gap of the chronic Achilles tendon rupture was 4.2-8.0 cm. A 3 cm-long incision was made vertically in the plantar aspect of the midfoot and a 1 cm-long transverse incision was made in a plantar flexor crease at the base of the great toe to harvest flexor hallucis longus tendon. The flexor hallucis longus tendon was 10.5-13.5 cm longer from tuber calcanei to the end of the Achilles tendon, and then the tendon was fixed to the tuber calcanei using interface screws or anchor nail after they were woven to form reflexed 3-bundle and sutured. Wound healed by first intention in all patients and no early complication occurred. Twenty-two patients were followed up 12-42 months (mean, 16.7 months). At 12 months after operation, The AOFAS ankle and hindfoot score was 92.98 +/- 5.72, showing significant difference when compared with that before operation (t= -40.903, P=0.000). The results were excellent in 18 cases, good in 2 cases, and fair in 2 cases with an excellent and good rate of 90.9%. No sural nerve injury, posterior tibial nerve injury, plantar painful scar, medial plantar nerve injury, and lateral plantar nerve injury occurred. Chronic Achilles tendon rupture reconstruction with flexor hallucis longus tendon harvested using a minimally invasive technique offers a
Effect of Exercise-Induced Enhancement of the Leg-Extensor Muscle-Tendon Unit Capacities on Ambulatory Mechanics and Knee Osteoarthritis Markers in the Elderly
Karamanidis, Kiros; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Niehoff, Anja; Epro, Gaspar; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter
Objective Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Methods Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry. Results Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention. Conclusions This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable
Effect of Tendon Stem Cells in Chitosan/β-Glycerophosphate/Collagen Hydrogel on Achilles Tendon Healing in a Rat Model.
Yang, Zhijin; Cao, Honghui; Gao, Shang; Yang, Mingyu; Lyu, Jingtong; Tang, Kanglai
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine whether the local application of tendon stem cells (TSCs) with chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/collagen(C/GP/Co) hydrogel promotes healing after an acute Achilles tendon injury in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to make an Achilles tendon defect model, then the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of 8 rats each: control group, hydrogel group, TSCs group, and TSCs with hydrogel group. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks after treatment, tendon samples were harvested, and the quality of tendon repair was evaluated based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and biomechanical properties. RESULTS Combining TSCs with C/GP/Co hydrogel significantly enhances tendon healing compared with the control, hydrogel, and TSCs groups. The improved healing was indicated by the improvement in histological and immunohistochemistry outcomes and the increase in the biomechanical properties of the regenerated tissue at both 4 and 6 weeks post-injury. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that the transplantation of TSCs combined with C/GP/Co hydrogel significantly improved the histological, immunohistochemistry, and biomechanical outcomes of the regenerated tissue at 4 and 6 weeks after implantation. TSCs with C/GP/Co hydrogel is a potentially effective treatment for tendon injury.
Phenytoin accelerates tendon healing in a rat model of Achilles tendon rupture.
Hajipour, B; Navali, A M; Mohammad, S Ali; Mousavi, G; Akbari, M Gahvechi; Miyandoab, T Maleki; Roshangar, L; Saleh, B Mohammadi; Kermani, T Asvadi; Laleh, F Moutab; Ghabili, M
Tendons are vulnerable to various types of acute or chronic injures. Different methods have been investigated to achieve better healing. Phenytoin is a drug which could stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagen. This experimental study was performed to assess the effect of phenytoin on tendon healing in a rat model of tendon rupture. Thirty healthy rats were divided into 3 groups, 1) Sham group; 2) Tendon rupture; 3) Tendon rupture+phenytoin (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 21 days. On 21st day after tendon injury, the rats were anesthetized and tendon tissue was sampled for studying by light and electron microscopy. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic comparisons of the repair tissues of both groups were made on the 21st day. The results obtained from light and electron microscopy studies showed that tendon tissue healing was significantly better in phenytoin group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Systemic administration of phenytoin may have a positive effect on tendon healing by increasing fibroblast quantity, fibrillar collagen synthesis, vascularity, and suppressing inflammation (Tab. 2, Ref. 25).
Ultrasonographic assessment of the equine palmar tendons
Padaliya, N. R.; Ranpariya, J. J.; Kumar, Dharmendra; Javia, C. B.; Barvalia, D. R.
Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the equine palmar tendon by ultrasonography (USG) in standing the position. Materials and Methods: USG of palmar tendons was performed in 40 adult horses using linear transducer having frequency of 10-18 MHz (e-soate, My Lab FIVE) and L52 linear array transducer (Titan, SonoSite) with frequencies ranging from 8 to 10 MHz. Palmar tendon was divided into 7 levels from distal to accessory carpal bone up to ergot in transverse scanning and 3 levels in longitudinal scanning. Results: The USG evaluation was very useful for diagnosis of affections of the conditions such as chronic bowed tendon, suspensory ligament desmitis, carpal sheath tenosynovitis and digital sheath effusions. The mean cross-sectional area (cm2) of affected tendons was significantly increased in affected than normal tendons. The echogenicity was also found reduced in affected tendons and ligaments along with disorganization of fiber alignment depending on the severity of lesion and injury. Conclusion: USG proved ideal diagnostic tool for diagnosis and post-treatment healing assessment of tendon injuries in horses. PMID:27047074
Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Grainger, A J
MRI and ultrasound are now widely used for the assessment of tendon and ligament abnormalities. Healthy tendons and ligaments contain high levels of collagen with a structured orientation, which gives rise to their characteristic normal imaging appearances as well as causing particular imaging artefacts. Changes to ligaments and tendons as a result of disease and injury can be demonstrated using both ultrasound and MRI. These have been validated against surgical and histological findings. Novel imaging techniques are being developed that may improve the ability of MRI and ultrasound to assess tendon and ligament disease. PMID:22553301
Cell phenotypic variation in normal and damaged tendons
Clegg, Peter D; Strassburg, Sandra; Smith, Roger K
Injuries to tendons are common in both human athletes as well as in animals, such as the horse, which are used for competitive purposes. Furthermore, such injuries are also increasing in prevalence in the ageing, sedentary population. Tendon diseases often respond poorly to treatment and require lengthy periods of rehabilitation. The tendon has a unique extracellular matrix, which has developed to withstand the mechanical demands of such tensile-load bearing structures. Following injury, any repair process is inadequate and results in tissue that is distinct from original tendon tissue. There is growing evidence for the key role of the tendon cell (tenocyte) in both the normal physiological homeostasis and regulation of the tendon matrix and the pathological derangements that occur in disease. In particular, the tenocyte is considered to have a major role in effecting the subclinical matrix degeneration that is thought to occur prior to clinical disease, as well as in the severe degradative events that occur in the tendon at the onset of clinical disease. Furthermore, the tenocyte is likely to have a central role in the production of the biologically inadequate fibrocartilaginous repair tissue that develops subsequent to tendinopathy. Understanding the biology of the tenocyte is central to the development of appropriate interventions and drug therapies that will either prevent the onset of disease, or lead to more rapid and appropriate repair of injured tendon. Central to this is a full understanding of the proteolytic response in the tendon in disease by such enzymes as metalloproteinases, as well as the control of the inappropriate fibrocartilaginous differentiation. Finally, it is important that we understand the role of both intrinsic and extrinsic cellular elements in the repair process in the tendon subsequent to injury. PMID:17696903
Tendon Functional Extracellular Matrix
Screen, H.R.C.; Birk, D.E.; Kadler, K.E.; Ramirez, F; Young, M.F.
This article is one of a series, summarising views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the “Functional Extracellular Matrix” stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely-varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, ageing and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. PMID:25640030
Evolution of the Achilles tendon: The athlete's Achilles heel?
Malvankar, S; Khan, W S
The Achilles tendon is believed to have first developed two million years ago enabling humans to run twice as fast. However if the Achilles tendon is so important in terms of evolution, then why is this tendon so prone to injury - especially for those more active like athletes. The Achilles tendon had an integral role in evolving apes from a herbivorous diet to early humans who started hunting for food over longer distances, resulting in bipedal locomotion. Evolutionary advantages of the Achilles tendon includes it being the strongest tendon in the body, having an energy-saving mechanism for fast locomotion, allows humans to jump and run, and additionally is a spring and shock absorber during gait. Considering these benefits it is therefore not surprising that studies have shown athletes have thicker Achilles tendons than subjects who are less active. However, contradictory to these findings that show the importance of the Achilles tendon for athletes, it is well known that obtaining an Achilles tendon injury for an athlete can be career-altering. A disadvantage of the Achilles tendon is that the aetiology of its pathology is complicated. Achilles tendon ruptures are believed to be caused by overloading the tensed tendon, like during sports. However studies have also shown athlete Achilles tendon ruptures to have degenerative changes in the tendon. Other flaws of the Achilles tendon are its non-uniform vascularity and incomplete repair system which may suggest the Achilles tendon is on the edge of evolution. Research has shown that there is a genetic influence on the predisposition a person has towards Achilles tendon injuries. So if this tendon is here to stay in our anatomy, and it probably is due to the slow rate of evolution in humans, research in genetic modification could be used to decrease athletes' predisposition to Achilles tendinopathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Achilles tendon: fundamental properties and mechanisms governing healing
Freedman, Benjamin R.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Summary This review highlights recent research on Achilles tendon healing, and comments on the current clinical controversy surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of injury. The processes of Achilles tendon healing, as demonstrated through changes in its structure, composition, and biomechanics, are reviewed. Finally, a review of tendon developmental biology and mechano transductive pathways is completed to recognize recent efforts to augment injured Achilles tendons, and to suggest potential future strategies for therapeutic intervention and functional tissue engineering. Despite an abundance of clinical evidence suggesting that current treatments and rehabilitation strategies for Achilles tendon ruptures are equivocal, significant questions remain to fully elucidate the basic science mechanisms governing Achilles tendon injury, healing, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:25332943
Using the zebrafish to understand tendon development and repair
Chen, Jessica W.; Galloway, Jenna L.
Tendons are important components of our musculoskeletal system. Injuries to these tissues are very common, resulting from occupational-related injuries, sports-related trauma, and age-related degeneration. Unfortunately, there are few treatment options, and current therapies rarely restore injured tendons to their original function. An improved understanding of the pathways regulating their development and repair would have significant impact in stimulating the formulation of regenerative-based approaches for tendon injury. The zebrafish provides an ideal system in which to perform genetic and chemical screens to identify new pathways involved in tendon biology. Until recently, there had been few descriptions of tendons and ligaments in the zebrafish and their similarity to mammalian tendon tissues. In this chapter, we describe the development of the zebrafish tendon and ligament tissues in the context of their gene expression, structure, and interactions with neighboring musculoskeletal tissues. We highlight the similarities with tendon development in higher vertebrates, showing that the craniofacial tendons and ligaments in zebrafish morphologically, molecularly, and structurally resemble mammalian tendons and ligaments from embryonic to adult stages. We detail methods for fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry as an assay to examine morphological changes in the zebrafish musculoskeleton. Staining assays such as these could provide the foundation for screen-based approaches to identify new regulators of tendon development, morphogenesis, and repair. These discoveries would provide new targets and pathways to study in the context of regenerative medicine-based approaches to improve tendon healing. PMID:28129848
Growth factor delivery vehicles for tendon injuries: Mesenchymal stem cells and Platelet Rich Plasma
Guevara-Alvarez, Alberto; Schmitt, Andreas; Russell, Ryan P.; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Buchmann, Stefan
Summary Background: tendon tissue shows limited regeneration potential with formation of scar tissue and inferior mechanical properties. The capacity of several growth factors to improve the healing response and decrease scar formation is described in different preclinical studies. Besides the application of isolated growth factors, current research focuses on two further strategies to improve the healing response in tendon injuries: platelet rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Objective: the present review focuses on these two options and describes their potential to improve tendon healing. Results: in vitro experiments and animal studies showed promising results for the use of PRP, however clinical controlled studies have shown a tendency of reduced pain related symptoms but no significant differences in overall clinical scores. On the other hand MSCs are not totally arrived in clinical use so that there is still a lack of randomized controlled trials. In basic research experiments they show an extraordinary paracrine activity, anti-inflammatory effect and the possibility to differentiate in tenocytes when different activating-factors are added. Conclusion: preclinical studies have shown promising results in improving tendon remodeling but the comparability of current literature is difficult due to different compositions. PRP and MSCs can act as efficient growth factor vehicles, however further studies should be performed in order to adequate investigate their clinical benefits in different tendon pathologies. PMID:25489557
Suture anchor repair of patellar tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.
Kamath, Atul F; Shah, Roshan P; Summers, Nathan; Israelite, Craig L
Extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex problem that often requires surgical repair for functional deficits. We present a brief technical note on suture anchor fixation of a patellar tendon rupture after TKA. A surgical technique and literature review follows. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for tendinous repairs in other areas of orthopedic surgery, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in patellar tendon repair after TKA. The technique must be evaluated in more patients with longer follow-up before adoption. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Cellular therapy in bone-tendon interface regeneration
Rothrauff, Benjamin B; Tuan, Rocky S
The intrasynovial bone-tendon interface is a gradual transition from soft tissue to bone, with two intervening zones of uncalcified and calcified fibrocartilage. Following injury, the native anatomy is not restored, resulting in inferior mechanical properties and an increased risk of re-injury. Recent in vivo studies provide evidence of improved healing when surgical repair of the bone-tendon interface is augmented with cells capable of undergoing chondrogenesis. In particular, cellular therapy in bone-tendon healing can promote fibrocartilage formation and associated improvements in mechanical properties. Despite these promising results in animal models, cellular therapy in human patients remains largely unexplored. This review highlights the development and structure-function relationship of normal bone-tendon insertions. The natural healing response to injury is discussed, with subsequent review of recent research on cellular approaches for improved healing. Finally, opportunities for translating in vivo findings into clinical practice are identified. PMID:24326955
Silicone infusion tubing instead of Hunter rods for two-stage zone 2 flexor tendon reconstruction in a resource-limited surgical environment.
Kibadi, K; Moutet, F
The authors describe their experience using silicone infusion tubing in place of Hunter rods for two-stage zone 2 flexor tendon reconstruction in a resource-limited surgical environment. This case report features a 47-year-old, right-handed man who had no active PIP and DIP joint flexion in four fingers of the right hand 5 months after an injury. During the first repair stage, the A2 and A4 pulleys were reconstructed using an extensor retinaculum graft. An infusion tube was inserted instead of Hunter rods. During the second stage, formation of a digital neo-canal around the infusion tubing was observed. The infusion tubing was removed and replaced with a palmaris longus tendon graft according to the conventional technique. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation followed surgery. At 6 months, very significant progress had been made with complete recovery of PIP and DIP flexion in the four fingers. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Extended healing validation of an artificial tendon to connect the quadriceps muscle to the Tibia: 180-day study.
Melvin, Alan J; Litsky, Alan S; Mayerson, Joel L; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia
Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to non-living materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1,400 ± 93 N (vs. 1,179 ± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33 ± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4 N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p=0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p=0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Schmidt, Christopher C; Jarrett, Claudius D; Brown, Brandon T
Distal biceps tendon ruptures continue to be an important injury seen and treated by upper extremity surgeons. Since the mid-1980s, the emphasis has been placed on techniques that limit complications or improve initial tendon-to-bone fixation strength. Recently, basic science research has expanded the knowledge base regarding the biceps tendon structure, footprint anatomy, and biomechanics. Clinical data have further delineated the results of conservative and surgical management of both partial and complete tears in acute or chronic states. The current literature on the distal biceps tendon is described in detail. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joint capsule attachment to the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin: an anatomical study with possible implications regarding the etiology of lateral epicondylitis.
Nimura, Akimoto; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Imatani, Junya; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Akita, Keiichi
To identify the unique anatomical characteristic of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) origin and points of differentiation from other extensors and to clarify the specific relationship of the ECRB to the underlying structures. We studied the origin of each extensor macroscopically for its muscular and tendinous parts; to identify the relationship between the ECRB origin and the deeper structures, we also examined the attachment of the joint capsule under the ECRB origin. The ECRB simply originated as a tendon without any muscle, whereas other extensors originated as a mixture of tendon and muscle. At the anterior part of the ECRB origin, the thin attachment of the joint capsule (average width, 3.3 mm) lay deep to the ECRB and was distinct. However, at the posterodistal portion, the joint capsule, annular ligament, and supinator were intermingled and originated as a single wide sheet from the humerus (average width, 10.7 mm). The anterior part of the ECRB origin was delicate, because the ECRB origin was purely tendinous, and the attachment of the articular capsule was thin compared with that of the posterodistal attachment. This thin attachment could be an initial factor leading to the development of lateral epicondylitis. The results of the current study may enhance magnetic resonance imaging understanding and may help clarify the etiology of the lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prevalence of triceps tendon tears on MRI of the elbow and clinical correlation.
Koplas, Monica C; Schneider, Erika; Sundaram, Murali
Triceps tendon injuries are reported to be very rare. To our knowledge, there have been no studies describing its prevalence or injury patterns on MR imaging. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of triceps injuries based on a large series of consecutive MR examinations. Clinical correlation was obtained. From 801 consecutive elbow MR examinations over a 15-year period, 28 patients with 30 triceps tendon injuries were identified and graded as partial tendon tear and complete tendon tear. The patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, cause of tears, and management. The prevalence of triceps tendon injuries was 3.8%. There were 5 women and 23 men with partial or complete tears (mean age: 46.6 years; range: 2.7 to 75.1 years). The most common injury was partial tear, found in 18 patients. There were 10 patients with 12 complete tears (2 had re-torn following surgical repair). A tear was suspected in 12 out 28 (43%) patients prior to the MRI. The most common presenting symptom was pain. The most common cause was athletic injury (8 patients [29%], including weightlifting [2 patients]). Tendon tear was found to be a complication of infection in 6 patients, and in 3 patients the tears were a complication of steroid use. Thirteen tendon tears were surgically repaired (8 of these were complete tears). Triceps tendon injury is not as rare as commonly reported and may often be clinically underdiagnosed.
Tendon ruptures: mallet, flexor digitorum profundus.
Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S
Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus ruptures are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP ruptures is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tendon-bone graft for tendinous mallet fingers following failed splinting.
Wang, Le; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Ze; Huang, Xiuge; Zhu, Hongwei; Yu, Yadong
To describe and assess a surgical technique for the treatment of tendinous mallet fingers after failed conservative treatment. From January 2010 to March 2012, 28 tendinous mallet fingers in 28 patients were treated. All patients had greater than 25° extensor lags after 6 to 8 weeks of splinting. Four patients had a second trial of splinting, which also failed. A tendon-bone graft, taken from the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the third metacarpal base, was used for reconstruction. The mean time between the injury and operation was 74 days. The mean preoperative extension lag was 34°. Five patients reported pain in the distal interphalangeal joint. At the final follow-up, patients rated the level of pain on the distal interphalangeal and wrist joints using a visual analog scale. Joint motion was graded with the Crawford criteria. Hand function was assessed with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. Patients reported on their satisfaction based on the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Bone healing was achieved in all patients at a mean of 5 weeks. Position of bone graft was maintained until bone healing was evident in all cases. At the mean follow-up period of 15 months, nail deformity was not noted. No patient reported pain on the distal interphalangeal joint or wrist. The mean residual extension lag of the distal interphalangeal joints was 4°. The results showed that 24 digits were excellent and 4 were good based on the Crawford criteria. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores averaged 1, and 27 patients were satisfied with appearance of the hand. One patient sometimes felt uncomfortable regarding the appearance. A tendon-bone graft is a useful and reliable technique for the treatment of tendinous mallet fingers after failed splinting. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tissue Engineering Strategies for the Tendon/ligament-to-bone insertion
Smith, Lester; Xia, Younan; Galatz, Leesa M.; Genin, Guy M.; Thomopoulos, Stavros
Injuries to connective tissues are painful and disabling and result in costly medical expenses. These injuries often require re-attachment of an unmineralized connective tissue to bone. The uninjured tendon/ligament-to-bone insertion (enthesis) is a functionally graded material that exhibits a gradual transition from soft tissue (i.e., tendon or ligament) to hard tissue (i.e., mineralized bone) through a fibrocartilaginous transition region. This transition is believed to facilitate force transmission between the two dissimilar tissues by ameliorating potentially damaging interfacial stress concentrations. The transition region is impaired or lost upon tendon/ligament injury and is not regenerated following surgical repair or natural healing, exposing the tissue to risk of re-injury. The need to regenerate a robust tendon-to-bone insertion has led a number of tissue engineering repair strategies. This review treats the tendon-to-bone insertion site as a tissue structure whose primary role is mechanical and discusses current and emerging strategies for engineering the tendon/ligament-to-bone insertion in this context. The focus lies on strategies for producing mechanical structures that can guide and subsequently sustain a graded tissue structure and the associated cell populations. PMID:22185608
A systematic review of tibialis anterior tendon rupture treatments and outcomes.
Christman-Skieller, Claudia; Merz, Michael K; Tansey, Joseph P
Tibialis anterior (TA) tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury that has been documented primarily in case reports. This article is the first large systematic review of the literature on treatment techniques for subcutaneous rupture of TA tendons. Studies for review were identified through a PubMed search. Eligible studies involved cases of closed tendon rupture. Of the 87 cases in the study, 72 were treated with surgery, 15 with conservative measures. Mean age was 63.9 years (surgery group) and 72.4 years (conservative treatment group). Primary repair was used most often for newer injuries, autograft most often for older injuries. Operative repair of subcutaneous TA tendon rupture leads to successful outcomes in many patients. A surgeon who is deciding which operative technique to use for a patient should consider the age of the injury and the findings of intraoperative assessment for tendon necrosis.
Effects of exercise on tenocyte cellularity and tenocyte nuclear morphology in immature and mature equine digital tendons.
Stanley, R L; Goodship, A E; Edwards, B; Firth, E C; Patterson-Kane, J C
The injury-prone, energy-storing equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the mature performance horse has a limited ability to respond to exercise in contrast with the noninjury-prone, anatomically opposing common digital extensor tendon (CDET). Previous studies have indicated low levels of cellular activity in the mature SDFT, but in foal tendons the tenocytes may still have the ability to adapt positively to increased exercise. To measure tenocyte densities and types in histological sections from the SDFT and CDET of horses from controlled long-term, short-term and foal exercise studies. Specimens were collected from mid-metacarpal segments of the CDET and SDFT for each horse and processed for histology; central and peripheral regions of the SDFT cross-section were analysed separately (SDFTc, SDFTp). Tenocyte nuclei were counted in a total area of 1.59 mm(2) for each tendon region in each horse. Each nucleus was classified as type 1 (elongate and thin), type 2 (ovoid and plump) or type 3 (chondrocyte-like); type 1 cells are proposed to be less synthetically active than type 2 cells. No significant differences were noted between exercise and control groups in any of the studies, with the exception of an exercise-related reduction in the proportion of type 1 tenocytes for all tendons combined in the long-term study. There were tendon- and site-specific differences in tenocyte densities and proportions of type 1 and 2 cells in all 3 studies. There was no indication that exercise increased tenocyte density or proportions of the (theoretically) more active type 2 cells in immature horses (short-term and foal studies), perhaps because the training regimens did not achieve certain threshold strain levels. In the foal study these findings can still be interpreted positively as evidence that the training regimen did not induce subclinical damage.
Aging Does Not Alter Tendon Mechanical Properties During Homeostasis, but does Impair Flexor Tendon Healing
Ackerman, Jessica E.; Bah, Ibrahima; Jonason, Jennifer H.; Buckley, Mark R.; Loiselle, Alayna E.
Aging is an important factor in disrupted homeostasis of many tissues. While an increased incidence of tendinopathy and tendon rupture are observed with aging, it is unclear whether this is due to progressive changes in tendon cell function and mechanics over time, or an impaired repair reaction from aged tendons in response to insult or injury. In the present study we examined changes in the mechanical properties of Flexor Digitorum Longus (FDL), Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (FCU), and tail fascicles in both male and female C57Bl/6 mice between 3-27 months of age to better understand the effects of sex and age on tendon homeostasis. No change in max load at failure was observed in any group over the course of aging, although there were significant decreases in toe and linear stiffness in female mice from 3-months to 15, and to 22-27-months. No changes in cell proliferation were observed with aging, although an observable decrease in cellularity occurred in 31-month old tendons. Given that aging did not dramatically alter tendon mechanical homeostasis we hypothesized that a disruption in tendon homeostasis, via acute injury would result in an impaired healing response. Significant decreases in max load, stiffness, and yield load were observed in repairs of 22-month old mice, relative to 4-month old mice. No changes in cell proliferation were observed between young and aged, however a dramatic loss of bridging collagen extracellular matrix was observed in aged repairs suggest that matrix production, but not cell proliferation leads to impaired tendon healing with aging. PMID:28419543
Suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.
Kim, Tae Won B; Kamath, Atul F; Israelite, Craig L
Disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication, usually requiring surgical repair. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for repair of the ruptured native knee quadriceps tendon, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in quadriceps repair after TKA. We present an illustrative case of successful suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps mechanism after TKA. The procedure has been performed in a total of 3 patients. A surgical technique and brief review of the literature follows. Suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps tendon is a viable option in the setting of rupture after TKA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of once weekly NMES training on knee extensors fatigue and body composition in a person with spinal cord injury.
Gorgey, Ashraf S; Caudill, Caelb; Khalil, Refka E
Single-subject case (male, 33 years of age, T6 SCI AIS A). To determine the effect of surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training conducted once weekly on improving fatigue resistance as well as regional and whole body composition in an individual with spinal cord injury (SCI). Laboratory setting within a SCI Center. Surface NMES resistance training (RT) of the paralyzed knee extensors was conducted once weekly for 12 weeks using ankle weights. Knee extensor fatigue index was determined by the number of repetitions (reps) achieved out of 30 reps. Total and regional body composition including percentage body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) were conducted before the first session and one week after the last training session using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The participant had a compliance rate of 83% and he was able to lift 6 and 2 lbs on the right and left legs, respectively. Right knee extensors showed greater fatigue resistance compared to the left one. Leg LM increased by 6% accompanied with decrease in arm, trunk and total body LM by -4.7%, -13%, -5%, respectively. The %BF increased by 8%, 7.3%, 15.5%, 11.5% for arm, legs, trunk and total body. Once weekly of NMES RT evokes local positive changes in leg LM without reciprocating the continuous loss in LM or gain in FM in other regions and total body. Training was effective in increasing strength as well as fatigue resistance of the trained knee extensors.
In vitro structural properties of braided tendon grafts.
Nicklin, S; Waller, C; Walker, P; Chung, W K; Walsh, W R
In an effort to increase strength in hamstring tendon grafts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, braiding or weaving of the tendons has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine the biomechanical properties of two braiding techniques compared with a four-stranded tendon graft using a sheep model. Digital extensor tendons from 5 adult sheep were harvested in 28 matched pairs and randomly allocated to French plait or four-stranded weave. The grafts were tested in a hydraulic testing machine with the tendons secured in brass grips frozen with liquid carbon dioxide. The tendons were preconditioned to a distraction of 1 mm for 10 cycles followed by testing to failure at 50 mm/sec, with a data acquisition rate of 1,000 Hz. The stiffness, ultimate load to failure, and the mode of failure were recorded. All braided samples failed at the midsubstance, while the four-stranded controls failed at the grip interface. There was a significant reduction in strength and stiffness of the braided samples compared with the controls. This study demonstrated that braiding decreases the strength and stiffness of a four-stranded tendon graft by up to 54% and 85%, respectively. This finding is supported by the work of Hearle et al. (1969), who demonstrated that the decrease in strength of fiber bundles is equal to the square of the cosine of the twist angle. The twist angle in our samples was approximately 45 degrees, which equates to a decrease in strength of 50%.
Aspartic Acid Racemization and Collagen Degradation Markers Reveal an Accumulation of Damage in Tendon Collagen That Is Enhanced with Aging*
Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Streeter, Ian; Pinchbeck, Gina L.; Goodship, Allen E.; Clegg, Peter D.; Birch, Helen L.
Little is known about the rate at which protein turnover occurs in living tendon and whether the rate differs between tendons with different physiological roles. In this study, we have quantified the racemization of aspartic acid to calculate the age of the collagenous and non-collagenous components of the high strain injury-prone superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) and low strain rarely injured common digital extensor tendon (CDET) in a group of horses with a wide age range. In addition, the turnover of collagen was assessed indirectly by measuring the levels of collagen degradation markers (collagenase-generated neoepitope and cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen). The fractional increase in d-Asp was similar (p = 0.7) in the SDFT (5.87 × 10−4/year) and CDET (5.82 × 10−4/year) tissue, and d/l-Asp ratios showed a good correlation with pentosidine levels. We calculated a mean (±S.E.) collagen half-life of 197.53 (±18.23) years for the SDFT, which increased significantly with horse age (p = 0.03) and was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that for the CDET (34.03 (±3.39) years). Using similar calculations, the half-life of non-collagenous protein was 2.18 (±0.41) years in the SDFT and was significantly (p = 0.04) lower than the value of 3.51 (±0.51) years for the CDET. Collagen degradation markers were higher in the CDET and suggested an accumulation of partially degraded collagen within the matrix with aging in the SDFT. We propose that increased susceptibility to injury in older individuals results from an inability to remove partially degraded collagen from the matrix leading to reduced mechanical competence. PMID:20308077
Deficits in heel-rise height and achilles tendon elongation occur in patients recovering from an Achilles tendon rupture.
Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Steele, Robert; Manal, Kurt
Whether an Achilles tendon rupture is treated surgically or not, complications such as muscle weakness, decrease in heel-rise height, and gait abnormalities persist after injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if side-to-side differences in maximal heel-rise height can be explained by differences in Achilles tendon length. Case series; level of evidence, 4. Eight patients (mean [SD] age of 46  years) with acute Achilles tendon rupture and 10 healthy subjects (mean [SD] age of 28  years) were included in the study. Heel-rise height, Achilles tendon length, and patient-reported outcome were measured 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Achilles tendon length was evaluated using motion analysis and ultrasound imaging. The Achilles tendon length test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97) was excellent. For the healthy subjects, there were no side-to-side differences in tendon length and heel-rise height. Patients with Achilles tendon ruptures had significant differences between the injured and uninjured side for both tendon length (mean [SD] difference, 2.6-3.1 [1.2-1.4] cm, P = .017-.028) and heel-rise height (mean [SD] difference, -4.1 to -6.1 [1.7-1.8] cm, P = .012-.028). There were significant negative correlations (r = -0.943, P = .002, and r = -0.738, P = .037) between the side-to-side difference in heel-rise height and Achilles tendon length at the 6- and 12-month evaluations, respectively. The side-to-side difference found in maximal heel-rise height can be explained by a difference in Achilles tendon length in patients recovering from an Achilles tendon rupture. Minimizing tendon elongation appears to be an important treatment goal when aiming for full return of function.
Treatment of peroneal tendon dislocation and coexisting medial and lateral ligamentous laxity in the ankle joint.
Ziai, Pejman; Sabeti-Aschraf, Manuel; Fehske, Kai; Dlaska, Constantin E; Funovics, Philipp; Wenzel, Florian; Graf, Alexandra; Buchhorn, Tomas
Acute dislocation of the peroneal tendon is caused by massive combined flexion-torsion trauma supported by preexisting ligamentous laxity of the ankle joint. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcome of combined treatment of peroneal tendon dislocation and lateral and medial ligamentous laxity. Between 2005 and 2007, forty-two patients with peroneal tendon dislocation and coexisting ligamentous laxity were treated. The superior extensor retinaculum was reconstructed using anchor technique and periosteal flap repair, whereas the preexisting ligamentous laxity with regard to the extensor inferior retinaculum was addressed using anchor reconstruction. All patients underwent arthroscopy prior to surgery. Thirty-eight of a total of 42 patients (aged 17-31) completed the 24-month follow-up. Clinical and arthroscopic examination was accomplished consistently by always the same two surgeons. Postoperative follow-up comprised clinical evaluation after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Clinical results showed a significant (P<0.0001) increase in the AOFAS-Hindfoot Score as an often used but not validated outcome measure, as well as a significant decrease in the Visual Analogue Scale and in the internal and external rotation, after 3 months. The clinical outcome was confirmed at the 6-, 12- and 24-months measuring points. No dislocation of the peroneal tendon recurred within the 24-month follow-up. Subjective patient satisfaction was stated as high. Combined treatment of peroneal tendon dislocation and coexisting lateral and medial ligamentous laxity in the ankle joint following arthroscopy results in good clinical outcome and high patient satisfaction. Case series, Level IV.
Bioreactor design for tendon/ligament engineering.
Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake; Smith, David W; Lloyd, David G; Zheng, Ming H
Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments.
Risk of iatrogenic injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve during hamstring tendon harvesting: A meta-analysis.
Pękala, Przemysław A; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Henry, Brandon Michael; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Roy, Joyeeta; Mizia, Ewa; Walocha, Jerzy A
Our goal was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of studies reporting data on the rate of injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve following hamstring tendon graft harvesting with respect to the type of incision over the pes anserinus. A broad search through all major electronic databases was conducted to identify articles eligible for inclusion. All available data were extracted and pooled into the analysis. Eleven studies (n = 1,050 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. The study revealed that a vertical incision during hamstring tendon harvesting over the pes anserinus was associated with the highest rate of injury with a pooled rate of 51.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.6-67.2%). This was followed by oblique and horizontal incisions with pooled rates of 26.0% (95% CI,1.3-61.3%) and 22.4% (95% CI, 5.4-45.5%), respectively. We highly recommend the use of the shortest possible oblique incision during hamstring tendon harvesting over the pes anserinus. Muscle Nerve 56: 930-937, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O’Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas
Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries. Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers. Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus. A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments. Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047 PMID:28736620
Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O'Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas
Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries.Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers.Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus.A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments.Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion.The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047.
Achilles Tendon Rupture: Avoiding Tendon Lengthening during Surgical Repair and Rehabilitation
Achilles tendon rupture is a serious injury for which the best treatment is still controversial. Its primary goal should be to restore normal length and tension, thus obtaining an optimal function. Tendon elongation correlates significantly with clinical outcome; lengthening is an important cause of morbidity and may produce permanent functional impairment. In this article, we review all factors that may influence the repair, including the type of surgical technique, suture material, and rehabilitation program, among many others. PMID:21966048
Delayed Exercise Promotes Remodeling in Sub-Rupture Fatigue Damaged Tendons
Bell, R.; Boniello, M.R.; Gendron, N.R.; Flatow, E.L.; Andarawis-Puri, N.
Tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal injury whose treatment is limited by ineffective therapeutic interventions. Previously we have shown that tendons ineffectively repair early sub-rupture fatigue damage. In contrast, physiological exercise has been shown to promote remodeling of healthy tendons but its utility as a therapeutic to promote repair of fatigue damaged tendons remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the utility of exercise initiated 1 and 14 days after onset of fatigue damage to promote structural repair in fatigue damaged tendons. We hypothesized that exercise initiated 14 days after fatigue loading would promote remodeling as indicated by a decrease in area of collagen matrix damage, increased procollagen I and decorin, while decreasing proteins indicative of tendinopathy. Rats engaged in 6-week exercise for 30 min/day or 60 min/day starting 1 or 14 days after fatigue loading. Initiating exercise 1-day after onset of fatigue injury led to exacerbation of matrix damage, particularly at the tendon insertion. Initiating exercise 14 days after onset of fatigue injury led to remodeling of damaged regions in the midsubstance and collagen synthesis at the insertion. Physiological exercise applied after the initial biological response to injury has dampened can potentially promote remodeling of damaged tendons. PMID:25732052
Quadriceps tendon rupture - treatment results.
Popov, Iva; Ristić, Vladimir; Maljanović, Mirsad; Milankov, Vukadin
Quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare but rather serious injury. If this injury is not promptly recognized and early operated, it may lead to disability. This research was aimed at pointing out the results and complications of the quadriceps tendon rupture surgical treatment. This retrospective multicentric study was conducted in a group of 29 patients (mostly elderly men). Lysholm knee scoring scale was used to evaluate the surgical results. The post-operative results were compared in relation to the type of tendon rupture reconstructions (acute or chronic), various surgical techniques, type of injuries (unilateral or bilateral) as well as the presence or absence of comorbid risk factors in the patients. The average value of a Lysholm score was 87.6. Excellent and satisfactory Lysholm score results dominated in our sample of patients. Better post-operative results were recorded in the group of patients without risk factors, in case of a bilateral injury, and in case of an acute injury. The best result was obtained after performing the reconstruction using anchors, and the worst result came after using Codivilla technique. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment are an absolute imperative in management of this injury. We have not proven that a certain surgical technique has an advantage over the others. A comorbid risk factor is related to a lower Lysholm score. Despite a few cases of complications, we can conclude that the surgical treatment yields satisfactory results.
IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee report 2014: from the IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee (Chairman: Jin Bo Tang).
Tang, Jin Bo; Chang, James; Elliot, David; Lalonde, Donald H; Sandow, Michael; Vögelin, Esther
Hand surgeons continue to search for the best surgical flexor tendon repair and treatment of the tendon sheaths and pulleys, and they are attempting to establish postoperative regimens that fit diverse clinical needs. It is the purpose of this report to present the current views, methods, and suggestions of six senior hand surgeons from six different countries - all experienced in tendon repair and reconstruction. Although certainly there is common ground, the report presents provocative views and approaches. The report reflects an update in the views of the committee. We hope that it is helpful to surgeons and therapists in treating flexor tendon injuries.
Inflamm-Aging and Arachadonic Acid Metabolite Differences with Stage of Tendon Disease
Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Dudhia, Jayesh; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Werling, Dirk; Abayasekara, Dilkush Robert Ephrem; Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands
The contribution of inflammation to the pathogenesis of tendinopathy and high prevalence of re-injury is not well established, although recent evidence suggests involvement of prostaglandins. We investigated the roles of prostaglandins and inflammation-resolving mediators in naturally occurring equine tendon injury with disease stage and age. Levels of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2), F2α (PGF2α), lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and its receptor FPR2/ALX were analysed in extracts of normal, sub-acute and chronic injured tendons. To assess whether potential changes were associated with altered PGE2 metabolism, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH), COX-2 and EP4 receptor expression were investigated. The ability of tendons to resolve inflammation was determined by assessing FPR2/ALX expression in natural injury and IL-1β stimulated tendon explants. Alterations in the profile of lipid mediators during sub-acute injury included low PGE2 and elevated LXA4 levels compared to normal and chronic injuries. In contrast, PGF2α levels remained unchanged and were three-fold lower than PGE2. The synthetic capacity of PGE2 as measured by the ratio of mPGES-1:PGDH was elevated in sub-acute injury, suggesting aberrations in tendon prostaglandin metabolism, whilst COX-2 and EP4 receptor were unchanged. Paradoxically low tendon PGE2 levels in early injury may be attributed to increased local clearance via PGDH or the class switching of lipid mediators from the prostaglandin to the lipoxin axis. PGE2 is therefore implicated in the development of tendon inflammation and its ensuing resolution. Whilst there was no relationship between age and tendon LXA4 levels, there was an age-associated decline in FPR2/ALX receptor expression with concurrent increased PGE2 levels in injury. Furthermore, uninjured tendon explants from younger (<10 years) but not older horses (≥10 years) treated with IL-1β responded by increasing FPR2/ALX suggesting aged individuals
... teens, biceps tendonitis is usually an overuse injury. Baseball pitchers, swimmers, tennis players, and people who have ... But if you swim or play tennis or baseball, that might not be an option! If your ...
Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering
Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake
Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472
Endoscopy-assisted percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon tears.
Chiu, Chih-Hao; Yeh, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Min-Chien; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Chan, Yi-Sheng
We developed a technique for endoscopy-assisted percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon tears. Nineteen patients with acute Achilles tendon tears were prospectively recruited into the study. All patients (18 male, 1 female) had sports-related injuries. Preoperative diagnosis was made from patient history, physical examination, and sonography. The average patient age was 38.7 years, and follow-up averaged 24 months. All patients received endoscopy-assisted percutaneous Achilles tendon repair with modified Bunnell sutures passed by bird beak and No. 5 Ethibond under direct visualization using 4.0-mm arthroscopy. Results were evaluated by physical examination, sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All 19 patients achieved tendon healing. All patients were evaluated by sonography, and the tendons of 16 patients were imaged using MRI to evaluate the extent of healing. Final dorsiflexion was 16 degrees and plantar flexion 26 degrees, and 95% of the patients (18/19) returned to their previous level of sporting activity. One patient developed a superficial infection, and 2 patients had postoperative sural nerve injury with numbness for 1 month. There were no other major complications. Endoscopy-assisted percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon allowed good tendon healing and return to sports at 6 months. Sural nerve injury during surgery was a potential complication of this procedure. Level IV, retrospective case series.
Repair of insertional achilles tendinosis with a bone-quadriceps tendon graft.
Philippot, Rémi; Wegrzyn, Julien; Grosclaude, Sophie; Besse, Jean Luc
While conservative treatment may be successful in most cases, partial rupture at the calcaneal insertion point is a significant concern with insertional Achilles tendinopathy. We report on the outcomes of a surgical technique for Achilles tendon augmentation using a bone-tendon graft harvested from the knee extensor system. Our retrospective case series includes 25 surgical procedures performed in 24 patients, 19 males and five females, with a mean age of 47 (range, 30 to 59) years, 18 of whom were athletes. The mean followup period was 52 (range, 12 to 156) months. All patients underwent MRI examination prior to surgery which showed partial Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon was debrided through a posterolateral approach. The bone-quadriceps tendon graft was harvested, then the bone plug of the graft was inserted into a blind tunnel drilled into the calcaneus and fixed with an interference screw. The fibers of the quadriceps tendon were sutured to the residual part of the Achilles tendon with the foot at an angle of 90 degrees. Patients were able to resume their sporting activity after an average of 6.7 months. At last followup examination, physical activity was scored 5.2 on the 10-point Tegner Scale; the mean AOFAS score was 98.4. MRI examination showed good graft integration 1 year postoperatively. The bone-quadriceps tendon grafting technique was a good alternative for the insertional Achilles lesions with partial detachment which we felt required augmentation.
4-corner arthrodesis and proximal row carpectomy: a biomechanical comparison of wrist motion and tendon forces.
Debottis, Daniel P; Werner, Frederick W; Sutton, Levi G; Harley, Brian J
Controversy exists as to whether a proximal row carpectomy (PRC) is a better procedure than scaphoid excision with 4-corner arthrodesis for preserving motion in the painful posttraumatic arthritic wrist. The purpose of this study was to determine how the kinematics and tendon forces of the wrist are altered after PRC and 4-corner arthrodesis. We tested 6 fresh cadaver forearms for the extremes of wrist motion and then used a wrist simulator to move them through 4 cyclic dynamic wrist motions, during which time we continuously recorded the tendon forces. We repeated the extremes of wrist motion measurements and the dynamic motions after scaphoid excision with 4-corner arthrodesis, and then again after PRC. We analyzed extremes of wrist motion and the peak tendon forces required for each dynamic motion using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Wrist extremes of motion significantly decreased after both the PRC and 4-corner arthrodesis compared with the intact wrist. Wrist flexion decreased on average 13° after 4-corner arthrodesis and 12° after PRC. Extension decreased 20° after 4-corner arthrodesis and 12° after PRC. Four-corner arthrodesis significantly decreased wrist ulnar deviation from the intact wrist. Four-corner arthrodesis allowed more radial deviation but less ulnar deviation than the PRC. The average peak tendon force was significantly greater after 4-corner arthrodesis than after PRC for the extensor carpi ulnaris during wrist flexion-extension, circumduction, and dart throw motions. The peak forces were significantly greater after 4-corner arthrodesis than in the intact wrist for the extensor carpi ulnaris during the dart throw motion and for the flexor carpi ulnaris during the circumduction motion. The peak extensor carpi radialis brevis force after PRC was significantly less than in the intact wrist. The measured wrist extremes of motion decreased after both 4-corner arthrodesis and PRC. Larger peak tendon forces were required to achieve
Surgical Treatment for Failure of Repair of Patellar and Quadriceps Tendon Rupture With Ipsilateral Hamstring Tendon Graft.
Maffulli, Nicola; Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Denaro, Vincenzo
Tears of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are common in the active population, especially in athletes. At present, several techniques for surgical repair and reconstruction are available. When reruptures occur, a reconstruction is mandatory. In the present paper, we describe a surgical technique for patellar and quadriceps tendon reconstruction using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. After routine hamstring tendon harvesting, the tendon ends are prepared using a whip stitch. A transverse tunnel is drilled in the midportion of the patella, the hamstring graft is passed through the patella, and firmly secured to the patellar tunnel openings with sutures. The details of the technique are fully described. Autologous ipsilateral hamstring tendon grafts provide a secure sound means to manage these challenging injuries.
Tissue-engineering strategies for the tendon/ligament-to-bone insertion.
Smith, Lester; Xia, Younan; Galatz, Leesa M; Genin, Guy M; Thomopoulos, Stavros
Injuries to connective tissues are painful and disabling and result in costly medical expenses. These injuries often require reattachment of an unmineralized connective tissue to bone. The uninjured tendon/ligament-to-bone insertion (enthesis) is a functionally graded material that exhibits a gradual transition from soft tissue (i.e., tendon or ligament) to hard tissue (i.e., mineralized bone) through a fibrocartilaginous transition region. This transition is believed to facilitate force transmission between the two dissimilar tissues by ameliorating potentially damaging interfacial stress concentrations. The transition region is impaired or lost upon tendon/ligament injury and is not regenerated following surgical repair or natural healing, exposing the tissue to risk of reinjury. The need to regenerate a robust tendon-to-bone insertion has led a number of tissue engineering repair strategies. This review treats the tendon-to-bone insertion site as a tissue structure whose primary role is mechanical and discusses current and emerging strategies for engineering the tendon/ligament-to-bone insertion in this context. The focus lies on strategies for producing mechanical structures that can guide and subsequently sustain a graded tissue structure and the associated cell populations.
Tendon length and joint flexibility are related to running economy.
Hunter, Gary R; Katsoulis, Konstantina; McCarthy, John P; Ogard, William K; Bamman, Marcas M; Wood, David S; Den Hollander, Jan A; Blaudeau, Tamilane E; Newcomer, Bradley R
The purpose of study was to determine whether quadriceps/patella and Achilles tendon length and flexibility of the knee extensors and plantar flexors are related to walking and running economy. Twenty-one male distance runners were subjects. Quadriceps/patella and Achilles tendon length were measured by magnetic resonance imaging; body composition was measured DXA; oxygen uptake at rest while seated, walking (3 mph), and running (6 and 7 mph) were measured by indirect calorimetry; knee and ankle joint flexibility were measured by goniometry; and leg lengths were measured by anthropometry while seated. Correlations were used to identify relationships between variables of interest. Net VO2 (exercise VO2 - rest VO2) for walking (NVOWK) and running at 6 and 7 mph (NVO6 and NVO7, respectively) was significantly related to Achilles tendon length (r varying from -0.40 to -0.51, P all < 0.04). Achilles tendon cross section was not related to walking or running economy. Quadriceps/patella tendon length was significantly related to NVO7 (r = -0.43, P = 0.03) and approached significance for NVO6 (r = -0.36, P = 0.06). Flexibility of the plantar flexors was related to NVO7 (+0.38, P = 0.05). Multiple regression showed that Achilles tendon length was independently related to NVO6 and NVO7 (partial r varying from -0.53 to -0.64, all P < 0.02) independent of lower leg length, upper leg length, quadriceps/patella tendon length, knee extension flexibility, or plantarflexion flexibility. These data support the premise that longer lower limb tendons (especially Achilles tendon) and less flexible lower limb joints are associated with improved running economy.
The role of the non-collagenous matrix in tendon function.
Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C
Tendon consists of highly ordered type I collagen molecules that are grouped together to form subunits of increasing diameter. At each hierarchical level, the type I collagen is interspersed with a predominantly non-collagenous matrix (NCM) (Connect. Tissue Res., 6, 1978, 11). Whilst many studies have investigated the structure, organization and function of the collagenous matrix within tendon, relatively few have studied the non-collagenous components. However, there is a growing body of research suggesting the NCM plays an important role within tendon; adaptations to this matrix may confer the specific properties required by tendons with different functions. Furthermore, age-related alterations to non-collagenous proteins have been identified, which may affect tendon resistance to injury. This review focuses on the NCM within the tensional region of developing and mature tendon, discussing the current knowledge and identifying areas that require further study to fully understand structure-function relationships within tendon. This information will aid in the development of appropriate techniques for tendon injury prevention and treatment. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.
The utility of clinical measures for the diagnosis of achilles tendon injuries: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
Reiman, Michael; Burgi, Ciara; Strube, Eileen; Prue, Kevin; Ray, Keaton; Elliott, Amanda; Goode, Adam
To summarize and evaluate the current diagnostic accuracy of clinical measures used to diagnose Achilles tendon injuries. A literature search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases was conducted with key words related to diagnostic accuracy and Achilles tendon injuries. Original research articles investigating Achilles tendon injuries against an acceptable reference standard were included. Three studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models were used to pool sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), and diagnostic odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The SN and negative likelihood ratio (-LR) values for Achilles tendon rupture measures ranged from 0.73 (95% CI = 0.65, 0.81) and 0.30 (95% CI = 0.23, 0.40) to 0.96 (95% CI = 0.93, 0.99) and 0.04 (95% CI = 0.02, 0.10), respectively, whereas SP and positive likelihood ratio (+LR) values ranged from 0.85 (95% CI = 0.72, 0.98) and 6.29 (95% CI = 2.33, 19.96) to 0.93 (95% CI = 0.84, 1.00) and 13.71 (95% CI = 3.54, 51.24), respectively, with the highest SN and SP both reported in the calf-squeeze test. The SN and -LR values for Achilles tendinopathy measures ranged from 0.03 (95% CI = 0.00, 0.08) and 0.97 (95% CI = not reported) to 0.89 (95% CI = 0.75, 0.98) and 0.19 (95% CI = not reported), whereas SP and +LR values ranged from 0.58 (95% CI = 0.38, 0.77) and 2.12 (95% CI = not reported) to 1.00 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.00) and infinity, respectively, with the highest SN and SP reported for morning stiffness and palpation for crepitus. Pooled analyses demonstrated similar diagnostic properties in all 3 clinical measures (arc sign, palpation, and Royal London Hospital test), with SN and -LR ranging from 0.42 (95% CI = 0.23, 0.62) and 0.68 (95% CI = 0.50, 0.93), respectively, for the arc sign, to 0.64 (95% CI = 0.44, 0.81) and 0.48 (95% CI = 0.29, 0.80), respectively, for palpation. Pooled
Neuronal regulation of tendon homoeostasis
Ackermann, Paul W
The regulation of tendon homoeostasis, including adaptation to loading, is still not fully understood. Accumulating data, however, demonstrates that in addition to afferent (sensory) functions, the nervous system, via efferent pathways which are associated with through specific neuronal mediators plays an active role in regulating pain, inflammation and tendon homeostasis. This neuronal regulation of intact-, healing- and tendinopathic tendons has been shown to be mediated by three major groups of molecules including opioid, autonomic and excitatory glutamatergic neuroregulators. In intact healthy tendons the neuromediators are found in the surrounding structures: paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the proper tendon itself is practically devoid of neurovascular supply. This neuroanatomy reflects that normal tendon homoeostasis is regulated from the tendon surroundings. After injury and during tendon repair, however, there is extensive nerve ingrowth into the tendon proper, followed by a time-dependent emergence of sensory, autonomic and glutamatergic mediators, which amplify and fine-tune inflammation and regulate tendon regeneration. In tendinopathic condition, excessive and protracted presence of sensory and glutamatergic neuromediators has been identified, suggesting involvement in inflammatory, nociceptive and hypertrophic (degenerative) tissue responses. Under experimental and clinical conditions of impaired (e.g. diabetes) as well as excessive (e.g. tendinopathy) neuromediator release, dysfunctional tendon homoeostasis develops resulting in chronic pain and gradual degeneration. Thus there is a prospect that in the future pharmacotherapy and tissue engineering approaches targeting neuronal mediators and their receptors may prove to be effective therapies for painful, degenerative and traumatic tendon disorders. PMID:23718724
Tendon basic science: Development, repair, regeneration, and healing.
Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Flatow, Evan L; Soslowsky, Louis J
Tendinopathy and tendon rupture are common and disabling musculoskeletal conditions. Despite the prevalence of these injuries, a limited number of investigators are conducting fundamental, basic science studies focused on understanding processes governing tendinopathies and tendon healing. Development of effective therapeutics is hindered by the lack of fundamental guiding data on the biology of tendon development, signal transduction, mechanotransduction, and basic mechanisms underlying tendon pathogenesis and healing. To propel much needed progress, the New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference, co-sponsored by NIAMS/NIH, the Orthopaedic Research Society, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, was held to promote exchange of ideas between tendon researchers and basic science experts from outside the tendon field. Discussed research areas that are underdeveloped and represent major hurdles to the progress of the field will be presented in this review. To address some of these outstanding questions, conference discussions and breakout sessions focused on six topic areas (Cell Biology and Mechanics, Functional Extracellular Matrix, Development, Mechano-biology, Scarless Healing, and Mechanisms of Injury and Repair), which are reviewed in this special issue and briefly presented in this review. Review articles in this special issue summarize the progress in the field and identify essential new research directions. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Peroneal perforator-based peroneus longus tendon and sural neurofasciocutaneous composite flap transfer for a large soft-tissue defect of the forearm: A case report.
Hayashida, Kenji; Saijo, Hiroto; Fujioka, Masaki
We describe the use of a composite flap composed of a sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and a vascularized peroneus longus tendon for the reconstruction of severe composite forearm tissue defects in a patient. A 43-year-old man had his left arm caught in a conveyor belt resulting in a large soft-tissue defect of 18 × 11 cm over the dorsum forearm. The extensor carpi radialis, superficial radial nerve, and radial artery were severely damaged. A free neurofasciocutaneous composite flap measuring 16 × 11 cm was outlined on the patient's left lower leg to allow simultaneous skin, tendon, nerve, and artery reconstruction. The flap, which included the peroneus longus tendon, was elevated on the subfascial plane. After the flap was transferred to the recipient site, the peroneal artery was anastomosed to the radial artery in a flow-through manner. The vascularized tendon graft with 15 cm in length was used to reconstruct the extensor carpi radialis longus tendon defect using an interlacing suture technique. As the skin paddle of the sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and the vascularized peroneus longus tendon graft were linked by the perforator and minimal fascial tissue, the skin paddle was able to rotate and slide with comparative ease. The flap survived completely without any complications. The length of follow-up was 12 months and was uneventful. Range of motion of his left wrist joint was slightly limited to 75 degrees. This novel composite flap may be useful for reconstructing long tendon defects associated with extensive forearm soft tissue defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kinesthetic perception based on integration of motor imagery and afferent inputs from antagonistic muscles with tendon vibration.
Shibata, E; Kaneko, F
The perceptual integration of afferent inputs from two antagonistic muscles, or the perceptual integration of afferent input and motor imagery are related to the generation of a kinesthetic sensation. However, it has not been clarified how, or indeed whether, a kinesthetic perception would be generated by motor imagery if afferent inputs from two antagonistic muscles were simultaneously induced by tendon vibration. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a kinesthetic perception would be generated by motor imagery during co-vibration of the two antagonistic muscles at the same frequency. Healthy subjects participated in this experiment. Illusory movement was evoked by tendon vibration. Next, the subjects imaged wrist flexion movement simultaneously with tendon vibration. Wrist flexor and extensor muscles were vibrated according to 4 patterns such that the difference between the two vibration frequencies was zero. After each trial, the perceived movement sensations were quantified on the basis of the velocity and direction of the ipsilateral hand-tracking movements. When the difference in frequency applied to the wrist flexor and the extensor was 0Hz, no subjects perceived movements without motor imagery. However, during motor imagery, the flexion velocity of the perceived movement was higher than the flexion velocity without motor imagery. This study clarified that the afferent inputs from the muscle spindle interact with motor imagery, to evoke a kinesthetic perception, even when the difference in frequency applied to the wrist flexor and extensor was 0Hz. Furthermore, the kinesthetic perception resulting from integrations of vibration and motor imagery increased depending on the vibration frequency to the two antagonistic muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Measuring tendon properties in mdx mice: cell viability and viscoelastic characteristics.
Rizzuto, E; Musarò, A; Catizone, A; Del Prete, Z
Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Here we assessed whether muscle wasting affects cell viability and mechanical properties of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and of tibialis anterior (TA) tendons from mdx dystrophic mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. mdx mice represent the classical animal model for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and show several signs of the pathology, including a decrease in specific force and an increase of fibrotic index. Cell viability of tendons was evaluated by histological analysis, and viscoelastic properties have been assessed by a rapid measurement protocol that allowed us to compute, at the same time, tissue complex compliance for all the frequencies of interest. Confocal microscopy and mechanical properties measurements revealed that mdx tendons, compared to WT ones, have an increase in the number of dead cells and a significant reduction in tissue elasticity for all the frequencies that were tested. These findings indicate a reduced quality of the tissue. Moreover, mdx tendons have an increase in the viscous response, indicating that during dynamic loading, they dissipate more energy compared to WT. Our results demonstrate that muscular dystrophy involves not only muscle wasting, but also alteration in the viscoelastic properties of tendons, suggesting a paracrine effect of altered skeletal muscle on tendinous tissue.
Treatment of the neglected Achilles tendon rupture.
Bevilacqua, Nicholas J
Achilles tendon ruptures are best managed acutely. Neglected Achilles tendon ruptures are debilitating injuries and the increased complexity of the situation must be appreciated. Surgical management is recommended, and only in the poorest surgical candidate is conservative treatment entertained. Numerous treatment algorithms and surgical techniques have been described. A V-Y advancement flap and flexor halluces longus tendon transfer have been found to be reliable and achieve good clinical outcomes for defects ranging from 2 cm to 8 cm. This article focuses on the treatment options for the neglected Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Repair of Double Head Pectoralis Major Tendon Avulsion into its Native Footprint Using Bi-cortical EndoButtons and Tendon Sliding Technique.
Prabhu, Jagadish; Faqi, Mohammed Khalid; Alkhalifa, Fahad; Tayara, Bader Kamal; Awad, Rashad Khamis
Injuries to the pectoralis major muscle are relatively infrequent. The mechanism of injury is usually an eccentric shortening of the pectoralis major under heavy load, such as when performing a bench press exercise. We report a case that presented to us with a history of sudden pain in the left pectoral region while doing heavy bench press exercise. The patient sustained a type III D pectoralis muscle -tendon avulsion. Surgical repair was done through a bi-cortical tendon sliding technique using two cortical buttons. In this article we describe our modifications to the previously described surgical technique for the pectoralis major tendon repair using the EndoButton and tension - slide technique, aiming to overcome the possible complications.
The role of ultrasound in the management of flexor tendon injuries.
Jeyapalan, K; Bisson, M A; Dias, J J; Griffin, Y; Bhatt, R
The use of ultrasound scanning to establish tendon pathologies was assessed retrospectively in 17 patients in 18 digits. The ultrasound scan demonstrated four patterns: (1) normal intact tendons in four, (2) ruptured tendons in three, (3) tendons in continuity but attenuated in five and (4) tendons in continuity but thickened with fibrosis and decreased movement representing adhesions in five patients. Surgery was undertaken in only three cases, confirming the ultrasound diagnosis in two. Surgery was offered to all three patients with ruptures but was declined by two. Ultrasound imaging helped to avoid surgery in 14 cases by excluding flexor tendon re-ruptures. This allowed on-going mobilisation, leading to recovery of function.
Venous thromboembolism rates in patients with lower limb immobilization after Achilles tendon injury are unchanged after the introduction of prophylactic aspirin: audit.
Braithwaite, I; Dunbar, L; Eathorne, A; Weatherall, M; Beasley, R
ESSENTIALS: We audited venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Achilles injuries after the use of prophylactic aspirin. We audited 218 patients with Achilles injury requiring lower limb immobilization for ≥ 1 week. Fourteen patients (6.4%, 95% CI 3.6% to 10.5%) developed symptomatic and confirmed VTE. The incidence was similar to the 6.3% identified in the same patient group prior to the use of aspirin. We report a follow-up audit of the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients requiring lower limb immobilization because of Achilles tendon injury, since the introduction of a policy to routinely prescribe 100 mg of aspirin daily. We studied 218 patients aged 18-65 years who attended the Orthopaedic Assessment Unit at Wellington Hospital between January 2013 and December 2014 with Achilles tendon injury requiring lower limb immobilization for ≥ 1 week. Information on assessment of VTE risk, prescription of aspirin and symptomatic VTE occurring within 70 days of immobilization was obtained and compared with the same information collected with the same method in the same patient group between January 2006 and December 2007, before the policy to routinely prescribe aspirin was introduced. A total of 189 of 218 (93%) patients were prescribed aspirin, as compared with 0.5% previously. Fourteen patients (6.4%, 95% confidence interval 3.6-10.5%) developed symptomatic radiologically confirmed VTE (10 distal deep vein thromboses [DVTs], two proximal DVTs, one pulmonary embolism [PE], and one PE with distal DVT). Aspirin was prescribed to all patients who subsequently developed a VTE; in one of 14, a recognized risk factor was documented. The VTE incidence was similar to the 6.3% identified in the previous audit. Lower limb immobilization following Achilles tendon injury confers a high risk of VTE even with aspirin prophylaxis. Consideration should be given to prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin during lower limb immobilization following Achilles tendon
Magnetotherapy: The quest for tendon regeneration.
Pesqueira, Tamagno; Costa-Almeida, Raquel; Gomes, Manuela E
Tendons are mechanosensitive tissues that connect and transmit the forces generated by muscles to bones by allowing the conversion of mechanical input into biochemical signals. These physical forces perform the fundamental work of preserving tendon homeostasis assuring body movements. However, overloading causes tissue injuries, which leads us to the field of tendon regeneration. Recently published reviews have broadly shown the use of biomaterials and different strategies to attain tendon regeneration. In this review, our focus is the use of magnetic fields as an alternative therapy, which has demonstrated clinical relevance in tendon medicine because of their ability to modulate cell fate. Yet the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms still need to be elucidated. While providing a brief outlook about specific signalling pathways and intracellular messengers as framework in play by tendon cells, application of magnetic fields as a subcategory of physical forces is explored, opening up a compelling avenue to enhance tendon regeneration. We outline here useful insights on the effects of magnetic fields both at in vitro and in vivo levels, particularly on the expression of tendon genes and inflammatory cytokines, ultimately involved in tendon regeneration. Subsequently, the potential of using magnetically responsive biomaterials in tendon tissue engineering is highlighted and future directions in magnetotherapy are discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Free anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of car tire injuries of children's feet.
Demirtas, Yener; Neimetzade, Tale; Kelahmetoglu, Osman; Guneren, Ethem
Grade IV and V car tire injuries occurring in children cause extensive soft tissue defects with exposure or loss of tendons and bone on the dorsum of the foot. Free tissue transfer is indicated for reconstruction of these defects because of the limited local tissue available. We describe our management of high-grade car tire foot injuries in children with free anterolateral thigh flap (ALT). Five pre-school children with car tire injuries (one grade IV and four grade V) were treated with free ALT flap in the last 4 years. The mean age was 4.8 years. In four patients, immediate flap coverage after initial debridement was performed and delayed reconstruction was used as a secondary procedure in one patient. One of the flaps was re-explored for hematoma evacuation and salvaged. All of the flaps survived completely and there were no donor site complications. None of the flaps required a debulking procedure and custom shoe wear has not been necessary in any of the patients. Minor gait abnormalities were detected in two of the patients. With minimal donor site morbidity, long vascular pedicle allowing anastomosis outside of the trauma zone, we believe free ALT flap provides the ideal soft tissue reconstruction for high grade car tire injuries of foot in children. ALT flap can be further thinned to adapt to the defect, contracts less than muscle flaps and contains a vascularized fascia which can be used for extensor tendon reconstruction.
Shepherd, Jennifer H; Screen, Hazel R C
Tendon injuries, often called tendinopathies, are debilitating and painful conditions, generally considered to develop as a result of tendon overuse. The aetiology of tendinopathy remains poorly understood, and whilst tendon biopsies have provided some information concerning tendon appearance in late-stage disease, there is still little information concerning the mechanical and cellular events associated with disease initiation and progression. Investigating this in situ is challenging, and numerous models have been developed to investigate how overuse may generate tendon fatigue damage and how this may relate to tendinopathy conditions. This article aims to review these models and our current understanding of tendon fatigue damage. We review the strengths and limitations of different methodologies for characterizing tendon fatigue, considering in vitro methods that adopt both viable and non-viable samples, as well as the range of different in vivo approaches. By comparing data across model systems, we review the current understanding of fatigue damage development. Additionally, we compare these findings with data from tendinopathic tissue biopsies to provide some insights into how these models may relate to the aetiology of tendinopathy. Fatigue-induced damage consistently highlights the same microstructural, biological and mechanical changes to the tendon across all model systems and also correlates well with the findings from tendinopathic biopsy tissue. The multiple testing routes support matrix damage as an important contributor to tendinopathic conditions, but cellular responses to fatigue appear complex and often contradictory. PMID:23837793
Etiology and pathophysiology of tendon ruptures in sports.
Kannus, P; Natri, A
Of all spontaneous tendon ruptures, complete Achilles tendon tears are most closely associated with sports activities (1-3). Schönbauer (3) reported that 75% of all ruptures of the Achilles tendon are related to sports. In Plecko & Passl (2) the number was 60%. In our material of 430 cases, the number of sports-related Achilles ruptures was very similar (62%), while only 2% of ruptures of other tendons were sports-related (P < 0.001) (1). Also, the majority of Achilles reruptures occurred in sports. The ruptures occurred most often in soccer (34%), track and field (16%) and basketball (14%). The distribution of Achilles ruptures according to different sports varies considerably from country to country, according to the national sport traditions. For example, in northern and middle Europe, soccer, tennis, track and field, indoor ball games, downhill skiing, and gymnastics are the most common; and in North America, football, basketball, baseball, tennis and downhill skiing dominate the statistics (1, 2, 4). In sports, some Achilles ruptures are not spontaneous or degeneration-induced but may occur as a consequence of the remarkably high forces that are involved in the performance (2). Ruptures in the high jump or triple jump are good examples. In such cases, failure in the neuromuscular protective mechanisms due to fatigue or disturbed co-ordination can frequently be found. The spontaneous complete rupture of the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff does not occur very frequently in sports. Those sports that include high-energy throwing movements, such as American and Finnish baseball, American football, rugby and discuss and javelin throwing, may, however, produce this injury. Partial tears and inflammations of the rotator cuff complex are much more frequent in throwing sports. The complete rupture of the proximal long head of the biceps brachii tendon is rare among competitive and recreational athletes. In our material, under 2% of these ruptures were
The paratenon contributes to scleraxis-expressing cells during patellar tendon healing.
Dyment, Nathaniel A; Liu, Chia-Feng; Kazemi, Namdar; Aschbacher-Smith, Lindsey E; Kenter, Keith; Breidenbach, Andrew P; Shearn, Jason T; Wylie, Christopher; Rowe, David W; Butler, David L
The origin of cells that contribute to tendon healing, specifically extrinsic epitenon/paratenon cells vs. internal tendon fibroblasts, is still debated. The purpose of this study is to determine the location and phenotype of cells that contribute to healing of a central patellar tendon defect injury in the mouse. Normal adult patellar tendon consists of scleraxis-expressing (Scx) tendon fibroblasts situated among aligned collagen fibrils. The tendon body is surrounded by paratenon, which consists of a thin layer of cells that do not express Scx and collagen fibers oriented circumferentially around the tendon. At 3 days following injury, the paratenon thickens as cells within the paratenon proliferate and begin producing tenascin-C and fibromodulin. These cells migrate toward the defect site and express scleraxis and smooth muscle actin alpha by day 7. The thickened paratenon tissue eventually bridges the tendon defect by day 14. Similarly, cells within the periphery of the adjacent tendon struts express these markers and become disorganized. Cells within the defect region show increased expression of fibrillar collagens (Col1a1 and Col3a1) but decreased expression of tenogenic transcription factors (scleraxis and mohawk homeobox) and collagen assembly genes (fibromodulin and decorin). By contrast, early growth response 1 and 2 are upregulated in these tissues along with tenascin-C. These results suggest that paratenon cells, which normally do not express Scx, respond to injury by turning on Scx and assembling matrix to bridge the defect. Future studies are needed to determine the signaling pathways that drive these cells and whether they are capable of producing a functional tendon matrix. Understanding this process may guide tissue engineering strategies in the future by stimulating these cells to improve tendon repair.
Disruption of quadriceps tendon after total knee arthroplasty: Case report of four cases.
Soong, J W; Silva, A N; Andrew, Tan Hc
Quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but dire complication. It is associated with adverse outcomes and morbidities. Studies on such complications are scarce in the literature. In this study, we share our experience in the management of four patients who sustained quadriceps tendon rupture in the early postoperative period. Efforts should be focused on prevention. Meticulous surgical techniques during the medial parapatellar approach to preserve the integrity of quadriceps can reduce the risk of rupture. The importance of prompt diagnosis is emphasized as delayed treatment may lead to poor outcomes. However, making a diagnosis can be challenging, as worsening of the quadriceps strength after TKA is expected because of the surgical approach that violates the quadriceps muscle. In an event of postoperative trauma with resultant extensor weakness, an ultrasound evaluation to exclude a quadriceps tendon rupture should be promptly performed after a fracture is excluded.
Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H
The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques.
Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age.
Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Ageberg, Eva; Englund, Martin
To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data on isometric knee extensor strength, weight, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, parental education and adult occupation from Swedish registries. We identified participants diagnosed with knee OA or knee injury from 1987 to 2010 through the National Patient Register. We estimated the HR of knee OA using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional regression model. To assess the influence of adult knee injury and occupation, we performed a formal mediation analysis. The mean (SD) knee extensor strength was 234 (47) Nm, the mean (SD) weight was 66 (9.3) kg. During 24 years (median) of follow-up starting at the age of 35 years, 2049 persons were diagnosed with knee OA. The adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident knee OA was 1.12 (1.06 to 1.18) for each SD of knee extensor strength and 1.18 (1.15 to 1.21) per 5 kg of body weight. Fifteen per cent of the increase in OA risk due to higher knee extensor strength could be attributed to knee injury and adult occupation. Higher knee extensor strength in adolescent men was associated with increased risk of knee OA by middle age, challenging the current tenet of low muscle strength being a risk factor for OA. We confirmed higher weight to be a strong risk factor for knee OA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
The Utility of Clinical Measures for the Diagnosis of Achilles Tendon Injuries: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis
Reiman, Michael; Burgi, Ciara; Strube, Eileen; Prue, Kevin; Ray, Keaton; Elliott, Amanda; Goode, Adam
Objective: To summarize and evaluate the current diagnostic accuracy of clinical measures used to diagnose Achilles tendon injuries. Data Sources: A literature search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases was conducted with key words related to diagnostic accuracy and Achilles tendon injuries. Study Selection: Original research articles investigating Achilles tendon injuries against an acceptable reference standard were included. Data Extraction: Three studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models were used to pool sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), and diagnostic odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Data Synthesis: The SN and negative likelihood ratio (−LR) values for Achilles tendon rupture measures ranged from 0.73 (95% CI = 0.65, 0.81) and 0.30 (95% CI = 0.23, 0.40) to 0.96 (95% CI = 0.93, 0.99) and 0.04 (95% CI = 0.02, 0.10), respectively, whereas SP and positive likelihood ratio (+LR) values ranged from 0.85 (95% CI = 0.72, 0.98) and 6.29 (95% CI = 2.33, 19.96) to 0.93 (95% CI = 0.84, 1.00) and 13.71 (95% CI = 3.54, 51.24), respectively, with the highest SN and SP both reported in the calf-squeeze test. The SN and −LR values for Achilles tendinopathy measures ranged from 0.03 (95% CI = 0.00, 0.08) and 0.97 (95% CI = not reported) to 0.89 (95% CI = 0.75, 0.98) and 0.19 (95% CI = not reported), whereas SP and +LR values ranged from 0.58 (95% CI = 0.38, 0.77) and 2.12 (95% CI = not reported) to 1.00 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.00) and infinity, respectively, with the highest SN and SP reported for morning stiffness and palpation for crepitus. Pooled analyses demonstrated similar diagnostic properties in all 3 clinical measures (arc sign, palpation, and Royal London Hospital test), with SN and −LR ranging from 0.42 (95% CI = 0.23, 0.62) and 0.68 (95% CI = 0.50, 0.93), respectively, for the arc sign, to 0.64 (95% CI
Minimally invasive reconstruction of chronic achilles tendon ruptures using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft and interference screw fixation.
Maffulli, Nicola; Loppini, Mattia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Gayle D; Denaro, Vincenzo
Achilles tendon ruptures represent more than 40% of all tendon ruptures requiring surgical management. About 20% of acute Achilles tendon tears are not diagnosed at the time of injury and become chronic, necessitating more complicated management than fresh injuries. Several techniques for the reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon have been described, but the superiority of one technique over the others has not been demonstrated. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft will result in improvement of the overall function with a low rate of complications. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2008 and 2010, the authors prospectively enrolled 28 consecutive patients (21 men and 7 women; median age, 46 years) with chronic closed ruptures of the Achilles tendon who had undergone reconstruction with a free semitendinosus tendon graft. They assessed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), maximum calf circumference, and isometric plantarflexion strength before surgery and at the last follow-up. Outcome of surgery and rate of complications were also recorded. The median follow-up after surgery was 31.4 months. The overall result of surgery was excellent/good in 26 (93%) of 28 patients. The ATRS improved from 42 (range, 29-55) to 86 (range, 78-95) (P < .0001). In the operated leg, the maximum calf circumference and isometric plantarflexion strength were significantly improved after surgery (P < .0001); however, their values remained significantly lower than those of the opposite side (P < .0001). All patients were able to walk on tiptoes and returned to their preinjury working occupation. No infections were recorded. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft provides a significant improvement of symptoms and function, although calf
[Application of silk-based tissue engineering scaffold for tendon / ligament regeneration].
Hu, Yejun; Le, Huihui; Jin, Zhangchu; Chen, Xiao; Yin, Zi; Shen, Weiliang; Ouyang, Hongwei
Tendon/ligament injury is one of the most common impairments in sports medicine. The traditional treatments of damaged tissue repair are unsatisfactory, especially for athletes, due to lack of donor and immune rejection. The strategy of tissue engineering may break through these limitations, and bring new hopes to tendon/ligament repair, even regeneration. Silk is a kind of natural biomaterials, which has good biocompatibility, wide range of mechanical properties and tunable physical structures; so it could be applied as tendon/ligament tissue engineering scaffolds. The silk-based scaffold has robust mechanical properties; combined with other biological ingredients, it could increase the surface area, promote more cell adhesion and improve the biocompatibility. The potential clinical application of silk-based scaffold has been confirmed by in vivo studies on tendon/ligament repairing, such as anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, achilles tendon and rotator cuff. To develop novel biomechanically stable and host integrated tissue engineered tendon/ligament needs more further micro and macro studies, combined with product development and clinical application, which will give new hope to patients with tendon/ligament injury.
Fascicles and the interfascicular matrix show decreased fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons.
Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C
Tendon is composed of rope-like fascicles bound together by interfascicular matrix (IFM). The IFM is critical for the function of energy storing tendons, facilitating sliding between fascicles to allow these tendons to cyclically stretch and recoil. This capacity is required to a lesser degree in positional tendons. We have previously demonstrated that both fascicles and IFM in energy storing tendons have superior fatigue resistance compared with positional tendons, but the effect of ageing on the fatigue properties of these different tendon subunits has not been determined. Energy storing tendons become more injury-prone with ageing, indicating reduced fatigue resistance, hence we tested the hypothesis that the decline in fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons would be more pronounced in the IFM than in fascicles. We further hypothesised that tendon subunit fatigue resistance would not alter with ageing in positional tendons. Fascicles and IFM from young and old energy storing and positional tendons were subjected to cyclic fatigue testing until failure, and mechanical properties were calculated. The results show that both IFM and fascicles from the SDFT exhibit a similar magnitude of reduced fatigue life with ageing. By contrast, the fatigue life of positional tendon subunits was unaffected by ageing. The age-related decline in fatigue life of tendon subunits in energy storing tendons is likely to contribute to the increased risk of injury in aged tendons. Full understanding of the mechanisms resulting in this reduced fatigue life will aid in the development of treatments and interventions to prevent age-related tendinopathy. Understanding the effect of ageing on tendon-structure function relationships is crucial for the development of effective preventative measures and treatments for age-related tendon injury. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the fatigue resistance of the interfascicular matrix decreases with ageing in energy
Therapeutic Effects of Doxycycline on the Quality of Repaired and Unrepaired Achilles Tendons.
Nguyen, Quynhhoa T; Norelli, Jolanta B; Graver, Adam; Ekstein, Charles; Schwartz, Johnathan; Chowdhury, Farzana; Drakos, Mark C; Grande, Daniel A; Chahine, Nadeen O
Achilles tendon tears are devastating injuries, especially to athletes. Elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity after a tendon injury has been associated with deterioration of the collagen network and can be inhibited with doxycycline (Doxy). Daily oral administration of Doxy will enhance the histological, molecular, and biomechanical quality of transected Achilles tendons. Additionally, suture repair will further enhance the quality of repaired tendons. Controlled laboratory study. Randomized unilateral Achilles tendon transection was performed in 288 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The injured tendons were either unrepaired (groups 1 and 2) or surgically repaired (groups 3 and 4). Animals from groups 2 and 4 received Doxy daily through oral gavage, and animals from groups 1 and 3 served as controls (no Doxy). Tendons were harvested at 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 weeks after the injury (n = 18 per group and time point). The quality of tendon repair was evaluated based on the histological grading score, collagen fiber orientation, gene expression, and biomechanical properties. In surgically repaired samples, Doxy enhanced the quality of tendon repair compared with no Doxy ( P = .0014). Doxy had a significant effect on collagen fiber dispersion, but not principal fiber angle. There was a significant effect of time on the gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-9 and TIMP1, and Doxy significantly decreased MMP-3 expression at 9 weeks. Doxy treatment with surgical repair increased the dynamic modulus at 6 weeks but not at 9 weeks after the injury ( P < .001). Doxy also increased the equilibrium modulus and decreased creep strain irrespective of the repair group. Doxy did not have a significant effect on the histology or biomechanics of unrepaired tendons. The findings indicate that daily oral administration of Doxy accelerated matrix remodeling and the dynamic and equilibrium biomechanics of surgically repaired Achilles tendons, although such enhancements were most evident at the
Macrophage Sub-Populations and the Lipoxin A4 Receptor Implicate Active Inflammation during Equine Tendon Repair
Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Werling, Dirk; Hibbert, Andrew; Abayasekara, Dilkush Robert Ephrem; Young, Natalie Jayne; Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Dudhia, Jayesh
Macrophages (Mϕ) orchestrate inflammatory and reparatory processes in injured connective tissues but their role during different phases of tendon healing is not known. We investigated the contribution of different Mϕ subsets in an equine model of naturally occurring tendon injury. Post mortem tissues were harvested from normal (uninjured), sub-acute (3–6 weeks post injury) and chronically injured (>3 months post injury) superficial digital flexor tendons. To determine if inflammation was present in injured tendons, Mϕ sub-populations were quantified based on surface antigen expression of CD172a (pan Mϕ), CD14highCD206low (pro-inflammatory M1Mϕ), and CD206high (anti-inflammatory M2Mϕ) to assess potential polarised phenotypes. In addition, the Lipoxin A4 receptor (FPR2/ALX) was used as marker for resolving inflammation. Normal tendons were negative for both Mϕ and FPR2/ALX. In contrast, M1Mϕ predominated in sub-acute injury, whereas a potential phenotype-switch to M2Mϕ polarity was seen in chronic injury. Furthermore, FPR2/ALX expression by tenocytes was significantly upregulated in sub-acute but not chronic injury. Expression of the FPR2/ALX ligand Annexin A1 was also significantly increased in sub-acute and chronic injuries in contrast to low level expression in normal tendons. The combination of reduced FPR2/ALX expression and persistence of the M2Mϕ phenotype in chronic injury suggests a potential mechanism for incomplete resolution of inflammation after tendon injury. To investigate the effect of pro-inflammatory mediators on lipoxin A4 (LXA4) production and FPR2/ALX expression in vitro, normal tendon explants were stimulated with interleukin-1 beta and prostaglandin E2. Stimulation with either mediator induced LXA4 release and maximal upregulation of FPR2/ALX expression after 72 hours. Taken together, our data suggests that although tenocytes are capable of mounting a protective mechanism to counteract inflammatory stimuli, this appears to be of
Macrophage sub-populations and the lipoxin A4 receptor implicate active inflammation during equine tendon repair.
Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Werling, Dirk; Hibbert, Andrew; Abayasekara, Dilkush Robert Ephrem; Young, Natalie Jayne; Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Dudhia, Jayesh
Macrophages (Mφ) orchestrate inflammatory and reparatory processes in injured connective tissues but their role during different phases of tendon healing is not known. We investigated the contribution of different Mφ subsets in an equine model of naturally occurring tendon injury. Post mortem tissues were harvested from normal (uninjured), sub-acute (3-6 weeks post injury) and chronically injured (>3 months post injury) superficial digital flexor tendons. To determine if inflammation was present in injured tendons, Mφ sub-populations were quantified based on surface antigen expression of CD172a (pan Mφ), CD14(high)CD206(low) (pro-inflammatory M1Mφ), and CD206(high) (anti-inflammatory M2Mφ) to assess potential polarised phenotypes. In addition, the Lipoxin A(4) receptor (FPR2/ALX) was used as marker for resolving inflammation. Normal tendons were negative for both Mφ and FPR2/ALX. In contrast, M1Mφ predominated in sub-acute injury, whereas a potential phenotype-switch to M2Mφ polarity was seen in chronic injury. Furthermore, FPR2/ALX expression by tenocytes was significantly upregulated in sub-acute but not chronic injury. Expression of the FPR2/ALX ligand Annexin A1 was also significantly increased in sub-acute and chronic injuries in contrast to low level expression in normal tendons. The combination of reduced FPR2/ALX expression and persistence of the M2Mφ phenotype in chronic injury suggests a potential mechanism for incomplete resolution of inflammation after tendon injury. To investigate the effect of pro-inflammatory mediators on lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) production and FPR2/ALX expression in vitro, normal tendon explants were stimulated with interleukin-1 beta and prostaglandin E(2). Stimulation with either mediator induced LXA(4) release and maximal upregulation of FPR2/ALX expression after 72 hours. Taken together, our data suggests that although tenocytes are capable of mounting a protective mechanism to counteract inflammatory stimuli, this
Tadros, Anthony S; Huang, Brady K; Pathria, Mini N
Injuries to the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit are common and a significant source of pain and loss of function. This article focuses on the important anatomical and biomechanical considerations for each component of the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit. We review normal and pathologic conditions affecting this unit, illustrating the imaging appearance of common disorders on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of these structures is crucial for the radiologist to make accurate diagnoses and provide clinically relevant assessments. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
A systematic review of the use of platelet-rich plasma in sports medicine as a new treatment for tendon and ligament injuries.
Taylor, Drew W; Petrera, Massimo; Hendry, Mike; Theodoropoulos, John S
To evaluate, through a systematic review of the current literature, the evidence-based outcomes of the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of tendon and ligament injuries. A search of English-language articles was performed in PubMed and EMBASE using keywords "PRP," "platelet plasma," and "platelet concentrate" combined with "tendon" and then "ligament" independently. The search was conducted through September 2010. Search was limited to in vivo studies. Nonhuman studies were excluded. Tissue engineering strategies, which included a combination of PRP with additional cell types (bone marrow), were also excluded. Articles with all levels of evidence were included. Thirteen of 32 retrieved articles respected the inclusion criteria. The authors reviewed and tabulated data according to the year of study and journal, study type and level of evidence, patient demographics, method of PRP preparation, site of application, and outcomes. The selected studies focused on the application of PRP in the treatment of patellar and elbow tendinosis, Achilles tendon injuries, rotator cuff repair, and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Seven studies demonstrated favorable outcomes in tendinopathies in terms of improved pain and functional scores. In 3 studies on the use of PRP in ACL reconstruction, no statistically significant differences were seen with regard to clinical outcomes, tunnel widening, and graft integration. One study examined the systemic effects after the local PRP application for patellar and elbow tendinosis. Presently, PRP use in tendon and ligament injuries has several potential advantages, including faster recovery and, possibly, a reduction in recurrence, with no adverse reactions described. However, only 3 randomized clinical trials have been conducted.
Postinjury biomechanics of Achilles tendon vary by sex and hormone status
Fryhofer, George W.; Freedman, Benjamin R.; Hillin, Cody D.; Salka, Nabeel S.; Pardes, Adam M.; Weiss, Stephanie N.; Farber, Daniel C.
Achilles tendon ruptures are common injuries. Sex differences are present in mechanical properties of uninjured Achilles tendon, but it remains unknown if these differences extend to tendon healing. We hypothesized that ovariectomized females (OVX) and males would exhibit inferior postinjury tendon properties compared with females. Male, female, and OVX Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32/group) underwent acclimation and treadmill training before blunt transection of the Achilles tendon midsubstance. Injured hindlimbs were immobilized for 1 wk, followed by gradual return to activity and assessment of active and passive hindlimb function. Animals were euthanized at 3 or 6 wk postinjury to assess tendon structure, mechanics, and composition. Passive ankle stiffness and range of motion were superior in females at 3 wk; however, by 6 wk, passive and active function were similar in males and females but remained inferior in OVX. At 6 wk, female tendons had greater normalized secant modulus, viscoelastic behavior, and laxity compared with males. Normalized secant modulus, cross-sectional area and tendon glycosaminoglycan composition were inferior in OVX compared with females at 6 wk. Total fatigue cycles until tendon failure were similar among groups. Postinjury muscle fiber size was better preserved in females compared with males, and females had greater collagen III at the tendon injury site compared with males at 6 wk. Despite male and female Achilles tendons withstanding similar durations of fatigue loading, early passive hindlimb function and tendon mechanical properties, including secant modulus, suggest superior healing in females. Ovarian hormone loss was associated with inferior Achilles tendon healing. PMID:27633741
Suture anchor tenodesis in repair of distal Achilles tendon injuries.
Kiliçoğlu, Onder; Türker, Mehmet; Yildız, Fatih; Akalan, Ekin; Temelli, Yener
Distal Achilles tendon avulsions are in the form of either bony and nonbony avulsion of Achilles tendon from its calcaneal insertion. Four patients with distal Achilles tendon avulsions or ruptures which were treated with tendon to bone repair using suture anchors are presented here. Operated leg was immobilized in above-knee cast for 4 weeks while the patient walked non-weight-bearing. Then, cast was changed to below knee, and full weight-bearing was allowed. Patients underwent gait analysis minimum at first postoperative year. Mean American Orthopedics Foot Ankle Society ankle/hindfoot score of patients at last visit was 88.75 (range 85-100), and Achilles tendon total rupture score was 77.75 (range 58-87). Mean passive dorsiflexion of injured ankles (14° ± 5°) was lower than uninjured ankles (23° ± 9°). All the kinematic parameters of gait analysis were comparable to the uninjured side. Maximum plantar flexion power of injured ankle was 1.40 W/kg, and this was significantly lower than the contralateral side value 2.38 W/kg; (P = 0.0143). There were no visually altered gait or problems in daily life. Suture anchor tenodesis technique of distal Achilles tendon avulsions was successful in achieving durable osteotendinous repairs.
Decorin expression is important for age-related changes in tendon structure and mechanical properties
Dunkman, Andrew A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Adams, Sheila M.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Satchell, Lauren; Kumar, Akash; Pathmanathan, Lydia; Beason, David P.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
The aging population is at an increased risk of tendon injury and tendinopathy. Elucidating the molecular basis of tendon aging is crucial to understanding the age-related changes in structure and function in this vulnerable tissue. In this study, the structural and functional features of tendon aging are investigated. In addition, the roles of decorin and biglycan in the aging process were analyzed using transgenic mice at both mature and aged time points. Our hypothesis is that the increase in tendon injuries in the aging population is the result of altered structural properties that reduce the biomechanical function of the tendon and consequently increase susceptibility to injury. Decorin and biglycan are important regulators of tendon structure and therefore, we further hypothesized that decreased function in aged tendons is partly the result of altered decorin and biglycan expression. Biomechanical analyses of mature (day 150) and aged (day 570) patellar tendons revealed deteriorating viscoelastic properties with age. Histology and polarized light microscopy demonstrated decreased cellularity, alterations in tenocyte shape, and reduced collagen fiber alignment in the aged tendons. Ultrastructural analysis of fibril diameter distributions indicated an altered distribution in aged tendons with an increase of large diameter fibrils. Aged wild type tendons maintained expression of decorin which was associated with the structural and functional changes seen in aged tendons. Aged patellar tendons exhibited altered and generally inferior properties across multiple assays. However, decorin-null tendons exhibited significantly decreased effects of aging compared to the other genotypes. The amelioration of the functional deficits seen in the absence of decorin in aged tendons was associated with altered tendon fibril structure. Fibril diameter distributions in the decorin-null aged tendons were comparable to those observed in the mature wild type tendon with the absence
Human growth hormone may be detrimental when used to accelerate recovery from acute tendon-bone interface injuries.
Baumgarten, Keith M; Oliver, Harvey A; Foley, Jack; Chen, Ding-Geng; Autenried, Peter; Duan, Shanzhong; Heiser, Patrick
There have been few scientific studies that have examined usage of human growth hormone to accelerate recovery from injury. The hypothesis of this study was that human growth hormone would accelerate tendon-to-bone healing compared with control animals treated with placebo in a rat model of acute rotator cuff injury repair. Seventy-two rats underwent repair of acute rotator cuff injuries and were randomized into the following postoperative dosing regimens: placebo, and human growth hormone at 0.1, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day, administered subcutaneously once per day for fourteen days (Protocol 1). An additional twenty-four rats were randomized to receive either (1) placebo or (2) human growth hormone at 5 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice per day for seven days preoperatively and twenty-eight days postoperatively (Protocol 2). All rats were killed twenty-eight days postoperatively. Mechanical testing was performed. Ultimate stress, ultimate force, stiffness, energy to failure, and ultimate distension were determined. For Protocol 1, analysis of variance testing showed no significant difference between the groups with regard to ultimate stress, ultimate force, stiffness, energy to failure, or ultimate distension. In Protocol 2, ultimate force to failure was significantly worse in the human growth hormone group compared with the placebo group (21.1 ± 5.85 versus 26.3 ± 5.47 N; p = 0.035). Failure was more likely to occur through the bone than the tendon-bone interface in the human growth hormone group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.001). No significant difference was found for ultimate stress, ultimate force, stiffness, energy to failure, or ultimate distension between the groups in Protocol 2. In this rat model of acute tendon-bone injury repair, daily subcutaneous postoperative human growth hormone treatment for fourteen days failed to demonstrate a significant difference in any biomechanical parameter compared with placebo. Furthermore, subcutaneous
Preinjury and postinjury running analysis along with measurements of strength and tendon length in a patient with a surgically repaired Achilles tendon rupture.
Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Willy, Richard; Davis, Irene
Case report. The Achilles tendon is the most frequently ruptured tendon, and the incidence of Achilles tendon rupture has increased in the last decade. The rupture generally occurs without any preceding warning signs, and therefore preinjury data are seldom available. This case represents a unique opportunity to compare preinjury running mechanics with postinjury evaluation in a patient with an Achilles tendon rupture. A 23-year-old female sustained a right complete Achilles tendon rupture while playing soccer. Running mechanics data were collected preinjury, as she was a healthy participant in a study on running analysis. In addition, patient-reported symptoms, physical activity level, strength, ankle range of motion, heel-rise ability, Achilles tendon length, and running kinetics were evaluated 1 year after surgical repair. During running, greater ankle dorsiflexion and eversion and rearfoot abduction were noted on the involved side postinjury when compared to preinjury data. In addition, postinjury, the magnitude of all kinetics data was lower on the involved limb when compared to the uninvolved limb. The involved side displayed differences in strength, ankle range of motion, heel rise, and tendon length when compared to the uninvolved side 1 year after injury. Despite a return to normal running routine and reports of only minor limitations with running, considerable changes were noted in running biomechanics 1 year after injury. Calf muscle weakness and Achilles tendon elongation were also found when comparing the involved and uninvolved sides.
The influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination during weightlifting.
Hu, Boyi; Ning, Xiaopeng
Lumbar muscle fatigue is a potential risk factor for the development of low back pain. In this study, we investigated the influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns during weightlifting. Each of the 15 male subjects performed five repetitions of weightlifting tasks both before and after a lumbar extensor muscle fatiguing protocol. Lumbar muscle electromyography was collected to assess fatigue. Trunk kinematics was recorded to calculate lumbar-pelvic continuous relative phase (CRP) and CRP variability. Results showed that fatigue significantly reduced the average lumbar-pelvic CRP value (from 0.33 to 0.29 rad) during weightlifting. The average CRP variability reduced from 0.17 to 0.15 rad, yet this change ws statistically not significant. Further analyses also discovered elevated spinal loading during weightlifting after the development of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar extensor muscle fatigue should be avoided in an occupational environment. Lumbar extensor muscle fatigue generates more in-phase lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns and elevated spinal loading during lifting. Such increase in spinal loading may indicate higher risk of back injury. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar muscle fatigue should be avoided to reduce the risk of LBP.
[Results of flexor tendon sutures of the fingers with 2-strand (40 tendons) and 4-strand (64 tendons) core sutures].
Winkel, R; Kalbhenn, O; Hoffmann, R
This retrospective examination compares the results of finger flexor tendon sutures with 2 strands and 4 strands. It was checked, whether and how 2 more strands influenced the rupture rate, the movement of the finger and the contentment of the patients. From 1996 to 2000 for the core suture of the flexor tendon of fingers we used 2 strands. 35 patients with 40 tendon sutures of 73 patients were examined. From 2001 to 2005 we used for the core suture 2 loop threads. 53 patients with 64 tendon sutures from a total of 111 patients were examined. At least 12 months had passed between operation and the examination. The rupture rate and the range of movement of each finger joint and the total mobility of the affected fingers were evaluated. Each case was compared to the uninjured opposite hand. The functional result was judged according to the score of Buck-Gramcko. The patient's contentment was recorded by the DASH (disability of arm, shoulder and hand) score. Effects of gender, age, accompanying injuries, zone of the injury and their influence on the results were analysed. The Buck-Gramcko score showed in the 2-strand group a distribution from summarised 70% "excellent" and "good" and 30% "fair" and "poor". In the 4-strand-group the relation was 93.7% "excellent" and "good", 6.3% "fair", one "poor". In the 2-strand group 2/40 (5%) of the tendon sutures ruptured, in the 4-strand group 1/64 (1.6%) ruptured. The average DASH value in the 2-strands-group was 16.6/100, in the 4-strands-group 18.1/100 when 0 is the best possible result and 100 the worst. The patient judgement in the 2-strand group was summarised to 70% for "excellent" and "good" and 30% "fair" and "poor". In the 4-strand group the patient's judgment was summarised in 75% "excellent" and "good" and in 25% "fair". The results of flexor tendon sutures with 4-strand core sutures have been superior to the results with 2-strand core suture according to range of motion of the fingers (P <0.005). © Georg Thieme
[The Omega "Omega" pulley plasty: a new technique for the surgical management of the De Quervain's disease].
Bakhach, J; Sentucq-Rigal, J; Mouton, P; Boileau, R; Panconi, B; Guimberteau, J-C
The Omega "Omega" pulley plasty: a new technique for the surgical management of the De Quervain's disease. The De Quervain tenosynovitis is an inadequacy into the first extensor compartment between the osteo-fibrous tunnel and the tendons. This mechanical conflict generates a tenosynovitis of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus tendons. This is generally expressed by a tenderness on the radial side of the wrist over the radial styloid process. The medical management consists on corticoids infiltrations of the first extensor compartment, the avoidance of repetitive and stress movements of the first ray with the use of a rest splint. The surgical approach is considered with the recurrence of the painful symptoms. This well-known pathology is reputated to require a simple section of the pulley. Our post-operative complications have been reported in the literature of this classical surgical solution. These complications concern an incomplete release of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus tendons particularly when an extensor sub-compartment exists and was overlooked, an irritation of the collateral branches of the sensitive radial nerve or the occurrence of a nevroma after a nerve injury and the most serious complication is a palmar subluxation of the extensor tendons which can occur with the thumb extended and the wrist flexed. In rare cases, this subluxation can be really painful and requires a surgical management with secondary reconstruction of the pulley. This reconstruction necessitates distal pedicle flaps from the dorsal retinaculum or the brachioradialis tendon. To prevent these complications, Codega and Kapandji described techniques of reconstruction of the pulley after its release. More recently, Le Viet reported a procedure using the anterior flap of the pulley; fixed to the dermis it will work as a barrier and maintain the tendons sliding on the radial styloid groove. These techniques require to divide
[Conservative functional treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures].
Hüfner, T; Gaulke, R; Imrecke, J; Krettek, C; Stübig, T
The conservative functional treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures has developed further over the last 20 years and is basically possible for 60-80% of patients. The treatment leads to success if the indications obtained by dynamic sonography are correctly interpreted (adaptation of the tendon ends up to 20 degrees plantar flexion), if the patient presents sufficient compliance and the physiotherapy is increasingly intensified depending on tendon healing. Modern ortheses allow an increased equinus position and therefore improved protection of the healing tendon. If these factors are present a relatively low re-rupture rate of only 7% can be achieved. The decisive advantage of conservative functional therapy is the avoidance of specific operative risks, such as infection and injury to the sural nerve. After removal of the orthesis the tendon should continue to be modeled using shoe insoles and raised heels.
Knee isokinetic performance following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: patellar tendon versus hamstrings graft.
Machado, Felipe; Debieux, Pedro; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Astur, Diego; Peccin, Maria Stella; Cohen, Moisés
To compare knee isokinetic performance six months after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using grafts from either the patellar tendon or the hamstrings among patients who underwent the same rehabilitation protocol. Thirty-four patients were evaluated (17 with grafts from the patellar tendon and 17 with grafts from the hamstrings). Operated and non-operated knees were compared with regards to the variables of peak torque, work and the hamstring/quadriceps relationship at velocities of 60º/s and 180º/s and power of 180º/s after six months of surgery. The patients with ACL reconstruction using the patellar tendon (BPTB) showed quadriceps deficits for all variables, but the flexor musculature was balanced. In the hamstring group, both the extensors and the flexors showed deficits for the variables analyzed, except for hamstring power at 180º/s. Patients in the patellar tendon group had a greater quadriceps deficit compared with those in the hamstrings group. Patients in the hamstrings group had a greater muscular deficit in the flexor mechanism compared with the contralateral knee. An unbalanced H/Q ratio was observed regardless of graft type, but this was more evident in the BPTB group.
Genetic Response of Rat Supraspinatus Tendon and Muscle to Exercise
Rooney, Sarah Ilkhanipour; Tobias, John W.; Bhatt, Pankti R.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Inflammation is a complex, biologic event that aims to protect and repair tissue. Previous studies suggest that inflammation is critical to induce a healing response following acute injury; however, whether similar inflammatory responses occur as a result of beneficial, non-injurious loading is unknown. The objective of this study was to screen for alterations in a subset of inflammatory and extracellular matrix genes to identify the responses of rat supraspinatus tendon and muscle to a known, non-injurious loading condition. We sought to define how a subset of genes representative of specific inflammation and matrix turnover pathways is altered in supraspinatus tendon and muscle 1) acutely following a single loading bout and 2) chronically following repeated loading bouts. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats in the acute group ran a single bout of non-injurious exercise on a flat treadmill (10 m/min, 1 hour) and were sacrificed 12 or 24 hours after. Rats in the chronic group ran 5 days/wk for 1 or 8 weeks. A control group maintained normal cage activity. Supraspinatus muscle and tendon were harvested for RNA extractions, and a custom Panomics QuantiGene 2.0 multiplex assay was used to detect 48 target and 3 housekeeping genes. Muscle/tendon and acute/chronic groups had distinct gene expression. Components of the arachidonic acid cascade and matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors were altered with acute and chronic exercise. Collagen expression increased. Using a previously validated model of non-injurious exercise, we have shown that supraspinatus tendon and muscle respond to acute and chronic exercise by regulating inflammatory- and matrix turnover-related genes, suggesting that these pathways are involved in the beneficial adaptations to exercise. PMID:26447778
Close range gun shot injuries of the hand with the "mole gun".
Keskin, Mustafa; Beydes, Tolga; Tosun, Zekeriya; Savaci, Nedim
A mole gun is a handmade weapon used as a trap to kill moles by farmers. Their action is based on a simple hammer mechanism: when the moles put their head through the metal ring to get hold of the food, they trigger the mechanism. The hammer strikes the primer, which ignites the gunpowder, propelling the pellets from the barrel. The purpose of this study was to report our experiences in a group of patients who accidentally suffered injuries by mole guns to the hand. Since 2000, 20 patients had attended the clinic with mole gun shot injuries to the hand. The mean age of patients was 38 years. Thirteen cases involved skin defects over the dorsum of the hand associated with extensor tendon and bone injuries. The skin defect was covered with posterior interosseous artery (PIA) flap in 12 cases. In one case, the PIA pedicle was found to be injured so radial forearm flap was used. The main intervention time for these cases was 6.2 days. All flaps except two PIA flap survived uneventfully. One flap was completely lost while other survived with distal necrosis. In remaining seven cases the thumb was the main injured part; it had complete disruption of its arterial supply and was managed with amputation with or without matarcarpal removal. These cases were managed immediately. The risk of injury to the PIA by pellets is low in such close range shots to the hand and PIA flap could be used to cover the defects. In such cases, initial debridement should be minimal and the soft tissue, tendon, and bone injury can be managed in the same stage during the first week of injury.
Repair of distal biceps tendon rupture with the Biotenodesis screw.
Khan, W; Agarwal, M; Funk, L
Distal biceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries with only around 300 cases reported in the literature. Current management tends to favour anatomical reinsertion of the tendon into the radial tuberosity, especially in young and active individuals. These injuries are commonly repaired using either a single anterior incision with suture anchors or the Boyd-Anderson dual incision technique. We report the use of a bioabsorbable interference screw for the repair of distal biceps tendon rupture using a minimal incision technique. In this technique the avulsed tendon and a bioabsorbable screw are secured in a drill hole on the radial tuberosity using whip stitch and fibre wire sutures according to Biotenodesis system guidelines. The technique described requires minimal volar dissection that is associated with a reduced number of synostosis and posterior interosseous nerve injuries. The bioabsorbable interference screw has all the advantages of being biodegradable and has been shown to have greater pullout strength than suture anchors. It is also a reasonable alternative to titanium screws in terms of primary fixation strength. The strong fixation provided allows early active motion and return to previous activities as seen in our case.
Effect of Return to Overuse Activity Following an Isolated Supraspinatus Tendon Tear on Adjacent Intact Tendons and Glenoid Cartilage in a Rat Model
Reuther, Katherine E.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Gray, Chancellor F.; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Rotator cuff tears are common conditions that can alter shoulder mechanics and may lead to damage of intact joint tissues. These injuries are of particular concern in populations who perform tasks requiring repetitive overhead activity (e.g., athletes and laborers) and who are likely to return to aggressive pre-injury activity levels despite limited understanding of the potentially damaging effects on the remaining tissues. Therefore, we investigated the effect of returning to overuse activity following a supraspinatus tear on shoulder function and the mechanical properties of the remaining intact tendons and glenoid cartilage. Forty rats underwent 4 weeks of overuse activity to create a tendinopathic condition followed by detachment of the supraspinatus tendon and were then randomized into two groups: continued overuse or cage activity. Ambulatory measurements were performed throughout the 8 weeks prior to euthaniasia, and properties of the adjacent tendons and cartilage were evaluated. Results demonstrated that shoulder function was not compromised in the return to overuse group. However, alterations of the glenoid cartilage and biceps tendon properties occurred. Our results help define the contributory roles of common mechanical injury mechanisms and provide a framework by which physicians could better prescribe long-term treatment strategies for patients. PMID:23280495
Effect of return to overuse activity following an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear on adjacent intact tendons and glenoid cartilage in a rat model.
Reuther, Katherine E; Thomas, Stephen J; Sarver, Joseph J; Tucker, Jennica J; Lee, Chang-Soo; Gray, Chancellor F; Glaser, David L; Soslowsky, Louis J
Rotator cuff tears are common conditions that can alter shoulder mechanics and may lead to damage of intact joint tissues. These injuries are of particular concern in populations who perform tasks requiring repetitive overhead activity (e.g., athletes and laborers) and who are likely to return to aggressive pre-injury activity levels despite limited understanding of the potentially damaging effects on the remaining tissues. Therefore, we investigated the effect of returning to overuse activity following a supraspinatus tear on shoulder function and the mechanical properties of the remaining intact tendons and glenoid cartilage. Forty rats underwent 4 weeks of overuse activity to create a tendinopathic condition followed by detachment of the supraspinatus tendon and were then randomized into two groups: continued overuse or cage activity. Ambulatory measurements were performed throughout the 8 weeks prior to euthaniasia, and properties of the adjacent tendons and cartilage were evaluated. Results demonstrated that shoulder function was not compromised in the return to overuse group. However, alterations of the glenoid cartilage and biceps tendon properties occurred. Our results help define the contributory roles of common mechanical injury mechanisms and provide a framework by which physicians could better prescribe long-term treatment strategies for patients. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Human tendon behaviour and adaptation, in vivo
Magnusson, S Peter; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Kjaer, Michael
Tendon properties contribute to the complex interaction of the central nervous system, muscle–tendon unit and bony structures to produce joint movement. Until recently limited information on human tendon behaviour in vivo was available; however, novel methodological advancements have enabled new insights to be gained in this area. The present review summarizes the progress made with respect to human tendon and aponeurosis function in vivo, and how tendons adapt to ageing, loading and unloading conditions. During low tensile loading or with passive lengthening not only the muscle is elongated, but also the tendon undergoes significant length changes, which may have implications for reflex responses. During active loading, the length change of the tendon far exceeds that of the aponeurosis, indicating that the aponeurosis may more effectively transfer force onto the tendon, which lengthens and stores elastic energy subsequently released during unloading, in a spring-like manner. In fact, data recently obtained in vivo confirm that, during walking, the human Achilles tendon provides elastic strain energy that can decrease the energy cost of locomotion. Also, new experimental evidence shows that, contrary to earlier beliefs, the metabolic activity in human tendon is remarkably high and this affords the tendon the ability to adapt to changing demands. With ageing and disuse there is a reduction in tendon stiffness, which can be mitigated with resistance exercises. Such adaptations seem advantageous for maintaining movement rapidity, reducing tendon stress and risk of injury, and possibly, for enabling muscles to operate closer to the optimum region of the length–tension relationship. PMID:17855761
What We Should Know Before Using Tissue Engineering Techniques to Repair Injured Tendons: A Developmental Biology Perspective
Liu, Chia-Feng; Aschbacher-Smith, Lindsey; Barthelery, Nicolas J.; Dyment, Nathaniel; Butler, David
Tendons connect muscles to bones, and serve as the transmitters of force that allow all the movements of the body. Tenocytes are the basic cellular units of tendons, and produce the collagens that form the hierarchical fiber system of the tendon. Tendon injuries are common, and difficult to repair, particularly in the case of the insertion of tendon into bone. Successful attempts at cell-based repair therapies will require an understanding of the normal development of tendon tissues, including their differentiated regions such as the fibrous mid-section and fibrocartilaginous insertion site. Many genes are known to be involved in the formation of tendon. However, their functional roles in tendon development have not been fully characterized. Tissue engineers have attempted to generate functional tendon tissue in vitro. However, a lack of knowledge of normal tendon development has hampered these efforts. Here we review studies focusing on the developmental mechanisms of tendon development, and discuss the potential applications of a molecular understanding of tendon development to the treatment of tendon injuries. PMID:21314435
The interaction between the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius and its influence on the extensor apparatus of the knee joint.
Grob, Karl; Manestar, Mirjana; Filgueira, Luis; Kuster, Markus S; Gilbey, Helen; Ackland, Timothy
Although the vastus medialis (VM) is closely associated with the vastus intermedius (VI), there is a lack of data regarding their functional relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomical interaction between the VM and VI with regard to their origins, insertions, innervation and function within the extensor apparatus of the knee joint. Eighteen human cadaveric lower limbs were investigated using macro-dissection techniques. Six limbs were cut transversely in the middle third of the thigh. The mode of origin, insertion and nerve supply of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint were studied. The architecture of the VM and VI was examined in detail, as was their anatomical interaction and connective tissue linkage to the adjacent anatomical structures. The VM originated medially from a broad hammock-like structure. The attachment site of the VM always spanned over a long distance between: (1) patella, (2) rectus femoris tendon and (3) aponeurosis of the VI, with the insertion into the VI being the largest. VM units were inserted twice-once on the anterior and once on the posterior side of the VI. The VI consists of a complex multi-layered structure. The layers of the medial VI aponeurosis fused with the aponeuroses of the tensor vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis. Together, they form the two-layered intermediate layer of the quadriceps tendon. The VM and medial parts of the VI were innervated by the same medial division of the femoral nerve. The VM consists of multiple muscle units inserting into the entire VI. Together, they build a potential functional muscular complex. Therefore, the VM acts as an indirect extensor of the knee joint regulating and adjusting the length of the extensor apparatus throughout the entire range of motion. It is of clinical importance that, besides the VM, substantial parts of the VI directly contribute to the medial pull on the patella and help to maintain medial tracking of the patella during knee
Prophylactic training in asymptomatic soccer players with ultrasonographic abnormalities in Achilles and patellar tendons: the Danish Super League Study.
Fredberg, Ulrich; Bolvig, Lars; Andersen, Niels T
A recent study published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine showed that asymptomatic soccer players with an increased risk of developing Achilles and patellar tendon injuries within the next 12 months can be identified with use of ultrasonography. Prophylactic eccentric training and stretching can reduce both the frequency of asymptomatic ultrasonographic changes in Achilles and patellar tendons in soccer players and the risk of these asymptomatic intratendinous changes becoming symptomatic. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Two hundred and nine Danish professional soccer players from the best national league (Super League) were followed over 12 months with use of ultrasonography and injury registration. Half the teams were randomized to an intervention group with prophylactic eccentric training and stretching of the Achilles and patellar tendons during the soccer season. The eccentric training and stretching did not reduce the injury risk, and, contrary to all expectations, the injury risk during the season was increased in players with abnormal patellar tendons at the beginning of the study in January. Eccentric training and stretching in players with normal patellar tendons significantly reduced the proportion of players with ultrasonographic changes in the patellar tendons at the end of the season (risk difference [RD] = 12%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2%-22%; P = .02), but the training had no effect on the Achilles tendons (RD = 1%; 95% CI, -7% to 9%; P = .75). The presence of preseason ultrasonographic abnormalities in the tendons significantly increased the risk of developing tendon symptoms during the season (relative risk = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1; P = .009). This study demonstrates that with the use of ultrasonography, tendon changes in soccer players can be diagnosed before they become symptomatic. The prophylactic eccentric training and stretching program reduces the risk of developing ultrasonographic abnormalities in the
Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy with Multiple-Ligament Knee Injury and Distal Avulsion of the Biceps Femoris Tendon
Oshima, Takeshi; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Takata, Yasushi
A multiple-ligament knee injury that includes posterolateral corner (PLC) disruption often causes palsy of the common peroneal nerve (CPN), which occurs in 44% of cases with PLC injury and biceps femoris tendon rupture or avulsion of the fibular head. Approximately half of these cases do not show functional recovery. This case report aims to present a criteria-based approach to the operation and postoperative management of CPN palsy that resulted from a multiple-ligament knee injury in a 22-year-old man that occurred during judo. We performed a two-staged surgery. The first stage was to repair the injuries to the PLC and biceps femoris. The second stage involved anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The outcomes were excellent, with a stable knee, excellent range of motion, and improvement in the palsy. The patient was able to return to judo competition 27 weeks after the injury. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a return to sports following CPN palsy with multiple-ligament knee injury. PMID:26064740
Isolation and biological characterization of tendon-derived stem cells from fetal bovine.
Yang, Jinjuan; Zhao, Qianjun; Wang, Kunfu; Liu, Hao; Ma, Caiyun; Huang, Hongmei; Liu, Yingjie
The lack of appropriate candidates of cell sources for cell transplantation has hampered efforts to develop therapies for tendon injuries, such as tendon rupture, tendonitis, and tendinopathy. Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) are a type of stem cells which may be used in the treatment of tendon injuries. In this study, TDSCs were isolated from 5-mo-old Luxi Yellow fetal bovine and cultured in vitro and further analyzed for their biological characteristics using immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. It was found that primary TDSCs could be expanded for 42 passages in vitro maintaining proliferation. The expressions of stem cell marker nucleostemin and tenocyte-related markers, such as collagen I, collagen II, collagen III, and tenascin-C, were observed on different passage cells by immunofluorescence. The results from RT-PCR show that TDSCs were positive for collagen type I, CD44, tenascin-C, and collagen type III but negative for collagen type II. Meanwhile, TDSC passage 4 was successfully induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Our results indicate that the fetal bovine TDSCs not only had strong self-renewal capacity but also possess the potential for multi-lineage differentiation. This study provides theoretical basis and experimental foundation for potential therapeutic application of the fetal bovine TDSCs in the treatment of tendon injuries.
Effect of eccentric exercise on the healing process of injured patellar tendon in rats.
Nakamura, Kenichi; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Tomita, Katsuro
Earlier studies have reported positive results from eccentric training in patients with tendon disorders. The reasons for the beneficial clinical effects of eccentric training are not known. Vascularization followed by regression of the vasculature enhances the healing response of injured tendons. Eccentric exercise induces a more beneficial healing response than concentric exercise. Sixty rats with patellar tendon injuries were divided into three groups: nonexercise controls (group N; n = 20); concentric exercise group (group C; n = 20); eccentric exercise group (group E; n = 20). Each rat was taught to run uphill or downhill for 14 days. Patellar tendons were removed 1, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days following injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1, and angiopoietin-2 were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In group C, VEGF mRNA was increased 1 and 4 days following injury but was decreased on days 7, 10, and 14. In group E, VEGF mRNA was elevated only on day 1. In group N, VEGF mRNA remained at a low level throughout all 14 days. The angiopoietin-2/angiopoietin-1 ratio was higher for group C than for group E. In the presence of VEGF, angiopoietin-1 promotes vessel stability, whereas angiopoietin-2 has the opposite effect. Eccentric exercise contributes to stabilized angiogenesis during the early phase of tendon injury. Conversely, concentric exercise, which induces destabilized angiogenesis, leads to a delayed healing response. Initiation of eccentric exercise immediately after tendon injury may help improve healing by reducing vascularity.
Illusion of arm movement evoked by tendon vibration in patients with spinal cord injury.
Fusco, Gabriele; Tidoni, Emmanuele; Barone, Nicola; Pilati, Claudio; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria
Studies in healthy people show that stimulation of muscle spindles through frequency-specific tendon vibration (TV) induces the illusory perception of movement. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), motor and sensory connections between the brain and parts of the body below-the-lesion level are partially or totally impaired. The present investigation is a descriptive study aimed to investigate whether people living with SCI may experience movement illusions comparable to a control group. Healthy and people with SCI were asked to report on three illusion-related features (Vividness, Duration, Illusory Extension) after receiving 70 Hz TV on the biceps brachii tendon of both arms. Two different forces of stimulation were applied: 2.4 N and 4.2 N. Both patients and controls were susceptible to the kinesthetic illusion. However patients presented lower sensitivity to TV than healthy subjects. Participants rated stronger illusions of movement after 4.2 N than 2.4 N stimulation in all the three illusion-related features. Further, patients reported atypical illusory experiences of movement (e.g. as if the arm wanted to extend, or a sensation of pushing against something) that may reflect different reorganization processes following spinal cord injury. The study provides a preliminary evidence of the possible use of the proprioceptive stimulation in the upper limbs of people living with SCI. Results are discussed in the light of recent advancements of brain-computer applications based on motor imagery for the control of neuroprosthetic and robotic devices in patients with severe sensorimotor deficits.
Sensitivity of physical examination versus arthroscopy in diagnosing subscapularis tendon injury.
Faruqui, Sami; Wijdicks, Coen; Foad, Abdullah
The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of physical examination in the detection of subscapularis tendon tears and compare it with the gold standard of arthroscopy to determine whether clinical examination can reliably predict the presence of subscapularis tendon tears. This was a retrospective analysis of 52 patients (52 shoulders) who underwent arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repairs between September 2008 and April 2012. Positive findings on any combination of the belly press, lift-off, and bear hug tests constituted a positive physical examination result. There was a positive finding on physical examination in 42 of 52 patients. The sensitivity of the physical examination as a whole was 81%. The literature has shown that the belly press, bear hug, and lift-off tests are specific to the subscapularis tendon. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the sensitivity of these 3 separate clinical tests as a composite. Knowledge regarding the sensitivity of the subscapularis-specific physical examination as a composite can lead practitioners to implement all 3 components, even when 1 test has a negative finding, thus promoting a more thorough physical examination. Because unrepaired subscapularis tendon tears can result in poor outcomes in the repair of other rotator cuff tendons, a complete physical examination would be beneficial to patients with shoulder pathology. The authors conclude that physical examination, when performed consistently by an experienced practitioner, can reliably predict the presence of subscapularis tendon tears.
Tendon Tissue Engineering: Progress, Challenges, and Translation to the Clinic
Shearn, Jason T.; Kinneberg, Kirsten R.C.; Dyment, Nathaniel A.; Galloway, Marc T.; Kenter, Keith; Wylie, Christopher; Butler, David L.
The tissue engineering field has made great strides in understanding how different aspects of tissue engineered constructs (TECs) and the culture process affect final tendon repair. However, there remain significant challenges in developing strategies that will lead to a clinically effective and commercially successful product. In an effort to increase repair quality, a better understanding of normal development, and how it differs from adult tendon healing, may provide strategies to improve tissue engineering. As tendon tissue engineering continues to improve, the field needs to employ more clinically relevant models of tendon injury such as degenerative tendons. We need to translate successes to larger animal models to begin exploring the clinical implications of our treatments. By advancing the models used to validate our TECs, we can help convince our toughest customer, the surgeon, that our products will be clinically efficacious. As we address these challenges in musculoskeletal tissue engineering, the field still needs to address the commercialization of products developed in the laboratory. TEC commercialization faces numerous challenges because each injury and patient is unique. This review aims to provide tissue engineers with a summary of important issues related to engineering tendon repairs and potential strategies for producing clinically successful products. PMID:21625053
Deep and shallow forms of the sulcus for extensor carpi ulnaris.
Nakashima, T; Hojo, T; Furukawa, H
Anatomical variations in the sulcus for the tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris were studied in 240 upper limbs. The sulcus lies between the head and the styloid process on the dorsal surface of the distal end of the ulna. This groove has deep and shallow forms and, rarely, a flat form. The sulcus was classified into 4 grades according to its depth. Grade I, a deep sulcus, was found in 51.3%. Grades II and III are shallow, but the styloid process in grade II is more prominent than in grade III. The former was found in 28.8%, the latter in 14.2%. Grade IV is a flat form. This was rare and found only in 1.3%. This variation was not age-related, but was a congenital feature.
Calf Endurance and Achilles Tendon Structure in Classical Ballet Dancers.
Zellers, Jennifer A; van Ostrand, Katrina; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare
Optimal lower leg function is critical for ballet dancers to meet their occupational requirements. Achilles tendon injury is particularly detrimental to ballet dancers. While standardized measures have been validated and incorporated into clinical practice for use in people with Achilles tendon injury, normative ranges specific to the dancer population have not been described. The purpose of this pilot study was to observe the performance of pre-professional ballet students and professional ballet dancers on a well-established test battery for lower leg functional performance as well as ultra-sonographic evaluation of the structure of their Achilles tendons. The dancers in this study had significantly shorter Achilles tendons than non-dancers (p = 0.016). Dancers demonstrated significantly higher maximum heel-rise height on the heel-rise test for calf endurance (p < 0.001) but performed significantly less work than non-dancers (p = 0.014). The results of this study support the use of the heel-rise test as a tool for screening and to guide rehabilitation.
Rate of Torque Development and Feedforward Control of the Hip and Knee Extensors: Gender Differences.
Stearns-Reider, Kristen M; Powers, Christopher M
The purpose of this study was to determine whether women demonstrate decreased rate of torque development (RTD) of the hip and knee extensors and altered onset timing of the vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus during a drop-jump task when compared with men. On average, women demonstrated significantly lower normalized RTD of the hip extensors (women: 11.6 ± 1.3 MVT.s -1 , men: 13.1 ± 0.9 MVT.s -1 ; p ≤ .01); however, there was no significant difference in knee extensor RTD. Women also demonstrated significantly earlier activation of their vastus lateralis (women: 206.0 ± 130.6 ms, men: 80.9 ± 69.6 ms; p ≤ .01) and gluteus maximus (women: 85.7 ± 58.6 ms, men: 54.5 ± 35.4 ms; p = .02). In both men and women, there was a significant negative correlation between the hip extensor RTD and the vastus lateralis electromyographic onset time (men: r = -.386, p = .046; women: r = -.531, p = .008). The study findings suggest that women may utilize a feedforward control strategy in which they activate their knee extensors earlier than men to compensate for deficits in hip extensor RTD. The impaired capacity to rapidly stabilize the hip and knee joints during dynamic maneuvers may contribute to the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury observed in women.
HGF Mediates the Anti-inflammatory Effects of PRP on Injured Tendons
Zhang, Jianying; Middleton, Kellie K.; Fu, Freddie H.; Im, Hee-Jeong; Wang, James H-C.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2. PMID:23840657
Is peroneal nerve injury associated with worse function after knee dislocation?
Krych, Aaron J; Giuseffi, Steven A; Kuzma, Scott A; Stuart, Michael J; Levy, Bruce A
Peroneal nerve palsy is a frequent and potentially disabling complication of multiligament knee dislocation, but little information exists on the degree to which patients recover motor or sensory function after this injury, and whether having this nerve injury--with or without complete recovery--is a predictor of inferior patient-reported outcome scores. The purposes of this study were to (1) report on motor and sensory recovery as well as patient-reported outcomes scores of patients with peroneal nerve injury from multiligament knee dislocation; (2) compare those endpoints between patients who had partial versus complete nerve injuries; and (3) compare patient-reported outcomes among patients who sustained peroneal nerve injuries after knee dislocation with a matched cohort of multiligament knee injuries without nerve injury. Thirty-two patients were identified, but five did not have 2-year followup and are excluded (16% lost to followup). Twenty-seven patients (24 male, three female) with peroneal nerve injury underwent multiligament knee reconstruction and were followed for 6.3 years (range, 2-18 years). Motor grades were assessed by examination and outcomes by International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scores. Retrospectively, patients were divided into complete (n = 9) and partial nerve palsy (n = 18). Treatment for complete nerve palsy included an ankle-foot orthosis for all patients, nonoperative (one), neurolysis (two), tendon transfer (three), nerve transfer (one), and combined nerve/tendon transfer (one). Treatment for partial nerve palsy included nonoperative (12), neurolysis (four), nerve transfer (one), and combined nerve/tendon transfer (one). Furthermore, patients without nerve injury were matched by Schenck classification, age, and sex. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate models. Overall, 18 patients (69%) regained antigravity ankle dorsiflexion after treatment (three complete nerve palsy [38%] versus 15 partial
Nitrous acid pretreatment of tendon xenografts cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and sterilized with gamma irradiation.
Johnson, K A; Rogers, G J; Roe, S C; Howlett, C R; Clayton, M K; Milthorpe, B K; Schindhelm, K
Collagenous xenografts made from kangaroo tail tendon cross-linked with glutaraldehyde have a potential application in the reconstruction of massive digital tendon deficits. However, a limitation to the clinical use of these xenografts has been the optimization of collagen cross-linking, and subsequent bio-incorporation and retention of mechanical properties following implantation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrous acid on modulating the biologic and mechanical properties of tendon xenografts cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Tendon xenografts were pretreated with 0.1 or 0.01 M nitrous acid solution, prior to cross-linking in 2% glutaraldehyde and sterilization by gamma irradiation. Xenografts were implanted intramuscularly in rabbits to examine biocompatability, and also used to repair ovine digital extensor tendon deficits to evaluate functional incorporation. Histologically, intramuscularly implanted nitrous acid pretreated xenografts in rabbits had a greater degree of diffuse cellular infiltration into interstitial splits in the graft than controls after 12 weeks. Xenografts implanted in an ovine extensor tendon deficit were evaluated after 26 and 52 weeks. Rate of failure of tenorrhaphies between host tendon and xenografts overall (15/21) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than for autografts (1/21), suggesting that the holding power of sutures in xenografts was inferior to that obtained in autografts. Tensile failure stress of midsections of both nitrous acid pretreated and control xenografts was about 100 MPa prior to implantation (time zero). After 26 and 52 weeks, failure stress of both types of xenografts was significantly less than at time zero (P < 0.05). At 52 weeks, failure stress of nitrous acid pretreated xenografts (47.4 +/- 3.1 MPa) was significantly less than control xenografts (63.7 +/- 5.4 MPa); (P < 0.05). However, nitrous acid pretreated xenografts were similar to control xenografts in failure load (357 +/- 29
Collagen V haploinsufficiency in a murine model of classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is associated with deficient structural and mechanical healing in tendons.
Johnston, Jessica M; Connizzo, Brianne K; Shetye, Snehal S; Robinson, Kelsey A; Huegel, Julianne; Rodriguez, Ashley B; Sun, Mei; Adams, Sheila M; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J
Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) patients suffer from connective tissue hyperelasticity, joint instability, skin hyperextensibility, tissue fragility, and poor wound healing due to heterozygous mutations in COL5a1 or COL5a2 genes. This study investigated the roles of collagen V in establishing structure and function in uninjured patellar tendons as well as in the injury response using a Col5a1 +/- mouse, a model for classic EDS. These analyses were done comparing tendons from a classic EDS model (Col5a1 +/- ) with wild-type controls. Tendons were subjected to mechanical testing, histological, and fibril analysis before injury as well as 3 and 6 weeks after injury. We found that Col5a1 +/- tendons demonstrated diminished recovery of mechanical competency after injury as compared to normal wild-type tendons, which recovered their pre-injury values by 6 weeks post injury. Additionally, the Col5a1 +/- tendons demonstrated altered fibril morphology and diameter distributions compared to the wild-type tendons. This study indicates that collagen V plays an important role in regulating collagen fibrillogenesis and the associated recovery of mechanical integrity in tendons after injury. In addition, the dysregulation with decreased collagen V expression in EDS is associated with a diminished injury response. The results presented herein have the potential to direct future targeted therapeutics for classic EDS patients. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2707-2715, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Atraumatic bilateral rupture of the peroneus brevis tendon in recreational sport: A case report
Scheidegger, Patric; Weisskopf, Lukas; Hirschmüller, Anja
Issue: Lower extremity tendon injuries often occur in physically active individuals. Most ruptures not involving great force are diagnosed in patients presenting underlying tendon degenerations. This also applies to patients taking medications because of a disease. We have observed several cases of bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures in patients who have been taking cortisone for a long period. We treated a healthy colleague (neurologist) in our clinic who sustained ruptures of the Achilles tendon on the left side (2012) and the peroneus brevis tendon on left side (2015) and right side (2016) after minimal traumata. Aim of this report is to provide a systematic review of this case and a literature review of similar cases, as few such cases have been published. Methods: We reviewed and analysed this patient’s records containing the sport-specific anamnesis, pre-existing condition, anamnesis of medications and therapy. The three injuries were magnetic resonance imaging–proven. Furthermore, the tendon’s condition was examined histologically in the context of the operative treatment through lace technique of the Achilles tendon and transfer of the peroneus brevis to the peroneus longus. We also researched the literature for bilateral ruptures of the peroneal tendons. Results and conclusion: The anamnesis confirmed no underlying disease. The patient took a macrolide antibiotic about half a year prior to the first peroneal injury for an otitis media. He denied having taken any other antibiotics, especially no quinolone antibiotics. However, the patient reported cortisone intake for 2 days some months before the second peroneal injury to treat an allergic reaction. That involved no local cortisone infiltration in the lower extremity. He underwent surgery within the first 2 weeks after each trauma. Each time, postoperative follow-ups revealed a good healing process. Three months after each operation, the patient was free of complaints. Axibal and Anderson described a
Muscle-tendon glucose uptake in Achilles tendon rupture and tendinopathy before and after eccentric rehabilitation: Comparative case reports.
Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Finni, Taija
Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is the most common tendon rupture injury. The consequences of ATR on metabolic activity of the Achilles tendon and ankle plantarflexors are unknown. Furthermore, the effects of eccentric rehabilitation on metabolic activity patterns of Achilles tendon and ankle plantarflexors in ATR patients have not been reported thus far. We present a case study demonstrating glucose uptake (GU) in the Achilles tendon, the triceps surae, and the flexor hallucis longus of a post-surgical ATR patient before and after a 5-month eccentric rehabilitation. At baseline, three months post-surgery, all muscles and Achilles tendon displayed much higher GU in the ATR patient compared to a healthy individual despite lower plantarflexion force. After the rehabilitation, plantarflexion force increased in the operated leg while muscle GU was considerably reduced. The triceps surae muscles showed similar values to the healthy control. When compared to the healthy or a matched patient with Achilles tendon pain after 12 weeks of rehabilitation, Achilles tendon GU levels of ATR patient remained greater after the rehabilitation. Past studies have shown a shift in the metabolic fuel utilization towards glycolysis due to immobilization. Further research, combined with immuno-histological investigation, is needed to fully understand the mechanism behind excessive glucose uptake in ATR cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stem Cell Applications in Tendon Disorders: A Clinical Perspective
Tendon injuries are a common cause of morbidity and a significant health burden on society. Tendons are structural tissues connecting muscle to bone and are prone to tearing and tendinopathy, an overuse or degenerative condition that is characterized by failed healing and cellular depletion. Current treatments, for tendon tear are conservative, surgical repair or surgical scaffold reconstruction. Tendinopathy is treated by exercises, injection therapies, shock wave treatments or surgical tendon debridement. However, tendons usually heal with fibrosis and scar tissue, which has suboptimal tensile strength and is prone to reinjury, resulting in lifestyle changes with activity restriction. Preclinical studies show that cell therapies have the potential to regenerate rather than repair tendon tissue, a process termed tenogenesis. A number of different cell lines, with varying degrees of differentiation, have being evaluated including stem cells, tendon derived cells and dermal fibroblasts. Even though cellular therapies offer some potential in treating tendon disorders, there have been few published clinical trials to determine the ideal cell source, the number of cells to administer, or the optimal bioscaffold for clinical use. PMID:22448174
Ultrasound measures of tendon thickness: Intra-rater, Inter-rater and Inter-machine reliability.
Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena; Martínez-Payá, Jacinto Javier; Ríos-Díaz, José; Mejías-Suárez, Silvia; Serrano-Carmona, Sergio; de Groot-Ferrando, Ana
Ultrasound imaging is often used by physiotherapists and other healthcare professionals but the reliability of image acquisition with different ultrasound machines is unknown. The objective was to compare the intra-rater, inter-rater and intermachine reliability of thickness measurements of the plantar fascia (PF), Achilles tendon (AT), patellar tendon (PT) and elbow common extensor tendon (ECET) with musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging (MSUS). Tendon thickness was measured in four anatomical structures (14 participants, 28 images per tendon) by two sonographers and with two different ultrasound machines. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were calculated. The standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable difference (MDD) were calculated. Inter-rater reliability was excellent for AT (ICC=0.98; 95% CI= 0.96-0.99) and very good for PT (ICC=0.85; 95% CI = 0.67-0.93) and ECET (ICC=0.81; 95% CI= 0.72-0.94). Reliability for PF was moderate, with an ICC of 0.63 (CI 95%= 0.20-0.83). Bland-Altman plot for inter-machine reliability showed a mean difference of 1 m for PF measurements and a mean difference of 4 m and 20 m for AT and PT. The relative SEMs were below 7% and the MDCs were below 0.7 mm. The MSUS reliability in measuring thickness of the four tendons is confirmed by the homogeneous readings intra sonographers, between operators and between different machines. Level of evidence: Tendon thickness can be measured reliably on different ultrasound devices, which is an important step forward in the use of this technique in daily clinical practice and research. III.
Identification of human-generated forces on wheelchairs during total-body extensor thrusts.
Hong, Seong-Wook; Patrangenaru, Vlad; Singhose, William; Sprigle, Stephen
Involuntary extensor thrust experienced by wheelchair users with neurological disorders may cause injuries via impact with the wheelchair, lead to the occupant sliding out of the seat, and also damage the wheelchair. The concept of a dynamic seat, which allows movement of a seat with respect to the wheelchair frame, has been suggested as a potential solution to provide greater freedom and safety. Knowledge of the human-generated motion and forces during unconstrained extensor thrust events is of great importance in developing more comfortable and effective dynamic seats. The objective of this study was to develop a method to identify human-generated motions and forces during extensor thrust events. This information can be used to design the triggering system for a dynamic seat. An experimental system was developed to automatically track the motions of the wheelchair user using a video camera and also measure the forces at the footrest. An inverse dynamic approach was employed along with a three-link human body model and the experimental data to predict the human-generated forces. Two kinds of experiments were performed: the first experiment validated the proposed model and the second experiment showed the effects of the extensor thrust speed, the footrest angle, and the seatback angle. The proposed method was tested using a sensitivity analysis, from which a performance index was deduced to help indicate the robust region of the force identification. A system to determine human-generated motions and forces during unconstrained extensor thrusts was developed. Through experiments and simulations, the effectiveness and reliability of the developed system was established.
A review on animal models and treatments for the reconstruction of Achilles and flexor tendons.
Bottagisio, Marta; Lovati, Arianna B
Tendon is a connective tissue mainly composed of collagen fibers with peculiar mechanical properties essential to functional movements. The increasing incidence of tendon traumatic injuries and ruptures-associated or not with the loss of tissue-falls on the growing interest in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of animal models is mandatory to deepen the knowledge of the tendon healing response to severe damages or acute transections. Thus, the selection of preclinical models is crucial to ensure a successful translation of effective and safe innovative treatments to the clinical practice. The current review is focused on animal models of tendon ruptures and lacerations or defective injuries with large tissue loss that require surgical approaches or grafting procedures. Data published between 2000 and 2016 were examined. The analyzed articles were compiled from Pub Med-NCBI using search terms, including animal model(s) AND tendon augmentation OR tendon substitute(s) OR tendon substitution OR tendon replacement OR tendon graft(s) OR tendon defect(s) OR tendon rupture(s). This article presents the existing preclinical models - considering their advantages and disadvantages-in which translational progresses have been made by using bioactive sutures or tissue engineering that combines biomaterials with cells and growth factors to efficiently treat transections or large defects of Achilles and flexor tendons.
An advanced glycation endproduct (AGE)-rich diet promotes accumulation of AGEs in Achilles tendon.
Skovgaard, Dorthe; Svensson, Rene B; Scheijen, Jean; Eliasson, Pernilla; Mogensen, Pernille; Hag, Anne Mette F; Kjær, Michael; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Schjerling, Peter; Magnusson, Stig P; Couppé, Christian
Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins like collagen in bone and tendon causing modification of the biomechanical properties. This has been hypothesized to raise the risk of orthopedic injury such as bone fractures and tendon ruptures. We evaluated the relationship between AGE content in the diet and accumulation of AGEs in weight-bearing animal Achilles tendon. Two groups of mice (C57BL/6Ntac) were fed with either high-fat diet low in AGEs high-fat diet (HFD) ( n = 14) or normal diet high in AGEs (ND) ( n = 11). AGE content in ND was six to 50-fold higher than HFD The mice were sacrificed at week 40 and Achilles and tail tendons were carefully excised to compare weight and nonweight-bearing tendons. The amount of the AGEs carboxymethyllysine (CML), methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) and carboxyethyllysine (CEL) in Achilles and tail tendon was measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and pentosidine with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescent detection. AGEs in Achilles tendon were higher than in tail tendon for CML ( P < 0.0001), CEL ( P < 0.0001), MG-H1 and pentosidine (for both ND and HFD) ( P < 0.0001). The AGE-rich diet (ND) resulted in an increase in CML ( P < 0.0001), MG-H1 ( P < 0.001) and pentosidine ( P < 0.0001) but not CEL, in Achilles and tail tendon. This is the first study to provide evidence for AGE accumulation in injury-prone, weight-bearing Achilles tendon associated with intake of an AGE-rich diet. This indicates that food-derived AGEs may alter tendon properties and the development of tendon injuries. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
Anatomical Study of the Neurovascular in Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfers.
Mao, Haijiao; Dong, Wenwei; Shi, Zengyuan; Yin, Weigang; Xu, Dachuan; Wapner, Keith L
The transfer of the flexor hallucis longus tendon or flexor digitorum longus tendon is frequently used for the treatment of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency or chronic Achilles tendinopathy. According to several anatomical studies, harvesting the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon may cause nerve injury. Sixty-eight embalmed feet were dissected and anatomically classified to define the relationship between Henry's knot and the plantar nerves. Two different configurations were identified. In Pattern 1, which was observed in 64 specimens (94.1%), the distance between the medial plantar nerve and Henry's knot was 5.96 mm (range, 3.34 to 7.84, SD = 1.12). In Pattern 2, which was observed in 4 specimens (5.9%), there was no distance between the medial plantar nerve (MPN) and Henry's knot. No statistically significant difference was observed according to gender or side (p > 0.05). A retraction was performed to harvest the FHL through the posteromedial hindfoot incision using a single minimally invasive technique, and the medial and lateral plantar nerve lesions were scrupulously assessed. In conclusion, medial and lateral plantar nerve injuries did not occur more frequently, even after performing a single minimally invasive incision to harvest the FHL tendon, due to the large distance between the FHL tendon and the medial and lateral plantar nerves.
Muscular responses appear to be associated with existence of kinesthetic perception during combination of tendon co-vibration and motor imagery.
Shibata, Eriko; Kaneko, Fuminari; Katayose, Masaki
The afferent inputs from peripheral sensory receptors and efferent signals from the central nervous system that underlie intentional movement can contribute to kinesthetic perception. Previous studies have revealed that tendon vibration to wrist muscles elicits an excitatory response-known as the antagonist vibratory response-in muscles antagonistic to the vibrated muscles. Therefore, the present study aimed to further investigate the effect of tendon vibration combined with motor imagery on kinesthetic perception and muscular activation. Two vibrators were applied to the tendons of the left flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis. When the vibration frequency was the same between flexors and extensors, no participant perceived movement and no muscle activity was induced. When participants imagined flexing their wrists during tendon vibration, the velocity of perceptual flexion movement increased. Furthermore, muscle activity of the flexor increased only during motor imagery. These results demonstrate that kinesthetic perception can be induced during the combination of motor imagery and co-vibration, even with no experience of kinesthetic perception from an afferent input with co-vibration at the same frequency. Although motor responses were observed during combined co-vibration and motor imagery, no such motor responses were recorded during either co-vibration alone or motor imagery alone, suggesting that muscular responses during the combined condition are associated with kinesthetic perception. Thus, the present findings indicate that kinesthetic perception is influenced by the interaction between afferent input from muscle spindles and the efferent signals that underlie intentional movement. We propose that the physiological behavior resulting from kinesthetic perception affects the process of modifying agonist muscle activity, which will be investigated in a future study.
Relationship between tendon stiffness and failure: a metaanalysis
LaCroix, Andrew S.; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah E.; Lakes, Roderic S.
Tendon is a highly specialized, hierarchical tissue designed to transfer forces from muscle to bone; complex viscoelastic and anisotropic behaviors have been extensively characterized for specific subsets of tendons. Reported mechanical data consistently show a pseudoelastic, stress-vs.-strain behavior with a linear slope after an initial toe region. Many studies report a linear, elastic modulus, or Young's modulus (hereafter called elastic modulus) and ultimate stress for their tendon specimens. Individually, these studies are unable to provide a broader, interstudy understanding of tendon mechanical behavior. Herein we present a metaanalysis of pooled mechanical data from a representative sample of tendons from different species. These data include healthy tendons and those altered by injury and healing, genetic modification, allograft preparation, mechanical environment, and age. Fifty studies were selected and analyzed. Despite a wide range of mechanical properties between and within species, elastic modulus and ultimate stress are highly correlated (R2 = 0.785), suggesting that tendon failure is highly strain-dependent. Furthermore, this relationship was observed to be predictable over controlled ranges of elastic moduli, as would be typical of any individual species. With the knowledge gained through this metaanalysis, noninvasive tools could measure elastic modulus in vivo and reasonably predict ultimate stress (or structural compromise) for diseased or injured tendon. PMID:23599401
[Anterior dislocation of the popliteus tendon].
Martinez Molina, Oscar
Review the most relevant aspects of the posterolateral corner anatomy of the knee, based on the analysis of papers that throughout the years have made important contributions to the knowledge of these structures. Last et al rejected the idea that the popliteal tendon is an isolated structure, suggesting rather that its variants are closely linked to other anatomical structures. The studies by Tria et al contributed the features of the tendon as it attaches to the lateral condyle, just to mention a couple of examples. This is the case of a 48 year-old female patient with a knee injury caused by an external rotation mechanism. Clinical features included pain, a protruding sensation in the lateral aspect of the knee, and voluntary pseudoblocking resulting from external rotation maneuvers. Knee arthroscopy was performed and dislocation of the popliteal tendon anterior to the lateral condyle was diagnosed, besides a longitudinal tear. The tendon was repositioned, radiofrequency was applied to both the tendon and the popliteal hiatus, and the former was kept in place with a plaster cast worn for 6 weeks. Even though the isolated tear or avulsion of the tendon has already been reported, the dislocation or instability of the popliteal tendon as it relates to the lateral femoral condyle has apparently not been approached yet. As we did in this case, other authors have also confirmed the diagnosis arthroscopically, Naver in 1985, Rose in 1988, and Burstein in 1990.
Rescue plan for Achilles: Therapeutics steering the fate and functions of stem cells in tendon wound healing.
Schneider, Magdalena; Angele, Peter; Järvinen, Tero A H; Docheva, Denitsa
Due to the increasing age of our society and a rise in engagement of young people in extreme and/or competitive sports, both tendinopathies and tendon ruptures present a clinical and financial challenge. Tendon has limited natural healing capacity and often responds poorly to treatments, hence it requires prolonged rehabilitation in most cases. Till today, none of the therapeutic options has provided successful long-term solutions, meaning that repaired tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Our understanding of tendon biology and healing increases only slowly and the development of new treatment options is insufficient. In this review, following discussion on tendon structure, healing and the clinical relevance of tendon injury, we aim to elucidate the role of stem cells in tendon healing and discuss new possibilities to enhance stem cell treatment of injured tendon. To date, studies mainly apply stem cells, often in combination with scaffolds or growth factors, to surgically created tendon defects. Deeper understanding of how stem cells and vasculature in the healing tendon react to growth factors, common drugs used to treat injured tendons and promising cellular boosters could help to develop new and more efficient ways to manage tendon injuries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Characterization and Surgical Management of Achilles Tendon Sleeve Avulsions.
Huh, Jeannie; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A
An Achilles sleeve avulsion occurs when the tendon ruptures distally from its calcaneal insertion as a continuous "sleeve." This relatively rare injury pattern may not be appreciated until the time of surgery and can be challenging to treat because, unlike a midsubstance rupture, insufficient tendon remains on the calcaneus to allow for end-to-end repair, and unlike a tuberosity avulsion fracture, any bony element avulsed with the tendon is inadequate for internal fixation. This study aimed to highlight the characteristics of Achilles sleeve avulsions and present the outcomes of operative repair using suture anchor fixation. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 11 consecutive Achilles tendon sleeve avulsions (10 males, 1 female; mean age 44 years) that underwent operative repair between 2008 and 2014. Patient demographics, injury presentation, and operative details were reviewed. Postoperative outcomes were collected at a mean follow-up of 38.4 (range, 12-83.5) months, including the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot score, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, plantarflexion strength, patient satisfaction, and complications. Eight patients (72.7%) had preexisting symptoms of insertional Achilles disease. Ten of 11 (90.9%) injuries were sustained during recreational athletic activity. An Achilles sleeve avulsion was recognized preoperatively in 7 of 11 (64%) cases, where lateral ankle radiographs demonstrated a small radiodensity several centimeters proximal to the calcaneal insertion. Intraoperatively, 90.9% of sleeve avulsions had a concomitant Haglund deformity and macroscopic evidence of insertional tendinopathy. All patients healed after suture anchor repair. The average AOFAS score was 92.8 and VAS score was 0.9. Ten patients (90.9%) were completely satisfied. One complication occurred, consisting of delayed wound healing. Achilles tendon sleeve avulsions predominantly occurred in middle-aged men with preexisting insertional
Continuous Shear Wave Elastography: a New Method to Measure in-vivo Viscoelastic Properties of Tendons
Cortes, Daniel H.; Suydam, Stephen M.; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Elliott, Dawn M.
Viscoelastic mechanical properties are frequently altered after tendon injuries and during recovery. Therefore, non-invasive measurements of shear viscoelastic properties may help evaluate tendon recovery and compare the effectiveness of different therapies. The objectives of this study are to present an elastography method to measure localized viscoelastic properties of tendon and to present initial results in healthy and injured human Achilles and semitendinosus tendons. The technique used an external actuator to generate the shear waves in the tendon at different frequencies and plane wave imaging to measure shear wave displacements. For each of the excitation frequencies, maps of direction specific wave speeds were calculated using Local Frequency Estimation. Maps of viscoelastic properties were obtained using a pixel wise curve-fit of wave speed and frequency. The method was validated by comparing measurements of wave speed in agarose gels to those obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. Measurements in human healthy Achilles tendons revealed a pronounced increase in wave speed as function of frequency that highlights the importance of tendon viscoelasticity. Additionally, the viscoelastic properties of the Achilles tendon were larger than those reported for other tissues. Measurements in a tendinopathic Achilles tendon showed that it is feasible to quantify local viscoeasltic properties. Similarly, measurement in the semitendinosus tendon showed a substantial differences in viscoelastic properties between the healthy and contralateral tendons. Consequently, this technique has the potential of evaluating localized changes in tendon viscoelastic properties due to injury and during recovery in a clinical setting. PMID:25796414
Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow - Implication for treatment?
Spang, C; Alfredson, H
Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin and eosin, H and E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. IV.
[Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon].
Karahasanoğlu, İlker; Yoloğlu, Osman; Kerimoğlu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet Uğur
Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome.
Immediate effects of whole body vibration on patellar tendon properties and knee extension torque.
Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R
Reports about the immediate effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure upon torque production capacity are inconsistent. However, the changes in the torque-angle relationship observed by some authors after WBV may hinder the measurement of torque changes at a given angle. Acute changes in tendon mechanical properties do occur after certain types of exercise but this hypothesis has never been tested after a bout of WBV. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether tendon compliance is altered immediately after WBV, effectively shifting the optimal angle of peak torque towards longer muscle length. Twenty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to either a WBV (n = 14) or a squatting control group (n = 14). Patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus and knee extension torque-angle relationship were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry 1 day before and directly after the intervention. Tendon CSA was additionally measured 24 h after the intervention to check for possible delayed onset of swelling. The vibration intervention had no effects on patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus or the torque-angle relationship. Peak torque was produced at ~70° knee angle in both groups at pre- and post-test. Additionally, the knee extension torque globally remained unaffected with the exception of a small (-6%) reduction in isometric torque at a joint angle of 60°. The present results indicate that a single bout of vibration exposure does not substantially alter patellar tendon properties or the torque-angle relationship of knee extensors.
[HEALING MODEL RESEARCH OF ROTATOR CUFF INJURY IN CANINE].
Ye, Wei; Bao, Nirong; Zhaq, Jianning
To compare the difference of rotator cuff healing between different types of injury andbetween different repair methods, and to explore the animal model to accurately simulate the restorative process afterrepair of rotator cuff injury. Twelve adult male beagle dogs (weighing, 10-15 kg) were divided into 3 groups (n = 4) according to different processing methods: acute rotator cuff injury+Mason-Allen suture repair (group A), huge rotator cuff injury+Mason-Allen suture repair (group B), and huge rotator cuff injury+Mason-Allen combined with autogenous semitendinosus expansion suture repair (group C). The external fixation was used for immobilization after repair. After operation, the general situation of the animals was observed, and the infraspinatus tendon was harvested for gross observation at 6 weeks after operation. The biomechanical test of limit load and histological observation of tendon fibers were carried out. All the animals survived to the end of the experiment. All incisions healed well and no infection occurred. Gross observation showed more scar tissues at the end of infraspinatus muscle tendon than normal tendon in group A; no obvious tendon tissue was observed at the end of infraspinatus muscle tendon in group B; the infraspinatus muscle tendon was covered with some white scar tissue, but the tendon and the general direction could be observed in group C. The limit load of groups A, B, and C were (223.75 ± 24.28), (159.25 ± 34.87), and (233.25 ± 14.24) N respectively, group B was significantly lower than groups A and C (P < 0.05), and no significant differnce was found between group A and group C (P > 0.05). Histological observation showed normal arrangement of tendon fibers in group A; tendon fibers arranged disorderly in group B and tendon cells were significantly less than those of group A; tendon fibers arranged in neat in group C and tendon cells were more than those of group B. Canine autologous semitendinosus expansion repair of massive
Achilles Tendon Loading During Heel-Raising and -Lowering Exercises
Revak, Andrew; Diers, Keith; Kernozek, Thomas W.; Gheidi, Naghmeh; Olbrantz, Christina
Context: Achilles tendinopathies are common injuries during sport participation, although men are more prone to Achilles tendon injuries than women. Heel-raising and -lowering exercises are typically suggested for Achilles tendon rehabilitation. Objective: To compare the estimated Achilles tendon loading variables and the ankle range of motion (ROM) using a musculoskeletal model during commonly performed heel-raising and -lowering exercises. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-one healthy men (age = 21.59 ± 1.92 years, height = 178.22 ± 8.02 cm, mass = 75.81 ± 11.24 kg). Intervention(s): Each participant completed 4 exercises: seated heel raising and lowering, bilateral standing heel raising and lowering, bilateral heel raising and unilateral lowering, and unilateral heel raising and lowering. Main Outcome Measure(s): A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (α = .05) was used to compare Achilles tendon stress, force, and strain and ankle ROM for each exercise. Kinematic data were recorded at 180 Hz with 15 motion-analysis cameras synchronized with kinetic data collected from a force platform sampled at 1800 Hz. These data were then entered in a musculoskeletal model to estimate force in the triceps surae. For each participant, we determined Achilles tendon stress by measuring cross-sectional images using ultrasound. Results: Peak Achilles tendon loading was lowest when performing the seated heel-raising and -lowering exercise and highest when performing the unilateral heel-raising and -lowering exercise. Loading was greater for the unilateral exercise or portions of the exercise that were performed unilaterally. Conclusions: Bilateral and seated exercises with less weight-bearing force resulted in less Achilles tendon loading. These exercises may serve as progressions during the rehabilitation process before full-body weight-bearing, unilateral exercises are
Sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells for ligament and tendon tissue engineering.
Dhinsa, Baljinder S; Mahapatra, Anant N; Khan, Wasim S
Tendon and ligament injuries are common, and repair slowly with reduced biomechanical properties. With increasing financial demands on the health service and patients to recover from tendon and ligament injuries faster, and with less morbidity, health professionals are exploring new treatment options. Tissue engineering may provide the answer, with its unlimited source of natural cells that in the correct environment may improve repair and regeneration of tendon and ligament tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells have demonstrated the ability to self renew and have multilineage differentiation potential. The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has been reported, however significant in vitro culture expansion is required due to the low yield of cells, which has financial implications. Harvesting of bone marrow cells also has associated morbidity. Several studies have looked at alternative sources for mesenchymal stem cells. Reports in literature from animal studies have been encouraging, however further work is required. This review assesses the potential sources of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering in tendons and ligaments.
The effects of chronic unloading and gap formation on tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model of massive rotator cuff tears
Killian, Megan L.; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Shah, Shivam A.; Sato, Eugene J.; Ward, Samuel R.; Havlioglu, Necat; Galatz, Leesa M.; Thomopoulos, Stavros
The objective of this study was to understand the effect of pre-repair rotator cuff chronicity on post-repair healing outcomes using a chronic and acute multi-tendon rat rotator cuff injury model. Full-thickness dual tendon injuries (supra- and infraspinatus) were created unilaterally in adult male Sprague Dawley rats, and left chronically detached for 8 or 16 weeks. After chronic detachment, tears were repaired and acute dual tendon injuries were created and immediately repaired on contralateral shoulders. Tissue level outcomes for bone, tendon, and muscle were assessed 4 or 8 weeks after repair using histology, microcomputed tomography, biomechanical testing, and biochemical assays. Substantial gap formation was seen in 35% of acute repairs and 44% of chronic repairs. Gap formation negatively correlated with mechanical and structural outcomes for both healing time points regardless of injury duration. Bone and histomorphometry, as well as biomechanics, were similar between acute and chronic injury and repair regardless of chronicity and duration of healing. This study was the first to implement a multi-tendon rotator cuff injury with surgical repair following both chronic and acute injuries. Massive tear in a rodent model resulted in gap formation regardless of injury duration which had detrimental effects on repair outcomes. PMID:24243733
The effects of chronic unloading and gap formation on tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model of massive rotator cuff tears.
Killian, Megan L; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Shah, Shivam A; Sato, Eugene J; Ward, Samuel R; Havlioglu, Necat; Galatz, Leesa M; Thomopoulos, Stavros
The objective of this study was to understand the effect of pre-repair rotator cuff chronicity on post-repair healing outcomes using a chronic and acute multi-tendon rat rotator cuff injury model. Full-thickness dual tendon injuries (supra- and infraspinatus) were created unilaterally in adult male Sprague Dawley rats, and left chronically detached for 8 or 16 weeks. After chronic detachment, tears were repaired and acute dual tendon injuries were created and immediately repaired on contralateral shoulders. Tissue level outcomes for bone, tendon, and muscle were assessed 4 or 8 weeks after repair using histology, microcomputed tomography, biomechanical testing, and biochemical assays. Substantial gap formation was seen in 35% of acute repairs and 44% of chronic repairs. Gap formation negatively correlated with mechanical and structural outcomes for both healing time points regardless of injury duration. Bone and histomorphometry, as well as biomechanics, were similar between acute and chronic injury and repair regardless of chronicity and duration of healing. This study was the first to implement a multi-tendon rotator cuff injury with surgical repair following both chronic and acute injuries. Massive tear in a rodent model resulted in gap formation regardless of injury duration which had detrimental effects on repair outcomes. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Triple Achilles Tendon Rupture: Case Report.
Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann
We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tendon Transfers Part II: Transfers for Ulnar Nerve Palsy and Median Nerve Palsy
Sammer, Douglas M.; Chung, Kevin C.
Objectives After reading this article (part II of II), the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the anatomy and function of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm and hand. 2. Describe the clinical deficits associated with injury to each nerve. 3. Describe the indications, benefits, and drawbacks for various tendon transfer procedures used to treat median and ulnar nerve palsy.4. Describe the treatment of combined nerve injuries. 5. Describe postoperative care and possible complications associated with these tendon transfer procedures. Summary This article discusses the use of tendon transfer procedures for treatment of median and ulnar nerve palsy as well as combined nerve palsies. Postoperative management and potential complications are also discussed. PMID:19730287
Tendon biomechanics and mechanobiology--a minireview of basic concepts and recent advancements.
Wang, James H-C; Guo, Qianping; Li, Bin
Due to their unique hierarchical structure and composition, tendons possess characteristic biomechanical properties, including high mechanical strength and viscoelasticity, which enable them to carry and transmit mechanical loads (muscular forces) effectively. Tendons are also mechanoresponsive by adaptively changing their structure and function in response to altered mechanical loading conditions. In general, mechanical loading at physiological levels is beneficial to tendons, but excessive loading or disuse of tendons is detrimental. This mechanoadaptability is due to the cells present in tendons. Tendon fibroblasts (tenocytes) are the dominant tendon cells responsible for tendon homeostasis and repair. Tendon stem cells (TSCs), which were recently discovered, also play a vital role in tendon maintenance and repair by virtue of their ability to self-renew and differentiate into tenocytes. TSCs may also be responsible for chronic tendon injury, or tendinopathy, by undergoing aberrant differentiation into nontenocytes in response to excessive mechanical loading. Thus, it is necessary to devise optimal rehabilitation protocols to enhance tendon healing while reducing scar tissue formation and tendon adhesions. Moreover, along with scaffolds that can mimic tendon matrix environments and platelet-rich plasma, which serves as a source of growth factors, TSCs may be the optimal cell type for enhancing repair of injured tendons. Copyright © 2012 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fetal derived embryonic-like stem cells improve healing in a large animal flexor tendonitis model
Introduction Tendon injury is a common problem in athletes, with poor tissue regeneration and a high rate of re-injury. Stem cell therapy is an attractive treatment modality as it may induce tissue regeneration rather than tissue repair. Currently, there are no reports on the use of pluripotent cells in a large animal tendon model in vivo. We report the use of intra-lesional injection of male, fetal derived embryonic-like stem cells (fdESC) that express Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA4, Tra 1-60, Tra 1-81 and telomerase. Methods Tendon injury was induced using a collagenase gel-physical defect model in the mid-metacarpal region of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of eight female adult Thoroughbred or Thoroughbred cross horses. Tendon lesions were treated one week later with intra-lesional injection of male derived fdESCs in media or media alone. Therapy was blinded and randomized. Serial ultrasound examinations were performed and final analysis at eight weeks included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical assays (total DNA, glycosaminoglycan, collagen), gene expression (TNC, TNMD, SCX, COL1A1, COL3A1, COMP, DCN, MMP1, MMP3, MMP13, 18S) and histology. Differences between groups were assessed with Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Results Cell survival was demonstrated via the presence of the SRY gene in fdESC treated, but not control treated, female SDFT at the end of the trial. There were no differences in tendon matrix specific gene expression or total proteoglycan, collagen or DNA of tendon lesions between groups. Tissue architecture, tendon size, tendon lesion size, and tendon linear fiber pattern were significantly improved on histologic sections and ultrasound in the fdESC treated tendons. Conclusions Such profound structural effects lend further support to the notion that pluripotent stem cells can effect musculoskeletal regeneration, rather than repair, even without in vitro lineage specific differentiation. Further investigation into the safety of
Mineralization can be an incidental ultrasonographic finding in equine tendons and ligaments.
O'Brien, Etienne J O; Smith, Roger K W
Tendon/ligament mineralization is recognized in horses but information regarding its clinical significance is limited. The aims of this observational study were to report the structures most commonly affected by ultrasonographically detectable mineralization and, for these, determine frequency of diagnosis and key clinical features. Cases presented at our hospital in April 1999-April 2013 and September 2014-November 2015 were included: a total of 27 horses (22 retrospective, five prospective). Mineralizations were most common in deep digital flexor tendons (10) and suspensory ligament branches (eight), representing 10% and 7% (estimated), respectively, of horses diagnosed with injuries to these structures during the study. Two deep digital flexor tendon and three suspensory ligament branch cases showed bilateral mineralization. Deep digital flexor tendon mineralization was restricted to the digital flexor tendon sheath, most commonly in the proximal sheath (±sesamoidean canal), and seven of 10 cases involved hindlimbs. Suspensory ligament branch mineralization was visible in the same ultrasound window as the proximal sesamoid bones in 10/11 limbs and six of eight cases involved forelimbs. Previous corticosteroid medication was a feature of one deep digital flexor tendon and one suspensory ligament branch case. Mineralization was associated with lameness in some but not all limbs. Mineralized foci within the deep digital flexor tendon preceded hypoechoic lesion formation in two limbs. Of the cases with deep digital flexor tendon or suspensory ligament branch injury only, one of three and two of three cases, respectively, became sound. Findings indicated that tendon/ligament mineralization can be associated with lameness in some horses, but can also be an incidental finding. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Genome-wide association screens for Achilles tendon and ACL tears and tendinopathy
Roos, Thomas R.; Roos, Andrew K.; Kleimeyer, John P.; Ahmed, Marwa A.; Goodlin, Gabrielle T.; Fredericson, Michael; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Avins, Andrew L.; Dragoo, Jason L.
Achilles tendinopathy or rupture and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture are substantial injuries affecting athletes, associated with delayed recovery or inability to return to competition. To identify genetic markers that might be used to predict risk for these injuries, we performed genome-wide association screens for these injuries using data from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort consisting of 102,979 individuals. We did not find any single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either of these injuries with a p-value that was genome-wide significant (p<5x10-8). We found, however, four and three polymorphisms with p-values that were borderline significant (p<10−6) for Achilles tendon injury and ACL rupture, respectively. We then tested SNPs previously reported to be associated with either Achilles tendon injury or ACL rupture. None showed an association in our cohort with a false discovery rate of less than 5%. We obtained, however, moderate to weak evidence for replication in one case; specifically, rs4919510 in MIR608 had a p-value of 5.1x10-3 for association with Achilles tendon injury, corresponding to a 7% chance of false replication. Finally, we tested 2855 SNPs in 90 candidate genes for musculoskeletal injury, but did not find any that showed a significant association below a false discovery rate of 5%. We provide data containing summary statistics for the entire genome, which will be useful for future genetic studies on these injuries. PMID:28358823
Continuous Shear Wave Elastography: A New Method to Measure Viscoelastic Properties of Tendons in Vivo.
Cortes, Daniel H; Suydam, Stephen M; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Buchanan, Thomas S; Elliott, Dawn M
Viscoelastic mechanical properties are frequently altered after tendon injuries and during recovery. Therefore, non-invasive measurements of shear viscoelastic properties may help evaluate tendon recovery and compare the effectiveness of different therapies. The objectives of this study were to describe an elastography method for measuring localized viscoelastic properties of tendons and to discuss the initial results in healthy and injured human Achilles and semitendinosus tendons. The technique used an external actuator to generate the shear waves in the tendon at different frequencies and plane wave imaging to measure shear wave displacements. For each of the excitation frequencies, maps of direction-specific wave speeds were calculated using local frequency estimation. Maps of viscoelastic properties were obtained using a pixel-wise curve fit of wave speed and frequency. The method was validated by comparing measurements of wave speed in agarose gels with those obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. Measurements in human healthy Achilles tendons revealed a pronounced increase in wave speed as a function of frequency, which highlights the importance of tendon viscoelasticity. Additionally, the viscoelastic properties of the Achilles tendon were larger than those reported for other tissues. Measurements in a tendinopathic Achilles tendon indicated that it is feasible to quantify local viscoelastic properties. Similarly, measurement in the semitendinosus tendon revealed substantial differences in viscoelastic properties between the healthy and contralateral tendons. Consequently, this technique has the potential to evaluate localized changes in tendon viscoelastic properties caused by injury and during recovery in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cell-laden composite suture threads for repairing damaged tendons.
Costa-Almeida, Raquel; Domingues, Rui M A; Fallahi, Afsoon; Avci, Huseyin; Yazdi, Iman K; Akbari, Mohsen; Reis, Rui L; Tamayol, Ali; Gomes, Manuela E; Khademhosseini, Ali
Tendons have limited regenerative capacity due to their low cellularity and hypovascular nature, which results in poor clinical outcomes of presently used therapies. As tendon injuries are often observed in active adults, it poses an increasing socio-economic burden on healthcare systems. Currently, suture threads are used during surgical repair to anchor the tissue graft or to connect injured ends. Here, we created composite suture threads coated with a layer of cell-laden hydrogel that can be used for bridging the injured tissue aiming at tendon regeneration. In addition, the fibres can be used to engineer 3-dimensional constructs through textile processes mimicking the architecture and mechanical properties of soft tissues, including tendons and ligaments. Encapsulated human tendon-derived cells migrated within the hydrogel and aligned at the surface of the core thread. An up-regulation of tendon-related genes (scleraxis and tenascin C) and genes involved in matrix remodelling (matrix metalloproteinases 1, matrix metalloproteinases 2) was observed. Cells were able to produce a collagen-rich matrix, remodelling their micro-environment, which is structurally comparable to native tendon tissue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pleiotropic roles of the matricellular protein Sparc in tendon maturation and ageing
Gehwolf, Renate; Wagner, Andrea; Lehner, Christine; Bradshaw, Amy D.; Scharler, Cornelia; Niestrawska, Justyna A.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Traweger, Andreas
Acute and chronic tendinopathies remain clinically challenging and tendons are predisposed to degeneration or injury with age. Despite the high prevalence of tendon disease in the elderly, our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the age-dependent deterioration of tendon function remains very limited. Here, we show that Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (Sparc) expression significantly decreases in healthy-aged mouse Achilles tendons. Loss of Sparc results in tendon collagen fibrillogenesis defects and Sparc−/− tendons are less able to withstand force in comparison with their respective wild type counterparts. On the cellular level, Sparc-null and healthy-aged tendon-derived cells exhibited a more contracted phenotype and an altered actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, an elevated expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPARγ and Cebpα with a concomitant increase in lipid deposits in aged and Sparc−/− tendons was observed. In summary, we propose that Sparc levels in tendons are critical for proper collagen fibril maturation and its age-related decrease, together with a change in ECM properties favors lipid accretion in tendons. PMID:27586416
Peroneal tendon pathology: Pre- and post-operative high resolution US and MR imaging.
Kumar, Yogesh; Alian, Ali; Ahlawat, Shivani; Wukich, Dane K; Chhabra, Avneesh
Peroneal tendon pathology is an important cause of lateral ankle pain and instability. Typical peroneal tendon disorders include tendinitis, tenosynovitis, partial and full thickness tendon tears, peroneal retinacular injuries, and tendon subluxations and dislocations. Surgery is usually indicated when conservative treatment fails. Familiarity with the peroneal tendon surgeries and expected postoperative imaging findings is essential for accurate assessment and to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Cross-sectional imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI provide accurate pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of the peroneal tendon pathology. In this review article, the normal anatomy, clinical presentation, imaging features, pitfalls and commonly performed surgical treatments for peroneal tendon abnormalities will be reviewed. The role of dynamic ultrasound and kinematic MRI for the evaluation of peroneal tendons will be discussed. Normal and abnormal postsurgical imaging appearances will be illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Patellar tendon vibration reduces the increased facilitation from quadriceps to soleus in post-stroke hemiparetic individuals.
Maupas, Eric; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Melo, Sibele de Andrade; Forget, Robert
Stimulation of the femoral nerve in healthy people can facilitate soleus H-reflex and electromyography (EMG) activity. In stroke patients, such facilitation of transmission in spinal pathways linking the quadriceps and soleus muscles is enhanced and related to co-activation of knee and ankle extensors while sitting and walking. Soleus H-reflex facilitation can be depressed by vibration of the quadriceps in healthy people, but the effects of such vibration have never been studied on the abnormal soleus facilitation observed in people after stroke. To determine whether vibration of the quadriceps can modify the enhanced heteronymous facilitation of the soleus muscle observed in people with spastic stroke after femoral nerve stimulation and compare post-vibration effects on soleus facilitation in control and stroke individuals. Modulation of voluntary soleus EMG activity induced by femoral nerve stimulation (2×motor threshold) was assessed before, during and after vibration of the patellar tendon in 10 healthy controls and 17 stroke participants. Voluntary soleus EMG activity was facilitated by femoral nerve stimulation in 4/10 (40%) controls and 11/17 (65%) stroke participants. The level of facilitation was greater in the stroke than control group. Vibration significantly reduced early heteronymous facilitation in both groups (50% of pre-vibration values). However, the delay in recovery of soleus facilitation after vibration was shorter for the stroke than control group. The control condition with the vibrator turned off had no effect on the modulation. Patellar tendon vibration can reduce the facilitation between knee and ankle extensors, which suggests effective presynaptic inhibition but decreased post-activation depression in the lower limb of people after chronic hemiparetic stroke. Further studies are warranted to determine whether such vibration could be used to reduce the abnormal extension synergy of knee and ankle extensors in people after hemiparetic
Clinical Results of Flexor Tendon Repair in Zone II Using a six Strand Double Loop Technique.
Savvidou, Christiana; Tsai, Tsu-Min
The purpose of this study is to report the clinical results after repair of flexor tendon zone II injuries utilizing a 6-strand double-loop technique and early post-operative active rehabilitation. We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients involving 51 cases with zone II flexor tendon repair using a six strand double loop technique from September 1996 to December 2012. Most common mechanism of injuries was sharp lacerations (86.5 %). Tendon injuries occurred equally in manual and non-manual workers and were work-related in 33 % of the cases. The Strickland score for active range of motion (ROM) postoperatively was excellent and good in the majority of the cases (81 %). The rupture rate was 1.9 %. The six strand double loop technique for Zone II flexor tendon repair leads to good and excellent motion in the majority of patients and low re- rupture rate. It is clinically effective and allows for early postoperative active rehabilitation.
The effect of muscle excursion on muscle recovery after tendon repair in a neglected tendon injury: a study in rabbit soleus muscles.
Jeon, Suk Ha; Chung, Moon Sang; Baek, Goo Hyun; Lee, Young Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik
We attempted to determine whether muscle excursion observed during operation can be a prognostic indicator of muscle recovery after delayed tendon repair in a rabbit soleus model. Eighteen rabbits underwent tenotomy of the soleus muscles bilaterally and were divided into three groups according to the period from tenotomy to repair. The tendons of each group were repaired 2, 4, and 6 weeks after tenotomy. The excursion of each soleus muscle was measured at the time of tenotomy (baseline), at 2, 4, 6 weeks after tenotomy, and 8 weeks after tendon repair. The amount of muscle recovery after tendon repair in terms of muscle excursion independently depended on the timing of repair and on the muscle excursion observed during repair. The regression model predicted that the muscle excursion recovered on average by 0.6% as the muscle excursion at the time of repair increased by 1% after adjusting for the timing of repair. This study suggests that measuring the muscle excursion during tendon repair may help physicians estimate the potential of muscle recovery in cases of delayed tendon repair. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.
FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AND KNEE LAXITY IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND IN INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION
de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Jansen Paccola, Cleber Antonio; Salvini, Tânia Fátima; Prado, Christiane Lanatovits; Mello Junior, Wilson A.
The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between deficits in the isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensors and flexors with hop tests, postoperative knee laxity and functional scores in normal and ACL- reconstructed subjects with patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts. Methods: Sixty male subjects were enrolled and subdivided into three groups: Twenty subjects without knee injuries (GC group) and two groups of 20 subjects submitted to ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (GTP group) and hamstrings autograft (GTF group). Results: The results showed significant correlation between knee extensors peak torque and performance in the hop tests for GTF and GC groups. There are no significantly correlations between post op knee laxity and Lysholm score compared with the hop tests and peak torque deficits. Concerning the differences between groups, the GTP group showed greater peak torque deficits in knee extensors, worst Lysholm scores and higher percentage of individuals with lower limb symmetry index (ISM) < 90% in both hop tests when compared to the other two groups. Conclusion: It is not recommendable to use only one measurement instrument for the functional evaluation of ACL-reconstructed patients, because significant correlation between peak torque, subject's functional score, knee laxity and hop tests were not observed in all groups. PMID:26998464
Tendon biomechanics and mechanobiology - a mini-review of basic concepts and recent advancements
Wang, James H-C.; Guo, Qianping; Li, Bin
Due to their unique hierarchical structure and composition, tendons possess characteristic biomechanical properties, including high mechanical strength and viscoelasticity, which enable them to carry and transmit mechanical loads (muscular forces) effectively. Tendons are also mechano-responsive by adaptively changing their structure and function in response to altered mechanical loading conditions. In general, mechanical loading at physiological levels is beneficial to tendons, but excessive loading or disuse of tendons is detrimental. This mechano-adaptability is due to the cells present in tendons. Tendon fibroblasts (tenocytes) are the dominant tendon cells responsible for tendon homeostasis and repair. Tendon stem cells (TSCs), which were recently discovered, also play a vital role in tendon maintenance and repair by virtue of their ability to self-renew and differentiate into tenocytes. TSCs may also be responsible for chronic tendon injury, or tendinopathy, by undergoing aberrant differentiation into non-tenocytes in response to excessive mechanical loading. Thus, it is necessary to devise optimal rehabilitation protocols in order to enhance tendon healing while reducing scar tissue formation and tendon adhesions. Moreover, along with scaffolds that can mimic tendon matrix environments and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which serves as a source of growth factors, TSCs may be the optimal cell type for enhancing repair of injured tendons. PMID:21925835
MMP inhibition as a potential method to augment the healing of skeletal muscle and tendon extracellular matrix
Davis, Max E.; Gumucio, Jonathan P.; Sugg, Kristoffer B.; Bedi, Asheesh
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle and tendon is composed of different types of collagen molecules that play important roles in the transmission of forces throughout the body, and in the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. Fibroblasts are the primary cells in muscle and tendon that maintain, repair, and modify the ECM in response to mechanical loading, injury, and inactivity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that digest collagen and other structural molecules, which are synthesized and excreted by fibroblasts. MMPs are required for baseline ECM homeostasis, but disruption of MMP regulation due to injury or disease can alter the normal ECM architecture and prevent proper force transmission. Chronic injuries and diseases of muscles and tendons can be severely debilitating, and current therapeutic modalities to enhance healing are quite limited. This review will discuss the mechanobiology of MMPs, and the potential use of MMP inhibitors to improve the treatment of injured and diseased skeletal muscle and tendon tissue. PMID:23640595
Isolation, culture and biological characteristics of multipotent porcine tendon-derived stem cells.
Yang, Jinjuan; Zhao, Qianjun; Wang, Kunfu; Ma, Caiyun; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yingjie; Guan, Weijun
Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs), a postulated multi-potential stem cell population, play significant role in the postnatal replenishment of tendon injuries. However, the majority of experimental materials were obtained from horse, rat, human and rabbit, but rarely from pig. In this research, 1‑day‑old pig was chosen as experimental sample source to isolate and culture TDSCs in vitro. Specific markers of TDSCs were then characterized by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) assays. The results showed that TDSCs could be expanded for 11 passages in vitro. The expression of specific markers, such as collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ, α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), CD105 and CD90 were observed by immunofluorescence and RT‑PCR. TDSCs were induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes, respectively. These results suggest that TDSCs isolated from porcine tendon exhibit the characteristics of multipotent stem cells. TDSCs, therefore, may be potential candidates for cellular transplantation therapy and tissue engineering in tendon injuries.
Dual growth factor-immobilized asymmetrically porous membrane for bone-to-tendon interface regeneration on rat patellar tendon avulsion model.
Kim, Joong-Hyun; Oh, Se Heang; Min, Hyun Ki; Lee, Jin Ho
Insufficient repair of the bone-to-tendon interface (BTI) with structural/compositional gradients has been a significant challenge in orthopedics. In this study, dual growth factor (platelet-derived growth factor-BB [PDGF-BB] and bone morphogenetic protein-2 [BMP-2])-immobilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 asymmetrically porous membrane was fabricated to estimate its feasibility as a potential strategy for effective regeneration of BTI injury. The growth factors immobilized (via heparin-intermediated interactions) on the membrane were continuously released for up to ∼80% of the initial loading amount after 5 weeks without a significant initial burst. From the in vivo animal study using a rat patellar tendon avulsion model, it was observed that the PDGF-BB/BMP-2-immobilized membrane accelerates the regeneration of the BTI injury, probably because of the continuous release of both growth factors (biological stimuli) and their complementary effect to create a multiphasic structure (bone, fibrocartilage, and tendon) like a native structure, as well as the role of the asymmetrically porous membrane as a physical barrier (nanopore side; prevention of fibrous tissue invasion into the defect site) and scaffold (micropore side; guidance for tissue regeneration). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 115-125, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tendon transfer fixation: comparing a tendon to tendon technique vs. bioabsorbable interference-fit screw fixation.
Sabonghy, Eric Peter; Wood, Robert Michael; Ambrose, Catherine Glauber; McGarvey, William Christopher; Clanton, Thomas Oscar
Tendon transfer techniques in the foot and ankle are used for tendon ruptures, deformities, and instabilities. This fresh cadaver study compares the tendon fixation strength in 10 paired specimens by performing a tendon to tendon fixation technique or using 7 x 20-25 mm bioabsorbable interference-fit screw tendon fixation technique. Load at failure of the tendon to tendon fixation method averaged 279N (Standard Deviation 81N) and the bioabsorbable screw 148N (Standard Deviation 72N) [p = 0.0008]. Bioabsorbable interference-fit screws in these specimens show decreased fixation strength relative to the traditional fixation technique. However, the mean bioabsorbable screw fixation strength of 148N provides physiologic strength at the tendon-bone interface.
Sonographically Guided Plantaris Tendon Release: A Cadaveric Validation Study.
Smith, Jay; Alfredson, Håkan; Masci, Lorenzo; Sellon, Jacob L; Woods, Charonn D
The plantaris tendon (PT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of symptoms in a subset of patients with Achilles region pain syndromes and has been traditionally managed via open surgical resection. Although the PT can be visualized on ultrasound, a minimally invasive technique for sonographically guided PT release has not been formally described. To validate a technique to perform sonographically guided PT release in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Prospective, cadaveric laboratory investigation. Procedural skills laboratory in a tertiary medical center. Twenty unembalmed cadaveric knee-ankle-foot specimens (10 right, 10 left; 6 male, 10 female) from 16 donors ages 55-96 years (mean 82.6 years) with BMI's of 14.1 to 33.2 kg/m 2 (mean 23.3 kg/m 2 ). Following simulated local anesthesia and sonographically guided hydrodissection of the plantaris tendon-Achilles tendon interval, a single experienced operator performed sonographically guided PT release on each specimen using an in-plane, lateral to medial approach, a commercially available, disposable 3.0 mm hook knife, and either a 17-5 MHz or 15-7 MHz linear array transducer. Each specimen was subsequently dissected to assess for PT release and iatrogenic injury. Status of the PT, Achilles tendon, and regional neurovascular structures as determined by dissection. All 20 PT releases were completed in a single attempt through a 3-5 mm incision. Dissection confirmed complete PT release in all specimens without damage to the adjacent Achilles tendon or regional neurovascular structures. Sonographically guided PT release is technically feasible and can be performed while avoiding injury to the Achilles tendon and regional neurovascular structures. Additional research is warranted to further define the role of sonographically guided PT release in patients with suspected PT-mediated Achilles region pain syndromes. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Heterotopic mineralization (ossification or calcification) in tendinopathy or following surgical tendon trauma
O'Brien, Etienne J O; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Hart, David A
Heterotopic tendon mineralization (ossification or calcification), which may be a feature of tendinopathy or which may develop following surgical trauma (repair or graft harvest), has not received much attention. The purpose of this article is to review the prevalence, mechanisms and consequences of heterotopic tendon mineralization and to identify the gaps in our current understanding. We focus on endochondral heterotopic ossification and draw on knowledge of the mechanisms of this process in other tissues and conditions. Finally, we introduce a novel murine Achilles tendon needle injury model, which will enable us to further study the mechanisms and biomechanical consequences of tendon mineralization. PMID:22974213
Comparison of Autograft and Allograft with Surface Modification for Flexor Tendon Reconstruction: A Canine in Vivo Model.
Wei, Zhuang; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory D; Moran, Steven L; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng
Flexor tendon injury is common, and tendon reconstruction is indicated clinically if the primary repair fails or cannot be performed immediately after tendon injury. The purpose of the current study was to compare clinically standard extrasynovial autologous graft (EAG) tendon and intrasynovial allogeneic graft (IAG) that had both undergone biolubricant surface modification in a canine in vivo model. Twenty-four flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from the second and fifth digits of 12 dogs were used for this study. In the first phase, a model of failed FDP tendon repair was created. After 6 weeks, the ruptured FDP tendons with a scarred digit were reconstructed with the use of either EAG or IAG tendons treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and lubricin. At 12 weeks after tendon reconstruction, the digits were harvested for functional, biomechanical, and histologic evaluations. The tendon failure model was a clinically relevant and reproducible model for tendon reconstruction. The IAG group demonstrated improved digit function with decreased adhesion formation, lower digit work of flexion, and improved graft gliding ability compared with the EAG group. However, the IAG group had decreased healing at the distal tendon-bone junction. Our histologic findings verified the biomechanical evaluations and, further, showed that cellular repopulation of allograft at 12 weeks after reconstruction is still challenging. FDP tendon reconstruction using IAG with surface modification has some beneficial effects for reducing adhesions but demonstrated inferior healing at the distal tendon-bone junction compared with EAG. These mixed results indicate that vitalization and turnover acceleration are crucial to reducing failure of reconstruction with allograft. Flexor tendon reconstruction is a common surgical procedure. However, postoperative adhesion formation may lead to unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. In this study, we developed a potential flexor tendon
Treatment of osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint by resection-suspension-interposition arthoplasty using the split abductor pollicis longus tendon.
Harenberg, P S; Jakubietz, M G; Jakubietz, R G; Schmidt, K; Meffert, R H
Reduction of pain and gain of functionality in symptomatic osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint. Idiopathic, rheumatic, or posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint. RELATIVE CONTRAINDICATIONS: Poor general condition, poor condition of the hand's soft tissue/skin, chronic regional pain syndrome, current or recent infections of the hand, heavy manual labor (decision on a by-case basis). Supine position, hand pronated or slightly tilted. Upper arm tourniquet (Esmarch's method). Loupe magnification. Incision over the first extensor compartment. Exposure and incision of the thumb's basal joint. Resection of the trapezium. Exposure of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon. Longitudinal split of the tendon harvesting the distally based ulnar part of the tendon. The split APL tendon is wrapped around the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle tendon, suturing it to the tendon and back to itself. The rest of the split APL tendon is placed into the gap between the scaphoid and the first metacarpal bone, which is followed by wound closure. Plaster cast (thumb abduction splint) for 4 weeks. Stable commercially available wrist brace for at least 2 more weeks. There were no significant differences between the FCR arthroplasty (Epping's method) and the APL arthroplasty (Wulle's technique) regarding pain (visual analog scale), disability/usability (DASH score), or range of motion. Patients who had undergone APL arthroplasty showed significantly better grip and pinch strength. Furthermore, the operating time was significantly shorter and scars were significantly smaller in APL arthroplasty.
Simultaneous anatomic reconstruction of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments using a single tendon graft.
Shin, Sang-Jin; Campbell, Sean; Scott, Jonathan; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q
The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel surgical technique for simultaneous anatomic reconstruction of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments using a single tendon graft and to compare its biomechanical characteristics to those of a coracoid cerclage reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. Six matched pairs of human acromioclavicular joints with an average age of 54.8 ± 7.8 years were used. One shoulder from each pair received the single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction; the contralateral shoulder received the coracoid cerclage reconstruction. Bovine extensor tendon was used for both techniques. The single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction technique provided anatomic restoration of the two coracoclavicular ligaments and the superior and inferior acromioclavicular ligaments simultaneously using one coracoid hole, one acromion hole, and two clavicular holes with interference screws. Anterior-posterior and superior-inferior translations were quantified for all specimens before and after reconstruction, followed by load to failure testing. Following coracoid cerclage reconstruction, total anterior-posterior translation was significantly greater than intact (10.0 ± 5.7 mm; p = 0.008). Following single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction, there was no significant difference in anterior-posterior translation compared to intact (-1.6 ± 2.2 mm; n.s.). The coracoid cerclage technique demonstrated significantly greater anterior-posterior translation than the single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular technique (p = 0.007). Both techniques restored superior-inferior translation to the intact condition (n.s.). Ultimate load, deformation at ultimate load, and energy absorbed at ultimate load were significantly greater after acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction than after coracoid cerclage reconstruction (p < 0.05). This novel single tendon
Customizing Extensor Reconstruction in Vascularized Toe Joint Transfers to Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joints: A Strategic Approach for Correcting Extensor Lag.
Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Shih-Heng; Lien, Shwu-Huei; Lin, Chih-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Yu-Te
Vascularized toe proximal interphalangeal joint transfer allows the restoration of damaged joints. However, extensor lag and poor arc of motion have been reported. The authors present their outcomes of treatment according to a novel reconstructive algorithm that addresses extensor lag and allows for consistent results postoperatively. Vascularized toe joint transfers were performed in a consecutive series of 26 digits in 25 patients. The average age was 30.5 years, with 14 right and 12 left hands. Reconstructed digits included eight index, 10 middle, and eight ring fingers. Simultaneous extensor reconstructions were performed and eight were centralization of lateral bands, five were direct extensor digitorum longus-to-extensor digitorum communis repairs, and 13 were central slip reconstructions. The average length of follow-up was 16.7 months. The average extension lag was 17.9 degrees. The arc of motion was 57.7 degrees (81.7 percent functional use of pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion). There was no significant difference in the reconstructed proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion for the handedness (p = 0.23), recipient digits (p = 0.37), or surgical experience in vascularized toe joint transfer (p = 0.25). The outcomes of different techniques of extensor mechanism reconstruction were similar in terms of extensor lag, arc of motion, and reconstructed finger arc of motion compared with the pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. With this treatment algorithm, consistent outcomes can be produced with minimal extensor lag and maximum use of potential toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. Therapeutic, IV.
Partial rupture of the Achilles tendon during a simulated fire ground task: insights obtained from a case report for the prevention and reporting of musculoskeletal injury.
Gooyers, Chad E; Frost, David M; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P
In this case report an incumbent firefighter partially ruptured his right Achilles tendon during a study of the physical demands of firefighting. Kinematics and kinetics of the lower limbs and trunk were collected while the firefighter performed two simulated fire ground tasks. From this unexpected event, two insights were obtained that should be considered in all future injury prevention and reporting efforts. (i) Consider the full anatomical linkage--the right ankle and knee kinematics leading up to the onset of injury trial were comparable to all preceding repetitions. However, there was a notable difference in the left knee starting position before the initiation of movement of the 37th hose-advance trial. (ii) Consider the cumulative load--the task in question comprised forward and backward phases. A marked difference was observed in the frontal-plane ankle moment during the return phase of the trial preceding the injury. Additionally, the magnitude of the left side vertical ground reaction force was comparable across all trials, suggesting that loads experienced by the right limb were also similar. This would indicate that the tolerance of the Achilles tendon and not the magnitude of the loading was altered. The unfortunate injury captured in this work provides insight into the complexity of characterizing the pathways of injury. It is recommended that future injury prevention and reporting efforts consider individuals' physical demands (at work and in life) and document the nature of loading (i.e., frequency, duration, magnitude, type) when considering the mechanism for injury. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tendon Reconstruction with Tissue Engineering Approach--A Review.
Verdiyeva, Gunay; Koshy, Kiron; Glibbery, Natalia; Mann, Haroon; Seifalian, Alexander M
Tendon injuries are a common and rising occurrence, associated with significant impairment to quality of life and financial burden to the healthcare system. Clinically, they represent an unresolved problem, due to poor natural tendon healing and the inability of current treatment strategies to restore the tendon to its native state. Tissue engineering offers a promising alternative, with the incorporation of scaffolds, cells and growth factors to support the complete regeneration of the tendon. The materials used in tendon engineering to date have provided significant advances in structural integrity and biological compatibility and in many cases the results obtained are superior to those observed in natural healing. However, grafts fail to reproduce the qualities of the pre-injured tendon and each has weaknesses subject to its constituent parts. Furthermore, many materials and cell types are being investigated concurrently, with seemingly little association or comparison between research results. In this review the properties of the most-investigated and effective components have been appraised in light of the surrounding literature, with research from early in-vitro experiments to clinical trials being discussed. Extensive comparisons have been made between scaffolds, cell types and growth factors used, listing strengths and weaknesses to provide a stable platform for future research. Promising future endeavours are also described in the field of nanocomposite material science, stem cell sources and growth factors, which may bypass weaknesses found in individual elements. The future of tendon engineering looks bright, with growing understanding in material technology, cell and growth factor application and encouraging recent advances bringing us ever closer to regenerating the native tendon.
Mechanical loading stimulates ecto-ATPase activity in human tendon cells.
Tsuzaki, M; Bynum, D; Almekinders, L; Faber, J; Banes, A J
Response to external stimuli such as mechanical signals is critical for normal function of cells, especially when subjected to repetitive motion. Tenocytes receive mechanical stimuli from the load-bearing matrix as tension, compression, and shear stress during tendon gliding. Overloading a tendon by high strain, shear, or repetitive motion can cause matrix damage. Injury may induce cytokine expression, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activation resulting in loss of biomechanical properties. These changes may result in tendinosis or tendinopathy. Alternatively, an immediate effector molecule may exist that acts in a signal-dampening pathway. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a candidate signal blocker of mechanical stimuli. ATP suppresses load-inducible inflammatory genes in human tendon cells in vitro. ATP and other extracellular nucleotide signaling are regulated efficiently by two distinct mechanisms: purinoceptors via specific receptor-ligand binding and ecto-nucleotidases via the hydrolysis of specific nucleotide substrates. ATP is released from tendon cells by mechanical loading or by uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) stimulation. We hypothesized that mechanical loading might stimulate ecto-ATPase activity. Human tendon cells of surface epitenon (TSC) and internal compartment (TIF) were cyclically stretched (1 Hz, 0.035 strain, 2 h) with or without ATP. Aliquots of the supernatant fluids were collected at various time points, and ATP concentration (ATP) was determined by a luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Total RNA was isolated from TSC and TIF (three patients) and mRNA expression for ecto-nucleotidase was analyzed by RT-PCR. Human tendon cells secreted ATP in vitro (0.5-1 nM). Exogenous ATP was hydrolyzed within minutes. Mechanical load stimulated ATPase activity. ATP was hydrolyzed in mechanically loaded cultures at a significantly greater rate compared to no load controls. Tenocytes (TSC and TIF) expressed ecto-nucleotidase mRNA (ENTPD
Mechanical, histological, and functional properties remain inferior in conservatively treated Achilles tendons in rodents: Long term evaluation.
Freedman, Benjamin R; Fryhofer, George W; Salka, Nabeel S; Raja, Harina A; Hillin, Cody D; Nuss, Courtney A; Farber, Daniel C; Soslowsky, Louis J
Conservative treatment (non-operative) of Achilles tendon ruptures is suggested to produce equivalent capacity for return to function; however, long term results and the role of return to activity (RTA) for this treatment paradigm remain unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long term response of conservatively treated Achilles tendons in rodents with varied RTA. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) received unilateral blunt transection of the Achilles tendon followed by randomization into groups that returned to activity after 1-week (RTA1) or 3-weeks (RTA3) of limb casting in plantarflexion, before being euthanized at 16-weeks post-injury. Uninjured age-matched control animals were used as a control group (n=10). Limb function, passive joint mechanics, tendon properties (mechanical, histological), and muscle properties (histological, immunohistochemical) were evaluated. Results showed that although hindlimb ground reaction forces and range of motion returned to baseline levels by 16-weeks post-injury regardless of RTA, ankle joint stiffness remained altered. RTA1 and RTA3 groups both exhibited no differences in fatigue properties; however, the secant modulus, hysteresis, and laxity were inferior compared to uninjured age-matched control tendons. Despite these changes, tendons 16-weeks post-injury achieved secant stiffness levels of uninjured tendons. RTA1 and RTA3 groups had no differences in histological properties, but had higher cell numbers compared to control tendons. No changes in gastrocnemius fiber size or type in the superficial or deep regions were detected, except for type 2x fiber fraction. Together, this work highlights RTA-dependent deficits in limb function and tissue-level properties in long-term Achilles tendon and muscle healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow – Implication for treatment?
Spang, C.; Alfredson, H.
Background: Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Methods: Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin & eosin, H&E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). Results: All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. Conclusion: The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. Level of Evidence: IV. PMID:28574416
The effects of platelet lysate patches on the activity of tendon-derived cells.
Costa-Almeida, Raquel; Franco, Albina R; Pesqueira, Tamagno; Oliveira, Mariana B; Babo, Pedro S; Leonor, Isabel B; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E
Platelet-derived biomaterials are widely explored as cost-effective sources of therapeutic factors, holding a strong potential for endogenous regenerative medicine. Particularly for tendon repair, treatment approaches that shift the injury environment are explored to accelerate tendon regeneration. Herein, genipin-crosslinked platelet lysate (PL) patches are proposed for the delivery of human-derived therapeutic factors in patch augmentation strategies aiming at tendon repair. Developed PL patches exhibited a controlled release profile of PL proteins, including bFGF and PDGF-BB. Additionally, PL patches exhibited an antibacterial effect by preventing the adhesion, proliferation and biofilm formation by S. aureus, a common pathogen in orthopaedic surgical site infections. Furthermore, these patches supported the activity of human tendon-derived cells (hTDCs). Cells were able to proliferate over time and an up-regulation of tenogenic genes (SCX, COL1A1 and TNC) was observed, suggesting that PL patches may modify the behavior of hTDCs. Accordingly, hTDCs deposited tendon-related extracellular matrix proteins, namely collagen type I and tenascin C. In summary, PL patches can act as a reservoir of biomolecules derived from PL and support the activity of native tendon cells, being proposed as bioinstructive patches for tendon regeneration. Platelet-derived biomaterials hold great interest for the delivery of therapeutic factors for applications in endogenous regenerative medicine. In the particular case of tendon repair, patch augmentation strategies aiming at shifting the injury environment are explored to improve tendon regeneration. In this study, PL patches were developed with remarkable features, including the controlled release of growth factors and antibacterial efficacy. Remarkably, PL patches supported the activity of native tendon cells by up-regulating tenogenic genes and enabling the deposition of ECM proteins. This patch holds great potential towards
A Comparative Study of Clinical Outcomes and Second-Look Arthroscopic Findings between Remnant-Preserving Tibialis Tendon Allograft and Hamstring Tendon Autograft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Matched-Pair Design.
Kim, You Keun; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Yoo, Jae Doo
This study aimed to compare stability, functional outcome, and second-look arthroscopic findings after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft and remnant-sacrificing hamstring tendon autograft. We matched two groups (remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft group and hamstring tendon autograft group) in terms of demographic characteristics, associated injury, and knee characteristics. Each group consisted of 25 patients. Operation time was longer in the remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft group, but there was no significant intergroup difference in stability, clinical outcome, and second-look arthroscopic findings. When an autograft is not feasible in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the remnant-preserving technique can produce comparable results in terms of restoration of function, stability of the knee, and degree of synovium coverage at second-look arthroscopy compared to remnant-sacrificing hamstring autograft.
Decline eccentric squats increases patellar tendon loading compared to standard eccentric squats.
Kongsgaard, M; Aagaard, P; Roikjaer, S; Olsen, D; Jensen, M; Langberg, H; Magnusson, S P
Recent studies have shown excellent clinical results using eccentric squat training on a 25 degrees decline board to treat patellar tendinopathy. It remains unknown why therapeutic management of patellar tendinopathy using decline eccentric squats offer superior clinical efficacy compared to standard horizontal eccentric squats. This study aimed to compare electromyography activity, patellar tendon strain and joint angle kinematics during standard and decline eccentric squats. Thirteen subjects performed unilateral eccentric squats on flat-and a 25 degrees decline surface. During the squats, electromyography activity was obtained in eight representative muscles. Also, ankle, knee and hip joint goniometry was obtained. Additionally, patellar tendon strain was measured in vivo using ultrasonography as subjects maintained a unilateral isometric 90 degrees knee angle squat position on either flat or 25 degrees decline surface. Patellar tendon strain was significantly greater (P<0.05) during the squat position on the decline surface compared to the standard surface. The stop angles of the ankle and hip joints were significantly smaller during the decline compared to the standard squats (P<0.001, P<0.05). Normalized mean electromyography amplitudes of the knee extensor muscles were significantly greater during the decline compared to the standard squats (P<0.05). Hamstring and calf muscle mean electromyography did not differ, respectively, between standard and decline squats. The use of a 25 degrees decline board increases the load and the strain of the patellar tendon during unilateral eccentric squats. This finding likely explains previous reports of superior clinical efficacy of decline eccentric squats in the rehabilitative management of patellar tendinopathy.
Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome: ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool.
Agarwal, Vikas; Dabra, Ajay Kumar; Kaur, Ravinder; Sachdev, Atul; Singh, Ram
Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome is characterized by symmetrical synovitis and swelling of both the upper and lower extremities. The anatomical determinant of RS3PE is predominantly extensor tenosynovitis as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Given the cost constraints, time, and expertise required in carrying out MRI and ease in diagnosing tenosynovitis by ultrasound, we utilized high-frequency ultrasonography (USG) for evidence of tenosynovitis of the distal tendons in patients with RS3PE. Diagnosis of tenosynovitis was made on the basis of anechoic or hypoechoic signals around the tendon sheaths in both transverse and longitudinal planes. Flexor and extensor tendons at the wrist and metacarpal heads and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) tendons at the ankle were evaluated with a 7.5-10-MHz linear probe. There were ten patients (seven males) with a mean age of 59.5 years (range: 52-78 years) and mean disease duration of 6.1 months (range: 1.5-12 months). Disease onset was acute in all of the cases. Pitting edema of the hands was present in all except two patients whereas four patients, in addition, had edema of the feet. Edema was symmetrical in seven patients. Inability to make a complete fist was noted in all. Tenosynovitis of extensor and flexor tendons at the wrist and the metacarpal heads was documented in all patients with edema of the hands. In seven cases extensor tendon tenosynovitis was more prominent compared to the flexor tendons. Tenosynovitis of EDL tendons was detected in six cases. Dramatic relief with low-dose prednisolone was noted in all patients within 6 weeks of therapy. At a mean follow-up of 10.1 months all patients had marked relief in edema of extremities and improvement in the grip strength. Our study confirms that tenosynovitis of both flexor and extensor tendons at the wrist and extensor tendons of the feet is the hallmark of RS3PE syndrome. USG is a reliable and cost
Comparison of superficial digital flexor tendon loading on asphalt and sand in horses at the walk and trot.
Crevier-Denoix, N; Ravary-Plumioën, B; Vergari, C; Camus, M; Holden-Douilly, L; Falala, S; Jerbi, H; Desquilbet, L; Chateau, H; Denoix, J-M; Pourcelot, P
The incidence of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injuries is one of the highest of all equine musculoskeletal conditions. Horses with SDFT injuries commonly show no improvement of lameness on soft ground, unlike those suffering from distal bone or joint lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the SDFT loading in five horses at the walk and trot on asphalt and sand using a non-invasive ultrasonic tendon force measurement device. Three horses were equipped with the ultrasonic device, whereas the other two horses were equipped with the ultrasonic device and a dynamometric horseshoe (DHS); the DHS was used to calibrate the measured values of tendon speed of sound (SOS) converted to tendon force, while a previously established ground reaction force pattern was used to calibrate SOS measurements for the other three horses. Although the horses tended to be slower on S, maximal tendon force was higher on sand than on asphalt at the trot (+6%); there was no significant difference between the two surfaces at the walk. The duration of tendon loading was longer on S (+5%) and the area under the tendon force-time curve was larger on S (+10%) at both walk and trot. SDFT loading is significantly affected by the ground surface and the observed increase in SDFT loading on sand compared with asphalt is consistent with clinical observations in horses with SDFT injuries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Z-plasty of the flexor hallucis longus tendon at tarsal tunnel for checkrein deformity.
Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Young Jun; Baek, Jong Hun; Kim, Dong Hee
To review the outcome of Z-plasty of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon at the tarsal tunnel for checkrein deformity in 8 patients. Records of 6 males and 2 females aged 14 to 67 (mean, 39.5) years who underwent Z-plasty (lengthening) of the FHL tendon at the tarsal tunnel for checkrein deformity in the first and second toes by a single surgeon were reviewed. All patients had undergone 3 months of conservative treatment. The mean time from injury to surgical treatment was 8.4 (range, 5-12) months. All patients had associated injuries including distal tibiofibular fracture (n=6), distal fibular fracture (n=1), and crush injury aroundthe ankle (n=1); they were treated with intramedullary nailing (n=6), long leg splinting (n=1), and short leg splinting (n=1). After a mean follow-up of 3.4 (range, 1-7) years, the FHL tendon was lengthened by a mean of 1.7 (range, 1.6-1.8) cm, and the mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux score increased from 59 (range, 52-67) to 89 (range, 80-90). No patient had recurrence, nerve injury, or tarsal tunnel syndrome, although one patient had sensory disturbance of the posterior tibial nerve in the forefoot, which resolved spontaneously at week 2. Z-plasty of the FHL tendon at the tarsal tunnel is a viable option for correction of checkrein deformity.
Exposure of a tendon extracellular matrix to synovial fluid triggers endogenous and engrafted cell death: A mechanism for failed healing of intrathecal tendon injuries.
Garvican, Elaine R; Salavati, Mazdak; Smith, Roger K W; Dudhia, Jayesh
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of normal synovial fluid (SF) on exposed endogenous tendon-derived cells (TDCs) and engrafted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the tendon extracellular matrix. Explants from equine superficial digital flexor (extra-synovial) and deep digital flexor tendons (DDFTs) from the compressed, intra-synovial and the tensile, extra-synovial regions were cultured in allogeneic or autologous SF-media. Human hamstring explants were cultured in allogeneic SF. Explant viability was assessed by staining. Proliferation of equine monolayer MSCs and TDCs in SF-media and co-culture with DDFT explants was determined by alamarblue®. Non-viable Native Tendon matrices (NNTs) were re-populated with MSCs or TDCs and cultured in SF-media. Immunohistochemical staining of tendon sections for the apoptotic proteins caspase-3, -8, and -9 was performed. Contact with autologous or allogeneic SF resulted in rapid death of resident tenocytes in equine and human tendon. SF did not affect the viability of equine epitenon cells, or of MSCs and TDCs in the monolayer or indirect explant co-culture. MSCs and TDCs, engrafted into NNTs, died when cultured in SF. Caspase-3, -8, and -9 expression was the greatest in SDFT explants exposed to allogeneic SF. The efficacy of cells administered intra-synovially for tendon lesion repair is likely to be limited, since once incorporated into the matrix, cells become vlnerable to the adverse effects of SF. These observations could account for the poor success rate of intra-synovial tendon healing following damage to the epitenon and contact with SF, common with most soft tissue intra-synovial pathologies.
Tendon and Ligament Regeneration and Repair: Clinical Relevance and Developmental Paradigm
Tuan, Rocky S.
Tendon and ligament (T/L) are dense connective tissues connecting bone to muscle and bone to bone, respectively. Similar to other musculoskeletal tissues, T/L arise from the somitic mesoderm, but they are derived from a recently discovered somitic compartment, the syndetome. The adjacent sclerotome and myotome provide inductive signals to the interposing syndetome, thereby upregulating the expression of the transcription factor Scleraxis, which in turn leads to further tenogenic and ligamentogenic differentiation. These advances in the understanding of T/L development have been sought to provide a knowledge base for improving the healing of T/L injuries, a common clinical challenge due to the intrinsically poor natural healing response. Specifically, the three most common tendon injuries involve tearing of the rotator cuff of the shoulder, the flexor tendon of the hand, and the Achilles tendon. At present, injuries to these tissues are treated by surgical repair and/or conservative approaches, including biophysical modalities such as physical rehabilitation and cryotherapy. Unfortunately, the healing tissue forms fibrovascular scar and possesses inferior mechanical and biochemical properties as compared to native T/L. Therefore, tissue engineers have sought to improve upon the natural healing response by augmenting the injured tissue with cells, scaffolds, bioactive agents, and mechanical stimulation. These strategies show promise, both in vitro and in vivo, for improving T/L healing. However, several challenges remain in restoring full T/L function following injury, including uncertainties over the optimal combination of these biological agents as well how to best deliver tissue engineered elements to the injury site. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in T/L development and natural healing, coupled with the capability of producing complex biomaterials to deliver multiple growth factors with high spatiotemporal resolution and specificity
Stem cell technology for tendon regeneration: current status, challenges, and future research directions
Lui, Pauline Po Yee
Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their high proliferative, synthetic, and immunomodulatory activities as well as their potential to differentiate to the target cell types and undergo genetic modification. In this review, I first recapped the challenges of tendon repair by reviewing the anatomy of tendon. Next, I discussed the advantages and limitations of using different types of stem cells compared to terminally differentiated cells for tendon tissue engineering. The safety and efficacy of application of stem cells and their modified counterparts for tendon tissue engineering were then summarized after a systematic literature search in PubMed. The challenges and future research directions to enhance, optimize, and standardize stem cell-based therapies for augmenting tendon repair were then discussed. PMID:26715856
Intraoperative extracorporeal autogenous irradiated tendon grafts for functional limb salvage surgery of soft tissue sarcomas of the wrist and hand.
Omori, Shinsuke; Hamada, Kenichiro; Outani, Hidetatsu; Oshima, Kazuya; Joyama, Susumu; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Naka, Norifumi; Araki, Nobuhito; Yoshikawa, Hideki
In patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the wrist and hand, limb salvage operation is extremely challenging for surgeons in attempting a complete tumor resection with negative surgical margins. In this study, we report four patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the wrist and hand treated by limb salvage operation with intraoperative extracorporeal autogenous irradiated tendon grafts. The patients were all male, and the mean age at the time of surgery was 45 years. Histological diagnoses included clear cell sarcoma in two patients, synovial sarcoma in one, and angiosarcoma in one. All four patients had high grade tumors, wherein three had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage III disease and one with AJCC stage IV disease. The tumors were resected en bloc with involved tendons. The tendons were isolated from the resected tissues, irradiated ex vivo, and re-implanted into the host tendons. In one patient, the bone was resected additionally because of tumor invasion to the bone. Hand function was evaluated using Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) rating system. Of the four patients, three died of distant metastatic disease. The remaining patient lives and remains disease-free. The mean follow-up period was 33 months. One patient had local recurrence outside the irradiated graft at 20 months after surgery. The functional rating was 22. Lower scores were seen in patients with reconstruction of flexor tendons than extensor tendons. Limb salvage operation with intraoperative extracorporeal autogenous irradiated tendon grafts is an acceptable method in selected patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the wrist and hand.
Shoulder injuries from attacking motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki
Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.
Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties
Keller, Benjamin V.; Davis, Matthew L.; Thompson, William R.; Dahners, Laurence E.; Weinhold, Paul S.
Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1 G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1 G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3 G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2 G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury. PMID:23623311
Upper extremity weightlifting injuries: Diagnosis and management.
Golshani, Kayvon; Cinque, Mark E; O'Halloran, Peter; Softness, Kenneth; Keeling, Laura; Macdonell, J Ryan
Common upper extremity injuries in resistance training athletes include muscle strains, ligament sprains, pectoralis major tendon ruptures, distal biceps tendon ruptures, and chronic shoulder pain and capsulolabral injuries. While each injury is unique in its specific anatomic location and mechanism, each is preventable with proper exercise technique, safety and maintenance of muscle balance. Conservative treatment is the therapeutic modality of choice and these injuries generally resolve with workout modification, appropriate recovery, anti-inflammatory medication, and physical therapy. If conservative treatment fails, surgical intervention is often successful and can return the weightlifter to a level of performance near their pre-injury level.
Landing strategies of athletes with an asymptomatic patellar tendon abnormality.
Edwards, Suzi; Steele, Julie R; McGhee, Deirdre E; Beattie, Sue; Purdam, Craig; Cook, Jill L
Risk factors associated with a clinical presentation of patellar tendinopathy are patellar tendon ultrasonographic abnormality (PTA) and excessive loading. It remains unknown whether characteristics of an athlete's landing technique contribute to this excessive patellar tendon loading. This study investigated whether asymptomatic athletes with and without PTA had different landing strategies and hypothesized that asymptomatic athletes with a PTA would create higher patellar tendon loading and a different lower-limb landing strategy compared with athletes with normal patellar tendons. Seven athletes with no previous history or clinical signs of patellar tendon injury with a PTA were matched to athletes with normal patellar tendons (controls). Participants performed five successful trials of a stop-jump task, which involved a simultaneous two-foot horizontal and then vertical landing. During each trial, the participants' ground reaction forces and lower-limb electromyographic data were recorded, the three-dimensional kinematics measured, and the peak patellar tendon force calculated by dividing the net knee joint moment by the patellar tendon moment arm. Significant between-group differences in landing technique were mostly observed during the horizontal landing phase. Participants with a PTA created similar patellar tendon loading to the controls, but with altered sequencing, by landing with significantly greater knee flexion and extending their hips while the controls flexed their hips as they landed, reflecting a different muscle recruitment order compared with the PTA group. The crucial part in the development of PTA and, in turn, patellar tendinopathy may not be the magnitude of the patellar tendon load but rather the loading patterns. This research provides clinicians with important landing assessment criteria against which to identify athletes at risk of developing patellar tendinopathy.
Indicators of replicative damage in equine tendon fibroblast monolayers
Background Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injuries of horses usually follow cumulative matrix microdamage; it is not known why the reparative abilities of tendon fibroblasts are overwhelmed or subverted. Relevant in vitro studies of this process require fibroblasts not already responding to stresses caused by the cell culture protocols. We investigated indicators of replicative damage in SDFT fibroblast monolayers, effects of this on their reparative ability, and measures that can be taken to reduce it. Results We found significant evidence of replicative stress, initially observing consistently large numbers of binucleate (BN) cells. A more variable but prominent feature was the presence of numerous gammaH2AX (γH2AX) puncta in nuclei, this being a histone protein that is phosphorylated in response to DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs). Enrichment for injury detection and cell cycle arrest factors (p53 (ser15) and p21) occurred most frequently in BN cells; however, their numbers did not correlate with DNA damage levels and it is likely that the two processes have different causative mechanisms. Such remarkable levels of injury and binucleation are usually associated with irradiation, or treatment with cytoskeletal-disrupting agents. Both DSBs and BN cells were greatest in subconfluent (replicating) monolayers. The DNA-damaged cells co-expressed the replication markers TPX2/repp86 and centromere protein F. Once damaged in the early stages of culture establishment, fibroblasts continued to express DNA breaks with each replicative cycle. However, significant levels of cell death were not measured, suggesting that DNA repair was occurring. Comet assays showed that DNA repair was delayed in proportion to levels of genotoxic stress. Conclusions Researchers using tendon fibroblast monolayers should assess their “health” using γH2AX labelling. Continued use of early passage cultures expressing initially high levels of γH2AX puncta should be avoided for
Achilles tendon structure improves on UTC imaging over a 5-month pre-season in elite Australian football players.
Docking, S I; Rosengarten, S D; Cook, J
Pre-season injuries are common and may be due to a reintroduction of training loads. Tendons are sensitive to changes in load, making them vulnerable to injury in the pre-season. This study investigated changes in Achilles tendon structure on ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) over the course of a 5-month pre-season in elite male Australian football players. Eighteen elite male Australian football players with no history of Achilles tendinopathy and normal Achilles tendons were recruited. The left Achilles tendon was scanned with UTC to quantify the stability of the echopattern. Participants were scanned at the start and completion of a 5-month pre-season. Fifteen players remained asymptomatic over the course of the pre-season. All four echo-types were significantly different at the end of the pre-season, with the overall echopattern suggesting an improvement in Achilles tendon structure. Three of the 18 participants developed Achilles tendon pain that coincided with a change in the UTC echopattern. This study demonstrates that the UTC echopattern of the Achilles tendon improves over a 5-month pre-season training period, representing increased fibrillar alignment. However, further investigation is needed to elucidate with this alteration in the UTC echopattern results in improved tendon resilience and load capacity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Primary achilles tendon repair with mini-dorsolateral incision technique and accelerated rehabilitation.
Hrnack, Scott A; Crates, John M; Barber, F Alan
No consensus exists for the best primary repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Problems with wound healing and nerve damage can occur. Prolonged immobilization leads to stiffness and calf atrophy. This study assesses the clinical outcome of acute Achilles tendon repairs using a mini-dorsolateral incision followed by a rapid rehabilitation program. A consecutive series of acute Achilles tendon ruptures repaired using a mini-dorsolateral incision were reviewed with a minimum 12 months follow up. Fifteen patients with an average age of 44 (range, 32 to 60) years were followed an average of 45 (range, 14 to 72) months. Two modified, buried core high strength sutures were placed in each torn end of the Achilles tendon reinforced with a running circumferential whip-stitch. Ankle Hindfoot scores, single toe raises, calf circumference, and adverse events were recorded. An accelerated postoperative rehabilitation protocol was followed. Postoperative AOFAS Ankle Hindfoot scores averaged 98.3 [39 pain; 49.6 function; 9.3 alignment]. All patients could single heel raise. Eight of 15 demonstrated atrophy with an average calf circumference loss of 1.0 cm. The only postoperative complication was one case of superficial cellulitis successfully treated with oral antibiotics. There were no sural nerve injuries, wound break down, or re-ruptures at final followup. The repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures through a minimal lateral incision provided excellent functional outcomes, avoided complications including sural nerve injury, and allowed a return to sports between 4 to 6 months.
Infrapatellar fat pad disruption: a radiographic sign of patellar tendon rupture.
Chin, Kingsley R; Sodl, Jeffrey F
After knee trauma, radiographs showing patella alta supercede other signs that suggest patellar tendon rupture. However, without patella alta the diagnosis may be missed. A standard lateral radiograph with the knee flexed showed the infrapatellar fat pad as a dark band with a smooth contour. Our pilot study identified a disruption of the fat pad contour as a radiographic sign of tendon rupture. Two blinded reviewers independently analyzed randomly selected lateral radiographs of the knees of 14 patients with knee injuries. Seven patients had confirmed ruptures diagnosed at surgery, and the other patients had different diagnoses. There were 12 men and two women with an average age of 49 years (range, 20-81 years). One observer detected five of the seven disrupted tendons and six of the seven intact tendons. The other observer detected six of the seven disrupted tendons and all seven intact tendons. Disruption in the contour of the infrapatellar fat pad on routine lateral view radiographs was a reasonably reliable sign of patellar tendon rupture. Diagnostic accuracy should increase when used with the patient's history, physical examination, and other radiographic signs. Absence of this sign should not supersede other suggestive signs of patella tendon rupture. Diagnostic study, Level II (development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients--with universally applied reference "gold" standard). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
A study of hyperelastic models for predicting the mechanical behavior of extensor apparatus.
Elyasi, Nahid; Taheri, Kimia Karimi; Narooei, Keivan; Taheri, Ali Karimi
In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus. The results indicated that the Mooney-Rivlin model predicts an unstable behavior in the balance biaxial deformation of the extensor apparatus, while the Ogden order 1 represents a stable behavior, although the fitting of experimental data and theoretical model was not satisfactory. However, the Ogden order 6 model was unstable in the simple tension mode and the Ogden order 5 and general exponential models presented accurate and stable results. In order to reduce the material parameters, the invariants model with four material parameters was investigated and this model presented the minimum error and stable behavior in all deformation modes. The ABAQUS Explicit solver was coupled with the VUMAT subroutine code of the invariants model to simulate the mechanical behavior of the central and terminal slips of the extensor apparatus during the passive finger flexion, which is important in the prediction of boutonniere deformity and chronic mallet finger injuries, respectively. Also, to evaluate the adequacy of constitutive models in simulations, the results of the Ogden order 5 were presented. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the better fittings of the invariants model compared with the Ogden model.
Open wounds of the Achilles tendon in tropical settings: 36 cases at the Donka University Hospital in Guinea Conakry.
Lamah, L; Diallo, M; Tékpa, J B D; Bah, M L; Keita, K; Sidime, S; Soumah, M T; Diallo, I
The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiologic, etiologic, and therapeutic aspects of open wounds of the Achilles tendon managed in the Donka University Hospital. This 3-year prospective included all patients admitted for an Achilles tendon injury. Closed injuries, suppurating wounds, and those that occurred more than 24 hours before admission were excluded. Surgical treatment consisted in debridement and tendon repair, with plaster cast protection for 6 weeks. The study included 36 patients with a mean age of 23.4 years, 29 of whom were male. The primary cause was traffic accidents (n = 21), mainly due to motorcycle taxis (n = 18). The mean follow-up was 9 months. Infection (7 cases) and skin necrosis (5 cases) were the main postoperative complications. The functional result, evaluated by the McComis score, was excellent in 20 cases, good or satisfactory in 10, and poor in 6 cases. Open injuries of the Achilles tendon are common in Guinea-Conakry and mostly due to motorcycle taxis. Outcome of surgical treatment depends on the severity of the injury. Infection and skin necrosis are frequent complications, and their management is challenging in this setting.
Clinical Outcomes and Return to Sports in Patients with Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture after Minimally Invasive Reconstruction with Semitendinosus Tendon Graft Transfer.
Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Manzi, Luigi; Indino, Cristian; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Berjano, Pedro
Objective The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical results and return to sports in patients undergoing reconstruction of the Achilles tendon after minimally invasive reconstruction with semitendinosus tendon graft transfer. Methods Eight patients underwent surgical reconstruction with a minimally invasive technique and tendon graft augmentation with ipsilateral semitendinosus tendon for chronic Achilles tendon rupture (more than 30 days after the injury and a gap of >6 cm). Patients were evaluated at a minimum follow-up of 24 months after the surgery through the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Scores (ATRS), the Endurance test, the calf circumference of the operated limb, and the contralateral and the eventual return to sports activity performed before the trauma. Results The mean age at surgery was 50.5 years. Five men and three women underwent the surgery. The average AOFAS was 92, mean Endurance test was 28.1, and the average ATRS was 87. All patients returned to their daily activities, and six out of eight patients have returned to sports activities prior to the accident (two football players, three runners, one tennis player) at a mean of 7.0 (range: 6.7-7.2) months after the surgery. No patient reported complications or reruptures. Conclusion Our study confirms encouraging results for the treatment of Achilles tendon rupture with a minimally invasive technique with semitendinosus graft augmentation. The technique can be considered safe and allows patients to return to their sports activity. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series.
Surgical treatment of partial biceps tendon ruptures at the elbow.
Dellaero, David T; Mallon, William J
We present the treatment and results of a consecutive series of 7 patients (mean age, 42.7 years) with partial ruptures of the distal biceps tendon. All injuries occurred as the result of either heavy labor or weightlifting. Diagnosis in all cases was made with magnetic resonance imaging. After failure of conservative therapy, the patients were treated with repair of the distal biceps tendon. Mean follow-up was 30.6 months (range, 25-39 months). Results were uniformly good, with all patients satisfied with the outcome. All patients maintained their preoperative range of motion, with none reporting significant postoperative pain. The only complication was transient neurapraxias of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve in 2 cases. We conclude that patients presenting with chronic pain in the cubital fossa should be evaluated for possible partial biceps tendon tear. If the diagnosis of partial tendon tear is made, surgical repair is a safe and effective method of treatment.
Immediate effect of exercise on achilles tendon properties: systematic review.
Obst, Steven J; Barrett, Rod S; Newsham-West, Richard
Understanding the mechanical and morphological adaptation of the Achilles tendon (AT) in response to acute exercise could have important implications for athletic performance, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and critical evaluation of the literature to determine the immediate effect of a single bout of exercise on the mechanical and morphological properties of the AT in vivo. Five electronic research databases were systematically searched for intervention-based studies reporting mechanical and morphological properties of the AT after a single bout of exercise. Searches revealed 3292 possible articles; 21 met the inclusion criteria. There is evidence that maximal isometric contractions and prolonged static stretching (>5 min) of the triceps surae complex cause an immediate decrease in AT stiffness, whereas prolonged running and hopping have minimal effect. Limited but consistent evidence exists, indicating that AT hysteresis is reduced after prolonged static stretching. Consistent evidence supports a reduction in free AT diameter (anterior-posterior) after dynamic ankle exercise, and this change appears most pronounced in the healthy tendon and after eccentric exercise. The mechanical and morphological properties of the AT in vivo are affected by acute exercise in a mode- and dose-dependent manner. Transient changes in AT stiffness, hysteresis, and diameter after unaccustomed exercise modes and doses may expose the tendon to increased risk of strain injury and impact on the mechanical function of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit.
Early stage fatigue damage occurs in bovine tendon fascicles in the absence of changes in mechanics at either the gross or micro-structural level.
Shepherd, Jennifer H; Riley, Graham P; Screen, Hazel R C
Many tendon injuries are believed to result from repetitive motion or overuse, leading to the accumulation of micro-damage over time. In vitro fatigue loading can be used to characterise damage during repeated use and investigate how this may relate to the aetiology of tendinopathy. This study considered the effect of fatigue loading on fascicles from two functionally distinct bovine tendons: the digital extensor and deep digital flexor. Micro-scale extension mechanisms were investigated in fascicles before or after a period of cyclic creep loading, comparing two different measurement techniques - the displacement of a photo-bleached grid and the use of nuclei as fiducial markers. Whilst visual damage was clearly identified after only 300 cycles of creep loading, these visual changes did not affect either gross fascicle mechanics or fascicle microstructural extension mechanisms over the 900 fatigue cycles investigated. However, significantly greater fibre sliding was measured when observing grid deformation rather than the analysis of nuclei movement. Measurement of microstructural extension with both techniques was localised and this may explain the absence of change in microstructural deformation in response to fatigue loading. Alternatively, the data may demonstrate that fascicles can withstand a degree of matrix disruption with no impact on mechanics. Whilst use of a photo-bleached grid to directly measure the collagen is the best indicator of matrix deformation, nuclei tracking may provide a better measure of the strain perceived directly by the cells. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Early stage fatigue damage occurs in bovine tendon fascicles in the absence of changes in mechanics at either the gross or micro-structural level
Shepherd, Jennifer H.; Riley, Graham P.; Screen, Hazel R.C.
Many tendon injuries are believed to result from repetitive motion or overuse, leading to the accumulation of micro-damage over time. In vitro fatigue loading can be used to characterise damage during repeated use and investigate how this may relate to the aetiology of tendinopathy. This study considered the effect of fatigue loading on fascicles from two functionally distinct bovine tendons: the digital extensor and deep digital flexor. Micro-scale extension mechanisms were investigated in fascicles before or after a period of cyclic creep loading, comparing two different measurement techniques – the displacement of a photo-bleached grid and the use of nuclei as fiducial markers. Whilst visual damage was clearly identified after only 300 cycles of creep loading, these visual changes did not affect either gross fascicle mechanics or fascicle microstructural extension mechanisms over the 900 fatigue cycles investigated. However, significantly greater fibre sliding was measured when observing grid deformation rather than the analysis of nuclei movement. Measurement of microstructural extension with both techniques was localised and this may explain the absence of change in microstructural deformation in response to fatigue loading. Alternatively, the data may demonstrate that fascicles can withstand a degree of matrix disruption with no impact on mechanics. Whilst use of a photo-bleached grid to directly measure the collagen is the best indicator of matrix deformation, nuclei tracking may provide a better measure of the strain perceived directly by the cells. PMID:25001495
Motion-plane dependency of the range of dart throw motion and the effects of tendon action due to finger extrinsic muscles during the motion.
Mitsukane, Masahiro; Sekiya, Noboru; Kamono, Arinori; Nakabo, Tohru
[Purpose] To clarify the motion-plane dependency of the range of dart throw motion and the effects of tendon action due to long finger flexors and extensors during the motion. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy subjects attended the experiment, and the active range of wrist motion in seven motion planes was measured with an originally designed apparatus. [Results] The reliability of the measurement was acceptable. The range of dart throw motion depended on the motion planes, with a maximum at around the motion plane of 45° from the sagittal plane (45° of pronation). The tendon action of long finger muscles was shown in dart throw motion except in 45° of pronation. [Conclusion] Motion-plane dependency of the range of dart throw motion exists in healthy subjects. The absence of tendon action due to finger extrinsic muscles in dart throw motion at 45° might be one of the causes of the advantage of dart throw motion.
Biomechanical Analysis of All-Inside, Arthroscopic Suture Repair Versus Extensor Retinaculum Capsulorrhaphy for Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears With Instability.
Patel, Amar A; Alhandi, Ali A; Milne, Edward; Dy, Christopher J; Latta, Loren L; Ouellette, E Anne
To assess ulnocarpal joint stability after treatment of a peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury with all-inside arthroscopic suture repair (SR), extensor retinaculum capsulorrhaphy with the Herbert sling (HS), and a combination of both (SR+HS). Twelve fresh-frozen, age-matched, upper-extremity specimens intact from the distal humerus were prepared. Nondestructive mechanical testing was performed to assess native ulnocarpal joint stability and load-displacement curves were recorded. A peripheral, ulnar-sided TFCC injury was created with arthroscopic assistance, and mechanical testing was performed. Each specimen was treated with SR or HS and testing was repeated. The 6 specimens treated with SR were then treated with HS (SR+HS), and testing was repeated. We used paired Student t tests for statistical analysis within cohorts. For all cohorts, there was an average increase in ulnar translation after the creation of a peripheral TFCC injury and an average decrease after repair. Herbert sling decreased translation by 21%, SR decreased translation by 12%, and SR+HS decreased translation by 26%. Suture repair plus HS and HS reduce ulnar translation the most after a peripheral TFCC injury, followed by SR alone. Ulnocarpal joint stability should be assessed clinically in patients with peripheral TFCC injury, and consideration should be made for using extensor capsulorrhaphy in isolation or as an adjunct to SR as a treatment option. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tendon-to-bone attachment: from development to maturity.
Zelzer, Elazar; Blitz, Einat; Killian, Megan L; Thomopoulos, Stavros
The attachment between tendon and bone occurs across a complex transitional tissue that minimizes stress concentrations and allows for load transfer between muscles and skeleton. This unique tissue cannot be reconstructed following injury, leading to high incidence of recurrent failure and stressing the need for new clinical approaches. This review describes the current understanding of the development and function of the attachment site between tendon and bone. The embryonic attachment unit, namely, the tip of the tendon and the bone eminence into which it is inserted, was recently shown to develop modularly from a unique population of Sox9- and Scx-positive cells, which are distinct from tendon fibroblasts and chondrocytes. The fate and differentiation of these cells is regulated by transforming growth factor beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, respectively. Muscle loads are then necessary for the tissue to mature and mineralize. Mineralization of the attachment unit, which occurs postnatally at most sites, is largely controlled by an Indian hedgehog/parathyroid hormone-related protein feedback loop. A number of fundamental questions regarding the development of this remarkable attachment system require further study. These relate to the signaling mechanism that facilitates the formation of an interface with a gradient of cellular and extracellular phenotypes, as well as to the interactions between tendon and bone at the point of attachment. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Changes in tendon spatial frequency parameters with loading.
Pearson, Stephen J; Engel, Aaron J; Bashford, Gregory R
To examine and compare the loading related changes in micro-morphology of the patellar tendon. Fifteen healthy young males (age 19±3yrs, body mass 83±5kg) were utilised in a within subjects matched pairs design. B mode ultrasound images were taken in the sagittal plane of the patellar tendon at rest with the knee at 90° flexion. Repeat images were taken whilst the subjects were carrying out maximal voluntary isometric contractions. Spatial frequency parameters related to the tendon morphology were determined within regions of interest (ROI) from the B mode images at rest and during isometric contractions. A number of spatial parameters were observed to be significantly different between resting and contracted images (Peak spatial frequency radius (PSFR), axis ratio, spatial Q-factor, PSFR amplitude ratio, and the sum). These spatial frequency parameters were indicative of acute alterations in the tendon micro-morphology with loading. Acute loading modifies the micro-morphology of the tendon, as observed via spatial frequency analysis. Further research is warranted to explore its utility with regard to different loading induced micro-morphological alterations, as these could give valuable insight not only to aid strengthening of this tissue but also optimization of recovery from injury and treatment of conditions such as tendinopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effects of celecoxib on proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Zhang, Kairui; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Qianqian
Highlights: • Celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated transcription factor. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of main tendon associated collagen. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated molecules. - Abstract: NSAIDs are often ingested to reduce the pain and improve regeneration of tendon after tendon injury. Although the effects of NSAIDs in tendon healing have been reported, the data and conclusions are not consistent. Recently, tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) have been isolated from tendon tissues and has been suggested involved in tendon repair. Our study aimsmore » to determine the effects of COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) on the proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of TDSCs. TDSCs were isolated from mice Achilles tendon and exposed to celecoxib. Cell proliferation rate was investigated at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml) of celecoxib by using hemocytometer. The mRNA expression of tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations (p > 0.05). The levels of most tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules genes expression were significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin protein expression were also significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, celecoxib inhibits tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells but has no effects on cell proliferation.« less
The role of bone sialoprotein in the tendon-bone insertion.
Marinovich, Ryan; Soenjaya, Yohannes; Wallace, Gregory Q; Zuskov, Andre; Dunkman, Andrew; Foster, Brian L; Ao, Min; Bartman, Kevin; Lam, Vida; Rizkalla, Amin; Beier, Frank; Somerman, Martha J; Holdsworth, David W; Soslowsky, Louis J; Lagugné-Labarthet, François; Goldberg, Harvey A
Tendons/ligaments insert into bone via a transitional structure, the enthesis, which is susceptible to injury and difficult to repair. Fibrocartilaginous entheses contain fibrocartilage in their transitional zone, part of which is mineralized. Mineral-associated proteins within this zone have not been adequately characterized. Members of the Small Integrin Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) family are acidic phosphoproteins expressed in mineralized tissues. Here we show that two SIBLING proteins, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), are present in the mouse enthesis. Histological analyses indicate that the calcified zone of the quadriceps tendon enthesis is longer in Bsp(-/-) mice, however no difference is apparent in the supraspinatus tendon enthesis. In an analysis of mineral content within the calcified zone, micro-CT and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the mineral content in the calcified fibrocartilage of the quadriceps tendon enthesis are similar between wild type and Bsp(-/-) mice. Mechanical testing of the patellar tendon shows that while the tendons fail under similar loads, the Bsp(-/-) patellar tendon is 7.5% larger in cross sectional area than wild type tendons, resulting in a 16.5% reduction in failure stress. However, Picrosirius Red staining shows no difference in collagen organization. Data collected here indicate that BSP is present in the calcified fibrocartilage of murine entheses and suggest that BSP plays a regulatory role in this structure, influencing the growth of the calcified fibrocartilage in addition to the weakening of the tendon mechanical properties. Based on the phenotype of the Bsp(-/-) mouse enthesis, and the known in vitro functional properties of the protein, BSP may be a useful therapeutic molecule in the reattachment of tendons and ligaments to bone. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. All rights reserved.
The Role of Bone Sialoprotein in the Tendon-Bone Insertion
Marinovich, Ryan; Soenjaya, Yohannes; Wallace, Gregory Q.; Zuskov, Andre; Dunkman, Andrew; Foster, Brian L.; Ao, Min; Bartman, Kevin; Lam, Vida; Rizkalla, Amin; Beier, Frank; Somerman, Martha J.; Holdsworth, David W.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Lagugné-Labarthet, François; Goldberg, Harvey A.
Tendons/ligaments insert into bone via a transitional structure, the enthesis, which is susceptible to injury and difficult to repair. Fibrocartilaginous entheses contain fibrocartilage in their transitional zone, part of which is mineralized. Mineral-associated proteins within this zone have not been adequately characterized. Members of the Small Integrin Binding Ligand N-Linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) family are acidic phosphoproteins expressed in mineralized tissues. Here we show that two SIBLING proteins, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), are present in the mouse enthesis. Histological analyses indicate that the calcified zone of the quadriceps tendon enthesis is longer in Bsp−/− mice, however no difference is apparent in the supraspinatus tendon enthesis. In an analysis of mineral content within the calcified zone, micro-CT and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the mineral content in the calcified fibrocartilage of the quadriceps tendon enthesis are similar between wild type and Bsp−/− mice. Mechanical testing of the patellar tendon shows that while the tendons fail under similar loads, the Bsp−/− patellar tendon is 7.5% larger in cross sectional area than wild type tendons, resulting in a 16.5% reduction in failure stress. However, picrosirius red staining shows no difference in collagen organization. Data collected here indicate that BSP is present in the calcified fibrocartilage of murine entheses and suggest that BSP plays a regulatory role in this structure, influencing the growth of the calcified fibrocartilage in addition to the weakening of the tendon mechanical properties. Based on the phenotype of the Bsp−/− mouse enthesis, and the known in vitro functional properties of the protein, BSP may be a useful therapeutic molecule in the reattachment of tendons and ligaments to bone. PMID:26826499
New concepts in the assessment and treatment of regional musculoskeletal pain and sports injury.
Borg-Stein, Joanne; Zaremski, Jason L; Hanford, Mary Alice
During the past decade there have been significant advances in understanding the basic science of musculoskeletal injury and healing. These new concepts alter the approach to injury management and rehabilitation for clinicians managing musculoskeletal conditions. This article examines the most recent advances in the treatment of regional musculoskeletal pain, and muscle and tendon sports injury. Specifically, developments in understanding the pathogenesis of muscle and tendon sports injuries, newer imaging modalities, and updated treatment paradigms and their rationale are reviewed. The purpose of this review is to provide the clinician with new approaches for treating nonsurgical muscle and tendon injuries.
Achilles tendon rupture in badminton.
Kaalund, S; Lass, P; Høgsaa, B; Nøhr, M
The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures. PMID:2605439
The Gift Box Open Achilles Tendon Repair Method: A Retrospective Clinical Series.
Labib, Sameh A; Hoffler, C Edward; Shah, Jay N; Rolf, Robert H; Tingan, Alexis
Previous biomechanical studies have shown that the gift box technique for open Achilles tendon repair is twice as strong as a Krackow repair. The technique incorporates a paramedian skin incision with a midline paratenon incision, and a modification of the Krackow stitch is used to reinforce the repair. The wound is closed in layers such that the paratenon repair is offset from paramedian skin incision, further protecting the repair. The present study retrospectively reviews the clinical results for a series of patients who underwent the gift box technique for treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures from March 2002 to April 2007. The patients completed the Foot Function Index and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale. The tendon width and calf circumference were measured bilaterally and compared using paired t tests with a 5% α level. A total of 44 subjects, mean age 37.5 ± 8.6 years, underwent surgery approximately 10.8 ± 6.5 days after injury. The response rate was 35 (79.54%) patients for the questionnaire and 20 (45.45%) for the examination. The mean follow-up period was 35.7 ± 20.1 months. The complications included one stitch abscess, persistent pain, and keloid formation. One (2.86%) respondent reported significant weakness. Five (14.29%) respondents indicated persistent peri-incisional numbness. The range of motion was full or adequate. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale score was 93.2 ± 6.8) and the mean Foot Function Index score was 7.0 ± 10.5. The calf girth and tendon width differences were statistically significantly between the limbs. The patients reported no repeat ruptures, sural nerve injuries, dehiscence, or infections. We present the outcomes data from patients who had undergone this alternative technique for Achilles tendon repair. The technique is reproducible, with good patient satisfaction and return to activity. The results compared well with the historical
Changes in skeletal muscle and tendon structure and function following genetic inactivation of myostatin in rats
Mendias, Christopher L; Lynch, Evan B; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Flood, Michael D; Rittman, Danielle S; Van Pelt, Douglas W; Roche, Stuart M; Davis, Carol S
Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle and tendon mass. Myostatin deficiency has been well studied in mice, but limited data are available on how myostatin regulates the structure and function of muscles and tendons of larger animals. We hypothesized that, in comparison to wild-type (MSTN+/+) rats, rats in which zinc finger nucleases were used to genetically inactivate myostatin (MSTNΔ/Δ) would exhibit an increase in muscle mass and total force production, a reduction in specific force, an accumulation of type II fibres and a decrease and stiffening of connective tissue. Overall, the muscle and tendon phenotype of myostatin-deficient rats was markedly different from that of myostatin-deficient mice, which have impaired contractility and pathological changes to fibres and their extracellular matrix. Extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of MSTNΔ/Δ rats demonstrated 20–33% increases in mass, 35–45% increases in fibre number, 20–57% increases in isometric force and no differences in specific force. The insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway was activated to a greater extent in MSTNΔ/Δ muscles, but no substantial differences in atrophy-related genes were observed. Tendons of MSTNΔ/Δ rats had a 20% reduction in peak strain, with no differences in mass, peak stress or stiffness. The general morphology and gene expression patterns were similar between tendons of both genotypes. This large rodent model of myostatin deficiency did not have the negative consequences to muscle fibres and extracellular matrix observed in mouse models, and suggests that the greatest impact of myostatin in the regulation of muscle mass may not be to induce atrophy directly, but rather to block hypertrophy signalling. PMID:25640143
The prevalence and clinical significance of sonographic tendon abnormalities in asymptomatic ballet dancers: a 24-month longitudinal study.
Comin, Jules; Cook, Jill L; Malliaras, Peter; McCormack, Moira; Calleja, Michelle; Clarke, Andrew; Connell, David
Sonographic abnormalities of the achilles and patellar tendons are common findings in athletes, and tendinopathy is a common cause of pain and disability in athletes. However, it is unclear whether the sonographic changes are pathological or adaptive, or if they predict future injury. We undertook a cohort study to determine what sonographic features of the achilles and patellar tendons are consistent with changes as a result of ballet training, and which may be predictive of future development of disabling tendon symptoms. The achilles and patellar tendons of 79 (35 male, 44 female) professional ballet dancers (members of the English Royal Ballet) were examined with ultrasound, measuring proximal and distal tendon diameters and assessing for the presence of hypoechoic change, intratendon defects, calcification and neovascularity. All subjects were followed for 24 months for the development of patellar tendon or achilles-related pain or injury severe enough to require time off from dancing. Sonographic abnormalities were common among dancers, both male and female, and in both achilles and patellar tendons. Disabling tendon-related symptoms developed in 10 dancers and 14 tendons: 7 achilles (3 right, 4 left) and 7 patellar (2 right, 5 left). The presence of moderate or severe hypoechoic defects was weakly predictive for the development of future disabling tendon symptoms (p=0.0381); there was no correlation between any of the other sonographic abnormalities and the development of symptoms. There was no relationship between achilles or patellar tendons' diameter, either proximal or distal, with an increased likelihood of developing tendon-related disability. The presence of sonographic abnormalities is common in ballet dancers, but only the presence of focal hypoechoic changes predicts the development of future tendon-related disability. This suggests that screening of asymptomatic individuals may be of use in identifying those who are at higher risk of developing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connors, G. Patrick
Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…
Mechanical, histological, and functional properties remain inferior in conservatively treated Achilles tendons in rodents: Long term evaluation
Freedman, Benjamin R; Fryhofer, George W; Salka, Nabeel S; Raja, Harina A; Hillin, Cody D; Nuss, Courtney A; Farber, Daniel C; Soslowsky, Louis J
Conservative treatment (non-operative) of Achilles tendon ruptures is suggested to produce equivalent capacity for return to function; however, long term results and the role of return to activity (RTA) for this treatment paradigm remain unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long term response of conservatively treated Achilles tendons in rodents with varied RTA. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) received unilateral blunt transection of the Achilles tendon followed by randomization into groups that returned to activity after 1-week (RTA1) or 3-weeks (RTA3) of limb casting in plantarflexion, before being sacrificed at 16-weeks post-injury. Uninjured age-matched control animals were used as a control group (N=10). Limb function, passive joint mechanics, tendon properties (mechanical, histological), and muscle properties (histological, immunohistochemical) were evaluated. Results showed that although hindlimb ground reaction forces and range of motion returned to baseline levels by 16-weeks regardless of RTA, ankle stiffness remained altered. RTA1 and RTA3 groups both exhibited no differences in fatigue properties; however, the secant modulus, hysteresis, and laxity were inferior compared to uninjured age-matched control tendons. Despite these changes, tendons 16-weeks post-injury achieved secant stiffness levels of uninjured tendons. RTA1 and RTA3 groups had no differences in histological properties, but had higher cell numbers compared to control tendons. No changes in gastrocnemius fiber size or type in the superficial or deep regions were detected, except for type 2× fiber fraction. Together, this work highlights RTA-dependent deficits in limb function and tissue-level properties in long-term Achilles tendon and muscle healing. PMID:28366437
Functional management of Achilles tendon rupture: A viable option for non-operative management.
Karkhanis, S; Mumtaz, H; Kurdy, N
Functional management of the ruptured Achilles tendon can be effective using orthoses like the removable walker boot (Foam Walker Boot, Air Cast UK Limited, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom). We conducted this study to look at the outcome of our protocol using this orthosis. We retrospectively reviewed 107 non-operatively managed Achilles tendon ruptures over the last 5 years. Case notes were analyzed for demographics and immediate outcomes. Long term outcomes were assessed by a postal questionnaire using the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS). Of the 107 tendons (male:female=71:36, mean age=50 years), 105 tendons (98%) healed with an average discharge time of 22 weeks. Six patients reported major complications and 6 reported minor complications. We received 56 questionnaires with a mean ATRS score of 21. Seventy-seven percent returned to pre-injury level of activity. Functional management of Achilles tendon rupture, under appropriate supervision, provides a viable option for non-operative management. Copyright 2009 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Observation of tendon repair in animal model using second-harmonic-generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hase, Eiji; Minamikawa, Takeo; Sato, Katsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yasui, Takashi
Tendon rupture is a trauma difficult to recover the condition before injury. In previous researches, tensile test and staining method have been widely used to elucidate the mechanism of the repair process from the viewpoints of the mechanical property and the histological findings. However, since both methods are destructive and invasive, it is difficult to obtain both of them for the same sample. If both the mechanical property and the histological findings can be obtained from the same sample, one may obtain new findings regarding mechanisms of tendon repairing process. In this paper, we used second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy, showing high selectivity and good image contrast to collagen molecules as well as high spatial resolution, optical three-dimensional sectioning, deep penetration, and without additional staining. Since SHG light intensity sensitively reflects the structural maturity of collagen molecule and its aggregates, it will be a good indicator for the repairing degree of the ruptured tendon. From comparison of SHG images between the 4-weeks-repaired tendon and the sound tendon in the animal model, we confirmed that SHG light intensity of the repaired tendon was significantly lower than that of the sound tendon, indicating that the collagen structure in the repaired tendon is still immature. Furthermore, we performed both SHG imaging and the tensile test for the same sample, and confirmed a correlation between them. This result shows a potential of SHG light for an indicator of the histological and mechanical recovery of the ruptured tendon.
Ibuprofen Differentially Affects Supraspinatus Muscle and Tendon Adaptations to Exercise in a Rat Model
Rooney, Sarah Ilkhanipour; Baskin, Rachel; Torino, Daniel J.; Vafa, Rameen P.; Khandekar, Pooja S.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Background Previous studies have shown that ibuprofen is detrimental to tissue healing following acute injury; however, the effects of ibuprofen when combined with non-injurious exercise are debated. Hypothesis We hypothesized that administration of ibuprofen to rats undergoing a non-injurious treadmill exercise protocol would abolish the beneficial adaptations found with exercise but have no effect on sedentary muscle and tendon properties. Study Design Controlled laboratory study Methods Rats were divided into exercise or cage activity (sedentary) groups and acute (a single bout of exercise followed by 24 hours of rest) and chronic (2 or 8 weeks of repeated exercise) time points. Half of the rats received ibuprofen to investigate the effects of this drug over time when combined with different activity levels (exercise and sedentary). Supraspinatus tendons were used for mechanical testing and histology (organization, cell shape, cellularity), and supraspinatus muscles were used for morphological (fiber CSA, centrally nucleated fibers) and fiber type analysis. Results Chronic intake of ibuprofen did not impair supraspinatus tendon organization or mechanical adaptations (stiffness, modulus, max load, max stress, dynamic modulus, or viscoelastic properties) to exercise. Tendon mechanical properties were not diminished and in some instances increased with ibuprofen. In contrast, total supraspinatus muscle fiber cross-sectional area decreased with ibuprofen at chronic time points, and some fiber type-specific changes were detected. Conclusions Chronic administration of ibuprofen does not impair supraspinatus tendon mechanical properties in a rat model of exercise but does decrease supraspinatus muscle fiber cross-sectional area. Clinically, these findings suggest that ibuprofen does not detrimentally affect regulation of supraspinatus tendon adaptions to exercise but does decrease muscle growth. Individuals should be advised on the risk of decreased muscle hypertrophy
Use of platelet-rich plasma for patellar tendon and medial collateral ligament injuries: best current clinical practice.
Andia, Isabel; Maffulli, Nicola
Platelet-rich plasmas (PRPs) are complex molecular therapies prepared from the patient's own blood through minimal manipulation. Clinical studies examining the efficacy of PRPs to manage patellar tendinopathy and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries have been reviewed. We found three controlled trials, two of them randomized, and seven case series in the management of patellar tendinopathy. In addition, three other randomized studies showed that PRPs help to regenerate the patellar tendon harvest site for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and to reduce patellar donor site morbidity. On the other hand, the use of PRP in MCL injuries is reported in a single case study. Seven of the 11 studies used leukocyte and PRP which was buffered in four studies. Seven of the 11 studies applied two or three injections. Given the heterogeneity of PRP protocols and the paucity of high-quality data, the most effective approach to guide clinical decisions regarding patellar tendinopathy cannot be deduced from the present published studies. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Effect of simultaneous stretching of the wrist and finger extensors for lateral epicondylitis: a gross anatomical study of the tendinous origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis.
Shirato, Rikiya; Wada, Takuro; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Iba, Kousuke; Kanaya, Kohei; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko
Pulling the wrist into flexion with the elbow in extension and forearm in pronation has been used as the stretching technique of wrist extensors for lateral epicondylitis. Simultaneous stretching of the fingers in addition to the wrist flexion has also been applied. However, the mechanism of this simultaneous stretching has not been clarified. This study is designed to clarify the mechanism underlying this simultaneous stretching technique based on the anatomical features of the origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Thirty-nine arms from formalin-embalmed Japanese human specimens were dissected. The features of the origins of the ECRB and EDC were macroscopically observed, and the locations of each origin on the lateral epicondyle were measured. The ECRB had a long and wide, purely tendinous origin which originated from the anterior slope of the lateral epicondyle. The tendinous origin of the index finger of the EDC (EDC-IF) arose from the posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin, with a coexisting muscular portion observed at the level of the proximal forearm. The middle finger of the EDC (EDC-MF) had a short tendinous origin with an associated muscular portion and originated proximo-laterally to the origin of the ECRB on the lateral epicondyle. In addition, the muscular origin of the EDC-MF arose on the superficial and posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin. In contrast, the ring and little fingers of the EDC originated from the tendinous septum of the extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris, and had no connection with the ECRB tendinous origin. On the basis of our anatomical findings, simultaneous stretching of the wrist extensors by wrist, index and middle fingers flexion could provide stretching force to both the tendinous origins of the ECRB and EDC through the EDC-IF and EDC-MF.
Posterolateral complex knee injuries: magnetic resonance imaging with surgical correlation.
Theodorou, D J; Theodorou, S J; Fithian, D C; Paxton, L; Garelick, D H; Resnick, D
To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of injuries of the posterolateral aspect of the knee and to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of MRI in the assessment of these injuries. The MRI studies of 14 patients (mean age 33 years) with trauma to the posterolateral aspect of the knee were retrospectively reviewed, and the imaging findings were correlated with those of surgery. In all patients, MRI showed an intact iliotibial (ITB) band. MRI showed injury to the biceps tendon in 11 (79%), the gastrocnemius tendon in 1 (7%)), the popliteus tendon in 5 (36%), and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in 14 (100%) patients. Tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was seen in 11 (79%) patients and tear of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in 4 (29%) patients. With routine MRI, visualization of the popliteofibular or fabellofibular ligaments was incomplete. On MRI, the lateral meniscus and the medial meniscus were torn with equal frequency (n = 4; 29%). Osteochondral defects were seen in 5 (36%) cases and joint effusion in all 14 (100%) cases on MRI. Using surgical findings as the standard for diagnosis, MRI proved 86% accurate in the detection of injury to the ITB band, the biceps tendon (93%), the gastrocnemius tendon (100%), the popliteus tendon (86%), the LCL (100%), the ACL (79%), the PCL (86%), the lateral meniscus (90%), the medial meniscus (82%), and the osteochondral structures (79%). Surgical correlation confirmed the MRI findings of joint effusion in all cases. MRI is well suited for demonstrating the presence and extent of injuries of the major structures of the posterolateral complex of the knee, allowing characterization of the severity of injury.
Cadaver study of anatomic landmark identification for placing ankle arthroscopy portals.
Scheibling, B; Koch, G; Clavert, P
Arthroscopy-assisted surgery is now widely used at the ankle for osteochondral lesions of the talus, anterior and posterior impingement syndromes, talocrural or subtalar fusion, foreign body removal, and ankle instability. Injuries to the vessels and nerves may occur during these procedures. To determine whether ultrasound topographic identification of vulnerable structures decreased the risk of iatrogenic injuries to vessels, nerves, and tendons and influenced the distance separating vulnerable structures from the arthroscope introduced through four different portals. Ultrasonography to identify vulnerable structures before or during arthroscopic surgery on the ankle may be useful. Twenty fresh cadaver ankles from body donations to the anatomy institute in Strasbourg, France, were divided into two equal groups. Preoperative ultrasonography to mark the trajectories of vessels, nerves, and tendons was performed in one group but not in the other. The portals were created using a 4-mm trocar. Each portal was then dissected. The primary evaluation criterion was the presence or absence of injuries to vessels, nerves, and tendons. The secondary evaluation criterion was the distance between these structures and the arthroscope. No tendon injuries occurred with ultrasonography. Without ultrasonography, there were two full-thickness tendon lesions, one to the extensor hallucis longus and the other to the Achilles tendon. Furthermore, with the anterolateral, anteromedial, and posteromedial portals, the distance separating the vessels and nerves from the arthroscope was greater with than without ultrasonography (P=0.041, P=0.005, and P=0.002), respectively; no significant difference was found with the anterior portal. Preoperative ultrasound topographic identification decreases the risk of iatrogenic injury to the vessels, nerves, and tendons during ankle arthroscopy and places these structures at a safer distance from the arthroscope. Our hypothesis was confirmed. IV
Professional Athletes' Return to Play and Performance After Operative Repair of an Achilles Tendon Rupture.
Trofa, David P; Miller, J Chance; Jang, Eugene S; Woode, Denzel R; Greisberg, Justin K; Vosseller, J Turner
Most Achilles tendon ruptures are sports related. However, few studies have examined and compared the effect of surgical repair for complete ruptures on return to play (RTP), play time, and performance across multiple sports. To examine RTP and performance among professional athletes after Achilles tendon repair and compare pre- versus postoperative functional outcomes of professional athletes from different major leagues in the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) athletes who sustained a primary complete Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically between 1989 and 2013 were identified via public injury reports and press releases. Demographic information and performance-related statistics were recorded for 2 seasons before and after surgery and compared with matched controls. Statistical analyses were used to assess differences in recorded metrics. Of 86 athletes screened, 62 met inclusion criteria including 25 NBA, 32 NFL, and 5 MLB players. Nineteen (30.6%) professional athletes with an isolated Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically were unable to return to play. Among athletes who successfully returned to play, game participation averaged 75.4% ( P < .001) and 81.9% ( P = .002) of the total games played the season before injury at 1 and 2 years postoperatively, respectively. Play time was significantly decreased and athletes performed significantly worse compared with preoperative levels at 1 and 2 years after injury ( P < .001). When players were compared with matched controls, an Achilles tendon rupture resulted in fewer games played ( P < .001), decreased play time ( P = .025), and worse performance statistics ( P < .001) at 1 year but not 2 years postoperatively ( P > .05). When individual sports were compared, NBA players were most significantly affected, experiencing significant decreases in games played
In vitro kinematic measurements of the patellar tendon in two different types of posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasties.
Zhu, Zhonglin; Ding, Hui; Dang, Xiao; Tang, Jing; Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Guangzhi
Fixed-bearing posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been used in Asian countries for several years, but few studies have investigated differences in the kinematic properties of the patellar tendon after standard PS TKA as compared to high-flex PS TKA. To quantify the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the patellar tendon during passive high flexion and full extension before and after two different types of PS TKAs. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were tested under the following conditions: the unaltered state, status-post traditional PS prostheses (Simth-nephew GENESIS II) replacement, and status-post high-flexion PS prostheses replacement. The soft tissue around the knee and the quadriceps muscle were preserved, then tested under the load of a specific weight in an Oxford knee rig. We designed a specialized rigid body with four active markers fixed to each bone to track the 3D passive motion of the cadaveric knees. Flexion and extension was controlled by the knee rig and captured by an Optotrak Certus high precision optical tracking system. The attachment sites of the patellar tendon were registered as virtual markers to calculate the 3D kinematics. The patellar tendon of the unaltered knee and both TKA knees showed similar deformation. We found the length of the patellar tendon changed significantly during a motion from full extension to 30°, but there was no significant change in length while undergoing a motion from 30° to full flexion. Both the sagittal plane and coronal plane angles of the patellar tendon decreased after PS TKAs. There was no significant difference in patellar tendon kinematics between the two types of PS TKAs. We believe the changes observed in the sagittal plane and coronal plane angles of the patellar tendon after PS TKAs may influence the extensor mechanism and be an important cause of patella-femoral complications. These data may be used to assess patella-femoral complications after surgery so as to
Manipulation of Foot Strike and Footwear Increases Achilles Tendon Loading During Running.
Rice, Hannah; Patel, Mubarak
The Achilles tendon is the most common site of tendon overuse injury in humans. Running with a forefoot strike pattern and in minimal shoes is a topic of recent interest, yet evidence is currently limited regarding the combined influence of foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading. To investigate the influence of both foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading in habitual rearfoot strike runners. Controlled laboratory study. Synchronized kinematic and force data were collected from 22 habitual rearfoot strikers (11 male), who habitually ran in nonminimal running shoes, during overground running at 3.6 m·s -1 . Participants ran in 3 different footwear conditions (standard running shoe, minimal running shoe, and barefoot) with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon loading was estimated by use of inverse dynamics, where the Achilles tendon moment arm was determined with a regression equation. A 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare conditions. Achilles tendon impulse was greater when subjects ran with an FFS rather than an RFS in minimal shoes. Achilles tendon loading rates were higher when subjects ran either in minimal shoes or barefoot than in standard shoes, regardless of foot strike. In runners who habitually rearfoot strike in standard running shoes, running in minimal shoes or barefoot increased the rate of tendon loading, and running with a forefoot strike in minimal shoes increased the magnitude of tendon loading. Transitioning to these running conditions may increase the risk of tendinopathy.
Acute tendon changes in intense CrossFit workout: an observational cohort study.
Fisker, F Y; Kildegaard, S; Thygesen, M; Grosen, K; Pfeiffer-Jensen, M
CrossFit is a fitness program that has become increasingly popular in the Western world, but as in other sports, the risk of injury is present. Only a few studies have addressed health benefits and injuries in CrossFit. It is known that chronically overloaded tendons will thicken and increase the risk of tendinopathy. However, it remains unknown whether acute overload caused by strenuous, high-intensity exercise will exert changes in tendons and if these changes can be detected and described by ultrasonography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acute overload on tendon thickness using ultrasonography. Standardized ultrasound measurements of the patella, Achilles, and plantaris tendons were performed before and after a specific workout in 34 healthy subjects. Significant increases were observed in patella tendon thickness before (M = 4.5, SD = 0.6) and after (M = 5.0, SD = 0.7) highly intense strenuous exercise, with an estimated mean differences of 0.47 mm (95% CI: 0.35-0.59 mm; P < 0.0001) and in Achilles tendon thickness before (M = 4.4, SD = 0.4) and after (M = 4.5, SD = 0.5) workout, with an estimated difference of 0.17 mm (95% CI: 0.04-0.29 mm; P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in fascia plantaris thickness before (M = 3.4, SD = 0.5) and after (M = 3.4, SD = 0.5) workout (P = 0.97). A significant increase in the thickness of the patellar and Achilles tendons was found in response to strenuous, highly intense CrossFit exercises. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the findings and possibly utilize this to gain a better understanding, further studies must be conducted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Avulsion fracture of an ossified pes anserinus tendon post-lateral patellar dislocation.
Albtoush, Omar M; Taib, Abtehag A; Horger, Marius; Springer, Fabian
The pes anserinus is a common tendon comprising the tendinous insertions of the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles. It inserts at the anteromedial aspect of the tibia and plays a significant role in stabilization of the medial side of the knee joint. The current article presents a case with recurrent lateral patellar dislocations causing chronic stress along the medial knee stabilizers and consecutive enthesophyte formation at the insertion of the pes anserinus tendon that showed a transverse fracture upon a subsequent incident of traumatic lateral patellar dislocation. Avulsion injuries of the pes anserinus tendon are rarely encountered, and to our knowledge, association with recurrent lateral patellar dislocations has not been described before.
The Location-Specific Role of Proteoglycans in the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon
Buckley, Mark R.; Huffman, George R.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Tendons like the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) that contain region-specific distributions of proteoglycans (PGs) as a result of the heterogeneous, multi-axial loads they are subjected to in vivo provide valuable models for understanding structure-function relationships in connective tissues. However, the contributions of specific PGs to FCU tendon mechanical properties are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine how the location-dependent, viscoelastic mechanical properties of the FCU tendon are impacted individually by PG-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and by two small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), biglycan and decorin. Full length FCU tendons from biglycan- and decorin-null mice were compared to wild type mice to evaluate the effects of specific SLRPs, while chondroitinase ABC digestion of isolated specimens removed from the tendon midsubstance was used to determine how chontroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) GAGs impact mechanics in mature FCU tendons. A novel combined genetic knockout/ digestion technique also was employed to compare SLRP-null and wild-type tendons in the absence of CS/DS GAGs that may impact properties in the mature state. In all genotypes, mechanical properties in the FCU tendon midsubstance were not affected by GAG digestion. Full-length tendons exhibited complex, multi-axial deformation under tension that may be associated with their in vivo loading environment. Mechanical properties were adversely affected by the absence of biglycan, and a decreased modulus localized in the center of the tendon was measured. These results help elucidate the role that local alterations in proteoglycan levels may play in processes that adversely impact tendon functionality including injury and pathology. PMID:23941206
Outcomes and complications of triceps tendon repair following acute rupture in American military personnel.
Balazs, George C; Brelin, Alaina M; Dworak, Theodora C; Brooks, Daniel I; Mauntel, Timothy C; Tintle, Scott M; Dickens, Jonathan F
Triceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries primarily occurring in young, active males or elderly individuals with various systemic diseases. Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of this injury, or the results of surgical management in high-demand populations. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and outcomes of surgical treatment in active duty American military personnel. The Military Data Repository (MDR) was queried for all active duty military personnel undergoing surgical repair or reconstruction of a triceps tendon rupture between January 2012 and December 2014. The electronic health records of all patients with at least 12 months clinical follow-up were searched for demographic information, injury details, preoperative imaging findings, post-operative complications, and ability to return to duty following surgical repair. Incidence was calculated based on total active duty population in the MDR over the study period. Risk factors for postoperative complication and inability to return to duty following surgical repair were assessed using univariate analyses. A total of 54 acute triceps tendon ruptures were identified in the search, of which 48 had at least 12 months follow-up and complete post-operative records. The incidence of acute triceps tendon rupture was 1.1 per 100,000 person-years. Twelve patients experienced post-operative complications, six of which were traumatic re-ruptures within four months of the index surgery. No patient had a post-operative infection or atraumatic repair failure. 94% of patients were able to return to active military service following surgical repair. Enlisted rank was a significant risk factor for a post-operative complication, but no factor predicted inability to return to active duty service. Surgical repair of acute triceps tendon ruptures reliably restores strength and function even in high-demand individuals. In our population, traumatic rerupture was the most common complication
The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.
Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan
Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Vibration Fails to Accelerate Ligament Healing but Stimulates Collagen Synthesis in the Achilles Tendon.
Thompson, William R; Keller, Benjamin V; Davis, Matthew L; Dahners, Laurence E; Weinhold, Paul S
Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration accelerates fracture and wound healing and prevents disuse atrophy in musculoskeletal tissues. To investigate the role of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration as a treatment to accelerate healing of an acute ligament injury and to examine gene expression in the intact Achilles tendon of the injured limb after low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration. Controlled laboratory study. Complete surgical transection of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) was performed in 32 Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into control and low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration groups. Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration started on postoperative day 2, and rats received vibration for 30 minutes a day for 12 days. All rats were sacrificed 2 weeks after the operation, and their intact and injured MCLs were biomechanically tested or used for histological analysis. Intact Achilles tendons from the injured limb were evaluated for differences in gene expression. Mechanical testing revealed no differences in the ultimate tensile load or the structural stiffness between the control and vibration groups for either the injured or intact MCL. Vibration exposure increased gene expression of collagen 1 alpha (3-fold), interleukin 6 (7-fold), cyclooxygenase 2 (5-fold), and bone morphogenetic protein 12 (4-fold) in the intact Achilles tendon when compared with control tendons ( P < .05). While no differences were observed in the mechanical or histological properties of the fully transected MCL after low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration treatment, significant enhancements in gene expression were observed in the intact Achilles tendon. These included collagen, several inflammatory cytokines, and growth factors critical for tendons. As low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration had no negative effects on ligament healing, vibration therapy may be a useful tool to accelerate healing of other tissues (bone) in multitrauma injuries without inhibiting ligament healing
Tendon regeneration in human and equine athletes: Ubi Sumus-Quo Vadimus (where are we and where are we going to)?
Spaas, Jan H; Guest, Deborah J; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R
Tendon injuries are one of the most common orthopaedic problems in both human and equine athletes. When a damaged tendon heals naturally, it loses a substantial part of the original strength and elasticity. Therefore, tendons recover structurally (reparation) but not functionally (regeneration) after conservative medical or surgical treatment. Since the structure and matrix composition of human and equine tendons share many similarities, the nature of tendon injuries are also strongly comparable in both species. Therefore, the evaluation of regenerative therapies in horses may have applications for future human medicine and vice versa. The current review focuses briefly on the physiology of human and equine tendon in order to better comprehend the modus operandi of this structure under pathophysiological circumstances. In addition, the reparative effects of conservative medical and surgical interventions are discussed concisely, and an extensive overview is given on the regenerative therapies that are currently being explored. For the latter, the results of equine clinical studies might prove invaluable for gaining additional insights into the treatment of human tendinopathies, since not all of these novel regenerative therapies have been evaluated in humans yet.
Chronic rotator cuff injury and repair model in sheep.
Coleman, Struan H; Fealy, Stephen; Ehteshami, John R; MacGillivray, John D; Altchek, David W; Warren, Russell F; Turner, A Simon
Most rotator cuff surgery is performed on chronic tears. As there is no animal model in which to examine the physiology of muscle and tendon injury and repair in this setting, we developed a chronic rotator cuff injury model in sheep. The infraspinatus tendon was released in thirty-six female sheep. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the muscle and were analyzed for fat content. The force generated by the muscle with supramaximal stimulation was recorded intraoperatively. A control group (twelve sheep) underwent an immediate tendon repair. In the remaining twenty-four sheep, the tendon was wrapped in a dura substitute to prevent scarring and was repaired at six weeks (eight sheep) and eighteen weeks (sixteen sheep) after release. In the immediate repair group, four animals were killed at six weeks; four, at twelve weeks; and four, at twenty weeks. In the six-week delayed repair group, four animals were killed at twelve weeks and four were killed at twenty weeks after the repair. In the eighteen-week delayed repair group, eight animals were killed at twelve weeks; four, at twenty weeks; and four, at thirty weeks after the repair. Muscle biopsies and testing were repeated prior to killing of the animals. The average force of muscle contraction decreased 3.6 lb (1.6 kg) by six weeks after the injury and 3.9 lb (1.8 kg) by eighteen weeks after the injury. After the repair, the force of contraction in the six-week group improved by 0.8 lb (0.4 kg) at twelve weeks postoperatively and by 1.3 lb (0.6 kg) at twenty weeks postoperatively. In contrast, no improvement occurred in the eighteen-week group until thirty weeks after the repair, at which time a 0.9-lb (0.4-kg) improvement was noted. There was a twelvefold increase in intramuscular fat concentration; this lipid infiltration was partially reversed after the tendon repair. Isolated tendon samples demonstrated an increase in the modulus of elasticity after chronic detachment that partially corrected after the tendon
Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode.
Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H; Matzon, A; Hindhede, J; Bejder, A; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K
In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD) or a carbohydrate group (PLA). Subjects completed 12 weeks maximal knee extensor training with one leg using eccentric contractions and the other using concentric contractions. Before and after training cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps and patellar tendon CSA was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging and a isometric strength test was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD). Quadriceps CSA increased by 7.3 ± 1.0% (P < 0.001) in WHD and 3.4 ± 0.8% (P < 0.01) in PLA, with a greater increase in WHD compared to PLA (P < 0.01). Proximal patellar tendon CSA increased by 14.9 ± 3.1% (P < 0.001) and 8.1 ± 3.2% (P = 0.054) for WHD and PLA, respectively, with a greater increase in WHD compared to PLA (P < 0.05), with no effect of contraction mode. MVC and RFD increased by 15.6 ± 3.5% (P < 0.001) and 12-63% (P < 0.05), respectively, with no group or contraction mode effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training - irrespective of contraction mode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...
Role of xenogenous bovine platelet gel embedded within collagen implant on tendon healing: an in vitro and in vivo study
Oryan, Ahmad; Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid; Maffulli, Nicola
Surgical reconstruction of large Achilles tendon defects is demanding. Platelet concentrates may be useful to favor healing in such conditions. The characteristics of bovine platelet-gel embedded within a collagen-implant were determined in vitro, and its healing efficacy was examined in a large Achilles tendon defect in rabbits. Two cm of the left Achilles tendon of 60 rabbits were excised, and the animals were randomly assigned to control (no implant), collagen-implant, or bovine-platelet-gel-collagen-implant groups. The tendon edges were maintained aligned using a Kessler suture. No implant was inserted in the control group. In the two other groups, a collagen-implant or bovine-platelet-gel-collagen-implant was inserted in the defect. The bioelectricity and serum platelet-derived growth factor levels were measured weekly and at 60 days post injury, respectively. After euthanasia at 60 days post injury, the tendons were tested at macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural levels, and their dry matter and biomechanical performances were also assessed. Another 60 rabbits were assigned to receive no implant, a collagen-implant, or a bovine-platelet-gel-collagen-implant, euthanized at 10, 20, 30, and 40 days post injury, and their tendons were evaluated grossly and histologically to determine host-graft interactions. Compared to the control and collagen-implant, treatment with bovine-platelet-gel-collagen-implant improved tissue bioelectricity and serum platelet-derived growth factor levels, and increased cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation. It also increased number, diameter, and density of the collagen fibrils, alignment and maturation of the collagen fibrils and fibers, biomechanical properties and dry matter content of the injured tendons at 60 days post injury. The bovine-platelet-gel-collagen-implant also increased biodegradability, biocompatibility, and tissue incorporation behavior of the implant compared to the collagen-implant alone
[PART-KESSLER TECHNIQUE WITH SUTURE ANCHOR IN REPAIR OF SPONTANEOUS Achilles TENDON RUPTURE].
Qi, Jie; Duan, Liang; Li, Weiwei; Wei, Wenbo
To summarize the application and experience of repairing spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture by part-Kessler technique with suture anchor. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 31 patients with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture were treated by part-Kessler technique with suture anchor. Of 31 cases, 23 were male and 8 were female, aged 16-53 years (mean, 38 years). The left side was involved in 15 cases and the right side in 16 cases. The causes of injury included sudden heel pain and walking weakness during sports in 22 cases; no surefooted down-stairs, slip, and carrying heavy loads in 9 cases. The distance from broken site to the calcaneus adhension of Achilles tendon was 3-6 cm (mean, 4.2 cm). The time from injury to operation was 7 hours to 4 days (mean, 36.8 hours). All incisions healed by first intention without nerve injury or adhering with skin. The patients were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 15 months). All patients could complete 25 times heel raising without difficulty at 6 months after operation. No Achilles tendon rupture occurred again during follow-up. At 6 months after operation, the range of motion of the ankle joint in dorsiflexion and plantar flexion showed no significant difference between normal and affected sides (t=0.648, P=0.525; t=0.524, P=0.605). The circumference of the affected leg was significantly smaller than that of normal leg at 6 months after operation (t=2.074, P=0.041), but no significant difference was found between affected and normal sides at 12 months after operation (t=0.905, P=0.426). The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after operation were significantly higher than preoperative score (P<0.05); the score at 6 months after operation was significantly lower than that at other time points (P<0.05), but no significant difference was shown between the other time points (P>0.05). Repairing spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture by part-Kessler technique with suture anchor
Performance outcomes after repair of complete achilles tendon ruptures in national basketball association players.
Amin, Nirav H; Old, Andrew B; Tabb, Loni P; Garg, Rohit; Toossi, Nader; Cerynik, Douglas L
A complete rupture of the Achilles tendon is a devastating injury. Variables affecting return to competition and performance changes for National Basketball Association (NBA) players are not readily evident. Players in the NBA who ruptured their Achilles tendons and who underwent surgical repair would have more experience in the league, and the performance of those who were able to return to competition would be decreased when compared with their performance before injury and with their control-matched peers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data for 18 basketball players with Achilles tendon repair over a 23-year period (1988-2011) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, and number of years playing in the league. Individual season statistics were obtained, and the NBA player efficiency rating (PER) was calculated for 2 seasons before and after injury. Controls were matched by playing position, number of seasons played, and performance statistics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of each factor. At the time of injury, the average age was 29.7 years, average BMI was 25.6, and average playing experience was 7.6 years. Seven players never returned to play an NBA game, whereas 11 players returned to play 1 season, with 8 of those players returning for ≥2 seasons. Players who returned missed an average of 55.9 games. The PER was reduced by 4.57 (P = .003) in the first season and by 4.38 (P = .010) in the second season. When compared with controls, players demonstrated a significant decline in the PER the first season (P = .038) and second season (P = .081) after their return. The NBA players who returned to play after repair of complete Achilles tendon ruptures showed a significant decrease in playing time and performance. Thirty-nine percent of players never returned to play.
Extracellular matrix adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to exercise
Kjær, Michael; Magnusson, Peter; Krogsgaard, Michael; Møller, Jens Boysen; Olesen, Jens; Heinemeier, Katja; Hansen, Mette; Haraldsson, Bjarki; Koskinen, Satu; Esmarck, Birgitte; Langberg, Henning
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues enables linking to other tissues, and plays a key role in force transmission and tissue structure maintenance in tendons, ligaments, bone and muscle. ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and metalloprotease activity increase with mechanical loading. This can be shown by determining propeptide and proteinase activity by microdialysis, as well as by verifying the incorporation of infused stable isotope amino acids in biopsies. Local tissue expression and release of growth factors for ECM such as IGF-1, TGF-beta and IL-6 is enhanced following exercise. For tendons, metabolic activity (e.g. detected by positron emission tomography scanning), circulatory responses (e.g. as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and dye dilution) and collagen turnover are markedly increased after exercise. Tendon blood flow is regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated pathways, and glucose uptake is regulated by specific pathways in tendons that differ from those in skeletal muscle. Chronic loading in the form of physical training leads both to increased collagen turnover as well as to some degree of net collagen synthesis. These changes modify the mechanical properties and the viscoelastic characteristics of the tissue, decrease its stress-susceptibility and probably make it more load-resistant. The mechanical properties of tendon fascicles vary within a given human tendon, and even show gender differences. The latter is supported by findings of gender-related differences in the activation of collagen synthesis with exercise. These findings may provide the basis for understanding tissue overloading and injury in both tendons and skeletal muscle. PMID:16637870
Simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon rupture during a preacher curl exercise: a case report.
Rokito, Andrew S; lofin, Ilya
Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a rare injury, the overwhelming majority occurring in the dominant arm of males during the fourth to sixth decades of life. Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps tendon is an extremely rare occurrence, with only three cases reported in the literature. This unusual injury occurred in a recreational weightlifter during a preacher curl exercise. In this particular case, a 6-week delay in presentation necessitated a staged procedure in which a primary repair was feasible in one elbow, while reconstruction using allograft tissue was required in the contralateral elbow. Satisfactory results for both elbows were achieved, with return to weightlifting by one year following surgery.
Decellularized Tendon Extracellular Matrix—A Valuable Approach for Tendon Reconstruction?
Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Al-Sadi, Onays; Ertel, Wolfgang; Lohan, Anke
Tendon healing is generally a time-consuming process and often leads to a functionally altered reparative tissue. Using degradable scaffolds for tendon reconstruction still remains a compromise in view of the required high mechanical strength of tendons. Regenerative approaches based on natural decellularized allo- or xenogenic tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) have recently started to attract interest. This ECM combines the advantages of its intrinsic mechanical competence with that of providing tenogenic stimuli for immigrating cells mediated, for example, by the growth factors and other mediators entrapped within the natural ECM. A major restriction for their therapeutic application is the mainly cell-associated immunogenicity of xenogenic or allogenic tissues and, in the case of allogenic tissues, also the risk of disease transmission. A survey of approaches for tendon reconstruction using cell-free tendon ECM is presented here, whereby the problems associated with the decellularization procedures, the success of various recellularization strategies, and the applicable cell types will be thoroughly discussed. Encouraging in vivo results using cell-free ECM, as, for instance, in rabbit models, have already been reported. However, in comparison to native tendon, cells remain mostly inhomogeneously distributed in the reseeded ECM and do not align. Hence, future work should focus on the optimization of tendon ECM decellularization and recolonization strategies to restore tendon functionality. PMID:24710540
Management of acute Achilles tendon rupture with tendon-bundle technique
Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Bing
Objective *These authors contributed equally to this work.To explore tendon-bundle technique for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. Methods Patients with full unilateral Achilles tendon rupture with no defects were included. The Achilles tendon medial edge surgical repair approach was used, revealing horsetail-like rupture bundles. Tendon bundles were anatomically realigned and repaired end-to-end using 5-0 sutures. Patients were followed-up for 1 year, and assessed for differences between the repaired versus healthy limb. Results Out of 24 patients (18 male, 6 female; aged 19–56 years) at 1 year following surgery, mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 92.4 ± 5.9; mean differences between the surgically repaired versus contralateral side in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were 3.5 ± 2.3° and 5.6 ± 3.2°, respectively; mean difference in calf circumference between the two sides was 0.9 ± 0.5 cm; and mean increase in Achilles tendon width versus the healthy side was 0.8 ± 0.2 cm. By 1 year post-surgery, there were no significant between-side differences in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle, or calf circumference. Conclusions Tendon-bundle surgery resulted in good ankle function restoration and low complication rates. Tendon-bundle surgery may reduce blood supply destruction and maximally preserve Achilles tendon length, and may be effective for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. PMID:28222622
[Ultrastructural observation of tendonization of artificial tendon 109HH in rabbit].
Liu, L; Cao, Q; Xiao, H
Ten New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups at random. Calcaneal tendons were cut bilaterally, then atificial tendon 109HH was used to connect the two ends of the cut tendon. Ultrastructural changes of control group and experimental groups at 2, 6, 12, 28 weeks after section were observed. The results showed that fibroblast proliferated and a lot of ribosome and RER appeared in plasm during 2 approximately 6 weeks, indicating artificial tendon caused fibroblast proliferation. During this period, fibroblast over synthesized collagenous protein and the synthesis of collagenous fibers peaked. During 12-28 weeks, the number of fibroblasts and the synthesis of collagenous protein decreased. Finally, fibroblasts became inactive tendon cells. With the formation of new tendons, the artificial tendens were degradated and absorbed, and disappeared after 12 weeks. The new tendon fibers became thicker and had the correct direction through reconstruction. The structure and function of new tendons could be restored to be consistent with normal values.
[Rheumatic tendon pathologies].
Thomas, M; Jordan, M
Rheumatoid arthritis is found in approximately 2 % of the total population in Europe and the peak incidence of the disease is during the fourth and fifth decades of life. In approximately 15 % the first symptoms of the disease occur at the level of the foot and ankle. If the early stage-dependent therapy with pharmaceuticals fails isolated surgery of the tendons (e.g. tenosynovectomy) and reconstructive surgery including the tendons (e.g. tendon transfer and tendon readaptation) are performed to keep the patient mobile. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the most commonly used interventions in the reconstruction of tendons in rheumatism patients and the corresponding indications. The conservative therapy options for rheumatic foot and ankle alterations with a special emphasis on tendon pathologies have a well-established importance and are also presented. A selective literature search was carried out for therapeutic options of rheumatic tendon pathologies. If possible attempts should be made to preserve functional qualities using tenosynovectomy, tendon sutures or tendon transfer operations. If joints are already destroyed or dislocated, tendon operations should be carried out only as combined interventions with arthrodesis, endoprostheses or resection arthroplasty. The time window in which these interventions are possible should not be missed. Orthotic devices, bandages or even orthopedic shoes provide external support and splinting but do not represent a causal therapy.
The mechanism for efficacy of eccentric loading in Achilles tendon injury; an in vivo study in humans.
Rees, J D; Lichtwark, G A; Wolman, R L; Wilson, A M
Degenerative disorders of tendons present an enormous clinical challenge. They are extremely common, prone to recur and existing medical and surgical treatments are generally unsatisfactory. Recently eccentric, but not concentric, exercises have been shown to be highly effective in managing tendinopathy of the Achilles (and other) tendons. The mechanism for the efficacy of these exercises is unknown although it has been speculated that forces generated during eccentric loading are of a greater magnitude. Our objective was to determine the mechanism for the beneficial effect of eccentric exercise in Achilles tendinopathy. Seven healthy volunteers performed eccentric and concentric loading exercises for the Achilles tendon. Tendon force and length changes were determined using a combination of motion analysis, force plate data and real-time ultrasound. There was no significant difference in peak tendon force or tendon length change when comparing eccentric with concentric exercises. However, high-frequency oscillations in tendon force occurred in all subjects during eccentric exercises but were rare in concentric exercises (P < 0.0001). These oscillations provide a mechanism to explain the therapeutic benefit of eccentric loading in Achilles tendinopathy and parallels recent evidence from bone remodelling, where the frequency of the loading cycles is of more significance than the absolute magnitude of the force.
Accumulation of oxidized LDL in the tendon tissues of C57BL/6 or apolipoprotein E knock-out mice that consume a high fat diet: potential impact on tendon health.
Grewal, Navdeep; Thornton, Gail M; Behzad, Hayedeh; Sharma, Aishwariya; Lu, Alex; Zhang, Peng; Reid, W Darlene; Granville Alex Scott, David J
Clinical studies have suggested an association between dyslipidemia and tendon injuries or chronic tendon pain; the mechanisms underlying this association are not yet known. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the impact of a high fat diet on the function of load-bearing tendons and on the distribution in tendons of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and (2) to examine the effect of oxLDL on tendon fibroblast proliferation and gene expression. Gene expression (Mmp2, Tgfb1, Col1a1, Col3a1), fat content (Oil Red O staining), oxLDL levels (immunohistochemistry) and tendon biomechanical properties were examined in mice (C57Bl/6 or ApoE -/-) receiving a standard or a high fat diet. Human tendon fibroblast proliferation and gene expression (COL1A1, COL3A1, MMP2) were examined following oxLDL exposure. In both types of mice (C57Bl/6 or ApoE -/-), consumption of a high fat diet led to a marked increase in oxLDL deposition in the load-bearing extracellular matrix of the tendon. The consumption of a high fat diet also reduced the failure stress and load of the patellar tendon in both mouse types, and increased Mmp2 expression. ApoE -/- mice exhibited more pronounced reductions in tendon function than wild-type mice, and decreased expression of Col1a1 compared to wild type mice. Human tendon fibroblasts responded to oxLDL by increasing their proliferation and their mRNA levels of MMP2, while decreasing their mRNA levels for COL1A1 and COL3A1. The consumption of a high fat diet resulted in deleterious changes in tendon function, and these changes may be explained in part by the effects of oxLDL, which induced a proliferative, matrix-degrading phenotype in human tenocytes.
Acute distal biceps tendon rupture--a new surgical technique using a de-tensioning suture to brachialis.
Taylor, C J; Bansal, R; Pimpalnerkar, A
Acute distal biceps rupture is a devastating injury in the young athlete and surgical repair offers the only chance of a full recovery. We report a new surgical technique used in 14 cases of acute distal tendon rupture in which the 'suture anchor technique' and a de-tensioning suture was employed. In this procedure the distal end of the biceps is re-attached to the radial tuberosity using a sliding whip stitch suture and the proximal part of the distal tendon repair attached to the underlying brachialis muscle with absorbable sutures. This restores correct anatomical alignment and isometric pull on the distal tendon and de-tensions the repair in the early post-operative period, allowing early rehabilitation and an early return to activity. In all cases patients regained a full pre-injury level of sporting activity at a mean period of 6.2 months (2-9 months).
Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Tendon Avulsions in Cricketers: A Case Series and Literature Review.
Naidu, Krishant S; James, Trefor; Rotstein, Andrew H; Balster, Simon M; Hoy, Gregory A
Acute latissimus dorsi tendon injuries are uncommon, having not previously been described in cricketers. The leg spinner's stock ball bowling technique and the fast bowler's back-of-the-hand slow ball, which is used much more widely in T20 cricket, produce a significant eccentric contraction load on the latissimus dorsi muscle. A retrospective review of a case series of acute latissimus dorsi tendon injuries in 3 elite cricketers (2 fast bowlers and a leg-spin bowler). We compare the outcomes using patient-rated scales and objective strength testing. Two patients underwent operative repair and had excellent outcomes. One of the nonoperatively managed patients had mild ongoing symptoms at 7 months. An associated injury to teres major did not affect the outcome of this injury. Operative repair is a viable alternative and may produce better outcomes in cricketers. The short T20 form of cricket has lead to an increase in the number of back-of-the-hand slow balls, a risk factor for Latissimus injury, whereas leg-spin bowling is another risk.
Sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy for treatment of common extensor tendinosis in the elbow: is a corticosteroid necessary?
McShane, John M; Shah, Vinil N; Nazarian, Levon N
Chronic refractory common extensor tendinosis of the lateral elbow has been shown to respond to sonographically guided percutaneous needle tenotomy (PNT) followed by corticosteroid injection. In this analysis, we attempted to determine whether the corticosteroid is a necessary component of the procedure. We performed PNT on 57 consecutive patients (age range, 34-61 years) with persistent pain and disability resulting from common extensor tendinosis. Under a local anesthetic and sonographic guidance, a needle was advanced into the tendon, and the tip of the needle was used to fenestrate the tendinotic tissue, break up any calcifications, and abrade the adjacent bone. After the procedure, patients underwent a specified physical therapy protocol. During a subsequent telephone interview, patients answered questions about their symptoms, the level of functioning, and perceptions of the procedure outcome. Of the 52 patients who agreed to participate in the study, 30 (57.7%) reported excellent outcomes, 18 (34.6%) good, 1 (1.9%) fair, and 3 (5.8%) poor. The average follow-up time from the date of the procedure to the telephone interview was 22 months (range, 7-38 months). No adverse events were reported, and 90% stated that they would refer a friend or close relative for the procedure. Sonographically guided PNT for refractory lateral elbow tendinosis is an effective procedure, and subsequent corticosteroid injection is not necessary.
Dorsiflexion capacity affects achilles tendon loading during drop landings.
Whitting, John W; Steele, Julie R; McGhee, Deirdre E; Munro, Bridget J
Evidence suggests a link between decreased dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) and injury risk during landings. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of weight-bearing DROM on ankle mechanics during drop landings. Forty-eight men (mean ± SD = 22.5 ± 4.7 yr) were measured for DROM. Participants performed drop landings onto a force platform at two vertical descent velocities (2.25 ± 0.15 and 3.21 ± 0.17 m·s(-1)), while EMG activity of four shank muscles and three-dimensional ankle joint kinematics were recorded. Participants were classified into low (37.7° ± 2.5°) and high (48.4° ± 2.5°) DROM groups. Ground reaction force, EMG, dorsiflexion angle, plantarflexion moment, and Achilles tendon force outcome variables were all equivalent for the two DROM groups during each landing condition. However, the low DROM group performed each landing condition at a significantly greater percentage of their DROM and displayed significantly more ankle eversion throughout most of the movement. The low and high DROM groups displayed DROM percentages of 27 ± 11 and 10 ± 11 (P = 0.013), 32 ± 9 and 23 ± 9 (P = 0.056), 60 ± 13 and 46 ± 13 (P = 0.004), and 66 ± 16 and 54 ± 9 (P = 0.003) when they encountered the peak plantarflexion moments, Achilles tendon force, eversion angles, and dorsiflexion angles, respectively. Participants with a low DROM absorbed the landing impact forces with their plantarflexor muscle-tendon units in a more lengthened and everted position. Athletes with a low DROM may be more likely to regularly overload their plantarflexor muscle-tendon units, thereby potentially exposing themselves to a higher likelihood of incurring injuries such as Achilles tendinopathy.
[Repair of Achilles tendon rupture and early rehabilitation].
Delgado-Brambila, H A; Cristiani, D G; Tinajero, E C; Burgos-Elías, V
The frequency of Achilles tendon tear has increased worldwide. Several factors have been described that help explain the mechanism of injury. The treatment of choice continues to be surgery; conservative treatment is reserved for patients with a high morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment consists of an open or percutaneous technique. In both modalities we try to achieve prompt mobilization of the operated tendon to obtain better and quicker healing. This prospective study describes our experience with 35 patients enrolled from February 2004 to August 2010. They were treated with open repair, physical rehabilitation and active ankle mobilization before the second postoperative week, and with colchicine. We obtained satisfactory results. Patients recovered complete mobility approximately at postoperative week 6, and from weeks 8 to 10 they could resume their daily work activities and participate in sports and recreational activities. Patients were assessed according to the ATRS classification to measure their clinical results. We had no infections or other major complications. We conclude that the open surgical repair of Achilles tendon tear, prompt mobility, and colchicine provide good results.
Proteomic Analysis of Tendon Extracellular Matrix Reveals Disease Stage-specific Fragmentation and Differential Cleavage of COMP (Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein)*
Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Heinegård, Dick; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Khabut, Areej; Dudhia, Jayesh
During inflammatory processes the extracellular matrix (ECM) is extensively remodeled, and many of the constituent components are released as proteolytically cleaved fragments. These degradative processes are better documented for inflammatory joint diseases than tendinopathy even though the pathogenesis has many similarities. The aims of this study were to investigate the proteomic composition of injured tendons during early and late disease stages to identify disease-specific cleavage patterns of the ECM protein cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). In addition to characterizing fragments released in naturally occurring disease, we hypothesized that stimulation of tendon explants with proinflammatory mediators in vitro would induce fragments of COMP analogous to natural disease. Therefore, normal tendon explants were stimulated with IL-1β and prostaglandin E2, and their effects on the release of COMP and its cleavage patterns were characterized. Analyses of injured tendons identified an altered proteomic composition of the ECM at all stages post injury, showing protein fragments that were specific to disease stage. IL-1β enhanced the proteolytic cleavage and release of COMP from tendon explants, whereas PGE2 had no catabolic effect. Of the cleavage fragments identified in early stage tendon disease, two fragments were generated by an IL-1-mediated mechanism. These fragments provide a platform for the development of neo-epitope assays specific to injury stage for tendon disease. PMID:24398684
Measurement of fatigue in knee flexor and extensor muscles.
Kawabata, Y; Senda, M; Oka, T; Yagata, Y; Takahara, Y; Nagashima, H; Inoue, H
In order to examine fatigue of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and to investigate the characteristics of muscular fatigue in different sports, a Cybex machine was used to measure muscle fatigue and recovery during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Eighteen baseball players, 12 soccer players and 13 marathon runners were studied. Each subject was tested in the sitting position and made to perform 50 consecutive right knee bends and stretches at maximum strength. This was done 3 times with an interval of 10 min between each series. The peak torque to body weight ratio and the fatigue rate were determined in each case. In all subjects, the peak torque to body weight ratio was higher for extensors than flexors. Over the 3 trials, the fatigue rate of extensors showed little change, while that of flexors had a tendency to increase. In each subject, knee extensors showed a high fatigue rate but a quick recovery, while knee flexors showed a low fatigue rate but a slow recovery. As the marathon runners had the smallest fatigue rates for both flexors and extensors, we concluded that marathon runners had more stamina than baseball players and soccer players.
Achilles tendon: US examination
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Real-time ultrasonography (US) using linear-array probes and a stand-off pad as a ''waterpath'' was performed to evaluate the Achilles tendon in 67 patients (including 24 athletes) believed to have acute or chronic traumatic or inflammatory pathologic conditions. Tendons in 23 patients appeared normal on US scans. The 44 abnormal tendons comprised five complete and four partial ruptures, seven instances of postoperative change, and 28 cases of tendonitis. US depiction of the inner structure of the tendon resulted in the diagnosis of focal abnormalities, including partial ruptures, nodules, and calcifications. Tendonitis was characterized by enlargement and decreased echogenicity of the tendon.more » The normal US appearance of the Achilles tendon is described.« less
Do athletes alter their running mechanics after an Achilles tendon rupture?
Jandacka, Daniel; Silvernail, Julia Freedman; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Zahradnik, David; Farana, Roman; Hamill, Joseph
Over the past thirty years, there has been dramatic increase in incidence of Achilles tendon rupture in the athletic population. The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremity mechanics of Achilles tendon ruptured runners with healthy controls. The participants with a past history of an Achilles tendon repair ( n = 11) and healthy control ( n = 11) subgroups were matched on sex, age, type of regular physical activity, mass, height, footfall pattern and lateral dominancy. Running kinetics and kinematics of the ankle, knee and hip were recorded using a high-speed motion capture system interfaced with a force platform. Achilles tendon length was measured using ultrasonography. Main outcome measures were lower extremity joint angles and moments during stance phase of running and Achilles tendon lengths. Athletes from Achilles tendon group had an affected gastro-soleus complex. Athletes with history of Achilles tendon rupture had reduced ankle range of motion during second half of the stance phase of running (Δ7.6°), an overextended knee during initial contact (Δ5.2°) and increased affected knee range of motion (Δ4.4°) during the first half of stance phase on their affected limb compared to the healthy control group. There was a 22% increase in the maximal hip joint moment on contralateral side of the Achilles tendon group compared to the healthy controls. These results suggest a compensation mechanism, relatively extended knee at initial ground contact against the deficit in the muscle-tendon complex of the triceps surae. Overextension during sporting activities may place the knee at risk for further injury. Avoidance of AT lengthening and plantarflexion strength deficit after surgery and during rehabilitation might help to manage AT rupture since these factors may be responsible for altered running kinematics.
Tendon Tissue Engineering and Its Role on Healing of the Experimentally Induced Large Tendon Defect Model in Rabbits: A Comprehensive In Vivo Study
Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid; Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali
Healing of large tendon defects is challenging. We studied the role of collagen implant with or without polydioxanone (PDS) sheath on the healing of a large Achilles tendon defect model, in rabbits. Sixty rabbits were divided into three groups. A 2 cm gap was created in the left Achilles tendon of all rabbits. In the control lesions, no implant was used. The other two groups were reconstructed by collagen and collagen-PDS implants respectively. The animals were clinically examined at weekly intervals and their lesions were observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained from the animals and were assessed for hematological analysis and determination of serum PDGF level, at 60 days post injury (DPI). The animals were then euthanized and their lesions were assessed for gross and histopathology, scanning electron microscopy, biomechanical testing, dry matter and hydroxyproline content. Another 65 pilot animals were also studied grossly and histopathologically to define the host implant interaction and graft incorporation at serial time points. The treated animals gained significantly better clinical scoring compared to the controls. Treatment with collagen and collagen-PDS implants significantly increased the biomechanical properties of the lesions compared to the control tendons at 60DPI (P<0.05). The tissue engineered implants also reduced peritendinous adhesion, muscle fibrosis and atrophy, and increased ultrasonographical echogenicity and homogenicity, maturation and differentiation of the collagen fibrils and fibers, tissue alignment and volume of the regenerated tissue compared to those of the control lesions (P<0.05). The implants were gradually absorbed and substituted by the new tendon. Implantation of the bioimplants had a significant role in initiating tendon healing and the implants were biocompatible, biodegradable and safe for application in tendon reconstructive surgery. The results of the present study may be valuable in clinical practice. PMID
Surgical anatomy of the lower trapezius tendon transfer.
Omid, Reza; Cavallero, Matthew J; Granholm, Danielle; Villacis, Diego C; Yi, Anthony M
The precise surgical anatomy of the lower trapezius tendon transfer has not been well described. A precise anatomic description of the different trapezius segments and the associated neurovascular structures is crucial for operative planning and execution. We aimed (1) to establish a reliable demarcation between the middle and lower trapezius, (2) to establish the precise relationship of the main neurovascular pedicle to the muscle belly, and (3) to evaluate the utility of the relationships established in (1) and (2) by using the results of this study to perform cadaveric lower trapezius tendon harvest. In phase 1, a single surgeon performed all measurements using 10 cadavers. In phase 2, 10 cadaveric shoulders were used to harvest the tendon by using the relationships established in phase 1. We found anatomically distinct insertion sites for the lower and middle trapezius. The lower trapezius inserted at the scapular spine dorsum and the middle trapezius inserted broadly along the superior surface of the scapular spine. The distance from tip of tendon insertion to the nearest nerve at the most superior portion of the lower trapezius was 58 mm (standard deviation ± 18). By use of these relationships, there were no cases of neurovascular injury during our cadaveric tendon harvests. The lower trapezius can be reliably and consistently identified without violating fibers of the middle trapezius. Muscle splitting can be performed safely without encountering the spinal accessory nerve (approximately 2 cm medial to the medial scapular border). Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.
O'Neil, B A; Forsythe, M E; Stanish, W D
To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management.
Engineering tendon and ligament tissues: present developments towards successful clinical products.
Rodrigues, Márcia T; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E
Musculoskeletal diseases are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Among them, tendon and ligament injuries represent an important aspect to consider in both athletes and active working people. Tendon and ligament damage is an important cause of joint instability, and progresses into early onset of osteoarthritis, pain, disability and eventually the need for joint replacement surgery. The social and economical burden associated with these medical conditions presents a compelling argument for greater understanding and expanding research on this issue. The particular physiology of tendons and ligaments (avascular, hypocellular and overall structural mechanical features) makes it difficult for currently available treatments to reach a complete and long-term functional repair of the damaged tissue, especially when complete tear occurs. Despite the effort, the treatment modalities for tendon and ligament are suboptimal, which have led to the development of alternative therapies, such as the delivery of growth factors, development of engineered scaffolds or the application of stem cells, which have been approached in this review. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Analisys of pectoralis major tendon in weightlifting athletes using ultrasonography and elastography.
Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ferretti, Mario; Kawakami, Eduardo Felipe Kin Ito; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa; Yamada, Andre Fukunishi; Oliveira, Gabriela Clemente de; Cohen, Moisés; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno
To evaluate tendinopathy of the pectoralis major muscle in weightlifting athletes using ultrasound and elastography. This study included 20 patients, 10 with rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and 10 control patients. We evaluated pectoralis major muscle contralateral tendon with ultrasonographic and elastography examinations. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed using a high-resolution B mode ultrasound device. The elastography evaluation was classified into three patterns: (A), if stiff (more than 50% area with blue staining); (B), if intermediate (more than 50% green); and (C), if softened (more than 50% red). Patients' mean age was 33±5.3 years. The presence of tendinous injury measured by ultrasound had a significant different (p=0.0055), because 80% of cases had tendinous injury versus 10% in the Control Group. No significant differences were seen between groups related with change in elastography (p=0.1409). Long-term bodybuilders had ultrasound image with more tendinous injury than those in Control Group. There was no statistical significance regarding change in tendon elasticity compared with Control Group.
Analisys of pectoralis major tendon in weightlifting athletes using ultrasonography and elastography
Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ferretti, Mario; Kawakami, Eduardo Felipe Kin Ito; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa; Yamada, Andre Fukunishi; de Oliveira, Gabriela Clemente; Cohen, Moisés; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno
ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate tendinopathy of the pectoralis major muscle in weightlifting athletes using ultrasound and elastography. Methods This study included 20 patients, 10 with rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and 10 control patients. We evaluated pectoralis major muscle contralateral tendon with ultrasonographic and elastography examinations. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed using a high-resolution B mode ultrasound device. The elastography evaluation was classified into three patterns: (A), if stiff (more than 50% area with blue staining); (B), if intermediate (more than 50% green); and (C), if softened (more than 50% red). Results Patients’ mean age was 33±5.3 years. The presence of tendinous injury measured by ultrasound had a significant different (p=0.0055), because 80% of cases had tendinous injury versus 10% in the Control Group. No significant differences were seen between groups related with change in elastography (p=0.1409). Conclusion Long-term bodybuilders had ultrasound image with more tendinous injury than those in Control Group. There was no statistical significance regarding change in tendon elasticity compared with Control Group. PMID:26761551
Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.
Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.
Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy
Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:27065561
[Conservative treatment of a chronic rupture of Achilles tendon: case report].
González-Murillo, M; Rodrigo-Alonso, A; Figueiredo-González, H; Salgado-Rodrigo, A M; Mota-Blanco, S M
We report a case of a 64 years-old-female patient with ruptured left Achilles tendon within two months of evolution that has gone unnoticed. By the application of a conservative treatment recovered complete and symmetrical functionality in five months time after the injury.
Anatomic factors related to the cause of tennis elbow.
Bunata, Robert E; Brown, David S; Capelo, Roderick
The pathogenesis of lateral epicondylitis remains unclear. Our purpose was to study the anatomy of the lateral aspect of the elbow under static and dynamic conditions in order to identify bone-to-tendon and tendon-to-tendon contact or rubbing that might cause abrasion of the tissues. Eighty-five cadaveric elbows were examined to determine details related to the bone structure and musculotendinous origins. We identified the relative positions of the musculotendinous units and the underlying bone when the elbow was in different degrees of flexion. We also recorded the contact between the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the lateral edge of the capitellum as elbow motion occurred, and we sought to identify the areas of the capitellum and extensor carpi radialis brevis where contact occurs. The average site of origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis on the humerus lay slightly medial and superior to the outer edge of the capitellum. As the elbow was extended, the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis rubbed against the lateral edge of the capitellum while the extensor carpi radialis longus compressed the brevis against the underlying bone. The extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon has a unique anatomic location that makes its undersurface vulnerable to contact and abrasion against the lateral edge of the capitellum during elbow motion.
Application of biomechanics to tendon transfers.
Hoard, A S; Bell-Krotoski, J A; Mathews, R
This article has focused on considerations important in the application of biomechanics to tendon transfers and has used an example protocol. Different surgeries require different protocols. What is most important is that specific protocols are used, and that they are both safe and effective. The communication among the therapist, surgeon, and patient is essential with the use of any protocol. As Brand has stated, "A hand is a very personal thing. It is the interface between the patient and his or her world. It is an emblem of strength, beauty, skill, sexuality, and sensibility. When it is damaged it becomes a symbol of the vulnerability of the whole person." For the patient who has damage from nerve palsy, paralysis, or injury resulting in a dysfunctional hand, a tendon transfer procedure may prove to be a viable option to restore balance and function, especially if the biomechanics of deformity and correction are considered.
Autologous tenocyte implantation into shoulder tendon pathology in an elite swimmer.
Schwab, Laura M; Blanch, Peter; Young, Mark
The use of novel bioengineer treatment techniques such as Autologous Tenocyte Implantation (ATI) have shown promising improvements in both pain ratings and functional outcomes in elbow, gluteal and shoulder tendon pathology. This case will review the injury timeline of ATI intervention in an elite male swimmer with subscapularis tendon pathology and investigate whether ATI has a concomitant healing effect associated with improved functional outcomes. A palmaris longus tendon biopsy was performed and cells were expanded by in-vitro culture. Autologous tenocytes were injected into the subscapularis site identified. Three blinded radiologists reported on pre and post shoulder MRIs using the same 3T MRI protocol. A validated rating scale for severity of tendinopathy (0-3) and degree of tear (0-3) was used and hand-held Dynamometry (HHD) strength was recorded. Independent blinded radiology review demonstrated a significant reduction in tear size and improved tendon morphology. IR strength on HHD returned to baseline strength levels post ATI (231-253N) 6 weeks post intervention. The athlete returned to full training (volume and intensity) pain free and international level competition at 4 months post ATI. An athlete who had previously undergone unsuccessful conservative management demonstrated significant improvement in function and in tendon morphology post intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Treatment of acute and closed Achilles tendon ruptures by minimally invasive tenocutaneous suturing.
Ding, Wenge; Yan, Weihong; Zhu, Yaping; Liu, Zhiwei
Achilles tendon rupture is a common injury, and its complications can impair function. Numerous operations have been described for reconstructing the ruptured tendon, but these methods can compromise microcirculation in the tendon and can seriously impair its healing. Suturing with a minimally invasive tenocutaneous technique soon after the rupture and systematic functional exercise can greatly reduce the possibility of complications. Between June 1996 and February 2009, we treated 88 patients (54 males; age range, 21-66 years) with this method. After follow-up ranging from 1-7 years, the mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot score was 95 (range, 90-98), and the maximum length of postoperative scarring was 3 cm. One patient re-ruptured his Achilles tendon one year after surgery in an accident, but after 10 months, the repaired tendon was still intact. In another patient, the nervus suralis was damaged during surgery by piercing the tension suture at the near end, causing postoperative numbness and swelling. The tension suture was quickly removed, and the patient recovered well with conservative treatment. No large irregular scars, such as those sustained during immobilization, were present over the Achilles tendon. Minimally invasive percutaneous suturing can restore the original length and continuity of the Achilles tendon, is minimally invasive, and has fewer postoperative complications than other methods.
Baseball and softball injuries.
Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.
Extremity salvage with a free musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap and free tendon transfer after resection of a large congenital fibro sarcoma in a 15-week-old infant. A case report.
Germann, G; Waag, K-L; Selle, B; Jester, A
A case of complex microsurgical reconstruction of the dorsum of the foot, including tendon transfer following tumor resection, in a 15-week-old male infant is presented. After birth, a 5.5 x 4 cm large tumor was observed on the dorsum of the right foot. Biopsy showed a congenital malignant fibro sarcoma. After initial chemotherapy a radical excision of the tumor at the age of 14 weeks was followed. To cover the defect a musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap was taken, the cutaneous part being large enough to cover the defect. Extensor tendons were reconstructed with free tendon transplants. Amputation is usually indicated in these cases. To the best of our knowledge, microsurgical reconstruction in infants at this age with congenital malignant tumors has not yet been reported. The case shows that Plastic surgery can play an important role in pediatric oncology and should routinely be integrated into the multi-modal treatment concepts. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2006.
Modified tendon stripper for obtaining palmaris longus tendon graft.
Aköz, T; Altintaş, H; Civelek, B
Tendon graft harvesting is a challenging part of hand surgery. It is not only a time-consuming procedure but also carries the potential complications associated with it. Various alternatives for this procedure are presented in the literature to overcome these difficulties. In this paper, we are presenting a series of cases in which a newly modified tendon stripper was used for tendon graft harvesting.
ASSOCIATION OF ISOMETRIC STRENGTH OF HIP AND KNEE MUSCLES WITH INJURY RISK IN HIGH SCHOOL CROSS COUNTRY RUNNERS.
Luedke, Lace E; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Williams, D S Blaise; Rauh, Mitchell J
High school cross country runners have a high incidence of overuse injuries, particularly to the knee and shin. As lower extremity strength is modifiable, identification of strength attributes that contribute to anterior knee pain (AKP) and shin injuries may influence prevention and management of these injuries. To determine if a relationship existed between isometric hip abductor, knee extensor and flexor strength and the incidence of AKP and shin injury in high school cross country runners. Sixty-eight high school cross country runners (47 girls, 21 boys) participated in the study. Isometric strength tests of hip abductors, knee extensors and flexors were performed with a handheld dynamometer. Runners were prospectively followed during the 2014 interscholastic cross country season for occurrences of AKP and shin injury. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine risk relationships between strength values and occurrence of AKP and shin injury. During the season, three (4.4%) runners experienced AKP and 13 (19.1%) runners incurred a shin injury. Runners in the tertiles indicating weakest hip abductor (chi-square = 6.140; p=0.046), knee extensor (chi-square = 6.562; p=0.038), and knee flexor (chi-square = 6.140; p=0.046) muscle strength had a significantly higher incidence of AKP. Hip and knee muscle strength was not significantly associated with shin injury. High school cross country runners with weaker hip abductor, knee extensor and flexor muscle strength had a higher incidence of AKP. Increasing hip and knee muscle strength may reduce the likelihood of AKP in high school cross country runners. 2b.
The Achilles tendon total rupture score: a study of responsiveness, internal consistency and convergent validity on patients with acute Achilles tendon ruptures
Background The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was developed by a research group in 2007 in response to the need for a patient reported outcome measure for this patient population. Beyond this original development paper, no further validation studies have been published. Consequently the purpose of this study was to evaluate internal consistency, convergent validity and responsiveness of this newly developed patient reported outcome measure within patients who have sustained an isolated acute Achilles tendon rupture. Methods Sixty-four eligible patients with an acute rupture of their Achilles tendon completed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score alongside two further patient reported outcome measures (Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D). These were completed at baseline, six weeks, three months, six months and nine months post injury. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was evaluated for internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity, through correlation analysis and responsiveness, by analysing floor and ceiling effects and calculating its relative efficiency in comparison to the Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D scores. Results The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha > 0.8) and correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with the Disability Rating Index at five time points (pre-injury, six weeks, three, six and nine months) with correlation coefficients between -0.5 and -0.9. However, the confidence intervals were wide. Furthermore, the ability of the new score to detect clinically important changes over time (responsiveness) was shown to be greater than the Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D. Conclusions A universally accepted outcome measure is imperative to allow comparisons to be made across practice. This is the first study to evaluate aspects of validity of this newly developed outcome measure, outside of the developing centre. The ATRS demonstrated high internal consistency and
Doppler ultrasonography of the anterior knee tendons in elite badminton players: colour fraction before and after match.
Koenig, M J; Torp-Pedersen, S; Boesen, M I; Holm, C C; Bliddal, H
Anterior knee tendon problems are seldom reported in badminton players although the game is obviously stressful to the lower extremities. Painful anterior knee tendons are common among elite badminton players. The anterior knee tendons exhibit colour Doppler activity. This activity increases after a match. Painful tendons have more Doppler activity than tendons without pain. Cohort study. 72 elite badminton players were interviewed about training, pain and injuries. The participants were scanned with high-end ultrasound equipment. Colour Doppler was used to examine the tendons of 64 players before a match and 46 players after a match. Intratendinous colour Doppler flow was measured as colour fraction (CF). The tendon complex was divided into three loci: the quadriceps tendon, the proximal patellar tendon and the insertion on the tibial tuberosity. Interview: Of the 72 players, 62 players had problems with 86 tendons in the lower extremity. Of these 86 tendons, 48 were the anterior knee tendons. Ultrasound: At baseline, the majority of players (87%) had colour Doppler flow in at least one scanning position. After a match, the percentage of the knee complexes involved did not change. CF increased significantly in the dominant leg at the tibial tuberosity; single players had a significantly higher CF after a match at the tibial tuberosity and in the patellar tendon both before and after a match. Painful tendons had the highest colour Doppler activity. Most elite badminton players had pain in the anterior knee tendons and intratendinous Doppler activity both before and after match. High levels of Doppler activity were associated with self-reported ongoing pain.
A retrospective cohort study investigating risk factors for the failure of Thoroughbred racehorses to return to racing after superficial digital flexor tendon injury.
Tamura, N; Kodaira, K; Yoshihara, E; Mae, N; Yamazaki, Y; Mita, H; Kuroda, T; Fukuda, K; Tomita, A; Kasashima, Y
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate risk factors for the failure of Thoroughbred racehorses to return to racing after an injury of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). Successful return was defined as the completion of five or more races after SDFT injury. The official Japan Racing Association (JRA) medical records of racehorses with a core-type SDFT injury were reviewed for clinical variables related to the characteristics of the horse and the severity of SDFT injuries at the time of diagnosis. Data on racing outcomes were obtained from the official JRA racing database. Risk factors were screened using univariable logistic regression and subsequent multivariable model building. Forty-nine of 346 (14.2%) horses successfully returned to racing after SDFT injuries. Multivariable model building revealed that an increase in the total number of injured zones (defined as the total number of zones in which the injured hypoechoic area was observed at the time of ultrasonographic diagnosis of SDFT injury) was associated with an increased risk of failure to return to racing after SDFT injury. Horse characteristics, such as age, body mass and sex, were not associated with a successful return to racing. In the rehabilitation of cases with larger (longer) lesions, more effective and careful medical management may be needed for an improvement in the athletic outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knotless Repair of Achilles Tendon Rupture in an Elite Athlete: Return to Competition in 18 Weeks.
Byrne, Paul A; Hopper, Graeme P; Wilson, William T; Mackay, Gordon M
Rupture of the Achilles tendon is an increasingly common injury, particularly in physically active males, and current evidence favors minimally invasive surgical repair. We describe the case of a 36-year-old male elite bobsled athlete with complete rupture of the Achilles tendon. He was treated with surgical repair of the ruptured tendon using an innovative, minimally invasive procedure based on an internal bracing concept and was able to undergo early mobilization and aggressive physiotherapy rehabilitation. His recovery was such that he returned to training at 13 weeks postoperatively and participated in an international competition at 18 weeks, winning a World Cup silver medal. He subsequently raced at the 2014 Winter Olympic Games at 29 weeks after surgery. At >2 years since his injury, he has experienced no complications or reinjury. This represents an exceptional recovery that far exceeds the standard expected for such injuries. The use of this technique for athletes could enable accelerated return to sporting activity and attainment of their preinjury activity levels. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fos Promotes Early Stage Teno-Lineage Differentiation of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells in Tendon.
Chen, Jialin; Zhang, Erchen; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zeyu; Lu, Ping; Zhu, Ting; Yin, Zi; Backman, Ludvig J; Liu, Huanhuan; Chen, Xiao; Ouyang, Hongwei
Stem cells have been widely used in tendon tissue engineering. The lack of refined and controlled differentiation strategy hampers the tendon repair and regeneration. This study aimed to find new effective differentiation factors for stepwise tenogenic differentiation. By microarray screening, the transcript factor Fos was found to be expressed in significantly higher amounts in postnatal Achilles tendon tissue derived from 1 day as compared with 7-days-old rats. It was further confirmed that expression of Fos decreased with time in postnatal rat Achilles tendon, which was accompanied with the decreased expression of multiply tendon markers. The expression of Fos also declined during regular in vitro cell culture, which corresponded to the loss of tendon phenotype. In a cell-sheet and a three-dimensional cell culture model, the expression of Fos was upregulated as compared with in regular cell culture, together with the recovery of tendon phenotype. In addition, significant higher expression of tendon markers was found in Fos-overexpressed tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs), and Fos knock-down gave opposite results. In situ rat tendon repair experiments found more normal tendon-like tissue formed and higher tendon markers expression at 4 weeks postimplantation of Fos-overexpressed TSPCs derived nonscaffold engineering tendon (cell-sheet), as compared with the control group. This study identifies Fos as a new marker and functional driver in the early stage teno-lineage differentiation of tendon