Science.gov

Sample records for external bottom side

  1. A scaling law for the local CHF on the external bottom side of a fully submerged reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-02-01

    A scaling law for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water has been developed from the results of an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model for pool boiling on a downward facing curved heating surface. The scaling law accounts for the effects of the size of the vessel, the level of liquid subcooling, the intrinsic properties of the fluid, and the spatial variation of the local critical heat flux along the heating surface. It is found that for vessels with diameters considerably larger than the characteristic size of the vapor masses, the size effect on the local critical heat flux is limited almost entirely to the effect of subcooling associated with the local liquid head. When the subcooling effect is accounted for separately, the local CHF limit is nearly independent of the vessel size. Based upon the scaling law developed in this work, it is possible to merge, within the experimental uncertainties, all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes under both saturated and subcooled boiling conditions into a single curve. Applications of the scaling law to commercial-size vessels have been made for various system pressures and water levels above the heated vessel. Over the range of conditions explored in this study, the local CHF limit is found to increase by a factor of two or more from the bottom center to the upper edge of the vessel. Meanwhile, the critical heat flux at a given angular position of the heated vessel is also found to increase appreciably with the system pressure and the water level.

  2. 12. Bottom and side planking at stern, showing chine guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Bottom and side planking at stern, showing chine guard (to the right in photo) and copper ice sheathing on starboard side. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  3. 22. Bosun's locker from port side, washing machine, and bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Bosun's locker from port side, washing machine, and bottom of ladder to buoy deck. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SUMAC, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  4. General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery as it is being hoisted in a vertical position in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Bottom/Side Lift Gantry Conceptual Design Rev. 01

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, P.S.

    2000-04-11

    The purpose of this task is to update the existing bottom/side lift gantry analysis so that the design is consistent with Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II) design constraints listed in the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999a, Section 2.2.1.1, p. 9a). This update is consistent with the requirements of the Technical Guidance Document for License Application Preparation (YMP 1999, Section 6.2.5.1). This update will also take into account the latest available equipment classification and Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M and O 2000c) requirements. The principal objective of this analysis is to verify that the newly developed bottom/side lift gantry concept continues to be a suitable design concept for the current Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design. This analysis includes an examination of the waste package (WP) transfer operation at the emplacement drift transfer dock. In addition, this analysis verifies that the gantry is compatible with the WP transporter, which has been redesigned to handle WPs sitting on pallets (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this work is to examine the existing analysis and to determine what, if any, modifications to the analysis may be required as a result of additional requirements imposed by the EDA II concept. Then, a revision will be made to the conceptual design accordingly. The analysis will also be revised to show the approximate sizes and locations of the electrical equipment and control cabinets, and to take into account the weight of that equipment in the total gantry weight. The analytical portions of the analysis are revised, as required, to address changes resulting from modifications to the conceptual design or from changes in classification and/or SDD requirements. Finally, the revised conceptual design is evaluated to verify that it continues to be a suitable method for handling the WPs within the emplacement drift. Except as noted

  6. DURIP: Side Scan Sonar and Inertial Navigation System for AUV-Based Ocean Bottom/Sub-Bottom Mapping for Object Search/Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    code) 07/01/2009 Final report 4/1/05 - 9/30/07 DURIP: Side Scan Sonar and Inertial Navigation System for AUV-Based Ocean Bottom/Sub-Bottom Mapping for...534-1802 Reset Final Report DURIP: Side Scan Sonar and Inertial Navigation System for AUV-Based Ocean Bottom/Sub-Bottom Mapping for...Bluefin integrated into the AUV is a new-design multibeam sonar system specifically made for AUVs by Imagenex Technology Corp. This

  7. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Haralds; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results. Internal and external factors and indicators, which affect energy management potential in pellet production are analysed. Analysis of external factors is based on the state legal framework regulating the development of the energy sector. Methodology on the analysis of energy demand includes the internal energy management of an enterprise. The experimental results discussed in this paper show that particular steps, which are oriented to specific use of technological equipment, could play significant role in energy efficiency improvement in industry which is illustrated by the pre-milling process in the pellet production system using power.

  8. Top-down, bottom-up, and side-to-side proteomics with virtual 2-D gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Hayes, Richard; Yang, Yanan; Hung, Frank; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Kim, Nuri; Gunsalus, Robert; Loo, Joseph A.

    2005-02-01

    Intact protein masses can be measured directly from immobilized pH gradient (IPG) isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels loaded with mammalian and prokaryotic samples, as demonstrated here with murine macrophage and Methanosarcina acetivorans cell lysates. Mass accuracy and resolution is improved by employing instruments which decouple the desorption event from mass measurement; e.g., quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. MALDI in-source dissociation (ISD) is discussed as a means to pursue top-down sequencing for protein identification. Methods have been developed to enzymatically digest all proteins in an IEF gel simultaneously, leaving the polyacrylamide gel attached to its polyester support. By retaining all gel pieces and their placement relative to one another, sample handling and tracking are minimized, and comparison to 2-D gel images is facilitated. MALDI-MS and MS/MS can then be performed directly from dried, matrix-treated IPG strips following whole-gel trypsin digestion, bottom-up methodology. Side-to-side proteomics, highlighting the link between virtual and classical 2-D gel electrophoresis, is introduced to describe a method whereby intact masses are measured from one side (the IEF gel), while proteins are identified based on analyses performed from the other side (the SDS-PAGE gel).

  9. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-14

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls Darcy...to be adjacent to the tank walls . We used the Sub Sea Holo- deck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of...Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls . PLoS ONE 10(10): e0138690. doi

  10. Fluvial processes and passive rehabilitation of the Lisbon Bottom side-channel chute, Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Laustrup, Mark S.; Chapman, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Multiple large floods in 1993-1997 on the Lower Missouri River carved a side-channel chute through the river bottom at Lisbon, Missouri. Although similar in some respects to engineered side-channel chutes designed for habitat rehabilitation projects, the Lisbon Bottom chute has been unique in that it was allowed to evolve for more than four years with minimal stabilization. During the wet years, 1996-1999, the chute was subjected to abnormally high discharges and passed as much as 20% of the total discharge of the Missouri River. Relatively unrestrained fluvial processes during this time created a wide channel with highly diverse habitats. The upper one-half of the chute established a shallow, braided channel morphology similar to the pre-managed Missouri River. The lower half established a dynamically migrating, single-thread channel, and an incipient flood plain. Compared to the adjacent navigation channel, the chute established substantial areas of shallow, slow-velocity aquatic habitat that is considered to be in short supply in the present-day Lower Missouri River. The shortterm biological benefits have been mixed: the chute has fewer waterbird and benthic macroinvertebrate taxa than adjacent riverine habitats, but greater numbers of fish species compared to the navigation channel.

  11. Spectral characteristics of fluctuations in laboratory plasma simulating features of bottom side equatorial spread-F

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, G.; Bora, D.; Saxena, Y.C.

    1992-02-07

    Spectral characteristics of fluctuations in laboratory plasma under conditions similar to those obtained in equatorial F-region plasma, are presented. Essential characteristics of the bottom side of the night time equatorial F-region plasma, viz., density gradient antiparallel to gravity and perpendicular to the magnetic field, and magnetized electrons and ions are simulated in a toroidal laboratory plasma, where curved magnetic field produces effective gravity. Low frequency ({omega} < {Omega}{sub i}, k{rho}{sub i}, {much lt} 1) waves travelling in E {times} B direction are observed. The one dimensional k-spectrum (S(k) {infinity} k{sup n}) of density fluctuations exhibits two marked slopes with indices n = {minus}2.3 {plus minus} 0.3 and {times}4.4 {plus minus}0.2. Results are similar to the in-situ measurements in F-region and support theoretical predictions and numerical simulations based on Rayleigh-Taylor and universal drift instabilities.

  12. Nanoporous anodic titania observed at the bottom side of the oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapusta-Kołodziej, Joanna; Zaraska, Leszek; Sulka, Grzegorz Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    The morphology and pore arrangement of nanoporous anodic TiO2 arrays, prepared in the electrochemical cells with different sample alignments by the three-step self-organized anodic oxidation of titanium, were investigated at the bottom side of oxide layers. The quantitative analyses of pore spacing (cell size), pore density and pore arrangement were performed on the basis of FE-SEM bottom view images. The results show that the type of sample alignment and anodizing potential influence the pore spacing, pore density and pore arrangement. On the contrary, the anodizing temperature has a little effect on nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers. Quantitative information on the nanopore arrangement, based on Delaunay triangulations, is also provided. The cells, which are not six-fold coordinated by neighboring cells, were recognized as defects and the percentage of defects, defined as a ratio between the number of defective pores and number of all pores on the analyzed surface was calculated for all the samples. A quite poor hexagonal arrangement with a relatively high percentage of defective pores (above 30%) was found for all studied anodizing conditions. However, the least percentage of defective pores suggesting the best nanopore arrangement was obtained for the potential of 60 V and 50 V at 10 °C and 20 °C, respectively.

  13. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Darcy A A; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage.

  14. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Darcy A. A.; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R.; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  15. Carbon XANES Data from Six Aerogel Picokeystones Cut from the Top and Bottom Sides of the Stardust Comet Sample Tray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Tsou, P.; Peltzer, C.; Jacobsen, C.

    2009-03-01

    Nine aerogel picokeystones were cut from the top (comet-side) and bottom of the comet sample tray tiles for C XANES spectra analyses. Six of these keystones have been analyzed and four types of C XANES spectra have been found in the non-track containing aerogel.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Top and Bottom Surfaces for Single-Side and Double-Side Friction Stir Welded 7085-T7651 Aluminum Alloy Thick Plate Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weifeng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli

    2017-03-01

    Thick plate joints of 7085-T7451 aluminum alloy were obtained through both single-side and double-side friction stir welding (SS or DS-FSW). The chloride ions effects on the corrosion behavior of the top and bottom surfaces of the joints were examined by cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the corrosion susceptibility was suppressed significantly in the weld nugget zone, while the base material and heat-affected zone were prone to be corrosion attacked. For the SS-FSWed joint, the top surface showed a higher corrosion resistance than that of the bottom surface, but the larger corrosive heterogeneity was observed between the top and bottom surfaces compared with the two welds of DS-FSWed joint, which was confirmed by the morphology of corrosion attack. A deep insight on the microstructure of the joints indicates that the intermetallic particles played a key role in the corrosion behavior of the FSWed AA7085 aluminum alloy joints in chloride solution.

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Top and Bottom Surfaces for Single-Side and Double-Side Friction Stir Welded 7085-T7651 Aluminum Alloy Thick Plate Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weifeng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Thick plate joints of 7085-T7451 aluminum alloy were obtained through both single-side and double-side friction stir welding (SS or DS-FSW). The chloride ions effects on the corrosion behavior of the top and bottom surfaces of the joints were examined by cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the corrosion susceptibility was suppressed significantly in the weld nugget zone, while the base material and heat-affected zone were prone to be corrosion attacked. For the SS-FSWed joint, the top surface showed a higher corrosion resistance than that of the bottom surface, but the larger corrosive heterogeneity was observed between the top and bottom surfaces compared with the two welds of DS-FSWed joint, which was confirmed by the morphology of corrosion attack. A deep insight on the microstructure of the joints indicates that the intermetallic particles played a key role in the corrosion behavior of the FSWed AA7085 aluminum alloy joints in chloride solution.

  18. Submerged Gas Jet Penetration: A Study of Bubbling Versus Jetting and Side Versus Bottom Blowing in Copper Bath Smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapusta, Joël P. T.

    2017-06-01

    Although the bottom blowing ShuiKouShan process has now been widely implemented in China, in both lead and copper smelters, some doubts, questions, and concerns still seem to prevail in the metallurgical community outside China. In the author's opinion, part of these doubts and concerns could be addressed by a better general understanding of key concepts of submerged gas injection, including gas jet trajectory and penetration, and the concept, application, and benefits of sonic injection in jetting regime. To provide some answers, this article first offers a discussion on the historical developments of the theory and mathematical characterization of submerged gas jet trajectory, including the proposed criteria for the transition from bubbling to jetting regime and the application of the Prandtl-Meyer theory to submerged gas jets. A second part is devoted to a quantitative study of submerged gas jet penetration in copper bath smelting, including a comparison between bubbling and jetting regimes, and side versus bottom blowing. In the specific cases studied, the calculated gas jet axis trajectory length in jetting regime is 159 cm for bottom blowing, whereas it varies between 129 and 168 cm for side blowing for inclination angles of +18° to -30° to the horizontal. This means that side blowing in the jetting regime would provide a deeper penetration and longer gas jet trajectory than generally obtained by conventional bath smelting vessels such as the Noranda and Teniente reactors. The theoretical results of this study do corroborate the successful high-intensity practice of the slag make converting process at Glencore Nickel in Canada that operates under high oxygen shrouded injection in the jetting regime, and this would then suggest that retrofitting conventional low-pressure, side-blowing tuyeres of bath smelting and converting reactors with sonic injectors in jetting regime certainly appears as a valuable option for process intensification with higher oxygen

  19. Effect of a vibrating side wall on convective heat transfer in an enclosure with varying bottom wall temperature distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheimpour Angeneh, Saeid; Aktas, Murat K.

    This study mainly focuses on the thermal convection in a rectangular enclosure in the presence of streaming motion while temperature profile of bottom wall is sinusoidal. The effect of wall displacement amplitude and the bottom wall temperature profile on convective heat transfer in the enclosure are determined with the help of a parametric study. By vibrating side wall of the enclosure, oscillating flow is actuated. The top wall of the enclosure is kept at initial temperature and isothermal while the side walls are adiabatic. In order to predict the oscillatory and time averaged mean flow fields, fully compressible form of the Navier - Stokes equations are considered. Simulation of the convective transport in the enclosure is obtained by a control-volume method based, explicit computational scheme is used. The aim of this study is to provide interpretation of the flow and thermal transport physics. The influence of nonzero mean vibrational flow on the thermal convection from a surface with sinusoidal temperature distribution has never been investigated before. Conclusions may lead up to design of new heat removal applications.

  20. Mapping the Gulf of Maine with side-scan sonar: A new bottom-type classification for complex seafloors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W.A.; Kelley, J.T.; Dickson, S.M.; Belknap, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bedrock-framed seafloor in the northwestern Gulf of Maine is characterized by extreme changes in bathymetric relief and covered with a wide variety of surficial materials. Traditional methods of mapping cannot accurately represent the great heterogeneity of such a glaciated region. A new mapping scheme for complex seafloors, based primarily on the interpretation of side-scan sonar imagery, utilizes four easily recognized units: rock, gravel, sand and mud. In many places, however, the seafloor exhibits a complicated mixture or extremely 'patchy' distribution of the four basic units, which are too small to map individually. Twelve composite units, each a two-component mixture of the basic units, were established to represent this patchiness at a small scale (1:100,000). Using a geographic information system, these and all other available data (seismic profiles, grab samples, submersible dives and cores) were referenced to a common geographic base, superimposed on bathymetric contours and then integrated into surficial geologic maps of the regional inner continental shelf. This digital representation of the seafloor comprises a multidimensional, interactive model complete with explicit attributes (depth, bottom type) that allow for detailed analysis of marine environments.

  1. A worker stands behind the bottom side of the experiment platform for the Huygens probe in the PHSF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A worker in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) stands behind the bottom side of the experiment platform for the Huygens probe that will accompany the Cassini orbiter to Saturn during prelaunch processing testing and integration in that facility. The Huygens probe and the Cassini orbiter being processed at KSC are the two primary components of the Cassini spacecraft, which will be launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Air Station. Cassini will explore Saturn, its rings and moons for four years. The Huygens probe, designed and developed for the European Space Agency (ESA), will be deployed from the orbiter to study the clouds, atmosphere and surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The orbiter was designed and assembled at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. Following postflight inspections, integration of the 12 science instruments not already installed on the orbiter will be completed. Then, the parabolic high-gain antenna and the propulsion module will be mated to the orbiter, followed by the Huygens probe, which will complete spacecraft integration. The Cassini mission is targeted for an Oct. 6 launch to begin its 6.7-year journey to the Saturnian system. Arrival at the planet is expected to occur around July 1, 2004.

  2. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0–1.4 m·s-1; 1.4–3.4 m·s-1; 3.4–5.2 m·s-1; >5.2 m·s-1) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  3. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players' External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games.

    PubMed

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0-1.4 m·s(-1); 1.4-3.4 m·s(-1); 3.4-5.2 m·s(-1); >5.2 m·s(-1)) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  4. Dielectric relaxation and molecular dynamics of liquid crystalline side-chain oligoacrylates with 4-cyanazobensene side mesogenic groups in external electric or mechanical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonorova, N. A.; Borisova, T. I.; Stakhanov, A. I.; Shibaev, Valery P.

    1998-01-01

    Dielectric relaxation and molecular mobility have ben investigated over the frequency range 60Hz-1MHz between 160 degrees C and 150 degrees C for smectic side-chain oligoacrylates with 4-cyanazobenzene mesogenic side groups and methylene spacers of different length. The studied oligomers were oriented by electric or mechanic fields. In the range of subglass temperatures two dielectric processes were observed - the (gamma) 1 and the (beta) . The (gamma) 1 process reflects the local motion of the spacer groups and the (beta) process is connected with the local motion of the mesogenic moieties. the molecular mobility of the (gamma) 1 process increases with the spacer lengthening but at the same time in the case of the (beta) process the mobility is not changed. In LC state near Tg transition, the temperature-frequency dependencies of dielectric losses show two cooperative processes, the (alpha) - an the (delta) , related to the reorientation of the transverse or longitudinal components of the dipole moment of the mesogenic group, correspondingly. The preliminary orientation in external electric or mechanic fields leads to the establishment of planar or homeotropic orientation of the side mesogenic groups. The order parameters of oriented films were calculated. It was shown the planar or homeotropic orientation of mesogenic groups did not influence on relaxation times of the observed dielectric processes.

  5. Restoration of the Baltic Proper to a system in equilibrium with the external phosphorus supply in the presence of huge sustained internal supply connected to anoxic bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigebrandt, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The phosphorus (P) content of the water column of the Baltic Proper has increased by 20 % since the 1980s in spite of a simultaneous reduction by 50 % of the external supply from land-based human activities and runoff. A simple budget model explains that the increased P content is a result of sustained leakage of P from anoxic bottoms. At the present, the internal P supply from anoxic bottoms is about three times greater than the external supply. Restoration of the Baltic Proper to a less eutrophic state obviously requires that the internal source vanishes which requires that the deepwater is kept oxygenated during a long period. This will not likely happen by natural processes as long as the oxygen consumption in the deepwater is high due to high P content and high biological production in the water column. One might therefore consider man-made oxygenation to keep the deepwater bottoms oxygenated. In the presentation positive and negative effects of man-made oxygenation of the Baltic Proper are discussed based on recently published results from a pilot experiment in the Swedish By Fjord and from analyses of physical, ecological and biogeochemical conditions in the Baltic Proper.

  6. Externalities and School Enrollment Policy: A Supply-Side Analysis of School Choice in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kat Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This article is an in-progress examination of the current landscape of school choice in a well-known case of universal decentralization: New Zealand's public school system. Using a supply-side analysis of the implications of a specific policy--school enrollment schemes--this author seeks to test hypotheses about zoning and self-preservation using…

  7. Externalities and School Enrollment Policy: A Supply-Side Analysis of School Choice in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kat Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This article is an in-progress examination of the current landscape of school choice in a well-known case of universal decentralization: New Zealand's public school system. Using a supply-side analysis of the implications of a specific policy--school enrollment schemes--this author seeks to test hypotheses about zoning and self-preservation using…

  8. Measurement and simulation of top- and bottom-illuminated solar-blind AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with high external quantum efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, Moritz Helbling, Markus; Knigge, Andrea; Brunner, Frank; Weyers, Markus

    2015-12-28

    A comprehensive study on top- and bottom-illuminated Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors having different AlGaN absorber layer thickness is presented. The measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) shows pronounced threshold and saturation behavior as a function of applied bias voltage up to 50 V reaching about 50% for 0.1 μm and 67% for 0.5 μm thick absorber layers under bottom illumination. All experimental findings are in very good accordance with two-dimensional drift-diffusion modeling results. By taking into account macroscopic polarization effects in the hexagonal metal-polar +c-plane AlGaN/AlN heterostructures, new insights into the general device functionality of AlGaN-based MSM photodetectors are obtained. The observed threshold/saturation behavior is caused by a bias-dependent extraction of photoexcited holes from the Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN interface. While present under bottom illumination for any AlGaN layer thickness, under top illumination this mechanism influences the EQE-bias characteristics only for thin layers.

  9. Energy behavior on side structure in event of ship collision subjected to external parameters.

    PubMed

    Prabowo, Aditya Rio; Bae, Dong Myung; Sohn, Jung Min; Cao, Bo

    2016-11-01

    The safety of ships in regards to collisions and groundings, as well as the navigational and structural aspects of ships, has been improved and developed up to this day by technical, administrative and nautical parties. The damage resulting from collisions could be reduced through several techniques such as designing appropriate hull structures, ensuring tightness of cargo tanks as well as observation and review on structural behaviors, whilst accounting for all involved parameters. The position during a collision can be influenced by the collisions' location and angle as these parts are included in the external dynamics of ship collisions. In this paper, the results of several collision analyses using the finite element method were used and reviewed regarding the effect of location and angle on energy characteristic. Firstly, the capabilities of the structure and its ability to resist destruction in a collision process were presented and comparisons were made to other collision cases. Three types of collisions were identified based on the relative location of contact points to each other. From the results, it was found that the estimation of internal energy by the damaged ships differed in range from 12%-24%. In the second stage, the results showed that a collision between 30 to 60 degrees produced higher level energy than a collision in the perpendicular position. Furthermore, it was concluded that striking and struck objects in collision contributed to energy and damage shape.

  10. Conventional and conformal technique of external beam radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: Dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutrikah, N.; Winarno, H.; Amalia, T.; Djakaria, M.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare conventional and conformal techniques of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in terms of the dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on cervical cancer patients who underwent EBRT before brachytherapy in the Radiotherapy Department of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The prescribed dose distribution, tumor response, and acute side effects of EBRT using conventional and conformal techniques were investigated. In total, 51 patients who underwent EBRT using conventional techniques (25 cases using Cobalt-60 and 26 cases using a linear accelerator (LINAC)) and 29 patients who underwent EBRT using conformal techniques were included in the study. The distribution of the prescribed dose in the target had an impact on the patient’s final response to EBRT. The complete response rate of patients to conformal techniques was significantly greater (58%) than that of patients to conventional techniques (42%). No severe acute local side effects were seen in any of the patients (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grades 3-4). The distribution of the dose and volume to the gastrointestinal tract affected the proportion of mild acute side effects (RTOG grades 1-2). The urinary bladder was significantly greater using conventional techniques (Cobalt-60/LINAC) than using conformal techniques at 72% and 78% compared to 28% and 22%, respectively. The use of conformal techniques in pelvic radiation therapy is suggested in radiotherapy centers with CT simulators and 3D Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (RTPSs) to decrease some uncertainties in radiotherapy planning. The use of AP/PA pelvic radiation techniques with Cobalt-60 should be limited in body thicknesses equal to or less than 18 cm. When using conformal techniques, delineation should be applied in the small bowel, as it is considered a critical organ according to RTOG

  11. Prevalence and Predicting Factors for Commonly Neglected Sexual Side Effects to External-Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Frey, Anders; Pedersen, Christian; Lindberg, Henriette; Bisbjerg, Rasmus; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-04-01

    Changes in sexual function other than erectile dysfunction are sparsely investigated after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. To investigate orgasmic dysfunction, urinary incontinence during sexual activity, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis in patients with prostate cancer treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). In February 2015, men treated with EBRT at our center 3 months to 5 years previously (N = 519) received a study-specific questionnaire. This was developed from purpose-built questions and validated tools including the Erection Hardness Scale. All patients had received a radiation dose of 78 Gy. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to disease characteristics. Outcome measurements were prevalence rates and predictors of these side effects as identified by multivariate logistic regression analyses. One hundred nine patients were eligible (sexually active and had completed androgen deprivation therapy) for inclusion. Twenty-four percent reported anorgasmia, 44% reported a decreased intensity of their orgasms, and 40% reported that the time it took to reach orgasm had increased. Eleven percent reported anejaculation. Fifteen percent reported orgasm-associated pain. Only 4% reported urinary incontinence during sexual activity. Subjective penile length loss in excess of 1 cm was reported by 42%. Twelve percent reported an altered curvature of their penis after EBRT. Six percent reported painful erections. Twenty-seven percent reported decreased sensitivity in the penis after EBRT, 2% reported a cold sensation, and 2% reported paresthesia. Increasing time since final treatment increased the risk of penile sensory disturbances (odds ratio = 1.05; P = .028). Orgasmic dysfunction, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis are common side effects of ERBT. Patients should be properly informed of the occurrence of these side effects before deciding which treatment to

  12. A Comparison Study of the Oxygen-Rich Side Blow Furnace and the Oxygen-Rich Bottom Blow Furnace for Liquid High Lead Slag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hao, Zhandong; Yang, Tianzu; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Zhang, Li; Bin, Shu; Bin, Wanda

    2015-05-01

    This work investigates the characteristics of the oxygen-rich side blow furnace (OSBF) and the oxygen-rich bottom blow furnace (OBBF) as the reductive smelting reactor for molten high lead slag. The slags were collected from different sampling points of these furnaces during a regular high lead slag reduction process and analyzed. It is disclosed that lead content of the melt in the OSBF shows dramatic fluctuations, while melt from different sampling points of the furnace behave similarly, exhibiting the characteristics of batch reactor. An obvious axial lead content gradient is detected in the OBBF, showing the characteristics of a plug flow reactor. The industrial performances of these furnaces are also compared. The results indicate that 1.38% higher lead recovery can be achieved by using the OSBF instead of the OBBF. Unit energy consumptions of the OBBF-OSBF and OBBF-OBBF processes can be reduced to 230 kgce/ t crude lead, which is 70 kgce/ t crude lead less than that of the tradition Shuikoushan (SKS) process.

  13. T-Stenting-and-Small-Protrusion Technique for Bifurcation Stenoses After End-to-Side Anastomosis of Transplant Renal Artery and External Iliac Artery: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong Ye, Peng; Jiang, Wen-jin; Ma, Shuo-yi Zhao, Jian-bo Zeng, Qing-le

    2015-10-15

    Bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery (TRA) and external iliac artery (EIA), including stenoses at the anastomosis and the iliac artery proximal to the TRA, are rare. In the present article, we report two successfully managed cases of bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of the TRA and EIA using the technique of T-stenting and small protrusion (TAP stenting)

  14. Comparison of a reverse-transverse cross pin technique with a same side cross pin type II external skeletal fixator in 89 dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kun-Yang; Pead, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel reverse-transverse cross pin insertion technique could increase the stability of type II external skeletal fixators (ESF) in dogs compared with an alternate, same side cross pin ESF. Reverse-transverse cross pin technique and type II ESFs same side cross pin technique were applied and compared among subjects. Two of 42 ESFs (4.8%) applied with the reverse-transverse cross pin technique and 39 of 47 ESFs (83%) applied with the same side cross pin technique were subjectively unstable at the time of fixator removal (P < 0.001). The same side cross pin ESFs had significantly more pin tract new bone formation than the reverse-transverse ESFs (P = 0.038). In summary, this approach may provide a method of treating a variety of musculoskeletal conditions and soft tissue cases, which reverse-transverse cross pin ESFs are tolerated in dogs for a variety of conditions.

  15. External Store Airloads Prediction Technique. Volume 2. Detailed Data. Book 3. MER Carriage Side Force and Yawing Moment Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    STORE.AIRLOADS- PREDICTION TE-CHNIQUE 0: VOLUMEE DETAILED DATA. BOOK 3. MER CARRIAGE SIDE FORCE AND YAWING MOMENT PREDICTIONS, VOUGHT SYSTEMS DIVISION...OF CONTENTS Section Title Page No. IV MER Carriage Airload Prediction ..................... 385 4.1 Side Force...obtain an initial prediction for the side force, yawing moment, normal force, and pitching moment components for the two rack centerline stations (MIR

  16. Exercise therapy for treatment of supraspinatus tears does not alter glenohumeral kinematics during internal/external rotation with the arm at the side.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Gerald A; Miller, R Matthew; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Tashman, Scott; Irrgang, James J; Musahl, Volker; Debski, Richard E

    2017-09-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a significant clinical problem, with exercise therapy being a common treatment option for patients. Failure rates of exercise therapy may be due to the failure to improve glenohumeral kinematics. Tears involving the supraspinatus may result in altered glenohumeral kinematics and joint instability for internal/external rotation with the arm at the side because not all muscles used to stabilize the glenohumeral joint are functioning normally. The objective of the study is to assess in vivo glenohumeral kinematic changes for internal/external rotation motions with the arm at the side of patients with a symptomatic full-thickness supraspinatus tear before and after a 12-week exercise therapy programme. Five patients underwent dynamic stereoradiography analysis before and after a 12-week exercise therapy protocol to measure changes in glenohumeral kinematics during transverse plane internal/external rotation with the arm at the side. Patient-reported outcomes and shoulder strength were also evaluated. No patient sought surgery immediately following exercise therapy. Significant improvements in isometric shoulder strength and patient-reported outcomes were observed (p < 0.05). No significant changes in glenohumeral kinematics following physical therapy were found. Isolated supraspinatus tears resulted in increased joint translations compared to healthy controls from the previous literature for internal/external rotation with the arm at the side. Despite satisfactory clinical outcomes following exercise therapy, glenohumeral kinematics did not change. The lack of changes may be due to the motion studied or the focus of current exercise therapy protocols being increasing shoulder strength and restoring range of motion. Current exercise therapy protocols should be adapted to also focus on restoring glenohumeral kinematics to improve joint stability since exercise therapy may have different effects depending on the motions of daily living. Prognostic

  17. Optically controllable dual-mode switching in single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to one side-mode feedback and external single mode injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Wei; Won, Yong Hyub

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, broadly tunable dual-mode lasing system is presented and demonstrated based on single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to the feedback of one side mode amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier in the external feedback cavity. The spacing between two resonance modes in output lasing spectrum is broadly tuned by introducing differently amplified side mode into the single-mode laser via the external cavity consisted of amplifier, filter, and polarization controller so that two difference frequencies of 1 THz and 0.6 THz are given to display the tunable behavior of dual-mode emission in this work. Therefore, under an external injection mode into the laser condition, the power dependent injection locking and optical bistability of generated dual-mode emission are discussed in detail. At different wavelength detunings, the emitted two resonance modes including the dominant and feedback modes are switched to on- or off-state by selecting proper high-low power level of the external injection mode. As a consequence, the maximum value of achieved dual-mode on-off ratio is as high as up to 45 dB.

  18. Retrospective study and review of ocular radiation side effects following external-beam Cobalt-60 radiation therapy in 37 dogs and 12 cats.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Chantale L; Mutsaers, Anthony J; Mayer, Monique N; Woods, J Paul

    2012-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the ocular side effects of cancer-bearing dogs and cats treated with external-beam Cobalt-60 (Co-60) radiation in which one or both orbit(s) were included in the radiation field. A total of 37 dogs and 12 cats presented to the Ontario Veterinary College during the 10-year study period (1999-2009) were evaluated. The radiation protocols ranged from a maximum of 60 Gray (Gy) in 24 fractions for curative intent to a minimum of 8 Gy in 1 fraction for palliative treatment. The main ocular side effect reported in both dogs and cats was conjunctivitis (79% and 55%, respectively). Other common ocular side effects included eyelid lesions in dogs (44%), ulcerative keratitis in cats (36%), and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in both dogs and cats (44% and 27%, respectively). The high incidence of ocular side effects in both patient populations indicates a need for regular ophthalmic examinations as a component of routine follow-up for radiation therapy involving the orbit. Radiation damage to ocular tissues is also reviewed.

  19. The effect of external ankle support on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower limb during a side step cutting task in netballers.

    PubMed

    Greene, Andrew John; Stuelcken, Max Christian; Smith, Richard Murray; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Excessive knee valgus moments are considered to be a risk factor for non-contact injuries in female athletes. Knee injuries are highly prevalent in netballers and are significant in terms of cost and disability. The aim of the study was to identify if changes in external ankle support mechanisms effect the range of motion and loading patterns at the ankle and knee joint during a sidestep cutting manoeuvre in high performance netball players. Netballers with no previously diagnosed ankle or knee injury (n = 10) were recruited from NSW Institute of Sport netball programme. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected simultaneously using a 3-D Motion Analysis System and a force platform to measure ground reaction forces. Players performed repeated side step cutting manoeuvres whilst wearing a standard netball shoe, the same shoe with a lace-up brace and a high-top shoe. The brace condition significantly reduced ankle joint ROM in the sagittal plane by 8.9° ± 2.4 when compared to the standard netball shoe (p = 0.013). No other significant changes were seen between conditions for either kinematic or kinetic data. All shoe conditions did however produce knee valgus moments throughout the cutting cycle that were greater than those considered excessive in the previous literature (0.59 Nm/kg-Bwt). The results show that an external ankle support brace can be used to reduce the ROM at the ankle in the sagittal plane without affecting the loading of the joints of the lower limb. Internal varus moments generated at the knee during the task were however greater than values reported in the literature to classify excessive knee joint moments, regardless of the condition. All netballers exhibited lower extremity patterns and alignments previously associated with increased peak external valgus moments including; increasing hip abduction, peak hip flexion and internal rotation during early contact and high laterally directed ground reaction forces. Increased external

  20. Ca2+ acting at the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane can stimulate mitochondrial permeability transition induced by phenylarsine oxide.

    PubMed

    Kowaltowski, A J; Castilho, R F

    1997-12-15

    Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) induced by the thiol cross-linker phenylarsine oxide (PhAsO) in Ca(2+)-depleted mitochondria incubated in the presence of ruthenium red, an inhibitor of the Ca2+ uniporter, is stimulated by the addition of extramitochondrial Ca2+. The presence of extramitochondrial Ca2+ stimulates the reaction of mitochondrial membrane protein thiol groups with PhAsO. Both Ca(2+)-induced increase in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and protein thiol group reaction with PhAsO are dependent on time (5-10 min to be complete) and the concentration of Ca2+ (1-25 microM). Mitochondrial permeabilization induced by PhAsO (15 microM) and extramitochondrial Ca2+ is inhibited by ADP, cyclosporin A, dibucaine and Mg2+, while mitochondrial permeabilization induced by high concentrations of PhAsO (60 microM) in the absence of Ca2+ is inhibited only by ADP and cyclosporin A. These results suggest that dibucaine and Mg2+ can inhibit mitochondrial permeabilization by antagonizing the effect of Ca2+ on the mitochondrial membrane. Once mitochondrial permeabilization induced by 15 microM PhAsO and extramitochondrial Ca2+ has already occurred, the addition of the Ca2+ chelator EGTA restores mitochondrial membrane potential (MPT pore closure), suggesting that the presence of Ca2+ is essential for the maintenance of the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane to protons (MPT pore opening). In conclusion, the results presented indicate that low Ca2+ concentrations acting at the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane can stimulate mitochondrial permeability transition induced by PhAsO, due to increased accessibility of protein thiol groups to the reaction with PhAsO and increased probability of MPT pore opening.

  1. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  2. N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid-N'-methylamide with side-chain orientation capable of external hydrogen bonding . Backbone and side-chain folding, studied at the DFT level of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, J. C. P.; Chass, G. A.; Perczel, A.; Farkas, Ö.; Varro, A.; Torday, L. L.; Papp, J. Gy.; Csizmadia, I. G.

    2002-09-01

    In this study, we generated and analyzed the side-chain conformational potential energy hypersurfaces for each of the nine possible backbone conformers for N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid-N' methylamide. We found a total of 27 out of the 81 possible conformers optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The relative energies, as well as the stabilization energies exerted by the side-chain on the backbone, have been calculated for each of the 27 optimized conformers at this level of theory. Various backbone-backbone (N H{\\cdot}{\\cdot}{\\cdot}O=C) and backbone-side-chain (N H{\\cdot}{\\cdot}{\\cdot}O=C; N H{\\cdot}{\\cdot}{\\cdot}OH) hydrogen bonds were analyzed. The appearance of the notoriously absent \\varepsilon_L backbone conformer may be attributed to such side-chain-backbone (SC/BB) and backbone-backbone (BB/BB) hydrogen bonds.

  3. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  4. Bottom Reflection Coefficient.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SONAR SIGNALS, *UNDERWATER SOUND SIGNALS, SOUND TRANSMISSION, ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION, REVERBERATION, TRANSMISSION LOSS, ACOUSTIC REFLECTION, SOUND RANGING, BOTTOM LOSS, DEEP SCATTERING LAYERS, BOTTOM BOUNCE .

  5. Audiological evaluation and self-assessed hearing problems in subjects with single-sided congenital external ear malformations and associated conductive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Priwin, Claudia; Jönsson, Radi; Magnusson, Lennart; Hultcrantz, Malou; Granström, Gösta

    2007-04-01

    Previously, unilateral hearing impairment (UHI) has been considered of little consequence. However, a recent meta-analysis of children with UHI displayed educational and behavioural problems and possible delays of speech and language development. Further, patients with UHI consequently report hearing difficulties. Our study investigated hearing function, possible inner ear protection, and self-assessed hearing problems in 57 subjects aged between 3-80 years with single-sided congenital ear malformations and conductive UHI. Pure-tone thresholds and speech recognition (quiet, noise) were measured, and all patients completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Pure-tone thresholds corresponding to sensorineural function did not significantly differ between the normal (air conduction) and affected ear (bone conduction). However, speech recognition in both quiet and in noise was normal on the non-affected side but significantly worse on the malformed side. A moderate to high degree of self-assessed hearing problems were reported. In conclusion, hearing function in the affected ear was found to be subnormal in terms of supra threshold signal processing. Furthermore, a high degree of hearing difficulty was reported. Therefore, active treatment, surgery, or hearing amplification, might be considered.

  6. Characterization of a Louisiana Bay Bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, A. M.; Roberts, H. H.

    2016-02-01

    This study correlates side-scan sonar and CHIRP water bottom-subbottom acoustic amplitudes with cone penetrometer data to expand the limited understanding of the geotechnical properties of sediments in coastal Louisiana's bays. Standardized analysis procedures were developed to characterize the bay bottom and shallow subsurface of the Sister Lake bay bottom. The CHIRP subbottom acoustic data provide relative amplitude information regarding reflection horizons of the bay bottom and shallow subsurface. An amplitude analysis technique was designed to identify different reflectance regions within the lake from the CHIRP subbottom profile data. This amplitude reflectivity analysis technique provides insight into the relative hardness of the bay bottom and shallow subsurface, useful in identifying areas of erosion versus deposition from storms, as well as areas suitable for cultch plants for state oyster seed grounds, or perhaps other restoration projects. Side-scan and CHIRP amplitude reflectivity results are compared to penetrometer data that quantifies geotechnical properties of surface and near-surface sediments. Initial results indicate distinct penetrometer signatures that characterize different substrate areas including soft bottom, storm-deposited silt-rich sediments, oyster cultch, and natural oyster reef areas. Although amplitude analysis of high resolution acoustic data does not directly quantify the geotechnical properties of bottom sediments, our analysis indicates a close relationship. The analysis procedures developed in this study can be applied in other dynamic coastal environments, "calibrating" the use of synoptic acoustic methods for large-scale water bottom characterization.

  7. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  8. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  9. Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Side effects are problems that occur when treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about, ways to manage these problems, and treatment options.

  10. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  11. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  12. 48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda bottle liter at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary Brown, William Detmold, Stefan Meinel, Konstantinos Orginos

    2012-09-01

    The arena of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. This has led to a great deal of theoretical effort being put forth in the calculation of mass spectra in this sector. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of experiments for some time, it is interesting to compare results between lattice QCD computations and continuum theoretical models. Several recent lattice QCD calculations exist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. In this work we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of the mass spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. The wide range of quark masses in these systems require that the various flavors of quarks be treated with different lattice actions. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. The calculation of the ground state spectrum is presented and compared to recent models.

  14. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  15. The impact on floats or hulls during landing as affected by bottom width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewes, E

    1936-01-01

    For floats and hulls having V bottoms the impact force does not necessarily increase with increasing width. Therefore, the weight of the float landing gear, side walls, and other parts, and of the fuselage construction need not be increased with increasing bottom width, but the weight of the bottom construction itself, on the other hand, does not increase with increase in bottom width and is largely determined by the type of construction.

  16. Sea bottom topography imaging with SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderkooij, M. W. A.; Wensink, G. J.; Vogelzang, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that under favorable meteorological and hydrodynamical conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas can be mapped with airborne or spaceborne imaging radar. This phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1969 by de Loor and co-workers in Q-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery of sandwaves in the North Sea. It is now generally accepted that the imaging mechanism consists of three steps: (1) interaction between (tidal) current and bottom topography causes spatial modulations in the surface current velocity; (2) modulations in the surface current velocity give rise to variations in the spectrum of wind-generated waves, as described by the action balance equation; and (3) variations in the wave spectrum show up as intensity modulations in radar imagery. In order to predict radar backscatter modulations caused by sandwaves, an imaging model, covering the three steps, was developed by the Dutch Sea Bottom Topography Group. This model and some model results will be shown. On 16 Aug. 1989 an experiment was performed with the polarimetric P-, L-, and C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of NASA/JPL. One scene was recorded in SAR mode. On 12 Jul. 1991 another three scenes were recorded, of which one was in the ATI-mode (Along-Track Interferometer). These experiments took place in the test area of the Sea Bottom Topography Group, 30 km off the Dutch coast, where the bottom topography is dominated by sand waves. In-situ data were gathered by a ship in the test area and on 'Measuring Platform Noordwijk', 20 km from the center of the test area. The radar images made during the experiment were compared with digitized maps of the bottom. Furthermore, the profiles of radar backscatter modulation were compared with the results of the model. During the workshop some preliminary results of the ATI measurements will be shown.

  17. Side mounted EMS for aluminium scrap melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, M.; Tallbaeck, G.; Hanley, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Normally the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) is placed below the furnace. However it has recently been found that the EMS can also be placed at the side of the furnace, still giving good stirring. This makes it possible to install EMS on most existing furnaces. The side-mounted EMS is compared with the standard bottom-mounted stirrer with respect to installation, melting time and flow pattern in the melt. The major conclusion is that a side-mounted EMS is practical and will give about as good a performance as the bottom-mounted. Melting time estimates are based upon 3-D fluid flow and heat transfer predictions in combination with a simplified scrap melting theory. Predicted melting times are in fair agreement with operational data for mechanically stirred and electromagnetically bottom stirred furnaces.

  18. STS-45 external tank (ET) falls back to Earth after jettisoning from OV-104

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-03-24

    STS045-71-001 (24 March 1992) --- This 70mm photograph of the external fuel tank (ET) for STS-45 was photographed 4 1/2 minutes after having been jettisoned from Space Shuttle Atlantis. The excellent view of the starboard side of the ET shows both top and bottom attach points to the two solid rocket boosters (SRB). NASA engineers studying the STS-45 onboard photography deem the visible burn scars, caused by the SRBs, to be normal. The long thin pipe visible is the liquid oxygen line. At the bottom end of the large tank, both the liquid oxygen (nearest camera) and liquid hydrogen orbiter-to-ET attach hardware can be seen.

  19. Moon - Western Near Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  20. An inexpensive bottom water sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Allen; Carmichael, Aaron; De Angelis, Marie A.

    1997-05-01

    An inexpensive PVC bottom water sampler for collecting near-bottom water samples at a precise height (0.5 to 2.0 m) above the water/sediment interface is described. The RCD (Reed, Carmichael, de Angelis) bottom water sampler can be used with a standard oceanographic hydrowinch, can be made of readily available material (PVC pipe), costs under $300.00 to build, can be built in under 24 hours, is completely mechanical, and can be modified to fit specific needs. The RCD bottom water sampler was successfully tested in northern California coastal waters at depths up to 1071 m.

  1. Vacuum still bottoms viscometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dinsmore, T.V.; Wilson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A viscometer system that is capable of measuring VSB viscosity on-line has been designed, constructed, and tested. The viscometer will not only provide continuous on-line measurements for process control purposes, but will also determine viscosity as functions of temperature and shear rate. The latter results may be used to verify design-base information for direct coal liquefaction demonstration plants. The viscosities of Wilsonville samples of VSB and LSRC were determined as functions of shear rate and, in the case of LSRC, temperature. The VSB viscosity was found to be shear-rate sensitive, while the LSRC viscosity was temperature sensitive. A 24-h test run was unsuccessful, apparently because the check valves in the pump plugged; however, all other mechanical, electrical, and electronic equipment operated satisfactorily. The source of the plugging was thought to be degradation products, which should not cause difficulties in the pilot plant where fresh vacuum bottoms feed is always available. In summary, the results obtained in this study indicate that the viscometer system is ready to be transported to a plant such as Wilsonville and operated on-line. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Bottom ash boosts poor soil

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, D.

    1993-04-01

    This article describes agricultural uses of fluidized bed bottom ash residue from burning limestone and coal in electric power generating plants: as a limestone substitute, to increase calcium levels in both soil and plants, and as a gypsom-containing soil amendment. Apples and tomatoes are the crops used. The industrial perspective and other uses of bottom ash are also briefly described.

  3. 28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 13. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  4. 16. Detail of starboard side of vessel near stern showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of starboard side of vessel near stern showing rail, sheer guard, copper ice sheathing, chine guard, and bottom planking. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  5. EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south side of the building including the diesel fuel tank and bottom portion of a stack - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  6. 4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridgeleft side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridge-left side) and 1959 bridge (right side) across Carquinez Strait. Town of Crockett is on south bank (bottom of image). C&H sugar factory is along the strait to the east (right) side of the 1959 bridge. The toll plaza is at the top of the image on the 1959 bridge side. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Comment: PAGES: Always Bottom Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Raymond

    2004-06-01

    In a recent article titled ``Back to the Future'' (Eos, 16 March, p. 107) L. C. Witton lays out the goals of IGBP-PAGES for the next few years, noting that, ``PAGES is aiming to become a truly bottom-up organization that is driven by the insights of individual scientists....'' In fact, PAGES has always been a truly bottom-up organization, and this statement unfortunately fosters the view that it has been otherwise. Those who promote such a view choose to overlook the countless workshops that PAGES has organized, largely at the suggestion of those ``at the bottom,'' and the numerous publications that have resulted from these meetings.

  8. Swimming in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Microswimmers move autonomously but are subject to external fields, which influence their swimming path and their collective dynamics. With three concrete examples we illustrate swimming in external fields and explain the methodology to treat it. First, an active Brownian particle shows a conventional sedimentation profile in a gravitational field but with increased sedimentation length and some polar order along the vertical. Bottom-heavy swimmers are able to invert the sedimentation profile. Second, active Brownian particles interacting by hydrodynamic flow fields in a three-dimensional harmonic trap can spontaneously break the isotropic symmetry. They develop polar order, which one can describe by mean-field theory reminiscent to Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, and thereby pump fluid. Third, a single microswimmer shows interesting non-linear dynamics in Poiseuille flow including swinging and tumbling trajectories. For pushers, hydrodynamic interactions with bounding surfaces stabilize either straight swimming against the flow or tumbling close to the channel wall, while pushers always move on a swinging trajectory with a specific amplitude as limit cycle.

  9. Nanoelectronics from the bottom up.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Lieber, Charles M

    2007-11-01

    Electronics obtained through the bottom-up approach of molecular-level control of material composition and structure may lead to devices and fabrication strategies not possible with top-down methods. This review presents a brief summary of bottom-up and hybrid bottom-up/top-down strategies for nanoelectronics with an emphasis on memories based on the crossbar motif. First, we will discuss representative electromechanical and resistance-change memory devices based on carbon nanotube and core-shell nanowire structures, respectively. These device structures show robust switching, promising performance metrics and the potential for terabit-scale density. Second, we will review architectures being developed for circuit-level integration, hybrid crossbar/CMOS circuits and array-based systems, including experimental demonstrations of key concepts such lithography-independent, chemically coded stochastic demultipluxers. Finally, bottom-up fabrication approaches, including the opportunity for assembly of three-dimensional, vertically integrated multifunctional circuits, will be critically discussed.

  10. Non-destructive Analysis Reveals Effect of Installation Details on Plywood Siding Performance

    Treesearch

    Christopher G. Hunt; Gregory T. Schueneman; Steven Lacher; Xiping Wang; R. Sam Williams

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a variety of construction techniques on the performance of plywood siding and the applied paint, using both ultrasound and conventional visual inspection techniques. The impact of bottom edge contact, flashing vs. caulking board ends, priming the bottom edge, location (Wisconsin vs. Mississippi) and a gap behind the siding to...

  11. Performance Prediction Model for Bottom Bounce Operation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION, *BOTTOM LOSS, *BOTTOM BOUNCE , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO, ACOUSTIC DETECTION, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, COMPUTER APPLICATIONS, RAY TRACING, REVERBERATION, AMBIENT NOISE, SONAR.

  12. 18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS 3 AND 12, FACING WEST. COMPRESSED AIR TANK AND GENERATOR AT STATION 3. CURTAIN FOR NORTH ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR VISIBLE ON LEFT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH; RAIL VISIBLE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Effects of substrate induced respiration on the stability of bottom ash in landfill cover environment.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, A; Lovat, E; Persson, K M

    2014-12-01

    The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is being increasingly used to construct landfill covers in Sweden. In post-closure, owing to increased cover infiltration, the percolating water can add external organic matter to bottom ash. The addition and subsequent degradation of this external organic matter can affect metal mobility through complexation and change in redox conditions. However, the impacts of such external organic matter addition on bottom ash stability have not been fully evaluated yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of external organic matter on bottom ash respiration and metal leaching. The samples of weathered bottom ash were mixed with oven dried and digested wastewater sludge (1%-5% by weight). The aerobic respiration activity (AT4), as well as the leaching of metals, was tested with the help of respiration and batch leaching tests. The respiration and heavy metal leaching increased linearly with the external organic matter addition. Based on the results, it was concluded that the external organic matter addition would negatively affect the quality of landfill cover drainage.

  14. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Center Director Jim Kennedy (left) listens to Kathy Laufenberg, Orbiter Airframe Engineering ground area manager, with United Space Alliance, about corrosion work being done on the external tank door of orbiter Endeavour. On either side of Laufenberg are Tom Roberts, Airframe Engineering System specialist, also with USA, and Joy Huff, with KSC Space Shuttle Processing. Endeavour is in its Orbiter Major Modification period, which began in December 2003.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-25

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Center Director Jim Kennedy (left) listens to Kathy Laufenberg, Orbiter Airframe Engineering ground area manager, with United Space Alliance, about corrosion work being done on the external tank door of orbiter Endeavour. On either side of Laufenberg are Tom Roberts, Airframe Engineering System specialist, also with USA, and Joy Huff, with KSC Space Shuttle Processing. Endeavour is in its Orbiter Major Modification period, which began in December 2003.

  16. Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

  17. Sedimentation and polar order of active bottom-heavy particles.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Katrin; Hahn, Aljoscha M; Stark, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Self-propelled particles in an external gravitational field have been shown to display both an increased sedimentation length and polar order even without particle interactions. Here, we investigate self-propelled particles which additionally are bottom-heavy, that is they feel a torque aligning them to swim against the gravitational field. For bottom-heavy particles the gravitational field has the two opposite effects of i) sedimentation and ii) upward alignment of the particles' swimming direction. We perform a multipole expansion of the one-particle distribution of non-interacting particles with respect to orientation and derive expressions for sedimentation length and mean particle orientation which we check against Brownian Dynamics simulations. For large strength of gravity or small particle speeds and aligning torque, we observe sedimentation with increased sedimentation length compared with passive colloids but also active colloids without bottom-heaviness. Increasing, for example, swimming speed the sedimentation profile is inverted and the particles swim towards the top wall of the enclosing box. We find maximal orientational order at intermediate swimming speeds for both cases of particles with bottom-heaviness and those without. Ordering unsurprisingly is increased for the bottom-heavy particles, but this difference disappears at higher levels of activity and for very high activities ordering goes to zero in both cases.

  18. Medications and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  19. 20. Underside of swingspan showing bottom truss chords, floor beams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Underside of swing-span showing bottom truss chords, floor beams and stringers. The draw rests on the end-lift pedestals (end ram supports) at each side of the masonry rest pier. The end-lift drive shaft is supported from the center of the draw. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  20. Building from the Bottom Up

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    through billions of years of prebiotic and molecular selection and evolution, there are bio-organic by Shuguang Zhang Building from the bottom up... Health , Du Pont-MIT Alliance, and the Whitaker Foundation. I also gratefully acknowledge Intel Corporation Academic Program for the generous donation

  1. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed.

  2. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  3. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  4. A microfluidic mixer with grooves placed on the top and bottom of the channel.

    PubMed

    Howell, Peter B; Mott, David R; Fertig, Stephanie; Kaplan, Carolyn R; Golden, Joel P; Oran, Elaine S; Ligler, Frances S

    2005-05-01

    A new microfluidic mixer is presented consisting of a rectangular channel with grooves placed in the top and bottom. This not only increases the driving force behind the lateral flow, but allows for the formation of advection patterns that cannot be created with structures on the bottom alone. Chevrons, pointing in opposite directions on the top and bottom, are used to create a pair of vortices positioned side by side. Stripes running the width of the channel generate a pair of vertically stacked vortices. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to model the behavior of the systems and provide velocity maps at cross-sections within the mixer. Experiments demonstrate the mixing that results when two segregated species enter the mixer side-by-side and pass through two cycles of the mixer (i.e., two alternating sets of four stripes and four chevrons).

  5. 15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  6. Mapping of sea bottom topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkoen, C. J.; Wensink, G. J.; Hesselmans, G. H. F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Under suitable conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas is visible in remote sensing radar imagery. Two experiments were performed to establish which remote sensing technique or combination yields optimal imaging of bottom topography and which hydro-meteorological conditions are favorable. A further goal is to gain experience with these techniques. Two experiments were performed over an area in the North Sea near the measuring platform Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN). The bottom topography in the test area is dominated by sand waves. The crests of the sand waves are perpendicular to the coast line and the dominating (tidal-)current direction. A 4x4 sq km wide section of the test area was studied in more detail. The first experiment was undertaken on 16 Aug. 1989. During the experiment the following remote sensing instruments were used: Landsat-Thematic Mapper, and NASA/JPL Airborne Imaging Radar (AIR). The hydro-meteorological conditions; current, wind, wave, and air and water temperature were monitored by MPN, a ship of Rijkswaterstaat (the OCTANS), and a pitch-and-roll WAVEC-buoy. The second experiment took place on 12 July 1992. During this experiment data were collected with the NASA/JPL polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and a five-band helicopter-borne scatterometer. Again the hydro-meteorological conditions were monitored at MPN and the OCTANS. Furthermore, interferometric radar data were collected.

  7. Bottom baryon decays to pseudoscalar meson and pentaquark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Chua, Chun-Khiang

    2015-11-01

    Based on SU(3) flavor symmetry, we decompose the decay amplitudes of bottom baryon decays to a pseudoscalar meson and an octet (a decuplet) pentaquark in terms of three (two) invariant amplitudes T1 and T2 ,3 (T˜ 1 and T˜ 2 ) corresponding to external W -emission and internal W -emission diagrams, respectively. For antitriplet bottom baryons Λb0 , Ξb0 , and Ξb- , their decays to a decuplet pentaquark proceed only through the internal W -emission diagram. Assuming the dominance from the external W -emission amplitudes, we present an estimate of the decay rates relative to Λb0→Pp+K- , where Pp+ is the hidden-charm pentaquark with the same light-quark content as the proton. Hence, our numerical results will provide a very useful guideline to the experimental search for pentaquarks in bottom baryon decays. For example, Ξb0→PΣ+K- , Ξb-→PΣ-K¯ 0 , Ωb-→PΞ-K¯ 0 , and Ωb-→PΞ0K- may have rates comparable to that of Λb0→Pp+K- and these modes should be given the higher priority in the experimental searches for pentaquarks.

  8. Seabed sub-bottom sediment classification using parametric sub-bottom profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Mohamed; Rabah, Mostafa

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been published concerning classification techniques of seabed surfaces using single beam, multibeam, and side scan sonars, while few paid attentions to classify sub-bottom layers using a non-linear Sub-Bottom Profiler (SBP). Non-linear SBP is known for its high resolution images due to the very short pulse length and aperture angle for high and low frequencies. This research is devoted to develop an energy based model that automatically characterizes the layered sediment types as a contribution step toward "what lies where in 3D?". Since the grain size is a function of the reflection coefficient, the main task is to compute the reflection coefficients where high impedance contrast is observed. The developed model extends the energy based surface model (Van Walree et al., 2006) to account for returns reflection of sub-layers where the reflection coefficients are computed sequentially after estimating the geo-acoustic parameters of the previous layer. The validation of the results depended on the model stability. However, physical core samples are still in favor to confirm the results. The model showed consistent stable results that agreed with the core samples knowledge of the studied area. The research concluded that the extended model approximates the reflection coefficient values and will be very promising if volume scatters and multiple reflections are included.

  9. Side-to-side differences of three-dimensional knee kinematics during walking by normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ino, Takumi; Ohkoshi, Yasumitsu; Maeda, Tatsunori; Kawakami, Kensaku; Suzuki, Shoji; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of the side-to-side difference in three dimensional knee kinematics measured by the point cluster technique (PCT). [Subjects] The subjects were twenty-one healthy normal volunteers without knee pain or an episode of injury to the legs. [Methods] The subjects were tested bilaterally at a self-selected normal walking speed and six degrees of freedom knee kinematics were measured using the PCT, and the 95% confidence intervals of the average side-to-side differences in flexion-extension (FE), adduction-abduction (AA), internal-external (IE) rotation, and anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML), superior-inferior (SI) translation in each stage of the gait cycle were determined. [Results] The average side-to-side differences and their 95% confidence intervals in rotation/translation in each stage of the gait cycle were determined. The side-to-side differences in AA rotation and AP translation of the tibia were significantly larger in the swing phase than in the stance phase. [Conclusion] The side-to-side differences in AA rotation and AP translation were highly dependent on the stage of the gait cycle. Therefore, the normal ranges of the side-to-side differences in knee kinematics in each stage of the gait cycle, in particular AA rotation and AP translation of the tibia, is useful information for evaluating knee kinematics during walking. PMID:26180325

  10. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  11. Unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of Lake Vostok from seismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filina, I.; Lukin, V.; Masolov, V.; Blankenship, D.

    2007-01-01

    Seismic soundings of Lake Vostok have been performed by the Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition in collaboration with the Russian Antarctic Expedition since the early 1990s. The seismograms recorded show at least two relatively closely spaced reflections associated with the lake bottom. These were initially interpreted as boundaries of a layer of unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of the lake. A more recent interpretation suggests that the observed reflections are side echoes from the rough lake bottom, and that there are no unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of the lake. The major goal of this paper is to reveal the nature of those reflections by testing three hypotheses of their origin. The results show that some of the reflections, but not all of them, are consistent with the hypothesis of a non-flat lake bottom along the source-receiver line (2D case). The reflections were also evaluated as side echoes from an adjacent sloping interface, but these tests implied unreasonably steep slopes (at least 8 degrees) at the lake bottom. The hypothesis that is the most compatible with seismic data is the presence of a widespread layer of unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of Lake Vostok. The modeling suggests the presence of a two hundred meter thick sedimentary layer with a seismic velocity of 1700 -1900 m/sec in the southern and middle parts of the lake. The sedimentary layer thickens in the northern basin to ~350 m

  12. Vacuum leak detection for double bottom tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, T.; Rials, R.

    1995-12-31

    Double bottom tanks offer strong leak detection advantages. By incorporating the use of vacuum detection between the two bottoms, the tank bottoms can be verified leak free after construction and during tank use. Utilizing vacuum leak detection requires special considerations. In 1992 a tank construction company built 10 tanks for an oil company in Ponca City, Oklahoma. Each of these tanks were built with a double bottom. This paper provides insight into the planning, construction and testing of this type of double bottom design.

  13. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  14. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of storage tank bottom plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafaat, Taufik A.; Ismail, Mokhtar Che

    2015-07-01

    Aboveground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) receive crude oil from offshore for storage and further processing. Integrity issue of AST storing crude oil is not only affected by external corrosion but also internal corrosion from crude oil that supports the growth of the microorganisms originating from the reservoir. The objective of this research is to study the effect of sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) on the corrosion of AST. The results indicates that SRB has significant effect on the corrosion rate of storage tank bottom plate.

  15. 22. Engine room, as seen from starboard side, forward corner. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Engine room, as seen from starboard side, forward corner. In left foreground is centrifugal water pump driven by a two-cylinder steam reciprocating engine to supply water to trim tanks. Center of view shows hot well for main engine, and at right is bottom of cylinder, condenser, and valve chest of main (walking beam) engine. X-braces in left side of image are stiffening trusses for the hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  16. DAB, South Side, ODH Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.; Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1990-01-03

    This report covers the ODH concerns of the south side of the D0 Assembly Building. from the bottom (el. 700-feet) to the top (774-feet 6-inches). volume by volume. Each volume is covered in its own section. with each section broken down into three parts. The first is a description of the volume. including its function. dimensions. and all relative ODH concerns; cryogenic piping and ventilation. Second. the actual ODH analysis of the volume is shown. Third. the provisions for the ODH condition of the volume are detailed. including securing the area and the posting of signs. The liquid argon dewar room is at an elevation of 701-feet 6-inch (38-feet underground), with the dewar surrounded by 7700 cubic feet of air. The area is accessible only through a single door. which has a small window and a lock (lock out only). There is small metal scaffolding in front of the dewar to facilitate maintenance and U-tube pulling and installation. The room is directly on top of the Pipe Chase Well and the Cryo Sump, and the bottom of the Stairway is just outside the door. The dewar is designed to be completely operated by remote computer control and the area will be unmanned during normal operation. Room occupancy will occur only during dewar or central control junction box maintenance, or U-tube changes. The dewar has these additions to it: 20 valves, 10 bayonet connections (or 5 U-tubes), 8 bolted flanges, 100 pipe sections (approx.). 100 brazed joints and welds (approx.). and 10 pipe elbows. In addition, 3 of the U-tubes will be changed twice a year on average.

  17. Lifetime measurements for bottom hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, G.

    1984-09-01

    The review of lifetime measurements of bottom hadrons begins with a first measurement by JADE, followed by similar measurements by MAC and MKII groups. New MAC data are reviewed based on a total of 75,000 multihadron events taken at a c.m. energy of 29 GeV. According to Monte Carlo calculations, 18% of the lepton candidates stem from charm decay and roughly 30% were misidentified hadrons. DELCO studied electrons obtained from 42,000 multihadron events at 29 GeV. The electrons were identified by means of Cerenkov counters. JADE analayzed 22,000 multihadron events at 35 GeV. Data were analyzed using two methods - one using a sample of b-enriched events, and the other using weighted distributions. The TASSO results were obtained with two different configurations of the detector - one of which used a drift chamber and the other a vertex detector. (LEW)

  18. Charm and bottom semileptonic decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'donnell, Patrick J.; Turan, Gürsevil

    1997-07-01

    We review the present status of theoretical attempts to calculate the semileptonic charm and bottom decays and then present a calculation of these decays in the light-front frame at the kinematic point q2=0. This allows us to evaluate the form factors at the same value of q2, even though the allowed kinematic ranges for charm and bottom decays are very different. Also, at this kinematic point the decay is given in terms of only one form factor A0(0). For the ratio of the decay rates given by the E653 collaboration we show that the determination of the ratio of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements is consistent with that obtained from the unitarity constraint, though a new measurement by the E687 Collaboration is about two standard deviations too high. At present, though, the unitarity method still has greater accuracy. Since comparisons of the semileptonic decays into ρ and either electrons or muons will be available soon from the E791 Fermilab experiment, we also look at the massive muon case. We show that for a range of q2 the SU(3)F symmetry breaking is small even though the contributions of the various helicity amplitudes becomes more complicated. For B decays, the decay B-->K*ll¯ at q2=0 involves an extra form factor coming from the photon contribution and so is not amenable to the same kind of analysis, leaving only the decay B-->K*νν¯ as a possibility. As the mass of the decaying particle increases we note that the SU(3) symmetry becomes badly broken at q2=0.

  19. Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing flame deflector at bottom of stand. Stairs and handrails were added after test stand was converted to test propellant flow in components as opposed to firing rocket engines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING THE LARGE SLIDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING THE LARGE SLIDING DOORS WITH MULTI-LIGHT WINDOWS AND METAL SECTIONS AT THE BOTTOM. NOTE THE FRAMEWORK WHICH SUPPORTS THE OVERHEAD GUIDEWAYS. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Hangar, Lexington Boulevard, south of Enterprise Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. EXTERIOR VIEW, RIGHT SIDE OF LOCOMOTIVE SHOWING WHEEL ASSEMBLY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, RIGHT SIDE OF LOCOMOTIVE SHOWING WHEEL ASSEMBLY WITH BIG END OF MAIN ROD (TOP), ECCENTRIC CRANK (CENTER), AND BIG END CONCENTRIC ROD (BOTTOM). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 611, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 22. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL OIL TANK, PORT SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL OIL TANK, PORT SIDE, LOOKING FORWARD. NOTE SHIP'S FRAMING MEMBERS AND UNIVERSAL JOINT IN SHAFT FOR PUMPING VALVE AT BOTTOM OF TANK. THE ACCESS LADDER STEPS ARE MARKED WITH LEVEL INDICATIONS. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Improving Lectures: Challenge Both Sides of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Anita

    Professors need to stimulate both sides of students' brain to allow for efficient increase of information absorption. As an alternative to linear outlines, mind maps can provide for more effective comprehension as related ideas are conceptualized from the center out to supporting details, as well as from top to bottom or left to right. The mind…

  5. In-flight Video Captured by External Tank Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In this July 26, 2005 video, Earth slowly fades into the background as the STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery climbs into space until the External Tank (ET) separates from the orbiter. An External Tank ET Camera System featuring a Sony XC-999 model camera provided never before seen footage of the launch and tank separation. The camera was installed in the ET LO2 Feedline Fairing. From this position, the camera had a 40% field of view with a 3.5 mm lens. The field of view showed some of the Bipod area, a portion of the LH2 tank and Intertank flange area, and some of the bottom of the shuttle orbiter. Contained in an electronic box, the battery pack and transmitter were mounted on top of the Solid Rocker Booster (SRB) crossbeam inside the ET. The battery pack included 20 Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries (similar to cordless phone battery packs) totaling 28 volts DC and could supply about 70 minutes of video. Located 95 degrees apart on the exterior of the Intertank opposite orbiter side, there were 2 blade S-Band antennas about 2 1/2 inches long that transmitted a 10 watt signal to the ground stations. The camera turned on approximately 10 minutes prior to launch and operated for 15 minutes following liftoff. The complete camera system weighs about 32 pounds. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) participated in the design, development, and testing of the ET camera system.

  6. In-flight Video Captured by External Tank Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In this July 26, 2005 video, Earth slowly fades into the background as the STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery climbs into space until the External Tank (ET) separates from the orbiter. An External Tank ET Camera System featuring a Sony XC-999 model camera provided never before seen footage of the launch and tank separation. The camera was installed in the ET LO2 Feedline Fairing. From this position, the camera had a 40% field of view with a 3.5 mm lens. The field of view showed some of the Bipod area, a portion of the LH2 tank and Intertank flange area, and some of the bottom of the shuttle orbiter. Contained in an electronic box, the battery pack and transmitter were mounted on top of the Solid Rocker Booster (SRB) crossbeam inside the ET. The battery pack included 20 Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries (similar to cordless phone battery packs) totaling 28 volts DC and could supply about 70 minutes of video. Located 95 degrees apart on the exterior of the Intertank opposite orbiter side, there were 2 blade S-Band antennas about 2 1/2 inches long that transmitted a 10 watt signal to the ground stations. The camera turned on approximately 10 minutes prior to launch and operated for 15 minutes following liftoff. The complete camera system weighs about 32 pounds. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) participated in the design, development, and testing of the ET camera system.

  7. Passively Q-switched side pumped monolithic ring laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Steven X. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a side-pumped passively Q-switched non-planar ring oscillator. The method introduces a laser into a cavity of a crystal, the cavity having a round-trip path formed by a reflection at a dielectrically coated front surface, a first internal reflection at a first side surface of the crystal at a non-orthogonal angle with the front, a second internal reflection at a top surface of the crystal, and a third internal reflection at a second side surface of the crystal at a non-orthogonal angle with the front. The method side pumps the laser at the top or bottom surface with a side pump diode array beam and generates an output laser emanating at a location on the front surface. The design can include additional internal reflections to increase interaction with the side pump. Waste heat may be removed by mounting the crystal to a heatsink.

  8. [Side effects of antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Hoigné, R

    1975-03-01

    The clinically severe and newer forms of antibiotic side effects are reviewed. The study covers the following antibiotics: penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and polymyxins, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, macrolides and lincomycin, rifamycins and sulfonamides. Special reference is made to (1) hematologic side effects, and (2) general evaluation of drug reactions. The relationship between reaction time and clinical symptoms is of particular practical significance.

  9. Hardwood siding performance.

    Treesearch

    Glenn A. Cooper

    1967-01-01

    A 6-year exposure test of three styles of siding made from nine hardwoods and given three treatments showed that full-length yellow-poplar vertical tongue-and-groove siding dip-treated in a water-repellent preservative performed best.

  10. Bottom hole oil well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.E.; Hinds, W.E.; Oldershaw, P.V.

    1982-09-21

    A bottom hole well pump is disclosed comprising a pump housing supported by a control cable for raising and lowering the housing within tubing in a well, a linear motor within the housing causing reciprocation of a plunger extending into a pumping chamber formed by the housing with inlet and outlet check valves for controlling flow of oil or other liquid into the pumping chamber and from the pumping chamber into the tubing above the pump housing. In one embodiment, belleville-type springs are employed for storing energy as the plunger approaches its opposite limits of travel in order to initiate movement of the plunger in the opposite direction. In this embodiment, a single pumping chamber is formed above the linear motor with a single-valve block arranged above the pumping chamber and including inlet check valve means for controlling liquid flow into the pumping chamber and outlet check valve means for controlling liquid flow from the pumping chamber into the tubing interior above the pump housing. In another embodiment, pumping chambers are formed above and below the linear motor with a tubular plunger extending into both pumping chambers, in order to achieve pumping during both directions of travel of the plunger.

  11. 9. EMPIRE STATE MINE, BOTTOM ORE BIN/SHOOT. TIN ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EMPIRE STATE MINE, BOTTOM ORE BIN/SHOOT. TIN ROOF OF SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING AND UPPER ORE SHOOT VISIBLE. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  12. Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  13. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  14. Two Droplets Burning Side by Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiment team got more than twice as many burns have been completed as were originally scheduled for STS-95. This image was taken July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:13 (approximate). As shown here, scientists were able to burn two droplets side by side, more closely mimicking behavior of burning fuel in an engine. This shows ignition of a single drop that subsequently burned while a fan blew through the chamber, giving the scientists data on burning with convection, but no buoyancy -- an important distinction when you're trying to solve a problem by breaking it into parts. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 11-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300176.html.

  15. Two Droplets Burning Side by Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiment team got more than twice as many burns have been completed as were originally scheduled for STS-95. This image was taken July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:13 (approximate). As shown here, scientists were able to burn two droplets side by side, more closely mimicking behavior of burning fuel in an engine. This shows ignition of a single drop that subsequently burned while a fan blew through the chamber, giving the scientists data on burning with convection, but no buoyancy -- an important distinction when you're trying to solve a problem by breaking it into parts. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 11-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300176.html.

  16. A ocean bottom vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Teng, Yuntian; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jiemei

    2017-04-01

    The new development instrument with a compact spherical coil system and Overhauser magnetometer for measuring the total strength of the magnetic field and the vectors of strength, Delta inclination - Delta declination, meanwhile we also use a triaxial fluxgate instrument of the traditional instrument for geomagnetic vector filed measurement. The advantages of this method are be calibrated by each other and get good performances with automatic operation, good stability and high resolution. Firstly, a brief description of the instrument measurement principles and the key technologies are given. The instrument used a spherical coil system with 34 coils to product the homogeneous volume inside the coils which is large enough to accommodate the sensor of Overhauser total field sensor; the rest of the footlocker-sized ocean-bottom vector magnetometer consists of equipment to run the sensors and records its data (batteries and a data logger), weight to sink it to the sea floor, a remote-controlled acoustic release and flotation to bring the instrument back to the surface. Finally, the accuracy of the instrument was tested in the Geomagnetic station, and the measurement accuracies of total strength and components were better than 0.2nT and 1nT respectively. The figure 1 shows the development instrument structure. it includes six thick glass spheres which protect the sensor, data logger and batteries from the pressures of the deep sea, meanwhile they also provide recycling positive buoyancy; To cushion the glass, the spheres then go inside yellow plastic "hardhats". The triaxial fluxgate is inside No.1 glass spheres, data logger and batteries are inside No.2 glass spheres, the new vector sensor is inside No.3 glass spheres, acoustic communication unit is inside No.4 glass spheres, No.5 and No.6 glass spheres are empty which only provide recycling positive buoyancy. The figure 2 shows the development instrument Physical photo.

  17. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Cancer.gov

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  18. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Cancer.gov

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  19. Side Effects: Pain

    Cancer.gov

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  20. Propeller from Unlit Side

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-08

    A propeller-shaped structure created by an unseen moon appears dark in this image obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft of the unilluminated side of Saturn rings. The propeller is marked with a red arrow in the top left.

  1. Side Effects: Appetite Loss

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  2. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Cancer.gov

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Find out how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  3. Phosphorus flux from bottom sediments in Lake Eucha, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Haggard, B E; Moore, P A; Delaune, P B

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorus inputs into reservoirs include external sources from the watershed and internal sources from the reservoir bottom sediments. This study quantified sediment P flux in Lake Eucha, northeastern Oklahoma, USA, and evaluated the effectiveness of chemical treatment to reduce sediment P flux. Six intact sediment-water columns were collected from three sites in Lake Eucha near the reservoir channel at depths of 10 to 15 m. Three intact sediment and water columns from each site were incubated for 21 d at approximately 22 degrees C under aerobic conditions, and three were incubated under anaerobic conditions (N2 with 300 ppm CO2); sediment P flux was estimated over the 21 d for each core. The overlying water in the cores was bubbled with air for approximately 1 wk and then treated with aluminum sulfate (alum). The cores were incubated at approximately 22 degrees C for an additional 14 d under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and sediment P flux after alum treatment was estimated for each core. Sediment P flux was approximately four times greater under anaerobic conditions compared with aerobic conditions. Alum treatment of the intact sediment-water columns reduced (8x) sediment P flux under anaerobic conditions. Internal P flux (1.03 and 4.40 mg m(-2) d(-1) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively) was greater than external P flux (0.13 mg m(-2) d(-1)). The internal P load (12 Mg yr(-1)) from reservoir bottom sediments was almost 25% of the external P load (approximately 48 Mg yr(-1)) estimated using a calibrated watershed model.

  4. Bottom-up multiferroic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shenqiang

    Multiferroic and especially magnetoelectric (ME) nanocomposites have received extensive attention due to their potential applications in spintronics, information storage and logic devices. The extrinsic ME coupling in composites is strain mediated via the interface between the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive components. However, the design and synthesis of controlled nanostructures with engineering enhanced coupling remain a significant challenge. The purpose of this thesis is to create nanostructures with very large interface densities and unique connectivities of the two phases in a controlled manner. Using inorganic solid state phase transformations and organic block copolymer self assembly methodologies, we present novel self assembly "bottom-up" techniques as a general protocol for the nanofabrication of multifunctional devices. First, Lead-Zirconium-Titanate/Nickel-Ferrite (PZT/NFO) vertical multilamellar nanostructures have been produced by crystallizing and decomposing a gel in a magnetic field below the Curie temperature of NFO. The ensuing microstructure is nanoscopically periodic and anisotropic. The wavelength of the PZT/NFO alternation, 25 nm, agrees within a factor of two with the theoretically estimated value. The macroscopic ferromagnetic and magnetoelectric responses correspond qualitatively and semi-quantitatively to the features of the nanostructure. The maximum of the field dependent magnetoelectric susceptibility equals 1.8 V/cm Oe. Second, a magnetoelectric composite with controlled nanostructures is synthesized using co-assembly of two inorganic precursors with a block copolymer. This solution processed material consists of hexagonally arranged ferromagnetic cobalt ferrite (CFO) nano-cylinders within a matrix of ferroelectric Lead-Zirconium-Titanate (PZT). The initial magnetic permeability of the self-assembled CFO/PZT nanocomposite changes by a factor of 5 through the application of 2.5 V. This work may have significant impact on the

  5. Tsunami Energy, Ocean-Bottom Pressure, and Hydrodynamic Force from Stochastic Bottom Displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Khaled T.; Omar, M. A.; Allam, Allam A.

    2017-03-01

    Tsunami generation and propagation due to a randomly fluctuating of submarine earthquake modeled by vertical time-dependent of a stochastic bottom displacement are investigated. The increase in oscillations and amplitude in the free surface elevation are controlled by the noise intensity parameter of the stochastic bottom displacement. Evolution of kinetic and potential energy of the resulting waves by the stochastic bottom displacement is examined. Exchange between potential and kinetic energy was achieved in the propagation process. The dynamic ocean-bottom pressure during tsunami generation is investigated. As the vertical displacement of the stochastic bottom increases, the peak amplitude of the ocean-bottom pressure increases through the dynamic effect. Time series of the maximum tsunami wave amplitude, kinetic and potential energy, wave and ocean-bottom pressure gauges and the hydrodynamic force caused by the stochastic source model under the effect of the water depth of the ocean are investigated.

  6. 50 kHz bottom backscattering measurements from two types of artificially roughened sandy bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Su-Uk; Cho, Sungho; Choi, Jee Woong

    2016-07-01

    Laboratory measurements of 50 kHz bottom backscattering strengths as a function of grazing angle were performed on the sandy bottom of a water tank; two types of bottom roughnesses, a relatively smooth interface and a rough interface, were created on the bottom surface. The roughness profiles of the two interface types were measured directly using an ultrasound arrival time difference of 5 MHz and then were Fourier transformed to obtain the roughness power spectra. The measured backscattering strengths increased from -29 to 0 dB with increasing grazing angle from 35 to 86°, which were compared to theoretical backscattering model predictions. The comparison results implied that bottom roughness is a key factor in accurately predicting bottom scattering for a sandy bottom.

  7. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  8. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  9. A Multi-Disciplinary Investigation of the Nature and Predictability of Sediment Resuspension in Shallow Water: Its Effect on Water Column and Bottom Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    of the distribution of suspended sediment, bottom albedo and microtopography , bottom type, bedforms, hydrodynamics, and particle dynamics...Figure 2) and have been provided to EcoHAB participants. Although a side-scan survey was scheduled for September, hurricane activity and equipment

  10. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  11. Adirondack's Finer Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This close-up look at the martian rock dubbed Adirondack was captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's microscopic imager before Spirit stopped communicating with Earth on the 18th martian day, or sol, of its mission. The rock's smooth and pitted surface is revealed in this first-ever microscopic image of a rock on another planet. The examined patch of rock is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across; features within the rock as small as 1/10 of a millimeter (.04 inch) can be detected. The rover's shadow appears at the bottom of the image.

  12. Sampling technology for gas hydrates by borehole bottom freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Liu, Baochang; Yu, Ping; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    Exploiting gas hydrate is based on sample drilling, the most direct method to evaluate gas hydrates. At present, the pressure-tight core barrel is a main truth-preserving core sampling tool. This paper puts forward a new gas hydrate-borehole bottom freezing sampling technique. The new sampling technique includes three key components: sampler by borehole bottom freezing, mud cooling system and low temperature mud system. The sampler for gas hydrates by borehole bottom freezing presents a novel approach to the in-situ sampling of gas hydrate. This technique can significantly reduce the sampling pressure and prevent decomposition of the hydrate samples due to the external cold source which may freeze the hydrate cores on the bottom of borehole. The freezing sampler was designed and built based on its thermal-mechanical properties and structure, which has a single action mechanism, control mechanism and freezing mechanism. The technique was tested with a trial of core drilling. Results demonstrate that the new technique can be applied to obtain freezing samples from the borehole bottom. In the sampling process of gas hydrate, mud needs to be kept at a low temperature state to prevent the in-situ decomposition of the hydrate if the temperature of mud is too high. Mud cooling system is an independent system for lowing the temperature of mud that returns to the surface. It can cool mud rapidly, maintain its low temperature steadily, and ensure the temperature of the inlet well mud to meet the gas hydrate drilling operation requirement. The mud cooling system has been applied to the drilling engineering project in the Qilian mountain permafrost in northwest China, and achieved the gas hydrates in permafrost. The ordinary mud could not meet the requirements of good performance at low temperature. Low temperature mud system for NaCl and KCl is developed, whose resistance to the temperature is as low as 20 below zero.In-situ sampling of gas hydrates can be achieved through

  13. 3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side elevation. Note gasoline sign post added. Flush store window not altered, 1900 clapboard siding and panelling remaining. - 510 Central Avenue (Commercial Building), Ridgely, Caroline County, MD

  14. WATERFRONT VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF WHARF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATERFRONT VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF WHARF S-20, FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Floating Dry Dock Quay, Hurt Avenue at northwest side of Magazine Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side of 1955 addition, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Bottom stress measurements on the inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Scully, Malcolm; Trowbridge, John

    2015-01-01

    Bottom stress shapes the mean circulation patterns, controls sediment transport, and influences benthic habitat in the coastal ocean. Accurate and precise measurements of bottom stress have proved elusive, in part because of the difficulty in separating the turbulent eddies that transport momentum from inviscid wave-induced motions. Direct covariance measurements from a pair of acoustic Doppler velocimeters has proved capable of providing robust estimates, so we designed a mobile platform coined the NIMBBLE for these measurements, and deployed two of them and two more conventional quadpods at seven sites on the inner shelf over a period of seven months. The resulting covariance estimates of stress and bottom roughness were lower than log-fit estimates, especially during calmer periods. Analyses of these data suggest the NIMBBLEs may provide an accurate and practical method for measuring bottom stress.

  17. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  18. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment.

  19. Numerical tsunami modeling and the bottom relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, E. A.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Ivanova, A. A.; Baranov, B. V.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of the quality of bathymetric data on the accuracy of tsunami-wave field calculation is considered. A review of the history of the numerical tsunami modeling development is presented. Particular emphasis is made on the World Ocean bottom models. It is shown that the modern digital bathymetry maps, for example, GEBCO, do not adequately simulate the sea bottom in numerical models of wave propagation, leading to considerable errors in estimating the maximum tsunami run-ups on the coast.

  20. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  1. The GITEWS ocean bottom sensor packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boebel, O.; Busack, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Gouretski, V.; Rohr, H.; Macrander, A.; Krabbenhoeft, A.; Motz, M.; Radtke, T.

    2010-08-01

    The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) aims at reducing the risks posed by events such as the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. To minimize the lead time for tsunami alerts, to avoid false alarms, and to accurately predict tsunami wave heights, real-time observations of ocean bottom pressure from the deep ocean are required. As part of the GITEWS infrastructure, the parallel development of two ocean bottom sensor packages, PACT (Pressure based Acoustically Coupled Tsunameter) and OBU (Ocean Bottom Unit), was initiated. The sensor package requirements included bidirectional acoustic links between the bottom sensor packages and the hosting surface buoys, which are moored nearby. Furthermore, compatibility between these sensor systems and the overall GITEWS data-flow structure and command hierarchy was mandatory. While PACT aims at providing highly reliable, long term bottom pressure data only, OBU is based on ocean bottom seismometers to concurrently record sea-floor motion, necessitating highest data rates. This paper presents the technical design of PACT, OBU and the HydroAcoustic Modem (HAM.node) which is used by both systems, along with first results from instrument deployments off Indonesia.

  2. Proposal for a Bottom Collider Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berg, R.; Hughes, R.; Lockyer, N. S.; Karchin, P.

    1987-03-01

    The ultimate goal of this experiment is to record about 100 million bottom events tagged with a lepton trigger. It is only with a sample of this size that CP violation and very rare decays from bottom can be studied. In order to produce 109 bottom events an integrated luminosity of 500 pb-1 is needed, which could be accomplished in a one year run of 107 sec at a luminosity of 5 x 1031 cm-2sec-1, assuming a total bottom cross section of 10 μbarns. With a trigger efficiency of about 10 percent, the goal of about 108 bottom events recorded seems attainable. Having produced and recorded this large data set, the task of reconstructing these events and extracting physics will be a tremendous challenge to the detector design and physicists involved. This experiment begins the process of how t,o best tag a very large sample of bottom events in a high energy hadron collider environment. The most challenging aspects concern studying the secondary vertices when multiple scattering effects are large and detecting very soft leptons in a busy tracking environment. This will lead to a better exploitation of the high luminosity Tevatron as well as eventually preparing for the SSC.

  3. CMs should understand financial side as well as clinical side of healthcare, experts recommend.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    To do their job effectively, case managers must understand the financial side of healthcare and the impact that their actions can have on patient care, the patient's out- of-pocket expenses, and the hospital's bottom line. Recommendations from experts include the following: Communicate and meet regularly with the financial department to identify areas for improvement, and provide input on contracts with payers. Know what benefits each patient's coverage provides and use the information to coordinate care while the patient is in the hospital and to develop a treatment plan. Be aware of payer requirements and be sure that they are followed to avoid denials.

  4. Durability of hardboard siding

    Treesearch

    Anton TenWolde; Charles Carll

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns about hardboard siding failures, a study was performed to assess if performance in a current hardboard industry quality assurance test procedure correlated with in-service performance and how well this performance might be predicted by use of alternative or additional test procedures. A variety of laboratory tests were performed on a large...

  5. From Both Sides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glew, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Ontario Agri-Food Education's curriculum unit, "From Both Sides," applies a cooperative-learning method of conflict resolution to environmental issues. Two groups of students are assigned polar views on an issue such as pesticide use. Five steps involve preparing and presenting a position, refuting opposing positions, reversing…

  6. Night Side of Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-02-23

    NASA Voyager 2 obtained this wide-angle image of the night side of Titan on Aug. 25, 1979. This is a view of Titan extended atmosphere. the bright orangish ring being caused by the atmosphere scattering of the incident sunlight.

  7. Side Effects: Lymphedema

    Cancer.gov

    Lymphedema is a side effect that can be caused when part of the lymph system is damaged or blocked, such as during surgery to remove lymph nodes, or radiation therapy. Cancer patients may notice symptoms during treatment or lymphedema may start years afte

  8. Huntsville South Side Square

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    This 1940s photo of the South side of Square in downtown Huntsville, Alabama, looking west, shows a historical bank in the background with cars parked just South of the Courthouse (not shown in photo). (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  9. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement <50%, and 4) No improvement. Intra and postoperative complications were also recorded. Fifty-two patients, 14 male and 38 female, were included in the study, with 2 patients having bilateral surgery. The average age of the patients was 55.8 years. The average length of follow up was 221 days. Surgical outcomes showed 72% of patients with complete resolution of epiphora and 21% with >50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  10. Neural correlates of sound externalization.

    PubMed

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel E; Ando, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    When we listen to sounds through headphones without utilizing special transforms, sound sources seem to be located inside our heads. The sound sources are said to be lateralized to one side or the other to varying degree. This internal lateralization is different than sound source localization in the natural environment in which the sound is localized distal to the head. We used fMRI to investigate difference in neural responses between lateralization and localization. Individualized binaural recordings were used as externalized auditory stimuli and stereo recordings were used as internalized auditory stimuli. Brain activity was measured while 14 participants performed an active auditory localization task and while 12 participants performed a stimulus type identification task. Irrespective of the task condition, we observed enhanced activity in the bilateral posterior temporal gyri (pSTG) for the externalized stimuli relative to the internalized stimuli. Region of interest analysis indicated that both left and right pSTG were more sensitive to sound sources in contra- than ipsilateral hemifields. Moreover, greater back than front activity was also found in the left pSTG. Compared to impoverished spatial auditory stimuli, realistic spatial auditory stimuli enhance neural responses in the pSTG. This may be why we could observe contralateral hemifield preference in bilateral pSTG that many previous studies have failed to observe. Overall, the results indicate the importance of using ecologically valid stimuli for investigating neural processes in human cortex.

  11. 4. VIEW EAST, SOUTHWEST FRONT, NORTHWEST SIDE Side elevation. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, SOUTHWEST FRONT, NORTHWEST SIDE Side elevation. Note the ground floor windows which were added. Siding is vinyl, but the burned area exposes asbestos siding added when the rear and upper areas were converted to living spaces. - 510 Central Avenue (Commercial Building), Ridgely, Caroline County, MD

  12. [Side effects of caffeine].

    PubMed

    Dworzański, Wojciech; Opielak, Grzegorz; Burdan, Franciszek

    2009-11-01

    Caffeine is one of the most commonly ingested alkaloids worldwide. It is present in coffee, tea, soft and energy drinks, chocolate, etc. Currently published data has been stressed that the metyloxantine consumption increases the risk of coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, arterial stiffness, and an elevation of cholesterol and homocysteine plasma concentration. The acute high consumption may also modulate insulin sensitivity and glucose blood level. However, the long-term consumption reduces the incidence of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. When administered in high doses the substance may cause various side effects, related to abnormal stimulation of the central nervous system, decrease tonus of the lower esophageal sphincter, as well as increase risk of miscarriage and intrauterine growth retardation. The final manifestation of side reactions is dependent on the genotype, especially polymorphisms of genes associated with caffeine metabolism, i.e., cytochrome P450-CYP1A2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).

  13. Closeup view of the bottom area of Space Shuttle Main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the bottom area of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2052 engine assembly mounted in a SSME Engine Handler in the Horizontal Processing area of the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent features in this view are the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Discharge Duct toward the bottom of the assembly, the SSME Engine Controller and the Main Fuel Valve Hydraulic Actuator are in the approximate center of the assembly in this view, the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump (LPFTP), the LPFTP Discharge Duct are to the left on the assembly in this view and the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump is located toward the top of the engine assembly in this view. The ring of tabs in the right side of the image, at the approximate location of the Nozzle and the Coolant Outlet Manifold interface is the Heat Shield Support Ring. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Transient sedimentation in a cell with top and bottom walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dance, Sarah; Maxey, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Wall boundary conditions may play a role in the screening of particle velocity fluctuations in Stokes suspensions. Using a Force-Coupling Method (Maxey and Patel, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 27 (2001)) we simulate transient sedimentation. The numerical scheme is a mixed Fourier-spectral element method, based on the Uzawa algorithm for Stokes flows. The sedimentation cell has top and bottom wall boundaries and periodic boundaries in the horizontal. These boundaries are chosen both for computational convenience, and to determine the relative importance of bottom and side walls in screening the velocity fluctuations. We consider several different box sizes, in an attempt to elucidate the connection between particle velocity fluctuation levels and box width. We quantify the evolution of particle mean velocities and fluctuations as well as the particle microstructure. In each case we observe an initial growth, followed by a decay in both the mean particle velocity and fluctuations. We also observe that a stable stratification develops. We suggest that the stratification is important in the evolution of the bulk mean velocity. We propose a mechanism involving particle cluster dynamics to explain the behaviour of the velocity fluctuations.

  15. Simulations: The dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods. Both methods are, in principle, simple. However, simple does not mean risk-free. In the literature, many of the pitfalls in the field are mentioned, but usually as a footnote --and these footnotes are scattered over many papers. The present paper focuses on the "dark side" of simulation: it is one big footnote. I should stress that "dark", in this context, has no negative moral implication. It just means: under-exposed.

  16. Bottom shear stress in unsteady sewer flow.

    PubMed

    Bares, V; Jirák, J; Pollert, J

    2006-01-01

    The properties of unsteady open-channel turbulent flow were theoretically and experimentally investigated in a circular cross section channel with fixed sediment deposits. Velocity and turbulence distribution data were obtained using an ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP). Different uniform flow conditions and triangular-shaped hydrographs were analysed. The hydrograph analysis revealed a dynamic wave behaviour, where the time lags of mean cross section velocity, friction velocity, discharge and flow depth were all evident. The bottom shear stress dynamic behaviour was estimated using four different approaches. Measurements of the velocity distribution in the inner region of the turbulent layer and of the Reynolds stress distribution in the turbulent flow provided the analysed data sets of the bottom shear stress. Furthermore, based on the Saint Venant equation, the bottom shear stress time behaviour was studied using both the kinematic and the dynamic flow principles. The dynamic values of the bottom shear stress were compared with those for the steady flow conditions. It is evident that bottom shear stress varies along the generated flood hydrograph and its variation is the function of the flow unsteadiness. Moreover, the kinematic flow principle is not an adequate type of approximation for presented flow conditions.

  17. Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. The two (2) arms act as simple spans, a small amount of negative bending is accommodated by the continous top and bottom truss chords due to a continuous condition. Note the inclined end post of each of the simple spans, the operator's house, center/pivot pier and the pivotal pole-line pole placed atop of bridge. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  18. 14. Detail along the northwest side of the inside of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail along the northwest side of the inside of the bridge, in the center of the second panel from the western bridge shoe; the view shows the latticed vertical, pin-connected with the latticed diagonal and the top and bottom counter braces. The vertical is constructed for compression above the pin and for tension below the pin. - Post Road Bridge, State Route 7-A, Havre de Grace, Harford County, MD

  19. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  20. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  1. Master external pressure charts

    SciTech Connect

    Michalopoulos, E.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a method to develop master external pressure charts from which individual external pressure charts for each material specification may be derived. The master external charts can represent a grouping of materials with similar chemical composition, similar stress-strain curves but produced to different strength levels. External pressure charts are used by various Sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes to design various components such as cylinders, sphered, formed heads, tubes, piping, rings and other components, subjected to external pressure or axial compression loads. These charts are pseudo stress-strain curves for groups of materials with similar stress-strain shapes. The traditional approach was originally developed in the 1940`s and is a graphical approach where slopes to the strain curves are drawn graphically from which pseudo-strain levels are calculated. The new method presented in this paper develops mathematical relationships for the material stress-strain curves and the external pressure charts. The method has the ability to calculate stress-strain curves from existing external pressure charts. The relationships are a function of temperature, the modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and two empirical material constants. In this approach, conservative assumptions used to assign materials to lower bound external pressure charts can be removed. This increases the buckling strength capability of many materials in the Code, providing economic benefits while maintaining the margin of safety specified by the Code criteria. The method can also reduce the number of material charts needed in the Code and provides for the capability to extend the existing pressure charts to higher design temperatures. The new method is shown to contain a number of improvements over the traditional approach and is presently under consideration by appropriate ASME Code committees.

  2. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  3. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  4. Aboveground storage tank double bottom cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Surkein, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    Cathodic protection is typically used to achieve corrosion control between bottoms of aboveground storage tanks with double bottoms. To determine the proper design of such systems, an investigation was conducted on the performance of two different cathodic protection system designs utilizing zinc ribbon anodes. A full scale field test on a 35 meter (115 feet) diameter tank was conducted to determine cathodic protection system performance. The test included periodic measurement of tank bottom steel potentials including on, instant off and polarization decay, anode current output and tank product level measurements.Results showed that zinc ribbon anode spacing in a chord fashion of 1.2 meter (4 feet) or less can be effective to achieve cathodic protection according to industry accepted standards. Utilizing the design information gained by the study, a standard sacrificial anode and impressed current anode cathodic protection system has been developed.

  5. Effects of external electric fields on lysozyme adsorption by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun; Liao, Chenyi; Zhou, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Lysozyme adsorption on carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers under external electric fields has been studied by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Lysozyme adsorption on negatively charged surfaces could generally be enhanced by positive electric fields and retarded by negative ones. Under positive electric fields, electrostatic interactions between protein and surface are strengthened; however, the interaction energy descends with field strength increases probably due to the co-adsorption of counterions onto the surface to neutralize surface charge. Comparison of orientation distributions of lysozyme adsorption on the surface in the presence and in the absence of electric fields reveals that an applied electric field could narrow the distribution and therefore helps to immobilize protein on surface with uniform orientation. Orientation angle analysis shows that lysozyme is adsorbed on the surface with "bottom end-on", "side-on", "back-on" or "top end-on" orientation under different field strengths, suggesting the possibility of controlling the preferred orientation of lysozyme on surface by applying electric fields. Conformation analysis of protein implies that the structure deformation of adsorbed lysozyme does not increase monotonically with the rising field strength. Under some field strengths, there is no additional structure deformation caused by the electric fields compared with that in the absence of electric fields; while under some other field strengths, there are larger conformational change occurrences. We propose that due to the rearrangement of positions of the local atomic charges of protein to couple its dipole with an external electric field, large position alterations of atoms might be avoided and thus conformational changes be restricted. This work may provide guidance for controlling protein adsorption behaviors via external electric fields for applications of protein immobilization and anti-fouling surfaces.

  6. Bilateral Mandibular Condylar Fractures with Associated External Auditory Canal Fractures and Otorrhagia.

    PubMed

    Dang, David

    2007-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures associated with bilateral external auditory canal fractures and otorrhagia is reported. The more severe external auditory canal fracture was present on the side of high condylar fracture, and the less severe external auditory canal fracture was ipsilateral to the condylar neck fracture. A mechanism of injury is proposed to account for such findings.

  7. Barotropic flow over bottom topography— experiments and nonlinear theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Richard L.; Kung, Robin; Ding, Wen; Li, Guo-Qing

    1993-10-01

    radial direction. For boundary conditions at the side walls, we specified zero velocity. Side wall boundary layers then appear explicitly in the numerical solution. At the bottom and top of the fluid, we specified that the vertical velocity at the mean height of each boundary is the sum of two components—one forced by Ekman suction in the absence of topography and the other by the condition that there can be no flow normal to the rigid boundary. We justify this choice by the smallness of the Ekman number and of the radial and azimuthal slopes of the topography. We have found that the use of three Fourier components and seven Chebyshev polynomials is sufficient to account qualitatively for the experimental results, although small quantitative discrepancies suggest that further investigation of the neglect of effects originally considered to be small is needed.

  8. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.970 Section 178.970... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.970 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be...) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The Large Packaging must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum...

  9. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea bottom...

  10. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea bottom...

  11. Hard coastal-defence structures as habitats for native and exotic rocky-bottom species.

    PubMed

    Vaselli, Stefano; Bulleri, Fabio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2008-10-01

    The use of hard coastal-defence structures, like breakwaters and seawalls, is rapidly increasing to prevent coastal erosion. We compared low-shore assemblages between wave-protected and wave-exposed habitats on breakwaters along a sandy shore of Tuscany (North-Western Mediterranean). Assemblages were generally characterized by a low diversity of taxa, with space monopolized by Mytilus galloprovincialis and Corallina elongata on the seaward side of breakwaters and by filamentous algae on the landward side. Assemblages in wave-protected habitats were characterized by greater temporal stability than those in exposed habitats and supported non-indigenous macroalgae such as Caulerpa racemosa and Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. Hence, the introduction of hard coastal-defence structures in otherwise soft-bottom dominated areas, attracting native and exotic rocky-bottom species, should be of great concern for the conservation of marine biodiversity at local and regional scales and for the management of biological invasions.

  12. Physical habitat dynamics in four side-channel chutes, lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E.; Laustrup, Mark S.; D'Urso, Gary J.; Reuter, Joanna M.

    2004-01-01

    Construction of the side-channel chutes has become a popular means to rehabilitate habitate of the Lower Missouri River. We studied various aspects of hydrology, hydraulics, and geomorphology of four side-channel chutes to document a range of existing conditions in the Lower Missouri River. The Cranberry Bend side-channel chute has existed for at least 40 years and is an example of a persistent, minimally engineered chute. The Lisbon Bottom side-channel chute is a young chute, created by extreme floods during 1993-1996, and allowed to evolve with minimum engineering of inlet and outlet structures. The Hamburg Bend and North Overton Bottom side-channel chutes were constructed in 1996 and 2000, respectively, as part of the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and navigation Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project. These side-channel chutes provide increased areas of sandbars and shallow, slow water -- habitats thought to be substantially diminished in the modern Missouri River. Depths and velocities measured in side-channel chutes are also present in the main channel, but the chutes provide more areas of slow, shallow water and they increase the range of discharges over which shallow, slow water is present. The 3.6 km long Lisbon Bottom chute provides as much as 50% of the entire shallow water habitat that exists in the encompassing 15 km reach of the river. At Cranberry Bend and Lisbon Bottom, the side-channel chutes provided 10-40% of the availabile sandbar area in the reach, depending on discharge. Each of the side-channel chutes shows evidence of continuing erosion and deposition. The longevity and the Cranberry Bend chute attests to dynamic stability -- that is, a chute that maintains form and processes while shifting in position. The Hamburg chute similarly shows evidence of lateral movement and construction of flood plain to compensate for erosion. The Lisbon Bottom chute -- the most intensively studied chute -- appears to have achieved an equilibrium width and

  13. PWR fuel features to preclude externally induced damage

    SciTech Connect

    Shallenberger, J.M.; Wilson, J.F.; Knott, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been instances of pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel damage attributed to factors external to the fuel. These externally induced causes include debris in the reactor coolant and baffle jetting. These causes of PWR fuel damage account for --50% of the total number of damaged rods. This paper discusses two features that significantly reduce the potential for fuel damage due to debris and baffle jetting. These two features are the debris filter bottom nozzle (DFBN) and the antivibration clip.

  14. There's Plenty Of Difficulty Near The Bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durcan, Mark; Lu, Shifeng

    2007-09-01

    This paper is adapted from a keynote presentation given by Mark Durcan, President and COO of Micron Technology. The keynote presentation used a visionary speech given by Dr. Richard Feynman in 1959 ("There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom") as the launching pad to discuss some of the difficulties associated with manipulating matter at the very small scale.

  15. Frozen water waves over rough topographical bottoms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Shan; Ye, Zhen

    2004-09-01

    The propagation of surface water waves over rough topographical bottoms is investigated by the multiple scattering theory. It is shown that the waves can be localized spatially through the process of multiple scattering and wave interference, a peculiar wave phenomenon which has been previously discussed for frozen light in optical systems [Nature 390, 661 (1997)

  16. Bottom-strange mesons in hyperonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Divakar; Mishra, Amruta

    2014-11-01

    The in-medium behavior of bottom-strange pseudoscalar mesons in hot, isospin asymmetric and dense hadronic environment is studied using a chiral effective model. The same was recently generalized to the heavy quark sector and employed to study the behavior of open-charm and open-bottom mesons. The heavy quark (anti-quark) is treated as frozen and all medium modifications of these bottom-strange mesons are due to their strange anti-quark (quark) content. We observe a pronounced dependence of their medium mass on baryonic density and strangeness content of the medium. Certain aspects of these in-medium interactions are similar to those observed for the strange-charmed mesons in a preceding investigation, such as the lifting of mass-degeneracy of BS0 and {\\bar B}S0 mesons in hyperonic matter, while the same is respected in vacuum as well as in nuclear matter. In general, however, there is a remarkable distinction between the two species, even though the formalism predicts a completely analogous in-medium interaction Lagrangian density. We discuss in detail the reason for different in-medium behavior of these bottom-strange mesons as compared to charmed-strange mesons, despite the dynamics of the heavy quark being treated as frozen in both cases.

  17. Structural Influence of Dynamics of Bottom Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-10

    Engineering and Mechanics P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science Lehigh University Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA Abstract: The deformation...over the bottom, c, can be estimated by c = ■ VTT 1 VTT 2tanj3 cos/? 2sin/? (42) where V is the vertical velocity of a 2D wedge dropped in

  18. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  19. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  20. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bottom required by this section must be at least the depth at the centerline given by the following equation: D=18.0+0.05(L) inches D=45.7+0.417(L) centimeters where— D=the depth at the centerline in inches...

  1. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (centimeters). L=LBP in feet (meters). (f) The line formed by the intersection of the margin plate and the.... EC01MR91.024 (g) A double bottom is not required in a tank that is integral with the hull of a vessel...

  2. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (centimeters). L=LBP in feet (meters). (f) The line formed by the intersection of the margin plate and the.... EC01MR91.024 (g) A double bottom is not required in a tank that is integral with the hull of a vessel...

  3. Bottom Up Succession Planning Works Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul

    The majority of current succession planning practices reflect the viewpoint of only a linear career direction for ambitious people. They are based on the premise that competent people have and want only one career direction--an upwardly mobile one. In today's work force, however, a "bottom-up" process works better in succession planning. This…

  4. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout nozzle flange and other attachments and openings. 179....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout nozzle flange and other attachments and openings. (a) These attachments shall be fusion welded to...

  5. Effects of bottom trawling on the Ebro continental shelf sedimentary system (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanques, Albert; Puig, Pere; Guillén, Jorge; Demestre, Montserrat; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    A monitoring effort to address the physical effects of bottom trawling was conducted on the Ebro prodeltaic mud belt during the RESPONSE project. The monitoring was carried out for 14 months covering periods of different trawling intensities and a close season for the trawling fleet. The seabed morphology was studied by side-scan sonar and sediment texture and organic carbon content were analysed. Suspended sediment vertical distribution was recorded by CTD+turbidity hydrographic profiles and sediment transport was computed using time series from moored turbidimeters and current meters. The results show that the seabed of the fishing ground is strongly affected by scraping and ploughing induced by bottom trawling. Part of the finer fraction of the prodeltaic mud resuspended by trawling is winnowed, increasing the silt content of the settling sediment and also near-bottom turbidity. Sediment resuspended by trawling is incorporated in the bottom nepheloid layer and transported across- and along-shelf, increasing sediment fluxes. Trawling also induces an increase in the organic carbon content in the bottom sediment. All these effects induced by trawling have occurred during the last few decades, changing natural conditions in the fishing ground.

  6. Wave trapping by dual porous barriers near a wall in the presence of bottom undulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaligatla, R. B.; Manisha; Sahoo, T.

    2017-09-01

    Trapping of oblique surface gravity waves by dual porous barriers near a wall is studied in the presence of step type varying bottom bed that is connected on both sides by water of uniform depths. The porous barriers are assumed to be fixed at a certain distance in front of a vertical rigid wall. Using linear water wave theory and Darcy's law for flow past porous structure, the physical problem is converted into a boundary value problem. Using eigenfunction expansion in the uniform bottom bed region and modified mild-slope equation in the varying bottom bed region, the mathematical problem is handled for solution. Moreover, certain jump conditions are used to account for mass conservation at slope discontinuities in the bottom bed profile. To understand the effect of dual porous barriers in creating tranquility zone and minimum load on the sea wall, reflection coefficient, wave forces acting on the barrier and the wall, and surface wave elevation are computed and analyzed for different values of depth ratio, porous-effect parameter, incident wave angle, gap between the barriers and wall and slope length of undulated bottom. The study reveals that with moderate porosity and suitable gap between barriers and sea wall, using dual barriers an effective wave trapping system can be developed which will exert less wave force on the barriers and the rigid wall. The proposed wave trapping system is likely to be of immense help for protecting various facilities/ infrastructures in coastal environment.

  7. Malignant Melanoma of the External Auditory Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prasanna; Ravikumar, A; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Rajendiran, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is rarely reported. Malignant melanoma of the ear is estimated to occur in 1-4% of all skin melanomas and about 7-20% of melanomas of the head and neck region. The pathophysiology of these tumours is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. The case presented is of a 11 year old female child with malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal confined to the right side, who initially presented with right ear pain, bleeding, post auricular swelling and also a mass in the external auditory canal which was thought to be an aural polyp in the right ear. Excision of the tumour was accomplished by a radical mastoidectomy. It was confirmed to be malignant melanoma after histopathological examination and Immunohistochemistry. Despite all efforts, the patient succumbed to the disease after receiving three cycles of chemotherapy. Even though this malignancy is rarely found in the external auditory canal, it should be expanded into the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp and a post aural abscess. The incidence, symptoms, investigations, treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is discussed in this article. PMID:25302202

  8. South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a door when it is open. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Root Cellar, West Pennington Avenue, North of Building No. 121, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 858, PORTION OF NORTHEAST SIDE (APRON AVENUE SIDE), SHOWING CHEVRON DESIGN OVER FORMER PASSAGEWAY, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle K Barracks Type, Between Wilson Street & Capron Avenue near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. FACILITY 859, DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (WILSON STREET SIDE), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 859, DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (WILSON STREET SIDE), SHOWING CHEVRON DESIGN OVER FORMER PASSAGEWAY, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle K Barracks Type, Between Wilson Street & Capron Avenue near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE WOODEN WINDOW FRAMES. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  12. Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator smokestack (building 615) in right background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Building, 540 feet East-Northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. 59. SIDE VIEW OF TENSION CARRIAGE: Side view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. SIDE VIEW OF TENSION CARRIAGE: Side view towards the south of the California Street cable's tension carriage. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. 4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT OF U.S. POST OFFICE TERMINAL ANNEX BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 3. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND EAST SIDE (GABLE END), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND EAST SIDE (GABLE END), FACING NORTHWEST FROM HOOD AVENUE. - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, G. U. Treatment Unit Barracks, Nininger Way, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. FACILITY 847, SOUTHWEST SIDE (COURTYARD SIDE), QUADRANGLE J, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 847, SOUTHWEST SIDE (COURTYARD SIDE), QUADRANGLE J, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangles I & J Barracks Type, Between Wright-Smith & Capron Avenues near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. FACILITY 847, SOUTHWEST SIDE (COOURTYARD SIDE), FROM SECOND FLOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 847, SOUTHWEST SIDE (COOURTYARD SIDE), FROM SECOND FLOOR OF FACILITY 845, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTH. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangles I & J Barracks Type, Between Wright-Smith & Capron Avenues near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 4. VIEW OF EAST (GABLE END) SIDE AND NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF EAST (GABLE END) SIDE AND NORTH SIDE FROM NORTHEAST. (BUILDING 117 IS VISIBLE ON LEFT.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, G. U. Treatment Unit Lavatory, Hood Avenue, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  20. 1. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH NORTHEAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH NORTHEAST SIDE OF MINE OFFICE ON RIGHT OF PHOTO - Juniata Mill Complex, Assay Office, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  1. 4. Detail of siding beneath plywood on west side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of siding beneath plywood on west side of claim house, also showing closed off door - George Spangerberger Farmstead, John Siegrist Claim House, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  2. VIEW OF FRONT SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FRONT SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM EAST SIDE OF COURTYARD UNDER ARCADE, FACING WEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  4. Compact, Two-Sided Structural Cold Plate Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaffetti, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In two-sided structural cold plates, typically there is a structural member, such as a honeycomb panel, that provides the structural strength for the cold plates that cool equipment. The cold plates are located on either side of the structural member and thus need to have the cooling fluid supplied to them. One method of accomplishing this is to route the inlet and outlet tubing to both sides of the structural member. Another method might be to supply the inlet to one side and the outlet to the other. With the latter method, an external feature such as a hose, tube, or manifold must be incorporated to pass the fluid from one side of the structural member to the other. Although this is a more compact design than the first option, since it eliminates the need for a dedicated supply and return line to each side of the structural member, it still poses problems, as these external features can be easily damaged and are now new areas for potential fluid leakage. This invention eliminates the need for an external feature and instead incorporates the feature internally to the structural member. This is accomplished by utilizing a threaded insert that not only connects the cold plate to the structural member, but also allows the cooling fluid to flow through it into the structural member, and then to the cold plate on the opposite side. The insert also employs a cap that acts as a cover to seal the open area needed to install the insert. There are multiple options for location of o-ring style seals, as well as the option to use adhesive for redundant sealing. Another option is to weld the cap to the cold plate after its installation, thus making it an integral part of the structural member. This new configuration allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features.

  5. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  6. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  7. SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET NEAR INTERSECTION OF DOWELL AND SECOND STREETS - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  8. SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH SIDE OF SECOND STREET NEAR BUILDING 489 - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Pain It’s important to treat pain. If you ... to pay for pain medicine. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain Keep track of the pain. Each day, ...

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Infection “I am extra careful to stay away ... doctor or nurse right away. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection Take these steps to lower your chances ...

  11. Multiple external root resorption.

    PubMed

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  12. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  13. [Internal and external haemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J P; Go, P M N Y H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present 3 cases of patients with different types of haemorrhoidal disease. The first patient is a 27-year-old woman who had been experiencing incidental rectal blood loss without pain during defecation for 3 months. The second patient is a 76-year-old woman who had been bothered by varying degrees of pain from a swelling nearby the anus for 1 year. The third case involves a 31-year-old man who had had continuous severe pain in the anal area for 3 consecutive days. The first patient appeared to have internal hemorrhoids, whereas different forms of external hemorrhoids affected the patients in the other 2 cases. Internal haemorrhoids develop from the intraluminal corpus cavernosum recti; external haemorrhoids from the perianal marginal veins. Patients with internal haemorrhoids present with symptoms that include blood loss and prolaps feeling during defecation. In patients with external haemorrhoids pain is the prominent symptom. Internal haemorrhoids are treated either conservatively or surgically, depending upon their severity. Considering external haemorrhoidal disease surgical treatment provides the most rapid and persistent relief of symptoms.

  14. Working with External Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Lauren; Burg, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Hiring an external evaluator is not right for every museum or every project. Evaluations are highly situational, grounded in specific times and places; each one is unique. The museum and the evaluator share equal responsibility in an evaluation's success, so it is worth investing time and effort to ensure that both are clear about the goals,…

  15. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  16. Working with External Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Lauren; Burg, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Hiring an external evaluator is not right for every museum or every project. Evaluations are highly situational, grounded in specific times and places; each one is unique. The museum and the evaluator share equal responsibility in an evaluation's success, so it is worth investing time and effort to ensure that both are clear about the goals,…

  17. External College Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    This report presents the results of a community survey which attempted to determine the demand for another college in the Los Angeles Community College District. The function of this "community campus" or "external college" would be to serve members of the community who are not already served by the eight existing colleges. Questionnaires received…

  18. External Interest Group Impingements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    The history of the interrelation among state approval, accreditation, and institutional eligibility is considered. It is suggested that faculty and college administrators can be either an internal or external group in relationship to the planning process. The federal government, or the state government, passes legislation that may have both…

  19. Bottom morphology in the Song Hau distributary channel, Mekong River Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Mead A.; Dallon Weathers, H.; Meselhe, Ehab A.

    2017-09-01

    Field studies in the Song Hau distributary of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam conducted at high (Sept.-Oct 2014) and low (March 2015) Mekong River discharge are utilized to examine channel bottom morphology and links with sediment transport in the system. Multibeam bathymetric mapping surveys over the entire channel complex in the lower 80 km of the distributary channel, and over 12- to 24-h tidal periods at six transect locations in the reach are used to characterize bottom type and change on seasonal and tidal timescales, supplemented by bottom sampling. The results of this study indicate that the largest proportion of channel floor (up to 80% of the total area) is composed of substratum outcrops of relict sediment units deposited during the progradation of the delta in the last 3.5 ka. These take the form of outcrops that are either (1) steep-sided, tabular channel floor, (2) steep-sided sidewall, or (3) relatively flat channel floor. Flatter outcrops of channel floor substratum are identified by the presence of sedimentary furrows (<0.5 m deep) incised into the channel bottom that are exposed at high discharge and oriented along channel and laterally continuous for kilometers. These furrows are persistent in location and extent across tidal cycles and appear to be incised into relict units, sometimes with a thin surficial layer of modern sediment observable in bottom grabs. The extent of substratum exposure, greater than that observed previously in low tidal energy systems like the Mississippi River, may relate both to a relatively low sand supply from the catchment, and/or to an efficient transfer of both sand and mud through this tidally energetic channel. Sand bottom areas forming dunes, comprise about 19% of the channel floor over the study area and are generally less than a few meters thick except on bar extensions of mid-channel islands. Both sandy and substratum areas are mantled by soft muds 0.25-1 m thick during low discharge in the estuarine section of

  20. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  1. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    SciTech Connect

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  2. Short-wavelength bottom-emitting VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Kent D.; Barton, Jonathon S.; Geib, Kent M.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Hindi, Jana J.

    1999-04-01

    The fabrication and performance of selectively oxidized 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes which emit through transparent GaP substrates is reported. Emission through the substrate is advantageous for many VCSEL configurations, such as for the incorporation of optical elements in the substrate or flip-chip integration to microelectronic circuitry. The short wavelength bottom- emitting VCSELs are fabricated by wafer fusion using an inert gas low temperature annealing process. The electrical characteristics of n- and p-type GaAs/GaAs and GaAs/GaP wafer bonded interfaces have been examined to optimize the annealing temperature. A significant reduction of the current-voltage characteristics of the VCSELs bonded to GaP substrates has been achieved whereby the bottom-emitting VCSELs show similar threshold voltage as compared to top- emitting lasers.

  3. Bottom-up design of biomimetic assemblies.

    PubMed

    Tu, Raymond S; Tirrell, Matthew

    2004-09-22

    Nature has evolved the ability to assemble a variety of molecules into functional architectures that can specifically bind cellular ligands. Mimicking this strategy requires the design of a set of multifaceted molecules, where elements that direct assembly were conjugated to biologically specific components. The development of functional molecular building-blocks that assemble to form compartments for therapeutics addresses the desire to have controllable morphologies that interact with biological interfaces at nanometer length scales. The practical application of such 'bottom-up' assemblies requires the ability to predict the type of aggregated structure and to synthesize molecules in a highly controlled fashion. This bottom-up approach results in a molecular platform that mimics biological systems with potential for encapsulating and delivering drug molecules.

  4. PARKA II-A Bottom Loss Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-06-29

    obvious %ngle dependance between 15 to 85 degraes and, appear to be only slightly dependent of frequency; showing an approximate 2 db difference in mean... dependance . between 15 to 85 degrees and indicates a slight frequency dependance of 2 db over the frequency rang3e. The major reflected energy is from the...the low CONFIDENTIAL 10 NUSL Tech Memo 2211-023-70 CONFIDENTIAL sound v Locity sediment, resulting in significant angular dependance of bottom Loss at

  5. Bottom Interaction in Long Range Acoustic Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    model calculations (RR, RSR, RBR, SRBR ray paths and the mode-like finale region), 2) deep shadow zone arrivals arising from the spread of energy below...arrivals near 75Hz were observed on bottom-mounted hydrophones in the shadow zone well below the SOFAR channel. Dushaw et al (1999) note: "This...explain the energy in the shadow zones: 1) energy is scattered from internal waves and fine structure in the ocean, or 2) long range sound propagation

  6. Bottom Interaction in Ocean Acoustic Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    induced by ocean internal waves, internal tides and mesoscale processes, and by bathymetric features including seamounts and ridges, on the stability...from Seamount B and reflected from the sea surface back down to the seafloor receivers (Figures 1 to 3). We call these bottom-diffracted surface...shipping noise. For example, the DSFAs observed on NPAL04 provided a mechanism for taking long-range energy from 4250m depth into the deep shadow

  7. Bottom Interaction in Ocean Acoustic Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    seamounts and ridges, on the stability, statistics, spatial distribution and predictability of broadband acoustic signals..." (quote from the Ocean...2013) attributed some of these arrivals to bottom-diffracted, surface-reflected (BDSR) energy that scattered from a seamount near the Deep VLA and...identified four seafloor diffractors (Figure 1). Three of these (A-C) correspond to small seamounts on the seafloor. Diffractor D however does not

  8. Hydraulic potential in Lake Michigan bottom sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Hunt, C.S.; Hughes, G.M.; Brower, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of groundwater flux in the bottom sediments of Lake Michigan were deduced from measurements made during three shipboard cruises between 1973 and 1975. These factors affect the geochemical environment of the sediments and therefore the distribution of trace elements reported to be present. The near-shore, sandy-bottom and fine-grained, soft, deep-lake sediments were investigated; areas of hard till or bedrock were not included in the study. Thirty-three piezometers were placed in near-shore sands in waters 5-15 m deep. The piezometers were placed an average of 3 m into the bottom sediment. Water levels from the piezometers averaged 0.6 cm above the lake level, equivalent to an upward hydraulic gradient of about 0.002 cm/cm. Water samples taken from the piezometers have a distinctly different chemical composition from that of the lake water. The total dissolved mineral content and hardness of the groundwater are about twice those of the lake water. Twenty-two hydraulic gradient measurements were made in the fine-grained soft deep-lake sediments in waters 48-140 m deep by using a differential-pressure transducer dropped into the sediments. These measurements show an upward gradient averaging 0.2 cm/cm. No chemical data were obtained for the groundwater in the deep-lake sediments. The results of this study indicate that the groundwater flux is upward through the bottom sediments into Lake Michigan and that there is a chemical change in the water near the water-sediment contact. ?? 1979.

  9. Automated area segmentation for ocean bottom surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, John C.; Smith, Cheryl M.

    2015-05-01

    In practice, environmental information about an ocean bottom area to be searched using SONAR is often known a priori to some coarse level of resolution. The SONAR search sensor then typically has a different performance characterization function for each environmental classification. Large ocean bottom surveys using search SONAR can pose some difficulties when the environmental conditions vary significantly over the search area because search planning tools cannot adequately segment the area into sub-regions of homogeneous search sensor performance. Such segmentation is critically important to unmanned search vehicles; homogenous bottom segmentation will result in more accurate predictions of search performance and area coverage rate. The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) has developed an automated area segmentation algorithm that subdivides the mission area under the constraint that the variation of the search sensor's performance within each sub-mission area cannot exceed a specified threshold, thereby creating sub-regions of homogeneous sensor performance. The algorithm also calculates a new, composite sensor performance function for each sub-mission area. The technique accounts for practical constraints such as enforcing a minimum sub-mission area size and requiring sub-mission areas to be rectangular. Segmentation occurs both across the rows and down the columns of the mission area. Ideally, mission planning should consider both segmentation directions and choose the one with the more favorable result. The Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm was tested using two a priori bottom segmentations: rectangular and triangular; and two search sensor configurations: a set of three bi-modal curves and a set of three uni-modal curves. For each of these four scenarios, the Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm automatically partitioned the mission area across rows and down columns to create regions with homogeneous sensor performance. The

  10. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  11. Measurement of Aerodynamic Shear Stress Using Side Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    A novel concept was proposed exploiting the optical property response of liquid crystalline materials to various external effects. This study determined the feasibility of using side chain liquid crystal polymers as aerodynamic shear sensors. A method was developed to

  12. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  13. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  14. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  15. Closeup side view of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2059 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up side view of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2059 mounted in a SSME Engine Handler near the Drying Area in the High Bay section of the SSME Processing Facility. The prominent features of the SSME in this view are the hot-gas expansion nozzle extending from the approximate image center toward the image right. The main-engine components extend from the approximate image center toward image right until it meets up with the mount for the SSME Engine Handler. The engine is rotated to a position where the major components in the view are the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump Discharge Duct with reflective foil insulation on the upper side of the engine, the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump and its Discharge Duct on the right side of the engine assembly extending itself down and wrapping under the bottom side of the assembly to the High-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump pump. The High-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Discharge Duct exists the turbopump and extends up to the top side of the assembly where it enters the main oxidizer valve. The sphere on the lower side of the engine assembly is an accumulator that is part of the SSMEs POGO suppression system. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  17. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTION AT THIRD PANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTION AT THIRD PANAL POINT IN FROM ABUTMENT. NOTE THAT THE BOTTOM CHORD IS CONTINUOUS ACROSS THE CONNECTION - Poffenberger Road Bridge, Spanning Catoctin Creek, Middletown, Frederick County, MD

  18. 1. Entrance to Heintooga Round Bottom Road and sign looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Entrance to Heintooga Round Bottom Road and sign looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. Determination of /sup 239,240/Pu in bottom sediments of the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Legin, V.K.; Pospelov, Yu.N.; Simonyak, Z.N.

    1988-11-01

    We present a technique for determining the /sup 239,240/Pu content, using /sup 236/Pu as the monitor of chemical yield, in samples of soils and bottom sediments - objects of the external environment. Plutonium is extracted from the matrix material by leaching with a mixture of concentrated acids HCl-HNO/sub 3/, after which it is separated by ion-exchange methods. After electrodeposition onto stainless steel discs the activity of the nuclides of plutonium is measured by the method of alpha-spectrometry. The average chemical yields during the analysis of the samples was 40-60%, the relative standard deviation was 10%, and the lower limit of detectability was 0.3 Bq. We present results of the determination of the /sup 239,240/Pu content in surface samples of bottom sediments from the Gulf of Finland and that past of the Baltic Sea which adjoins the territory of the USSR. It is found that the unit activity of /sup 239,240/Pu in the bottom sediments varies within the limits of 0.4-1.2 Bq/kg and lies at the global level. Global genesis of /sup 239,240/Pu in the bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland and the open parts of the Baltic Sea is also confirmed by the values which are found for the ratios /sup 238/Pu//sup 239,240/Pu and /sup 239,240/Pu//sup 137/Cs.

  20. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  1. The theory and a technique for an efficiency enhancing two stage bottoming cycle for piston/cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Zeh, D.

    1995-12-31

    While there is now much interest in electric vehicles or various hybrids, the most benefit may result from a revolutionary modification and efficiency improvement of the conventional internal combustion Otto cycle engine, by recovering a large portion of the availability that exists at the end of the power stroke. This paper will describe the theory and a potentially practical method for achieving a 50% improvement in power output and fuel efficiency. While the topping cycle will remain the internal combustion piston/cylinder engine, a two stage bottom cycle will be used. The first bottom stage is a single process consisting of a turbine installed in the exhaust stream to extract power from the excess pressure that exists when the engine exhaust valve opens. The second bottom stage is a complete external combustion gas turbine cycle consisting of a compressor, exhaust gas to compressed air heat exchanger and a turbine. Such a two stage bottoming cycle can be practical and may increase the power output by about 50%. This means that a car that achieves 30 mpg without a bottoming cycle can achieve 45 mpg with this bottoming cycle. Alternatively if the performance of cars can be improved to 66 mpg by means of decreasing the power requirements with smaller size and frontal area, better aerodynamics, lower rolling resistance tires and better transmission and drive trains, this vehicle can be extended to 100 mpg with this combined cycle engine.

  2. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All Large Packaging design types must be... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.970 Section 178.970... Packagings § 178.970 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for...

  3. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC.... (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.811 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.811 Section 178.811... Testing of IBCs § 178.811 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for...

  5. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC.... (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.811 Section...

  6. 4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State Route 100 center, back gates to Winterthur and Wilmington Country Club upper center, duck pond and reservoir bottom right and center, and State Route 92 center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  7. 3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams Dam Road center, Brandywine Creek State Park and J. Chandler Farm in center left, duck pond bottom right and reservoir bottom left. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  8. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.050 Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea bottom... subjected to the forces of wave and current and to wind blowing at the velocities described in §...

  9. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  10. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  11. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  12. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  13. The DarkSide awakens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-05-01

    The DarkSide program at LNGS aims to perform background-free WIMP searches using two phase liquid argon time projection chambers, with the ultimate goal of covering all parameters down to the so-called neutrino floor. One of the distinct features of the program is the use of underground argon with has a reduced content of the radioactive 39Ar compared to atmospheric argon. The DarkSide Collaboration is currently operating the DarkSide-50 experiment, the first such WIMP detector using underground argon. Operations with underground argon indicate a suppression of 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The new results obtained with DarkSide-50 and the plans for the next steps of the DarkSide program, the 20t fiducial mass DarkSide-20k detector and the 200 t fiducial Argo, are reviewed in this proceedings.

  14. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project.

  15. A photofunctional bottom-up bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Hoshiko, Ken; Liu, Qian; Yagi, Toshiki; Nagayama, Tatsuhiro; Kusaka, Shinpei; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Two-dimensional polymeric nanosheets have recently gained much attention, particularly top-down nanosheets such as graphene and metal chalcogenides originating from bulk-layered mother materials. Although molecule-based bottom-up nanosheets manufactured directly from molecular components can exhibit greater structural diversity than top-down nanosheets, the bottom-up nanosheets reported thus far lack useful functionalities. Here we show the design and synthesis of a bottom-up nanosheet featuring a photoactive bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex motif. A liquid/liquid interfacial synthesis between a three-way dipyrrin ligand and zinc(II) ions results in a multi-layer nanosheet, whereas an air/liquid interfacial reaction produces a single-layer or few-layer nanosheet with domain sizes of >10 μm on one side. The bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) metal complex nanosheet is easy to deposit on various substrates using the Langmuir-Schäfer process. The nanosheet deposited on a transparent SnO2 electrode functions as a photoanode in a photoelectric conversion system, and is thus the first photofunctional bottom-up nanosheet.

  16. A photofunctional bottom-up bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex nanosheet.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Hoshiko, Ken; Liu, Qian; Yagi, Toshiki; Nagayama, Tatsuhiro; Kusaka, Shinpei; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-02

    Two-dimensional polymeric nanosheets have recently gained much attention, particularly top-down nanosheets such as graphene and metal chalcogenides originating from bulk-layered mother materials. Although molecule-based bottom-up nanosheets manufactured directly from molecular components can exhibit greater structural diversity than top-down nanosheets, the bottom-up nanosheets reported thus far lack useful functionalities. Here we show the design and synthesis of a bottom-up nanosheet featuring a photoactive bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex motif. A liquid/liquid interfacial synthesis between a three-way dipyrrin ligand and zinc(II) ions results in a multi-layer nanosheet, whereas an air/liquid interfacial reaction produces a single-layer or few-layer nanosheet with domain sizes of >10 μm on one side. The bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) metal complex nanosheet is easy to deposit on various substrates using the Langmuir-Schäfer process. The nanosheet deposited on a transparent SnO2 electrode functions as a photoanode in a photoelectric conversion system, and is thus the first photofunctional bottom-up nanosheet.

  17. Procedural uncertainties of Proctor compaction tests applied on MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier; Vazquez, Enric

    2011-02-28

    MSWI bottom ash is a well-graded highly compactable material that can be used as a road material in unbound pavements. Achieving the compactness assumed in the design of the pavement is of primary concern to ensure long term structural stability. Regulations on road construction in a number of EU countries rely on standard tests originally developed for natural aggregates, which may not be appropriate to accurately assess MSWI bottom ash. This study is intended to assist in consistently assessing MSWI bottom ash compaction by means of the Proctor method. This test is routinely applied to address unbound road materials and suggests two methods. Compaction parameters show a marked procedural dependency due to the particle morphology and weak particle strength of ash. Re-compacting a single batch sample to determine Proctor curves is a common practise that turns out to overvalue optimum moisture contents and maximum dry densities. This could result in wet-side compactions not meeting stiffness requirements. Inaccurate moisture content measurements during testing may also induce erroneous determinations of compaction parameters. The role of a number of physical properties of MSWI bottom ash in compaction is also investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A photofunctional bottom-up bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex nanosheet

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Hoshiko, Ken; Liu, Qian; Yagi, Toshiki; Nagayama, Tatsuhiro; Kusaka, Shinpei; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional polymeric nanosheets have recently gained much attention, particularly top-down nanosheets such as graphene and metal chalcogenides originating from bulk-layered mother materials. Although molecule-based bottom-up nanosheets manufactured directly from molecular components can exhibit greater structural diversity than top-down nanosheets, the bottom-up nanosheets reported thus far lack useful functionalities. Here we show the design and synthesis of a bottom-up nanosheet featuring a photoactive bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex motif. A liquid/liquid interfacial synthesis between a three-way dipyrrin ligand and zinc(II) ions results in a multi-layer nanosheet, whereas an air/liquid interfacial reaction produces a single-layer or few-layer nanosheet with domain sizes of >10 μm on one side. The bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) metal complex nanosheet is easy to deposit on various substrates using the Langmuir–Schäfer process. The nanosheet deposited on a transparent SnO2 electrode functions as a photoanode in a photoelectric conversion system, and is thus the first photofunctional bottom-up nanosheet. PMID:25831973

  19. Using marine reserves to manage impact of bottom trawl fisheries requires consideration of benthic food-web interactions.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, P Daniël; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; van Kooten, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are widely used to protect exploited fish species as well as to conserve marine habitats and their biodiversity. They have also become a popular management tool for bottom trawl fisheries, a common fishing technique on continental shelves worldwide. The effects of bottom trawling go far beyond the impact on target species, as trawls also affect other components of the benthic ecosystem and the seabed itself. This means that for bottom trawl fisheries, MPAs can potentially be used not only to conserve target species but also to reduce impact of these side effects of the fishery. However, predicting the protective effects of MPAs is complicated because the side effects of trawling potentially alter the food-web interactions between target and non-target species. These changes in predatory and competitive interactions among fish and benthic invertebrates may have important ramifications for MPAs as tools to manage or mitigate the effects of bottom trawling. Yet, in current theory regarding the functioning of MPAs in relation to bottom trawl fisheries, such predatory and competitive interactions between species are generally not taken into account. In this study, we discuss how food-web interactions that are potentially affected by bottom trawling may alter the effectiveness of MPAs to protect (1) biodiversity and marine habitats, (2) fish populations, (3) fisheries yield, and (4) trophic structure of the community. We make the case that in order to be applicable for bottom trawl fisheries, guidelines for the implementation of MPAs must consider their potential food-web effects, at the risk of failing management.

  20. 3. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING 883. INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS AND ROLLING MILLS PROCESSES. (4/25/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. View northeast, west side, and south side (showing National Defense ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, west side, and south side (showing National Defense University Academic Operations Center Building in background) - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SIDE-BY-SIDE PROTOCOL COMPARISON TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven state, tribal, and federal agencies participated during summer 2005 in a side-by-side comparison of protocols used to measure common in-stream physical attributes to help determine which protocols are best for determining status and trend of stream/watershed condition. Th...

  3. 4. VIEW OF WEST SIDE (GABLE END) AND SOUTH SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF WEST SIDE (GABLE END) AND SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTHEAST. (BUILDINGS 130, 129, 128 ARE VISIBLE TO LEFT; BUILDING 109 AT DISTANT RIGHT.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, G. U. Treatment Unit Barracks, Nininger Way, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  4. LATERAL ABDOMINAL MUSCLE SYMMETRY IN COLLEGIATE SINGLE-SIDED ROWERS

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Norman W.; Mason, Beth E.; Gerber, J. Parry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Although side to side symmetry of lateral abdominal muscle thickness has been established in healthy individuals, it is unknown whether abdominal muscle symmetry exists in athletes with asymmetrical physiological demands, such as those of single-sided rowers. The purpose of this study was to examine the oarside versus the non-oarside lateral abdominal musculature thickness in collegiate single-sided rowers, as measured by ultrasound imaging (USI). Methods: The study was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational design. Thirty collegiate crew team members (17 males, 13 females, age 19.8±1.2 years) characterized as single-sided rowers participated. Resting muscle thickness measurements of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles were obtained via USI. Comparisons of absolute and relative muscle thickness between oarside and non-oarside were performed using paired t-tests. Potential differences based on gender, rowing experience, and history of low back pain were investigated using mixed model analysis of variance. Results: There were no clinically significant differences in absolute or relative thickness of the TrA, IO or EO on the oarside versus the non-oarside. There were no significant side to side differences in the relative muscle thickness of the TrA, IO or EO based on gender, rowing experience, or history of low back pain. Conclusions: In this sample of single-sided rowing athletes, no clinically significant side to side differences in lateral abdominal muscle thickness were observed. Despite the asymmetrical functional demands of single-sided rowers in this study, thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles was symmetric. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:22319677

  5. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  6. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  7. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  8. Development of Bottom Oil Recovery Systems. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    designed a recovery system based on dredging technology. It could handle harsh wind /wave conditions but has significant logistical requirements, due...Knots m/s Meter(s) per second M/T Motor tanker M/V Motor vessel m Meter or meters m2 Square meters m3 Cubic meters MBTA Migratory Bird ...usable for some bottom types. Wind 30 kts (45-kt gusts) Wave 0-2m (0-5ft) Current 0-2 kts Lightning ɝmiles Minimum depth of about 9m (30 ft

  9. Bottom quark mass from {Upsilon} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The bottom quark pole mass M{sub b} is determined using a sum rule which relates the masses and the electronic decay widths of the {Upsilon} mesons to large {ital n} moments of the vacuum polarization function calculated from nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics. The complete set of next-to-next-to-leading order [i.e., O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2},{alpha}{sub s}v,v{sup 2}) where v is the bottom quark c.m. velocity] corrections is calculated and leads to a considerable reduction of theoretical uncertainties compared to a pure next-to-leading order analysis. However, the theoretical uncertainties remain much larger than the experimental ones. For a two parameter fit for M{sub b}, and the strong M{bar S} coupling {alpha}{sub s}, and using the scanning method to estimate theoretical uncertainties, the next-to-next-to-leading order analysis yields 4.74 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.87 GeV and 0.096{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.124 if experimental uncertainties are included at the 95{percent} confidence level and if two-loop running for {alpha}{sub s} is employed. M{sub b} and {alpha}{sub s} have a sizable positive correlation. For the running M{bar S} bottom quark mass this leads to 4.09 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.32 GeV. If {alpha}{sub s} is taken as an input, the result for the bottom quark pole mass reads 4.78 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.98 GeVthinsp[4.08 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.28 GeV] for 0.114{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.122. The discrepancies between the results of three previous analyses on the same subject by Voloshin, Jamin, and Pich and K{umlt u}hn {ital et al.} are clarified. A comprehensive review on the calculation of the heavy-quark{endash}antiquark pair production cross section through a vector current at next-to-next-to leading order in the nonrelativistic expansion is presented. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  11. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K. . High Energy Physics Div.); Strikman, M. AN SSSR, Leningrad . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-01-01

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 10{sup 9} B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 10{sup 9} B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Side-sloped surfaces substantially affect lower limb running kinematics.

    PubMed

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Eslami, Mansour; Pearsall, David J

    2017-03-01

    Running on side-sloped surfaces is a common obstacle in the environment; however, how and to what extent the lower extremity kinematics adapt is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of side-sloped surfaces on three-dimensional kinematics of hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase of running. Ten healthy adult males ran barefoot along an inclinable runway in level (0°) and side-sloped (10° up-slope and down-slope inclinations, respectively) configurations. Right hip, knee, and ankle angles along with their time of occurrence were analysed using repeated measures MANOVA. Up-slope hip was more adducted (p = 0.015) and internally rotated (p = 0.030). Knee had greater external rotations during side-sloped running at heel-strike (p = 0.005), while at toe-off, it rotated externally and internally during up-slope and down-slope running, respectively (p = 0.001). Down-slope ankle had greatest plantar flexion (p = 0.001). Up-slope ankle had greatest eversion compared with down-slope (p = 0.043), while it was more externally rotated (p = 0.030). These motion patterns are necessary to adjust the lower extremity length during side-sloped running. Timing differences in the kinematic events of hip adduction and external rotation, and ankle eversion were observed (p = 0.006). Knowledge on these alterations is a valuable tool in adopting strategies to enhance performance while preventing injury.

  13. 23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE NORTH DOORS AT TOP; WEST DOOR MOTOR DISCONNECT ABOVE ACTUATOR; WINCH AND PULLEY SYSTEM AT BOTTOM; HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT ABOVE WINCHES; MOTOR COMPRESSOR FOR DOORS ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 SCREEN DOOR TO EXTERIOR AND DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO DINING ROOM. HOLE AT BOTTOM LEFT OF 1/2 SCREEN DOOR WAS A CAT DOOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  15. Effects of etching time on the bottom surface morphology of ultrathin porous alumina membranes for use as masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sun A.; Choi, Yong Chan; Bu, Sang Don

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the effect of etching time on the bottom surface morphologies of ultrathin porous alumina membranes (UT-PAMs) anodized in oxalic and phosphoric acid. The morphology of the bottom surface clearly changed and a unique surface undulation was observed during the etching process. Such an undulation regarding the bottom surface is attributed to the different etching rates between the dome-shaped barrier layer and the hexagonal cell walls. The results suggest that the bottom morphology of UT-PAMs formed after the barrier layer is opened significantly affects the contact area of the bottom side with the substrate. During the initial stage of the opening process for the barrier layer, the porous section will contact the substrate rather than the walls. However, as the etching time increases, the height of the porous section becomes considerably lower than that of the walls, which means that the walls will contact the substrate with a gap between the pores and the substrate. Based on our experimental results, we propose a possible schematic diagram describing the effects of UT-PAMs with differently-shaped bottom surfaces on the shapes of fabricated nanodots when the UT-PAMs are used as masks.

  16. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieliński, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jarosław

    2010-10-01

    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  17. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    PubMed

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    2017-01-01

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  18. Reshaping the Antarctic Circumpolar Current via Antarctic Bottom Water Export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, A.; Hogg, A.

    2016-02-01

    Westerly wind forcing of Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is balanced at large-scale topographic obstructions by form drag; the formation of standing meanders produces a net westward pressure gradient associated with the geostrophically balanced meridional flow. These topographic obstructions also support the northward geostrophic flow of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), which piles up dense water on the eastern side of the topography and thereby acts to reduce the form drag. We therefore hypothesize that variations in the density of AABW and its export rate must be accommodated by reshaping the ACC's standing meanders in order to preserve the zonal force balance. We test this hypothesis using an idealized, eddy-resolving sector model of the ACC. We find that response of the ACC to switching off AABW production depends on whether the topography is high enough to block barotropic potential vorticity (PV) contours. If re-entrant PV contours exist then the ACC responds similarly to switching off AABW production or halving the westerly wind strength: for example the ACC transport drops by 10-20% and the surface speed in the meander decreases by around 25%. If PV contours are blocked then the ACC transport becomes insensitive to the westerlies, but switching off AABW production still leads to a reduced ACC transport through a wider, slower meander. These results suggest that the warming and freshening of AABW observed in recent decades may have a detectable impact on the surface circulation of the ACC.

  19. Heavy exotic molecules with charm and bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-11-01

    We revisit the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom and their chiral partners under the general strictures of both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry. The chiral exotic partners with good parity formed using the (0+ ,1+) multiplet are about twice more bound than their primary exotic partners formed using the (0- ,1-) multiplet. The chiral couplings across the multiplets (0± ,1±) cause the chiral exotic partners to unbind, and the primary exotic molecules to be about twice more bound, for J ≤ 1. Our multi-channel coupling results show that only the charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC =1++ bind, which we identify as the reported neutral X (3872). Also, the bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC =1+- binds, which we identify as a mixture of the reported charged exotics Zb+ (10610) and Zb+ (10650). The bound isosinglet with JPC =1++ is suggested as a possible neutral Xb (10532) not yet reported.

  20. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; ...

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physicalmore » pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.« less

  1. The sea bottom temperature offshore southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, H.; Shyu, C.; Peng, Y.; Chang, H.; Chen, S.; Chung, S.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The sea bottom temperature (SBT) is important to apply to the heat flow estimation by BSR. Also the SBT may response the fluid migration near subsurface. Here we present 150 measurements of SBT offshore southwestern Taiwan where abundant gas hydrates has been evaluated. The SBT data were acquired by the heat probe with high resolution up to 0.0001°C. Thermal gradients were determined from several temperature sensors installed in different depth in the heat probe and then the SBT could be calculated by extrapolation. The results show that the SBT are between 2.23 and 10.14°C in water depth within the range of 409 to 3248 meters. Basically, the SBT is inversely hyperbolic proportional to the water depth for those 132 measurements the water depth are shallower than 2650 meters. The product of SBT and water depth has an average of 4419 m-°C and a standard deviation of 402 m-°C. However the SBT of others 18 measurements in the deep water region are scattered without any significant trend. Some measurements near mud diapirs in the shallow water have high anomaly SBT. It is suggested that the fluid from deep underground may migrate along the fractures or faults related to the movements of the mud volume.; The sea bottom temperature offshore southwestern Taiwan

  2. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Afonin, S. S.

    2016-01-22

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model.

  3. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physical pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.

  4. The Dark Side of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, David H., Ed.; Cropley, Arthur J., Ed.; Kaufman, James C., Ed.; Runco, Mark A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With few exceptions, scholarship on creativity has focused on its positive aspects while largely ignoring its dark side. This includes not only creativity deliberately aimed at hurting others, such as crime or terrorism, or at gaining unfair advantages, but also the accidental negative side effects of well-intentioned acts. This book brings…

  5. The Dark Side of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, David H., Ed.; Cropley, Arthur J., Ed.; Kaufman, James C., Ed.; Runco, Mark A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With few exceptions, scholarship on creativity has focused on its positive aspects while largely ignoring its dark side. This includes not only creativity deliberately aimed at hurting others, such as crime or terrorism, or at gaining unfair advantages, but also the accidental negative side effects of well-intentioned acts. This book brings…

  6. Durability of Hardboard Lap Siding

    Treesearch

    Charles Carll; Charles R. Boardman; Steve P. Verrill

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was undertaken to evaluate the degree of correlation between in-service performance of hardboard siding and its performance in the industry standard test procedure for “weatherability of substrate.” The study included 13 different hardboard sidings: 6 noncommercial boards and 7 commercial products. All manufacturing plants operating in...

  7. Psychopharmaceuticals: effects and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Nathan S.

    1959-01-01

    Drugs which affect psychological behaviour are being used in vast amounts nowadays, with, in all too many cases, but scant regard for their exact uses or possible side effects. This article contains a clinical classification of these drugs, followed by an account of their principal side effects and the means of obviating them. PMID:14409889

  8. Technical Note: Stability of a Levee Made of Bottom Sediments From a Dam Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koś, Karolina; Zawisza, Eugeniusz

    2015-02-01

    Stability analysis of a levee made of the bottom sediments from Czorsztyn-Niedzica Reservoir is presented in the paper. These sediments were classified as silty sands and, based on the authors' own research, their geotechnical parameters were beneficial, so the possibility of using this material for the hydraulic embankments was considered. Stability and filtration calculations were carried out for a levee that had the same top width - 3 m, slope inclinations 1:2 and different heights: 4, 6 and 8 m. Two methods were used: analytical and numerical. Calculations were carried out without and with a steady and unsteady seepage filtration. Based on the analysis carried out it was stated that the levee made of the bottom sediments is stable even at the height of 8.0 m, although because of the seepage on the downstream side it is recommended to use a drainage at the toe of the slope.

  9. The Flat-Bottom Strategy for Improved Accuracy in Protein Sidechain Placements

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Victor Wai Tak; Goddard, William A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new strategy for protein sidechain placement that uses flat bottom potentials for rotamer scoring. The extent of the flat bottom depends on the coarseness of the rotamer library and is optimized for libraries ranging from diversities of 0.2 Å to 5.0 Å. The parameters reported here were optimized for forcefields using Lennard-Jones 12-6 van der Waals potential with DREIDING parameters but are expected to be similar for AMBER, CHARMM, and other forcefields. This Side-Chain Rotamer Excitation Analysis Method is implemented in the SCREAM software package (available in supplementary material). Similar scoring function strategies should be useful for ligand docking, virtual ligand screening, and protein folding applications. PMID:26620487

  10. 12. Stairwell at south side of original Clubhouse. Doorway at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Stairwell at south side of original Clubhouse. Doorway at bottom right leads to lower porch (see photo WA-201-2-13). Barely visible to left of that doorway is entrance to original Clubhouse bar seen in photos WA-201-2-9 and WA-201-10. Doorway at top of photo leads to upper porch (Turf Club) as seen in photo WA-201-2-14. Stairs continue upward (not shown) to the original 1933 cupola. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  11. Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization

    PubMed Central

    Backhaus, Jenny; Röder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Different reference frames appear to be relevant for tactile spatial coding. When participants give temporal order judgments (TOJ) of two tactile stimuli, one on each hand, performance declines when the hands are crossed. This effect is attributed to a conflict between anatomical and external location codes: hand crossing places the anatomically right hand into the left side of external space. However, hand crossing alone does not specify the anchor of the external reference frame, such as gaze, trunk, or the stimulated limb. Experiments that used explicit localization responses, such as pointing to tactile stimuli rather than crossing manipulations, have consistently implicated gaze-centered coding for touch. To test whether crossing effects can be explained by gaze-centered coding alone, participants made TOJ while the position of the hands was manipulated relative to gaze and trunk. The two hands either lay on different sides of space relative to gaze or trunk, or they both lay on one side of the respective space. In the latter posture, one hand was on its "regular side of space" despite hand crossing, thus reducing overall conflict between anatomical and external codes. TOJ crossing effects were significantly reduced when the hands were both located on the same side of space relative to gaze, indicating gaze-centered coding. Evidence for trunk-centered coding was tentative, with an effect in reaction time but not in accuracy. These results link paradigms that use explicit localization and TOJ, and corroborate the relevance of gaze-related coding for touch. Yet, gaze and trunk-centered coding did not account for the total size of crossing effects, suggesting that tactile localization relies on additional, possibly limb-centered, reference frames. Thus, tactile location appears to be estimated by integrating multiple anatomical and external reference frames. PMID:27391805

  12. Side effects of generic competition?

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jörgen; Rudholm, Niklas

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that increased generic market share increases the number of reported side effects for all estimated models. When studying the relationship at the substance level, increasing generic market shares increases the number of side effects for 7 of the 15 substances. Generic substitution laws and measures to increase generic competition may thus have unintended consequences since these results show a positive relationship between generic market shares and reported side effects.

  13. Impact of numerical method on a side jets formation in a round jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzak, K.; Boguslawski, A.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical analysis of a formation of side jets in an externally modulated round jet is presented. The research is performed applying Large Eddy Simulation method and high-order codes based on Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. The main attention is paid to an impact of numerical approach on the formation of the side jets, their number and localisation. The results obtained suggest that on Cartesian meshes the number and directions of the side jets are dependent on the distribution of the mesh nodes.

  14. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  15. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  16. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  17. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  18. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  19. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  20. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Influence of External Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, M. R.; Hoffmann, A.

    The application of external fields provides a powerful tool to investigate a large variety of properties of excitons and exciton related processes. Within this chapter, we focus on the fundamental effects of static magnetic and strain fields on the optical properties of excitons in ZnO. The description is complemented by relevant examples. A general review of this topic can be found for constant fields in [Cho, Excitons, Topics in Current Physics, vol. 14 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979)] and Hönerlage et al. [Phys. Rep. 124:161, 1985] and for modulation techniques in [Cardona, Modulation Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1969); Seraphin, Modulation Spectroscopy (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1973); Goldsmith, NATO Science Series II, Frontiers of Optical Spectroscopy, vol. 168 (Springer Netherlands, 2005)]. Not much has been published on the influence of static electric fields on excitons. A few references are given at the end of Sect. 8.2.

  2. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  3. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice. PMID:24056512

  4. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  5. Effect of resonance in external radio-frequency circuit on very high frequency plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Rauf, Shahid; Chen Zhigang; Collins, Ken

    2010-05-15

    A fully electromagnetic plasma model for an asymmetric capacitively coupled plasma discharge is used to understand the interaction between the external radio-frequency (rf) distributed circuit and the plasma. The plasma is excited using a 150 MHz rf source connected to the top electrode, the bottom electrode is connected to a shorted transmission line, and the electrodes are separated from the chamber walls through dielectric rings. Under typical conditions, the electron density peaks in the center of the plasma chamber due to the standing electromagnetic wave and the rf current from the top electrode primarily returns through the bottom electrode. When the electrical length of the bottom transmission line is adjusted such that it presents a large (open-circuit) impedance at the plasma chamber interface, the rf return current shifts from the bottom electrode to the chamber wall. As a consequence, the peak in electron density also moves from the center of the chamber toward its outer periphery.

  6. 2. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING 883. INSTALLATION OF ROLLING MILLS AND MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT FOR DEPLETED URANIUM FABRICATION. THE CRANE NEAR THE CEILING WAS USED TO INSTALL THE EQUIPMENT. BOXES ON THE FLOOR CONTAINED EQUIPMENT TO BE INSTALLED. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Conductivity Probe after Trench-Bottom Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Needles of the thermal and conductivity probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander were positioned into the bottom of a trench called 'Upper Cupboard' during Sol 86 (Aug. 21, 2008), or 86th Martian day after landing. This image of the conductivity probe after it was raised back out of the trench was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera. The conductivity probe is at the wrist of the robotic arm's scoop.

    The probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Conductivity Probe after Trench-Bottom Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Needles of the thermal and conductivity probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander were positioned into the bottom of a trench called 'Upper Cupboard' during Sol 86 (Aug. 21, 2008), or 86th Martian day after landing. This image of the conductivity probe after it was raised back out of the trench was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera. The conductivity probe is at the wrist of the robotic arm's scoop.

    The probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Chapter A8. Bottom-Material Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radtke, Dean B.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data(National Field Manual) describes protocols (requirements and recommendations) and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This release of Chapter A8 provides guidelines for the equipment and procedures needed to collect and process samples of bottom material for the evaluation of surface-water quality. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed April 2005).

  10. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design.

  11. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  12. Discovering bottom squark coannihilation at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Alexander; Lastovicka, Tomas; Nomerotski, Andrei; Lastovicka-Medin, Gordana

    2010-02-01

    We study the potential of the international linear collider (ILC) at {radical}(s)=500 GeV to probe new dark matter motivated scenario where the bottom squark (sbottom) is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. For this scenario, which is virtually impossible for the LHC to test, the ILC has a potential to cover a large fraction of the parameter space. The challenge is due to a very low energy of jets, below 20-30 GeV, which pushes the jet clustering and flavor tagging algorithms to their limits. The process of sbottom pair production was studied within the SiD detector concept. We demonstrate that ILC offers a unique opportunity to test the supersymmetry parameter space motivated by the sbottom-neutralino coannihilation scenario in cases when the sbottom production is kinematically accessible. The study was done with the full SiD simulation and reconstruction chain including all standard model and beam backgrounds.

  13. The DarkSide project

    SciTech Connect

    Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, Ivone Freire Da Mota; Alexander, Thomas R.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, Henning O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, Bianca; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, Severino; Cadeddu, Matteo; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, Macro; Catalanotti, Sergio; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, Sandro; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, Mario; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, Giuseppe; Edkins, E.; Empl, Anton; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A.; Granato, Francesco; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, Edward; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, Alexander; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, Alissa; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, James; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, Marco; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, Andrew; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Savarese, Claudio; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Singh, Parth; Skorokhvatov, Mikhail; Smirnov, Oleg; Sotnikov, Albert; Stanford, Chris; Suvorov, Yura; Tartaglia, Roberto; Tatarowicz, John; Testera, Gemma; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, Eugenii; Vishneva, Alina; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, Masayuki; Walker, Susan E.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, James; Wojcik, M.; Xiang, Xin; Xu, Jingke; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zec, Adam; Zhong, W. L.; Zhu, Chengliang; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    DarkSide is a graded experimental project based on radiopure argon, and is now, and will be, used in direct dark matter searches. The present DarkSide-50 detector, operating at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, is a dual-phase, 50 kg, liquid argon time-projection-chamber surrounded by an active liquid scintillator veto. It is designed to be background free in 3 years of operation. DS-50 performances, when filled with atmospheric argon, are reported. However DS-50 filled with underground argon, shows impressive reduction of the 39Ar isotope. The application of this powerful technology in a future generation of the DarkSide program is discussed.

  14. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    PubMed

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exact Reconstruction of Ocean Bottom Velocity Profiles from Monochromatic Scattering Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    presents the theoretical and computational underpinninas of a novel approach toAthe determination of,the acoustic parameters of the ocean bottom using...application to our problem will be taken up in Chapter IV. The exploitation of the Gelfand-Levitan formalism out- side of cuantum mech3nics was first...goes to infinity at least as fast as (1/kz 2 ). It should be noted that Ware and Aki did not run any computer simulations of their algorithm, and were

  16. Efficacy of modified hive entrances and a bottom screen device for controlling Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) infestations in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies.

    PubMed

    Ellis, James D; Delaplane, Keith S; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti J

    2003-12-01

    This study was designed to test whether hive entrances reduced with polyvinyl chloride pipe reduce the ingress of Aethina tumida Murray into Apis mellifera L. colonies and whether screen-mesh bottom boards alleviate side effects associated with restricted entrances. Forty-eight colonies distributed equally between two locations each received one of six experimental treatments: 1) conventional solid bottom board and open entrance, 2) ventilated bottom board and open entrance, 3) conventional bottom and 1.9-cm-i.d. pipe entrance, 4) conventional bottom and 3.8-cm pipe entrance, 5) screen bottom and 1.9-cm pipe entrance, and 6) screen bottom and 3.8-cm pipe entrance. Results were inconsistent between apiaries. In apiary 1, colonies with 3.8-cm pipe entrances had fewer A. tuzmida than colonies with open entrances, but this benefit was not apparent in apiary 2. Pipe entrances tended to reduce colony and brood production in both apiaries, and these losses were only partly mitigated with the addition of screened bottom boards. Pipe entrances had no measurable liability concerning colony thermoregulation. There were significantly fewer frames of adult A. mellifera in colonies with 3.8- or 1.9-cm pipe entrances compared with open entrances but more in colonies with screens. There were more frames of pollen in colonies with open or 3.8-cm pipe entrances than 1.9-cm entrances. We conclude that the efficacy of reduced hive entrances in reducing ingress of A. tumida remains uncertain due to observed differences between apiaries. Furthermore, there were side effects associated with restricted entrances that could be only partly mitigated with screened bottom boards.

  17. Dark Side Ring of Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-23

    NASA Cassini spacecraft looks toward the dark side of Saturn largest moon as a circle of light is produced by sunlight scattering through the periphery of Titan atmosphere. A detached, high-altitude global haze layer encircles the moon.

  18. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  19. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia

    Cancer.gov

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  20. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  1. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Cancer.gov

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  2. Lunar Far Side Regolith Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2005-08-01

    The lunar far side contains the South Pole Aitken Basin, which is the largest known impact basin in the solar system, and is enhanced in titanium and iron compared to the rest of the lunar highlands. Although we have known of this enigmatic basin since the 60's, most lunar photography and science covered the equatorial near side where the Apollo spacecraft landed. With NASA's renewed interest in the Moon, the South Pole Aitken Basin is a likely target for future exploration. The regolith depth is a crucial measurement for understanding the source of the surface material in the Basin. On the southern far side of the Moon (20 S, 180 W), near the north edge of the Basin, we determined the regolith depth by examining 11 flat-floored craters about 200 m in diameter. We measured the ratio of the diameter of the flat floor to the diameter of the crater, and used it to calculate the regolith thickness using the method of Quaide and Oberbeck (1968). We used Apollo 15 panoramic images --- still the highest resolution images available for this region of the Moon. We found the regolith depth at that location to be about 40 m. This value is significantly greater than values for the lunar near side: 3 m (Oceanus Procellarum), 16 m (Hipparchus), and 1-10 m at the Surveyor landing sites. The thicker value obtained for the far side regolith is consistent with the older age of the far side. It also suggests that samples returned from the far side may have originated from deeper beneath the surface than their near side counterparts.

  3. Wood siding : installing, finishing, maintaining

    Treesearch

    W.C. Feist; A.E. Oviatt

    1983-01-01

    Wood siding is put on houses for many good reasons. One reason is that it will keep the bright new “face” of any home attractive for many years to come. In fact, given reasonable care, wood siding will retain its beauty for centuries, as has been amply proved by its performance on houses that date back to early colonial times. It also has great versatility; and the...

  4. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  5. What causes the barren bottoms of the Baltic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest impacts on the Baltic Sea ecosystem health is eutrophication, which causes hypoxia (< 2mg/l dissolved oxygen). It is estimated that the hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased about four times in area since 1960 due to surplus loads of waterborne and airborne nutrients (N and P) from anthropogenic sources. Hypoxia has barren vast areas of the sea-floor, reduced the macrobenthic communities and disrupted benthic food webs in the whole Baltic basin. Hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles; it increases the internal load of phosphorus released from sediments, which causes low nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratios during summer - a factor that favors cyanobacterial blooms. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea is not unique to the modern era. Based on a compilation of Baltic geological records Zillén et al., (2008) showed that the deeper depressions of the Baltic Proper have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene. Hypoxia occurred basin-wide, at water depths varying between 73-240 m during three major periods; i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800. These periods overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum HTM (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period MWP (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present). In contrast, oxic bottom conditions were common between c. 7000-6000, c. 4000-2000 and c. 800-200 cal. yr BP. The latter period coincides with the Little Ice Age (LIA) and its characteristic server winters. Although we know that hypoxia has occurred in the past and probably co-varied with external forces, such as climate change and nutrient fluxes, the relative importance of these two forcing mechanisms is unresolved, which restricts predictions about the Baltic Sea ecosystem response to future climate and anthropogenic stressors. Most previous research suggests that there may be a correlation between the oxygen conditions in the Baltic Sea and climate variability in the past

  6. The DarkSide awakens

    DOE PAGES

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; ...

    2016-06-09

    Here, the DarkSide program at LNGS aims to perform background-free WIMP searches using two phase liquid argon time projection chambers, with the ultimate goal of covering all parameters down to the so-called neutrino floor. One of the distinct features of the program is the use of underground argon with has a reduced content of the radioactive 39Ar compared to atmospheric argon. The DarkSide Collaboration is currently operating the DarkSide-50 experiment, the first such WIMP detector using underground argon. Operations with underground argon indicate a suppression of 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 relative to atmospheric argon. Themore » new results obtained with DarkSide-50 and the plans for the next steps of the DarkSide program, the 20t fiducial mass DarkSide-20k detector and the 200 t fiducial Argo, are reviewed in this proceedings.« less

  7. The DarkSide awakens

    SciTech Connect

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; M Albuquerque, I. F.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D’Angelo, D.; D’Incecco, M.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-06-09

    Here, the DarkSide program at LNGS aims to perform background-free WIMP searches using two phase liquid argon time projection chambers, with the ultimate goal of covering all parameters down to the so-called neutrino floor. One of the distinct features of the program is the use of underground argon with has a reduced content of the radioactive 39Ar compared to atmospheric argon. The DarkSide Collaboration is currently operating the DarkSide-50 experiment, the first such WIMP detector using underground argon. Operations with underground argon indicate a suppression of 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The new results obtained with DarkSide-50 and the plans for the next steps of the DarkSide program, the 20t fiducial mass DarkSide-20k detector and the 200 t fiducial Argo, are reviewed in this proceedings.

  8. External fixators in haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Lee, V; Srivastava, A; PalaniKumar, C; Daniel, A J; Mathews, V; Babu, N; Chandy, M; Sundararaj, G D

    2004-01-01

    External fixators (EF) are not commonly used for patients with haemophilia. We describe the use of EF (Ilizarov, AO- uni- and bi-planar fixators and Charnley clamp) in nine patients (mean age: 19.2 years; range: 9-37) with haemophilia for the following indications - arthrodesis of infected joints, treatment of open fractures and osteoclasis. EF required an average of nine skin punctures [range: 4-17 were maintained for a period of 15 weeks (range: 8-29.5), without regular factor replacement, till bone healing was adequate and were removed with a single dose of factor infusion]. The mean preoperative factor level achieved was 85% (range: 64-102%). Much lower levels were subsequently maintained till wound healing. The average total factor consumption was 430 IU kg(-1) (range: 240-870), administered over a period of 17 days (range: 9-44). There were no major complications related to EF except in a patient who developed inhibitors. In conclusion, EF can be used safely in haemophilic patients who do not have inhibitors and does not require prolonged factor replacement.

  9. Valley-Bottom Sediment Storage Volumes Determined From LiDAR-Derived Digital Elevation Models and Channel Substrate Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, W. T.; Coyote, S.; Lancaster, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    A critical component of measuring long-term fluvial sediment fluxes is determining volumes of sediment stored in valley-bottom landforms, especially at major process transitions, such as the transition between dominance of sediment flux by debris flows and fluvial transport. Determination of stored sediment volumes from valley cross-sections and longitudinal channel profiles measured in the field is time-consuming, and therefore spatial resolution of cross-sections is limited by time available for field work. A novel technique is developed to quickly measure valley-bottom sediment volumes using LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) and field-determined bedrock channel locations. LiDAR and channel-bottom bedrock location data were collected in portions of two Oregon Coast Range basins (Knowles Creek and Wassen Creek). Bedrock surfaces below stored sediments are inferred by linear interpolation between bedrock points and assumption of horizontal bedrock cross-sections perpendicular to valley centerlines. Bedrock surfaces are bounded on valley sides by adjacent hillslopes, which approximate bedrock side slopes because soils are generally thin. Bedrock surfaces are then subtracted from the DEMs to determine stored sediment volumes in 1-m-by-1-m cells composing the valley bottoms. Results are compared with field-measured sediment volumes.

  10. Velocity and bottom-stress measurements in the bottom boundary layer, outer Norton Sound, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Wiberg, P.

    1982-01-01

    We have used long-term measurements of near-bottom velocities at four heights above the sea floor in Norton Sound, Alaska, to compute hourly values of shear velocity u., roughness and bottom-drag coefficient. Maximum sediment resuspension and transport, predicted for periods when the computed value of u. exceeds a critical level, occur during peak tidal currents associated with spring tides. The fortnightly variation in u. is correlated with a distinct nepheloid layer that intensifies and thickens during spring tides and diminishes and thins during neap tides. The passage of a storm near the end of the experiment caused significantly higher u. values than those found during fair weather.-from Authros

  11. Mid-Frequency Sonar Backscatter Measurements from a Rippled Bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Joseph L.; Lim, Raymond; Commander, Kerry W.

    2004-11-01

    Seafloor ripple reverberation is associated with a peak in the scattering frequency spectrum at a frequency around c/(2λr cos θ), where c is the sound speed in water, λr is the ripple wavelength, and θ is the incident grazing angle. In the vicinity of this peak, perturbation theory predicts the reverberation level to be high enough to be a concern for detection of targets buried under ripple. In order to validate such predictions, an experiment was conducted in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City (NSWC-PC) Facility 383, which is a 13.7-m deep, 110-m long, 80-m wide test pool that has 1.5 m of sand covering the bottom. Backscatter reverberation levels from two bottom configurations were measured using a parametric source that was operated in the 1 to 10 kHz frequency range. One bottom configuration corresponded to a non-rippled, near-flat bottom. The second was a rippled bottom with a Gaussian spectrum centered on a wavelength of 20 cm. The rippled bottom was artificially formed with the aid of a sand scraper. Results showed the reverberation levels were significantly higher in the 3 to 5 kHz frequency range for the rippled bottom than for the non-rippled bottom. The maximum reverberation level for the rippled bottom occurred at 4 kHz, which is consistent with perturbation theory predictions.

  12. Field trail of fiber optic ocean bottom cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Huang, Wenzhu; Wang, Zhaogang; Luo, Yingbo; Li, Fang

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the field test of the fiber optic ocean bottom cable (FOOBC). The FOOBC are several ocean bottom seismic stations connected by optical fiber cables. In the ocean bottom seismic station, there are three orthogonal fiber optic accelerometers and one fiber optic hydrophone. The design of the sensors and stations are introduced. The field demonstration of an ocean bottom seismic station is carried out in Yunnan Province, China. The test results show that the three accelerometers has similar response to the seismic signal with traditional MEMS accelerometers. We believe that the fiber optic seismic cable is promising in the field of oil and gas exploration and earthquake monitoring.

  13. 22. Detail view of approach span, showing bottom chord construction, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail view of approach span, showing bottom chord construction, looking east - India Point Railroad Bridge, Spanning Seekonk River between Providence & East Providence, Providence, Providence County, RI

  14. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  15. Bottom-up and top-down attention: different processes and overlapping neural systems.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, Fumi; Constantinidis, Christos

    2014-10-01

    The brain is limited in its capacity to process all sensory stimuli present in the physical world at any point in time and relies instead on the cognitive process of attention to focus neural resources according to the contingencies of the moment. Attention can be categorized into two distinct functions: bottom-up attention, referring to attentional guidance purely by externally driven factors to stimuli that are salient because of their inherent properties relative to the background; and top-down attention, referring to internal guidance of attention based on prior knowledge, willful plans, and current goals. Over the past few years, insights on the neural circuits and mechanisms of bottom-up and top-down attention have been gained through neurophysiological experiments. Attention affects the mean neuronal firing rate as well as its variability and correlation across neurons. Although distinct processes mediate the guidance of attention based on bottom-up and top-down factors, a common neural apparatus, the frontoparietal network, is essential in both types of attentional processes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair; Ballas, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening.

  17. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.; Ballas, G.J.

    1998-02-24

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. 5 figs.

  18. Nanomaterial processing using self-assembly-bottom-up chemical and biological approaches.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadathan, Rajagopalan; Korampally, Venumadhav; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Chanda, Nripen; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2013-06-01

    Nanotechnology is touted as the next logical sequence in technological evolution. This has led to a substantial surge in research activities pertaining to the development and fundamental understanding of processes and assembly at the nanoscale. Both top-down and bottom-up fabrication approaches may be used to realize a range of well-defined nanostructured materials with desirable physical and chemical attributes. Among these, the bottom-up self-assembly process offers the most realistic solution toward the fabrication of next-generation functional materials and devices. Here, we present a comprehensive review on the physical basis behind self-assembly and the processes reported in recent years to direct the assembly of nanoscale functional blocks into hierarchically ordered structures. This paper emphasizes assembly in the synthetic domain as well in the biological domain, underscoring the importance of biomimetic approaches toward novel materials. In particular, two important classes of directed self-assembly, namely, (i) self-assembly among nanoparticle-polymer systems and (ii) external field-guided assembly are highlighted. The spontaneous self-assembling behavior observed in nature that leads to complex, multifunctional, hierarchical structures within biological systems is also discussed in this review. Recent research undertaken to synthesize hierarchically assembled functional materials have underscored the need as well as the benefits harvested in synergistically combining top-down fabrication methods with bottom-up self-assembly.

  19. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Brucken, E.; Devoto, F.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Casal, B.; Cuevas, J.; Gomez, G.; Palencia, E.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Amerio, S.; Dorigo, T.; Gresele, A.; Lazzizzera, I.

    2011-05-06

    We report measurements of direct CP--violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +})=+0.39{+-}0.15(stat){+-}0.08(syst), and bottom baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}p{pi}{sup -})=+0.03{+-}0.17(stat){+-}0.05(syst) and A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}pK{sup -})=+0.37{+-}0.17(stat){+-}0.03(syst). In addition, we measure CP violation in B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP}(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=-0.086{+-}0.023(stat){+-}0.009(syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  20. Measurements of direct CP violating asymmetries in charmless decays of strange bottom mesons and bottom baryons.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2011-05-06

    We report measurements of direct CP-violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A(CP)(B(s)(0)→K(-)π(+))=+0.39±0.15(stat)±0.08(syst), and bottom baryons, A(CP)(Λ(b)(0)→pπ(-))=+0.03±0.17(stat)±0.05(syst) and A(CP)(Λ(b)(0)→pK(-))=+0.37±0.17(stat)±0.03(syst). In addition, we measure CP violation in B(0)→K(+)π(-) decays with 3.5σ significance, A(CP)(B(0)→K(+)π(-))=-0.086±0.023(stat)±0.009(syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B(s)(0)→K(+)K(-) and B(0)→π(+)π(-) decays are also updated.

  1. COS Side 2 NUV Detector Recovery After MEB Side Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinski, John

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after a COS MEB side switch. The recovery procedure consists of two separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after a COS MEB side switch: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a series of dark exposures. Visit1 must be successfully completed before proceeding onto Visit 2. This proposal is model after cycle 20 13129 - COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous ShutdownIf the cause of the COS MEB side switch is the result of a NUV anomaly, replacing this proposal with the COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown procedure {cycle 20 proposal 13129} should be consider.

  2. 13. Detail, downstream side of Bridge Number 310.58, showing lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail, downstream side of Bridge Number 310.58, showing lower chord connection, view to southeast, 210mm lens. The riveted portion of the bottom chord is at left, joined at the pin connection to the eyebars. The vertical intermediate post is a compression member, and is attached to one end of a floor beam that spans transversely below the bridge floor. There are paired diagonals to the left of the intermediate post, with a turnbuckled counter to rising diagonally to the right. The diagonals below the floor are bottom lateral members. - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 310.58, Milepost 310.58, Sims, Shasta County, CA

  3. Treatment of Tinea Pedis in Elderly Patients Using External Preparations.

    PubMed

    Otani, Michiteru

    2017-01-01

    Infection rate of tinea pedis is high in the elderly, wherein treatment by a dermatologist should be considered to prevent infecting their family members. About 90 percent of cases with tinea pedis is treated only using external preparations. In treating the elderly with tinea pedis using external preparation, we should take into consideration that the elderly have thinner and weaker skin compared to younger people. There are many kinds of dosage form (cream, ointments, lotion, spray, and so on) for external preparations to treat tinea pedis. Generally, liquid forms such as lotions and sprays cause stronger irritation compared to ointments and creams, thus, caution should be taken for side effects when applying them to the elderly. Contact dermatitis is the most frequent side effect of external preparations. Caution should also be taken for the type of additives used. The composition of the preparation should be checked when changing dosage forms, or when switching brand-name drugs to generic drugs. Since the adherence rate of external preparations is low, it is preferable to use those with strong antibacterial activity and only have to be applied once a day.

  4. Optical modulation goes external

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loni, A.

    1995-02-01

    Digital or analog modulation of continuous-wave laser sources forms the basis of encoding and transmitting of information through optical fiber link systems. In digital systems, data are formatted in a simple periodic two-bit configuration, represented by high or low light intensities, whereas in analog systems data are represented by selective portions of a time-varying electronic waveform applied to the optical carrier. High speed optical communications and the distribution of cable television (CATV) signals are just two examples of digital and analog systems, respectively, that involve the transmission of data, voice and video over fiber networks. The basic layout of a fiber-optic link system is presented. The optical source wavelength is determined by the characteristics of the optical fiber. If the optical sources used is a semiconductor laser diode, information can be imprinted on the optical output by directly modulating the laser drive current with a radio frequency (RF) signal. In digital systems, the low (off) state generally corresponds to a position just below the lasing threshold on the characteristic intensity-current curve of the diode. This position is preferred to the zero current locus because the turn-on delays are then minimized. Analog systems require a bias current in addition to the threshold current in order to push the modulation into the linear region of the power-current curve. The main disadvantages associated with the direct modulation approach are discussed. The main disadvantage of the solid-state approach is its inability to modulate directly the laser at the data rates nominally entailed in optical communications. This inability causes further limitations associated with the inherently long excited state lifetime of the lasing species. External modulation overcomes this drawback by modulating the optical output from the laser rather than the material properties of the laser itself, and consequently, is set to play an increasingly

  5. Brushless machine having ferromagnetic side plates and side magnets

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S

    2012-10-23

    An apparatus is provided having a cylindrical stator and a rotor that is spaced from a stator to define an annular primary air gap that receives AC flux from the stator. The rotor has a plurality of longitudinal pole portions disposed parallel to the axis of rotation and alternating in polarity around a circumference of the rotor. Each longitudinal pole portion includes portions of permanent magnet (PM) material and at least one of the longitudinal pole portions has a first end and an opposing second end and a side magnet is disposed adjacent the first end and a side pole is disposed adjacent the second end.

  6. Interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Cerdeira, Cecilia; Fan, Boyu; Barizien, Antoine; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    The inverted flag instability occurs when an elastic plate that is free at its leading edge and clamped at its trailing edge is subjected to an axial wind. The oscillating motion that follows has received recent attention. However, previous studies have focused on the dynamics of a single flag even though these are rarely found isolated in natural phenomena, such as the fluttering of leaves in the wind. The interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags has been investigated, analyzing the effects of the distance between flags and the wind speed. Both in-phase and anti-phase coupling have been observed for different ranges of these parameters.

  7. The effects of supply side structural reforms to the logistics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guogang; Feng, Chaoying

    2017-04-01

    With the economic situation and economic environment changes, China's supply side structural contradictions become increasingly evident. In order to solve these problems in China's economic development process, our country implements the structural reform of the supply side, simultaneously, supply side structural reform is the inevitable choice to lead the new normal economy. The supply side structural reform has its own internal development reasons and its external implementation path. Based on China's economic and social development and supply side structural reforms, the logistics industry is also facing the impact of the supply side structural reform. Correctly deal with the relationship between the supply side structural reform and the development of the logistics industry to achieve sustainable economic and social development and further development of the logistics industry.

  8. Far Side of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on Dec. 8 at 7 p.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft passed the Earth and was able to view the lunar surface from a vantage point not possible from the Earth. On the right-hand side of the image is seen the dark maria of Oceanus Procellarum, also visible from the Earth. The dark spots in the center are Mare Orientale, on the western limb of the nearside of the moon, a region barely visible from the Earth. This region and the bright far side highlands on the left have not been seen previously by a camera system such as the one on the Galileo spacecraft, which provides multispectral images of the lunar limb and far side which have not previously been obtained. Comparison of such images to those of the near-side areas from which Apollo astronauts have returned samples will help us understand the spectral properties and composition of the lunar far side.

  9. Supply-side and demand-side policies for biosimilars: an overview in 10 European member states

    PubMed Central

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Kapuśniak, Anna; Caban, Aleksandra; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Mendoza, Cyril; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to provide an overview of biosimilar policies in 10 EU MSs. Methods: Ten EU MS pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) were selected. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify supply-side and demand-side policies in place in the selected countries. Results: Supply-side policies for biosimilars commonly include price linkage, price re-evaluation, and tendering; the use of internal or external reference pricing varies between countries; health technology assessment is conducted in six countries. Regarding demand-side policies, pharmaceutical prescription budgets or quotas and monitoring of prescriptions (with potential financial incentives or penalties) are in place in eight and in seven countries respectively. Switching is generally allowed, but is solely the physician’s responsibility. Automatic substitution is not recommended, or even forbidden, in most EU MSs. Prescription conditions or guidelines that apply to biosimilars are established in nearly all surveyed EU MSs. Conclusions: Important heterogeneity in policies on biosimilars was seen between (and even within) selected countries, which may partly explain variations in biosimilar uptake. Supply-side policies targeting price have been reported to limit biosimilar penetration in the long term, despite short-term savings, while demand-side policies are considered to positively impact uptake. PMID:28740617

  10. Busy at the Bottom of 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    This mosaic from the navigation camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was compiled from images taken on the rover's 193rd and 194th sol on Mars (August 9 and 10, 2004). The rover's current work area near the bottom of 'Endurance Crater' is featured in this image. In coming sols, Opportunity will make its way toward the interesting rock, 'Wopmay,' located on the far right of this image, on the crater's inner slopes just beneath 'Burns Cliff.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. This image is presented in cylindrical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  11. Bottom-up assembly of metallic germanium

    PubMed Central

    Scappucci, Giordano; Klesse, Wolfgang M.; Yeoh, LaReine A.; Carter, Damien J.; Warschkow, Oliver; Marks, Nigel A.; Jaeger, David L.; Capellini, Giovanni; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hamilton, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Extending chip performance beyond current limits of miniaturisation requires new materials and functionalities that integrate well with the silicon platform. Germanium fits these requirements and has been proposed as a high-mobility channel material, a light emitting medium in silicon-integrated lasers, and a plasmonic conductor for bio-sensing. Common to these diverse applications is the need for homogeneous, high electron densities in three-dimensions (3D). Here we use a bottom-up approach to demonstrate the 3D assembly of atomically sharp doping profiles in germanium by a repeated stacking of two-dimensional (2D) high-density phosphorus layers. This produces high-density (1019 to 1020 cm−3) low-resistivity (10−4Ω · cm) metallic germanium of precisely defined thickness, beyond the capabilities of diffusion-based doping technologies. We demonstrate that free electrons from distinct 2D dopant layers coalesce into a homogeneous 3D conductor using anisotropic quantum interference measurements, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory. PMID:26256239

  12. Bottom sediments of Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Leonard E.

    1964-01-01

    Saginaw Bay is a southwest extension of Lake Huron on the east shore of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan. It is a shallow-water derivative of the Pleistocene Lake Saginaw. Sixty-one bottom samples were collected on a semigrid pattern and analyzed physically. Findings were treated statistically. Sediments range in size from large pebbles to clay. Medium- to fine-grained clear quartz sand is common to all parts of the bay. Currents and wave action are primarily responsible for both median diameter and sorting distribution patterns. Only a very general correlation can be established between depth and median diameter. Heavy minerals occur in abundance locally and show an affinity to shallow-water areas subject to prevailing currents. Shape also locally determines heavy mineral concentrations. Only general conclusions can be established from roundness and sphericity and acid-soluble content. Increased organic content is correlative with quiet water environments. The shallow-water, heterogeneous nature of Saginaw Bay is not conducive to the recognition of sedimentary criteria suitable for correlations in other than a local environment.

  13. Bottoms Up. [report on the Defense Department

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1993-11-01

    The [open quotes]Bottoms Up Review[close quotes] was the Pentagon's ongoing reevaluation of the dangers faced by the United States and the forces needed to deal with those dangers. Its purpose was [open quotes]to define the strategy, force structure, modernization programs, industrial base, and infrastucture needed to meet new dangers and seize new opportunities.[close quotes] The report was released in early September. Washington's reaction to the review (generally silence) and the review's major shortcomings are discussed is this article. The central shortfall of the review is the disconnection between the latest military plan and the security threats faced by the United States. As an example of the disconnection, the Pentagon's fiscal 1994 budget request allots less than one percent of the $263 billion budget request to destroy nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union, to fund peacekeeping operations, to support economic conversion, and to counter proliferation, although these problems are among those slated as among the most important when listed in the review.

  14. Bottom-up assembly of metallic germanium.

    PubMed

    Scappucci, Giordano; Klesse, Wolfgang M; Yeoh, LaReine A; Carter, Damien J; Warschkow, Oliver; Marks, Nigel A; Jaeger, David L; Capellini, Giovanni; Simmons, Michelle Y; Hamilton, Alexander R

    2015-08-10

    Extending chip performance beyond current limits of miniaturisation requires new materials and functionalities that integrate well with the silicon platform. Germanium fits these requirements and has been proposed as a high-mobility channel material, a light emitting medium in silicon-integrated lasers, and a plasmonic conductor for bio-sensing. Common to these diverse applications is the need for homogeneous, high electron densities in three-dimensions (3D). Here we use a bottom-up approach to demonstrate the 3D assembly of atomically sharp doping profiles in germanium by a repeated stacking of two-dimensional (2D) high-density phosphorus layers. This produces high-density (10(19) to 10(20) cm(-3)) low-resistivity (10(-4)Ω · cm) metallic germanium of precisely defined thickness, beyond the capabilities of diffusion-based doping technologies. We demonstrate that free electrons from distinct 2D dopant layers coalesce into a homogeneous 3D conductor using anisotropic quantum interference measurements, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory.

  15. The Light and Dark Sides of a Distant Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    The top graph consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. It tells astronomers that a distant planet, called Upsilon Andromedae b, always has a giant hot spot on the side that faces the star, while the other side is cold and dark. The artist's concepts above the graph illustrate how the planet might look throughout its orbit if viewed up close with infrared eyes.

    Spitzer was able to determine the difference in temperature between the two sides of this planet by measuring the planet's infrared light, or heat, at five points during its 4.6-day-long trip around its star. The temperature rose and fell depending on which face, the sunlit or dark, was pointed toward Spitzer's cameras. Those temperature oscillations are traced by the wavy orange curve. They indicate that Upsilon Andromedae b has an extreme range of temperatures across its surface, about 1,400 degrees Celsius (2,550 degrees Fahrenheit). This means that hot gas moving across the bright side of the planet cools off by the time it reaches the dark side.

    The bottom graph and artist's concepts represent what astronomers might have seen if the planet had bands of different temperatures girdling it, like Jupiter. Some astronomers had speculated that 'hot-Jupiter' planets like Upsilon Andromedae b, which circle very closely around their stars, might resemble Jupiter in this way. If Upsilon Andromedae b had been like this, there would have been no difference between the average temperatures of the sunlit and dark sides to detect, and Spitzer's data would have appeared as a flat line.

  16. The Evolution of the Lower Missouri River: National Mapping Discipline Research at Lisbon Bottom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Before 1800, the Missouri River was one of North America's most diverse and dynamic ecosystems. During the past 200 years, civil engineering has transformed it into a navigation system regulated by reservoirs and confined by bank stabilization and flood control structures. These modifications have reduced seasonal flow variability and sediment load and have disconnected the river from backwater, off-channel, and floodplain habitats. Flooding along the Lower Missouri River in 1993 and again in 1996 created a side-channel chute across Lisbon Bottom, a well-formed loop bottom near Glasgow, Mo. The formation and subsequent development of the chute have provided USGS scientists with a glimpse of a preregulated Missouri River. Knowledge of geologic characteristics and processes in an alluvial setting like Lisbon Bottom provides a scientific basis for floodplain management. This knowledge is also vital to a complete understanding of riverine habitat disturbance, recovery, and rehabilitation. A critical component of this knowledge is an understanding of the spatial and temporal relationships between riverine habitats and geomorphic processes.

  17. Flow around islands in Rupert Bay: An investigation of the bottom friction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, R. Grant; Chu, Vincent H.

    1987-12-01

    Aerial photographs of transverse shear flows around islands in Rupert Bay, a shallow and turbid estuary in northern Quebec, were studied for the effect of bottom friction. The island wake depends on the stability of the transverse shear layers developed along the two sides of the island. Two basic patterns of wake flows were observed. A vortex street wake was formed when transverse shear was large, as in flows around small islands. On the other hand, for small transverse shear, as in flows around large islands, the shear layers were stabilized by bottom friction and, in that case, a clear water wake of low turbulence and low sediment concentration was observed. Laboratory demonstration of the bottom friction influence on the turbulent wake in shallow water was made using a shallow water table. A similarity solution was obtained for the wake flow in the far-field region, and numerical calculations were made of the recirculating flow in the wake bubble. A wake stability parameter was introduced for wake classification and for correlation of field and laboratory data. In Rupert Bay, vortex street wakes were observed in nine out of 27 events when the wake stability parameter was less than a critical value. This result is consistent with the laboratory and numerical simulations.

  18. External benefits of natural environments

    Treesearch

    Larry W. Tombaugh

    1971-01-01

    Existing methods of assessing economic benefits arising from certain physical environments left in a relatively natural condition do not include estimates of external benefits. Existence value is one such external benefit that accrues to individuals who have no intention of ever visiting the area in question. A partial measure of the existence value of National Parks...

  19. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  20. Choosing a Truly External Evaluator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This scenario discusses a situation in which a proposal has been published by a consortium of foundations for an "external" evaluator to evaluate a replication at two new sites of a program they have been funding for many years. A proposal is received from Dr. Porto-Novo, who has been the external evaluator of the initial program for about 10…

  1. Path to the Dark Side

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-09

    The moon Iapetus, like the "force" in Star Wars, has both a light side and a dark side. Scientists think that Iapetus' (914 miles or 1471 kilometers across) dark/light asymmetry was actually created by material migrating away from the dark side. For a simulation of how scientists think the asymmetry formed, see Thermal Runaway Model . Lit terrain seen here is on the Saturn-facing hemisphere of Iapetus. North on Iapetus is up and rotated 43 degrees to the right. The image was taken in green light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Jan. 4, 2015. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 2.5 million miles (4 million kilometers) from Iapetus. Image scale is 15 miles (24 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia18307

  2. Morphodynamics of hard-bottom habitats in the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic inner shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raineault, Nicole A.

    Though rare, hard-bottom environments provide oases of biological diversity and abundance on the otherwise fine-grained seafloor of the Delaware Bay and shallow Atlantic shelf. Complex sediment, biological, and hydrodynamic feedbacks shape bottom morphologies. Understanding the mechanisms that form and shape hard-bottom environments is key to better management and protection. The research presented here focuses on characterizing bed morphologies through high-resolution (sub-meter) acoustic mapping and analysis of hydrodynamic data at intertidal, estuarine, and inner shelf environments. Use of phase-measuring bathymetric sonar improved map resolution to <1 m, reduced the need for direct sampling, extended information on sediment-biological relationships to larger areas, and allowed the measurement of bedforms. Results show that hard-bottom habitats in Delaware Bay are more fragmented than previously thought. Acoustic backscatter and ground-truth samples at Broadkill Slough showed meters to 10's of meters variability in sediment and benthic assemblages along and across the major axes of the channel. Annual side-scan surveys at an offshore artificial reef site exhibited signs of periodic morphology. Scour generated during nor'easter events left a lasting imprint on the seabed through the formation of moats that were >0.5 m deep and 10's of meters in horizontal extent on the southwest side of objects. Scour revealed gravelly sand that supported more diverse and abundant macro benthic epifauna. Reef objects settled around 1.3 m into the seabed after six to seven years, suggesting an equilibrium that may be controlled by the underlying geology. The area of seafloor impacted and the time it takes for the seafloor to reach equilibrium was greater for large or clustered objects. By contrast, intertidal and shallow estuarine hard-bottom environments are subjected to daily hydrodynamic forcing that causes the bed to constantly change. A progression from wave orbital ripples

  3. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  4. Side-to-side cavocavostomy in adult piggyback liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pisaniello, D; Marino, M G; Perrella, A; Russo, F; Campanella, L; Marcos, A; Cuomo, O

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to perform a retrospective study that described the anastomosis technique as well as the complications of side-to-side cavo-caval reconstruction. From June 1998 to April 2011, we performed 284 liver transplantations including 10 adults with live donor organs. In all cases but 2 (272), cavo-caval reconstruction was performed using side-to-side cavo-caval (STSCC) anastomosis. In 19 cases (6.9%), we also carried out an end-to-side temporary porto-caval shunt (TPCS). In 17 cases (6.2%) the technique was performed for retransplantation. STSCC anastomosis was technically feasible in all but 2 cases, regardless of the recipient's vena cava, anatomic factors, or graft size. Mean operative time for the STSCC was 13 minutes (range, 6-25). Routine Doppler ultrasonography was performed intraoperatively at the end of the surgery. There was no case of cava stump thrombosis. Complications associated with this technique were limited to 2 patients. One complication was torsion due to donor graft/recipient mismatch, which was successfully treated surgically by falciform ligament fixation. The second complication was only evident by sinusoidal congestion and was managed nonoperatively. Seventeen cases were uneventful for retransplant recipients. STSCC during piggyback liver transplantation is safe and can be performed in the retransplantation setting, with a low incidence of venous outflow obstruction that can be associated with the traditional piggyback technique. Our data suggest that donor graft to recipient mismatch is not an absolute contraindication when proper body size match is considered. A wide anastomosis with typical recipient hepatic vein inclusion is warranted with routine postanastomotic Doppler ultrasonography. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    class I; 35% are in class II; 25%, class III; and 5%, class IV. Surveys (8) suggest that from 5% to 15% of patients with HF have persistent severe symptoms, and that the remainder of patients with HF is evenly divided between those with mild and moderately severe symptoms. To date, the diagnosis and management of chronic HF has concentrated on patients with the clinical syndrome of HF accompanied by severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Major changes in treatment have resulted from a better understanding of the pathophysiology of HF and the results of large clinical trials. Treatment for chronic HF includes lifestyle management, drugs, cardiac surgery, or implantable pacemakers and defibrillators. Despite pharmacologic advances, which include diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, spironolactone, and digoxin, many patients remain symptomatic on maximally tolerated doses. (6) The Technology Patients are typically treated by a trained technician in a medically supervised environment for 1 hour daily for a total of 35 hours over 7 weeks. The procedure involves sequential inflation and deflation of compressible cuffs wrapped around the patient’s calves, lower thighs and upper thighs. In addition to 3 sets of cuffs, the patient has finger plethysmogram and electrocardiogram (ECG) attachments that are connected to a control and display console. External counterpulsation was used in the United States to treat cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. (9;10) More recently, an enhanced version namely “enhanced external counterpulsation” (EECP) was introduced as a noninvasive procedure for outpatient treatment of patients with severe, uncontrollable cardiac ischemia. EECP is said to increase coronary perfusion pressure and reduce the myocardial oxygen demand. Currently, EECP is not applicable for all patients with refractory angina pectoris. For example, many patients are considered ineligible for therapy due to co

  6. 45. (Credit JTL) View looking up from bottom of #3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. (Credit JTL) View looking up from bottom of #3 low service pump pit showing frame of Worthington pump on right, water delivery pipe on left and top of 1943 6 mgd electric pump at bottom. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  7. 21. UNDERSIDE OF EPPELSHEIMER BOTTOM GRIP: Photocopy of 1905 photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. UNDERSIDE OF EPPELSHEIMER BOTTOM GRIP: Photocopy of 1905 photograph showing the underside of an Eppelsheimer bottom grip. The position of the cable between the jaws is clearly evident. Photograph taken at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Installation of new bottom in existing above ground storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    New bottom installation in existing aboveground storage tanks is a simple process when the correct procedures are followed in preparation for the bottom replacement. An in-depth inspection must be conducted to determine the exact modifications required during the installation of the new bottom, internal decisions made as to type of construction required, and a detailed scope of work prepared to insure all aspects of the tank bottom replacement are detailed. Determining the scope of work requires an in-depth tank inspection, making decisions on the type of bottom to be installed, tank modifications required, tank appurtenance modifications and relocation, whether leak detection, cathodic protection, and secondary containment are to be installed and a decision on whether the old tank bottom will remain in place or be removed. Upon completion of the new bottom installation, a final check to ensure all modifications were performed per API-650 and API-653 and all non-destructive testing procedures were conducted, will insure a safe, leak free bottom providing many years of maintenance free service.

  9. 6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and center, Winterthur Train Station center left, Winterthur Farms dairy barns upper center , duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 92 center right, and Brandywine Creek State Park bottom right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  10. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... outlets prohibited, except on tanks used for shipments of sludge acid and alkaline corrosive liquids. (b) If installed, bottom outlets or bottom washout chambers shall be of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by the lading, and each shall be provided with a valve or plug at its upper end and liquid-tight...

  11. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., except on tanks used for shipments of sludge acid and alkaline corrosive liquids. (b) If installed, bottom outlets or bottom washout chambers shall be of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by the lading, and each shall be provided with a valve or plug at its upper end and liquid-tight closure at it...

  12. Where's the "Up" in Bottom-Up Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.

    2004-01-01

    Bottom-up reform as a policy strategy for decades has faltered in implementation. This article starts from the premise that these disappointing results stem from researchers' and practitioners' almost exclusive focus on implementation in schools or on what some call "the bottom" of hierarchical education systems but not shifts in policy…

  13. Bottom-up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…

  14. Postcolonial Appalachia: Bhabha, Bakhtin, and Diane Gilliam Fisher's "Kettle Bottom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Diane Gilliam Fisher's 2004 award-winning book of poems, "Kettle Bottom," offers students a revealing vantage point for seeing Appalachian regional culture in a postcolonial context. An artful and accessible poetic sequence that was selected as the 2005 summer reading for entering students at Smith College, "Kettle Bottom"…

  15. 5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State Route 100 center, duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 100 center right, State Route 92 below center right, Brandywine Creek State Park center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  16. 2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and State Route 100 center, Brandywine Creek State Park center right, duck pond and reservoir center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  17. Bottom-up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…

  18. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... may be equipped with a bottom outlet of approved design and an opening provided in the outer shell of... at or below the “V” groove, or its equivalent. (8) The valve must have no wings or stem projection... repairs, including grinding. (b) Inner container may be equipped with bottom washout of approved...

  19. 8. Comparison of construction of bottom and top chords and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Comparison of construction of bottom and top chords and pin connections, bottom chord second panel point, top chords showing third panel point. - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  20. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suitable locking arrangement to insure positive closure during transportation. (4) Valve outlet nozzle and... connections, the bottom of the main portion of the outlet nozzle or valve body, or some fixed attachment... having minimum 1-inch threaded pipe plug. (6) If outlet nozzle and its closure extends below the bottom...

  1. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... arrangement to insure positive closure during transportation. (4) Valve outlet nozzle and valve body must be... bottom of the main portion of the outlet nozzle or valve body, or some fixed attachment thereto, must be... threaded pipe plug. (6) If outlet nozzle and its closure extends below the bottom of the outer shell, a V...

  2. 49 CFR 179.220-18 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... arrangement to insure positive closure during transportation. (4) Valve outlet nozzle and valve body must be... bottom of the main portion of the outlet nozzle or valve body, or some fixed attachment thereto, must be... threaded pipe plug. (6) If outlet nozzle and its closure extends below the bottom of the outer shell, a V...

  3. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... least 3/8-inch chain, or its equivalent, except that the bottom outlet closure plugs may be attached by... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center... exterior valves may be steam jacketed, in which case the breakage groove or its equivalent must be below...

  4. Remote Estimation of River Discharge and Bathymetry: Sensitivity to Turbulent Dissipation and Bottom Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, J.; Holland, K. T.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the fidelity of a hierarchy of inverse models that estimate river bathymetry and discharge using measurements of surface currents and water surface elevation. Our most comprehensive depth inversion was based on the Shiono and Knight (1991) model that considers the depth-averaged along-channel momentum balance between the downstream pressure gradient due to gravity, the bottom drag and the lateral stresses induced by turbulence. The discharge was determined by minimizing the difference between the predicted and the measured streamwise variation of the total head. The bottom friction coefficient was assumed to be known or determined by alternative means. We also considered simplifications of the comprehensive inversion model that exclude the lateral mixing term from the momentum balance and assessed the effect of neglecting this term on the depth and discharge estimates for idealized in-bank flow in symmetric trapezoidal channels with width/depth ratio of 40 and different side-wall slopes. For these simple gravity-friction models, we used two different bottom friction parameterizations - a constant Darcy-Weisbach local friction and a depth-dependent friction related to the local depth and a constant Manning (roughness) coefficient. Our results indicated that the Manning gravity-friction model provides accurate estimates of the depth and the discharge that are within 1% of the assumed values for channels with side-wall slopes between 1/2 and 1/17. On the other hand, the constant Darcy-Weisbach friction model underpredicted the true depth and discharge by 7% and 9%, respectively, for the channel with side-wall slope of 1/17. These idealized modeling results suggest that a depth-dependent parameterization of the bottom friction is important for accurate inversion of depth and discharge and that the lateral turbulent mixing is not important. We also tested the comprehensive and the simplified inversion models for the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Burlington Bottoms, Technical Report 1993-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Beilke, Susan

    1993-08-01

    Burlington Bottoms, consisting of approximately 417 acres of riparian and wetland habitat, was purchased by the Bonneville Power Administration in November 1991. The site is located approximately 1/2 mile north of the Sauvie Island Bridge (T2N R1W Sections 20, 21), and is bound on the east side by Multnomah Channel and on the west side by the Burlington Northern Railroad right-of-way and U.S. Highway 30 (Figures 1 and 2). Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Columbia and Willamette River Basin's Fish and Wildlife Program and Amendments. Under this Program, mitigation goals were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the development and operation of Federal hydro-electric facilities in the Columbia and Willamette River Basins. In 1993, an interdisciplinary team was formed to develop and implement quantitative Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) to document the value of various habitats at Burlington Bottoms. Results of the HEP will be used to: (1) determine the current status and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area. HEP participants included; Charlie Craig, BPA; Pat Wright, Larry Rasmussen, and Ron Garst, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; John Christy, The Nature Conservancy; and Doug Cottam, Sue Beilke, and Brad Rawls, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  6. Combining bottom-up and top-down attentional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Itti, Laurent

    2006-02-01

    Visual attention to salient and relevant scene regions is crucial for an animal's survival in the natural world. It is guided by a complex interplay of at least two factors: image-driven, bottom-up salience [1] and knowledge-driven, top-down guidance [2, 3]. For instance, a ripe red fruit among green leaves captures visual attention due to its bottom-up salience, while a non-salient camou aged predator is detected through top-down guidance to known predator locations and features. Although both bottom-up and top-down factors are important for guiding visual attention, most existing models and theories are either purely top-down [4] or bottom-up [5, 6]. Here, we present a combined model of bottom-up and top-down visual attention.

  7. Southern Ocean bottom water characteristics in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuzé, CéLine; Heywood, Karen J.; Stevens, David P.; Ridley, Jeff K.

    2013-04-01

    Southern Ocean deep water properties and formation processes in climate models are indicative of their capability to simulate future climate, heat and carbon uptake, and sea level rise. Southern Ocean temperature and density averaged over 1986-2005 from 15 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) climate models are compared with an observed climatology, focusing on bottom water. Bottom properties are reasonably accurate for half the models. Ten models create dense water on the Antarctic shelf, but it mixes with lighter water and is not exported as bottom water as in reality. Instead, most models create deep water by open ocean deep convection, a process occurring rarely in reality. Models with extensive deep convection are those with strong seasonality in sea ice. Optimum bottom properties occur in models with deep convection in the Weddell and Ross Gyres. Bottom Water formation processes are poorly represented in ocean models and are a key challenge for improving climate predictions.

  8. Electronics box having internal circuit cards interconnected to external connectors sans motherboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockett, John E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An electronics chassis box includes a pair of opposing sidewalls, a pair of opposing end walls, a bottom surface, a top cover, and ring connectors assemblies mounted in selective ones of the walls of the electronic box. Boss members extend from the bottom surface at different heights upon which circuit cards are mounted in spatial relationship to each other. A flex interconnect substantially reduces and generally eliminates the need of a motherboard by interconnecting the circuit cards to one another and to external connectors mounted within the ring connector assemblies.

  9. Ocean Bottom Pressure Measurements Off Sanriku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Tamura, Y.; Higashi, T.; Nishino, M.; Hino, R.; Kanazawa, T.

    2003-12-01

    Variable motions of the ocean are changing the Earth's gravity field. For example, mass exchange in the Pacific Ocean is considered to be the most probable source of the recent rapid and large change in the J2 term, which may be related to the ENSO event in 1997 (Cox and Chao, 2002). The actual ocean mass exchange related to that event was also observed from ocean bottom pressure records (OBPRs) offshore of Peru (Fujimoto et al., 2003). On the other hand, satellite altimetry measurements, such as TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), enable us to estimate the oceanic effect on gravity observations using globally-gridded data for sea surface height (SSH) variability. However, the altimeter data are affected by steric changes in the ocean, which should not contribute to the observed gravity changes (for example, Sato et al., 2001). In order to examine the relation among the mass exchange in the oceans, SSH variation, and gravity changes, we began a three-year observation project in 2001 to measure the ocean bottom pressure changes at the three crossover points of the T/P satellite off Sanriku, Japan: 143.1E, 39.2N (Point-A); 146.0E, 39.2N (Point-B); and 144.6E, 41.5N (Point-N). The data are sampled at an interval of one minute. Here, we will report the analysis results for the OBPR data for the two years since the beginning of the observations. Although the records at Point-N show a peculiar time variation, we obtained clear tidal signals at Point-A and Point-B. We compared the tidal analysis results with a global ocean tide model, NAO99b (Matsumoto et al., 2000), and we confirmed that, at both Point-A and Point-B, the predicted tides agree to the actual observations within the difference of 1 % in amplitude for the four major tidal waves: M2, S2, K1 and O1. This suggests that it may be possible to correct the tidal effect on the satellite gravity data with an accuracy of about 1 % by using recent global tide models. We also compared residuals of the OBPR data, which were obtained

  10. Bottom-feeding for blockbuster businesses.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, David; Tomlinson, Doug; Scott, Larry

    2003-03-01

    Marketing experts tell companies to analyze their customer portfolios and weed out buyer segments that don't generate attractive returns. Loyalty experts stress the need to aim retention programs at "good" customers--profitable ones- and encourage the "bad" ones to buy from competitors. And customer-relationship-management software provides ever more sophisticated ways to identify and eliminate poorly performing customers. On the surface, the movement to banish unprofitable customers seems reasonable. But writing off a customer relationship simply because it is currently unprofitable is at best rash and at worst counterproductive. Executives shouldn't be asking themselves, How can we shun unprofitable customers? They need to ask, How can we make money off the customers that everyone else is shunning? When you look at apparently unattractive segments through this lens, you often see opportunities to serve those segments in ways that fundamentally change customer economics. Consider Paychex, a payroll-processing company that built a nearly billion-dollar business by serving small companies. Established players had ignored these customers on the assumption that small companies couldn't afford the service. When founder Tom Golisano couldn't convince his bosses at Electronic Accounting Systems that they were missing a major opportunity, he started a company that now serves 390,000 U.S. customers, each employing around 14 people. In this article, the authors look closely at bottom-feeders--companies that assessed the needs of supposedly unattractive customers and redesigned their business models to turn a profit by fulfilling those needs. And they offer lessons other executives can use to do the same.

  11. Formation and Variability of Antarctic Bottom Water off Cape Darnley: the Fourth Antarctic Bottom Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, K. I.; Nakayama, Y.; Fukamachi, Y.; Matsumura, Y.; Nihashi, S.; Tamura, T.; Kitade, Y.; Hirano, D.; Shimizu, D.; Aoki, S.

    2016-02-01

    It has been recognized that Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is formed in the Weddell Sea, the Ross Sea and off the Adélie Coast. Although a fourth variety of AABW has been identified in the eastern sector of the Weddell-Enderby Basin, its production has never been observed. Satellite-derived estimates of sea-ice production suggest that the Cape Darnley Polynya, located northwest of the Amery Ice Shelf, has the second highest ice production. We have conducted mooring observations since 2008 off and in the Cape Darnley Polynya, and revealed that this polynya is the missing source of the AABW. Moored instruments observed overflows of newly formed AABW, bottom-intensified, cascading down the canyon. Cold and dense AABW of about 300m thick flows down at fairly regular periods of 4-5 days. We propose to name this AABW Cape Darnley Bottom Water (CDBW). We estimate that 0.3-0.7 × 106 m3 s-1 of dense shelf water is transformed into CDBW. The CDBW migrates westward and increases its volume, to ultimately constitute part of the AABW in the Weddell Sea, 15-30% of the Atlantic AABW production. Detailed understanding of descending pathways of dense water, importance of topographic depression and sea-ice formation for the CDBW production, and mechanisms responsible for the periodic downslope flow are difficult to be understood only from observations. Thus, we have also conducted numerical simulations using a nonhydrostatic model. The model is forced by surface salt flux due to sea ice production, estimated from AMSR-E data and a heat budget calculation. We have reproduced the CDBW formation and associated periodic downslope flow of dense water. Intense sea ice formation is the most important factor in the CDBW formation. Together with simplified experiments and analytical interpretations, the mechanism responsible for the periodic downslope flow of dense water is further analyzed. The period of dense water outflow is regulated primarily by the topographic beta effect.

  12. The Human Side of Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surace, Cecily J.

    This paper discusses current trends in personnel management, with emphasis on performance standards and employee evaluation. Advances in personnel management from the scientific management theory to the application of the "human side of enterprise" approach should be reflected in how library managers review personnel and operate their libraries.…

  13. Side View of 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture from the rear hazard-avoidance camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a side view of 'Endurance Crater.' Opportunity took the image on sol 188 (Aug. 4, 2004), before transmitting it and other data to the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The orbiter then relayed the data to Earth.

  14. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  15. The Lighter Side of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacall, Aaron

    This book presents a collection of cartoons that focus on the lighter side of teaching. In a tongue-in-cheek introduction, the book asserts that one achievable goal which should have been included in the 1994 Educate America Act is that all teachers will start each school day by reading one funny cartoon and having a good chuckle before they go to…

  16. Double-sided Relativistic Magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonov, A. V.; Krastelev, E. G.

    1997-05-01

    A new scheme of a symmetricaly powered relativistic magnetron and several methods of localised electron flow forming in an interaction region are proposed to increase an efficiency of relativistic magnetrons. As will be shown, a very important reason is the effect of nonsymmetric feeding of power from one side of a magnetron, which is typical for experiments. One-sided powering leads to the axial drift of electrons, to the transformation of transverse velocities of electrons to longitudinal one and to the generation of a parasitic e-beam which does not take part in energy exchange between electrons and waves at all. A special driver was designed for double-sided powering of relativistic magnetrons. The proposed system is compact, rigid and capable of reliable operation at high repetition rates, which is advantageous for many applications. Several smooth-bore magnetrons were tested by means of computer simulations using PIC code KARAT. The results showed a dramatical difference between the dynamics of electron flow for one- and two-sided power feeding of a structure under test. Design of a driver and computer simulation results are presented.

  17. Another Side to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogeboom, William L.

    1984-01-01

    Education about nuclear arms should be balanced. Most of the supplementary materials dealing with nuclear war that are available to teachers are published by anti-war groups. Basic problems with these materials are discussed and information which can be used to present the other side of the story is provided. (RM)

  18. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  19. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  20. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  1. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  2. Getting to the Bottom of L2 Listening Instruction: Making a Case for Bottom-Up Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Joseph; Siegel, Aki

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues for the incorporation of bottom-up activities for English as a foreign language (EFL) listening. It discusses theoretical concepts and pedagogic options for addressing bottom-up aural processing in the EFL classroom as well as how and why teachers may wish to include such activities in lessons. This discussion is augmented by a…

  3. External biliary fistula in orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gilbo, N; Mirabella, S; Strignano, P; Ricchiuti, A; Lupo, F; Giono, I; Sanna, C; Fop, F; Salizzoni, M

    2009-05-01

    During orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), various situations may occur in which biliary reconstruction is neither technically feasible nor recommended. One bridge to a delayed anastomosis can be an external biliary fistula (EBF). This procedure allows the surgeon to execute hemostatic maneuvers, such as abdominal packing; therefore, biliary reconstruction can be subsequently performed in a bloodless operative field without edematous tissues. EBF can be made by placing in the donor biliary tract a cannula that is fixed to the bile duct using 2-0 silk ties and secured outside the abdominal wall. The biliary anastomosis will be performed within 2 days after the OLT. The aim of this study was to examine the safety of EBF in terms of the incidence of biliary complications compared with a direct anastomosis. Among 1,634 adult OLTs performed in 17 years in our center, 1,322 were carried out with termino-terminal hepaticocholedochostomy (HC-TT); two with side-to-side hepaticocholedochostomy; 208 with hepaticojejunostomy (HJ); 31 with EBF and delayed HC-TT, and 71 with EBF and delayed HJ. Biliary complication rates in the EBF group were 24.5%, including 23.9% in the delayed HJ and 25.8% in the delayed HC-TT. Biliary complication incidence among all OLTs was 24.6% (P = NS). No complications related to the procedure were observed. Therefore, EBF is a safe technique without a higher biliary complication rate. It may be useful when a direct biliary anastomosis is dangerous.

  4. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    We report measurements of direct CP-violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = +0.39 {+-} 0.15 (stat) {+-} 0.08 (syst), and botton baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{pi}{sup -}) = + 0.03 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.05 (syst) and A{sub CP} ({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK{sup -}) = +0.37 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.03 (syst). In addition, they measure CP violation in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP} (B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = -0.086 {+-} 0.023 (stat) {+-} 0.009 (syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  5. Triangles with Integer Side Lengths and Rational Internal Radius P and External Radius R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2005-01-01

    This paper is written on a level accessible to college/university students of mathematics who are taking second-year, algebra based, mathematics courses beyond calculus I. This article combines material from geometry, trigonometry, and number theory. This integration of various techniques is an excellent experience for the serious student. The…

  6. Triangles with Integer Side Lengths and Rational Internal Radius P and External Radius R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2005-01-01

    This paper is written on a level accessible to college/university students of mathematics who are taking second-year, algebra based, mathematics courses beyond calculus I. This article combines material from geometry, trigonometry, and number theory. This integration of various techniques is an excellent experience for the serious student. The…

  7. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  8. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  9. External Dacryocystorhinostomy With or Without Double Mucosal Flap Anastomosis: Comparison of Surgical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Mito, Hidenori; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare surgical outcomes of external dacryocystorhinostomy with or without double mucosal flap anastomosis. A retrospective chart review was performed for 205 sides of 178 patients diagnosed with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Double-flap anastomosis was performed on 57 sides (double-flap group) and complete flap excision on 148 sides (no-flap group). Criteria for surgical success were defined as no or minimal intermittent epiphora and no reflux on lacrimal irrigation 12 months postoperatively. Consequently, surgery was successful for 53 sides (93.0%) in the double-flap group and 138 sides (93.2%) in the no-flap group. There was no statistically significant difference in success rate between the groups (P = 0.947, the Fisher exact probability test). This study demonstrated that external dacryocystorhinostomy without flap anastomosis had a surgical outcome similar to that of double-flap anastomosis.

  10. Springback Analysis of U-bending with Bottoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Takayuki; Yoshida, Fusahito

    2011-08-01

    The effect of bottoming on the reduction of springback was investigated by performing U-shaped bending experiments and corresponding 3D FE simulation on 590 MPa level high strength steel sheet. From experiments using three punch-die sets, each have different gaps between punch and die (0, 5 and 10% less than the sheet thickness) at punch corner, it was clarified that springback decreases with increasing bottoming load to some extent but a certain amount of springback remains even under a higher load. From 3D FE simulation of the bottoming on U-shaped bending, it was found that bending stresses at punch R-corner are much reduced by bottoming, but these stresses around the end of R-corner cannot be eliminated. This is a reason why complete elimination of springback by bottoming on U-bending is so difficult. Therefore, it would be recommended in actual press forming operations to apply a certain amount of bottoming load, but it should not be too large, for reduction of springback. Another important conclusion, found in the present study, is that an appropriate choice of material model is essential for accurate FE simulation of bottoming. Furthermore, deformation of punch/die slightly affects the springback. The best combination is the use of Yoshida-Uemori kinematic hardening law for material model and 3D deformable solid model for tools.

  11. Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) waveform analysis for bottom return characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eren, Firat; Pe'eri, Shachak; Rzhanov, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) waveforms provide a time log for the interaction of the laser pulse with the environment (water surface, water column and seafloor) along its ray-path geometry. Using the water surface return and the bottom return, it is possible to calculate the water depth. In addition to bathymetry, the ALB bottom return can provide information on seafloor characteristics. The main environmental factors that contribute to the ALB bottom return measurements are: slope, roughness, vegetation, and mineral composition of the surface geology. Both the environment and the ALB hardware affect the bottom return and contribute to the measurement uncertainties. In this study, the ALB bottom return waveform was investigated spatially (i.e., area contributing to the return) and temporally (i.e. the shape of the waveform return) for seafloor characterization. A system-agnostic approach was developed in order to distinguish between the spatial variations of different bottom characteristics. An empirical comparison of bottom characteristics was conducted near the Merrimack River Embayment, Gulf of Maine, USA. The study results showed a good correlation to acoustic backscatter collected over the same area.

  12. Silicon reflectors for external cavity lasers based on ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xia; Jin, Hao; Yu, Hui; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally investigate types of silicon ring reflectors on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) platform. These reflectors are used for realizing the silicon hybrid external cavity lasers. A suspended edge coupler is used to connect the reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) chip and the reflectors. The properties of the reflectors and the hybrid external cavity lasers with these reflectors are illustrated. The experimental results show that all of those reflectors have a high reflectivity and the highest reflectivity can up to be 95%. The lowest insertion loss can be as low as 0.4 dB. The output power of the hybrid external cavity lasers with these reflectors can reach mW magnitude and the highest output power is 6.1 mW. Over 30 dB side mode suppression ratio is obtained.

  13. Dynamic response of concrete beams externally reinforced with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) subjected to impulsive loads

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, D.M.; Ross, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    A series of 54 laboratory scale concrete beams 3 x 3 x 30 in. in size were impulsively loaded to failure in a drop weight impact machine. The beams had no internal reinforcement, but instead were externally reinforced on the bottom or tension side of the beams with 1, 2, and 3 ply AS4C/1919 graphite epoxy panels. In addition, several of the beams were also reinforced on the sides with 3 ply CFRP. The beams were simply supported in a drop weight machine and subjected to impact loads with amplitudes up to 10 kips, and durations less than 1 ms, at beam midspan. Measurements made during the loading event included beam total load, midspan displacement, as well as midspan strain at 3 locations in the beam`s cross-section. A high speed framing camera was also used to record the beam`s displacement-time behavior as well as to gain insight into the failure mechanisms. Beam midspan accelerations were determined by double differentiation of the displacement versus time data, and in turn, the beam`s inertial loads were calculated using the beam`s equivalent mass. Beam dynamic bending loads versus time were determined from the difference between the total load versus time and the inertial load versus time data. Bending loads versus displacements were also determined along with fracture energies. Failure to correct the loads for inertia will result in incorrect conclusions being drawn from the data, especially for bending resistance of brittle concrete test specimens. A comparison with quasistatic bending (fracture) energy data showed that the dynamic failure energy absorbed by the beams was always less than the static fracture energy, due to the brittle nature of concrete when impulsively loaded.

  14. Recent progress of interpretation of bottom pressure during tsunamigenic earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Nosov, Mikhail; Kolesov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Offshore observations make it possible to detect tsunamis in advance prior to their arrival at the shoreline. For this purpose, pressure sensors deployed in the deep sea have been used for a long time. After the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, the offshore tsunami observations have been used for tsunami warning upgrade in Japan. In the meantime, the information of actual observed wave height would be issued since 2013. In the near- or the far-fields, however, bottom pressure records usually exhibit a complicated interface of signals related not only to tsunamis but also to hydroacoustic and seismic waves. This is why we need to interpret the bottom pressure recorded by the pressure sensors. Network of offshore observatories recently deployed in the Nankai Trough, SW Japan (i.e., DONET) provides high sampling records of bottom pressure and seismic records. Additionally, the seismic sensors (both broad-band seismometer and accelerometer) are deployed at the same location of the pressure sensor. In the present study, we review the recent offshore observations of bottom pressure from the tsunamigenic earthquakes. An outer-rise earthquake (Mw7.1) on 25 October 2013 taken place near the Japan Trench, NE Japan, for example, generated a few tens of centimeters tsunami at the nearest shoreline, and it also could be recorded by the DONET pressure sensors as a few millimeters of tsunami. Full seismic waveforms have been recorded by two types of seismic sensors as well. We present some features of the obtained pressure signals during the earthquake, in which it is worthwhile noting that the bottom pressure corresponds to the bottom acceleration in the inter-mediate frequency band. In the high frequency band, on the other hand, the bottom pressure follows the bottom velocity. This characteristic would be used for retrieving tsunami signals from the bottom pressure. Thus, quantitative interpretation and data processing of offshore tsunami observations can contribute to the effective

  15. ENSO variability and external impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.H.; Anderson, D.L.T. ); Davey, M.K. )

    1993-09-01

    Many features of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon have been successfully simulated by coupled models during the last decade. However, some fundamental differences in model behavior remain: the oscillation is self-sustained within the Pacific sector or some external impacts are needed to maintain the oscillation. The first, delayed oscillator scenario describes ENSO as an oscillation generated and maintained by the coupled instability and oceanic waves, without the need for any external impacts. In the second, the system has two steady states of equilibrium and an external forcing is needed to move the system from one state to another. Recent observational analyses suggest possible connections between external influences and ENSO variability. The effects of external impacts on ENSO variability are investigated by using a simple coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The impacts considered are wind-stress anomalies associated with the seasonal monsoonal cycle, and the tropospheric quasi-biennial oscillation in the Indian and western Pacific region. It was found that (1) the external impact plays an important role in triggering ENSO variability when the coupled system in the Pacific could not support the oscillation by itself; (2) the impact regulates the original self-sustained oscillation to a seasonally phase-locked time evolution; and (3) the periods of the resulting oscillations could be three times that of the external forcing, a result of the interaction between the external forcing and the coupled system in the Pacific. If the time-matching condition is satisfied, the oscillation period will be 3 times that of the forcing. Wind stress associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation could influence significantly the original self-sustained oscillation in the Pacific, making the amplitude and interval between two successive warm or cold phases variable, as observed in ENSO events. 26 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Carbon XANES Data from Six Aerogel Picokeystones Cut from the Top and Bottom Sides of the Stardust Comet Sample Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Tsou, P.; Peltzer, C.; Jacobsen, C.

    2009-01-01

    Great care and a large effort was made to minimize the amount of organic matter contained within the flight aerogel used to collect Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples. Even so, by the very nature of the production process and silica aerogel s affinity for volatile organics keeping silica aerogel free from organics is a monumental task. Silica aerogel from three production batches was flown on the Stardust sample return mission. All 3 types had layered densities varying from 5mg/ml to 50 mg/ml where the densest aerogel was farthest away from the collection area. A 2 step gelation process was used to make the flight aerogel and organics used in this process were tetraethylorthosilicate, ethanol and acetonitrile. Both ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid were also used in the aerogel production process. The flight aerogel was baked at JPL at 300 C for 72 hours, most of the baking was done at atmosphere but twice a day the oven was pumped to 10 torr for hour [1]. After the aerogel was baked it was stored in a nitrogen purged cabinet until flight time. One aerogel cell was located in the SRC away from any sample collection area as a witness to possible contamination from out gassing of the space craft, re-entry gases and any other organic encounter. This aerogel was aerogel used in the interstellar collection sample tray and is the least dense of the 3 batches of aerogel flown. Organics found in the witness tile include organics containing Si-CH3 bonds, amines and PAHS. Besides organic contamination, hot spots of calcium were reported in the flight aerogel. Carbonates have been detected in comet 81P/Wild2 samples . During preflight analyses, no technique was used to analyze for carbonates in aerogel. To determine if the carbonates found in 81P/Wild2 samples were from the comet, it is necessary to analyze the flight aerogel for carbonate as well as for organics.

  17. Natural Risks at the Bottom Side of Ameca River, in the State Limits of Jalisco and Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo, K. G.; Maciel, R.; Pena, L. E.; García García, E. X.; Ramos Chavez, C.

    2016-12-01

    At world-wide level, the population centers are exposed to natural risks and more those that are located to borders of the rivers, where hydrometeorological and geologic phenomenon are conjugated, and even increased by the action of the man. From 1911 to 2015, the disasters registered in the world due to flood by river overflowing were 2 701, with 2 545 affected 224 110, of which 60 229 747 lost their homes and 4 449 031 deads, causing therefore an economic loss of approximately $549 052 761 dollars. The case of study is the low part of the Ameca River, the one of the main rivers of the states of Jalisco and Nayarit in the west zone of Mexico. It is interesting, since it have its mouth near the tourist area (with considerable affluence at national level), with infrastructure (airport and bridges) and towns of both referred states; as well because at the pass of the years, this river have had overflows affecting municipalities, bridges and loss of mangrove swamp. In order to determine the feasible impacts to happen with the overflow of the Ameca River, the aerial photographs of area of study and satellite images were analyzed (historical and present), likewise information of the river basin physical environment generated by INEGI with special emphasis in the low part of the river basin and a campaign of work field, to delimit the zones that have shown some affectation. The objective of this investigation is to contribute to the risk analysis of the adjacent localities to the river, with the purpose of diminishing the impact in the population. As preliminary results appear maps with boundaries of paleo-channels, which mark the zone of influence during overflows of the Ameca River, the towns which can be affected and the population exposed.

  18. Bottom Ash Waste Used in Different Construction Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, O. G.; Lutsenko, A. V.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Litvinova, V. A.; Semenovykh, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents the investigations of the composition and properties of the bottom ash waste generated by Seversk thermal power plant of the Tomsk region. The compositions suggested for construction materials (fired and hydrothermal) are based on the bottom ash waste. Mechanical-and-physical and physicochemical properties of the produced specimens are investigated in this paper. Phase compositions are determined for fired materials based on the bottom ash waste, and a possibility of producing ash-based mineral wool is defined herein. The produced ash-containing fiber possesses a higher chemical resistance and performance characteristics due to its higher acidity index.

  19. Characterizing Via Bottom Integrity in Cu/Low-κ Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martner, Cecilia; Genio, Edgar; Borden, Peter; Tang, Jianshe; Wood, Michael; Fulmer, Philip

    2005-09-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of Cu damascene fabrication is obtaining uniformly clear via hole bottoms following etch and clean. Residues and excess CuOx growth are common sources of high resistance and electro-migration failure. In this paper we describe a method of characterizing via bottoms in dense 0.12 um via structures that have been etched and cleaned prior to barrier/seed deposition. The technique used in this study is a non-destructive laser measurement method that is sensitive to the absorption of residues and oxides in the via bottom.

  20. Effects of external rotation on anteroposterior translations in the shoulder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew J; Debski, Richard E; Voycheck, Carrie A; McMahon, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Using physical examination to make the diagnosis of shoulder instability can be difficult, because typical examination maneuvers are qualitative, difficult to standardize, and not reproducible. Measuring shoulder translation is especially difficult, which is a particular problem, because measuring it inaccurately may result in improper treatment of instability. The objective of this study was to use a magnetic motion tracking system to quantify the effects of external rotation of the abducted shoulder on a simulated simple translation test in healthy subjects. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) increasing external rotation of the abducted shoulder would result in decreasing translation; (2) intraobserver repeatability would be less than 2 mm at all external rotation positions; and (3) mean side-to-side differences would be less than 2 mm at all external rotation positions. The intraobserver repeatability and side-to-side differences of AP translation were quantified with a noninvasive magnetic motion tracking system and automated data analysis routine in nine healthy subjects at four positions of external rotation with the arm abducted. A shoulder positioning apparatus was used to maintain the desired arm position. No differences in translations between the positions of external rotation were found (p = 0.48). Intraobserver repeatability was 1.1 mm (SD, 0.8 mm) and mean side-to-side differences were small: 2.7 mm (SD, 2.8 mm), 2.8 mm (SD, 1.8 mm), 2.5 mm (SD, 1.8 mm), and 4.0 mm (SD, 2.6 mm) at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of external rotation, respectively. The intraobserver repeatability was strong and the side-to-side differences in translation were small with the magnetic motion tracking system, which is encouraging for development of an improved quantitative test to assess shoulder translation for fast and low-cost diagnosis of shoulder instability. Clinicians may not have to position the contralateral, normal, abducted shoulder in precisely the same position

  1. Chewing side preferences in children.

    PubMed

    Mc Donnell, S T; Hector, M P; Hannigan, A

    2004-09-01

    The dentition of 57 children aged 6-8 years old was examined clinically and radiographically. Subjects were divided into groups according to state of the dentition: caries free, no pathology and no pain; caries, no pathology and no pain; caries, pathology and no pain; caries, pathology and pain. The existence of a preferred chewing side (PCS) was determined using a visual spot-checking method. Subjects were instructed to chew gum on their posterior teeth. After 15 s the position of the chewing gum was recorded as right or left. This procedure was carried out seven times consecutively. Subjects had an 'observed preferred chewing side' (OPCS) when they chewed 5/7, 6/7 or 7/7 times on the same side. To determine if children were aware of their chewing side preference each subject's stated PCS was then recorded as left, right or none. 'Coincidence' between stated and OPCSs was said to occur if the stated PCS corresponded to the OPCS. Seventy-seven per cent of children had a PCS. The majority (70%) of caries free children also had a PCS (P < 0.05). The percentage with an OPCS varied from 70% of the caries free group to 92% of the group with caries, pathology and pain. However, there was no statistically significant association between state of the dentition and the presence of a PCS. Coincidence occurred in 56% of children. There was a statistically significant association between state of the dentition and coincidence (P=0.02). Children in pain were most likely to show coincidence (kappa=0.81).

  2. Side Impact Injury Test Apparatus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-16

    component. It is often desirable to study and evaluate the effects of automobile, airplane and other crashes that cause damage and injury due to impact ...present invention to provide an apparatus that will carry out impact tests yet minimize or eliminate destruction or damage to the test equipment and...conducting collision tests, especially of side impacts , that does not destroy or damage the test apparatus or equipment yet produces reliable and repeatable

  3. [Coronary artery bypass grafting using side-to-side anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Niinami, H; Takeuchi, Y

    2000-08-01

    Recently, to obtain better long-term patency after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) arterial conduits such as internal mammary arteries (IMAs) and the right gastroepiploic artery have been frequently used. For coronary site anastomosis, end-to-side anastomosis is common. These conduits have a smaller diameter than the saphenous vein graft, so that, usually, longitudinal slits are made on the distal end of these grafts to obtain a more effective anastomotic orifice area. However, there is a potential for anastomotic leakage due to mismatch between the incision of the coronary artery and the arterial graft. We report here the efficacy of side-to-side anastomosis using small arterial conduits. This method has several advantages. Firstly, there is no chance of anastomotic leakage, since the coronary incision and graft incision can be perfectly matched. Secondly, if there is at least a 5-mm distance between the distal end of the graft incision and the surgical clip, the graft incision can be extended during anastomosis for adjustment. Thirdly, the distal end of the graft can be held beyond the surgical clip by forceps without damaging the arterial graft, which makes it easier for the anastomosis to be performed. Finally, the anastomosis can be checked by passing a probe through the distal end of the graft after removing the surgical clip. Also dye can be injected from the distal end of the graft at "Off Pump CABG", intraoperatively. This technique can be applied not only for distal end anastomosis, but also for proximal end, using free IMA to the ascending aorta and to make a Y-graft.

  4. The Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET): A GIS tool for delineating valley bottoms across entire drainage networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jordan T.; Macfarlane, William W.; Wheaton, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The shape, size and extent of a valley bottom dictates the form and function of the associated river or stream. Consequently, accurate, watershed-wide delineation of valley bottoms is increasingly recognized as a necessary component of watershed management. While many valley bottom delineation approaches exist, methods that can be effectively applied across entire drainage networks to produce reasonably accurate results are lacking. Most existing tools are designed to work using high resolution topography data (i.e. > 2 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM)) and can only be applied over relatively short reach lengths due to computational or data availability limitations. When these precise mapping approaches are applied throughout drainage networks (i.e. 102-104 km), the computational techniques often either do not scale, or the algorithms perform inconsistently. Other tools that produce outputs at broader scale extents generally utilize coarser input topographic data to produce more poorly resolved valley bottom approximations. To fill this methodology gap and produce relatively accurate valley bottoms over large areas, we developed an algorithm that accepts terrain data from one to 10 m with slope and valley width parameters that scale based on drainage area, allowing for watershed-scale valley bottom delineation. We packaged this algorithm in the Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET) as an open-source ArcGIS toolbox for ease of use. To illustrate V-BET's scalability and test the tool's robustness across different physiographic settings, we delineated valley bottoms for the entire perennial drainage network of Utah as well as twelve watersheds across the interior Columbia River Basin (totaling 55,400 km) using 10 m DEMs. We found that even when driven with relatively coarse data (10 m DEMs), V-BET produced a relatively accurate approximation of valley bottoms across the entire watersheds of these diverse physiographic regions.

  5. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  6. Bottom-up and middle-down proteomics have comparable accuracies in defining histone post-translational modification relative abundance and stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Sidoli, Simone; Lin, Shu; Karch, Kelly R; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2015-03-17

    Histone proteins are key components of chromatin. Their N-terminal tails are enriched in combinatorial post-translational modifications (PTMs), which influence gene regulation, DNA repair, and chromosome condensation. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based middle-down proteomics has emerged as a technique to analyze co-occurring PTMs, as it allows for the characterization of intact histone tails (>50 aa) rather than short (<20 aa) peptides analyzed by bottom-up. However, a demonstration of its reliability is still lacking. We compared results obtained with the middle-down and the bottom-up strategy in calculating PTM relative abundance and stoichiometry. Since bottom-up was proven to have biases in peptide signal detection such as uneven ionization efficiency, we performed an external correction using a synthetic peptide library with known peptide relative abundance. Corrected bottom-up data were used as reference. Calculated abundances of single PTMs showed similar deviations from the reference when comparing middle-down and uncorrected bottom-up results. Moreover, we show that the two strategies provided similar performance in defining accurate PTM stoichiometry. Collectively, we evidenced that the middle-down strategy is at least equally reliable to bottom-up in quantifying histone PTMs.

  7. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  8. 38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom of tank No date - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  9. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  10. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  11. LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS POINTED DOWN FOR PROPER ORIENTATION). - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  12. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AT THE BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AT THE BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. BOTTOM LEVEL OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING SOUTHWEST Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOTTOM LEVEL OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. BRIDGE ABUTMENTS WITH ARCH SEGMENTS ON RIVER BOTTOM. ARCHES COLLAPSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRIDGE ABUTMENTS WITH ARCH SEGMENTS ON RIVER BOTTOM. ARCHES COLLAPSED AROUND EIGHT YEARS BEFORE THIS DATE. - Whittlesey Road Bridge, Spanning Black River at Whittlesey Road, Lyons Falls, Lewis County, NY

  18. Looking southeast at bottom house with open hearth building attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at bottom house with open hearth building attached to the right. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  19. TOWER STAIRHALL; BOTTOM NEWEL, SOUTH ELEVATION, LEFT. Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER STAIRHALL; BOTTOM NEWEL, SOUTH ELEVATION, LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TS-D-13. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 11. PAINTERS REMOVING MASKING TAPE, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. PAINTERS REMOVING MASKING TAPE, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM BOTTOM FLOOR OF DRYDOCK NO. 5. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  2. 36. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer BOTTOM OF SOUTH WEST CORNER POST 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  3. MAPPING BATHYMETRY AND BOTTOM TYPE IN A SHALLOW ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bathymetry and bottom type are important in characterizing estuaries and their ecology but hard to map, especially in shallow estuaries. Acoustic backscattering was used to remotely sense these properties in the shallow Slocums River Estuary of Massachusetts. Acoustic pulses were...

  4. 13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel hinge point and expansion joint, and concrete buttress, looking north northwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  5. 17. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF READYMIX CONCRETE FOR BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF READY-MIX CONCRETE FOR BOTTOM OF ARIZONA CANAL. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. December 1943 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM CHORD ON PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS. HYDRAULICALLY FORGED EYES ON ROLLED STOCK. - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  7. View from bottom chord level of truss looking up length ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from bottom chord level of truss looking up length of Train Shed towards Headhouse - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. End of truss showing upper chord, bottom chord rod, compression ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    End of truss showing upper chord, bottom chord rod, compression strut and connector - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... arrangement to insure positive closure during transit. (4) The valve operating mechanism for valves applied to... valve due to stresses or shocks incident to transportation. (5) Bottom outlet nozzle of interior valves...

  10. 7. View of first panel point, bottom chord. Span 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of first panel point, bottom chord. Span 1 is showing pin connection and eye bar construction around pin. - Bridge No. 33.3, Spanning Elk River at Milepost JC-33.3, Fayetteville, Lincoln County, TN

  11. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel which has a mean length greater than 165 feet (50.3 meters) and is certificated for exposed water...

  14. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD, DIAGONALS, VERTICAL MEMBERS, BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF TOP CHORD, DIAGONALS, VERTICAL MEMBERS, BOTTOM CHORD, FLOOR BEAMS AND STRINGERS - Northfield Parker Truss Bridge, Over tracks of Central Vermont Railroad, Northfield, Washington County, VT

  15. Higgs-boson production induced by bottom quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, Eduard; Plehn, Tilman

    2004-05-01

    Bottom-quark-induced processes are responsible for a large fraction of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) discovery potential, in particular, for supersymmetric Higgs bosons. Recently, the discrepancy between exclusive and inclusive Higgs boson production rates has been linked to the choice of an appropriate bottom factorization scale. We investigate the process kinematics at hadron colliders and show that it leads to a considerable decrease in the bottom factorization scale. This effect is the missing piece needed to understand the corresponding higher order results. Our results hold generally for charged and for neutral Higgs boson production at the LHC as well as at the Fermilab Tevatron. The situation is different for single top quark production, where we find no sizable suppression of the factorization scale. Turning the argument around, we can specify how large are the collinear logarithms that can be resummed using the bottom parton picture.

  16. MAPPING BATHYMETRY AND BOTTOM TYPE IN A SHALLOW ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bathymetry and bottom type are important in characterizing estuaries and their ecology but hard to map, especially in shallow estuaries. Acoustic backscattering was used to remotely sense these properties in the shallow Slocums River Estuary of Massachusetts. Acoustic pulses were...

  17. 14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR BEAMS, NORTHWEST SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Linden Avenue Bridge, Spanning Purgatoire River on Linden Avenue, Trinidad, Las Animas County, CO

  18. 3. VIEW NORTH OF GILBERT BRIDGE, TRUSS SEATINGS, BOTTOM MEMBERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH OF GILBERT BRIDGE, TRUSS SEATINGS, BOTTOM MEMBERS, TRAFFIC DECK SUPPORT SYSTEM - Gilbert Bridge, U.S. Route 52, spanning Guyandotte River near confluence of Gilbert Creek, Gilbert, Mingo County, WV

  19. 18. AHWAHNEE MEADOW. SOUTHSIDE DRIVE AT BOTTOM OF MEADOW AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. AHWAHNEE MEADOW. SOUTHSIDE DRIVE AT BOTTOM OF MEADOW AND AHWAHNEE ROAD AT TOP OF MEADOW. NOTE OLD ROAD ALIGNMENT AT EAST EDGE OF MEADOW. - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. 14. VIEW OF FLOOR BEAM CONNECTIONS WITH LOWER CHORD, BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF FLOOR BEAM CONNECTIONS WITH LOWER CHORD, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING AND VERTICAL BRACE; FACING NORTHWEST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  1. Side gear mounting for differential assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, H.

    1989-02-21

    A differential gear assembly is described of the type which includes a differential gear housing having means for receiving a pair of axle ends together with a pair of substantially axially aligned side gears coupled to the pair of axle ends for rotation therewith, the side gears having helix angles inclined in the same direction with respect to the axes of rotation thereof, characterized in that the gear assembly includes means for preventing axial thrust forces developed by one of the side gears from loading the other of the side gears. The preventing means includes means for separating the side gears such that there is no direct or indirect engagement between confronting end faces of the side gears when thrust forces of one of the side gears are directed toward the other of the side gears; and the means for axially separating the side gears includes a pair of overlapping elements associated with one of the side gears of the gear housing.

  2. Two Droplets Burning Side by Side on MSL-1R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiment team got more than twice as many burns have been completed as were originally scheduled for STS-95. This image was taken July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:13 (approximate). As shown here, scientists were able to burn two droplets side by side, more closely mimicking behavior of burning fuel in an engine. This shows ignition of a single drop that subsequently burned while a fan blew through the chamber, giving the scientists data on burning with convection, but no buoyancy -- an important distinction when you're trying to solve a problem by breaking it into parts. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (200KB JPEG, 1171 x 1319 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300177.html.

  3. Flapping propulsion with side-by-side pitching foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Fish schools are one of the most common types of collective behaviour observed in nature. One of the reasons why fish swim in groups, is to reduce the cost of transport of the school. In this work we explore the propulsive performance of two foils flapping in a symmetric configuration, i.e. with an out-of-phase flapping motion. Direct thrust measurements and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) allowed a detailed examination of the forces and the wake generated by the system, for different kinematics (swept angles and frequencies) and shaft separations. For certain specific cases, volumetric PIV shows major differences on how the different structures in the wake of the system evolve, depending on the imposed kinematics and the side-by-side separation between the foils. Results obtained will be compared against data produced with isolated flapping foils with similar imposed kinematics, with the aim to better understand the interactions between both and the performance of the system as a whole. The author would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y competitividad (MINECO) through Grant DPI2015-71645-P.

  4. Two Droplets Burning Side by Side on MSL-1R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiment team got more than twice as many burns have been completed as were originally scheduled for STS-95. This image was taken July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:13 (approximate). As shown here, scientists were able to burn two droplets side by side, more closely mimicking behavior of burning fuel in an engine. This shows ignition of a single drop that subsequently burned while a fan blew through the chamber, giving the scientists data on burning with convection, but no buoyancy -- an important distinction when you're trying to solve a problem by breaking it into parts. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (200KB JPEG, 1171 x 1319 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300177.html.

  5. Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Bracco, M. E.; Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr.

    2013-03-25

    We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.

  6. Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    bottom stress and confirmed the presence of logarithmic velocity profiles in the continental shelf bottom boundary layer. Grant et al. (1984) also...stress layer and is often used to define the location of boundary fluxes of momentum and suspended sediment concentration in models. On continental ...propagation termed Stokes drift . Stokes drift is a consequence of mass conservation and vertical shear as the water column is deeper under the crest

  7. Bottom friction optimization for a better barotropic tide modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutet, Martial; Lathuilière, Cyril; Son Hoang, Hong; Baraille, Rémy

    2015-04-01

    At a regional scale, barotropic tides are the dominant source of variability of currents and water heights. A precise representation of these processes is essential because of their great impacts on human activities (submersion risks, marine renewable energies, ...). Identified sources of error for tide modelling at a regional scale are the followings: bathymetry, boundary forcing and dissipation due to bottom friction. Nevertheless, bathymetric databases are nowadays known with a good accuracy, especially over shelves, and global tide models performances are better than ever. The most promising improvement is thus the bottom friction representation. The method used to estimate bottom friction is the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) which consists in the approximation of the gradient based on a fixed number of cost function measurements, regardless of the dimension of the vector to be estimated. Indeed, each cost function measurement is obtained by randomly perturbing every component of the parameter vector. An important feature of SPSA is its relative ease of implementation. In particular, the method does not require the development of tangent linear and adjoint version of the circulation model. Experiments are carried out to estimate bottom friction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) in barotropic mode (one isopycnal layer). The study area is the Northeastern Atlantic margin which is characterized by strong currents and an intense dissipation. Bottom friction is parameterized with a quadratic term and friction coefficient is computed with the water height and the bottom roughness. The latter parameter is the one to be estimated. Assimilated data are the available tide gauge observations. First, the bottom roughness is estimated taking into account bottom sediment natures and bathymetric ranges. Then, it is estimated with geographical degrees of freedom. Finally, the impact of the estimation of a mixed quadratic/linear friction

  8. Well-posedness analysis and numerical implementation of a linearized two-dimensional bottom sediment transport problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoryakina, V. V.; Sukhinov, A. I.

    2017-06-01

    A two-dimensional linearized model of coastal sediment transport due to the action of waves is studied. Up till now, one-dimensional sediment transport models have been used. The model under study makes allowance for complicated bottom relief, the porosity of the bottom sediment, the size and density of sediment particles, gravity, wave-generated shear stress, and other factors. For the corresponding initial-boundary value problem the uniqueness of a solution is proved, and an a priori estimate for the solution norm is obtained depending on integral estimates of the right-hand side, boundary conditions, and the norm of the initial condition. A conservative difference scheme with weights is constructed that approximates the continuous initial-boundary value problem. Sufficient conditions for the stability of the scheme, which impose constraints on its time step, are given. Numerical experiments for test problems of bottom sediment transport and bottom relief transformation are performed. The numerical results agree with actual physical experiments.

  9. Growing Carbon Nanotubes from Both Sides of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinlong; Li, Yilun; Gao, Caitian; Kim, Nam Dong; Fan, Xiujun; Wang, Gunuk; Peng, Zhiwei; Hauge, Robert H; Tour, James M

    2016-03-23

    The design and synthesis of hybrid structures between graphene and carbon nanotubes is an intriguing topic in the field of carbon nanomaterials. Here the synthesis of vertically aligned CNT carpets underneath graphene and from both sides of graphene is described with continuous ordering over a large area. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopic characterizations show that CNT carpets grow underneath graphene through a base-growth mechanism, and grow on top of graphene through a tip-growth mechanism. Good electrical contact is observed from the top CNT carpets, through the graphene layer, to the bottom CNT carpets. This sandwich-like CNT/graphene/CNT hybrid structure could provide an approach to design and fabricate multilayered graphene/CNTs materials, as well as potential applications in the fields of nanomanufacturing and energy storage.

  10. Side-looking sonar backscatter response at dual frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, William B. F.; Flood, Roger D.

    1996-12-01

    Dual-frequency side-looking sonars have the potential to be used as remote sensing tools to characterize subaqueous terrains. In one case study of the carbonate-ooze-coated Blake Plateau off-shore of Georgia, U.S.A., the difference in acoustic attenuation for 50 and 20 mm wavelengths (30 and 72 kHz frequency) permits the discrimination of sub-bottom scatterers from seabed surface textural features to reveal patchy regions where a buried hard ground had been pock-marked by karst-like depressions. In a second study of the Upper Hudson River in New York, U.S.A., related to environmental contaminates, the backscatter response at 15 and 3 mm acoustic wavelengths (100 and 500 kHz frequency) serves as a useful proxy for sediment grain size with coarser detritus distinguished from finer sediments. Sand and gravel regions inferred from the backscatter were confirmed by ground truth sampling.

  11. Heterogeneities in gelatin film formation using single-sided NMR.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Sushanta; Mattea, Carlos; Denner, Paul; Stapf, Siegfried

    2010-12-16

    Gelatin solutions were prepared in D(2)O. The drying process of cast solutions was followed with a single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanner until complete solidification occurred. Spin-spin relaxation times (T(2)) were measured at different layers with microscopic resolution and were correlated with the drying process during film formation. Additionally, the evaporation of the gelatin solution was observed optically from the reduction of the sample thickness, revealing that at the macroscopic level, the rate of evaporation is not uniform throughout the experiment. A crossover in the spatial evolution of the drying process is observed from the NMR results. At the early stages, the gel appears to be drier in the upper layers near the evaporation front, while this tendency is inverted at the later stages, when drying is faster from the bottom. XRD (X-ray diffraction) data showed that a structural heterogeneity persists in the final film.

  12. Removal of pollutants from wastewater by coal bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Yang, Dong-Hao

    2002-09-01

    Coal bottom ash produced from a thermal power plant was used in a batch experiment to investigate the adsorption characteristic of this bottom ash. The adsorbate solutions were synthetic wastewaters contained copper (Cu2+) or COD and a sanitary landfill leachate. The influences of various factors, such as contact time, pH, initial adsorbate concentration and temperature on the sorption have been studied. Experimental results show that coal bottom ash had a good adsorption capacity for copper and COD and could reduce the concentrations of various pollutants in the leachate. The adsorption capacities of each gram of coal bottom ash were 0.48 mg Cu (at pH 4 and temperature 25 degrees C) and 7.5 mg COD (at pH 5 and temperature 25 degrees C); their adsorption behaviors conformed to Freundlich's adsorption model. In treating leachate, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3--N, total Kjeldah nitrogen, phosphorus, Fe3+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ were 47, 39.4, 31.1, 92.9, 96.5, 94.3 and 82.2%, respectively. Based on these results we can conclude that it is possible to use coal bottom ash for removing pollutants from wastewaters. The adsorption capacities of coal bottom ash for pollutants were also determined.

  13. Assessing benthic ecological impacts of bottom aquaculture using macrofaunal assemblages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Fan, Ying; Yan, Cunjun; Gao, Chunzi; Xu, Zhaodong; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2017-01-15

    Bottom aquaculture of bivalves is a high-yield culture method, which is increasingly adopted by shellfish farmers worldwide. However, the effects of bottom aquaculture on benthic ecosystems are not well-known. Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), is a widely distributed bottom aquaculture mollusk species. To assess the ecological impacts of Manila clam bottom aquaculture, clams and other macrofaunal assemblages were investigated during four cruises (July and November 2011, February and May 2012) at six sampling sites in Jiaozhou Bay, China. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages had significant negative correlations with the abundance of Manila clams. However, according to the results of several biotic indices, a low disturbance was detected by Manila clam bottom aquaculture. In conclusion, AMBI (AZTI'S Marine Biotic Index) and M-AMBI (Multivariate AZTI Marine Biotic Index) indices are more suitable for assessing ecological quality than polychaete/amphipod ratios when the disturbance is slight, such as at a bivalve bottom aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organic carbon leaching behavior from incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, A L; Okuda, T; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2006-09-21

    The understanding of the leaching behavior of organic carbon from incinerator bottom ash is an important aspect for the control of organic carbon emissions from landfills in order to minimize their potential risk to the environment. The leaching behavior of organic carbon from incinerator bottom ash samples, obtained from two different solid waste sources, as well as the effects of calcium (Ca) on organic carbon (DOC) leaching associated with pH were therefore investigated in this paper. The effect of pH on the leaching of DOC and other major elements from bottom ash was ascertained through pH-stat leaching experiments. Column leaching experiments were carried out to evaluate the dependence of the leached amount of DOC on Ca leaching. It was found that the bottom ash produced by incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) was composed of two DOC fractions: DOC leached independent (fraction I) of Ca leaching, observed at alkaline-neutral pH, and DOC leached dependent (fraction II) on Ca leaching, observed at acid pH. However, the bottom ash produced by incineration of industrial solid waste (ISW) was composed of only DOC fraction I. The addition of calcium oxide during incineration and the differences in the paper to plastic ratio in the physical composition of the solid wastes incinerated would explain the distinct organic carbon leaching behaviors of bottom ash samples.

  15. Formation of Humic Substances in Weathered MSWI Bottom Ash

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haixia; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs) content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37°C and 50°C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na4P2O7. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37°C and at 18th week under 50°C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50°C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37°C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported. PMID:23844394

  16. Determinants of protein side-chain packing.

    PubMed Central

    Tanimura, R.; Kidera, A.; Nakamura, H.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of protein side-chain packing for a given backbone trace is investigated using 3 different prediction models. The first requires an exhaustive search of all possible combinations of side-chain conformers, using the dead-end elimination theorem. The second considers only side-chain-backbone interactions, whereas the third neglects side-chain-backbone interactions and instead keeps side-chain-side-chain interactions. Predictions of side-chain conformations for 11 proteins using all 3 models show that removal of side-chain-side-chain interactions does not cause a large decrease in the prediction accuracy, whereas the model having only side-chain-side-chain interactions still retains a significant level of accuracy. These results suggest that the 2 classes of interactions, side-chain-backbone and side-chain-side-chain, are consistent with each other and work concurrently to stabilize the native conformations. This is confirmed by analyses of energy spectra of the side-chain conformations derived from the fourth prediction model, the Independent model, which gives almost the same quality of the prediction as the dead-end elimination. The analyses indicate that the 2 classes of interactions simultaneously increase the energy difference between the native and nonnative conformations. PMID:7756990

  17. [The human side of business].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M

    1989-06-01

    This article condenses some psychological and social concepts that should be understood in order to undertake any type of enterprise. This is fundamental factor in dental practice. An aid is hereby presented for the dentist to understand and apply this type of insights, which are usually kept apart from a technical activity such as odontology. Success of an enterprise depends on the quality of services rendered (in a service institution) as well as on concurrence of the different factors making up the enterprise; in this respect, the human side is a vital essence of our structure.

  18. Side effects of stimulant use.

    PubMed

    Levy, F

    1993-08-01

    The current literature on side effects of central nervous system (CNS) stimulant medications used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed, with particular emphasis on dose-response effects on differing behavioural systems. The reasons for variation in findings may lie in individual differences in children, or in differing responses of target behavioural systems. These may be understood in terms of underlying pharmacological mechanisms. Social, educational and philosophical issues relating to medication use are discussed, and the need for ongoing critical clinical and research approaches, rather than polarization of professional attitudes, is emphasized.

  19. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  20. Maximum expiration activates the abdominal muscles during side bridge exercise.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that maximum expiration could be a useful way of performing challenging exercises that include coactivation of the deep and superficial abdominal muscles. However, little is known about the effect of maximum expiration on the activity of the abdominal muscles during lumbar stabilizing exercise. The purpose of our study was to quantify changes in the activities of the abdominal muscles during side bridge exercise in combination with maximum expiration. Experimental laboratory study. The activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles were measured using electromyography in 12 healthy men performing 3 tasks: holding the breath after maximum expiration in the prone position, holding the breath after resting expiration during side bridge exercise, and holding the breath after maximum expiration during side bridge exercise. Significant increases in the activities of the abdominal muscles (RA, EO, and IO) occurred with maximum expiration when compared with resting expiration during side bridge exercise (P < 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate the effect of maximum expiration on abdominal muscle activities during a stabilizing exercise, thus contributing to existing knowledge about therapeutic exercise for alternative core training.

  1. Maximum expiration activates the abdominal muscles during side bridge exercise.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that maximum expiration could be a useful way of performing challenging exercises that include coactivation of the deep and superficial abdominal muscles. However, little is known about the effect of maximum expiration on the activity of the abdominal muscles during lumbar stabilizing exercise. The purpose of our study was to quantify changes in the activities of the abdominal muscles during side bridge exercise in combination with maximum expiration. Experimental laboratory study. The activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles were measured using electromyography in 12 healthy men performing 3 tasks: holding the breath after maximum expiration in the supine position, holding the breath after resting expiration during side bridge exercise, and holding the breath after maximum expiration during side bridge exercise. Significant increases in the activities of the abdominal muscles (RA, EO, and IO) occurred with maximum expiration when compared with resting expiration during side bridge exercise (P <0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate the effect of maximum expiration on abdominal muscle activities during a stabilizing exercise, thus contributing to existing knowledge about therapeutic exercise for alternative core training.

  2. Martian external magnetic field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  3. Evaluation of severe accident risks, Peach Bottom, Unit 2: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.C.; Breeding, R.J.; Jow, H.N.; Shiver, A.W. ); Helton, J.C. ); Smith, L.N. )

    1990-12-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. This power plant, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiated by events both internal and external to the power station were assessed. 39 refs., 174 figs., 133 tabs.

  4. Fleshing out facilitation - reframing interaction networks beyond top-down versus bottom-up.

    PubMed

    Watson, David M

    2016-08-01

    803 I. 803 II. 804 III. 804 IV. 805 V. 805 VI. 806 References 807 SUMMARY: Rather than direct plant-plant interactions, research on the community-scale influence of mistletoes reveals hitherto unappreciated roles of animals in mediating facilitation. Lacking roots and reliant upon animal vectors, mistletoes represent model systems with which to understand mechanisms underlying interaction networks. In addition to direct effects on nutrient dynamics via enriched litter-fall, mistletoes are visited by pollinators, seed dispersers and natural enemies, complementing increased heterogeneity in nutrient returns reallocated from infected hosts with increased external inputs. These amplified bottom-up effects are coupled with top-down influences of insectivores attracted to infected hosts and stands by increased availability of favoured prey. Simultaneously influencing nutrient dynamics and plant-plant interactions from below and above, visiting animals help explain variation in the context dependence of facilitation. © 2016 The Author. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Rectangular Liquid Metal Pool With Bottom Heating and Top Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Il S.; Yu, Yong H.; Son, Hyoung M.; Hwang, Jin S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics with subcooled coolant to create engineering database for basic applications in a lead alloy cooled reactor. Tests are performed in the ALTOS (Applied Liquid-metal Thermal Operation Study) apparatus as part of MITHOS (Metal Integrated Thermo Hydrodynamic Operation System). A relationship is determined between the Nusselt number Nu and the Rayleigh number Ra in the liquid metal rectangular pool. Results are compared with correlations and experimental data in the literature. Given the similar Ra condition, the present test results for Nu of the liquid metal pool with top subcooling are found to be similar to those predicted by the existing correlations or experiments. The current test results are utilized to develop natural convection heat transfer correlations applicable to low Prandtl number Pr fluids that are heated from below and cooled by the external coolant above. Results from this study are slated to be used in designing BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System), a small lead cooled modular fast reactor for deployment at remote sites cycled with MOBIS (Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System) for electricity generation, tied with NAVIS (Naval Application Vessel Integral System) for ship propulsion, joined with THAIS (Thermochemical Hydrogen Acquisition Integral System) for hydrogen production, and coupled with DORIS (Desalination Optimized Reactor Integral System) for seawater desalination. Tests are performed with Wood's metal (Pb-Bi-Sn-Cd) filling a rectangular pool whose lower surface is heated and upper surface cooled by forced convection of water. The test section is 20 cm long, 11.3 cm high and 15 cm wide. The simulant has a melting temperature of 78 deg. C. The constant temperature and heat flux condition was realized for the bottom heating once the steady state had been met. The test parameters include the heated bottom surface temperature

  6. Compared sub-bottom profile interpretation in fjords of King George Island and Danco Coast, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, C.; Vilches, L.; Vallejos, C.; Fernandez, R.; Molares, R.

    2015-12-01

    The fjords of the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) and Danco Coast (Antarctic Peninsula) represent climatic transitional areas (subpolar to polar). The analysis of the distribution of sub-bottom facies helps to understand the prevailing sedimentary and climatic processes. This work seeks to characterize and compare the fjord seismic facies, of the indicated areas, to determine the main sedimentary processes in these regions. Compressed High-Intensity Radiated Pulse (CHIRP) records from 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler were obtained from the cruise: NBP0703 (2007); and pinger 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler records from the cruises: ECA-50 INACH (2014), and First Colombian Expedition (2015). Several seismic facies were recognized in all studied areas with some variability on their thickness and extent, and indicate the occurrence of similar sedimentary processes. These are: SSD facies (strong to weak intensity, stratified, draped sheet external shape), is interpreted as sedimentary deposits originated from suspended sediments from glaciar plumes and/or ice-rafting. This facies, in general, is thicker in the fjords of King George Island than in the larger fjords of the Danco Coast; on the other hand, within the Danco Coast area, this facies is thinner and more scarce in the smaller fjords and bays. MCM facies (moderate intensity, chaotic and with mounds) is associated with moraine deposits and/or basement. This is present in all areas, being most abundant in the Danco Coast area. WIC facies (weak intensity and chaotic) is interpreted as debris flows, which are present in both regions, but is most common in small fjords or bays in the Danco Coast, perhaps due to higher slopes of the seabed. In this work we discuss the influence of local climate, sediment plumes from the glaciers and other sedimentary processes on the distribution and geometry of the identified seismic facies.

  7. UK Ocean Bottom Instrumentation Consortium: a New Pool of Seafloor Geophysical Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minshull, T. A.; Peirce, C.; McIntosh, J. S.; Burchell, A. C.; Sinha, M. C.; Collier, J. S.; Warner, M. R.; Henstock, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    The UK Ocean Bottom Instrumentation Consortium (OBIC) comprises the University of Southampton, Durham University, and Imperial College (London). The consortium was set up to acquire and operate a fleet of ocean bottom geophysical instruments for both consortium members and the wider community. Potential external users of our instruments are invited to contact us at info@obs.ac.uk. Our current instrument pool consists of 28 instruments: 18 LC2000 two-component ocean bottom seismometers built by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and 10 instruments built using existing housings and LC2000 electronics. The former are two-component instruments (hydrophone and 2 Hz vertical geophone) and the latter four-component instruments (hydrophone and three-axis 4.5 Hz geophone). The four-component instruments are also equipped with differential pressure gauges for broadband seismic recording. We have modified the two-component instruments to act as seafloor electric field detectors by adding electric field amplifiers and an additional chassis section accommodating AuCl electrodes mounted in two orthogonal 12-m dipoles. The seismic instruments have been tested successfully at sea in the Solent and in ˜ 1700-m water depth offshore Ireland, and a prototype electric field instrument was tested in ˜150-m water depth in Lough Fyne, Scotland. Future plans include the development of an instrument capable of simultaneous seismic and electric field recording, and extending the bandwidth of seismic recording by the addition of broad-band seismometers and high-frequency data loggers to a subset of the instruments.

  8. External hydrocephalus in two cats.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Curtis W; Coates, Joan R; Ducoté, Julie M; Stefanacci, Joseph D; Walker, Michael A; Marino, Dominic J

    2003-01-01

    External hydrocephalus describes an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the cerebral hemispheres and the overlying arachnoid membrane, rather than within the lateral ventricles. Two young cats with encephalopathic signs were diagnosed with external hydrocephalus, one via magnetic resonance imaging and one via computed tomography. Both cats had abnormally large, broad heads, with no evidence of open fontanelles. A surgical shunt was placed in each cat to divert the accumulated CSF within the cranial cavity to the peritoneal space. Both cats improved dramatically soon after surgical shunting was performed, and they continue to do well clinically, approximately 42 months and 8 months postoperatively, respectively.

  9. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  10. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  11. Side-by side intercomparison between two TCCON instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Dietrich G.; Griffith, David W. T.; Velazco, Voltaire A.; Deutscher, Nicholas M.

    2017-04-01

    The Total Carbon Colummn Observing Network (TCCON) observes column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and other trace gases at more than 20 stations worldwide. These measurements are the calibration basis for all current and many future satellite greenhouse-gas-observing missions. TCCON's goal is to provide the most precise and accurate data with uncertainties better than 0.25%. Especially inter-station biases in the network are critical and should be reduced to a minimum. TCCON uses Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) which are comparatively large and expensive instruments that are not easily moved around. In the network, the typical distance between TCCON stations is hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Therefore, opportunities to directly compare the performance of TCCON instruments are very rare. In 2010, the TCCON instrument from the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) in Jena, Germany, was set up close to a TCCON instrument at the University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia, for six months. This was part of a test campaign before the final deployment of the MPI-BGC instrument to Ascension Island. Due to problems with the acquisition and processing of TCCON data at the time, the results of the intercomparison were inconclusive at first. Spectroscopic artifacts known as ghosts affected TCCON data until 2011. The ghosts created relatively large biases between individual instruments that were in the range of TCCON's precision and accuracy goals. The ghost problem was fixed by a hardware upgrade for all TCCON instruments in 2011 but still remained in older data. Only with the latest TCCON processing software GGG2014, the ghosts could finally be removed from the pre-2011 TCCON data. Therefore, a detailed side-by-side intercomparison between the two TCCON instruments at Wollongong in 2010 has now become possible.

  12. Intracellular bottom-up generation of targeted nanosensors for single-molecule imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yanyan; Arai, Satoshi; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-02-01

    Organic dyes are useful tools for sensing cellular activities but unfavorable in single-molecule imaging, whereas quantum dots (QDs) are widely applied in single-molecule imaging but with few sensing applications. Here, to visualize cellular activities by monitoring the response of a single probe in living cells, we propose a bottom-up approach to generate nanoprobes where four organic dyes are conjugated to tetravalent single-chain avidin (scAVD) proteins via an intracellular click reaction. We demonstrate that the nanoprobes, exhibiting increased brightness and enhanced photostability, were detectable as single dots in living cells. The ease of intracellular targeting allowed the tracking of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remodeling with nanometer spatial resolution. Conjugating thermosensitive dyes generated temperature-sensitive nanoprobes on ER membranes that successfully monitored local temperature changes in response to external heat pulses. Our approach is potentially a suitable tool for visualizing localized cellular activities with single probe sensitivity in living cells.Organic dyes are useful tools for sensing cellular activities but unfavorable in single-molecule imaging, whereas quantum dots (QDs) are widely applied in single-molecule imaging but with few sensing applications. Here, to visualize cellular activities by monitoring the response of a single probe in living cells, we propose a bottom-up approach to generate nanoprobes where four organic dyes are conjugated to tetravalent single-chain avidin (scAVD) proteins via an intracellular click reaction. We demonstrate that the nanoprobes, exhibiting increased brightness and enhanced photostability, were detectable as single dots in living cells. The ease of intracellular targeting allowed the tracking of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remodeling with nanometer spatial resolution. Conjugating thermosensitive dyes generated temperature-sensitive nanoprobes on ER membranes that successfully monitored local

  13. Analysis of parameters for high loss side core in chirally coupled core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan; Liao, Lei; Li, Jiaming; Peng, Jinggang; Li, Jinyan

    2015-08-01

    The chirally-coupled core fibers exhibit excellent single mode performance without any external mode managements. In this paper, we numerically investigated effects of fiber parameters including side core size, NA, helix pitch and offset distance on high order modes loss. A general range of parameters was given for fiber design. The results indicate that to achieve high loss for side modes, the fiber requires side core diameter ranging at a dozen micrometers with a numerical aperture 0.09 and the helix pitch taking values in millimeter magnitude.

  14. [Right-sided laptop dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Schummer, Claudia; Tittelbach, Jörg; Elsner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    A 44-year-old man presented at a dermatologist with a 2 months history of a blue-brown reticular macule on the right thigh that had appeared spontaneously. It was neither painful nor itching and showed no growth or further colour change. Punch biopsy, antinuclear antibodies, CrP, immune electrophoresis, hepatitis serology, urine diagnostics showed normal results. On specific inquiry the patient, a long-distance truck driver, reported to rest his laptop during driving breaks always on the right thigh. We diagnosed a "laptop dermatitis". Consider external mechanical or thermal triggers if skin changes are unilateral. Thermal isolation from permanent heat exposure prevents an erythema ab igne reliably. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Selecting category specific visual information: Top-down and bottom-up control of object based attention.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The ability to select, within the complexity of sensory input, the information most relevant for our purposes is influenced by both internal settings (i.e., top-down control) and salient features of external stimuli (i.e., bottom-up control). We here investigated using fMRI the neural underpinning of the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes, as well as their effects on extrastriate areas processing visual stimuli in a category-selective fashion. We presented photos of bodies or buildings embedded into frequency-matched visual noise to the subjects. Stimulus saliency changed gradually due to an altered degree to which photos stood-out in relation to the surrounding noise (hence generating stronger bottom-up control signals). Top-down settings were manipulated via instruction: participants were asked to attend one stimulus category (i.e., "is there a body?" or "is there a building?"). Highly salient stimuli that were inconsistent with participants' attentional top-down template activated the inferior frontal junction and dorsal parietal regions bilaterally. Stimuli consistent with participants' current attentional set additionally activated insular cortex and the parietal operculum. Furthermore, the extrastriate body area (EBA) exhibited increased neural activity when attention was directed to bodies. However, the latter effect was found only when stimuli were presented at intermediate saliency levels, thus suggesting a top-down modulation of this region only in the presence of weak bottom-up signals. Taken together, our results highlight the role of the inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal regions in integrating bottom-up and top-down attentional control signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  17. 10 Core External Environmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This is an institutional report summarizing 10 core external environmental trends and their implications for El Camino College and the surrounding community. The report offers a brief description for the following trends: (1) there is more emphasis on colleges becoming learning institutions rather than teaching institutions; (2) the current and…

  18. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Tubiana, M.; Haddad, E.; Schlumberger, M.; Hill, C.; Rougier, P.; Sarrazin, D.

    1985-05-01

    Surgery is the most effective treatment for thyroid cancer; however, in some subsets of patients, the role of radiotherapy (RT) is important. The main indication for external-beam RT is incomplete surgery. When neoplastic tissue is left behind at surgery, RT must be considered, but only if an experienced surgeon feels that everything that can be done has been done. Generally, in those patients, the neoplastic tissue involves the larynx, trachea, esophagus, blood vessels or mediastinum. Of 539 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated at Villejuif, France, until 1976, 97 were treated by external radiotherapy after an incomplete surgical excision. Fifteen years after irradiation, the survival rate is 57% and is approximately 40% at 25 years. The relapse-free survival is lower (39% at 15 years). In patients irradiated with an adequate dose (greater than or equal to 50 Gy) to residual neoplastic tissue after incomplete surgery, the incidence of local recurrence is low (actuarial probability of local recurrence 11% at 15 years versus 23% for patients treated by surgery alone, although the irradiated patients had larger and more extensive tumors). This demonstrates the efficacy of external-beam radiotherapy. The effects of radiotherapy on a residual tumor can be monitored by a serum thyroglobulin assay. With regard to local control of tumors, the effectiveness of radioiodine administration is clearly lower. However, since radioiodine facilitates early detection of distant metastases, a combination of external RT and radioiodine is indicated and is well-tolerated.

  19. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy.

  20. External Communication. SPEC Kit 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    One section of a spring 1979 Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) survey on communication in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) institutions examined how members exchange information with external groups including the university administration, faculty, users, support groups, other libraries, and the profession in general. According…