Science.gov

Sample records for external bottom side

  1. A scaling law for the local CHF on the external bottom side of a fully submerged reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-02-01

    A scaling law for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water has been developed from the results of an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model for pool boiling on a downward facing curved heating surface. The scaling law accounts for the effects of the size of the vessel, the level of liquid subcooling, the intrinsic properties of the fluid, and the spatial variation of the local critical heat flux along the heating surface. It is found that for vessels with diameters considerably larger than the characteristic size of the vapor masses, the size effect on the local critical heat flux is limited almost entirely to the effect of subcooling associated with the local liquid head. When the subcooling effect is accounted for separately, the local CHF limit is nearly independent of the vessel size. Based upon the scaling law developed in this work, it is possible to merge, within the experimental uncertainties, all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes under both saturated and subcooled boiling conditions into a single curve. Applications of the scaling law to commercial-size vessels have been made for various system pressures and water levels above the heated vessel. Over the range of conditions explored in this study, the local CHF limit is found to increase by a factor of two or more from the bottom center to the upper edge of the vessel. Meanwhile, the critical heat flux at a given angular position of the heated vessel is also found to increase appreciably with the system pressure and the water level.

  2. 12. Bottom and side planking at stern, showing chine guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Bottom and side planking at stern, showing chine guard (to the right in photo) and copper ice sheathing on starboard side. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  3. General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery as it is being hoisted in a vertical position in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Bottom/Side Lift Gantry Conceptual Design Rev. 01

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, P.S.

    2000-04-11

    The purpose of this task is to update the existing bottom/side lift gantry analysis so that the design is consistent with Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II) design constraints listed in the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999a, Section 2.2.1.1, p. 9a). This update is consistent with the requirements of the Technical Guidance Document for License Application Preparation (YMP 1999, Section 6.2.5.1). This update will also take into account the latest available equipment classification and Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M and O 2000c) requirements. The principal objective of this analysis is to verify that the newly developed bottom/side lift gantry concept continues to be a suitable design concept for the current Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design. This analysis includes an examination of the waste package (WP) transfer operation at the emplacement drift transfer dock. In addition, this analysis verifies that the gantry is compatible with the WP transporter, which has been redesigned to handle WPs sitting on pallets (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this work is to examine the existing analysis and to determine what, if any, modifications to the analysis may be required as a result of additional requirements imposed by the EDA II concept. Then, a revision will be made to the conceptual design accordingly. The analysis will also be revised to show the approximate sizes and locations of the electrical equipment and control cabinets, and to take into account the weight of that equipment in the total gantry weight. The analytical portions of the analysis are revised, as required, to address changes resulting from modifications to the conceptual design or from changes in classification and/or SDD requirements. Finally, the revised conceptual design is evaluated to verify that it continues to be a suitable method for handling the WPs within the emplacement drift. Except as noted

  5. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Haralds; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results. Internal and external factors and indicators, which affect energy management potential in pellet production are analysed. Analysis of external factors is based on the state legal framework regulating the development of the energy sector. Methodology on the analysis of energy demand includes the internal energy management of an enterprise. The experimental results discussed in this paper show that particular steps, which are oriented to specific use of technological equipment, could play significant role in energy efficiency improvement in industry which is illustrated by the pre-milling process in the pellet production system using power.

  6. Top-down, bottom-up, and side-to-side proteomics with virtual 2-D gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Hayes, Richard; Yang, Yanan; Hung, Frank; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Kim, Nuri; Gunsalus, Robert; Loo, Joseph A.

    2005-02-01

    Intact protein masses can be measured directly from immobilized pH gradient (IPG) isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels loaded with mammalian and prokaryotic samples, as demonstrated here with murine macrophage and Methanosarcina acetivorans cell lysates. Mass accuracy and resolution is improved by employing instruments which decouple the desorption event from mass measurement; e.g., quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. MALDI in-source dissociation (ISD) is discussed as a means to pursue top-down sequencing for protein identification. Methods have been developed to enzymatically digest all proteins in an IEF gel simultaneously, leaving the polyacrylamide gel attached to its polyester support. By retaining all gel pieces and their placement relative to one another, sample handling and tracking are minimized, and comparison to 2-D gel images is facilitated. MALDI-MS and MS/MS can then be performed directly from dried, matrix-treated IPG strips following whole-gel trypsin digestion, bottom-up methodology. Side-to-side proteomics, highlighting the link between virtual and classical 2-D gel electrophoresis, is introduced to describe a method whereby intact masses are measured from one side (the IEF gel), while proteins are identified based on analyses performed from the other side (the SDS-PAGE gel).

  7. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Darcy A. A.; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R.; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  8. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players' External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games.

    PubMed

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0-1.4 m·s(-1); 1.4-3.4 m·s(-1); 3.4-5.2 m·s(-1); >5.2 m·s(-1)) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  9. Mapping the Gulf of Maine with side-scan sonar: A new bottom-type classification for complex seafloors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W.A.; Kelley, J.T.; Dickson, S.M.; Belknap, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bedrock-framed seafloor in the northwestern Gulf of Maine is characterized by extreme changes in bathymetric relief and covered with a wide variety of surficial materials. Traditional methods of mapping cannot accurately represent the great heterogeneity of such a glaciated region. A new mapping scheme for complex seafloors, based primarily on the interpretation of side-scan sonar imagery, utilizes four easily recognized units: rock, gravel, sand and mud. In many places, however, the seafloor exhibits a complicated mixture or extremely 'patchy' distribution of the four basic units, which are too small to map individually. Twelve composite units, each a two-component mixture of the basic units, were established to represent this patchiness at a small scale (1:100,000). Using a geographic information system, these and all other available data (seismic profiles, grab samples, submersible dives and cores) were referenced to a common geographic base, superimposed on bathymetric contours and then integrated into surficial geologic maps of the regional inner continental shelf. This digital representation of the seafloor comprises a multidimensional, interactive model complete with explicit attributes (depth, bottom type) that allow for detailed analysis of marine environments.

  10. Proposal of new models of the bottom-side B0 and B1 parameters for IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, D.; Torta, J. M.; Blanch, E.

    2009-06-01

    The time series of hourly electron density profiles N(h) obtained from 27 ionosonde stations distributed world-wide have been used to obtain N(h) average profiles on a monthly basis and to extract the expected bottom-side parameters that define the IRI profile under quiet conditions. The time series embrace the time interval from 1998 to 2006, which practically contains the entire solar cycle 23. The Spherical Harmonic Analysis (SHA) has been used as an analytical technique for modeling globally the B0 and B1 parameters as general functions on a spherical surface. Due to the irregular longitudinal distribution of the stations over the globe, it has been assumed that the ionosphere remains approximately constant in form for a given day under quiet conditions for a particular coordinate system. Since the Earth rotates under a Sun-fixed system, the time differences have been considered to be equivalent to longitude differences. The time dependence has been represented by a two-degree Fourier expansion to model the annual and semiannual variations and the year-by-year analyses of the B0 and B1 have furnished nine sets of spherical harmonic coefficients for each parameter. The spatial-temporal yearly coefficients have been further expressed as linear functions of Rz12 to model the solar cycle dependence. The resultant analytical model provides a tool to predict B0 and B1 at any location distributed among the used range of latitudes (70°N-50°S) and at any time that improves the fit to the observed data with respect to IRI prediction.

  11. An External Cylindrical Cloak with N-Sided Regular Polygonal Cross-Section Based on Complementary Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chengfu; Huang, Ming; Yang, Jingjing; Xiao, Zhe; Peng, Jinhui

    An electromagnetic cloak is a device which makes an object "invisible" for electromagnetic irradiation in a certain frequency range. Material parameters for the complementary medium-assisted external cylindrical cloak with N-sided regular polygonal cross-section are derived based on combining the concepts of complementary media and transformation optics. It can make the object with an arbitrary shape outside the cloaking domain invisible, as long as an "anti-object" is embedded in the complementary layer. The external cloaking effect has been verified by full-wave simulation.

  12. Externalities and School Enrollment Policy: A Supply-Side Analysis of School Choice in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kat Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This article is an in-progress examination of the current landscape of school choice in a well-known case of universal decentralization: New Zealand's public school system. Using a supply-side analysis of the implications of a specific policy--school enrollment schemes--this author seeks to test hypotheses about zoning and self-preservation using…

  13. Measurement and simulation of top- and bottom-illuminated solar-blind AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with high external quantum efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, Moritz Helbling, Markus; Knigge, Andrea; Brunner, Frank; Weyers, Markus

    2015-12-28

    A comprehensive study on top- and bottom-illuminated Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors having different AlGaN absorber layer thickness is presented. The measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) shows pronounced threshold and saturation behavior as a function of applied bias voltage up to 50 V reaching about 50% for 0.1 μm and 67% for 0.5 μm thick absorber layers under bottom illumination. All experimental findings are in very good accordance with two-dimensional drift-diffusion modeling results. By taking into account macroscopic polarization effects in the hexagonal metal-polar +c-plane AlGaN/AlN heterostructures, new insights into the general device functionality of AlGaN-based MSM photodetectors are obtained. The observed threshold/saturation behavior is caused by a bias-dependent extraction of photoexcited holes from the Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/AlN interface. While present under bottom illumination for any AlGaN layer thickness, under top illumination this mechanism influences the EQE-bias characteristics only for thin layers.

  14. [Fiber morphometry of the external intercostal muscle. Comparison of dominant and nondominant sides in patients with severe COPD].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Fuentes, M A; Gea, J; Pallás, O; Gallego, F; Félez, M A; Broquetas, J M

    1998-04-01

    The general morphometric characteristics of the external intercostal muscle (EIM) of patients with chronic respiratory disease have been well described. Because this muscle is highly accessible, it can provide an ideal model for longitudinal studies using consecutive biopsies of both sides. Whether or not the EIM fiber phenotype is homogeneous on dominant (D) and non dominant (ND) sides is unknown, however. To evaluate possible structural differences in right and left EIM in patients with COPD, eight patients (63 +/- 7 years of age) were enrolled. Lung function, respiratory muscle power, general muscle power and nutritional state were evaluated. Biopsies of the fifth EIM were taken from both sides. Specimens were processed in parallel manner to determine conventional morphometry (hematoxylin-eosin staining), including minimum diameter (Dm) and fiber area (Ar) in cross sections. Fibers were typed by ATPase (at pH 4.2, 4.6 and 9.4) and NADH-TR staining. Nutrition was normal in all patients. All patients had severe COPD (FEV1 27 +/- 7% of reference, limits 13 to 38% of reference) with air entrapment (RV 163 +/- 36% of reference, limits 181 to 276% of reference). None of the patients showed respiratory insufficiency at rest (PaO2 72 +/- 7 mmHg). Peripheral musculoskeletal power measured by manual dynamometer showed no significant right-left differences: D 29 +/- 2 and ND 28 +/- 3 dynes. Morphometric study of 16 muscle specimens showed no significant differences between fiber size on D and ND sides. DmD was 47 +/- 10 microns and ArD, was 2,595 +/- 1,249 microns2. DmD was 49 +/- 9 microns and ArD was 2,636 +/- 953 microns2. Likewise, no significant differences were found between D and ND fiber types: type ID 51 +/- 4% and type IID 49 +/- 5% versus type IND 52 +/- 4% and type IIND 48 +/- 4%. EIM on N and ND sides is homogeneous at the fifth intercostal space. This finding, along with the scarcely invasive nature of the technique for collecting specimens leads us to

  15. T-Stenting-and-Small-Protrusion Technique for Bifurcation Stenoses After End-to-Side Anastomosis of Transplant Renal Artery and External Iliac Artery: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong Ye, Peng; Jiang, Wen-jin; Ma, Shuo-yi Zhao, Jian-bo Zeng, Qing-le

    2015-10-15

    Bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery (TRA) and external iliac artery (EIA), including stenoses at the anastomosis and the iliac artery proximal to the TRA, are rare. In the present article, we report two successfully managed cases of bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of the TRA and EIA using the technique of T-stenting and small protrusion (TAP stenting)

  16. A Comparison Study of the Oxygen-Rich Side Blow Furnace and the Oxygen-Rich Bottom Blow Furnace for Liquid High Lead Slag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hao, Zhandong; Yang, Tianzu; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Zhang, Li; Bin, Shu; Bin, Wanda

    2015-05-01

    This work investigates the characteristics of the oxygen-rich side blow furnace (OSBF) and the oxygen-rich bottom blow furnace (OBBF) as the reductive smelting reactor for molten high lead slag. The slags were collected from different sampling points of these furnaces during a regular high lead slag reduction process and analyzed. It is disclosed that lead content of the melt in the OSBF shows dramatic fluctuations, while melt from different sampling points of the furnace behave similarly, exhibiting the characteristics of batch reactor. An obvious axial lead content gradient is detected in the OBBF, showing the characteristics of a plug flow reactor. The industrial performances of these furnaces are also compared. The results indicate that 1.38% higher lead recovery can be achieved by using the OSBF instead of the OBBF. Unit energy consumptions of the OBBF-OSBF and OBBF-OBBF processes can be reduced to 230 kgce/ t crude lead, which is 70 kgce/ t crude lead less than that of the tradition Shuikoushan (SKS) process.

  17. Fluid mud dynamics in the Weser estuary turbidity zone tracked by high-resolution side-scan sonar and parametric sub-bottom profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrottke, Kerstin; Becker, Marius; Bartholomä, Alexander; Flemming, Burghard W.; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2006-09-01

    Fluid mud in estuarine turbidity maximum zones (TMZ) can pose considerable navigation risks due to potentially substantial reductions in nautical depth, coupled with an inherent difficulty of detection by conventional echo-sounders. Despite intensive research efforts, however, our knowledge about the spatial and temporal dynamics of fluid mud is still not sufficient. In this study, the combined use of a side-scan sonar (Sportscan®, Imagenex) and a parametric sub-bottom profiler (SES-2000®, Innomar Technology GmbH) has proved successful for high-resolution fluid mud detection and volumetric quantification in an estuarine environment. In 2004 and 2005, repeated surveys were conducted in the navigation channel of the upper meso- to lower macrotidal Weser estuary TMZ (German North Sea coast) at different tidal stages and river discharges. Current velocity data were simultaneously collected by 1,200-kHz broadband ADCP (RDInstruments) measurements. Ground-truthing was carried out by means of grab sampling and gravity coring, adapted to fluid mud conditions. It was found that fluid mud occurrence in the Weser estuary is highly variable on time scales of a few hours and spatial scales of several metres. The riverbed is characterised by sand and mud deposits, and a complex morphology including subaqueous dunes and smooth bed deposits intermittently overlain by fluid mud. Thus, a continuous, coherent fluid mud body covering the entire TMZ riverbed was not observed. Rather, spatial distribution was patchy and highly dependent on suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations in the water column, as a result of which local fluid mud deposits varied in thickness from centimetres to metres. The formation of fluid mud was largely restricted to slack water, although slack-water conditions were not necessarily associated with large-scale fluid mud appearance. Advective SPM transport of resuspended fluid mud seems to be the most plausible explanation for the high spatial

  18. Bottom-side profile parameters (B0, B1) characteristics over the Brazilian equatorial and low latitudes and their comparison with different options in the IRI-2012 model during the 24th solar minimum (2010-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K.; Fagundes, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the characteristics of the bottom-side profile thickness (B0) and shape (B1) parameters from ionosonde and IRI-2012 model over the Brazilian sector. The ionosonde data from an equatorial station Fortaleza and a low latitude station Cachoera Paulista during a two year period from 2010 to 2011 are considered in this study. Simultaneous comparison is made on the performance of three different options 'Gul-1987', 'Bil-2000' and the 'ABT-2009' for bottom-side profile estimation in the latest available IRI-2012. The diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the B0 and B1 from ionosonde measurements are studied and compared with those from the IRI-2012 model using the three different options. It is seen that the Gul-1987 method shows better predictions of the observed B0 at the equatorial and low latitudes values when compared with the other options. The latest option 'ABT-2009' has shown improved predictions in the estimation of B1 compared with those from the other methods particularly during the night-time hours. A comparison on the seasonal characteristics of the day maximum values of B0 between observations and the three different options in IRI-2012 reveals that the Gul-1987 method shows better predictions of the seasonal variations in B0 while ABT-2009 method shows better predictions of seasonal variations in B1. Further, an insight into the percentage of deviations in the estimation of B0 and B1 reveals that the models overestimate the B0 during night-time and underestimate the B0 (at equator) during day-time while they underestimate the B1 during night-time hours at both locations. Also, the variations in the bottom-side total electron content are studied using the three different methods in the IRI-2012 model and compared with those derived from the ionosonde observations.

  19. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  20. Retrospective study and review of ocular radiation side effects following external-beam Cobalt-60 radiation therapy in 37 dogs and 12 cats

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Chantale L.; Mutsaers, Anthony J.; Mayer, Monique N.; Woods, J. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the ocular side effects of cancer-bearing dogs and cats treated with external–beam Cobalt-60 (Co-60) radiation in which one or both orbit(s) were included in the radiation field. A total of 37 dogs and 12 cats presented to the Ontario Veterinary College during the 10-year study period (1999–2009) were evaluated. The radiation protocols ranged from a maximum of 60 Gray (Gy) in 24 fractions for curative intent to a minimum of 8 Gy in 1 fraction for palliative treatment. The main ocular side effect reported in both dogs and cats was conjunctivitis (79% and 55%, respectively). Other common ocular side effects included eyelid lesions in dogs (44%), ulcerative keratitis in cats (36%), and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in both dogs and cats (44% and 27%, respectively). The high incidence of ocular side effects in both patient populations indicates a need for regular ophthalmic examinations as a component of routine follow-up for radiation therapy involving the orbit. Radiation damage to ocular tissues is also reviewed. PMID:23729828

  1. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  2. Electrospinning-thermal treatment synthesis: a general strategy to decorate highly porous nanotubes on both internal and external side-walls with metal oxide/noble metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haitao; Lu, Bingan; Xu, Jing; Xie, Erqing; Wang, Taihong; Xu, Zhi

    2013-03-01

    The hybrid structure of nanoparticle-decorated highly porous nanotubes combines the advantages of large specific surface areas of nanoparticles and anisotropic properties of highly porous nanotubes, which is desirable for many applications, including batteries, photoelectrochemical water splitting, and catalysis. Here, we report a novel emulsion electrospinning-thermal treatment method to synthesize the nanoparticles deposited on both side walls of nanotubes with two unique characteristics: (1) large loading amount of nanoparticles per highly porous nanotubes (with the morphology of nanoparticles); (2) intimate contact between nanoparticles and highly porous nanotubes. Both features are advantageous for the above applications that involve both surface reactions and charge transportation processes. Moreover, the emulsion electrospinning-thermal treatment method is simple and straightforward, with which we have successfully decorated various highly porous metal oxide nanotubes with metal oxide or noble metal nanoparticles. The new method will have an impact on diverse technologies such as lithium ion batteries, catalysts, and photoelectrochemical devices.The hybrid structure of nanoparticle-decorated highly porous nanotubes combines the advantages of large specific surface areas of nanoparticles and anisotropic properties of highly porous nanotubes, which is desirable for many applications, including batteries, photoelectrochemical water splitting, and catalysis. Here, we report a novel emulsion electrospinning-thermal treatment method to synthesize the nanoparticles deposited on both side walls of nanotubes with two unique characteristics: (1) large loading amount of nanoparticles per highly porous nanotubes (with the morphology of nanoparticles); (2) intimate contact between nanoparticles and highly porous nanotubes. Both features are advantageous for the above applications that involve both surface reactions and charge transportation processes. Moreover, the

  3. DSL-120A High-Resolution, Near-Bottom Side Scan Sonar Imaging of Mid-Ocean Ridge Crests: East Pacific Rise, Galapagos Rift and Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D.

    2003-04-01

    The DSL-120A 120kHz side-looking sonar system is one of the survey vehicles in the US National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for the academic community. Survey speeds for the DSL-120A sonar range from 1.0-1.5 knots depending on terrain roughness. The sonar fish is towed approx. 100 m above the seafloor yielding a backscatter imagery swath of 1.2 km and phase-bathymetry swath of approximately 500-600 m. Data resolution is 1 m for side scan imagery and 4 m for phase-bathymetry. DSL-120A data can resolve bathymetric features with linear dimensions more than 25x smaller than those detectable by hull-mounted multibeam sonars at ridge crest seafloor depths. Data resulting from the DSL-120A sonar system have provided the requisite base maps to understand the volcanic and tectonic evolution of seafloor in many geographic and tectonic settings including several segments of the mid-ocean ridge. These maps have provided site-specific information for planning and carrying out detailed photographic imaging, sampling, and other in situ investigations, and ocean crustal drilling. Backscatter images reveal variations in volcanic emplacement style at different spreading rate and tectonic settings along the MOR crest. DSL-120 sonar data have been collected at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge - 37N, the East Pacific Rise (between 9-10N, an overlapping spreading center at 3 20'N, and at 1 45'N) and within the tectonically dominated Galapagos Rift at 97.5W. Despite the 'fast' spreading nature of crust at the EPR between 1-10N, the sonar images show that volcanic emplacement changes dramatically along-strike depending on the local tectonic setting, and on more regional variations that are likely related to magmatic supply along and across adjacent ridge segments boundaries of various scales. Representative side scan images from these areas will be presented to illustrate different modes of volcanic eruption and emplacement styles

  4. 49 CFR 238.417 - Side loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Side loads. 238.417 Section 238.417 Transportation... load of 80,000 pounds of force applied to the side sill and 10,000 pounds of force applied to the belt rail (horizontal members at the bottom of the window opening in the side frame). (b) These loads...

  5. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  6. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  7. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  8. Bottom and top physics

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.J.; Fridman, A.; Gilman, F.J.; Herten, G.; Hinchliffe, I.; Jawahery, A.; Sanda, A.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schubert, K.R.

    1987-09-01

    The production of bottom quarks at the SSC and the formalism and phenomenology of observing CP violation in B meson decays is discussed. The production of a heavy t quark which decays into a real W boson, and what we might learn from its decays is examined.

  9. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  10. A trawl-resistant ocean bottom seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, A. H.; Gassier, D.; Webb, S. C.; Koczynski, T.; Oletu, V.; Gaherty, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) deployments are difficult on continental shelves and other shallow regions because of the hazard from bottom trawling. Seafloor instruments can be damaged, destroyed, or prematurely released by a trawl net that is weighted with rollers and dragged across the seafloor. Bottom trawling is extensive in many areas and past instrument losses have led the U. S. OBS Instrument Pool (OBSIP) to avoid long-duration deployments in water depths shallower than 1000 m. This restriction is particularly limiting for passive-source seismic studies at active continental margins. We report on the development and testing of a new trawl-resistant OBS. The seismometer and datalogger are protected within a heavy (450 kg) eight-sided steel shield that has a low, smooth profile (2 m basal diameter and a central peak height of 50 cm) and is designed to resist and deflect bottom-trawling equipment. The sides of the shield are closed in order to protect the seismometer from seafloor currents that can cause tilt-related low-frequency seismic noise. Shield-generated noise (from mechanical resonance or from interaction with seafloor currents) is reduced by decoupling the sensor from the shield and by maximizing the distance between the seismometer and the shield’s bottom rim. The heavy weight and low profile of the instrument preclude the use of dropweights for deployment and recovery. The OBS is instead lowered to the seafloor and recovered by attaching a lifting line using a remotely-operated vehicle. Twenty trawl-resistant OBSs, equipped with Trillium Compact seismometers and absolute pressure gauges, are being constructed and will be deployed as a component of the NSF Cascadia Initiative in the summer of 2011.

  11. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  12. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary Brown, William Detmold, Stefan Meinel, Konstantinos Orginos

    2012-09-01

    The arena of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. This has led to a great deal of theoretical effort being put forth in the calculation of mass spectra in this sector. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of experiments for some time, it is interesting to compare results between lattice QCD computations and continuum theoretical models. Several recent lattice QCD calculations exist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. In this work we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of the mass spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. The wide range of quark masses in these systems require that the various flavors of quarks be treated with different lattice actions. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. The calculation of the ground state spectrum is presented and compared to recent models.

  13. 48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda bottle liter at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. The impact on floats or hulls during landing as affected by bottom width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewes, E

    1936-01-01

    For floats and hulls having V bottoms the impact force does not necessarily increase with increasing width. Therefore, the weight of the float landing gear, side walls, and other parts, and of the fuselage construction need not be increased with increasing bottom width, but the weight of the bottom construction itself, on the other hand, does not increase with increase in bottom width and is largely determined by the type of construction.

  15. Sea bottom topography imaging with SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderkooij, M. W. A.; Wensink, G. J.; Vogelzang, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that under favorable meteorological and hydrodynamical conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas can be mapped with airborne or spaceborne imaging radar. This phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1969 by de Loor and co-workers in Q-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery of sandwaves in the North Sea. It is now generally accepted that the imaging mechanism consists of three steps: (1) interaction between (tidal) current and bottom topography causes spatial modulations in the surface current velocity; (2) modulations in the surface current velocity give rise to variations in the spectrum of wind-generated waves, as described by the action balance equation; and (3) variations in the wave spectrum show up as intensity modulations in radar imagery. In order to predict radar backscatter modulations caused by sandwaves, an imaging model, covering the three steps, was developed by the Dutch Sea Bottom Topography Group. This model and some model results will be shown. On 16 Aug. 1989 an experiment was performed with the polarimetric P-, L-, and C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of NASA/JPL. One scene was recorded in SAR mode. On 12 Jul. 1991 another three scenes were recorded, of which one was in the ATI-mode (Along-Track Interferometer). These experiments took place in the test area of the Sea Bottom Topography Group, 30 km off the Dutch coast, where the bottom topography is dominated by sand waves. In-situ data were gathered by a ship in the test area and on 'Measuring Platform Noordwijk', 20 km from the center of the test area. The radar images made during the experiment were compared with digitized maps of the bottom. Furthermore, the profiles of radar backscatter modulation were compared with the results of the model. During the workshop some preliminary results of the ATI measurements will be shown.

  16. 28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 13. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 16. Detail of starboard side of vessel near stern showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of starboard side of vessel near stern showing rail, sheer guard, copper ice sheathing, chine guard, and bottom planking. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  18. EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south side of the building including the diesel fuel tank and bottom portion of a stack - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  19. 4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridgeleft side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridge-left side) and 1959 bridge (right side) across Carquinez Strait. Town of Crockett is on south bank (bottom of image). C&H sugar factory is along the strait to the east (right) side of the 1959 bridge. The toll plaza is at the top of the image on the 1959 bridge side. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 16. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice and diagonal connections for the 2nd and 3rd spans. View is of south side of 3rd span just west of its connection with the 4th span. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  1. 27. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice and diagonal connections for the 1st and 4th spans. View is of south side of 4th span just east of its connection with the 3rd span. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  2. 18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS 3 AND 12, FACING WEST. COMPRESSED AIR TANK AND GENERATOR AT STATION 3. CURTAIN FOR NORTH ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR VISIBLE ON LEFT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH; RAIL VISIBLE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

  4. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  5. TAPS storage tank bottoms fitted with improved cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, T.; Bayle, R.; Kennelley, K.

    1995-10-23

    Discovery of external corrosion on tank floors at several aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) along the Trans Alaska Pipeline system (TAPS) led engineers to evaluate methods of repairing corrosion damage and to examine how to improve tank bottoms` cathodic protection. The corrosion underscored Alaska`s difficult operating conditions. Warm crude oil and turbine fuel, at temperatures of up to 120 F, are stored at various stages of pumping and transport in 31 above-ground steel storage tanks located at 11 pump stations along the pipeline. The paper describes the discovery of external corrosion and the three types of repairs undertaken at the tanks.

  6. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  7. 20. Underside of swingspan showing bottom truss chords, floor beams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Underside of swing-span showing bottom truss chords, floor beams and stringers. The draw rests on the end-lift pedestals (end ram supports) at each side of the masonry rest pier. The end-lift drive shaft is supported from the center of the draw. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  8. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  9. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed. PMID:27545510

  10. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed.

  11. Side-to-side differences of three-dimensional knee kinematics during walking by normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ino, Takumi; Ohkoshi, Yasumitsu; Maeda, Tatsunori; Kawakami, Kensaku; Suzuki, Shoji; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of the side-to-side difference in three dimensional knee kinematics measured by the point cluster technique (PCT). [Subjects] The subjects were twenty-one healthy normal volunteers without knee pain or an episode of injury to the legs. [Methods] The subjects were tested bilaterally at a self-selected normal walking speed and six degrees of freedom knee kinematics were measured using the PCT, and the 95% confidence intervals of the average side-to-side differences in flexion-extension (FE), adduction-abduction (AA), internal-external (IE) rotation, and anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML), superior-inferior (SI) translation in each stage of the gait cycle were determined. [Results] The average side-to-side differences and their 95% confidence intervals in rotation/translation in each stage of the gait cycle were determined. The side-to-side differences in AA rotation and AP translation of the tibia were significantly larger in the swing phase than in the stance phase. [Conclusion] The side-to-side differences in AA rotation and AP translation were highly dependent on the stage of the gait cycle. Therefore, the normal ranges of the side-to-side differences in knee kinematics in each stage of the gait cycle, in particular AA rotation and AP translation of the tibia, is useful information for evaluating knee kinematics during walking. PMID:26180325

  12. 15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW DIRECTLY INTO CENTER FISH HOLD, STARBOARD SIDE. THE HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ON EACH BULKHEAD ARE 57" ABOVE THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. EXPERIENCE SHOWED THAT THE WEIGHT OF ICE PILED TO GREATER DEPTHS WOULD DAMAGE FISH ON THE BOTTOM OF THE HOLD. CONSEQUENTLY, MOST HOLDS ON FISHING BOATS HAVE A SHELF AT THIS HEIGHT TO PREVENT DAMAGING THE CATCH. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  13. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  14. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  15. Seabed sub-bottom sediment classification using parametric sub-bottom profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Mohamed; Rabah, Mostafa

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been published concerning classification techniques of seabed surfaces using single beam, multibeam, and side scan sonars, while few paid attentions to classify sub-bottom layers using a non-linear Sub-Bottom Profiler (SBP). Non-linear SBP is known for its high resolution images due to the very short pulse length and aperture angle for high and low frequencies. This research is devoted to develop an energy based model that automatically characterizes the layered sediment types as a contribution step toward "what lies where in 3D?". Since the grain size is a function of the reflection coefficient, the main task is to compute the reflection coefficients where high impedance contrast is observed. The developed model extends the energy based surface model (Van Walree et al., 2006) to account for returns reflection of sub-layers where the reflection coefficients are computed sequentially after estimating the geo-acoustic parameters of the previous layer. The validation of the results depended on the model stability. However, physical core samples are still in favor to confirm the results. The model showed consistent stable results that agreed with the core samples knowledge of the studied area. The research concluded that the extended model approximates the reflection coefficient values and will be very promising if volume scatters and multiple reflections are included.

  16. Side-to-Side Cold Welding for Controllable Nanogap Formation from "Dumbbell" Ultrathin Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Dai, Gaole; Wang, Binjun; Xu, Shang; Lu, Yang; Shen, Yajing

    2016-06-01

    Cold welding has been regarded as a promising bottom-up nanofabrication technique because of its ability to join metallic nanostructures at room temperature with low applied stress and without introducing damage. Usually, the cold welding process can be done instantaneously for ultrathin nanowires (diameter <10 nm) in "head-to-head" joining. Here, we demonstrate that "dumbbell" shaped ultrathin gold nanorods can be cold welded in the "side-to-side" mode in a highly controllable manner and can form an extremely small nanogap via a relatively slow welding process (up to tens of minutes, allowing various functional applications). By combining in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis and molecular dynamic simulations, we further reveal the underlying mechanism for this "side-to-side" welding process as being dominated by atom kinetics instead of thermodynamics, which provides critical insights into three-dimensional nanosystem integration as well as the building of functional nanodevices. PMID:27173140

  17. Side-to-Side Cold Welding for Controllable Nanogap Formation from "Dumbbell" Ultrathin Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Dai, Gaole; Wang, Binjun; Xu, Shang; Lu, Yang; Shen, Yajing

    2016-06-01

    Cold welding has been regarded as a promising bottom-up nanofabrication technique because of its ability to join metallic nanostructures at room temperature with low applied stress and without introducing damage. Usually, the cold welding process can be done instantaneously for ultrathin nanowires (diameter <10 nm) in "head-to-head" joining. Here, we demonstrate that "dumbbell" shaped ultrathin gold nanorods can be cold welded in the "side-to-side" mode in a highly controllable manner and can form an extremely small nanogap via a relatively slow welding process (up to tens of minutes, allowing various functional applications). By combining in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis and molecular dynamic simulations, we further reveal the underlying mechanism for this "side-to-side" welding process as being dominated by atom kinetics instead of thermodynamics, which provides critical insights into three-dimensional nanosystem integration as well as the building of functional nanodevices.

  18. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  19. Ultracold molecules from the bottom-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jessie T.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Liu, Lee R.; Yu, Yichao; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules exhibit strong, long-range, and tunable dipole-dipole interactions that may be utilized for a wide range of studies in quantum simulation and quantum information processing. To realize the full potential of these studies, it is desirable to have a low entropy sample of ultracold polar molecules with full control over both internal and external states, as well as inter-particle interactions. We work toward this goal with a new, bottom-up approach using the highly polar NaCs molecule. The key steps of our scheme are trapping single Na and Cs atoms in optical dipole traps, cooling the atoms to their motional ground state using Raman sideband cooling, and finally coherently transferring them to ground state NaCs molecules via a two-photon process. This approach should enable creation of low entropy samples with full control over all degrees of freedom, as well as realizing the possibility of single-site read-out and manipulation of molecules.

  20. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  1. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  2. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  3. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, G. A.

    1980-02-01

    A safety and hazards analysis is presented of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal 85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon 2 as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  4. 22. Engine room, as seen from starboard side, forward corner. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Engine room, as seen from starboard side, forward corner. In left foreground is centrifugal water pump driven by a two-cylinder steam reciprocating engine to supply water to trim tanks. Center of view shows hot well for main engine, and at right is bottom of cylinder, condenser, and valve chest of main (walking beam) engine. X-braces in left side of image are stiffening trusses for the hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  5. DAB, South Side, ODH Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.; Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1990-01-03

    This report covers the ODH concerns of the south side of the D0 Assembly Building. from the bottom (el. 700-feet) to the top (774-feet 6-inches). volume by volume. Each volume is covered in its own section. with each section broken down into three parts. The first is a description of the volume. including its function. dimensions. and all relative ODH concerns; cryogenic piping and ventilation. Second. the actual ODH analysis of the volume is shown. Third. the provisions for the ODH condition of the volume are detailed. including securing the area and the posting of signs. The liquid argon dewar room is at an elevation of 701-feet 6-inch (38-feet underground), with the dewar surrounded by 7700 cubic feet of air. The area is accessible only through a single door. which has a small window and a lock (lock out only). There is small metal scaffolding in front of the dewar to facilitate maintenance and U-tube pulling and installation. The room is directly on top of the Pipe Chase Well and the Cryo Sump, and the bottom of the Stairway is just outside the door. The dewar is designed to be completely operated by remote computer control and the area will be unmanned during normal operation. Room occupancy will occur only during dewar or central control junction box maintenance, or U-tube changes. The dewar has these additions to it: 20 valves, 10 bayonet connections (or 5 U-tubes), 8 bolted flanges, 100 pipe sections (approx.). 100 brazed joints and welds (approx.). and 10 pipe elbows. In addition, 3 of the U-tubes will be changed twice a year on average.

  6. Unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of Lake Vostok from seismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filina, I.; Lukin, V.; Masolov, V.; Blankenship, D.

    2007-01-01

    Seismic soundings of Lake Vostok have been performed by the Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition in collaboration with the Russian Antarctic Expedition since the early 1990s. The seismograms recorded show at least two relatively closely spaced reflections associated with the lake bottom. These were initially interpreted as boundaries of a layer of unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of the lake. A more recent interpretation suggests that the observed reflections are side echoes from the rough lake bottom, and that there are no unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of the lake. The major goal of this paper is to reveal the nature of those reflections by testing three hypotheses of their origin. The results show that some of the reflections, but not all of them, are consistent with the hypothesis of a non-flat lake bottom along the source-receiver line (2D case). The reflections were also evaluated as side echoes from an adjacent sloping interface, but these tests implied unreasonably steep slopes (at least 8 degrees) at the lake bottom. The hypothesis that is the most compatible with seismic data is the presence of a widespread layer of unconsolidated sediments at the bottom of Lake Vostok. The modeling suggests the presence of a two hundred meter thick sedimentary layer with a seismic velocity of 1700 -1900 m/sec in the southern and middle parts of the lake. The sedimentary layer thickens in the northern basin to ~350 m

  7. Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing flame deflector at bottom of stand. Stairs and handrails were added after test stand was converted to test propellant flow in components as opposed to firing rocket engines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING THE LARGE SLIDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PARTIAL ELEVATION OF THE SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING THE LARGE SLIDING DOORS WITH MULTI-LIGHT WINDOWS AND METAL SECTIONS AT THE BOTTOM. NOTE THE FRAMEWORK WHICH SUPPORTS THE OVERHEAD GUIDEWAYS. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Hangar, Lexington Boulevard, south of Enterprise Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 22. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL OIL TANK, PORT SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL OIL TANK, PORT SIDE, LOOKING FORWARD. NOTE SHIP'S FRAMING MEMBERS AND UNIVERSAL JOINT IN SHAFT FOR PUMPING VALVE AT BOTTOM OF TANK. THE ACCESS LADDER STEPS ARE MARKED WITH LEVEL INDICATIONS. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 11. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF SKIDOO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBLIQUE OVERVIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF SKIDOO MILL, LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, WITH SIX FOOT SCALE AND MAN AGAINST WATER TANK IN FOREGROUND THE IN THE BOTTOM OF THE RAVINE IS THE SAME AS IN CA-290-3. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. EXTERIOR VIEW, RIGHT SIDE OF LOCOMOTIVE SHOWING WHEEL ASSEMBLY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, RIGHT SIDE OF LOCOMOTIVE SHOWING WHEEL ASSEMBLY WITH BIG END OF MAIN ROD (TOP), ECCENTRIC CRANK (CENTER), AND BIG END CONCENTRIC ROD (BOTTOM). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 611, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Passively Q-switched side pumped monolithic ring laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Steven X. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a side-pumped passively Q-switched non-planar ring oscillator. The method introduces a laser into a cavity of a crystal, the cavity having a round-trip path formed by a reflection at a dielectrically coated front surface, a first internal reflection at a first side surface of the crystal at a non-orthogonal angle with the front, a second internal reflection at a top surface of the crystal, and a third internal reflection at a second side surface of the crystal at a non-orthogonal angle with the front. The method side pumps the laser at the top or bottom surface with a side pump diode array beam and generates an output laser emanating at a location on the front surface. The design can include additional internal reflections to increase interaction with the side pump. Waste heat may be removed by mounting the crystal to a heatsink.

  14. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of storage tank bottom plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafaat, Taufik A.; Ismail, Mokhtar Che

    2015-07-01

    Aboveground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) receive crude oil from offshore for storage and further processing. Integrity issue of AST storing crude oil is not only affected by external corrosion but also internal corrosion from crude oil that supports the growth of the microorganisms originating from the reservoir. The objective of this research is to study the effect of sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) on the corrosion of AST. The results indicates that SRB has significant effect on the corrosion rate of storage tank bottom plate.

  15. Lifetime measurements for bottom hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, G.

    1984-09-01

    The review of lifetime measurements of bottom hadrons begins with a first measurement by JADE, followed by similar measurements by MAC and MKII groups. New MAC data are reviewed based on a total of 75,000 multihadron events taken at a c.m. energy of 29 GeV. According to Monte Carlo calculations, 18% of the lepton candidates stem from charm decay and roughly 30% were misidentified hadrons. DELCO studied electrons obtained from 42,000 multihadron events at 29 GeV. The electrons were identified by means of Cerenkov counters. JADE analayzed 22,000 multihadron events at 35 GeV. Data were analyzed using two methods - one using a sample of b-enriched events, and the other using weighted distributions. The TASSO results were obtained with two different configurations of the detector - one of which used a drift chamber and the other a vertex detector. (LEW)

  16. In-flight Video Captured by External Tank Camera System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In this July 26, 2005 video, Earth slowly fades into the background as the STS-114 Space Shuttle Discovery climbs into space until the External Tank (ET) separates from the orbiter. An External Tank ET Camera System featuring a Sony XC-999 model camera provided never before seen footage of the launch and tank separation. The camera was installed in the ET LO2 Feedline Fairing. From this position, the camera had a 40% field of view with a 3.5 mm lens. The field of view showed some of the Bipod area, a portion of the LH2 tank and Intertank flange area, and some of the bottom of the shuttle orbiter. Contained in an electronic box, the battery pack and transmitter were mounted on top of the Solid Rocker Booster (SRB) crossbeam inside the ET. The battery pack included 20 Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries (similar to cordless phone battery packs) totaling 28 volts DC and could supply about 70 minutes of video. Located 95 degrees apart on the exterior of the Intertank opposite orbiter side, there were 2 blade S-Band antennas about 2 1/2 inches long that transmitted a 10 watt signal to the ground stations. The camera turned on approximately 10 minutes prior to launch and operated for 15 minutes following liftoff. The complete camera system weighs about 32 pounds. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) participated in the design, development, and testing of the ET camera system.

  17. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  18. Interior point methods for sea-bottom image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Rene A.; Zhong, Sifen

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an application of global optimization techniques to the problem of the enhancement of images. After reviewing the general strategy which is common to most modern enhancement method based on the solution of a variational problem, we explain the rationale behind the choice of our penalization formulation and we give the details of the practical implementation. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of our approach by presenting the results obtained in preprocessing side-scan sonar images of the sea-bottom for the purpose of mine detection.

  19. Two Droplets Burning Side by Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC) experiment team got more than twice as many burns have been completed as were originally scheduled for STS-95. This image was taken July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:13 (approximate). As shown here, scientists were able to burn two droplets side by side, more closely mimicking behavior of burning fuel in an engine. This shows ignition of a single drop that subsequently burned while a fan blew through the chamber, giving the scientists data on burning with convection, but no buoyancy -- an important distinction when you're trying to solve a problem by breaking it into parts. FSDC-2 studied fundamental phenomena related to liquid fuel droplet combustion in air. Pure fuels and mixtures of fuels were burned as isolated single and dual droplets with and without forced air convection. The FSDC guest investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 11-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300176.html.

  20. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions to the different drugs. The doctors, nurses, and pharmacists will describe what to look out for in ... will be monitored very closely by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists to make sure that all side effects are ...

  1. The Girlfriends Project: Evaluating a Promising Community-Based Intervention from a Bottom-Up Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard in research but may not fully explain or predict outcome variations in community-based interventions. Demonstrating efficacy of externally driven programs in well-controlled environments may not translate to community-based implementation where resources and priorities vary. A bottom-up evaluation…

  2. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  3. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  4. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  5. Perceptual learning: top to bottom.

    PubMed

    Amitay, Sygal; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Jones, Pete R; Moore, David R

    2014-06-01

    Perceptual learning has traditionally been portrayed as a bottom-up phenomenon that improves encoding or decoding of the trained stimulus. Cognitive skills such as attention and memory are thought to drive, guide and modulate learning but are, with notable exceptions, not generally considered to undergo changes themselves as a result of training with simple perceptual tasks. Moreover, shifts in threshold are interpreted as shifts in perceptual sensitivity, with no consideration for non-sensory factors (such as response bias) that may contribute to these changes. Accumulating evidence from our own research and others shows that perceptual learning is a conglomeration of effects, with training-induced changes ranging from the lowest (noise reduction in the phase locking of auditory signals) to the highest (working memory capacity) level of processing, and includes contributions from non-sensory factors that affect decision making even on a "simple" auditory task such as frequency discrimination. We discuss our emerging view of learning as a process that increases the signal-to-noise ratio associated with perceptual tasks by tackling noise sources and inefficiencies that cause performance bottlenecks, and present some implications for training populations other than young, smart, attentive and highly-motivated college students.

  6. 9. EMPIRE STATE MINE, BOTTOM ORE BIN/SHOOT. TIN ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EMPIRE STATE MINE, BOTTOM ORE BIN/SHOOT. TIN ROOF OF SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING AND UPPER ORE SHOOT VISIBLE. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  7. Side pocket mandrel

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.W.; Crawford, M.S.; Crawford, W.B.

    1987-12-29

    A side pocket mandrel is described comprising: a tubular body section having a hollow interior that defines a main bore to one side thereof and another bore to the other side thereof; and a short-length seating section welded to one end of the body section. The seating section has a main bore formed to one side thereof aligned with the main bore in the body section, and a valve seating bore formed on the other side thereof generally aligned with the other bore. The seating bore has a polish section adjacent its outer end. The outer end opening through an exterior end surface of the mandrel. The seating bore has a recessed section adjacent the polish section. That provides an inwardly facing stop shoulder at one end thereof and a latch shoulder at the other end thereof facing the stop shoulder; and a tubular member welded to the seating section in axial alignment with the main bores. The axis of the polish section of the seating bore is inclined toward the axes of the main bores at a small angle.

  8. Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side mechanical additions and south side of 1955 addition, facing northwest. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Gate on east side, between north side of building 148 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gate on east side, between north side of building 148 and south side of building 149. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Carpenter Shop Building, Southwest Corner of West I Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. 3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side elevation. Note gasoline sign post added. Flush store window not altered, 1900 clapboard siding and panelling remaining. - 510 Central Avenue (Commercial Building), Ridgely, Caroline County, MD

  11. Front (east side) and north side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (east side) and north side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employees' Quarters, North Hickey Street, West side, 150 feet North of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  13. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  14. External Cargo Integration Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gueera, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the system integration efforts for external cargo for the International Space Station (ISS). The role and responsibility of the External Carriers Ofice is reviewed. The presentation also reviews the application of the office to the Commercial Cargo Services contract.

  15. 50 kHz bottom backscattering measurements from two types of artificially roughened sandy bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Su-Uk; Cho, Sungho; Choi, Jee Woong

    2016-07-01

    Laboratory measurements of 50 kHz bottom backscattering strengths as a function of grazing angle were performed on the sandy bottom of a water tank; two types of bottom roughnesses, a relatively smooth interface and a rough interface, were created on the bottom surface. The roughness profiles of the two interface types were measured directly using an ultrasound arrival time difference of 5 MHz and then were Fourier transformed to obtain the roughness power spectra. The measured backscattering strengths increased from -29 to 0 dB with increasing grazing angle from 35 to 86°, which were compared to theoretical backscattering model predictions. The comparison results implied that bottom roughness is a key factor in accurately predicting bottom scattering for a sandy bottom.

  16. 4. VIEW EAST, SOUTHWEST FRONT, NORTHWEST SIDE Side elevation. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, SOUTHWEST FRONT, NORTHWEST SIDE Side elevation. Note the ground floor windows which were added. Siding is vinyl, but the burned area exposes asbestos siding added when the rear and upper areas were converted to living spaces. - 510 Central Avenue (Commercial Building), Ridgely, Caroline County, MD

  17. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  18. Auxiliary wire connections for side post batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlik, R.F.; Eccles, T.C.

    1987-02-17

    A mount is described for connecting perforated terminal lugs of a pair of cables directly to a battery side terminal having a hole provided with internal screw threads, the mount comprising: a stud adapted to extend through the perforation of the lug of one of the cables, the stud including: an element at one end of the stud having external screw threads disposed to mesh with the internal threads, a member intermediate the ends of the stud for clamping the lug of the one cable against the side terminal when the external threads are in mesh with the internal threads, a device at the opposite end of the stud for releasably attaching the lug of the other cable to the stud, and structure for preventing displacement of the stud from the lug of the one cable, the stud having a socket at the opposite end thereof provided with internal screw threads, the device being a fastener adapted to extend through the perforation of the lug of the other cable and having external screw threads disposed to mesh with the threads of the socket.

  19. Photographic evidence of variable bottom-current activity in the Suruga and Sagami Bays, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hakuyu; Ohta, Suguru

    1993-01-01

    Complex patterns of bottom-current behaviour were clarified by studies of sedimentary features and orientations of benthic animals in the deep Suruga and Sagami Bays on the Pacific side of central Honshu, Japan. Both the Suruga and Sagami Bay measure about 60 km in length as well as in width at their mouths and are about 1500 m deep in their central portions. The size of each bay is comparable to that of ancient forearc basins. The bottom sediments are characterized by turbidites and slump deposits. At 32 stations on the bottom of the bays, deep-sea photographs were taken, most of which clearly indicate bottom-current activity. Current-induced bottom features are current-lineations, moat-like scours around resistant objects, crag-and-tail structures behind obstacles, ripple marks, sand ridges and deformed biogenic structures such as burrows, mounds, tracks and faeces. These features are produced by bottom currents with rather high velocities. Other important current indicators are some benthic organisms, which in general show a sensitive response to currents and adopt particular orientations. Typical examples of megabenthos identified in the bottom photographs as effective current indicators are the small deimatid holothurian Peniagone japonica, the benthic shrimp Glyphocrangon hastacauda, sea anemones, and sea pens. Among them, the orientation of Peniagone japonica shows abrupt changes of current direction with time, for example, from N (0°) to SW (240°) during 15 min and from N to S and back to N, a complete rotation during 40 min. The results of these observations indicate that the bottom currents in deep bays tend to fluctuate rapidly in velocity and direction, probably owing to strong internal tidal waves in the very steep embayments. Upslope currents appear to be present at the mouths of submarine canyons. Thus, it should be borne in mind that palaeocurrent analysis of ancient bottom-current deposits or contourites is limited in application.

  20. Engineered Ionizable Side Chains.

    PubMed

    Cymes, Gisela D; Grosman, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of mechanistic ion-channel biology is to obtain structural information from well-defined functional states. In the case of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, the open-channel conformation is particularly elusive owing to its transient nature and brief mean lifetime. In this Chapter, we show how the analysis of single-channel currents recorded from mutants engineered to contain single ionizable side chains in the transmembrane region can provide specific information about the open-channel conformation without any interference from the closed or desensitized conformations. The method takes advantage of the fact that the alternate binding and unbinding of protons to and from an ionizable side chain causes the charge of the protein to fluctuate by 1 unit. We show that, in mutant muscle acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (AChRs), this fluctuating charge affects the rate of ion conduction in such a way that individual proton-transfer events can be identified in a most straightforward manner. From the extent to which the single-channel current amplitude is reduced every time a proton binds, we can learn about the proximity of the engineered side chain to the lumen of the pore. And from the kinetics of proton binding and unbinding, we can calculate the side-chain's affinity for protons (pK a), and hence, we can learn about the electrostatic properties of the microenvironment around the introduced ionizable group. The application of this method to systematically mutated AChRs allowed us to identify unambiguously the stripes of the M1, M2 and M3 transmembrane α-helices that face the pore's lumen in the open-channel conformation in the context of a native membrane. PMID:26381938

  1. Bottom stress measurements on the inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Scully, Malcolm; Trowbridge, John

    2015-01-01

    Bottom stress shapes the mean circulation patterns, controls sediment transport, and influences benthic habitat in the coastal ocean. Accurate and precise measurements of bottom stress have proved elusive, in part because of the difficulty in separating the turbulent eddies that transport momentum from inviscid wave-induced motions. Direct covariance measurements from a pair of acoustic Doppler velocimeters has proved capable of providing robust estimates, so we designed a mobile platform coined the NIMBBLE for these measurements, and deployed two of them and two more conventional quadpods at seven sites on the inner shelf over a period of seven months. The resulting covariance estimates of stress and bottom roughness were lower than log-fit estimates, especially during calmer periods. Analyses of these data suggest the NIMBBLEs may provide an accurate and practical method for measuring bottom stress.

  2. Review article: the false-bottom ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Jouzel, J.; Nizovtseva, I.; Ryashko, L. B.

    2013-11-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water (with a~temperature of 0 °C) to the arctic salt water (with a temperature of -1.6 °C) is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. The processes of false bottom ice growth from below (i.e. from the ocean to the atmosphere) become of prime importance in the era of global warming and climate change. In this review, we summarize the theoretical approaches, field and laboratory observations, conducted during more than 100 yr, in order to address the problem of false bottoms to a broad community of readers. We also discuss the recent modeling advances to which we have contributed. A "false bottom" is a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe, where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the present-day estimate of the false bottom ice coverage is approximately half of the sea ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for various physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics.

  3. Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. The two (2) arms act as simple spans, a small amount of negative bending is accommodated by the continous top and bottom truss chords due to a continuous condition. Note the inclined end post of each of the simple spans, the operator's house, center/pivot pier and the pivotal pole-line pole placed atop of bridge. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  4. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  5. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    PubMed

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  6. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  7. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  8. Object detection in side scan sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenwu; Cheng, Binbin; Chen, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Automatic target detection is a challenging task as the response from an underwater target may vary greatly depending on its configuration, sonar parameters and the environment. We propose a Z- test algorithm for target detection in side scan sonar image which avoids this problem that covers the variation in the target response. A Z-test is performed on the means of the pixel gray levels within and outside the window area, a detection being called when the value of test statistic feature exceeds a certain threshold. The algorithm is formulated for real-time execution on limited memory commercial-of-the-shelf platforms and is capable of detection objects on the seabed-bottom.

  9. Corrosion on steam-side heat exchanger tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo, A.; Esparza, P.; Bas, C.G.; Morales, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Sanchez, S.R. de

    1996-01-01

    Two corrosion cases occurred on the steam side of tubes in a heat exchanger in a central power station which used seawater as a coolant. The first case is stress corrosion cracking in the presence of oxygen and ammonia with through-wall cracks that originated in dealloyed cavities. The second case describes high-pressure, high-temperature steam impinging the tubes, leading to deep erosion on the tube`s external side. Erosion-corrosion accelerated on the seawater side because heating decreased the critical flow rate and enhanced formation of deposits which were obstacles to the flow.

  10. South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a door when it is open. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Root Cellar, West Pennington Avenue, North of Building No. 121, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. 14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CO'S STATEROOM, STERN SIDE (LEFT) AND STARBOARD SIDE. NOTE WOODEN WINDOW FRAMES. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  13. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SIDE SHOWING SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Drum & Can Loading Facility, South of Arizona Street near Kamehameha Highway, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST SIDE SHOWING NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM NORTHEAST SIDE SHOWING NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Drum & Can Loading Facility, South of Arizona Street near Kamehameha Highway, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW OF FRONT SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FRONT SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM EAST SIDE OF COURTYARD UNDER ARCADE, FACING WEST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 59. SIDE VIEW OF TENSION CARRIAGE: Side view towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. SIDE VIEW OF TENSION CARRIAGE: Side view towards the south of the California Street cable's tension carriage. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. FACILITY 847, SOUTHWEST SIDE (COURTYARD SIDE), QUADRANGLE J, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 847, SOUTHWEST SIDE (COURTYARD SIDE), QUADRANGLE J, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangles I & J Barracks Type, Between Wright-Smith & Capron Avenues near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. FACILITY 847, SOUTHWEST SIDE (COOURTYARD SIDE), FROM SECOND FLOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 847, SOUTHWEST SIDE (COOURTYARD SIDE), FROM SECOND FLOOR OF FACILITY 845, QUADRANGLE J, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING NORTH. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangles I & J Barracks Type, Between Wright-Smith & Capron Avenues near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 3. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND EAST SIDE (GABLE END), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE AND EAST SIDE (GABLE END), FACING NORTHWEST FROM HOOD AVENUE. - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, G. U. Treatment Unit Barracks, Nininger Way, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  20. North side, westcentral part, showing two doorways to the side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, west-central part, showing two doorways to the side aisle of the audience seating section. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 1. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH NORTHEAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH NORTHEAST SIDE OF MINE OFFICE ON RIGHT OF PHOTO - Juniata Mill Complex, Assay Office, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  2. Front (south side) and west side of building. Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (south side) and west side of building. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North Hickey Street, 775 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Rear (north side) and west side of building. Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (north side) and west side of building. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North Hickey Street, 775 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator smokestack (building 615) in right background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Building, 540 feet East-Northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. Closeup view of the bottom area of Space Shuttle Main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the bottom area of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2052 engine assembly mounted in a SSME Engine Handler in the Horizontal Processing area of the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent features in this view are the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Discharge Duct toward the bottom of the assembly, the SSME Engine Controller and the Main Fuel Valve Hydraulic Actuator are in the approximate center of the assembly in this view, the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump (LPFTP), the LPFTP Discharge Duct are to the left on the assembly in this view and the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump is located toward the top of the engine assembly in this view. The ring of tabs in the right side of the image, at the approximate location of the Nozzle and the Coolant Outlet Manifold interface is the Heat Shield Support Ring. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Compact, Two-Sided Structural Cold Plate Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaffetti, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In two-sided structural cold plates, typically there is a structural member, such as a honeycomb panel, that provides the structural strength for the cold plates that cool equipment. The cold plates are located on either side of the structural member and thus need to have the cooling fluid supplied to them. One method of accomplishing this is to route the inlet and outlet tubing to both sides of the structural member. Another method might be to supply the inlet to one side and the outlet to the other. With the latter method, an external feature such as a hose, tube, or manifold must be incorporated to pass the fluid from one side of the structural member to the other. Although this is a more compact design than the first option, since it eliminates the need for a dedicated supply and return line to each side of the structural member, it still poses problems, as these external features can be easily damaged and are now new areas for potential fluid leakage. This invention eliminates the need for an external feature and instead incorporates the feature internally to the structural member. This is accomplished by utilizing a threaded insert that not only connects the cold plate to the structural member, but also allows the cooling fluid to flow through it into the structural member, and then to the cold plate on the opposite side. The insert also employs a cap that acts as a cover to seal the open area needed to install the insert. There are multiple options for location of o-ring style seals, as well as the option to use adhesive for redundant sealing. Another option is to weld the cap to the cold plate after its installation, thus making it an integral part of the structural member. This new configuration allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features.

  7. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  8. Physical habitat dynamics in four side-channel chutes, lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E.; Laustrup, Mark S.; D'Urso, Gary J.; Reuter, Joanna M.

    2004-01-01

    Construction of the side-channel chutes has become a popular means to rehabilitate habitate of the Lower Missouri River. We studied various aspects of hydrology, hydraulics, and geomorphology of four side-channel chutes to document a range of existing conditions in the Lower Missouri River. The Cranberry Bend side-channel chute has existed for at least 40 years and is an example of a persistent, minimally engineered chute. The Lisbon Bottom side-channel chute is a young chute, created by extreme floods during 1993-1996, and allowed to evolve with minimum engineering of inlet and outlet structures. The Hamburg Bend and North Overton Bottom side-channel chutes were constructed in 1996 and 2000, respectively, as part of the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and navigation Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project. These side-channel chutes provide increased areas of sandbars and shallow, slow water -- habitats thought to be substantially diminished in the modern Missouri River. Depths and velocities measured in side-channel chutes are also present in the main channel, but the chutes provide more areas of slow, shallow water and they increase the range of discharges over which shallow, slow water is present. The 3.6 km long Lisbon Bottom chute provides as much as 50% of the entire shallow water habitat that exists in the encompassing 15 km reach of the river. At Cranberry Bend and Lisbon Bottom, the side-channel chutes provided 10-40% of the availabile sandbar area in the reach, depending on discharge. Each of the side-channel chutes shows evidence of continuing erosion and deposition. The longevity and the Cranberry Bend chute attests to dynamic stability -- that is, a chute that maintains form and processes while shifting in position. The Hamburg chute similarly shows evidence of lateral movement and construction of flood plain to compensate for erosion. The Lisbon Bottom chute -- the most intensively studied chute -- appears to have achieved an equilibrium width and

  9. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  10. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  11. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.804 - Bottom board repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottom board repair. 3285.804....804 Bottom board repair. (a) The bottom board covering must be inspected for any loosening or areas... to be replaced prior to closure and repair of the bottom board. (b) Any splits or tears in the...

  13. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  14. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  15. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  16. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  17. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  18. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  19. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  20. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  1. Modelling impact of bottom roughness on sea surface temperature in the Sea of Iroise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou, N.; Chapalain, G.; Duvieilbourg, E.

    2013-02-01

    A hydrological model based on the coupling of the three-dimensional hydrodynamic module COHERENS (COupled Hydrodynamical-Ecological model for RegioNal and Shelf seas) with the wave propagation module SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) is used to study the effects of bottom roughness on sea surface temperature (SST) in the nearshore areas of the Sea of Iroise (western end of french Brittany). Predicted time histories of SST are compared with the available field data collected at two offshore stations and along the route of a vessel travelling between the coast and the isle of Ushant. The comparison is extended to SST spatial distribution derived from remote-sensing observations for conditions characterising the development of horizontal thermal fronts in the Sea of Iroise. A numerical sensitivity study is conducted focusing on the impacts of the heterogeneous bottom roughnesses associated with (i) the granulometric distribution of seabed sediments and (ii) the apparent friction induced by the waves in the bottom boundary layer. Whereas moderate differences are obtained, both bottom-roughness distributions are found to influence the predicted SST leading to slight improvements of global predictions. The sensitivity of numerical simulations is exacerbated in areas of high thermal gradients. The effects of the bottom roughness associated with the seabed are thus revealed at the north-eastern and south-eastern edges of external Ushant thermal front. Waves have a major influence in the nearshore areas of the bay of Audierne and the western extend of Crozon peninsula.

  2. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  3. External Environmental Forecast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    Representing current viewpoints of academics, futures experts, and social observers, this external environmental forecast presents projections and information of particular relevance to the future of Catonsville Community College. The following topics are examined: (1) population changes and implications for higher education; (2) state and local…

  4. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  5. Boosting the bottom line of physician networks.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Greg

    2013-06-01

    To improve the bottom line of owned physician practices, hospitals should: Identify disparities between physician pay and performance, and understand the factors that are creating these disparities. Review fees to make sure they are aligned with insurer and Medicare fee schedules. Analyze the work load and job resposibilities of office staff and modify staffng levels and job descriptions, if needed. PMID:23795381

  6. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  7. There's Plenty Of Difficulty Near The Bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durcan, Mark; Lu, Shifeng

    2007-09-01

    This paper is adapted from a keynote presentation given by Mark Durcan, President and COO of Micron Technology. The keynote presentation used a visionary speech given by Dr. Richard Feynman in 1959 ("There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom") as the launching pad to discuss some of the difficulties associated with manipulating matter at the very small scale.

  8. CEOs: Gulf crisis hits hospitals' bottom line.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J

    1990-12-01

    Hospital CEOs say the Persian Gulf crisis could hit them hard where it counts. In fact, hospitals are already seeing some adverse impact from events in the Middle East. From fundraising to plant management to strategic planning, the confrontations in the Gulf are having an impact on the hospital's bottom line.

  9. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  10. Closeup side view of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2059 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up side view of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2059 mounted in a SSME Engine Handler near the Drying Area in the High Bay section of the SSME Processing Facility. The prominent features of the SSME in this view are the hot-gas expansion nozzle extending from the approximate image center toward the image right. The main-engine components extend from the approximate image center toward image right until it meets up with the mount for the SSME Engine Handler. The engine is rotated to a position where the major components in the view are the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump Discharge Duct with reflective foil insulation on the upper side of the engine, the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump and its Discharge Duct on the right side of the engine assembly extending itself down and wrapping under the bottom side of the assembly to the High-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump pump. The High-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Discharge Duct exists the turbopump and extends up to the top side of the assembly where it enters the main oxidizer valve. The sphere on the lower side of the engine assembly is an accumulator that is part of the SSMEs POGO suppression system. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  12. The DarkSide awakens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-05-01

    The DarkSide program at LNGS aims to perform background-free WIMP searches using two phase liquid argon time projection chambers, with the ultimate goal of covering all parameters down to the so-called neutrino floor. One of the distinct features of the program is the use of underground argon with has a reduced content of the radioactive 39Ar compared to atmospheric argon. The DarkSide Collaboration is currently operating the DarkSide-50 experiment, the first such WIMP detector using underground argon. Operations with underground argon indicate a suppression of 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The new results obtained with DarkSide-50 and the plans for the next steps of the DarkSide program, the 20t fiducial mass DarkSide-20k detector and the 200 t fiducial Argo, are reviewed in this proceedings.

  13. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  14. Externally triggered microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  15. Excited bottom and bottom-strange mesons in the quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Pan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; Li, De-Min

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the possible q q ¯ quark-model assignments of the BJ(5840 ) and BJ(5960 ) recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, we evaluate mass spectra, strong decays, and radiative decays of bottom and bottom-strange mesons in a nonrelativistic quark model. Comparing these predictions with the relevant experimental results, we suggest that the BJ(5840 ) and BJ(5960 ) can be identified as the B (2 1S0) and B (1 3D3) , respectively, and the B (5970 ) reported by the CDF Collaboration can be interpreted as the B (2 3S1) or B (1 3D3) . Further precise measurements of the width, spin and decay modes of the B (5970 ) are needed to distinguish these two assignments. These predictions of bottom and bottom-strange mesons can provide useful information to further experimental investigations.

  16. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  17. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SIDE-BY-SIDE PROTOCOL COMPARISON TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven state, tribal, and federal agencies participated during summer 2005 in a side-by-side comparison of protocols used to measure common in-stream physical attributes to help determine which protocols are best for determining status and trend of stream/watershed condition. Th...

  18. View northeast, west side, and south side (showing National Defense ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, west side, and south side (showing National Defense University Academic Operations Center Building in background) - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 3. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING 883. INSTALLATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS AND ROLLING MILLS PROCESSES. (4/25/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Measurement of bottom-reflected sound in bottom-limited propagation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Jooyoung; Park, Joungsoo

    2016-07-01

    To study the bottom reflection of underwater acoustic sound in a bottom-limited propagation environment, an experiment was conducted using four transmitting sounds in the form of a continuous wave from 1 to 6 kHz. The site of the experiment was a continental shelf region off the east coast of Korea where the bottom was composed of sandy mud. The mean water depth was 1100 m in the experiment area. Oceanographic data and acoustic data were collected simultaneously during the experiment. It was found that the sound pressure level decreased by 90 dB to 3.4 km and there is little frequency dependence because a strong direct path contributes more than a bottom-reflected path in sound pressure level. At a range between 6 and 7 km, there is a strong bottom-reflected ray path and frequency dependence exists because the bottom reflection loss varies with frequency at a given grazing angle. Sound pressure levels increase as the range increases between 6 and 7 km by 5.4, 1.9, 1.7, and 1.5 dB at frequencies of 1000, 2490, 3990, and 5490 Hz, respectively.

  1. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    SciTech Connect

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  2. Bottom-up design of biomimetic assemblies.

    PubMed

    Tu, Raymond S; Tirrell, Matthew

    2004-09-22

    Nature has evolved the ability to assemble a variety of molecules into functional architectures that can specifically bind cellular ligands. Mimicking this strategy requires the design of a set of multifaceted molecules, where elements that direct assembly were conjugated to biologically specific components. The development of functional molecular building-blocks that assemble to form compartments for therapeutics addresses the desire to have controllable morphologies that interact with biological interfaces at nanometer length scales. The practical application of such 'bottom-up' assemblies requires the ability to predict the type of aggregated structure and to synthesize molecules in a highly controlled fashion. This bottom-up approach results in a molecular platform that mimics biological systems with potential for encapsulating and delivering drug molecules.

  3. Hydraulic potential in Lake Michigan bottom sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Hunt, C.S.; Hughes, G.M.; Brower, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of groundwater flux in the bottom sediments of Lake Michigan were deduced from measurements made during three shipboard cruises between 1973 and 1975. These factors affect the geochemical environment of the sediments and therefore the distribution of trace elements reported to be present. The near-shore, sandy-bottom and fine-grained, soft, deep-lake sediments were investigated; areas of hard till or bedrock were not included in the study. Thirty-three piezometers were placed in near-shore sands in waters 5-15 m deep. The piezometers were placed an average of 3 m into the bottom sediment. Water levels from the piezometers averaged 0.6 cm above the lake level, equivalent to an upward hydraulic gradient of about 0.002 cm/cm. Water samples taken from the piezometers have a distinctly different chemical composition from that of the lake water. The total dissolved mineral content and hardness of the groundwater are about twice those of the lake water. Twenty-two hydraulic gradient measurements were made in the fine-grained soft deep-lake sediments in waters 48-140 m deep by using a differential-pressure transducer dropped into the sediments. These measurements show an upward gradient averaging 0.2 cm/cm. No chemical data were obtained for the groundwater in the deep-lake sediments. The results of this study indicate that the groundwater flux is upward through the bottom sediments into Lake Michigan and that there is a chemical change in the water near the water-sediment contact. ?? 1979.

  4. Automated area segmentation for ocean bottom surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, John C.; Smith, Cheryl M.

    2015-05-01

    In practice, environmental information about an ocean bottom area to be searched using SONAR is often known a priori to some coarse level of resolution. The SONAR search sensor then typically has a different performance characterization function for each environmental classification. Large ocean bottom surveys using search SONAR can pose some difficulties when the environmental conditions vary significantly over the search area because search planning tools cannot adequately segment the area into sub-regions of homogeneous search sensor performance. Such segmentation is critically important to unmanned search vehicles; homogenous bottom segmentation will result in more accurate predictions of search performance and area coverage rate. The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) has developed an automated area segmentation algorithm that subdivides the mission area under the constraint that the variation of the search sensor's performance within each sub-mission area cannot exceed a specified threshold, thereby creating sub-regions of homogeneous sensor performance. The algorithm also calculates a new, composite sensor performance function for each sub-mission area. The technique accounts for practical constraints such as enforcing a minimum sub-mission area size and requiring sub-mission areas to be rectangular. Segmentation occurs both across the rows and down the columns of the mission area. Ideally, mission planning should consider both segmentation directions and choose the one with the more favorable result. The Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm was tested using two a priori bottom segmentations: rectangular and triangular; and two search sensor configurations: a set of three bi-modal curves and a set of three uni-modal curves. For each of these four scenarios, the Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm automatically partitioned the mission area across rows and down columns to create regions with homogeneous sensor performance. The

  5. Charge reviews can beef up bottom lines.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, M C

    1991-03-01

    Traditionally, healthcare organizations have been reluctant to pursue charge reviews until pressed to do so by third-party challenges to their charges. But a hospital pursuing either a concurrent or retrospective review may realize significant revenue enhancement--and not only from correcting undercharges on charge-based accounts. Charge reviews can lead to smoothed patient documentation, better cost accounting, more appropriate Medicare payment, and, ultimately, an improved bottom line.

  6. The bottom fauna of Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teter, Howard D.

    1960-01-01

    The examination of 63 bottom samples, collected in Lake Huron in 1952 and 1956, revealed that Pontoporeia affinis was the dominant organism in both deep and shallow water. The next most abundant organisms in deep water were oligochaetes, fingernail clams, and midge larvae. Midge larvae were more numerous than either oligochaetes or fingernail clams in shallow water. The nmnber of organisms per square meter was similar to that determined from a similar study on Lake Michigan.

  7. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  8. External Coulomb-Friction Damping For Hydrostatic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmann, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    External friction device damps vibrations of shaft and hydrostatic ring bearing in which it turns. Does not rely on wear-prone facing surfaces. Hydrostatic bearing ring clamped in radially flexing support by side plates clamped against radial surfaces by spring-loaded bolts. Plates provide friction against radial motions of shaft.

  9. Psychopharmaceuticals: effects and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Nathan S.

    1959-01-01

    Drugs which affect psychological behaviour are being used in vast amounts nowadays, with, in all too many cases, but scant regard for their exact uses or possible side effects. This article contains a clinical classification of these drugs, followed by an account of their principal side effects and the means of obviating them. PMID:14409889

  10. The Dark Side of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, David H., Ed.; Cropley, Arthur J., Ed.; Kaufman, James C., Ed.; Runco, Mark A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With few exceptions, scholarship on creativity has focused on its positive aspects while largely ignoring its dark side. This includes not only creativity deliberately aimed at hurting others, such as crime or terrorism, or at gaining unfair advantages, but also the accidental negative side effects of well-intentioned acts. This book brings…

  11. External split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  12. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  13. Techniques for siding manual phalanges.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M

    2009-12-15

    Identifying the anatomical origin of skeletal elements is a basic and important part of a forensic anthropological investigation, but techniques for determining the side and ray of the phalanges are conspicuously scarce in the physical anthropology literature. Features of particular phalanges are important to aspects of archaeological and paleoanthropological studies, as well as for identification and trauma analysis in forensic cases. Correct siding of phalanges may therefore be quite critical in certain contexts. This study evaluates several siding techniques previously developed and/or described in a recent study by Case and Heilman (2000). Unlike in their study where observers were provided all phalange positional information except for side, observations in this study were undertaken with no positional information provided thus making the examinations more similar to those performed in a forensic context. Tests of phalange siding techniques were carried out on two skeletal samples: the Terry Collection at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History where the ray and side of phalanges are documented and phalange collections are often complete, and the Bass Collection at the University of Tennessee where phalange positional information is undocumented and where phalange collections are seldom complete. The features described by Case and Heilman were found to work quite well. In the documented (Terry) sample, there was a high rate of correct siding, up to 100% for several phalanges. In the undocumented (Bass) sample, the features could be used to side the phalanges to a reasonable degree of certainty, and certainty increased when both sides of a particular phalange were present. Finally, several other useful siding and ray identification features were identified. PMID:19853390

  14. 10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 SCREEN DOOR TO EXTERIOR AND DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO DINING ROOM. HOLE AT BOTTOM LEFT OF 1/2 SCREEN DOOR WAS A CAT DOOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  15. 23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE NORTH DOORS AT TOP; WEST DOOR MOTOR DISCONNECT ABOVE ACTUATOR; WINCH AND PULLEY SYSTEM AT BOTTOM; HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT ABOVE WINCHES; MOTOR COMPRESSOR FOR DOORS ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieliński, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jarosław

    2010-10-01

    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  17. Membranebioreactor with external membranes.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, C; Carrette, R; De Lathouwer, J; Thoeye, C

    2001-01-01

    The recent development of less expensive and more performant ultrafiltration membranes has generated a new concept in biological treatment known as membrane bioreactors (MBR). In the field of wastewater treatment, the MBR process is used as a modification of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process, where the clarifier is replaced by a membrane module for the separation of the solid and the liquid phase. Membrane technology can, amongst others, be applied for the fast retrofit of relatively high loaded activated sludge systems to nutrient removal. In the last year Aquafin has built up extensive experience with submerged membrane systems. The research presented here was aimed at evaluating a particular external tubular membrane unit for MBR. More specifically it was evaluated whether higher stable flux levels could compensate the higher energy consumption, typical for external membrane systems. Both (1) treatment performance and (2) possible operational drawbacks were tested on a 5 m3/h activated sludge pilot-scale. The membrane bioreactor was tested in parallel with a conventional activated sludge system.

  18. Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization

    PubMed Central

    Backhaus, Jenny; Röder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Different reference frames appear to be relevant for tactile spatial coding. When participants give temporal order judgments (TOJ) of two tactile stimuli, one on each hand, performance declines when the hands are crossed. This effect is attributed to a conflict between anatomical and external location codes: hand crossing places the anatomically right hand into the left side of external space. However, hand crossing alone does not specify the anchor of the external reference frame, such as gaze, trunk, or the stimulated limb. Experiments that used explicit localization responses, such as pointing to tactile stimuli rather than crossing manipulations, have consistently implicated gaze-centered coding for touch. To test whether crossing effects can be explained by gaze-centered coding alone, participants made TOJ while the position of the hands was manipulated relative to gaze and trunk. The two hands either lay on different sides of space relative to gaze or trunk, or they both lay on one side of the respective space. In the latter posture, one hand was on its "regular side of space" despite hand crossing, thus reducing overall conflict between anatomical and external codes. TOJ crossing effects were significantly reduced when the hands were both located on the same side of space relative to gaze, indicating gaze-centered coding. Evidence for trunk-centered coding was tentative, with an effect in reaction time but not in accuracy. These results link paradigms that use explicit localization and TOJ, and corroborate the relevance of gaze-related coding for touch. Yet, gaze and trunk-centered coding did not account for the total size of crossing effects, suggesting that tactile localization relies on additional, possibly limb-centered, reference frames. Thus, tactile location appears to be estimated by integrating multiple anatomical and external reference frames. PMID:27391805

  19. Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization.

    PubMed

    Heed, Tobias; Backhaus, Jenny; Röder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Different reference frames appear to be relevant for tactile spatial coding. When participants give temporal order judgments (TOJ) of two tactile stimuli, one on each hand, performance declines when the hands are crossed. This effect is attributed to a conflict between anatomical and external location codes: hand crossing places the anatomically right hand into the left side of external space. However, hand crossing alone does not specify the anchor of the external reference frame, such as gaze, trunk, or the stimulated limb. Experiments that used explicit localization responses, such as pointing to tactile stimuli rather than crossing manipulations, have consistently implicated gaze-centered coding for touch. To test whether crossing effects can be explained by gaze-centered coding alone, participants made TOJ while the position of the hands was manipulated relative to gaze and trunk. The two hands either lay on different sides of space relative to gaze or trunk, or they both lay on one side of the respective space. In the latter posture, one hand was on its "regular side of space" despite hand crossing, thus reducing overall conflict between anatomical and external codes. TOJ crossing effects were significantly reduced when the hands were both located on the same side of space relative to gaze, indicating gaze-centered coding. Evidence for trunk-centered coding was tentative, with an effect in reaction time but not in accuracy. These results link paradigms that use explicit localization and TOJ, and corroborate the relevance of gaze-related coding for touch. Yet, gaze and trunk-centered coding did not account for the total size of crossing effects, suggesting that tactile localization relies on additional, possibly limb-centered, reference frames. Thus, tactile location appears to be estimated by integrating multiple anatomical and external reference frames. PMID:27391805

  20. Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization.

    PubMed

    Heed, Tobias; Backhaus, Jenny; Röder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Different reference frames appear to be relevant for tactile spatial coding. When participants give temporal order judgments (TOJ) of two tactile stimuli, one on each hand, performance declines when the hands are crossed. This effect is attributed to a conflict between anatomical and external location codes: hand crossing places the anatomically right hand into the left side of external space. However, hand crossing alone does not specify the anchor of the external reference frame, such as gaze, trunk, or the stimulated limb. Experiments that used explicit localization responses, such as pointing to tactile stimuli rather than crossing manipulations, have consistently implicated gaze-centered coding for touch. To test whether crossing effects can be explained by gaze-centered coding alone, participants made TOJ while the position of the hands was manipulated relative to gaze and trunk. The two hands either lay on different sides of space relative to gaze or trunk, or they both lay on one side of the respective space. In the latter posture, one hand was on its "regular side of space" despite hand crossing, thus reducing overall conflict between anatomical and external codes. TOJ crossing effects were significantly reduced when the hands were both located on the same side of space relative to gaze, indicating gaze-centered coding. Evidence for trunk-centered coding was tentative, with an effect in reaction time but not in accuracy. These results link paradigms that use explicit localization and TOJ, and corroborate the relevance of gaze-related coding for touch. Yet, gaze and trunk-centered coding did not account for the total size of crossing effects, suggesting that tactile localization relies on additional, possibly limb-centered, reference frames. Thus, tactile location appears to be estimated by integrating multiple anatomical and external reference frames.

  1. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTION AT THIRD PANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTION AT THIRD PANAL POINT IN FROM ABUTMENT. NOTE THAT THE BOTTOM CHORD IS CONTINUOUS ACROSS THE CONNECTION - Poffenberger Road Bridge, Spanning Catoctin Creek, Middletown, Frederick County, MD

  2. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  3. 14. UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING BOTTOM CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING BOTTOM CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS AND BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Holbrook Bridge, Spanning Little Colorado River at AZ 77, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  4. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Raffaele Dalla; Zinicola, Roberto; Iaria, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its incidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perforation. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis. PMID:25161764

  5. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Valle, Raffaele Dalla; Zinicola, Roberto; Iaria, Maurizio

    2014-08-27

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its incidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perforation. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  6. Determination of /sup 239,240/Pu in bottom sediments of the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Legin, V.K.; Pospelov, Yu.N.; Simonyak, Z.N.

    1988-11-01

    We present a technique for determining the /sup 239,240/Pu content, using /sup 236/Pu as the monitor of chemical yield, in samples of soils and bottom sediments - objects of the external environment. Plutonium is extracted from the matrix material by leaching with a mixture of concentrated acids HCl-HNO/sub 3/, after which it is separated by ion-exchange methods. After electrodeposition onto stainless steel discs the activity of the nuclides of plutonium is measured by the method of alpha-spectrometry. The average chemical yields during the analysis of the samples was 40-60%, the relative standard deviation was 10%, and the lower limit of detectability was 0.3 Bq. We present results of the determination of the /sup 239,240/Pu content in surface samples of bottom sediments from the Gulf of Finland and that past of the Baltic Sea which adjoins the territory of the USSR. It is found that the unit activity of /sup 239,240/Pu in the bottom sediments varies within the limits of 0.4-1.2 Bq/kg and lies at the global level. Global genesis of /sup 239,240/Pu in the bottom sediments of the Gulf of Finland and the open parts of the Baltic Sea is also confirmed by the values which are found for the ratios /sup 238/Pu//sup 239,240/Pu and /sup 239,240/Pu//sup 137/Cs.

  7. 2. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE (SIDE A) OF BUILDING 883. INSTALLATION OF ROLLING MILLS AND MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT FOR DEPLETED URANIUM FABRICATION. THE CRANE NEAR THE CEILING WAS USED TO INSTALL THE EQUIPMENT. BOXES ON THE FLOOR CONTAINED EQUIPMENT TO BE INSTALLED. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project.

  9. Gas hydrates in ocean bottom sediments

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.K.

    1982-12-01

    Gas hydrates belong to a special category of chemical substances known as inclusion compounds. An inclusion compound is a physical combination of molecules in which one component becomes trapped inside the other. In gas hydrates, gas molecules are physically trapped inside an expanded lattice of water molecules. The pressures and temperatures beneath Artic water depths greater than 1,100 ft (335 m) and subtropical water depths greater than 2,000 ft (610 m) are suitable for the formation of methane hydrate. Theoretical depths to the base of a gas hydrate layer in ocean bottom sediments are determined by assuming: (1) a constant hydrostatic pressure gradient, (2) two typical hydrothermal gradients, (3) variable geothermal gradients, and (4) pure methane hydrated with connate seawater. In addition to pressure and geothermal gradient, other variables affecting the stability of gas hydrate are examined. These variables are hydrothermal gradient, sediment thermal conductivity, heat flow, hydrate velocity, gas composition, and connate water salinity. If these variables are constant in a lateral direction and the above assmptions are valid, a local geothermal gradient can be determined if the depth to the base of a gas hydrate is known. The base of the gas hydrate layer is seen on seismic profiles as an anomalous reflection nearly parallel to the ocean bottom, cross-cutting geologic bedding plane reflections, and generally increasing in sub-ocean bottom time with increasing water depth. The acoustic impedance is a result of the relatively fast velocity hydrate layer overlying slower velocity sediments. In addition, free gas may be trapped beneath the hydrate, thereby enhancing the reflection.

  10. 3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams Dam Road center, Brandywine Creek State Park and J. Chandler Farm in center left, duck pond bottom right and reservoir bottom left. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  11. 4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State Route 100 center, back gates to Winterthur and Wilmington Country Club upper center, duck pond and reservoir bottom right and center, and State Route 92 center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  12. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea...

  13. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea...

  14. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea...

  15. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight...

  16. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight...

  17. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  18. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  19. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  20. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  1. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  2. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Double bottom requirements. 173.058 Section 173.058... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of...

  3. The first results of using the Allium test in estimating the chemical and radiation toxicity of bottom sediments in the Yenisei River.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A Ya; Trofimova, E A; Zueva, A V; Dementiev, D V

    2016-07-01

    The first results of the use of the Allium test for estimation of toxicity of bottom sediments in the Yenisei River and the effect of external γ-radiation under laboratory conditions are presented. The effect of stimulation of the onion root growth, i.e., the absence of toxicity was discovered in toxicological experiments using bottom sediments and under external γ-radiation. The stimulating effect of radiation on the growth of onion roots limits the use of the Allium test for testing samples from the Yenisei River ecosystem in the zone subjected to the impact of radioactive discharges from the Mining and Chemical Combine. PMID:27595829

  4. A photofunctional bottom-up bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex nanosheet

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Hoshiko, Ken; Liu, Qian; Yagi, Toshiki; Nagayama, Tatsuhiro; Kusaka, Shinpei; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional polymeric nanosheets have recently gained much attention, particularly top-down nanosheets such as graphene and metal chalcogenides originating from bulk-layered mother materials. Although molecule-based bottom-up nanosheets manufactured directly from molecular components can exhibit greater structural diversity than top-down nanosheets, the bottom-up nanosheets reported thus far lack useful functionalities. Here we show the design and synthesis of a bottom-up nanosheet featuring a photoactive bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex motif. A liquid/liquid interfacial synthesis between a three-way dipyrrin ligand and zinc(II) ions results in a multi-layer nanosheet, whereas an air/liquid interfacial reaction produces a single-layer or few-layer nanosheet with domain sizes of >10 μm on one side. The bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) metal complex nanosheet is easy to deposit on various substrates using the Langmuir–Schäfer process. The nanosheet deposited on a transparent SnO2 electrode functions as a photoanode in a photoelectric conversion system, and is thus the first photofunctional bottom-up nanosheet. PMID:25831973

  5. A photofunctional bottom-up bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Hoshiko, Ken; Liu, Qian; Yagi, Toshiki; Nagayama, Tatsuhiro; Kusaka, Shinpei; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Two-dimensional polymeric nanosheets have recently gained much attention, particularly top-down nanosheets such as graphene and metal chalcogenides originating from bulk-layered mother materials. Although molecule-based bottom-up nanosheets manufactured directly from molecular components can exhibit greater structural diversity than top-down nanosheets, the bottom-up nanosheets reported thus far lack useful functionalities. Here we show the design and synthesis of a bottom-up nanosheet featuring a photoactive bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex motif. A liquid/liquid interfacial synthesis between a three-way dipyrrin ligand and zinc(II) ions results in a multi-layer nanosheet, whereas an air/liquid interfacial reaction produces a single-layer or few-layer nanosheet with domain sizes of >10 μm on one side. The bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) metal complex nanosheet is easy to deposit on various substrates using the Langmuir-Schäfer process. The nanosheet deposited on a transparent SnO2 electrode functions as a photoanode in a photoelectric conversion system, and is thus the first photofunctional bottom-up nanosheet.

  6. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  7. Bottom quark mass from {Upsilon} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The bottom quark pole mass M{sub b} is determined using a sum rule which relates the masses and the electronic decay widths of the {Upsilon} mesons to large {ital n} moments of the vacuum polarization function calculated from nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics. The complete set of next-to-next-to-leading order [i.e., O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2},{alpha}{sub s}v,v{sup 2}) where v is the bottom quark c.m. velocity] corrections is calculated and leads to a considerable reduction of theoretical uncertainties compared to a pure next-to-leading order analysis. However, the theoretical uncertainties remain much larger than the experimental ones. For a two parameter fit for M{sub b}, and the strong M{bar S} coupling {alpha}{sub s}, and using the scanning method to estimate theoretical uncertainties, the next-to-next-to-leading order analysis yields 4.74 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.87 GeV and 0.096{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.124 if experimental uncertainties are included at the 95{percent} confidence level and if two-loop running for {alpha}{sub s} is employed. M{sub b} and {alpha}{sub s} have a sizable positive correlation. For the running M{bar S} bottom quark mass this leads to 4.09 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.32 GeV. If {alpha}{sub s} is taken as an input, the result for the bottom quark pole mass reads 4.78 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.98 GeVthinsp[4.08 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.28 GeV] for 0.114{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.122. The discrepancies between the results of three previous analyses on the same subject by Voloshin, Jamin, and Pich and K{umlt u}hn {ital et al.} are clarified. A comprehensive review on the calculation of the heavy-quark{endash}antiquark pair production cross section through a vector current at next-to-next-to leading order in the nonrelativistic expansion is presented. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K. . High Energy Physics Div.); Strikman, M. AN SSSR, Leningrad . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-01-01

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 10{sup 9} B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 10{sup 9} B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  10. A note on the effect of bottom currents on an ocean bottom seismometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trehu, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    Two three-component ocean bottom seismometers and a current meter were deployed a few hundred meters apart on the southern Blake Plateau off the United States eastern coast to study the effect of near-bottom currents on the background noise level of seismometers. Although analysis of the data is limited somewhat by instrumental problems, the increase in current speed, which ranged from 2 to 25 cm/sec, is correlated with a broadband increase in the noise level at frequencies below 10 Hz. Intermittent periods of narrow-band 8-Hz noise, which were also observed, are not correlative with bottom currents and were tentatively attributed to passing ships. Details of the mechanism of generation of the background noise cannot be determined from the present data set.

  11. The theory and a technique for an efficiency enhancing two stage bottoming cycle for piston/cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Zeh, D.

    1995-12-31

    While there is now much interest in electric vehicles or various hybrids, the most benefit may result from a revolutionary modification and efficiency improvement of the conventional internal combustion Otto cycle engine, by recovering a large portion of the availability that exists at the end of the power stroke. This paper will describe the theory and a potentially practical method for achieving a 50% improvement in power output and fuel efficiency. While the topping cycle will remain the internal combustion piston/cylinder engine, a two stage bottom cycle will be used. The first bottom stage is a single process consisting of a turbine installed in the exhaust stream to extract power from the excess pressure that exists when the engine exhaust valve opens. The second bottom stage is a complete external combustion gas turbine cycle consisting of a compressor, exhaust gas to compressed air heat exchanger and a turbine. Such a two stage bottoming cycle can be practical and may increase the power output by about 50%. This means that a car that achieves 30 mpg without a bottoming cycle can achieve 45 mpg with this bottoming cycle. Alternatively if the performance of cars can be improved to 66 mpg by means of decreasing the power requirements with smaller size and frontal area, better aerodynamics, lower rolling resistance tires and better transmission and drive trains, this vehicle can be extended to 100 mpg with this combined cycle engine.

  12. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  13. External Tank Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph shows the liquid hydrogen tank and liquid oxygen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) being assembled in the weld assembly area of the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first eight 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, will automatically analyze a patient's ECG and, if needed, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. We sometimes refer to these devices as AED-only devices or stand-alone AEDs. The basic function of AEDs is similar to that of defibrillator/monitors, but AEDs lack their advanced capabilities and generally don't allow manual defibrillation. A device that functions strictly as an AED is intended to be used by basic users only. Such devices are often referred to as public access defibrillators. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for a newly evaluated model, the Zoll AED Plus. We also summarize our findings for the previously evaluated model that is still on the market and describe other AEDs that are also available but that we haven't evaluated. We rate the models collectively for first-responder use and public access defibrillation (PAD) applications.

  15. External Measures of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cairό, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955

  16. The 727/JT8D refan side nacelle airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. W.; Vadset, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    Airloads on the 727/JT8D refan side engine nacelle are presented. These consist of surface static pressure distributions from two low speed wind tunnel tests. External nacelle surface pressures are from testing of a flow-through, body mounted nacelle model, and internal inlet surface pressures are from performance testing of a forced air inlet model. The method for obtaining critical airloads on nacelle components and a representative example are discussed.

  17. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice.

  18. Method of Bottom-Up Directed Assembly of Cell-Laden Microgels.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanan; Lo, Edward; Vidula, Mahesh K; Khabiry, Masoud; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a protocol to fabricate cell-laden microgel assemblies with pre-defined micro-architecture and complexity by a bottom-up approach, which can be used for tissue engineering applications. The assembly process was driven by the hydrophobic effect in the water/oil interface. By agitating hydrophilic microgels in hydrophobic medium, the shape-controlled microgel units assemble in an organized manner to locally minimize the interaction free energy (the surface area exposed to the oil). The assembly process was shown to be controlled by several parameters, such as external energy input, surface tension, and microgel dimensions. This assembly approach was used to build multi-component cell-laden constructs by assembling microgel building blocks and performing a secondary cross-linking reaction. This bottom-up approach for the directed assembly of cell-laden microgels offers a scalable method to fabricate 3D tissue constructs with biomimetic structure.

  19. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  20. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  1. Unilateral vestibular loss impairs external space representation.

    PubMed

    Borel, Liliane; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Cauvin, Pierre; Dumitrescu, Michel; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Péruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal) and far (extrapersonal) spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation), and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss.

  2. Unilateral Vestibular Loss Impairs External Space Representation

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Liliane; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Cauvin, Pierre; Dumitrescu, Michel; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Péruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal) and far (extrapersonal) spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation), and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss. PMID:24523916

  3. Lunar Far Side Regolith Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2005-08-01

    The lunar far side contains the South Pole Aitken Basin, which is the largest known impact basin in the solar system, and is enhanced in titanium and iron compared to the rest of the lunar highlands. Although we have known of this enigmatic basin since the 60's, most lunar photography and science covered the equatorial near side where the Apollo spacecraft landed. With NASA's renewed interest in the Moon, the South Pole Aitken Basin is a likely target for future exploration. The regolith depth is a crucial measurement for understanding the source of the surface material in the Basin. On the southern far side of the Moon (20 S, 180 W), near the north edge of the Basin, we determined the regolith depth by examining 11 flat-floored craters about 200 m in diameter. We measured the ratio of the diameter of the flat floor to the diameter of the crater, and used it to calculate the regolith thickness using the method of Quaide and Oberbeck (1968). We used Apollo 15 panoramic images --- still the highest resolution images available for this region of the Moon. We found the regolith depth at that location to be about 40 m. This value is significantly greater than values for the lunar near side: 3 m (Oceanus Procellarum), 16 m (Hipparchus), and 1-10 m at the Surveyor landing sites. The thicker value obtained for the far side regolith is consistent with the older age of the far side. It also suggests that samples returned from the far side may have originated from deeper beneath the surface than their near side counterparts.

  4. An ocean bottom, microprocessor based seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert D.; Dorman, Leroy M.; Huang, Chin-Yen; Berliner, David L.

    1981-04-01

    We describe the design and construction of an ocean bottom seismometer configured as a computer, based on an Intersil IM6100 microprocessor plus appropriate peripheral devices. The sensors consist of triaxial 1 Hz seismometers and a hydrophone, each sensor channel being filtered prior to digitizing so that typical noise spectra are whitened. Digital data are recorded serially on magnetic tape. The instrument is placed on the ocean bottom by allowing it to fall freely from just below the surface. An acoustic system allows precise determination of instrument position, acoustic recall, and transmission of operational information to the surface. Release from an expendable anchor is accomplished by redundant pyrotechnic bolts which can be fired by acoustic command or by precision timers. The operational flexibility provided by the micro-computer, which executes the DEC PDP8/E DEC, PDP8/E and OS/8 are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, Mass., USA instruction set, enables optimum use of the 6-hr recording capacity (at 128 samples/second/channel) in the context of the particular experiment being performed.

  5. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physicalmore » pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.« less

  6. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physical pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.

  7. Large area, freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjin; Hu, Fangren; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Wu, Tong; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-15

    We propose, fabricate and characterize the freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane with bottom subwavelength nanostructures. The GaN nanocolumns are epitaxially grown on freestanding nanostructured silicon substrate that is achieved by a combination of self-assemble technique and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. Optical reflection is greatly suppressed in the visible range due to the graded refractive index effect of subwavelength nanostructures. The freestanding GaN nanocolumn membrane is realized by removing silicon substrate from the backside, eliminating the silicon absorption of the emitted light and leading to a strong blue emission from the bottom side. The obtained structures also demonstrate the potential application for anti-reflective (AR) coating and GaN-Si hybrid microelectromechanical system (MEMS).

  8. COS Side 2 NUV Detector Recovery After MEB Side Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinski, John

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after a COS MEB side switch. The recovery procedure consists of two separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after a COS MEB side switch: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a series of dark exposures. Visit1 must be successfully completed before proceeding onto Visit 2. This proposal is model after cycle 20 13129 - COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous ShutdownIf the cause of the COS MEB side switch is the result of a NUV anomaly, replacing this proposal with the COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown procedure {cycle 20 proposal 13129} should be consider.

  9. Brushless machine having ferromagnetic side plates and side magnets

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S

    2012-10-23

    An apparatus is provided having a cylindrical stator and a rotor that is spaced from a stator to define an annular primary air gap that receives AC flux from the stator. The rotor has a plurality of longitudinal pole portions disposed parallel to the axis of rotation and alternating in polarity around a circumference of the rotor. Each longitudinal pole portion includes portions of permanent magnet (PM) material and at least one of the longitudinal pole portions has a first end and an opposing second end and a side magnet is disposed adjacent the first end and a side pole is disposed adjacent the second end.

  10. External auditory osteoma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Peter N; Nelson, Brenda L

    2012-06-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) osteomas are rare, benign bony neoplasms that occur in wide range of patients. While chronic irritation and inflammation have been suggested as causal factors in several cases, significant data is lacking to support these suspicions. Symptoms are rare and can include hearing loss, vertigo, pain and tinnitus. Diagnosis is made based on a combination of clinical history and examination, radiographic imaging, and histopathology. Osteomas of the EAC are usually found incidentally and are unilateral and solitary. Computed tomography reveals a hyperdense, pedunculated mass arising from the tympanosquamous suture and lateral of the isthmus. Histopathologically, EAC osteomas are covered with periosteum and squamous epithelium, and consist of lamalleted bone surrounding fibrovascular channels with minimal osteocysts. Osteomas have historically been compared and contrasted with exostoses of the EAC. While they share similarities, more often than not it is possible to distinguish the two bony neoplasms based on clinical history and radiographic studies. Debate remains in the medical literature as to whether basic histopathology can distinguish osteomas of the EAC from exostoses. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for EAC osteomas, however close observation is considered acceptable in asymptomatic patients.

  11. A magnetic signature of bottom current erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Menocal, Peter B.; Laine, Edward P.; Ciesielski, Paul F.

    1988-08-01

    To characterize the magnetic signal associated with bottom current erosion, we have conducted downcore measurements of magnetic texture and fabric in three cores containing known erosional hiatuses. Using biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic analysis, erosional hiatuses were identified for three cores from two current-dominated environments: the northern Bermuda Rise and the south Indian Basin. The cores were contiguously subsampled and the magnetic susceptibility ( K), the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and the anhysteretic susceptibility ( KARM) were measured. The AMS parameters h and q were used to describe the relative magnitude and the shape, respectively, of the representative susceptibility ellipsoid. The concentration-independent and dimensionless ratio KARM/ K was used to indicate relative changes in magnetic grain size. Hiatuses in the three cores were marked by unusually high values of h and q indicating a greater development of internal fabric with a more linear fabric representation; depressed values of KARM/ K indicated a coarser mean magnetic grain size. The magnitude of this signal, however, did not have a simple relationship with hiatus duration. t-test results statistically confirmed the existence of an erosional signature. To enhance the applicability of this technique, a quantitative discriminant model was constructed and calibrated using the magnetic characteristics of erosion. Since this model was constructed from samples of known 'erosional' and 'non-erosional' character, the discriminant functions could then be used as reference equations to identify erosion in other cores. Biostratigraphic and oxygen isotopic data from a 14 m core from the northern Bermuda Rise, extending back to isotopic stage 8 (˜ 250 ka BP), indicate two short intervals of low accumulation rate which, for this region, are most probably attributable to bottom current erosion. Magnetic data for this core were entered into the reference discriminant model

  12. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  13. The Mechanics of External Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Rozbruch, S. Robert

    2006-01-01

    External fixation has evolved from being used primarily as a last resort fixation method to becoming a main stream technique used to treat a myriad of bone and soft tissue pathologies. Techniques in limb reconstruction continue to advance largely as a result of the use of these external devices. A thorough understanding of the biomechanical principles of external fixation is useful for all orthopedic surgeons as most will have to occasionally mount a fixator throughout their career. In this review, various types of external fixators and their common clinical applications are described with a focus on unilateral and circular frames. The biomechanical principles that govern bony and fixator stability are reviewed as well as the recommended techniques for applying external fixators to maximize stability. Additionally, we have illustrated methods for managing patients while they are in the external frames to facilitate function and shorten treatment duration. PMID:18751766

  14. Use of incinerator bottom ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, J.; Coutaz, L.; Ambroise, J.; Chababbet, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to show if municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could be an alternative aggregate for the production of building concrete presenting a characteristic 28-day compressive strength of 25 MPa. The aggregates passing the 20-mm sieve and retained on the 4-mm sieve were considered for investigation. They showed lower density, higher water absorption, and lower strength than natural gravel. They could be considered as average quality aggregates for use in concrete. When directly introduced in concrete, they led to swelling and cracking of specimens, due to the reaction between cement and metallic aluminium. Therefore, a treatment by sodium hydroxide was proposed to avoid such degradation, which made possible the partial replacement (up to 50%) of gravel in concrete without affecting the durability.

  15. Bottom pressure correlations in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, C. W.; Smithson, M. J.

    Bottom pressure in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM) shows regions where fluctuations are dominated by small-scale internal variability of the currents, and are not directly related to the wind. There are often very sharp boundaries between these regions and regions of large scale coherence. Bearing this in mind, the measured coherence of BPR measurements near Tristan da Cunha island in the South Atlantic is taken as evidence that mesoscale variability associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) reaches further north in the model than in reality. There are many possible reasons for this, but the significant result is that the BPR measurements can provide useful information about the dynamical regime of the deep ocean, which can not be discovered by surface measurements.

  16. The benefits of bottom-up design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    An inconsistency is examined in generic top-down design methods and standards employed in the implementation of reliable software. Many design approaches adopt top-down ordering when defining the structure, interfaces, and processing of a system. However, strict adherence to a top-down sequencing does not permit accurate description of a system's error handling functions. The design of the system response to errors is becoming critical as the reliability requirements of systems increase. How top-down methods such as object oriented design and structured design do not adequately address the issues of error handling is described, and it is suggested using a bottom-up substep within these methods to eliminate the problem.

  17. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  18. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design.

  19. Conductivity Probe after Trench-Bottom Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Needles of the thermal and conductivity probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander were positioned into the bottom of a trench called 'Upper Cupboard' during Sol 86 (Aug. 21, 2008), or 86th Martian day after landing. This image of the conductivity probe after it was raised back out of the trench was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera. The conductivity probe is at the wrist of the robotic arm's scoop.

    The probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  1. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    PubMed

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable.

  2. Side Effects of Side Effects Information in Drug Information Leaflets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maat, H. Pander; Klaassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which drug information leaflets given to patients were improved in two ways, first by adding a short introductory paragraph on the nature of side effects generally, and second by adjusting frequency descriptors to more accurately reflect pretesting of the drug. Explains that participants in the study were less likely to…

  3. Peptide nanotube aligning side chains onto one side.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuki; Mitani, Shota; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2016-06-01

    A novel pseudo cyclic penta-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine, two β-alanines, and a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid (CP5ES) is synthesized and investigated on peptide nanotube (PNT) formation. When the PNT is formed with the maximum number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the cyclic peptides, the sequence enables the alignment of the side chains, naphthyl groups, on one side of the PNT. Microscopic and spectroscopic observations of CP5ES crystals reveal that CP5ES forms rod- or needle-shaped molecular assemblies showing exciton coupling of the Cotton effect and predominant monomer emission, which are different from a reference cyclic tri-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine and two β-alanines. Insertion of a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid into β-amino acids in the cyclic skeleton is therefore suggested to be effective to make the side chains aligning on one side of the PNT. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27282135

  4. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  5. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  6. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  7. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  8. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  9. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  10. Changing Systems of External Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjorn; Brandt, Ellen; Solum, Nils Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and identify changes in systems of external examinations in Denmark, the UK and Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Comparative analysis of studies, reviews and documents concerning the purpose and functioning of systems of external examination in three selected countries. Findings: The paper…

  11. Choosing a Truly External Evaluator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This scenario discusses a situation in which a proposal has been published by a consortium of foundations for an "external" evaluator to evaluate a replication at two new sites of a program they have been funding for many years. A proposal is received from Dr. Porto-Novo, who has been the external evaluator of the initial program for about 10…

  12. The Lighter Side of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacall, Aaron

    This book presents a collection of cartoons that focus on the lighter side of teaching. In a tongue-in-cheek introduction, the book asserts that one achievable goal which should have been included in the 1994 Educate America Act is that all teachers will start each school day by reading one funny cartoon and having a good chuckle before they go to…

  13. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  14. Velocity and bottom-stress measurements in the bottom boundary layer, outer Norton Sound, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Wiberg, P.

    1982-01-01

    We have used long-term measurements of near-bottom velocities at four heights above the sea floor in Norton Sound, Alaska, to compute hourly values of shear velocity u., roughness and bottom-drag coefficient. Maximum sediment resuspension and transport, predicted for periods when the computed value of u. exceeds a critical level, occur during peak tidal currents associated with spring tides. The fortnightly variation in u. is correlated with a distinct nepheloid layer that intensifies and thickens during spring tides and diminishes and thins during neap tides. The passage of a storm near the end of the experiment caused significantly higher u. values than those found during fair weather.-from Authros

  15. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  16. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  17. Dynamics of phosphorus forms in the bottom sediments and their interstitial water for the Prut River (Moldova).

    PubMed

    Rusu, Vasile; Postolachi, Larisa; Povar, Igor; Alder, Alfredo; Lupascu, Tudor

    2012-09-01

    Phosphorus concentration in rivers results from both external inputs and internal loading from the bottom sediments. Seasonal, spatial, and multi-annual dynamics of phosphorus forms in bottom sediments and their interstitial water for the river Prut (Moldova) were evaluated. In order to determine content of total phosphorus in the bottom sediments, fresh (wet) samples were subjected to persulfate oxidation. The content of inorganic phosphorus was determined after acidic oxidation of samples. The amount of organic phosphorus was obtained by subtracting inorganic phosphorus from the amount of total phosphorus. Content of phosphorus forms in interstitial water was determined after centrifugation of fresh (wet) sediments. In general, the shape of dynamics of the amounts of inorganic phosphorus in sediments was close during years 2009, 2010, and 2011, with registered higher contents of this form on the middle course of the river. The spatial dynamics of organic phosphorus is less homogeneous along the Prut River. During 2009, higher amounts of organic phosphorus were recorded on the middle sector. During the spring of year 2010, the content of organic phosphorus in sediments was practically not changed along the river. The ratio of inorganic/organic phosphorus in bottom sediments was similar during the researched years, with the predominance of the inorganic phosphorus being recorded. Also, the increasing tendency of the percentage of organic phosphorus from spring to summer was identified. Generally, appropriate spatial and seasonal dynamics of phosphorus forms in bottom sediments and their interstitial water were recorded, although sometimes with some differences.

  18. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Brucken, E.; Devoto, F.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Casal, B.; Cuevas, J.; Gomez, G.; Palencia, E.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Amerio, S.; Dorigo, T.; Gresele, A.; Lazzizzera, I.

    2011-05-06

    We report measurements of direct CP--violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +})=+0.39{+-}0.15(stat){+-}0.08(syst), and bottom baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}p{pi}{sup -})=+0.03{+-}0.17(stat){+-}0.05(syst) and A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}pK{sup -})=+0.37{+-}0.17(stat){+-}0.03(syst). In addition, we measure CP violation in B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP}(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=-0.086{+-}0.023(stat){+-}0.009(syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  19. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair; Ballas, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening.

  20. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.; Ballas, G.J.

    1998-02-24

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. 5 figs.

  1. Bottom-up assembly of metallic germanium

    PubMed Central

    Scappucci, Giordano; Klesse, Wolfgang M.; Yeoh, LaReine A.; Carter, Damien J.; Warschkow, Oliver; Marks, Nigel A.; Jaeger, David L.; Capellini, Giovanni; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hamilton, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Extending chip performance beyond current limits of miniaturisation requires new materials and functionalities that integrate well with the silicon platform. Germanium fits these requirements and has been proposed as a high-mobility channel material, a light emitting medium in silicon-integrated lasers, and a plasmonic conductor for bio-sensing. Common to these diverse applications is the need for homogeneous, high electron densities in three-dimensions (3D). Here we use a bottom-up approach to demonstrate the 3D assembly of atomically sharp doping profiles in germanium by a repeated stacking of two-dimensional (2D) high-density phosphorus layers. This produces high-density (1019 to 1020 cm−3) low-resistivity (10−4Ω · cm) metallic germanium of precisely defined thickness, beyond the capabilities of diffusion-based doping technologies. We demonstrate that free electrons from distinct 2D dopant layers coalesce into a homogeneous 3D conductor using anisotropic quantum interference measurements, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory. PMID:26256239

  2. Bottom sediments of Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Leonard E.

    1964-01-01

    Saginaw Bay is a southwest extension of Lake Huron on the east shore of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan. It is a shallow-water derivative of the Pleistocene Lake Saginaw. Sixty-one bottom samples were collected on a semigrid pattern and analyzed physically. Findings were treated statistically. Sediments range in size from large pebbles to clay. Medium- to fine-grained clear quartz sand is common to all parts of the bay. Currents and wave action are primarily responsible for both median diameter and sorting distribution patterns. Only a very general correlation can be established between depth and median diameter. Heavy minerals occur in abundance locally and show an affinity to shallow-water areas subject to prevailing currents. Shape also locally determines heavy mineral concentrations. Only general conclusions can be established from roundness and sphericity and acid-soluble content. Increased organic content is correlative with quiet water environments. The shallow-water, heterogeneous nature of Saginaw Bay is not conducive to the recognition of sedimentary criteria suitable for correlations in other than a local environment.

  3. Has Clinton made externalities extraneous

    SciTech Connect

    Haites, E.

    1993-08-01

    Over the past several years state utility regulators have become increasingly concerned with the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation. Currently, 26 states have requirements in place, although these vary considerably in scope and complexity. The vast majority apply only to the selection of new resources; the most detailed specify a monetary value for each discharge to the environment. Regulatory concern with environmental externalities stems from the desire to minimize the cost of electricity service to society. Externalities requirements focus on the residual discharges after environmental regulations are complied with. Ignoring externalities leads to inefficient use of resources and environmental damage beyond with may be called a [open quotes]socially optimal[close quotes] level of pollution. Adjusting to the cost options for environmental externalities should lead utilities to select a combination of resources that is closer to the socially optimal mix. President Bill Clinton's recent announcement that the United States will limit its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) to 1990 levels by 2000 may make externalities regulation superfluous. National limits on sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]), nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]), and CO[sub 2] emissions by utilities will likely be in effect by 2000. It will not be possible to comply with emissions limits solely through changes to the mix of resource additions, even though consideration of environmental externalities in resource addition decisions can reduce incremental emissions. Other strategies to reduce the emissions of existing generating stations, as well as new sources, will be needed.

  4. The Evolution of the Lower Missouri River: National Mapping Discipline Research at Lisbon Bottom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    Before 1800, the Missouri River was one of North America's most diverse and dynamic ecosystems. During the past 200 years, civil engineering has transformed it into a navigation system regulated by reservoirs and confined by bank stabilization and flood control structures. These modifications have reduced seasonal flow variability and sediment load and have disconnected the river from backwater, off-channel, and floodplain habitats. Flooding along the Lower Missouri River in 1993 and again in 1996 created a side-channel chute across Lisbon Bottom, a well-formed loop bottom near Glasgow, Mo. The formation and subsequent development of the chute have provided USGS scientists with a glimpse of a preregulated Missouri River. Knowledge of geologic characteristics and processes in an alluvial setting like Lisbon Bottom provides a scientific basis for floodplain management. This knowledge is also vital to a complete understanding of riverine habitat disturbance, recovery, and rehabilitation. A critical component of this knowledge is an understanding of the spatial and temporal relationships between riverine habitats and geomorphic processes.

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Burlington Bottoms, Technical Report 1993-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Beilke, Susan

    1993-08-01

    Burlington Bottoms, consisting of approximately 417 acres of riparian and wetland habitat, was purchased by the Bonneville Power Administration in November 1991. The site is located approximately 1/2 mile north of the Sauvie Island Bridge (T2N R1W Sections 20, 21), and is bound on the east side by Multnomah Channel and on the west side by the Burlington Northern Railroad right-of-way and U.S. Highway 30 (Figures 1 and 2). Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Columbia and Willamette River Basin's Fish and Wildlife Program and Amendments. Under this Program, mitigation goals were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the development and operation of Federal hydro-electric facilities in the Columbia and Willamette River Basins. In 1993, an interdisciplinary team was formed to develop and implement quantitative Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) to document the value of various habitats at Burlington Bottoms. Results of the HEP will be used to: (1) determine the current status and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area. HEP participants included; Charlie Craig, BPA; Pat Wright, Larry Rasmussen, and Ron Garst, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; John Christy, The Nature Conservancy; and Doug Cottam, Sue Beilke, and Brad Rawls, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  6. Extermophylic microorganisms: issue of interplanetary transfer on external spacecraft surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, N.; Deshevaya, E.; Polykarpov, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Grigoriev, A.

    Interplanetary transfer of terrestrial microbes capable of surviving in extreme environments and planetary protection from accidental biocontamination by them are the issues of major practical rather than hypothetical value The natural resistance of microbes to extreme environments and a possibility of their transfer beyond geographical barriers of Earth on external spacecraft surfaces have brought forward a need in profound research into the likelihood of their survival in outer space Hardware and a program have been developed at the State Scientific Research Center of the Russian Federation -- Institute for Biomedical Problems with the goal of carrying out a space experiment Biorisk The experiment was aimed at assessing the possibility of long-term comparable with the duration of the Martian flight survival of microorganisms in outer space on materials used in space industry Samples of materials were contaminated with test cultures of bacteria Bacillus and fungi Aspergillus Penicillium Cladosporium known to be common residents of various environments on Earth and resistant to multiple alternation of high and low temperatures Materials used in the construction of external spacecraft surfaces such as steel aluminium alloy heat-insulating coating were chosen as test samples for the experiment Containers with materials and test microorganisms were placed on the external side of the Russian segment of the ISS Unique data have been accumulated after a 204 day exposure on the external side of the ISS which have proved that

  7. Ocean Bottom Pressure Measurements Off Sanriku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Tamura, Y.; Higashi, T.; Nishino, M.; Hino, R.; Kanazawa, T.

    2003-12-01

    Variable motions of the ocean are changing the Earth's gravity field. For example, mass exchange in the Pacific Ocean is considered to be the most probable source of the recent rapid and large change in the J2 term, which may be related to the ENSO event in 1997 (Cox and Chao, 2002). The actual ocean mass exchange related to that event was also observed from ocean bottom pressure records (OBPRs) offshore of Peru (Fujimoto et al., 2003). On the other hand, satellite altimetry measurements, such as TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), enable us to estimate the oceanic effect on gravity observations using globally-gridded data for sea surface height (SSH) variability. However, the altimeter data are affected by steric changes in the ocean, which should not contribute to the observed gravity changes (for example, Sato et al., 2001). In order to examine the relation among the mass exchange in the oceans, SSH variation, and gravity changes, we began a three-year observation project in 2001 to measure the ocean bottom pressure changes at the three crossover points of the T/P satellite off Sanriku, Japan: 143.1E, 39.2N (Point-A); 146.0E, 39.2N (Point-B); and 144.6E, 41.5N (Point-N). The data are sampled at an interval of one minute. Here, we will report the analysis results for the OBPR data for the two years since the beginning of the observations. Although the records at Point-N show a peculiar time variation, we obtained clear tidal signals at Point-A and Point-B. We compared the tidal analysis results with a global ocean tide model, NAO99b (Matsumoto et al., 2000), and we confirmed that, at both Point-A and Point-B, the predicted tides agree to the actual observations within the difference of 1 % in amplitude for the four major tidal waves: M2, S2, K1 and O1. This suggests that it may be possible to correct the tidal effect on the satellite gravity data with an accuracy of about 1 % by using recent global tide models. We also compared residuals of the OBPR data, which were obtained

  8. Electronics box having internal circuit cards interconnected to external connectors sans motherboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockett, John E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An electronics chassis box includes a pair of opposing sidewalls, a pair of opposing end walls, a bottom surface, a top cover, and ring connectors assemblies mounted in selective ones of the walls of the electronic box. Boss members extend from the bottom surface at different heights upon which circuit cards are mounted in spatial relationship to each other. A flex interconnect substantially reduces and generally eliminates the need of a motherboard by interconnecting the circuit cards to one another and to external connectors mounted within the ring connector assemblies.

  9. 6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and center, Winterthur Train Station center left, Winterthur Farms dairy barns upper center , duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 92 center right, and Brandywine Creek State Park bottom right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  10. 2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and State Route 100 center, Brandywine Creek State Park center right, duck pond and reservoir center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  11. 5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State Route 100 center, duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 100 center right, State Route 92 below center right, Brandywine Creek State Park center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  12. Hangar no. 2 west doors. Note access door at bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 west doors. Note access door at bottom center of left door. Note structure at bottom outside of doors for door opening mechanisms. Looking 124 ESE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  13. Postcolonial Appalachia: Bhabha, Bakhtin, and Diane Gilliam Fisher's "Kettle Bottom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Diane Gilliam Fisher's 2004 award-winning book of poems, "Kettle Bottom," offers students a revealing vantage point for seeing Appalachian regional culture in a postcolonial context. An artful and accessible poetic sequence that was selected as the 2005 summer reading for entering students at Smith College, "Kettle Bottom"…

  14. 8. Comparison of construction of bottom and top chords and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Comparison of construction of bottom and top chords and pin connections, bottom chord second panel point, top chords showing third panel point. - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  16. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  17. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  18. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  19. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  20. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... welded to the outside bottom of the tank or mounted on a pad or nozzle with a tongue and groove or male... attachment on a pad attached to the outside bottom of the tank. The mounting pad must have a maximum... illustrations of some of the possible arrangements.) (i) A bolted flange closure arrangement including a...

  1. Where's the "Up" in Bottom-Up Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.

    2004-01-01

    Bottom-up reform as a policy strategy for decades has faltered in implementation. This article starts from the premise that these disappointing results stem from researchers' and practitioners' almost exclusive focus on implementation in schools or on what some call "the bottom" of hierarchical education systems but not shifts in policy…

  2. 45. (Credit JTL) View looking up from bottom of #3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. (Credit JTL) View looking up from bottom of #3 low service pump pit showing frame of Worthington pump on right, water delivery pipe on left and top of 1943 6 mgd electric pump at bottom. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  3. Bottom-up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…

  4. Four flap suspension technique for prevention of bottoming out after breast reduction

    PubMed Central

    Kankaya, Yüksel; Sungur, Nezih; Aslan, Özlem çolak; Gürsoy, Koray; Özer, Kadri; Koçer, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Bottoming-out deformity is accepted as the most important disadvantage of inferior pedicle breast reduction. For prevention of this deformity, different techniques are used in combination with inferior pedicle. In this study, we aimed to prevent bottoming-out deformity by producing an internal bra effect through combination of inferior pedicle technique with 2 superior and 2 inferior dermal flaps that were raised from each side of the pedicle. Methods Thirteen patients whose medical records became available during the follow-up period at Ankara Training and Research Hospital from January 2010 to January 2015 were included in this study. We retrospectively obtained patient medical records including demographic characteristics and clinical data. Superior dermal flaps were planned on both sides of the pedicle 2 cm inferior to the lower border of areola and inferior dermal flaps were planned 6 cm inferior to the superior dermal flaps. The superior and inferior dermal flaps were secured to the periosteum of the 2nd and 4th ribs respectively with permanent sutures. Results Preoperatively, the average distance between the inframammary fold and areola was 13.9 cm (range, 11-18 cm). The average amount of breast parenchymal resection was 745 g (range, 612-1,496 g). The average distance between the inframammary fold and the lower border of the areola was 7.9 cm (range, 7.5-9 cm) on the postoperative first-year measurements. Conclusion In conclusion, according to our study, suspension technique to prevent bottoming-out deformity is associated with an easier technique without the need for alloplastic or allogenic materials. Since fixation is performed to the ribs instead of soft tissues like the pectoral fascia or muscle, we believe that this fixation is more long lasting and can be an effective alternative to other suspension techniques. PMID:26793687

  5. Surgeon Contribution to Hospital Bottom Line

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Andrew S.; Corrigan, Diane; Mullen, James L.; Kaiser, Larry R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that surgeon productivity is directly related to hospital operating margin, but significant variation in margin contribution exists between specialties. Summary Background Data: As the independent practitioner becomes an endangered species, it is critical to better understand the surgeon's importance to a hospital's bottom line. An appreciation of surgeon contribution to hospital profitability may prove useful in negotiations relating to full-time employment or other models. Methods: Surgeon total relative value units (RVUs), a measure of productivity, were collected from operating room (OR) logs. Annual hospital margin per specialty was provided by hospital finance. Hospital margin data were normalized by dividing by a constant such that the highest relative hospital margin (RHM) in fiscal year 2004 expressed as margin units (mu) was 1 million mu. For each specialty, data analyzed included RHM/OR HR, RHM/case, and RHM/RVU. Results: Thoracic (34.55 mu/RVU) and transplant (25.13 mu/RVU) were the biggest contributors to hospital margin. Plastics (−0.57 mu/RVU), maxillofacial (1.41 mu/RVU), and gynecology (1.66 mu/RVU) contributed least to hospital margin. Relative hospital margin per OR HR for transplant slightly exceeded thoracic (275.74 mu vs 233.94 mu) at the top and plastics and maxillofacial contributed the least (−3.83 mu/OR HR vs 9.36 mu/OR HR). Conclusions: Surgeons contribute significantly to hospital margin with certain specialties being more profitable than others. Payer mix, the penetration of managed care, and negotiated contracts as well as a number of other factors all have an impact on an individual hospital's margin. Surgeons should be fully cognizant of their significant influence in the marketplace. PMID:16192813

  6. Bottom-feeding for blockbuster businesses.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, David; Tomlinson, Doug; Scott, Larry

    2003-03-01

    Marketing experts tell companies to analyze their customer portfolios and weed out buyer segments that don't generate attractive returns. Loyalty experts stress the need to aim retention programs at "good" customers--profitable ones- and encourage the "bad" ones to buy from competitors. And customer-relationship-management software provides ever more sophisticated ways to identify and eliminate poorly performing customers. On the surface, the movement to banish unprofitable customers seems reasonable. But writing off a customer relationship simply because it is currently unprofitable is at best rash and at worst counterproductive. Executives shouldn't be asking themselves, How can we shun unprofitable customers? They need to ask, How can we make money off the customers that everyone else is shunning? When you look at apparently unattractive segments through this lens, you often see opportunities to serve those segments in ways that fundamentally change customer economics. Consider Paychex, a payroll-processing company that built a nearly billion-dollar business by serving small companies. Established players had ignored these customers on the assumption that small companies couldn't afford the service. When founder Tom Golisano couldn't convince his bosses at Electronic Accounting Systems that they were missing a major opportunity, he started a company that now serves 390,000 U.S. customers, each employing around 14 people. In this article, the authors look closely at bottom-feeders--companies that assessed the needs of supposedly unattractive customers and redesigned their business models to turn a profit by fulfilling those needs. And they offer lessons other executives can use to do the same. PMID:12632804

  7. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    PubMed

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  8. [Contact sensitization to external agents].

    PubMed

    Erdmann, S M; Merk, H-F

    2003-04-01

    The following review describes contact sensitization to topically applied medications--especially topical dermatological agents--and to external agents in the broadest sense. Particularly skin care products constitute a special source for sensitization due to their widespread use. Especially fragrances and preservatives in cosmetics play an important global role in eliciting contact allergies. Because of the extremely broad spectrum covered by the active and adjuvant ingredients contained in external agents, the following discussion focuses on specific substance groups.

  9. External dacryocystorhinostomy: Tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N.; Honavar, Santosh G.

    2012-01-01

    Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is one of the most common oculoplastics surgery performed. It is a bypass procedure that creates an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. This article will discuss the indications, goals, and simple techniques for a successful outcome of an external DCR. PMID:23440476

  10. Dynamic response of concrete beams externally reinforced with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) subjected to impulsive loads

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, D.M.; Ross, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    A series of 54 laboratory scale concrete beams 3 x 3 x 30 in. in size were impulsively loaded to failure in a drop weight impact machine. The beams had no internal reinforcement, but instead were externally reinforced on the bottom or tension side of the beams with 1, 2, and 3 ply AS4C/1919 graphite epoxy panels. In addition, several of the beams were also reinforced on the sides with 3 ply CFRP. The beams were simply supported in a drop weight machine and subjected to impact loads with amplitudes up to 10 kips, and durations less than 1 ms, at beam midspan. Measurements made during the loading event included beam total load, midspan displacement, as well as midspan strain at 3 locations in the beam`s cross-section. A high speed framing camera was also used to record the beam`s displacement-time behavior as well as to gain insight into the failure mechanisms. Beam midspan accelerations were determined by double differentiation of the displacement versus time data, and in turn, the beam`s inertial loads were calculated using the beam`s equivalent mass. Beam dynamic bending loads versus time were determined from the difference between the total load versus time and the inertial load versus time data. Bending loads versus displacements were also determined along with fracture energies. Failure to correct the loads for inertia will result in incorrect conclusions being drawn from the data, especially for bending resistance of brittle concrete test specimens. A comparison with quasistatic bending (fracture) energy data showed that the dynamic failure energy absorbed by the beams was always less than the static fracture energy, due to the brittle nature of concrete when impulsively loaded.

  11. New data on the bottom topography, recent sedimentation and water balance of Cerro Prieto dam, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yutsis, Vsevolod; Levchenko, Oleg; Lowag, Jens; Krivosheya, Konstantin; de León Gómez, Héctor; Kotsarenko, Anatolyi

    2010-05-01

    Cerro Prieto Dam, a small water reservoir in the NE Mexico, is characterized by very high velocity of recent sedimentation, high sub-bottom seepage and erosion, and as a result, nonlinear water balance. These phenomenons never were studied since construction of the dam in the beginning of 1980th. So the goal of our work was to investigate the bottom topography and also sub-bottom near surface structure using the parametric acoustical effect. High-resolution sub-bottom profiling, using the Innomar SES-2000 compact echosounder, was carried out in Cerro Prieto Dam during February-April of 2008. The survey was conducted onboard of a small motor boat. The SES transducer was mounted on the front side of the boat using light metal pipe, and all electronic equipment was installed on the deck. Accurate positioning of the boat was reached by GPS. Average speed was 8-10 km/h. Innomar's software tool ISE was provides near real-time post-processing of the collected SES data and operation procedure could be corrected on-line. Acoustic signal ensured vertical resolution of 10-15 cm at acceptable penetration up to 15 m. Bathymetry map was compiled assuming average sound velocity of 1450 m/s. The irregular bottom topography of Cerro Prieto dam was discovered. The present elevation of the water surface is about 181 m above see level, and the lake depth varies from 1-2 to 28 m. The SES records show a distinct bottom layer of recent sediments by 0.5 - 4 m thickness which follows reservoir floor topography. Very specific acoustic anomalies, which seem to be related with gas sediments, are observed. The integrated SES, gravity, magnetic and geoelectrical data interpretation allows assuming a series of the superficial fractures focused in a NW direction, perpendicular (NE-SW) to the general deep fault zone. Hydrological balance for the Cerro Prieto water reservoir has been analyzed for last two decades. There are three types of water level fluctuations on the Cerro Prieto dam: long

  12. Carbon XANES Data from Six Aerogel Picokeystones Cut from the Top and Bottom Sides of the Stardust Comet Sample Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Tsou, P.; Peltzer, C.; Jacobsen, C.

    2009-01-01

    Great care and a large effort was made to minimize the amount of organic matter contained within the flight aerogel used to collect Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples. Even so, by the very nature of the production process and silica aerogel s affinity for volatile organics keeping silica aerogel free from organics is a monumental task. Silica aerogel from three production batches was flown on the Stardust sample return mission. All 3 types had layered densities varying from 5mg/ml to 50 mg/ml where the densest aerogel was farthest away from the collection area. A 2 step gelation process was used to make the flight aerogel and organics used in this process were tetraethylorthosilicate, ethanol and acetonitrile. Both ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid were also used in the aerogel production process. The flight aerogel was baked at JPL at 300 C for 72 hours, most of the baking was done at atmosphere but twice a day the oven was pumped to 10 torr for hour [1]. After the aerogel was baked it was stored in a nitrogen purged cabinet until flight time. One aerogel cell was located in the SRC away from any sample collection area as a witness to possible contamination from out gassing of the space craft, re-entry gases and any other organic encounter. This aerogel was aerogel used in the interstellar collection sample tray and is the least dense of the 3 batches of aerogel flown. Organics found in the witness tile include organics containing Si-CH3 bonds, amines and PAHS. Besides organic contamination, hot spots of calcium were reported in the flight aerogel. Carbonates have been detected in comet 81P/Wild2 samples . During preflight analyses, no technique was used to analyze for carbonates in aerogel. To determine if the carbonates found in 81P/Wild2 samples were from the comet, it is necessary to analyze the flight aerogel for carbonate as well as for organics.

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  14. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  16. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  17. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  18. Rotatoelectricity in cholesteric side-chain liquid single crystal elastomers.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas M; Brand, Helmut R

    2006-11-21

    We analyze the phenomenon of rotatoelectricity which is characteristic of cholesteric side-chain liquid single crystal elastomers. Using a linearized macroscopic continuum description and our previous work we show that if such a material is exposed to a static external electric field oriented parallel to the cholesteric helical axis, the director of the liquid crystalline phase will rotate around the helical axis. The material considered is assumed to be a perfect electric insulator. We propose an experiment in which the effect of rotatoelectricity should be directly observable and from which the ratio of the material parameters involved will be accessible.

  19. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  20. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  1. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    We report measurements of direct CP-violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = +0.39 {+-} 0.15 (stat) {+-} 0.08 (syst), and botton baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{pi}{sup -}) = + 0.03 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.05 (syst) and A{sub CP} ({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK{sup -}) = +0.37 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.03 (syst). In addition, they measure CP violation in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP} (B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = -0.086 {+-} 0.023 (stat) {+-} 0.009 (syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  2. Heterogeneities in gelatin film formation using single-sided NMR.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Sushanta; Mattea, Carlos; Denner, Paul; Stapf, Siegfried

    2010-12-16

    Gelatin solutions were prepared in D(2)O. The drying process of cast solutions was followed with a single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanner until complete solidification occurred. Spin-spin relaxation times (T(2)) were measured at different layers with microscopic resolution and were correlated with the drying process during film formation. Additionally, the evaporation of the gelatin solution was observed optically from the reduction of the sample thickness, revealing that at the macroscopic level, the rate of evaporation is not uniform throughout the experiment. A crossover in the spatial evolution of the drying process is observed from the NMR results. At the early stages, the gel appears to be drier in the upper layers near the evaporation front, while this tendency is inverted at the later stages, when drying is faster from the bottom. XRD (X-ray diffraction) data showed that a structural heterogeneity persists in the final film.

  3. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  4. Side mount universal battery terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Byfield, D. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    An automobile battery is described of the type having side mounted, threaded bolt hole terminal connectors, battery cables having bored disc shaped terminals with peripheral insulating covers and, an improved terminal connector bolt adapted to accommodate the battery cable terminals and other electrical accessory terminals comprising: an elongated body of electrically conducting material having a longitudinal axis and an inner end and an outer end; a first generally cylindrical threaded stud formed on the inner end of the body. The first stud has a length and diameter disposed to permit thread engagement of the stud with one of the side mounted terminal connectors on the battery in electrical connection therewith, and pass through the bore in one of the battery cable terminals; a central portion on the body adjacent to and outwardly from the first stud, the central portion has a peripheral diameter greater than the first stud portion and has a first shoulder surface generally normal to the longitudinal axis of the body facing toward the inner end of the body and disposed to engage the face surface of one of the battery cable terminals in an electrically conducting relationship.

  5. Recent progress of interpretation of bottom pressure during tsunamigenic earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Nosov, Mikhail; Kolesov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Offshore observations make it possible to detect tsunamis in advance prior to their arrival at the shoreline. For this purpose, pressure sensors deployed in the deep sea have been used for a long time. After the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, the offshore tsunami observations have been used for tsunami warning upgrade in Japan. In the meantime, the information of actual observed wave height would be issued since 2013. In the near- or the far-fields, however, bottom pressure records usually exhibit a complicated interface of signals related not only to tsunamis but also to hydroacoustic and seismic waves. This is why we need to interpret the bottom pressure recorded by the pressure sensors. Network of offshore observatories recently deployed in the Nankai Trough, SW Japan (i.e., DONET) provides high sampling records of bottom pressure and seismic records. Additionally, the seismic sensors (both broad-band seismometer and accelerometer) are deployed at the same location of the pressure sensor. In the present study, we review the recent offshore observations of bottom pressure from the tsunamigenic earthquakes. An outer-rise earthquake (Mw7.1) on 25 October 2013 taken place near the Japan Trench, NE Japan, for example, generated a few tens of centimeters tsunami at the nearest shoreline, and it also could be recorded by the DONET pressure sensors as a few millimeters of tsunami. Full seismic waveforms have been recorded by two types of seismic sensors as well. We present some features of the obtained pressure signals during the earthquake, in which it is worthwhile noting that the bottom pressure corresponds to the bottom acceleration in the inter-mediate frequency band. In the high frequency band, on the other hand, the bottom pressure follows the bottom velocity. This characteristic would be used for retrieving tsunami signals from the bottom pressure. Thus, quantitative interpretation and data processing of offshore tsunami observations can contribute to the effective

  6. Pentagon chain in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, György; Gulácsi, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    We consider a pentagon chain described by a Hubbard type of model considered under periodic boundary conditions. The system (i) is placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the cells, and (ii) is in a site-selective manner under the action of an external electric potential. In these conditions, we show in an exact manner that the physical properties of the system can be qualitatively changed. The changes cause first strong modifications of the band structure of the system created by the one-particle part of the Hamiltonian, and second, produce marked changes of the phase diagram. We exemplify this by deducing ferromagnetic ground states in the presence of external fields in two different domains of the parameter space.

  7. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  8. Space station neutral external environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  9. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-07-01

    Externalizing problems are multidetermined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who are at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research have established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. This article presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as 2 adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  10. Developing nations and the compulsory license: maximizing access to essential medicines while minimizing investment side effects.

    PubMed

    Bird, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript addresses how developing countries can maximize access to essential medicines and minimize unwanted side-effects within the legal environment of a compulsory license regime. While compulsory licensing can play a role in improving public health, external social and political conditions must be considered in order to make licensing an effective practice.

  11. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor ... thinking or remembering things Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes Get help to remember things. Write down ...

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  13. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants. PMID:19423581

  14. DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. BOTTOM LEVEL OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING SOUTHWEST Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOTTOM LEVEL OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AT THE BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AT THE BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. 7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET STRUCTURE UNDER CONSTRUCTION CUTTING INTO HILL AT TOP OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  20. 17. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF READYMIX CONCRETE FOR BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF READY-MIX CONCRETE FOR BOTTOM OF ARIZONA CANAL. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. December 1943 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. BRIDGE ABUTMENTS WITH ARCH SEGMENTS ON RIVER BOTTOM. ARCHES COLLAPSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRIDGE ABUTMENTS WITH ARCH SEGMENTS ON RIVER BOTTOM. ARCHES COLLAPSED AROUND EIGHT YEARS BEFORE THIS DATE. - Whittlesey Road Bridge, Spanning Black River at Whittlesey Road, Lyons Falls, Lewis County, NY

  2. 20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF BOTTOM DOOR, THIRD BAY Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF BOTTOM DOOR, THIRD BAY Showing splayed head jambs dadoes, interior casing design. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  3. 100. View of painter letters at bottom of stairwell entry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. View of painter letters at bottom of stairwell entry to pit "C" reading "Pit "C": D.E. Swanson", looking northeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  4. 11. PAINTERS REMOVING MASKING TAPE, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. PAINTERS REMOVING MASKING TAPE, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM BOTTOM FLOOR OF DRYDOCK NO. 5. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel which has a mean length greater than 165 feet (50.3 meters) and is certificated for exposed...

  6. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel which has a mean length greater than 165 feet (50.3 meters) and is certificated for exposed...

  7. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel which has a mean length greater than 165 feet (50.3 meters) and is certificated for exposed...

  8. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel which has a mean length greater than 165 feet (50.3 meters) and is certificated for exposed...

  9. LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS POINTED DOWN FOR PROPER ORIENTATION). - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  10. MAPPING BATHYMETRY AND BOTTOM TYPE IN A SHALLOW ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bathymetry and bottom type are important in characterizing estuaries and their ecology but hard to map, especially in shallow estuaries. Acoustic backscattering was used to remotely sense these properties in the shallow Slocums River Estuary of Massachusetts. Acoustic pulses were...

  11. 38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom of tank No date - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  12. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  13. 18. AHWAHNEE MEADOW. SOUTHSIDE DRIVE AT BOTTOM OF MEADOW AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. AHWAHNEE MEADOW. SOUTHSIDE DRIVE AT BOTTOM OF MEADOW AND AHWAHNEE ROAD AT TOP OF MEADOW. NOTE OLD ROAD ALIGNMENT AT EAST EDGE OF MEADOW. - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  14. How bottom-dumps come out on top

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, C.H.

    1983-08-01

    Whether on-highway or off, bottom-dump semi-trailers may offer significant operating and maintenance advantages over end-dump straight trucks or semi-trailer configurations. In fact, many semi-trailer and body manufacturers expect that bottom-dumps will gain a significant share of the total market as transportation costs become more critical. The most obvious difference between bottom-and end-dump configurations is that much of the bottom-dump load is carried in the hoppers below fifth wheel level. This results in a low center of gravity which contributes to a very stable ride. The relatively low position of the load also permits low body walls. One 33-yard, 30-ton capacity model, for example, has a wall height of 9 ft 2 in. which makes loading possible with virtually any front loader.

  15. 11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER CHORD, STRINGERS, END POST AND BEARING SEAT; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  16. 5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing southeast - Cold Mountain Fire Lookout Station, Lookout Tower, Krassel District, Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, Dixie, Idaho County, ID

  17. 9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  18. 13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel hinge point and expansion joint, and concrete buttress, looking north northwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  19. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... equipment must not extend to within less than one inch of the bottom bearing surface of the skids or...

  20. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... equipment must not extend to within less than one inch of the bottom bearing surface of the skids or...

  1. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... equipment must not extend to within less than one inch of the bottom bearing surface of the skids or...

  2. 36. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer BOTTOM OF SOUTH WEST CORNER POST 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  3. Looking southeast at bottom house with open hearth building attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at bottom house with open hearth building attached to the right. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Marine plastic litter as an artificial hard bottom fouling ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, J.

    1990-09-01

    20 fouling organisms were observed on plastic litter dredged from the Elbe estuary during July 1990; 60% of the species were typical sessile hard bottom organisms. Most individuals found on this artificial hard bottom were barnacles ( Balanus crenatus, Elminius modestus), the mussel Mytilus edulis and the polychaete Lanice conchilega. All individuals were juveniles which had settled only recently on the plastics. The earliest settlers were not much older than 4 8 weeks.

  5. The reification objection to bottom-up cognitive ontology revision.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Joseph B; Machery, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Anderson (2014) proposes a bottom-up approach to cognitive ontology revision: Neuroscientists should revise their taxonomies of cognitive constructs on the basis of brain activation patterns across many tasks. We argue that such bottom-up proposal is bound to commit a mistake of reification: It treats the abstract mathematical entities uncovered by dimension reduction techniques as if they were real psychological entities. PMID:27562010

  6. Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Bracco, M. E.; Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr.

    2013-03-25

    We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.

  7. Client-Side Monitoring for Web Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Kurt D.; Ginsburg, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discusses mining Web data to draw conclusions about Web users and proposes a client-side monitoring system that supports flexible data collection and encompasses client-side applications beyond the Web browser to incorporate standard office productivity tools. Highlights include goals for client-side monitoring; framework for user monitoring,…

  8. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  9. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  10. Formation of Humic Substances in Weathered MSWI Bottom Ash

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haixia; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs) content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37°C and 50°C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na4P2O7. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37°C and at 18th week under 50°C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50°C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37°C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported. PMID:23844394

  11. Formation of humic substances in weathered MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haixia; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs) content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37°C and 50°C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na₄P₂O₇. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37°C and at 18th week under 50°C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50°C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37°C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported. PMID:23844394

  12. Consider FRP linings instead of replacing storage tank bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    LeBleu, J.B. ); Hummel, B. )

    1995-03-01

    If a storage tank bottom is corroding quickly, it must either be replaced, or a thick-filmed, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) lining must be applied to the existing tank bottom. Replacing a tank bottom can be a costly and time-consuming process. Proper selection and application of an FRP lining system with a 60 to 65-mil thickness can save time, money and prevent internal corrosion of the steel tank bottom for 10 to 20 years. Average corrosion rate of carbon steel storage tanks in crude oil service at ambient temperatures is more than 1 mil per year. Corrosion occurs even more quickly when a layer of water containing corrosive compounds such as salt and sediment settles to the bottom of a crude oil tank. Installing a thick fiber glass-reinforced lining system involves applying a primer, putty, catalyzed resin with a glass mat and a sealcoat. After the tank has been pumped dry and the surface properly prepared, the entire process takes substantially less than the downtime and costs associated with replacing the entire tank bottom. The paper describes the application of a FRP lining system, testing and metal repairs, and the use of catalyzed resin and glass mats.

  13. Measurement technique for bottom scattering in shallow water

    PubMed

    Holland; Hollett; Troiano

    2000-09-01

    Sonar performance predictions of reverberation in shallow water rely upon good estimates of the bottom-scattering strength. However, little is understood about bottom scattering in shallow water in the frequency range 400-4000 Hz, particularly its dependency upon frequency and its relationship to the physical properties of the seafloor. In order to address these issues, a new measurement technique has been developed to probe the frequency and angular dependency of bottom-scattering strength. The experimental technique is described which employs either coherent or incoherent sources (lightbulbs). In addition, measurement and modeling results for two diverse shallow water sites are presented. At one site, the scattering appears to arise at or near the water-sediment interface. At the other site, scattering from a 23-m sub-bottom horizon is clearly apparent in the data at and below 1800 Hz. The fact that our measurement technique can directly reveal the presence of sub-bottom scattering is a significant advance in the development of methods to explore the physical mechanisms that control bottom scattering.

  14. Evaluation of severe accident risks, Peach Bottom, Unit 2: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.C.; Breeding, R.J.; Jow, H.N.; Shiver, A.W. ); Helton, J.C. ); Smith, L.N. )

    1990-12-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. This power plant, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiated by events both internal and external to the power station were assessed. 39 refs., 174 figs., 133 tabs.

  15. Fleshing out facilitation - reframing interaction networks beyond top-down versus bottom-up.

    PubMed

    Watson, David M

    2016-08-01

    803 I. 803 II. 804 III. 804 IV. 805 V. 805 VI. 806 References 807 SUMMARY: Rather than direct plant-plant interactions, research on the community-scale influence of mistletoes reveals hitherto unappreciated roles of animals in mediating facilitation. Lacking roots and reliant upon animal vectors, mistletoes represent model systems with which to understand mechanisms underlying interaction networks. In addition to direct effects on nutrient dynamics via enriched litter-fall, mistletoes are visited by pollinators, seed dispersers and natural enemies, complementing increased heterogeneity in nutrient returns reallocated from infected hosts with increased external inputs. These amplified bottom-up effects are coupled with top-down influences of insectivores attracted to infected hosts and stands by increased availability of favoured prey. Simultaneously influencing nutrient dynamics and plant-plant interactions from below and above, visiting animals help explain variation in the context dependence of facilitation. PMID:27322844

  16. Healing patterns of transverse and oblique osteotomies in the canine tibia under external fixation.

    PubMed

    Aro, H T; Wahner, H T; Chao, E Y

    1991-01-01

    Healing patterns were compared between transverse and 60 degrees oblique osteotomies in canine tibiae stabilized under external fixation. Under similar in vitro testing conditions (osteotomy ends in contact), the axial stiffness of the oblique osteotomy under external fixation was 45% of the paired transverse osteotomy. Under torsion and bending, the two sides exhibited similar fixation rigidity. The animals put significantly less weight on the oblique side than on the transverse side in the early phases of bone healing (p less than 0.05 for static and p = 0.024 for dynamic weight bearing). The osteotomy bending stiffness at 60 days (in vivo) and the torsional stiffness of osteotomy union measured after sacrifice at 90 days were significantly higher on the transverse side (p = 0.013 and p = 0.016, respectively). Intracortical new bone formation was significantly higher on the transverse side (p less than 0.01), indicating a difference in the rate of cortical healing and remodeling. The average pin removal torque was significantly lower on the oblique side (p less than 0.05), a sign of increased pin loosening. In the clinical situation, unstable oblique or spiral fractures should be protected from weight bearing even under stable external fixation due to the delayed recovery of bone union stiffness property as well as increased pin tract problems.

  17. Compared sub-bottom profile interpretation in fjords of King George Island and Danco Coast, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, C.; Vilches, L.; Vallejos, C.; Fernandez, R.; Molares, R.

    2015-12-01

    The fjords of the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) and Danco Coast (Antarctic Peninsula) represent climatic transitional areas (subpolar to polar). The analysis of the distribution of sub-bottom facies helps to understand the prevailing sedimentary and climatic processes. This work seeks to characterize and compare the fjord seismic facies, of the indicated areas, to determine the main sedimentary processes in these regions. Compressed High-Intensity Radiated Pulse (CHIRP) records from 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler were obtained from the cruise: NBP0703 (2007); and pinger 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler records from the cruises: ECA-50 INACH (2014), and First Colombian Expedition (2015). Several seismic facies were recognized in all studied areas with some variability on their thickness and extent, and indicate the occurrence of similar sedimentary processes. These are: SSD facies (strong to weak intensity, stratified, draped sheet external shape), is interpreted as sedimentary deposits originated from suspended sediments from glaciar plumes and/or ice-rafting. This facies, in general, is thicker in the fjords of King George Island than in the larger fjords of the Danco Coast; on the other hand, within the Danco Coast area, this facies is thinner and more scarce in the smaller fjords and bays. MCM facies (moderate intensity, chaotic and with mounds) is associated with moraine deposits and/or basement. This is present in all areas, being most abundant in the Danco Coast area. WIC facies (weak intensity and chaotic) is interpreted as debris flows, which are present in both regions, but is most common in small fjords or bays in the Danco Coast, perhaps due to higher slopes of the seabed. In this work we discuss the influence of local climate, sediment plumes from the glaciers and other sedimentary processes on the distribution and geometry of the identified seismic facies.

  18. Exploring Tradeoffs in Demand-side and Supply-side Management of Urban Water Resources using Agent-based Modeling and Evolutionary Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanta, L.; Berglund, E. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Urban water supply systems may be managed through supply-side and demand-side strategies, which focus on water source expansion and demand reductions, respectively. Supply-side strategies bear infrastructure and energy costs, while demand-side strategies bear costs of implementation and inconvenience to consumers. To evaluate the performance of demand-side strategies, the participation and water use adaptations of consumers should be simulated. In this study, a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework is developed to simulate consumer agents that change their consumption to affect the withdrawal from the water supply system, which, in turn influences operational policies and long-term resource planning. Agent-based models are encoded to represent consumers and a policy maker agent and are coupled with water resources system simulation models. The CAS framework is coupled with an evolutionary computation-based multi-objective methodology to explore tradeoffs in cost, inconvenience to consumers, and environmental impacts for both supply-side and demand-side strategies. Decisions are identified to specify storage levels in a reservoir that trigger (1) increases in the volume of water pumped through inter-basin transfers from an external reservoir and (2) drought stages, which restrict the volume of water that is allowed for residential outdoor uses. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for Arlington, Texas, water supply system to identify non-dominated strategies for an historic drought decade. Results demonstrate that pumping costs associated with maximizing environmental reliability exceed pumping costs associated with minimizing restrictions on consumer water use.

  19. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    PubMed

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  20. The Lighter Side of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    1996-10-01

    From the drop of an apple to the stately dance of the galaxies, gravity is omnipresent in the Cosmos. Even with its high profile, gravity is the most enigmatic of all the known basic forces in nature. The Lighter Side of Gravity presents a beautifully clear and completely nontechnical introduction to the phenomenon of this force in all its manifestations. Astrophysicist Jayant Narlikar begins with an historical background to the discovery of the law of gravitation by Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century. Using familiar analogies, interesting anecdotes, and numerous illustrations to get across subtle effects and difficult points to readers, he goes on to describe the general theory of relativity and some of its strange and unfamiliar ideas such as curved spacetime, the bending of light, and black holes. Since first publication in 1982 (W.H. Freeman), Dr. Narlikar has brought his book completely up to date and expanded it to include the discovery of gigantic gravitational lenses in space, the findings of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, the detection of dark matter in galaxies, the investigation of the very early Universe, and other new ideas in cosmology. This lucid and stimulating book presents a clear approach to the intriguing phenomenon of gravity for everyone who has ever felt caught in its grip. Jayant Narlikar is the winner of many astronomical prizes and the author of Introduction to Cosmology (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

  1. Zero side force volute development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. G.; Franz, R. J.; Farmer, R. C.; Chen, Y. S.

    1995-01-01

    Collector scrolls on high performance centrifugal pumps are currently designed with methods which are based on very approximate flowfield models. Such design practices result in some volute configurations causing excessive side loads even at design flowrates. The purpose of this study was to develop and verify computational design tools which may be used to optimize volute configurations with respect to avoiding excessive loads on the bearings. The new design methodology consisted of a volute grid generation module and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) module to describe the volute geometry and predict the radial forces for a given flow condition, respectively. Initially, the CFD module was used to predict the impeller and the volute flowfields simultaneously; however, the required computation time was found to be excessive for parametric design studies. A second computational procedure was developed which utilized an analytical impeller flowfield model and an ordinary differential equation to describe the impeller/volute coupling obtained from the literature, Adkins & Brennen (1988). The second procedure resulted in 20 to 30 fold increase in computational speed for an analysis. The volute design analysis was validated by postulating a volute geometry, constructing a volute to this configuration, and measuring the steady radial forces over a range of flow coefficients. Excellent agreement between model predictions and observed pump operation prove the computational impeller/volute pump model to be a valuable design tool. Further applications are recommended to fully establish the benefits of this new methodology.

  2. Intracellular bottom-up generation of targeted nanosensors for single-molecule imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yanyan; Arai, Satoshi; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-02-01

    Organic dyes are useful tools for sensing cellular activities but unfavorable in single-molecule imaging, whereas quantum dots (QDs) are widely applied in single-molecule imaging but with few sensing applications. Here, to visualize cellular activities by monitoring the response of a single probe in living cells, we propose a bottom-up approach to generate nanoprobes where four organic dyes are conjugated to tetravalent single-chain avidin (scAVD) proteins via an intracellular click reaction. We demonstrate that the nanoprobes, exhibiting increased brightness and enhanced photostability, were detectable as single dots in living cells. The ease of intracellular targeting allowed the tracking of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remodeling with nanometer spatial resolution. Conjugating thermosensitive dyes generated temperature-sensitive nanoprobes on ER membranes that successfully monitored local temperature changes in response to external heat pulses. Our approach is potentially a suitable tool for visualizing localized cellular activities with single probe sensitivity in living cells.Organic dyes are useful tools for sensing cellular activities but unfavorable in single-molecule imaging, whereas quantum dots (QDs) are widely applied in single-molecule imaging but with few sensing applications. Here, to visualize cellular activities by monitoring the response of a single probe in living cells, we propose a bottom-up approach to generate nanoprobes where four organic dyes are conjugated to tetravalent single-chain avidin (scAVD) proteins via an intracellular click reaction. We demonstrate that the nanoprobes, exhibiting increased brightness and enhanced photostability, were detectable as single dots in living cells. The ease of intracellular targeting allowed the tracking of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remodeling with nanometer spatial resolution. Conjugating thermosensitive dyes generated temperature-sensitive nanoprobes on ER membranes that successfully monitored local

  3. Frontal Plane Knee Moments in Golf: Effect of Target Side Foot Position at Address

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Scott K.; Noffal, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR) and externally rotated (EXT) target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting) and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent). The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%); however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of attenuating these loads

  4. External Fixation: Principles and Applications.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Mir, Hassan R

    2015-11-01

    The modularity and ease of application of modern external fixation has expanded its potential use in the management of fractures and other musculoskeletal conditions. In fracture care, it can be used for provisional and definitive fixation. Short-term provisional applications include "damage control" and periarticular fracture fixation. The risk:benefit ratio of added stability needs to be assessed with each fixator. Soft-tissue management is critical during pin insertion to lessen the risk of loosening and infection. Although provisional fixation is safe for early conversion to definitive fixation, several factors affect the timing of definitive surgery, including the initial injury, external fixator stability, infection, and the physiologic state of the patient. PMID:26306568

  5. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  6. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  7. Using the Economic Balance Model to Teach Supply-Side and Demand-Side Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisciotta, John

    1983-01-01

    The Economic Balance model can be used in secondary economics classes to show demand- and supply-sides of the overall economy as well as how the two sides influence each other. Demand-side approaches to recession and inflation and supply-side approaches to expansion of production capacity and inflation are discussed. (AM)

  8. The Geographies of Difference: The Production of the East Side, West Side, and Central City School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendia, Edward; Ares, Nancy; Juarez, Brenda G.; Peercy, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Citywide constructs such as "West Side" or "South Side" are spatial codes that result from more than the informal conversations of city residents. This article shows how elementary school educators in one U.S. metropolitan school district participated in the production of a local knowledge of the East Side and West Side space and individual. It…

  9. Selecting category specific visual information: Top-down and bottom-up control of object based attention.

    PubMed

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The ability to select, within the complexity of sensory input, the information most relevant for our purposes is influenced by both internal settings (i.e., top-down control) and salient features of external stimuli (i.e., bottom-up control). We here investigated using fMRI the neural underpinning of the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes, as well as their effects on extrastriate areas processing visual stimuli in a category-selective fashion. We presented photos of bodies or buildings embedded into frequency-matched visual noise to the subjects. Stimulus saliency changed gradually due to an altered degree to which photos stood-out in relation to the surrounding noise (hence generating stronger bottom-up control signals). Top-down settings were manipulated via instruction: participants were asked to attend one stimulus category (i.e., "is there a body?" or "is there a building?"). Highly salient stimuli that were inconsistent with participants' attentional top-down template activated the inferior frontal junction and dorsal parietal regions bilaterally. Stimuli consistent with participants' current attentional set additionally activated insular cortex and the parietal operculum. Furthermore, the extrastriate body area (EBA) exhibited increased neural activity when attention was directed to bodies. However, the latter effect was found only when stimuli were presented at intermediate saliency levels, thus suggesting a top-down modulation of this region only in the presence of weak bottom-up signals. Taken together, our results highlight the role of the inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal regions in integrating bottom-up and top-down attentional control signals.

  10. Discovery External Tank Connection Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Vehicle Assembly Building, Ken Strite, NASA Quality Control, inspects the connection between Space Shuttle Discovery and the external tank that will be used to launch mission STS-103 in early December. This 10 day mission is designed to replace aging parts on the nine year old Hubble Space Telescope and to upgrade some of its functioning systems. During the flight, the astronaut crew will replace all six of the observatory's gyroscopes, a fine guidance sensor, its main computer, and other equipment.

  11. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy. PMID:27516051

  12. Shaping of the Southern Adriatic Continental Margin Through Widespread Mass Wasting and Bottom Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trincardi, F.; Cattaneo, A.; Correggiari, A.; Verdicchio, G.; Tobi, T.

    2003-12-01

    New TOBI seafloor images and VHR Chirp sonar profiles reveal widespread collapsing of the South Adriatic continental slope including: multiple overlapping slide scars affecting more than 100 km of Pleistocene regressive shelf-margin deposits below the shelf edge, extensive blocky slides on the lower slope (block sizes up to 200 x 500 m), and a basin wide acoustically-transparent deposit up to 40 m thick, buried under a late-Pleistocene-Holocene mud section, in water depths greater than 1000 m. Lateral variations in internal geometry and seafloor morphology likely reflects along margin differences in sediment composition and thickness of the mass-transport deposits and variable run outs (up to 40 km). Preliminary correlation to published cores in the area indicates that the main mass transport deposit reached the basin floor during the Last Glacial Maximum, but younger failures of smaller size may have affected the slope in more recent times. The new data show that the entire slope area is swept by bottom currents generating furrowed areas up to several tens of km2 in extent, moats on the downdrift side of seafloor irregularities (slide blocks) and preferential sediment deposition on the inferred updrift side, and growth of upslope-migrating sediment waves. In particular, two fields of sediment waves can be mapped in water depths of 400-600 and 1000 m. The former may reflect the activity of the Levantine Intermediate Waters, while the latter may be linked to the downslope flow of the Northern Adriatic Dense Waters. Future work will focus on the definition of intervals of growth vs quiescence of the sediment waves, their possible relation to paleoceanographic reconfigurations, and their interplay with seafloor irregularities dictated by slope instability. A smaller-scale possibly comparable interaction of seafloor morphology generated by sediment deformation and differential deposition of muddy deposits on the shelf emphasizes the importance of bottom

  13. Bottom current and sediment transport on San Pedro Shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, David E.; Cacchione, David A.; Karl, Herman A.

    1985-01-01

    GEOPROBE (Geological Processes Bottom Environmental) tripods were used to measure bottom currents, pressure, and light transmission and scattering and to obtain time-series photographs of the sea floor at depths of 23 m and 67 m on San Pedro shelf between 18 April and 6 June 1978. Winds were light (< 5 m/s) with a mean direction from the southwest throughout the measurement period. Hourly averaged currents 1 m above the bottom never exceeded 21 cm/s; average speeds were about 5 cm/s at the 23-m site and 6.8 cm/s at 67 m, and the strongest currents were produced by the tides. The mean flow of bottom water was less than 3 cm/s at both GEOPROBES and was rather persistently southward (offshelf). Wave-generated bottom currents and bottom-pressure variations were sampled at hourly intervals; average wave period and wave height were 12.8 s and 0.44 m, respectively, at the 23-m site. Wave orbital velocities ranged from about 5 to 30 cm/s at 23 m and from 2 to 8 cm/s at 67 m. Bottom photographs at 67 m show that the relatively sluggish tide-generated and mean currents were below threshold velocity for the silty, very fine sand throughout the observational period. Threshold depth for wave rippling of very fine sand averaged about 28 m with a range from about 12 m to 50 m. Wave-generated currents were the only currents that exceeded threshold levels. The wave currents maintained relatively high concentrations of sediment in suspension near the bottom over the inner shelf (< 25 m), and this material (principally silt and clay) was transported offshore by the weak mean flow. Approximately 50% of this material was deposited as the bottom orbital velocities decreased to subthreshold values ( nearly equal 10-15 cm/s). The observed movement of fine sediment across the inner shelf can account for a portion of the mud content of the modern silty sands on the central shelf and on the outer shelf. However, it is clear that the sand fractions, which constitute greater than 70% of the

  14. Closeup view of an External Tank (ET) Attach Ring undergoing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of an External Tank (ET) Attach Ring undergoing preparations in the Processing Building of the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center. After preparations are complete the ET Attach Ring will be mated to the top of the Aft Motor Segment. The most prominent features in this view are the ET/Solid Rocket Booster Struts in the center and left in the view and the Aft Integrated Electronics Assembly located on the right side if the ring in this view. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. Green tea catechins for treatment of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Sara M; Monk, Bradley J; Tewari, Krishnansu S

    2009-03-01

    This review evaluates the antiviral, antioxidant, and immunostimulatory properties of green tea catechins. Two randomized trials evaluating the activity and efficacy of green tea catechins in the management of external genital warts are presented, and the reported side effects associated with this topical treatment modality are outlined. Finally, the mechanism of action, percent of wart clearance, time to clearance, and toxicity profile of green tea catechins are compared with those of podofilox and imiquimod, 2 other patient-administered topical agents approved for treatment of anogenital warts.

  16. On a Bottom-Up Approach to Scientific Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Two popular models of scientific discovery, abduction and the inference to the best explanation (IBE), presuppose that the reason for accepting a hypothetical explanation A comes from the epistemic and/or explanatory force manifested in the fact that observed fact C is an inferred consequence of A. However, not all discoveries take this top-down procedure from A to C, in which the result of discovery A implies the observed fact C. I contend that discovery can be modeled as a bottom-up procedure based on inductive and analogical rules that lead us to infer from C to A. I take the theory of Dignaga, an Indian medieval logician, as a model of this bottom-up approach. My argument has three panels: 1) this bottom-up approach applies to both commonsense and scientific discovery without the assumption that C has to be an inferred consequence of A; 2) this bottom-up approach helps us get around problems that crop up in applying abduction and/or IBE, which means that scientific discovery need not to be modeled exclusively by top-down approaches; and 3) the existence of the bottom-up approach requires a pluralist attitude towards modeling of scientific discovery.

  17. Long-term observations of bottom current and bottom sediment movement on the mid-Atlantic continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Noble, Marlene A.; Folger, David W.

    1979-01-01

    Long-term in situ observations made at three locations on the mid-Atlantic continental shelf during 1975–1976 clearly show intermittent movement of bottom sediment caused by currents, waves, and other forcing mechanisms. In winter, storm-associated bottom currents greater than 30 cm s−1 resuspended and transported sediments. Net water particle excursions during storms were about 20–30 km longshelf and 5–10 km cross-shelf. Wave-induced bottom currents also resuspended sediments during periods of low mean flow. Sediment motion was observed in summer, although bottom conditions were generally tranquil. Significant changes in suspended matter concentration were observed that were only partially related to bottom currents. These changes may have been caused by biological activity or advection. Bottom currents on the mid-Atlantic region of the continental shelf were characterized by a coherent, primarily cross-shelf tidal flow of 5–10 cm s−1 and a low-frequency longshelf component of 5–20 cm s−1. The longshelf current was coherent over length scales of 100 km at tidal frequencies and for motions with periods greater than 50 hours. For these longer periods the longshelf flow was coherent with wind stress, which implies that winds were a major driving force of the longshelf current. The cross-shelf current was not coherent at stations separated by 100 km except at tidal frequencies. Packets of high-frequency internal waves were observed during stratified conditions in summer with bottom currents as large as 20 cm s−1.

  18. Bony tubercle at external occipital protuberance and prominent ridges.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajani

    2012-11-01

    During the examination of skulls in the osteology laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, CSM Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India, a skull was detected having exostosis projecting from the external occipital protuberance along with prominent superior nuchal lines appearing as ridges. Measurements of the tubercle were taken by vernier calipers, and possible causes and clinical implications were analyzed.The length of this tubercle was 8 mm; width was 6 mm and thickness 1.5 mm. The superior nuchal lines appeared as prominent ridges. The height of the ridges was 5 mm on both sides; the thickness was 10 mm and 8 mm, respectively, on both the right and left sides. The length of the ridges was 4.8 cm on the right side and 4.4 cm on the left side.The tubercle may cause occipital headache in general but especially in tree climbers and basketball/volleyball players during vertical biomechanical movements of the neck. The knowledge of this tubercle is of paramount importance to anatomists, neurosurgeons, sports physicians, radiologists, forensic experts, and anthropologists. PMID:23172430

  19. Bony tubercle at external occipital protuberance and prominent ridges.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajani

    2012-11-01

    During the examination of skulls in the osteology laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, CSM Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India, a skull was detected having exostosis projecting from the external occipital protuberance along with prominent superior nuchal lines appearing as ridges. Measurements of the tubercle were taken by vernier calipers, and possible causes and clinical implications were analyzed.The length of this tubercle was 8 mm; width was 6 mm and thickness 1.5 mm. The superior nuchal lines appeared as prominent ridges. The height of the ridges was 5 mm on both sides; the thickness was 10 mm and 8 mm, respectively, on both the right and left sides. The length of the ridges was 4.8 cm on the right side and 4.4 cm on the left side.The tubercle may cause occipital headache in general but especially in tree climbers and basketball/volleyball players during vertical biomechanical movements of the neck. The knowledge of this tubercle is of paramount importance to anatomists, neurosurgeons, sports physicians, radiologists, forensic experts, and anthropologists.

  20. A two-dimensional model for the heat transfer on the external circuit of a Stirling engine for a dish/Stirling system

    SciTech Connect

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the {kappa}-{var{underscore}epsilon} turbulent model for the incompressible fluid flow has been used to describe the heat transfer and gas dynamical processes on the external circuit of a Stirling Engine as used on a Solar Dish/Stirling System. The problem considered, in this work for a cavity-type heat receiver of the Stirling Engine, is that of the heat transfer in the body of the shell of the heat exchangers of the engine due to the thermal conductivity, the convective heat transfer between the working fluid and the walls of the engine internal gas circuit and the heat transfer due to the forced convection of the air in the cavity and in the attached air domain. The boundary conditions employed on the engines internal circuit were obtained using the developed one-dimensional second level mathematical model of the engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation on the bottom and side walls of the heat receiver have been taken into account and the temperature fields for the heat receiver and the air velocity have been obtained for the case when the heat receiver is affected by wind. The numerical results show that it is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is the largest reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the convection of the air.

  1. Daytime distribution of Pontoporeia affinis off bottom in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1968-01-01

    The vertical migration of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis in Lake Michigan has been well documented by Wells, Marzolf, and McNaught and Hasler. Wells and Marzolf observed Pontoporeia off bottom only at night. McNaught and Hasler, however, found Pontoporeia above the bottom shortly after noon in a 24-hr study on 12 June 1965, and some individuals were taken just below the thermocline in all daylight hours in a similar study on 19-20 August. This paper presents evidence that Pontoporeia regularly were present above bottom during the day from April-August 1964. The data for this report were collected during a study of seasonal and depth distribution of larval bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) in Lake Michigan. Sampling was conducted from the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries RV Cisco off Saugatuck, Michigan, at intervals of about 10 days from 9 April to 14 August 1964. A few samples were taken on 22 August and 15 October.

  2. Fluid flow over arbitrary bottom topography in a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Srikumar

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional free surface potential flow over an arbitrary bottom in a channel is considered to analyze the behavior of the free surface profile using linear theory. It is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible and flow is irrotational. Perturbation analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform technique is employed to determine the first order corrections of some important physical quantities such as free surface profile, velocity potential, etc. From the practical point of view, one arbitrary bottom topography is considered to determine the free surface profile since the free surface profile depends on the bottom topography. It is found that the free surface profile is oscillatory in nature, representing a wave propagating downstream and no wave upstream.

  3. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high

  4. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-01-01

    Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.

  5. Side polished twin-core fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianbin; Yuan, Libo

    2015-07-01

    A novel optical fiber coupler was proposed and fabricated for coupling each core of a twin-core fiber (TCF) with a single-core fiber (SCF) core simultaneously and accessing independently both cores of the TCF. The coupler is mainly composed of two sides polished SCF and a side polished TCF. Each optical field launched from the TCF could be coupled into the side polished SCF. The coupler has a simple structure and less cross-talk between the two cores.

  6. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  7. Physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games in elite rugby league players. Sixteen male rugby league players participated in 'on-side' and 'off-side' games. Both small-sided games were played in a 40- × 40-m playing area. The 'off-side' game permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. Players were permitted to pass backward or forward (to an 'off-side' player). The 'on-side' game also permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. However, players were only permitted to pass backward to players in an 'on-side' position. Heart rate and movement patterns (via global positioning system) were recorded continuously throughout both games. Data were collected on the distance covered, number of high-acceleration and velocity efforts, and recovery between efforts. Video footage was also taken to track the performance of the players. Post hoc inspection of the footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals. In comparison to 'on-side' games, 'off-side' games had a greater number of involvements ("touches"), passes, and effective passes. However, the cognitive demands of 'on-side' games were greater than 'off-side' games. 'Off-side' games resulted in a greater total distance covered, greater distance covered in mild and moderate accelerations, and greater distance covered in low, moderate, and high-velocity efforts. There were also a greater number of short duration recovery periods between efforts in 'off-side' games. The results of this study demonstrate that 'off-side' games provide greater physiological and skill demands than 'on-side' games. 'Off-side' games may provide a practical alternative to 'on-side' games for the development of skill and fitness in elite rugby league players.

  8. Ocean bottom sediments as an active carbon pool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Bottom deposits of oceans, seas and lakes are long term carbon sinks - particulate organic carbon falls to the bottom where it is covered by sediments and preserved by anoxic conditions. However, the upper horizons of these deep sediments ('active layer') interact with bottom waters through diffusion, bubbling of gasses and bioturbation and can thus also act as temporary carbon sources given favorable environment conditions. Oxygen diffusion is the main factor that limits organic decomposition in bottom deposits. Depth of diffusion depends on porosity of sediments and rates of oxygen consumption in the upper horizons. Amplified organic rain leads to higher oxygen demand and, consequently, to a thinner oxic horizon in the bottom sediments. Declined ocean productivity, in contrast, allows oxygen to diffuse deeper into the bottom sediments and remobilizes previously preserved carbon. Therefore a substantial decline in ocean productivity during glacial periods could cause ocean sediments to shift abruptly from a carbon sink to a considerable carbon source. To estimate the effects of the phenomena described above, we present a model of the dynamics and vertical distribution of organic carbon in ocean sediments that considers the input of organic rain, sediments porosity, oxygen availability, rates of sedimentation to the ocean floor and bioturbation. The model enables quantification of bulk carbon storage, carbon distribution within the 'active layer', and the flux of carbon from the upper sediment horizons to deeper deposits as sediments accumulate on the ocean floor. Applying our model, we find that during glacial periods, decreased ocean productivity led to the mobilization of old carbon previously stored within anoxic horizons. Under this scenario, carbon transfer from sediments to ocean waters would have exceeded 10 kg/m2. Our study therefore, suggests that the ocean floor is not merely a passive buffer in the global carbon cycle, but instead an active pool which

  9. The recycling of MSW incinerator bottom ash by sintering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Tsai, Chen-Chiu; Lin, Kae-Long; Chiang, Kung-Yuh

    2003-08-01

    In recognition of the trend toward an increased use of bottom ash as construction material, the authors have investigated the feasibility of recovering bottom ash for use as aggregates, by sintering size-fractioned MSW incinerator bottom ash (particle size less than 1.41 mm and between 4.76-1.41 mm) at 400-1,000 degrees C for 60-240 min, and then determining the sintered material characteristics, such as the compressive strength, heavy metal leachability and principal material properties. The results indicate that the pH of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) leachate produced from both fine and the coarse ash, ranged from 10.0-11.5, and from 7.5-11.3 respectively, and showed a tendency to decrease with an increasing sintering temperature. In addition, for both types of ash the compressive strength of the sintered monoliths, ranging from 50-55 MPa, decreased slightly when the sintering temperature was increased from 400 to 600 degrees C. Deformation problems may arise from the melting of glassy substances in the ash when bottom ash is sintered at temperatures higher than 700 degrees C. Thus, when sintered between 800 to 1,000 degrees C, the sintered bottom ash pellets might disintegrate due to the formation of aluminium and/or calcium salts. The decomposition of calcium carbonate at 650 degrees C which releases significant amounts of carbon dioxide, may also cause the destruction of a monolith. Based on considerations of loss on ignition, volume changes, water adsorption, soundness, bulk density and the compressive strength of the sintered ash, developed by the sintering of bottom ash between 400 to 600 degrees C after removing its coarse impurities, the general results from the experiments suggest that the aggregates do meet the Chinese National Standards (CNS) for permeable blocks. PMID:14531518

  10. Passive Seismic Reflectivity Imaging with Ocean-Bottom Cable Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohl, D.; Mateeva, A.

    2005-12-01

    The idea of imaging the subsurface reflectivity distribution by correlating long traces of seismic ``noise'' (i.e. seismic data recorded without active sources) goes back more than 30 years [1]. To this day, passive seismic reflectivity imaging has not been exploited for business use in the E&P industry. The conditions for successful passive seismic reflection imaging have greatly improved over the past few years, and the prize of cheap continuous sourceless seismic imaging and possibly monitoring is still large. Nearly unlimited quantities of very high quality passive noise data are now available from permanent 4C ocean bottom cable (OBC) installations. In the present contribution, we report our initial results for single-line (2D) OBC data collected in the North Sea and GOM. The OBCs used for the experiment are of length 6-10 km with 4C receivers spaced 50 m apart. They are deployed in both shallow and deep water over large hydrocarbon reservoirs. Passive noise data were recorded for 8-24 h periods, sometimes several times, and months apart. In the analysis presented here only the hydrophone records are used, and the data from all recording periods are used together to produce a single 2D migrated reflectivity section. We observe that environmental noise (e.g. boat and rig activity) play an important role for imaging and usually requires pre-migration seismic processing steps to filter out unwanted signals. At the core of our image generation and processing sequence is the crosscorrelation of noise trace pairs and subsequent prestack time migration [1] with a velocity model established for the active-source OBC data processing. We compute 4 sec of lag time to either side of t=0. After removing unwanted signals (e.g. seafloor interface waves) from these ``virtual shot gathers'' one can clearly detect the linear-moveout direct water wave with velocity 1500 m/s, and a linear interface wave with velocity 2000 m/s. Other ``events'' with moveout are visible, but the

  11. Analysis of trunk muscle activity in the side medicine-ball throw.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yusuke; Miyatsuji, Kazutaka; Kawabata, Koichi; Fuchimoto, Takafumi; Ito, Akira

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyogram (EMG) activity of the trunk musculature for long throwers and short throwers during the side medicine-ball throw. The study consisted of 2 sessions. Thirty athletes performed the side medicine-ball throw (S-MBT) in the first session. The top 5 subjects (long throwers) and the worst 5 subjects (short throwers) in the performance of the S-MBT proceeded to the second session. These subjects performed the fast side medicine-ball throw (FS-MBT) and the isometric maximal trunk rotation torque (IMTRT) test after applying surface electrodes bilaterally to the following muscles: pectoralis major, rectus abdominis, external oblique, and latissimus dorsi. The value of IMTRT in the left turn in long throwers was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that recorded for short throwers, whereas no difference was observed in the right turn. The velocities of the medicine ball using 2-kg, 4-kg, and 6-kg medicine balls were significantly different (p < 0.01-0.001) between long throwers and short throwers The examination of EMG activity in each muscle group for long throwers and short throwers revealed that the major difference between the 2 groups is EMG activity of the left external oblique. These results suggest that the EMG activity of the external oblique on either side is an important factor for FS-MBT.

  12. Bottom-up silicon nanowire-based thermoelectric microgenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, D.; Huber, R.; Hierold, C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, bottom-up intrinsic crystalline Si nanowire arrays in combination with top-down microfabrication techniques and a vertical device architecture have been proposed to develop an all-silicon nanostructured thermoelectric generator. To fabricate this device, a suitable vertical integration of Si NWs on patterned microstructures, which define the thermoelectric legs of the generator, has been achieved by bonding top and bottom silicon structures through nanowires. The process has been proven to be a feasible approach that employs a regrowth process of the nanowires for bonding purposes.

  13. Running of the bottom quark mass within the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, L.

    2008-11-23

    We compute the exact two-loop matching coefficient for the bottom-quark mass m{sub b}, within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), taking into account O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) contributions from the Supersymmetric Quantum Chromodynamics (SQCD). We find that the three-loop order corrections to the running bottom-quark mass exceed the uncertainty due to the current experimental accuracy. They can reach up to 30% from the tree-level m{sub b}, for models with large values of tan {beta} and relatively light SUSY mass scale.

  14. Determination of bottom pressure in river flow over an obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlychkov, V. A.

    2014-05-01

    Free-surface flow in natural watercourses was investigated using two-dimensional incompressible fluid equations written for a longitudinal vertical plane. Within the framework of similarity theory, expanding the unknown variables in power series of given structure reduces the problem to a sequence of ordinary differential equations for which an analytical solution is obtained. The solution reproduces the spatial pattern of the flow over the bottom surface of arbitrary geometry. The results of calculation of the pressure field near an underwater pipeline are presented which can be used in the stability analysis of pipeline-bottom soil systems in the case of scouring.

  15. Estimating Location without External Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system. PMID:25356642

  16. Regional lung volume differences between the side-lying and semi-prone positions.

    PubMed

    Mase, Kyoushi; Tagami, Miki; Imura, Shigeyuki; Tomita, Kazuhide; Monma, Masahiko; Nozoe, Masafumi; Takashima, Yukie

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the differences in regional lung volume between the semi-prone (Sim's position) and side-lying position, and the optimal position for increasing lung volume. [Methods] Measurements were performed in both positions on both sides. Sim's position was inclined 45° forward from the side-lying position. A 1.5-T system with a fast advanced spin-echo sequence in the coronal plane was used for magnetic resonance imaging. [Results] The two positions did not significantly differ in total lung capacity and its subdivisions on both sides, except the left lung in the right side-lying position and right Sim's position. In the nondependent lung, the percentage lung volume of the dorsal segment was significantly higher in the right Sim's position than in the right side-lying position. However, no significant difference was observed between the left side-lying and left Sim's position. [Conclusion] The heart was displaced ventrally by gravity in Sim's position and leaned on the ventral parapet. The spaces for the expansion of the ventral and dorsal segments of the lung were decreased and increased in Sim's position, respectively. With a nondependent left lung, the increase in the percentage lung volume of the dorsal segment was greater in Sim's position than in the side-lying position. PMID:27134405

  17. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-10-01

    A heat regenerative external combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes fuel inlet means which extends along the exhaust passage and/or combustion chamber in order to preheat the fuel, To provide for preheating by gases in both the combustion chamber and the exhaust passage, the combustion chamber is arranged annularly around the drive shaft and between the cylinders. This configuration also is advantageous in that it reduces the noise of combustion. The engine of the invention is particularly well-suited for use in a torpedo.

  18. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  19. Soft bottom mollusc assemblages and pollution in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, José M.; Carlos García-Gómez, J.

    2004-06-01

    Conventional harbours, provided with only one entrance and devoid of channels, are enclosed areas with low water renewal, high sedimentation rate and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments; the soft bottom communities are characterised by low species richness and low values of the diversity and evenness indexes. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, presents an unusual structure since it is provided with two opposing entrances and a channel, which increase the water renewal across the middle of the harbour. These unusual characteristics turn the harbour of Ceuta into an adequate locality to test its environmental implications on macrofaunal assemblages. In the present study, the spatial distribution of mollusc community associated with soft bottoms was studied in relation to the influence of environmental factors on the harbour of Ceuta and nearby areas, North Africa. Twenty-one stations (15 inside and six outside the harbour) were sampled and 26 variables were measured in the sediment of each station: depth, %sand, organic matter, lipids, P, N, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sr, Zn. The special configuration of Ceuta harbour created a great variability in sediment characteristics and environmental measures depending on the stations and, due to this heterogeneity, the mollusc species richness in the sediments inside the harbour (45 species) was higher than in conventional harbours. The multivariate approach based on MDS analysis was much more sensitive than univariate techniques to detect differences between internal and external stations of the harbour of Ceuta. The percentage of sand was the main factor to affect the distribution of the mollusc assemblages according to the BIO-ENV procedure and the CCA. SIMPER showed that the bivalves Parvicardium exiguum, Ervilia castanea, Spisula subtruncata and Digitaria digitata were the species that most contributed to the dissimilarity between internal and external stations; P

  20. The Bulging Behavior of Thick-Walled 6063 Aluminum Alloy Tubes Under Double-Sided Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Song; Yuan, Shi-Jian

    2015-05-01

    To make further exploration on the deformation behavior of tube under double-sided pressures, the thick-walled 6063 aluminum alloy tubes with an outer diameter of 65 mm and an average thickness of 7.86 mm have been used to be bulged under the combined action of internal and external pressures. In the experiment, two ends of the thick-walled tubes were fixed using the tooth and groove match. Three levels of external pressure (0 MPa, 40 MPa, and 80 MPa), in conjunction with the internal pressure, were applied on the tube outside and inside simultaneously. The effect of external pressure on the bulging behavior of the thick-walled tubes, such as the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution, has been investigated. It is shown that the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution in the homogeneous bulging area are all insensitive to the external pressure. However, the external pressure can make the thick-walled tube achieve a thinner wall at the fracture area. It reveals that the external pressure can only improve the fracture limit of the thick-walled 6063 tubes, but it has very little effect on their homogeneous bulging behavior. It might be because the external pressure can only increase the magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure for the tube but has no effect on the Lode parameter.

  1. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  2. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  3. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  4. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  5. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  6. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a lightweight, portable device ... AED? Non-medical personnel such as police, fire service personnel, flight attendants, security guards and other lay ...

  7. Perturbation Methods for Real-Time In Situ Evaluation of Hot-Side Thermal Resistances in Thermoelectric Energy Recovery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Terry J.

    2015-06-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) power systems in high-temperature industrial, transportation, and military energy systems require high-performance hot-side and cold-side heat transfer to provide the critical temperature differential and transfer the required thermal energy to create the power output. Hot- and cold-side heat transfer performance is typically characterized by the hot-side and cold-side thermal resistance, R h,th and R c,th, respectively. This heat transfer performance determines the hot-side temperature, T h, and cold-side temperature, T c, conditions when operating in energy recovery environments with available temperature differentials characterized by an external driving temperature, T src, and ambient temperature, T amb. It is crucial to monitor and track the hot-side thermal performance at all times during TE energy recovery system operation, thereby allowing one to track the system "health," predict future expected system performance, and anticipate/prevent system failures. This paper describes the use of a perturbation methodology and a direct coupling between the TE current, voltage, and hot-side energy flow to extract a real-time in situ evaluation of hot-side thermal resistances. External measurable TE parameters, either system current or T src, can be perturbed during system operation, and the resulting TE system response can then be coupled mathematically to the hot-side thermal transfer performance (i.e., thermal resistance). This paper discusses the mathematical formalism of this technique, and TE module experimental data showing successful application of real-time current perturbation. This technique provides a pathway for developing faster, real-time system monitoring and diagnostics to alleviate system performance degradation, or prevent system damage from dramatic changes in hot-side thermal transfer conditions in industrial, transportation, and spacecraft TE power systems.

  8. Bakke: Some Views. Both Sides Won

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Bertram

    1978-01-01

    Those on both sides of the Bakke case have escalated the rhetoric and predictions of doom if the Supreme Court failed to support their particular view. Now that the Court has spoken, in a way that upholds the tradition of the American promise, both sides must come together to make that promise a reality. (Author/MC)

  9. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  10. Metabolic Network Prediction of Drug Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Itay; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-03-23

    Drug side effects levy a massive cost on society through drug failures, morbidity, and mortality cases every year, and their early detection is critically important. Here, we describe the array of model-based phenotype predictors (AMPP), an approach that leverages medical informatics resources and a human genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) to predict drug side effects. AMPP is substantially predictive (AUC > 0.7) for >70 drug side effects, including very serious ones such as interstitial nephritis and extrapyramidal disorders. We evaluate AMPP's predictive signal through cross-validation, comparison across multiple versions of a side effects database, and co-occurrence analysis of drug side effect associations in scientific abstracts (hypergeometric p value = 2.2e-40). AMPP outperforms a previous biochemical structure-based method in predicting metabolically based side effects (aggregate AUC = 0.65 versus 0.59). Importantly, AMPP enables the identification of key metabolic reactions and biomarkers that are predictive of specific side effects. Taken together, this work lays a foundation for future detection of metabolically grounded side effects during early stages of drug development. PMID:27135366

  11. Upper extremity range of motion and isokinetic strength of the internal and external shoulder rotators in major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Brown, L P; Niehues, S L; Harrah, A; Yavorsky, P; Hirshman, H P

    1988-01-01

    Forty-one professional baseball players volunteered for upper extremity range of motion measurements and isokinetic testing for internal and external shoulder rotation. Pitchers demonstrated 9 degrees more external shoulder rotation with the arm abducted, 5 degrees more forearm pronation, and 9 degrees less shoulder extension on the dominant side compared with the dominant side of position players. Pitchers also demonstrated 9 degrees more external rotation in abduction, 5 degrees less shoulder flexion, 11 degrees less horizontal extension, 15 degrees less internal rotation in abduction, 6 degrees less elbow extension, 4 degrees less elbow flexion, and 5 degrees less forearm supination on the dominant side compared with their nondominant side. Position players demonstrated 8 degrees more external rotation in abduction, 14 degrees less horizontal extension, and 8 degrees less elbow extension on the dominant side compared with their nondominant side. Greater torque was produced by pitchers compared with position players for the dominant and nondominant arm at all test speeds for both mean peak and mean average torque. Greater torque was produced by the dominant arm compared with the nondominant arm also at all test speeds for both of these measurements. No difference was found between the rotation ratios for either arm, for either group, for all speeds.

  12. Use of vitrified MSWI bottom ashes for concrete production.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Monica; Salvo, Milena; Ventrella, Andrea; Buzzi, Luigi; Veglia, Massimo

    2009-03-01

    Bottom ashes from a north Italian municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) were vitrified at 1450 degrees C without adding any vitrifying agent, then ground and sieved to different granulometry (ranging from 50 microm to 20mm), and used as filler, sand, or aggregate for concrete. Samples were characterized via slump tests (UNI 9418), alkali-silica reactivity (UNI 8520/22 and ASTM C 298), and compression strength tests (UNI 6132, 6132/72, 6686/72), and compared to reference samples obtained without vitrified bottom ashes (VBA). Our results show that vitrified bottom ashes are unsuitable as a sand substitute; however, concrete containing up to 20 wt.% of VBA filler used as a substitute for cement and up to 75 vol.% of VBA as a substitute for natural aggregate retains the same mechanical properties as reference samples. Alkali-silica or other detrimental reactions were not observed in VBA-containing concrete samples after a period of two years. The results of this work demonstrate that vitrified bottom ashes from MSWI can be used instead of natural aggregates in mortar and concrete production. PMID:18845429

  13. Good news from the bottom: US asphalt market 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-22

    For US refiners faced with numerous tough challenges in 1993, the US asphalt market recovery may have provided some welcome news for those watching the bottom line. Higher prices and increased sales made the asphalt market a summertime profit center for many US refiners and marketers -- for the first time in years.

  14. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... integral auxiliary test valve, a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug shall be installed in the outlet nozzle above... and female flange attachment, but in no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the... attachment on a pad attached to the outside bottom of the tank. The mounting pad must have a...

  15. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... integral auxiliary test valve, a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug shall be installed in the outlet nozzle above... and female flange attachment, but in no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the... attachment on a pad attached to the outside bottom of the tank. The mounting pad must have a...

  16. Hyperspectral imaging based procedures applied to bottom ash characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2007-09-01

    Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWIs) is mainly land filled or used as material for the foundation of road in European countries. Bottom ash is usually first crushed to below 40 mm and separated magnetically to recover the steel scrap. The remaining material contains predominantly sand, sinters and pieces of stone, glass and ceramics, which could be used as building material if strict technical and environmental requirements are respected. The main problem is the presence of residual organic matter in the ash and the large surface area presented by the fine fraction that creates leaching values, for elements such as copper, that are above the accepted levels for standard building materials. Main aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility offered by hyperspectral imaging to identify organic matter inside the residues in order to develop control/selection strategies to be implemented inside the bottom ash recycling plant. Reflectance spectra of selected bottom ash samples have been acquired in the VIS-NIR field (400- 1000 nm). Results showed as the organic content of the different samples influences the spectral signatures, in particular an inverse correlation between reflectance level and organic matter content was found.

  17. 14. DETAIL OF CONNECTIONS AT THE BOTTOM OF A POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF CONNECTIONS AT THE BOTTOM OF A POST IN THE WEST TRUSS, SHOWING THE ASSEMBLY OF LOWER CHORD AND DIAGONAL EYE BOLTS AND THE SUSPENSION OF A FLOOR BEAM FROM THE POST BY A U-BOLT; VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  18. 19. Detail of base of revolving lens assembly, showing bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of base of revolving lens assembly, showing bottom of lamp at center and brass tens framework at edges of circular platform. Mercury float bearing lies in circular well just beneath lens platform. (Blurred due to lens motion.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  19. Reading Nature from a "Bottom-Up" Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magntorn, Ola; Hellden, Gustav

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ecology teaching and learning in a Swedish primary school class (age 10-11 yrs). A teaching sequence was designed to help students read nature in a river ecosystem. The teaching sequence had a "bottom up" approach, taking as its starting point a common key organism--the freshwater shrimp. From this species and its…

  20. DETAIL OF TYPICAL ALUMINUM FLASHING AT THE BOTTOM OF AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TYPICAL ALUMINUM FLASHING AT THE BOTTOM OF AN EXTERIOR WALL AT UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be equipped with an excess flow valve of approved design, except when a quick-closing internal... or in place of the venting, loading and unloading valves, measuring and sampling devices as prescribed in § 179.103-3, tanks may be equipped with approved bottom outlet valves. If applied,...

  2. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be equipped with an excess flow valve of approved design, except when a quick-closing internal.... (a) In addition to or in place of the venting, loading and unloading valves, measuring and sampling devices as prescribed in § 179.103-3, tanks may be equipped with approved bottom outlet valves. If...

  3. 45. MAIN WAREHOUSE BOTTOM LEVEL Looking south from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. MAIN WAREHOUSE - BOTTOM LEVEL Looking south from the older section of the building (with wooden posts) towards the newer portion, with its cement posts. One of the two elevators to the main floor is visible on the right. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. Evaluation of factors affecting resolution of shallow water bottom features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, C. C.; Norris, D. R.; Browne, I. D.

    1972-01-01

    To ensure good aerial photography, the effects that factors such as submergence depth, sun angle, film and filter type, exposure, aircraft altitude, and polarization have on the photographic resolution of an underwater object must be determined. Various subjects were photographed, such as the deck of a small submersible, colored and gray scale panels, and natural bottom features. No underwater resolution target was used.

  5. 10. VIEW EAST, RECESS AREA WITH BOTTOM HORIZONTAL BEAM FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW EAST, RECESS AREA WITH BOTTOM HORIZONTAL BEAM FOR EAST GATE - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  6. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, E.; Demler, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-03-01

    A study of steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks. A parametric analysis of steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance was conducted. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state-of-the-art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. When applied to a NASA specified turbo-charged adiabatic diesel the bottoming system increased the diesel output by almost 18%. In a comparison of the costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with after-cooling with the same total output, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increased initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Also during this program steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability were considered and the cost and performance of advanced systems were evaluated.

  7. 36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER No. 1 AND TWO GAS COOLING TOWER SERVICE WATER PUMPS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. CLOSEUP VIEW OF BOTTOM OF MAIN BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP VIEW OF BOTTOM OF MAIN BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS SPAN SHOWING CANTILEVERED HIGHWAY FLOOR BRACKET LOOKING NORTHWEST AT PIER “II”. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  9. 3. CONNECTING TUNNEL AT BOTTOM CENTER TO CENTER, CONTROL BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONNECTING TUNNEL AT BOTTOM CENTER TO CENTER, CONTROL BUILDING B AT CENTER, WATER TANK TO UPPER LEFT, VIEW TOWARDS WEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Control Building B, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic ice sheet grounding lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2002-01-01

    As continental ice from Antartica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed.

  11. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  12. Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Maas, Leo

    2015-11-01

    A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluids over a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformal transformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, for the dispersion relation between wave frequency and generalized wavenumber (Floquet exponent), and for the waveforms of free wave modes. The dispersion relation is the analogue of the classical Lamb's equation for a two-layer fluid over a flat bottom. For internal modes the interfacial wave shows rapid modulation at the scale of its own wavelength that is comparable to bottom wavelength, whereas for surface modes it becomes a long wave carrier for modulating short waves of bottom wavelength. The approximation using a rigid-lid is given. Sample calculations are shown, including the frequencies that are Bragg resonant. Supports to JY by US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0845957) and a visitor's grant of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) during the period of this work, are gratefully acknowledged.

  13. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units §...

  14. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units §...

  15. 7. DETAIL OF ROOM BELOW GRIZZLY SHOWING BOTTOM OF COARSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF ROOM BELOW GRIZZLY SHOWING BOTTOM OF COARSE ORE BIN AND CHUTE TO BEGINNING OF CONVEYOR BELT, SOUTH VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  16. Detection of Higgs bosons decaying to bottom quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.; Price, L.E.

    1986-11-01

    Several developments affecting the possibility of Higgs detection are discussed. These include the level of certainty about the t quark mass, Monte Carlo programs to generate both signal and background events, and separation and/or enhancement of heavy quark jets from jets due to light quarks or gluons, and the possibility that the neutral Higgs decay into bottom quarks might be the decay mode of choice for detecting the intermediate mass Higgs. Possible means of detection of an intermediate mass Higgs at the SSC, particularly if a prominent decay mode is to bottom quarks, are examined, using the PYTHIA Monte Carlo program to generate both signal and background events. For the signal, events were generated in which Higgs bosons are created in proton-proton collisions, with the Higgs decaying into bottom quarks. The presence of W or Z bosons, created in the same proton-proton collision, is used to enhance the likelihood of Higgs production and to reduce the potentially enormous background. It is found that the Higgs decay to bottom quarks, if important, would be more favorable for detection of the Higgs than decay to top quarks was found to be because of the smaller background. 3 refs., 4 figs. (LEW)

  17. 44. (Credit JTL) View looking northeast at bottom of #3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. (Credit JTL) View looking northeast at bottom of #3 low service pump pit showing Worthington water pumps. Pumps have 21" diameter plungers and are driven by rods connected to steam cylinders above. Spiral stairway and elevator are on left. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  18. Search for scalar top and bottom quarks at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Calfayan, Philippe

    2008-11-23

    This document reviews recent results on the search for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks in pp-bar collisions at {radical}(s) = 1.96 TeV. The analyses presented are based on data samples with integrated luminosities from 1.0 to 1.9 fb{sup -1} recorded at the Tevatron with the D0 and CDF detectors.

  19. DETAIL OF BOILER, SHOWING (TOP TO BOTTOM) ENDS OF STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF BOILER, SHOWING (TOP TO BOTTOM) ENDS OF STEAM CHAMBERS, DOORS GIVING ACCESS TO TUBING, AND SIX BURNERS, CAMERA FACING WEST. - New Haven Rail Yard, Central Steam Plant and Oil Storage, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 74. CENTER GIRDER SECTION FOR THE BOTTOM CHORD OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. CENTER GIRDER SECTION FOR THE BOTTOM CHORD OF THE IOWA SWING SPAN LOADED ON A DOLLY READY TO BE ROLLED OUT TO THE BRIDGE TO BE PLACER ON THE DRUM. PROBABLY TAKEN SEPTEMBER 7, 1895. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  1. Bottom-Up Biology: Harnessing Engineering to Understand Nature.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Daniel A

    2016-09-26

    Engineering as a field has fundamentally different goals than biology, but the perspective that engineers take-that systems can be designed and built-is helping to advance biological sciences by motivating and equipping efforts to construct biological systems from the bottom up. PMID:27676431

  2. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Cathey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants to provide the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light-water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants. The Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station has two boiling water reactor (BWR) units, each with a capacity of 1150 MW(e). The reactors are each housed in a Mark I containment. Peach Bottom Unit 2 analyzed here, was studied before as part of WASH-1400. A number of plant features tend to be important in determining the nature and frequency of the core melt scenarios for Peach Bottom. These features include the recent above-average diesel generator performance history, the single emergency service water system for both units, the numerous emergency core cooling systems, recent procedure modifications and the low volume containment.

  3. 13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast iron bases for oil butts (oil butts removed when lighthouse lamp was converted to electric power.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  4. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tank Cars (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). (2) Bottom washout shall be of cast, forged or...-shaped breakage groove shall be cut (not cast) in the upper part of the outlet nozzle at a point... accidental breakage will occur at or below the “V” groove or its equivalent. On cars without...

  5. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 171.7 of this subchapter). (2) Bottom washout shall be of cast, forged or fabricated metal and shall... groove shall be cut (not cast) in the upper part of the outlet nozzle at a point immediately below the... occur at or below the “V” groove or its equivalent. On cars without continuous center sills,...

  6. Bottom-Up Analysis of Single-Case Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines and promotes the qualities of a "bottom-up" approach to single-case research (SCR) data analysis. Although "top-down" models, for example, multi-level or hierarchical linear models, are gaining momentum and have much to offer, interventionists should be cautious about analyses that are not easily understood, are not governed by…

  7. Changes in the bottom fauna of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Schloesser, D.W.; Munawar, M.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, I.F.

    1999-01-01

    The bottom fauna of western Lake Erie has changed dramatically over the past 50 years in response to environmental degradation and biological invasions. In 1953, low dissolved oxygen reduced the biodiversity of that fauna, especially burrowing mayflies and freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Canada and the United States signed the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. By 1982, over 7 billion dollars were spent to improve wastewater treatment plants in the Great Lakes Basin. To assess how the bottom fauna responded to pollution abatement measures, we studied the distribution, abundance, and diversity of bottom fauna in western Lake Erie in 1982 and compared our findings to those of Carr and Hiltunen (1965). Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded Lake Erie in 1986 and greatly altered these waters. For perspective, we also compared our results to bottom fauna present at the same stations in 1930 (by reference to data in Carr and Hiltunen, 1965) and reviewed the responses of burrowing mayflies and freshwater mussels to the zebra mussel invasion.

  8. Cool Bottom Processing on the AGB and Presolar Grain Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nollett, Kenneth M.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    We describe results from a model of cool bottom processing (CBP) in AGB (asymptotic giant branch) stars. We predict O, Al, C and N isotopic compositions of circumstellar grains. Measured compositions of mainstream SiC grains and many oxide grains are consistent with CBP. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  10. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an...

  11. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  12. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  13. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  14. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on...

  15. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  16. Teaching Externally: Lecturers' Viewpoints. Occasional Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, David, Ed.

    Perspectives of academic staff who have been involved in teaching externally are presented in three papers. In "Teaching Students Externally: The First Twelve Years," Frank Molloy examines three aspects of teaching by the external mode: preparing materials, making assignments, and providing educational experiences for students at the residential…

  17. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    DOEpatents

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  18. SAR imaging and hydrodynamic analysis of ocean bottom topographic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Li, Li; Guo, Xiaogang; Ge, Yong; Zhu, Dayong; Li, Chunyan

    2006-09-01

    The satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images display wave-like patterns of the ocean bottom topographic features at the south outlet of Taiwan Strait (TS). Field measurements indicate that the most TS water body is vertically stratified. However, SAR imaging models available were developed for homogeneous waters. Hence explaining SAR imaging mechanisms of bottom features in a stratified ocean is beyond the scope of those models. In order to explore these mechanisms and to determine the quantitative relations between the SAR imagery and the bottom features, a two-dimensional, three-layer ocean model with sinusoidal bottom topographic features is developed. Analytical solutions and inferences of the momentum equations of the ocean model lead to the following conditions. (1) In the lower layer, the topography-induced waves (topographic waves hereafter) exist in the form of stationary waves, which satisfy a lower boundary resonance condition σ = kC0, here σ is an angular frequency of the stationary waves, k is a wavenumber of bottom topographic corrugation, and C0 is a background current speed. (2) As internal waves, the topographic waves may propagate vertically to the upper layer with an unchanged wavenumber k, if a frequency relation N3 < σ < N2 is satisfied, here N2 and N3 are the Brunt-Wäisälä frequencies of middle layer and upper layer, respectively. (3) The topographic waves are extremely amplified if an upper layer resonance condition is satisfied. The SAR image of topographic waves is derived on the basis of current-modulated small wave spectra. The results indicate that the topographic waves on SAR images have the same wavelength of bottom topographic corrugation, and the imagery brightness peaks are either inphase or antiphase with respect to the topographic corrugation, depending on a sign of a coupling factor. These theoretical predictions are verified by field observations. The results of this study provide a physical basis for quantitative

  19. Mini-review on river eutrophication and bottom improvement techniques, with special emphasis on the Nakdong River.

    PubMed

    Tekile, Andinet; Kim, Ilho; Kim, Jisung

    2015-04-01

    Water quality in rivers is vital to humans and to maintenance of biotic and ecological integrity. During the Four Major Rivers restoration of South Korea, remarkable attempts have been made to decrease external nutrient loads and moveable weirs were designed to discharge silt that may deposit in pools. However, recently eutrophication of the Nakdong River, which was limited to the lower reaches, is seen to be spreading upstream. The reduction of external nutrient loads to rivers is a long-term goal that is unlikely to lead to reductions in algal blooms for many years because of the time required to implement effective land management strategies. It would therefore be desirable to implement complementary strategies. Regulating the amount of water released is effective at preventing algae blooms in weir pools; so, the relationship between discharge, stratification and bloom formation should be understood in this regard. However, pollutants are likely to accumulate in the riverbed upstream from release points. Thus, to control phosphorus levels, total phosphorus density should be lowered by applying in-river techniques as well. As many ecosystem properties are controlled by multiple processes, simultaneous river bottom improvement techniques, such as combined dissolved oxygen supply and nutrient inactivation, are likely to be effective. The purpose of this review is to present a series of technological approaches that can be used to improve the river bottom area and hence sediment nutrient release, and to illustrate the application of these techniques to the Nakdong River.

  20. Evaluation of Mass Transfer Performance for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium in a Conventional 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, Jr. J.F.

    2002-02-19

    Tests have been conducted to determine if satisfactory mass transfer performance is achieved using a fully pumping 5-cm centrifugal contactor under conditions present in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Tests utilized a commercially available contactor that had been modified by installation of a rotor housing bottom that had straight radial vanes on the process side. As received from the vendor, the housing bottom was equipped with curved (impeller-type) vanes that were intended to promote phase separation by minimizing mixing of influent solutions. Stage efficiencies exceeding 85% were obtained under conditions, present in the extraction section of the CSSX flowsheet. Under CSSX stripping conditions the stage efficiency exceeded 90%. In both cases, the efficiencies obtained exceed the minimum requirement for acceptable transfer of cesium in the CSSX process.

  1. External contribution to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Grima, Ramon; Micallef, Alfred; Colls, Jeremy J

    2002-02-01

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations in urban locations have normally been associated with local traffic emissions. Recently it has been suggested that such episodes are influenced to a high degree by PM10 sources external to urban areas. To further corroborate this hypothesis, linear regression was sought between PM10 concentrations measured at eight urban sites in the U.K., with particulate sulphate concentration measured at two rural sites, for the years 1993-1997. Analysis of the slopes, intercepts and correlation coefficients indicate a possible relationship between urban PM10 and rural sulphate concentrations. The influences of wind direction and of the distance of the urban from the rural sites on the values of the three statistical parameters are also explored. The value of linear regression as an analysis tool in such cases is discussed and it is shown that an analysis of the sign of the rate of change of the urban PM10 and rural sulphate concentrations provides a more realistic method of correlation. The results indicate a major influence on urban PM10 concentrations from the eastern side of the United Kingdom. Linear correlation was also sought using PM10 data from nine urban sites in London and nearby rural Rochester. Analysis of the magnitude of the gradients and intercepts together with episode correlation analysis between the two sites showed the effect of transported PM10 on the local London concentrations. This article also presents methods to estimate the influence of rural and urban PM10 sources on urban PM10 concentrations and to obtain a rough estimate of the transboundary contribution to urban air pollution from the PM10 concentration data of the urban site. PMID:11878637

  2. Bottom temperature and salinity distribution and its variability around Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Schnurr, Sarah M.; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    The barrier formed by the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge (GSR) shapes the oceanic conditions in the region around Iceland. Deep water cannot be exchanged across the ridge, and only limited water mass exchange in intermediate layers is possible through deep channels, where the flow is directed southwestward (the Nordic Overflows). As a result, the near-bottom water masses in the deep basins of the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas hold major temperature differences. Here, we use near-bottom measurements of about 88,000 CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) and bottle profiles, collected in the period 1900-2008, to investigate the distribution of near-bottom properties. Data are gridded into regular boxes of about 11 km size and interpolated following isobaths. We derive average spatial temperature and salinity distributions in the region around Iceland, showing the influence of the GSR on the near-bottom hydrography. The spatial distribution of standard deviation is used to identify local variability, which is enhanced near water mass fronts. Finally, property changes within the period 1975-2008 are presented using time series analysis techniques for a collection of grid boxes with sufficient data resolution. Seasonal variability, as well as long term trends are discussed for different bottom depth classes, representing varying water masses. The seasonal cycle is most pronounced in temperature and decreases with depth (mean amplitudes of 2.2 °C in the near surface layers vs. 0.2 °C at depths > 500 m), while linear trends are evident in both temperature and salinity (maxima in shallow waters of +0.33 °C/decade for temperature and +0.03/decade for salinity).

  3. Side to side coaptation--new technic in peripherial nerve surgery--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Reichert, P; Kiełbowicz, Z; Kuryszko, J; Bocheńska, A; Puła, B; Rutowski, R

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and evaluates side-to-side nerve repair techniques for their ability to induce collateral nerve sprouting. The coaptation of the ventral branches of spinal nerves C5 and C6 to C7 through an incision epineurium was used to repair the nerve. The number of myelinated fiber axons and G-ratio was evaluated. Preliminary results indicate the possibility of using side to side coaptation in brachial plexus nerve surgery. PMID:27096806

  4. Experimental proof of a load resilient external matching solution for the ITER ICRH system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervier, M.; Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P.; Lamalle, P.

    2005-09-01

    A reliable load resilient external matching scheme for the ITER ICRH system has been successfully tested on the mock-up of the external matching system with variable plasma load simulation. To avoid the deleterious mutual coupling effects the power has been passively distributed among the upper half and the bottom half of the 24 radiating straps of the antenna plug. In this plug the straps are grouped in 8 triplets by 4-ports junctions. The 4 top and 4 bottom triplets are respectively put in parallel outside the antenna plug near a voltage anti-node by means of T junctions. The load resilient matching is then obtained by a 4 parameters single "conjugate T" (CT) configuration. For an antenna loading variation of about 1 to 8 Ω/m the VSWR at the power source remains below 1.3. The maximum voltage along the line remains equal to the one in the antenna plug and there is a fair power share between the straps. A π0π0 toroidal phasing is easily obtained. The poloidal phasing between the top and bottom triplets is determined by the loading. A straightforward matching procedure is described. Good load resilience is also obtained by replacing the CT by one hybrid.

  5. Nonbridging external fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Matthew D; Shin, Eon K

    2010-08-01

    Surgical management of distal radius fractures continues to evolve because of their high incidence in an increasingly active elderly population. Traditional radiocarpal external fixation relies on ligamentotaxis for fracture reduction but has several drawbacks. Nonbridging external fixation has evolved to provide early wrist mobility in the setting of anatomic fracture reduction. Several studies of the nonbridging technique have demonstrated satisfactory results in isolated nonbridging external fixation series and in comparison with traditional spanning external fixation. Nonbridging external fixation for surgical treatment of distal radius fractures can be technically demanding and requires at least 1 cm of intact volar cortex in the distal fracture fragment for successful implementation.

  6. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  7. An external drag measuring element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, Mordechai; Levin, Daniel; Seginer, Arnan

    The accurate measurement of the axial-force component acting on small wind-tunnel models has traditionally made use of integral string balances, which eliminated many accuracy problems, such as friction and hysteresis, but also introduced interactions between the various force and moment sensing elements due to nonlinear elastic phenomena. The reduction of these interactions usually calls for complicated designs, expensive manufacturing, hard-to-handle calibration processes, and cumbersome data reduction programs. An approach is presented that is based on an external axial-force-measuring element and avoids the ill-conditioned design problems of integral balances. Other difficulties that are encountered, such as friction, misalignment, and relative motion between metric elements are considered, and their solution is examined. Calibration and test results show that the new approach duplicates and surpasses the results of much more complicated and expensive integral balances.

  8. External Versus Endoscopic Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Grob, Seanna R; Campbell, Ashley; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Yoon, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    DCR is the treatment of choice for NLDO. External DCR has remained the standard approach since the 1890s. With advances in technique and technology, and more otolaryngologists and ophthalmologists performing endoscopic DCR, more studies have been conducted, some with equivalent success rates between the 2 approaches. Endoscopic endonasal DCR offers the advantages of avoiding a skin incision with similar success rates with experienced surgeons. However, the technique necessitates more surgical equipment, and has a steep learning curve. Both approaches have low complication rates and serious complications are very rare. The decision for the type of approach to use depends on the surgeon’s experience, the patient’s preference or concerns, and the resources available within a particular health system.

  9. External-cavity semiconductor laser with focusing grating mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, H.; Hori, Y.; Sogawa, F.; Kato, M.; Serizawa, H. )

    1990-10-01

    An external-cavity semiconductor laser with a focusing grating mirror (FGM), which enables a single-mode oscillation at a specified wavelength, is proposed. The optical properties of the FGM, which is a computer-generated holographic grating with chirp and bend structure, are numerically analyzed. The FGM is found to serve the functions of an optical feedback grating mirror, a focusing lens, and a narrow bandwidth wavelength filter, and its applicability towards a lensless external-cavity laser is clarified. An optimally-designed FGM for realizing laser oscillation at a specific wavelength of 1.30 {mu}m is fabricated by using a computer-controlled electron-beam writing system. The fabricated FGM with grating area of 1 {times} 1 mm{sup 2} is combined as an external feedback mirror with an InGaAsP-InP semiconductor laser of 1.3 {mu}m wavelength range, and the lasing characteristics are experimentally measured. Stable and single-mode oscillations with spectral line width less than 10 MHz, side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB, and without low- and high-frequency intensity noise have been successfully realized at nearly the specifically designed wavelength.

  10. Effect of knee joint angle on side-to-side strength ratios.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

    2014-10-01

    Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength are typically tested at different joint angles due to the differences in length-tension relationships of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The efficiency of strength testing can be improved if the same angle can be used to test both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal angle for isometric knee strength testing by examining the effect of knee angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios. Eighteen active young people (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength were tested on both sides at 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The effect of knee flexion angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios, raw torque values, and side-to-side flexor-to-extensor torque ratios were assessed. Side-to-side knee extensor peak torque ratios and knee flexor-to-extensor torque ratios differed significantly by knee flexion angle (p = 0.024 and p = 0.011, respectively), but side-to-side knee flexor peak torque ratios did not differ significantly (p = 0.311). When considering both side-to-side peak torque ratios and flexor-to-extensor torque ratios, the values were more symmetrical (i.e., closer to 100%) only at 60° of knee flexion. Our results indicate that both the knee flexors and the knee extensors can be tested clinically at 60° of knee flexion. Our results also indicate that the hamstrings can be tested at any of the 3 angles if the examiner is interested in side-to-side ratios rather than raw torque values. These results may facilitate more efficient and flexible clinical knee strength testing.

  11. Scaling up self-assembly: bottom-up approaches to macroscopic particle organization.

    PubMed

    Lash, M H; Fedorchak, M V; McCarthy, J J; Little, S R

    2015-07-28

    This review presents an overview of recent work in the field of non-Brownian particle self-assembly. Compared to nanoparticles that naturally self-assemble due to Brownian motion, larger, non-Brownian particles (d > 6 μm) are less prone to autonomously organize into crystalline arrays. The tendency for particle systems to experience immobilization and kinetic arrest grows with particle radius. In order to overcome this kinetic limitation, some type of external driver must be applied to act as an artificial "thermalizing force" upon non-Brownian particles, inducing particle motion and subsequent crystallization. Many groups have explored the use of various agitation methods to overcome the natural barriers preventing self-assembly to which non-Brownian particles are susceptible. The ability to create materials from a bottom-up approach with these characteristics would allow for precise control over their pore structure (size and distribution) and surface properties (topography, functionalization and area), resulting in improved regulation of key characteristics such as mechanical strength, diffusive properties, and possibly even photonic properties. This review will highlight these approaches, as well as discuss the potential impact of bottom-up macroscale particle assembly. The applications of such technology range from customizable and autonomously self-assembled niche microenvironments for drug delivery and tissue engineering to new acoustic dampening, battery, and filtration materials, among others. Additionally, crystals made from non-Brownian particles resemble naturally derived materials such as opals, zeolites, and biological tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage and lung), due to their high surface area, pore distribution, and tunable (multilevel) hierarchy. PMID:25947543

  12. Estimating reef fish discard mortality using surface and bottom tagging: effects of hook injury and barotrauma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of discarded black sea bass (Centropristis striata) in various release conditions using tag–recapture data. Fish were captured with traps and hook and line from waters 29–34 m deep off coastal North Carolina, USA, marked with internal anchor tags, and observed for release condition. Fish tagged on the bottom using SCUBA served as a control group. Relative return rates for trap-caught fish released at the surface versus bottom provided an estimated survival rate of 0.87 (95% credible interval 0.67–1.18) for surface-released fish. Adjusted for results from the underwater tagging experiment, fish with evidence of external barotrauma had a median survival rate of 0.91 (0.69–1.26) compared with 0.36 (0.17–0.67) for fish with hook trauma and 0.16 (0.08–0.30) for floating or presumably dead fish. Applying these condition-specific estimates of survival to non-tagging fishery data, we estimated a discard survival rate of 0.81 (0.62–1.11) for 11 hook and line data sets from waters 20–35 m deep and 0.86 (0.67–1.17) for 10 trap data sets from waters 11–29 m deep. The tag-return approach using a control group with no fishery-associated trauma represents a method to accurately estimate absolute discard survival of physoclistous reef species.

  13. One-side forward-backward asymmetry at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Youkai; Xiao Bo; Zhu Shouhua

    2011-01-01

    Forward-backward asymmetry A{sub FB} is an essential observable to study the nature of coupling in the standard model and physics beyond the standard model, as shown at LEP and Tevatron. As a proton-proton collider, the LHC does not have the preferred direction contrary to her counterparts, namely, LEP and Tevatron. Therefore, A{sub FB} is not applicable at the LHC. However, for the proton the momentum of the valence quark is usually larger than that of the sea quark. Utilizing this feature we have defined a so-called one-side forward-backward asymmetry A{sub OFB} for the top quark pair production at the LHC in the previous work. In this paper we extend our studies to the charged leptons and bottom quarks as the final states. Our numerical results show that at the LHC A{sub OFB} can be utilized to study the nature of the couplings once enough events are collected.

  14. Side-specificity of olfactory learning in the honeybee: generalization between odors and sides.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, J C; Menzel, R

    2001-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) can be trained to associate an odor stimulus with a sucrose reward. The neural structures involved in the detection and integration of olfactory stimuli are represented bilaterally in the brain. Little is known about the respective roles of the two sides of the brain in olfactory learning. Does each side learn independently of the other, or do they communicate, and if so, to what extent and at what level of neural integration? We addressed these questions using the proboscis extension response (PER) conditioning paradigm applied in a preparation that allows the separation of the two input sides during olfactory stimulations. Bees conditioned to two odorants A and B, one being learned on each side (A+/B+ training), showed in extinction tests rather unspecific responses: They responded to both odorants on both sides. This could be attributable to either a transfer of the learned information between sides, or to a generalization between odorants on each side. By subjecting bees to conditioning on one side only (A+/0 training), we found that the learned information is indeed transferred between sides. However, when bees were trained explicitly to give opposite values to the two odorants on the two sides (A+B-/B+A- training), they showed clear side-specific response patterns to these odorants. These results are used in the elaboration of a functional model of laterality of olfactory learning and memory processing in the honeybee brain.

  15. [The blind-loop syndrome after side-to-side anastomoses of the gut (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seitz, W; Mangold, G; Grönniger, J

    1977-04-01

    The postoperative blind-loop syndrome can occur after side-to-side, end-to side or by-pass anastomoses of the gut and presents clinically as malabsorption syndrome. Pathogenetically, stasis or slowing of the bowel movements will cause a rapid increase of pathogenic bacteria in the small intestine. Malabsorption is characterized by 3 symptoms: Loss of weight, anemia, steatorrhoea. The method of choice for therapy is to perform a new, end-to-end, anastomosis of the intestine in order to re-establish a physiological situation. During the last 6 years 14 patients with malabsorption syndromes of varying degrees were operated upon: 6 had pure small intestinal anastomoses, 7 anastomoses between the small and large intestine and 1 patient had a side-to-side sigmoidal anastomosis. In all patients the side-to-side or by-pass anastomoses could be reversed.

  16. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  17. 7 CFR 29.6035 - Side.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6035 Side. A certain phase of quality as contrasted with some other phase of quality or any peculiar characteristic of tobacco. ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  18. A Brighter Side of the New Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowienka, Emerine

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the positive side of genetic technology advances and the implications for human beings, both from a sociological viewpoint and the point of view of a social philosopher. Genetic engineering, technology and counseling are discussed. (BR)

  19. Back-Side Readout Silicon Photomultiplier

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel structure for the back-side readout silicon photomultipler (SiPM). Current SiPMs are front-illuminated structures with front-side readout, which have relatively small geometric fill factor leading to degradation in their photon detection efficiency (PDE). Back-side readout devices will provide an advantageous solution to achieve high PDE. We designed and investigated a novel structure that would allow back-side readout while creating a region of high electric field optimized for avalanche breakdown. In addition, this structure has relatively high fill factor and also allow direct coupling of individual micro-cell of the SiPM to application-specific integrated circuits. We will discuss the performance that can be attained with this structure through device simulation and the process flow that can be used to fabricate this structure through process simulation. PMID:23564969

  20. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  1. Discovering the Higgs bosons of minimal supersymmetry with bottom quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chung; Sachithanandam, Shankar; Sayre, Joshua; Wang, Yili

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the prospects for the discovery of a neutral Higgs boson produced with one bottom quark followed by Higgs decay into a pair of bottom quarks at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We work within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The dominant physics background is calculated with realistic acceptance cuts and efficiencies including the production of bbbbar, bbar bbbar, jbbbar (j = g , q ,qbar; q = u , d , s , c), ttbar → bbbar jjℓν, and ttbar → bbbar jjjj. Promising results are found for the CP-odd pseudoscalar (A0) and the heavier CP-even scalar (H0) Higgs bosons with masses up to 800 GeV for the LHC with an integrated luminosity (L) of 30fb-1 and up to 1 TeV for L = 300fb-1.

  2. Bottom water warming in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Masao; Freeland, Howard; Perkin, Ron; Watanabe, Tomowo; Uchida, Hiroshi; Nishina, Ayako

    2004-02-26

    Observations of changes in the properties of ocean waters have been restricted to surface or intermediate-depth waters, because the detection of change in bottom water is extremely difficult owing to the small magnitude of the expected signals. Nevertheless, temporal changes in the properties of such deep waters across an ocean basin are of particular interest, as they can be used to constrain the transport of water at the bottom of the ocean and to detect changes in the global thermohaline circulation. Here we present a comparison of a trans-Pacific survey completed in 1985 (refs 4, 5) and its repetition in 1999 (ref. 6). We find that the deepest waters of the North Pacific Ocean have warmed significantly across the entire width of the ocean basin. Our observations imply that changes in water properties are now detectable in water masses that have long been insulated from heat exchange with the atmosphere.

  3. The sorption of Zectran on bottom sediments and peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.W.; Faust, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A modified analytical method employed to determine the insecticide Zectran in natural waters frequently has resulted in erroneous data. The errors have been attributed to interferences from particulate matter in these waters. In order to evaluate analytical interferences due to sorption of Zectran on particulates, a series of experiments was performed using bottom sediments and a peat moss in contact with aqueous solutions of zectran at a pH values of 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Isotherm studies confirmed that Zectran sorption occurs in a direct relation to the amount of chemically oxidizable carbon present in the bottom sediments or peat moss. However, the extent of sorption was limited, which suggested that particulates may not be the primary interference in the modified analytical method.

  4. Bottom water warming in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Masao; Freeland, Howard; Perkin, Ron; Watanabe, Tomowo; Uchida, Hiroshi; Nishina, Ayako

    2004-02-26

    Observations of changes in the properties of ocean waters have been restricted to surface or intermediate-depth waters, because the detection of change in bottom water is extremely difficult owing to the small magnitude of the expected signals. Nevertheless, temporal changes in the properties of such deep waters across an ocean basin are of particular interest, as they can be used to constrain the transport of water at the bottom of the ocean and to detect changes in the global thermohaline circulation. Here we present a comparison of a trans-Pacific survey completed in 1985 (refs 4, 5) and its repetition in 1999 (ref. 6). We find that the deepest waters of the North Pacific Ocean have warmed significantly across the entire width of the ocean basin. Our observations imply that changes in water properties are now detectable in water masses that have long been insulated from heat exchange with the atmosphere. PMID:14985757

  5. Calculations of bottom quark production at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Kuebel, D.

    1991-06-29

    This thesis studies Monte Carlo simulations of QCD heavy flavor production processes (p{bar p} {yields} Q({anti Q})X) at hadron colliders. ISAJET bottom quark cross-sections are compared to the O({alpha} {sub s}{sup 3}) perturbative calculation of Nason, Dawson, and Ellis. These Monte Carlo cross-sections are computed from data samples which use different parton distribution functions and physics parameters. Distributions are presented in the heavy quark`s transverse momentum and rapidity. Correlations in rapidity and azimuthal angle are computed for the heavy flavor pair. Theory issues which arise are the behavior of the cross-section at low and high values of transverse momentum and the treatment of double counting problems in the flavor excitation samples. An important result is that ISAJET overestimates bottom quark production cross-sections and K factors. These findings are relevant for estimates of rates and backgrounds of heavy floor events.

  6. Calculations of bottom quark production at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Kuebel, D.

    1991-06-29

    This thesis studies Monte Carlo simulations of QCD heavy flavor production processes (p{bar p} {yields} Q({anti Q})X) at hadron colliders. ISAJET bottom quark cross-sections are compared to the O({alpha} {sub s}{sup 3}) perturbative calculation of Nason, Dawson, and Ellis. These Monte Carlo cross-sections are computed from data samples which use different parton distribution functions and physics parameters. Distributions are presented in the heavy quark's transverse momentum and rapidity. Correlations in rapidity and azimuthal angle are computed for the heavy flavor pair. Theory issues which arise are the behavior of the cross-section at low and high values of transverse momentum and the treatment of double counting problems in the flavor excitation samples. An important result is that ISAJET overestimates bottom quark production cross-sections and K factors. These findings are relevant for estimates of rates and backgrounds of heavy floor events.

  7. Thin films of bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhirev, Mikhail; Lipatov, Alexey; Vo, Timothy; Mehdi Pour, Mohammad; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bottom-up solution synthetic approaches for graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) receive a great deal of attention, because they yield large quantities of atomically precise GNRs with intriguing electronic and optical properties. However, poor solubility of these GNRs in conventional solvents remains a great challenge and limits their processability for applications in printable electronics, photovoltaics and composite materials. We studied the solubility of solution-synthesized GNRs in chlorosulfonic acid and developed a protocol for thin film fabrication that could be applied for different types of bottom-up synthesized GNRs. The developed procedure also provides control over the thickness of films that can be made as thin as one GNR thick. Reactivity of the GNRs with chlorosulfonic acid and electrical properties of fabricated films will also be discussed.

  8. Radiative transfer theory applied to ocean bottom modeling.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Jorge E; Zurk, Lisa M

    2009-10-01

    Research on the propagation of acoustic waves in the ocean bottom sediment is of interest for active sonar applications such as target detection and remote sensing. The interaction of acoustic energy with the sea floor sublayers is usually modeled with techniques based on the full solution of the wave equation, which sometimes leads to mathematically intractable problems. An alternative way to model wave propagation in layered media containing random scatterers is the radiative transfer (RT) formulation, which is a well established technique in the electromagnetics community and is based on the principle of conservation of energy. In this paper, the RT equation is used to model the backscattering of acoustic energy from a layered elastic bottom sediment containing distributions of independent scatterers due to a constant single frequency excitation in the water column. It is shown that the RT formulation provides insight into the physical phenomena of scattering and conversion of energy between waves of different polarizations.

  9. Containment venting analysis for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1986-12-01

    The extent to which containment venting is an effective means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of overpressurization during severe accidents was evaluated for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (boiling water reactors with Mark I containments). Detailed analyses were conducted on operator performance, equipment performance, and the physical phenomenology for three severe accident sequences currently identified as being important contributors to risk. The results indicate that containment venting can be effective in reducing risk for several classes of severe accidents but, based on procedures in draft form and equipment in place at the time of the analyses, has limited potential for further reducing the risk for severe accidents currently identified as being important contributors to the risk for Peach Bottom.

  10. The bottom oxygen border of bioluminescence distribution in ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavoruev, Valerii

    2006-02-01

    From materials of forwarding researches follows, that the depth of deposition of the bottom border of bioluminescence plankton has not correlation with any of measurable hydrological parameters. As the reaction of bioluminescence is oxygen depended, it was logical to assume, that the situation of the bottom maximum of luminescence plankton is determined by concentration of oxygen. The data of vertical distribution of bioluminescence intensity of plankton and concentration of oxygen received in the Black Sea and near to east coast of America were investigated. Is established, that the deep maximum of bioluminescence of plankton is found out between isooxygen 0.35 and 0.20 ml/l. At concentration of oxygen in water is lower 0.10-0.20 ml/l the bioluminescence of plankton it is not found out.

  11. Donor solvent coal liquefaction with bottoms recycle at elevated pressure

    DOEpatents

    Bauman, Richard F.; Taunton, John W.; Anderson, George H.; Trachte, Ken L.; Hsia, Steve J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein increased naphtha yields are achieved by effecting the liquefaction at a pressure within the range from about 1750 to about 2800 psig in the presence of recycled bottoms and a hydrogen-donor solvent containing at least 0.8 wt % donatable hydrogen. The liquefaction is accomplished at a temperature within the range from about 700.degree. to about 950.degree. F. The coal:bottoms ratio in the feed to liquefaction will be within the range from about 1:1 to about 5:1 and the solvent or diluent to total solids ratio will be at least 1.5:1 and preferably within the range from about 1.6:1 to about 3:1. The yield of naphtha boiling range materials increases as the pressure increases but generally reaches a maximum at a pressure within the range from about 2000 to about 2500 psig.

  12. Estimating Side Underride Fatalities Using Field Data

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that underride events are undercounted by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal crashes on public roads in the United States. This study’s principal objective was to develop accurate fatality estimates for side underride crashes involving “combination trucks” and light vehicles. Police reports from 29 states were used to estimate the incidence of fatal crashes in which light vehicles underrode the sides of large combination trucks. A protocol was developed to judge the presence of underride with passenger compartment intrusion (PCI), and an in-depth manual review of police reports was performed using scene diagrams, narratives, vehicle and occupant data. The incidence of fatal underride was then compared to that reported in FARS to determine the extent of underreporting in FARS. Further, a comprehensive review of side underride crashes resulting in fatalities and injuries was made using the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) data, the most comprehensive database on large truck crashes. Results show that only a small proportion of the light vehicle occupant fatalities resulting from collisions with combination trucks involve a side underride, and an even smaller proportion involve a side underride with PCI. An in-depth review shows the ratio of underreporting of side underride crashes in FARS is a factor of 3.1 (CI: 2.9–3.3); thus, the annual number of light vehicle side underride fatalities with PCI is estimated to be 202 (CI: 189–215). Comparison of FARS / LTCCS data shows results consistent with this underreporting estimate. LTCCS data also shows that non-fatal serious injuries to light vehicle occupants in side underride crashes involving combination trucks are extremely rare. PMID:24406960

  13. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  14. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of entry (unless the points of entry are fixed). The forks...

  15. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of entry (unless the points of entry are fixed). The...

  16. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of entry (unless the points of entry are fixed). The forks...

  17. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of entry (unless the points of entry are fixed). The forks must penetrate to three quarters of...

  18. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of entry (unless the points of entry are fixed). The forks...

  19. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of entry (unless the points of entry are fixed). The forks...

  20. Science to support adaptive habitat management: Overton Bottoms North Unit, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri [Volumes 1-6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive efforts are underway along the Lower Missouri River to rehabilitate ecosystem functions in the channel and flood plain. Considerable uncertainty inevitably accompanies ecosystem restoration efforts, indicating the benefits of an adaptive management approach in which management actions are treated as experiments, and results provide information to feed back into the management process. The Overton Bottoms North Unit of the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge is a part of the Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Project. The dominant management action at the Overton Bottoms North Unit has been excavation of a side-channel chute to increase hydrologic connectivity and to enhance shallow, slow current-velocity habitat. The side-channel chute also promises to increase hydrologic gradients, and may serve to alter patterns of wetland inundation and vegetation community growth in undesired ways. The U.S. Geological Survey's Central Region Integrated Studies Program (CRISP) undertook interdisciplinary research at the Overton Bottoms North Unit in 2003 to address key areas of scientific uncertainty that were highly relevant to ongoing adaptive management of the site, and to the design of similar rehabilitation projects on the Lower Missouri River. This volume presents chapters documenting the surficial geologic, topographic, surface-water, and ground-water framework of the Overton Bottoms North Unit. Retrospective analysis of vegetation community trends over the last 10 years is used to evaluate vegetation responses to reconnection of the Overton Bottoms North Unit to the river channel. Quasi-experimental analysis of cottonwood growth rate variation along hydrologic gradients is used to evaluate sensitivity of terrestrial vegetation to development of aquatic habitats. The integrated, landscape-specific understanding derived from these studies illustrates the value of scientific information in design and management of rehabilitation projects.